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Sample records for barley grain based

  1. In situ identification and quantification of starch-hydrolyzing bacteria attached to barley and corn grain in the rumen of cows fed barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert; Yang, Hee-Eun; Forster, Robert; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; McAllister, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Cereal grains rich in starch are widely used to meet the energy demands of high-producing beef and dairy cattle. Bacteria are important players in starch digestion in the rumen, and thus play an important role in the hydrolysis and fermentation of cereal grains. However, our understanding of the composition of the rumen starch-hydrolyzing bacteria (SHB) is limited. In this study, BODIPY FL DQ starch staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative FISH were applied to label, identify and quantify SHB possessing active cell-surface-associated (CSA) α-amylase activity in the rumen of heifers fed barley-based diets. When individual cells of SHB with active CSA α-amylase activity were enumerated, they constituted 19-23% of the total bacterial cells attached to particles of four different cultivars of barley grain and corn. Quantitative FISH revealed that up to 70-80% of these SHB were members of Ruminococcaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but were not Streptococcus bovis, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinomonas amylolytica, Bifidobacterium spp. or Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, all of whose amylolytic activities have been demonstrated previously in vitro. The proportion of barley grain in the diet had a large impact on the percentage abundance of total SHB and Ruminococcaceae SHB in these animals.

  2. A roadmap for zinc trafficking in the developing barley grain based on laser capture microdissection and gene expression profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauris, Birgitte; Borg, Søren; Gregersen, Per L;

    2009-01-01

    Nutrients destined for the developing cereal grain encounter several restricting barriers on their path towards their final storage sites in the grain. In order to identify transporters and chelating agents that may be involved in transport and deposition of zinc in the barley grain, expression...... profiles have been generated of four different tissue types: the transfer cells, the aleurone layer, the endosperm, and the embryo. Cells from these tissues were isolated with the ‘laser capture microdissection' technology and the extracted RNA was subjected to three rounds of T7-based amplification...... were taken into account. On the basis of the expression levels of a number of metal homeostasis genes, a working model is proposed for the translocation of zinc from the phloem to the storage sites in the developing grain....

  3. A proteomics-based study of endogenous and microbial xylanases and xylanase inhibitors associated with barley grains used for liquid feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida

    The mature barley grain contains a complement of enzymes that are synthesized during seed development for degradation of seed storage reserves during germination. These enzyme activities (first wave enzymes) are considered important for maximizing nutrient digestibility in food and feed. Several...... of these enzyme activities between barley cultivars, as well as the distribution and composition of the residing commensal fungal community and the grain surface associated proteins. To obtain new insight into the interplay between barley grains and the colonizing fungi, we set out to study the activities...

  4. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

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    Yonggang eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin, evolution and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-GPC (grain protein content. Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73% to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44% than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7 caused by a base mutations (at position 544 in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. SNPs and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding

  5. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

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    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  6. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  7. STUDIES ON SYNBIOTIC BARLEY GRAIN EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated that effect of prebiotic food containing oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains. Barley grains probioticated using different strains of probiotics are Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefir,and saccharomyces boluradii. To select a suitable prebiotics like inulin for the development of Synbiotic barley and tested for antibacterial activity against diarrhoea causing pathogen such as Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae. Analysis of identified compound from synbiotic barley grain using GC-MS.

  8. Differential levels of mite infestation of wheat and barley in Czech grain stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Hubert; Zuzana Kucerova; Radek Aulicky; Marta Nesvoma; Vaclav Stejskal

    2009-01-01

    While mites are able to utilize numerous food sources, the suitability of the food strongly influences population growth. The different suitabilities of various stored agricultural products will thus affect the level of infestation. In this study, we compared field mite infestation rates in two stored cereals: wheat and barley. We analyzed mite abundance, frequency and species composition in samples of grain obtained from 79 selected Czech grain stores. Stored barley seemed to be more vulnerable to mite attack than wheat, as we consistently found more infested samples, more species and higher mean and median mite abundance per sample in barley as compared to wheat. The mean mite abundance per sample were 55 and 506 individuals for wheat and barley, respectively. In barley, 10% of samples exceeded allergen risk threshold (i.e., 1 000 individuals per kg of grain). Altogether, 25 species were identified from approximately 35 000 individuals. The most frequently identified species were the same in wheat and barley, that is, Tydeus interruptus Sig Thor, Acarus siro L., Tarsonemus granarius Lindquist, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and 1),rophagusputrescentiae (Schrank). Based on principal components analysis, we found a closer association of T. interruptus, T. putrescentiae, L. destructor and Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) with barley samples, corresponding to the high frequency and abundance values of these mites. The probable reasons for the higher infestation, especially mite abundance in barley, are discussed in relation to the higher proportion of crushed parts, which may release favorable nutrient sources and amplify the abundance values.

  9. Expression of lipoxygenase isoenzymes in developing barley grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, N.F.; Mechelen, J.R. van

    1997-01-01

    Expression of lipoxygenase was studied in whole developing barley grains from 5 days after flowering (DAF) to full maturity. Lipoxygenase showed two distinct peaks of activity. The first peak of activity occurred in the early stages of grain development from 5 until 20 DAF, whereas the second peak o

  10. Enzymatic fingerprinting of arabinoxylan and β-glucan in triticale, barley and tritordeum grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, A; Saulnier, L; Aman, P; Andersson, R

    2012-10-15

    Enzymatic fingerprinting of arabinoxylan (AX) and β-glucan using endo-xylanase and lichenase, respectively, helps determine the structural heterogeneity between different cereals and within genotypes of the same cereal. This study characterised the structural features of AX and β-glucan in whole grains of eight triticale cultivars grown at two locations, 20 barley cultivars/lines with wide variation in composition and morphology and five tritordeum breeding lines. Principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in clear clustering of these cereals. In general, barley and tritordeum had a higher relative proportion of highly branched arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) than triticale. Subsequent analysis of triticale revealed two clusters based on growing region along principal component (PC) 1, while PC2 explained the genetic variability and was based on mono-substitution and di-substitution in AX fragments. PCA of β-glucan features separated the three cereals based on β-glucan content. The molar ratio of trisaccharide to tetrasaccharide was 2.5-3.4 in triticale, 2.3-3.3 in barley and 2.8-3.4 in tritordeum. Barley showed a strong positive correlation (r=0.86) between β-glucan content and relative proportion of trisaccharide. The results show that structural features of AX and β-glucan vary between and within triticale, barley and tritordeum grains which might be important determinants of end-use quality of grains.

  11. Barley grain enrichement with essential elements by agronomic biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević Vesna D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley grain is rich in mineral nutrients, but their bioavailability to humans depends on antinutrients that restrain bioavailability and promoters that promote bioavailability. The aim of this study was to examine composition of barley grain, including phytate and phenolics as antinutrients, carotenoids and glutathione as promoters and mineral elements, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Si, Zn and Mn influenced by various non-standard foliar fertilizers (Zircon, Chitosan, Siliplant, Propikonazole, including some hormonal growth-stimulators (Epin Extra, Benzyladenine, as potential biofortification measure. Chitosan increased glutathione concentration in grain. Unfavorable meteorological conditions were partly mitigated by application of Benzyladenine and Siliplant, reflected through increased potential bioavailability of P, Mg, Ca and Fe. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31037

  12. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A;

    2015-01-01

    ) and five antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines. Considering the amounts of soluble and protein-bound aspartate-derived amino acids together with the analysis of key enzymes of aspartate metabolic pathway, we suggest that the C-hordein suppression did not only alter the metabolism of at least one......The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition......, with increased lysine, methionine and threonine contents. The objective of the study was to investigate the possible changes in the regulation of key enzymes of the aspartate metabolic pathway and the contents of aspartate-derived amino acids in the nontransgenic line (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Golden Promise...

  13. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

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    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  14. Cyclitols in maturing grains of wheat, triticale and barley

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    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the feeding of stem-flag leaf-ear explants of wheat, triticale and barley with d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol was used for modification of the composition of soluble carbohydrates in grains without genetic transformation of plants. Maturing grains indicated ability to uptake exogenously applied cyclitols, not occurring naturally in cereal plants, and synthesized their a-d-galactosides. The pattern of changes in soluble carbohydrates during grain maturation and germination was not disturbed by the uptake and accumulation of cyclitols. Both, d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol as well as their a-d-galactosides can be an additional pool of soluble carbohydrates accumulated by maturing grains, without decreasing seeds viability. This is the first report indicating the possibility of introduction of cyclitols with potentially human health benefits properties into cereal grains.

  15. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat......, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions...... and higher viscosity than malt wort. Furthermore, the use of 100 % unmalted grains resulted in a decrease in the levels of colour and brightness, as well as higher alcohols and esters in the final beers. Consequently, the study provides valuable information for exploring beer brewing with 100 % unmalted...

  16. Evaluation of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles as a substitute for barley grain and barley silage in feedlot finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, K T; McAllister, T A; Gibb, D J; Chaves, A V; Okine, E K; Beauchemin, K A; Oba, M

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement for barley silage in addition to a portion of the dry-rolled barley (DRB) in a grain-based feedlot finishing diet. The trial used 160 crossbred yearling steers: 144 noncannulated (478 +/- 84 kg) in a complete randomized design, and 16 ruminally cannulated (494 +/- 50 kg) in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design. The noncannulated steers were assigned to 8 standard pens (10 per pen) and 8 pens equipped with the GrowSafe system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Alberta, Canada; 8 per pen). The cannulated steers were placed (2 per pen) in the 8 GrowSafe pens and moved between pens at 28-d intervals. Each of 4 experimental diets was fed in 2 standard and 2 GrowSafe pens. The diets contained (DM basis) 1) 85% DRB and 10% barley silage (CON); 2) 65% DRB, 20% triticale DDGS, and 10% barley silage (D-10S), 3) 65% DRB, 25% triticale DDGS, and 5% barley silage, and 4) 65% DRB, 30% triticale DDGS, and no barley silage. Supplement (5% of dietary DM) was included in all diets. Ruminal pH was measured over four 7-d periods using indwelling electrodes. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS linearly decreased mean ruminal pH (P = 0.006), linearly increased duration (P = 0.006 and P = 0.01) and area under the curve (P = 0.02 and P = 0.05) below pH 5.5 and 5.2, and linearly increased the frequency of subacute (P = 0.005) and acute (P = 0.05) bouts of ruminal acidosis. Variation in mean ruminal pH decreased (P = 0.008) in steers fed D-10S compared with CON. Similarly, variation in DMI was less for steers fed triticale DDGS compared with CON. Steers fed D-10S tended to have greater DMI (P = 0.08) but similar ADG and G:F compared with CON steers. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS tended to linearly decrease DMI (P = 0.10) and increase (P = 0.06) G:F. Compared with CON, steers fed D-10S tended to have greater backfat thickness (P = 0.10) and

  17. Pollen grain of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. - pattern of development

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    Maria Charzyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen development in barley follows the general pattern established for other species of Poaceae: 1 microspore division occurs at the vacuolate microspore stage with polarly located nucleus; 2 microspore mitosis is immediately followed by phragmoplast and cell plate formation; 3 in consequence or unequal microspore division, the generative cell, at first attached to the pollen wall, is separated from the vegetative cell by a callosic wall; 4 during the postmitotic two-cell stage of development, the vegetative nucleus migrates to the aperture pole and is followed by the generative cell that is detached and free of callose wall. In this position the generative cell divides into two sperm cells. These data do not confirm the interpretation of pollen grain development in barley given by Cass and Karas in Can. J. Bot. 53: 1051-1062, 1975.

  18. Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing

    2007-01-01

    nutrient solution containing the markers for phloem (rubidium) and xylem (strontium) transport. Cd concentration in each part of detached spikes increased with external Cd levels, and Cd concentration in various organs over the three Cd levels of 0.5, 2, 8 μM Cd on 15-day Cd exposure was in the order: awn...... Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed...... dramatic reduction in Cd transport to developing grains. The results indicated that awn, rachis and glume may involve in Cd transport into developing grains, and suggested that Cd redistribution in maturing cereals be considered as an important physiological process influencing the quality of harvested...

  19. In situ identification and quantification of protein-hydrolyzing ruminal bacteria associated with the digestion of barley and corn grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Huang, Heping; Yang, Hee Eun; Forster, Robert; McAllister, Tim A

    2016-12-01

    In this study, BODIPY FL DQ™ casein staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect and identify protein-hydrolyzing bacteria within biofilms that produced active cell-surface-associated serine- and metallo-proteases during the ruminal digestion of barley and corn grain in cows fed barley-based diets at 2 different levels. A doublet coccoid bacterial morphotype associated with barley and corn grain particles fluoresced after BODIPY FL DQ™ casein staining. Bacteria with this morphotype accounted for 3%-10% of the total bacteria attached to surface of cereal grain particles, possibly indicative of an important role in the hydrolysis of the protein matrix within the endosperm. However, the identity of these predominant proteolytic bacteria could not be determined using FISH. Quantitative FISH revealed that known proteolytic species, Prevotella ruminicola, Ruminobacter amylophilus, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, were attached to particles of various cultivars of barley grain and corn, confirming their role in the proteolysis of cereal grains. Differences in chemical composition among different barley cultivars did not affect the composition of proteolytic bacterial populations. However, the concentrate level in the basal diet did have an impact on the relative abundance of proteolytic bacteria and thus possibly their overall contribution to the proteolysis of cereal grains.

  20. Iron transport, deposition and bioavailability in the wheat and barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the increasing knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying mineral uptake, transport, homeostasis and deposition within plants, has paved the way for a more targeted approach to improving the nutrient status of crop plants based on biotechnology. In the present paper we...... will briefly review existing knowledge on the distribution and transport pathways of iron in the two small grained cereals, barley and wheat, and focus on the efforts made to increase the iron content in cereals in general. However, mineral content is not the only factor of relevance for improving...... insight into metal transport and deposition (Tauris et al. 2009). In the present paper we will provide a tentative and preliminary roadmap for iron trafficking in the barley grain...

  1. Effect of induced lodging on grain yield and quality of brewing barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lodging is one of the main factors of constraint to grain yield stability in barley. The objective of this study wasto evaluate the effects of lodging on agronomic and qualitative traits, when induced at different stages of the crop development.The trial was carried out in Victor Graeff, RS, using a randomized complete block design with four replications and 3 factors:year, lodging date and lodging intensity. The analyzed parameters were grain yield (GY, kernel plumpness (KP, germination(G, and score of lodging at harvest (SLH. No significant interaction was observed for GY and G. The effects of inducedlodging at the booting and physiologic maturity stages were distinct for GY, KP and G. Unlike G, the variables GY and KPwere not significantly affected by lodging intensity. Quantitative and qualitative losses in barley can be predicted based onlodging.

  2. A roadmap for zinc transport into the developing barley grain. Gene expression profiling using laser microdissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Tauris, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients destined for the developing cereal grain encounter several restricting barriers on their path towards their final storage sites in the grain. In order to identify transporters and chelating agents that may be involved in transport and deposition of zinc in the barley grain, expression...... profiles have been generated of four different tissue types: the transfer cells, the aleurone layer, the endosperm, and the embryo. Cells from these tissues were isolated with the 'laser capture microdissection' technology and the extracted RNA was subjected to three rounds of T7-based amplification...... were taken into account. On the basis of the expression levels of a number of metal homeostasis genes, a working model is proposed for the translocation of zinc from the phloem to the storage sites in the developing grain....

  3. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, J; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    , and decreased with 300 kg N ha−1. Net photosynthetic rate (P N) and the amount of accumulated dry matter distributed into grains showed the same response to N application as grain yield. Grain protein content increased with increasing N application rates. Moreover, based on further analysis of these results......The harmonious combination of malting barley yield, quality and nitrogen (N) use-efficiency under nitrogen (N) rates applications was greatly conducive to production in China. The malting barley cultivar Supi 3 was planted during the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at two contrasting sites in China....... Five nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha−1) were applied for research of effects of N rates application on grain yield, protein content and N use-efficiency. At both sites and in both years, grain yield increased with increasing N application rates up to 225 kg N ha−1...

  4. Analysis on Interaction between Genotype of Four Main Flavonoids of Barley Grain and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YANG; Chengli DUAN; Yawen ZENG; Juan DU; Shuming YANG; Xiaoying PU; Shengchao YANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to analyze the interaction between genotype of flavonoids of barley grain and environment, to increase the flavonoid content of barley grain in cultivation and breeding. [Method] In this study, the content of cate- chin, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol of barley grain planted in Kunming, Qujing and Baoshan were determined by HPLC, and the genotype, environment, genotype- environment interaction of the flavonoid content of barley grain were analyzed. [Result] According to the experimental results, the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction variance of catechin and kaempferol contents show the same trend: genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance, envi- ronmental variance and G × E interaction variance of quercetin and total flavonoid contents show the same trend: genetype variation 〉 G × E interaction variation 〉 environmental variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance and environmental variance of myricetin content both reach a extremely sig- nificant level, while the G × E interaction variance reaches a significant level, showing an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation; the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction vari- ance of total flavonoid content show an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation. Among different barley varieties, Ziguang- mangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai in Qujing, Kunming and Baoshan have relatively high content of quercetin, while other barley varieties barely contain any quercetin. The grains of Ziguangmangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai are purple, while the grains of other barley varieties are yellow. [Conclusion] Four main flavonoids and the total flavonoids of barley grain are mainly under genetic control and

  5. Localization to Chromosomes of Structural Genes for the Major Protease Inhibitors of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Bjørn, S.E.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1984-01-01

    Wheat-barley chromosome addition lines were compared by isoelectric focusing of protein extracts to identify chromosomes carrying loci for the major immunochemically distinct protease inhibitors of barley grains. Structural genes for the following inhibitors were localized: an inhibitor of both...

  6. Determinants of barley grain yield in a wide range of Mediterranean environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia, E.; Tondelli, A.; Rizza, F.; Badeck, F.W.; Li Destri Nicosia, O.; Akar, T.; Grando, S.; Al-Yassin, A.; Benkelkacim, A.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Romagosa, I.; Stanca, A.M.; Pechionni, N.

    2011-01-01

    Barley grain yield in rainfed Mediterranean regions can be largely influenced by terminal drought events. In this study the ecophysiological performance of the ‘Nure’ (winter) × ‘Tremois’ (spring) barley mapping population (118 Doubled Haploids, DHs) was evaluated in a multi-environment trial of eig

  7. Proteome analysis of grain filling and seed maturation in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnie, Christine; Melchior, Sabrina; Roepstorff, Peter; Svensson, Birte

    2002-07-01

    In monocotyledonous plants, the process of seed development involves the deposition of reserves in the starchy endosperm and development of the embryo and aleurone layer. The final stages of seed development are accompanied by an increase in desiccation tolerance and drying out of the mature seed. We have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for a time-resolved study of the changes in proteins that occur during seed development in barley (Hordeum vulgare). About 1,000 low-salt extractable protein spots could be resolved on the two-dimensional gels. Protein spots were divided into six categories according to the timing of appearance or disappearance during the 5-week period of comparison. Nineteen different proteins or protein fragments in 36 selected spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MS) or nano-electrospray tandem MS/MS. Some proteins were present throughout development (for example, cytosolic malate dehydrogenase), whereas others were associated with the early grain filling (ascorbate peroxidase) or desiccation (Cor14b) stages. Most noticeably, the development process is characterized by an accumulation of low-M(r) alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, serine protease inhibitors, and enzymes involved in protection against oxidative stress. We present examples of proteins not previously experimentally observed, differential extractability of thiol-bound proteins, and possible allele-specific spot variation. Our results both confirm and expand on knowledge gained from previous analyses of individual proteins involved in grain filling and maturation.

  8. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change.

  9. The role of alpha-glucosidase in germinating barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Naested, Henrik; Smedley, Mark; Otero, Sofía; Fahy, Brendan; Thorpe, Frazer; Nash, Robert J; Harwood, Wendy; Svensson, Birte; Denyer, Kay; Field, Robert A; Smith, Alison M

    2011-02-01

    The importance of α-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an α-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition of seedling growth was primarily a direct effect of the inhibitors on roots and coleoptiles rather than an indirect effect of the inhibition of endosperm metabolism. It may reflect inhibition of glycoprotein-processing glucosidases in these organs. In transgenic seedlings carrying an RNA interference silencing cassette for HvAgl97, α-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the α-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing the conversion of maltose to Glc but is not required for starch degradation. However, the effects of three glucosidase inhibitors on starch degradation in the endosperm indicate the existence of unidentified glucosidase(s) required for this process.

  10. CONTRIBUTION OF PRIMARY SPIKES VS TILLERS TO TOTAL DEOXYNIVALENOL IN HARVESTED GRAIN OF WHEAT AND BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of higher number of tillers is desirable for higher grain yield in both wheat and barley; tillers have delayed physiological development. Studies addressing the contribution of secondary tillers in final DON concentration for wheat and barley are limited. This project aims to improve our understanding of the relationship between FHB symptoms and DON concentration by examining the contribution of primary spikes and secondary tillers as it relates to the final DON concentration. Experiments, established as split-split plot design with five replications, was be conducted in South Dakota with moderately resistant and susceptible cultivars of each spring wheat, winter wheat and barley. Two inoculation time treatments was applied; at the anthesis of primary spikes (Feekes 10.5 and at anthesis of tillers (Feekes 11.2. Primary spikes (inoculated at Feekes 10.5 and tillers (inoculated at Feekes 11.2 were harvested separately, analyzed for visually scabby kernels and deoxynivalenol following standard protocols. Levels of DON were statistically higher in main heads of barley and spring wheat in each cultivar compared to its tillers. In winter wheat, though there was higher DON level in tillers than main heads in each cultivar, it was not statistically different. Based upon our result, it is suggested that cultivars with high tillers number should be selected in breeding programs to develop cultivars with high yield and low DON. Similarly, planting density of wheat and barley can be adjusted such that it will result in higher numbers of tillers, increasing tillers proportion that might lower DON concentration in final harvest.

  11. Transcriptomics analysis of hulless barley during grain development with a focus on starch biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yawei; Zeng, Xingquan; Wang, Yulin; Bai, Lijun; Xu, Qijun; Wei, Zexiu; Yuan, Hongjun; Nyima, Tashi

    2017-01-01

    Hulless barley, with its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits, has increasingly attracted attentions in recent years. However, the transcription dynamics during hulless barley grain development is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome changes during barley grain development using Illumina paired-end RNA-sequencing. Two datasets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two barley landraces with the differential seed starch synthesis traits were generated, and comparative transcriptome approach in both genotypes was performed. The results showed that 38 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found co-modulated in both genotypes during the barley grain development. Of those, the proteins encoded by most of those DGEs were found, such as alpha-amylase-related proteins, lipid-transfer protein, homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip), NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y, subunit B (NF-YBs), as well as MYB transcription factors. More interestingly, two genes Hvulgare_GLEAN_10012370 and Hvulgare_GLEAN_10021199 encoding SuSy, AGPase (Hvulgare_GLEAN_10033640 and Hvulgare_GLEAN_10056301), as well as SBE2b (Hvulgare_GLEAN_10018352) were found to significantly contribute to the regulatory mechanism during grain development in both genotypes. Moreover, six co-expression modules associated with specific biological processes or pathways (M1 to M6) were identified by consensus co-expression network. Significantly enriched pathways of those module genes showed difference in both genotypes. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanism of starch synthesis during barley grain development.

  12. Modeling moisture absorption kinetics of barley grain using viscoelastic model and neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kamali

    2015-09-01

    Network (ANN as an important artificial intelligent method comparable to human brain capabilities is applied to train and store data in the form of weighted networks (Dayhoff, 1990. This method has superiority to many ordinary statistical and model making methods. In comparison to linear regression models, ANN does not require placing estimated values around mean values and for this reason it retains actual variations in the data being analyzed. Prediction by using trained ANN enables the researchers to decrease or increase input and output variables.Therefore, it is possible to produce a multivariate model with an output even more than the objectives deemed necessary (Heristev, 1998. The goal of this research was to predict instant moisture content of three barley varieties (Reyhan3, Fajr and MB862 during the soaking process under three temperature levels (10, 20 and 45 ◦C using two conventional ANN methods of multilayer perceptron (MLP and radial basis function (RBF in comparison with viscoelastic mathematical model and reporting the results. Materials and method: Barley varieties were collected from the Isfahan Province Agriculture Organization grain depository and were cleaned and the debris were separated before the experiments. The selected grains were sorted to three groups of small, medium and large grains sizes. To exclude the effect of grain size during moisture absorption, the medium size grains were used. The moisture content of the grains was determined based on the ASAE S352.2 DEC97 (ASAE, 1999 which were %8.23, %8.62 and %8.89 on a dry basis for Reyhan3, Fajr and MB862, respectively with no significant difference at %5 probability level (p>0.05. Experiments were conducted under three temperatures (10, 20 and 45 ◦C in the refrigerator, at room temperature and in the oven, respectively for each variety. In each experiment, 10 medium size grains were selected randomly and weighed with an AND laboratory scale model Gf-400 (made in Japan and placed in foam

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  14. Antioxidant activity in barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) grains roasted in a microwave oven under conditions optimized using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwamba, Mary; Hu, Qiuhui

    2010-01-01

    Microwave processing and cooking of foods is a recent development that is gaining momentum in household as well as large-scale food applications. Barley contains phenol compounds which possess antioxidant activity. In this study the microwave oven roasting condition was optimized to obtain grains with high antioxidant activity measured as the ability to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. Antioxidant activity of grains roasted under optimum conditions was assessed based on DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of oxidation in linoleic acid system. The optimum condition for obtaining roasted barley with high antioxidant activity (90.5% DPPH inhibition) was found to be at 600 W microwave power, 8.5 min roasting time, and 61.5 g or 2 layers of grains. The roasting condition influenced antioxidant activity both individually and interactively. Statistical analysis showed that the model was significant (P < 0.0001). The acetone extract had significantly high inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to the aqueous extract and alpha-tocopherol. The reducing power of acetone extracts was not significantly different from alpha-tocopherol. The acetone extract had twice the amount of phenol content compared to the aqueous extract indicating its high extraction efficiency. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of phenol acids, amino phenols, and quinones. The aqueous extract did not contain 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid which are phenol compounds reported to contribute to antioxidant activity in barley grain.

  15. Grain Composition and Functional Ingredients of Barley Varieties Created in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šterna Vita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.

  16. The effect of long-term storage on quality of malting barley grain and malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš KRAJČOVIČ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the grain samples of five malting barley varieties harvested in 2011, the amount of basic components as well as physiological characteristics of barley were determined. These samples were micromalted and resulting malt was analyzed mainly according to the European Brewery Convention (EBC and the Mitteleuropäische Brautechnische Analysenkommission (MEBAK methodologies. The same samples of malting barley grain and also samples of malt were placed in polyethylene bags, from which the air was exhausted and they were further stored at 4 °C until 2016. In 2016, grain and malt samples were subjected to the same analyses as in 2011. Results were statistically evaluated by t-test of dependent samples. Most of the monitored parameters has remained at the same level as in 2011 or has slightly improved. The exception was statistically very highly significant decrease (P ≤ 0.001 of friability and increase of amount of whole and partly unmodified grains. Under conditions described, long-term storage of malting barley grain has not significantly negatively affected its germination. Long-term storage of malt has had not a significant negative impact on its quality too.

  17. Degradability Characteristics of Treated and Untreated Barley Grain Using In situ Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Taghizadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine of degradability characteristics of untreated barely grain (UBG and treated barley grain with autoclaving at 120°C, 5´ (TBG1 and 20' (TBG2, treated barley grain at 100°C, 5´ (TBG3 and 20' (TBG4, using in situ technique in Ghizel sheep’s. The sheep fed diet content 40% alfalfa: 60% concentrate containing 2.9 Mcal kg-1 DM and 14% CP. The incubation times were 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 36 and 48 h and rumen degradation of cp and DM was measured. The equation of p = a+b (1-e-ct was used for fitting of dry matter and crude protein disappearance data. The dry matter disappearance of TBG1 and TBG2 at 24 and 48 h were lower than the other treatments (p<0.05. The crude protein disappearance of 24 and 48 h of UBG was more than the other treatment (p<0.05. Treating of barley grain of 120°C (5' and 20' can be decreased ruminal crude protein degradability of barley grain resulting high escaped crude protein into lower digestive tract.

  18. Zinc Blotting Assay for Detection of Zinc-Binding Prolamin in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Langkilde, Ane; Vincze, Éva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc......-binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  19. Accelerated rates of protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes might be legacy of domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Dimitrov, Ivan; Zhang, Yinling; Tax, Frans E; Yi, Jing; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Jia

    2015-10-01

    Traits related to grain and reproductive organs in grass crops have been under continuous directional selection during domestication. Barley is one of the oldest domesticated crops in human history. Thus genes associated with the grain and reproductive organs in barley may show evidence of dramatic evolutionary change. To understand how artificial selection contributes to protein evolution of biased genes in different barley organs, we used Digital Gene Expression analysis of six barley organs (grain, pistil, anther, leaf, stem and root) to identify genes with biased expression in specific organs. Pairwise comparisons of orthologs between barley and Brachypodium distachyon, as well as between highland and lowland barley cultivars mutually indicated that grain and pistil biased genes show relatively higher protein evolutionary rates compared with the median of all orthologs and other organ biased genes. Lineage-specific protein evolutionary rates estimation showed similar patterns with elevated protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes, yet protein sequences generally evolve much faster in the lowland barley cultivar. Further functional annotations revealed that some of these grain and pistil biased genes with rapid protein evolution are related to nutrient biosynthesis and cell cycle/division. Our analyses provide insights into how domestication differentially shaped the evolution of genes specific to different organs of a crop species, and implications for future functional studies of domestication genes.

  20. Determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia, E.; Tondelli, A.; Rizza, F.; Badeck, F.W.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.; Romagosa, I.; Stanca, A.M.; Pecchioni, N.

    2013-01-01

    The determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments have been studied in the Nure x Tremois (NT) population. A large set of yield and other morpho-physiological data were recorded in 118 doubled-haploid lines of the population, in multi-environment field trials (18 sit

  1. Effects of Zn fertilization on hordein transcripts at early developmental stage of barley grain and correlation with increased Zn concentration in the mature grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nasir Uddin

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency is causing malnutrition for nearly one third of world populations. It is especially relevant in cereal-based diets in which low amounts of mineral and protein are present. In biological systems, Zn is mainly associated with protein. Cereal grains contain the highest Zn concentration during early developmental stage. Although hordeins are the major storage proteins in the mature barley grain and suggested to be involved in Zn binding, very little information is available regarding the Zn fertilization effects of hordein transcripts at early developmental stage and possible incorporation of Zn with hordein protein of matured grain. Zinc fertilization experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with barley cv. Golden Promise. Zn concentration of the matured grain was measured and the results showed that the increasing Zn fertilization increased grain Zn concentration. Quantitative real time PCR showed increased level of total hordein transcripts upon increasing level of Zn fertilization at 10 days after pollination. Among the hordein transcripts the amount of B-hordeins was highly correlated with the Zn concentration of matured grain. In addition, protein content of the matured grain was analysed and a positive linear relationship was found between the percentage of B-hordein and total grain Zn concentration while C-hordein level decreased. Zn sensing dithizone assay was applied to localize Zn in the matured grain. The Zn distribution was not limited to the embryo and aleurone layer but was also present in the outer part of the endosperm (sub-aleurone layers which known to be rich in proteins including B-hordeins. Increased Zn fertilization enriched Zn even in the endosperm. Therefore, the increased amount of B-hordein and decreased C-hordein content suggested that B-hordein upregulation or difference between B and C hordein could be one of the key factors for Zn biofortification of cereal grains due to the Zn fertilization.

  2. Improving the nutritional quality of the barley and wheat grain storage proteins by antisense technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Lange, Mette; Aaslo, Per

    2011-01-01

    Prolamins are the predominant storage proteins in barley and wheat grains, accounting for 50 to 80% of total seed protein. However, the prolamins are not optimal feed for monogastric animals as they have a low content of certain essential amino acids such as lysine, threonine and tryptophan...... gliadins) are also available from Germany and UK. We have grown them under different N regimes (high, medium and low N) in semi-field conditions. Previously five different antisense C-hordein lines of barley have been characterized in our laboratory. The analyses revealed that the lysine, threonine...

  3. Dormancy of the barley grain is correlated with gibberellic Acid responsiveness of the isolated aleurone layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurink, R C; Sedee, N J; Wang, M

    1992-12-01

    The relationship between barley grain dormancy and gibberellic acid (GA(3)) responsiveness of aleurone layers has been investigated. Barley (Hordeum distichum L. cvs Triumph and Kristina) grains were matured under defined conditions in a phytotron. Grains of Triumph plants grown under long-day/warm conditions had lower dormancy levels than grains of plants grown under short-day/cool conditions. Aleurone layers isolated from grains of long-day Triumph plants secreted more alpha-amylase and had a higher responsiveness to GA(3) as measured by alpha-amylase secretion. Storage of the grains increased both the percentage of germination and the responsiveness of the aleurone to GA(3). Use of different sterilization methods to break dormancy confirmed the correlation between germination percentage and aleurone layer GA(3) responsiveness. The response of embryoless Triumph grains to GA(3) was lower than that of the isolated aleurone layers, suggesting a role of the starchy endosperm in regulating the GA(3) response of the aleurone layer. Grains of the cultivar Kristina harvested from short day- and long day-grown plants lacked dormancy, and their isolated aleurone layers had a similar responsiveness to GA(3) as measured by alpha-amylase secretion. The data indicate that the physiological state of the aleurone layers contributes to the percentage germination of the grains.

  4. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh

    2017-01-01

    , the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T2-generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19-fold (29 000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains). Moreover, also in green leaves and mature dry straw, phytase...

  5. Effects of split nitrogen fertilization on post-anthesis photoassimilates, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2011-01-01

    photosynthesis after anthesis, dry matter accumulation and assimilates remobilization, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield to fraction of topdressed nitrogen treatments were investigated in malting barley. Net photosynthetic rate of the penultimate leaf, leaf area index and light extinction coefficient...... and agronomic nitrogen use efficiencies. The enhanced nitrogen use efficiency was corresponding to the improved photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency in the leaves at fraction of topdressed nitrogen of 30%. In conclusion, appropriate fraction of topdressed nitrogen application on malting barley improved...... assimilation rate and nitrogen use efficiency resulting in higher grain yields and proper grain protein content in malting barley....

  6. Association mapping of grain hardness, polyphenol oxidase, total phenolics, amylose content, and ß-glucan in US barley breeding germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A renewed interest in breeding barley specifically for food end-uses is being driven by increased consumer interest in healthier foods. We conducted association mapping on physicochemical properties of barley that play a role in food quality and processing including, grain hardness, polyphenol oxid...

  7. Accumulation of mixed linkage (1¿3) (1¿4)-ß-D-glucan during grain filling in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Jespersen, Birthe P Møller

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of mixed linkage barley (1 → 3) (1 → 4)-β-d-glucan (BG) during grain filling at eight stages was studied using standard reference methods and infrared spectroscopy. Two mutant barley genotypes having higher (starch mutant lys5f) and lower (high lysine mutant lys3a) BG content tha...

  8. Differences in grain ultrastructure, phytochemical and proteomic profiles between the two contrasting grain Cd-accumulation barley genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Sun

    Full Text Available To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low-grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars.

  9. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition......The importance of alpha-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary...... silencing cassette for HvAgl97, alpha-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the alpha-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing...

  10. Supplementation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose into yeast leavened all-whole grain barley bread potentiates cholesterol-lowering effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Turowski, Maciej; Anderson, W H Kerr; Young, Scott A; Kim, Yookyung; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-07-27

    We investigated in Syrian Golden hamsters the biological impact and its underlying mechanism of single whole grain breads supplemented with 2-3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic viscous soluble dietary fiber (SDF) as a substitute for gluten. Hamsters were fed high-fat diets supplemented with 48-65% (w/w) differently ground, freeze-dried single grain breads including whole grain wheat, barley, barley supplemented with HPMC, debranned oat, and oat supplemented with HPMC which were compared to a diet containing microcrystalline cellulose (control). All single grain breads significantly lowered plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the control. Enrichment with HPMC further lowered plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations. Despite the reduced molecular weight of naturally occurring soluble (1--->3),(1--->4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) caused by the bread-making process, whole grain barley breads downregulated hepatic expression of CYP7A1 and HMG-CoAR genes that are responsible for bile acid and cholesterol synthesis, suggesting a possible role of bioactive compounds such as short-chain fatty acids and phenolic compounds from barley bread. Barley bread enriched with HPMC downregulated expression of ABCG5 gene. Taken together, it appears that distinctive modulation of synthesis and excretion of hepatic cholesterol and bile acid contributes to the cholesterol-lowering properties of whole grain barley breads and breads enriched with HPMC. These data suggests that alternative whole grain breads supplemented with HPMC may provide consumers with a staple food that can assist in cholesterol management.

  11. Genetic Variation of Functional Components in Grains of Improved Barley Lines from Four Continents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawen ZENG; Xiaoying PU; Jing ZHANG; Juan DU; Ganggang GUO; Tao YANG; ChunyanZHAO; Shuming YANG; Dawei ZHAO; Junjie TANG; Ping JIA

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to analyze functional components in improved barley grains. [Method] Genetic variations of functional components in grains among 629 barley improved lines from four continents were determined with DU640-type ul- traviolet spectrophotometry (BECKMAN). [Result] The contents (mg/100 g) of total flavones and GABA in grains of Asian barley lines (123.09_+29.56, 9.49_+4.34) were significantly higher than that of American barley lines (103.85_22.33, 7.38_+3.59), while no significant difference was observed between Asia/Americas and Europe (115.47_+11.41, 9.66-+3.98) and Australia (104.20-+4.76, 8.83-+3.41); furthermore, there was no significant difference of resistant starch content (%) in barley grains among four continents [Asia (1.63_+1.44), America (1.54_+1.13), Europe (1.20+0.85) and Aus- tralia (0.27_+0.26)]. The contents (%) of resistant starch in grains of two-rowed barley (ssp. Hordeurn distichon Koern., 1.45_+1.20) was significantly lower than that of poly- rowed barley (ssp. Hordeum vulgare Orlov., 1.95_+1.24). On the contrary, the content of total flavones in two-rowed lines (111.43_+27.79 mg/100 g) wa, s significantly higher than that of poly-rowed lines (102.15_+14.95 mg/100 g), and the content of GABA in two-rowed lines (8.55+_3.73 mg/100 g) was also significantly higher than that of poly-rowed lines (5.96_+3.95 mg/100 g). There was the most significant correlation between GABA content and resistant starch (-0.21)/total flavones content (0.12 , P〈0.01, n=-629). There were great genotype differences among the functional compo- nents in barley grains. The coefficient of variation (78.60%) and range (0-9.29%) of resistant starch (1.56_+1.22%) were relatively large, including 11 high-resistant starch lines above 5%; the coefficient of variation (49.00%) and range (0-30.67 mg/100g) of GABA (8.00-

  12. Analysis of variability, heritability, and interrelationships among grain yield and related characters in barley advanced lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to improve pure lines for low input agricultural areas of the semi-arid region of Iran and similar environmental conditions. Forty barley pure lines provided from ICARDA along with three check cultivars were evaluated under rain-fed conditions in a semi-arid region of Iran during two years (2011-2013. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications to estimate genetic variation and heritability for agro-morphological traits. The highest values of phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were observed for the number of grains per spike followed by peduncle length, early vigor and grain yield. The broad heritability estimates ranged from 24% for grain yield to 96% for the number of grains per spike. The highest and lowest expected genetic advance, observed for days to physiological maturity and the number of grains per spike, respectively. Results of stepwise regression and path analysis showed that hectoliter grain weight and thousand grain weight exhibited the highest direct effects on grain yield, respectively. Comparisons between the pure lines and check cultivars indicated that out of 40 pure lines, 27 lines had a higher grain yield. Also, the pure lines No. 29, 13, 9 and 33 were identified as the superior lines for semi-arid environmental conditions. Our results indicate that check cultivars could be improved by selecting for pure lines with taller peduncle and the number of grains per spike, but with heavier grains. Therefore, these lines can be used as genetic material to broaden the genetic basis of barley breeding programs all over the world.

  13. DNA microarray revealed and RNAi plants confirmed key genes conferring low Cd accumulation in barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanism of low Cd accumulation in crops is crucial for sustainable safe food production in Cd-contaminated soils. Results Confocal microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence analyses revealed a distinct difference in Cd......-grain-Cd-accumulation. Conclusion Novel transporter genes such as HvZIP3 and HvZIP8 were identified as being associated with low-grain-Cd-accumulation. In addition to advancing academic knowledge, our findings may also result in potential economic benefits for molecular breeding of low Cd accumulating barley and other crops....

  14. A functional genomics approach to understand the control and regulation of storage protein biosynthesis in barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, É; Hansen, M; Bowra, S;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain an insight into amino acid and storage protein metabolism in the developing barley grain at the molecular level. Our strategy was to analyse the transcriptome of relevant pathways in developing grains of field grown barley using a grain specific microarray...... reference to the temporal expression levels of a range of genes involved in the photosynthesis process, amino acid and storage protein metabolism. We conclude that the grain specific microarray is a reliable and cost-effective tool for monitoring temporal changes in the transcriptome of the major metabolic...... pathways in the barley grain. The study described here could provide a strong complement to existing knowledge assisting further  understanding of seed development and thereby provide a foundation for plant breeding towards storage protein with improved nutritional quality....

  15. Measuring Meiotic Crossovers via Multi-Locus Genotyping of Single Pollen Grains in Barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Dreissig

    Full Text Available The detection of meiotic crossovers in crop plants currently relies on scoring DNA markers in a segregating population or cytological visualization. We investigated the feasibility of using flow-sorted haploid nuclei, Phi29 DNA polymerase-based whole-genome-amplification (WGA and multi-locus KASP-genotyping to measure meiotic crossovers in individual barley pollen grains. To demonstrate the proof of concept, we used 24 gene-based physically mapped single nucleotide polymorphisms to genotype the WGA products of 50 single pollen nuclei. The number of crossovers per chromosome, recombination frequencies along chromosome 3H and segregation distortion were analysed and compared to a doubled haploid (DH population of the same genotype. The number of crossovers and chromosome wide recombination frequencies show that this approach is able to produce results that resemble those obtained from other methods in a biologically meaningful way. Only the segregation distortion was found to be lower in the pollen population than in DH plants.

  16. Expression of the Arabidopsis vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase gene (AVP1) improves the shoot biomass of transgenic barley and increases grain yield in a saline field

    KAUST Repository

    Schilling, Rhiannon K.

    2013-11-22

    Cereal varieties with improved salinity tolerance are needed to achieve profitable grain yields in saline soils. The expression of AVP1, an Arabidopsis gene encoding a vacuolar proton pumping pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase), has been shown to improve the salinity tolerance of transgenic plants in greenhouse conditions. However, the potential for this gene to improve the grain yield of cereal crops in a saline field has yet to be evaluated. Recent advances in high-throughput nondestructive phenotyping technologies also offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the growth of transgenic plants under abiotic stress through time. In this study, the growth of transgenic barley expressing AVP1 was evaluated under saline conditions in a pot experiment using nondestructive plant imaging and in a saline field trial. Greenhouse-grown transgenic barley expressing AVP1 produced a larger shoot biomass compared to segregants, as determined by an increase in projected shoot area, when grown in soil with 150 mm NaCl. This increase in shoot biomass of transgenic AVP1 barley occurred from an early growth stage and also in nonsaline conditions. In a saline field, the transgenic barley expressing AVP1 also showed an increase in shoot biomass and, importantly, produced a greater grain yield per plant compared to wild-type plants. Interestingly, the expression of AVP1 did not alter barley leaf sodium concentrations in either greenhouse- or field-grown plants. This study validates our greenhouse-based experiments and indicates that transgenic barley expressing AVP1 is a promising option for increasing cereal crop productivity in saline fields. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN JUVENILE STAGE AND WINTER BARLEY BREEDING FOR IMPROVED GRAIN YIELD AND STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kovačević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic efficiency parameters (Fv/Fm, ET0/ABS and PIABS were investigated at the end of tillering stage of winter barley grown in stress environment (21.3% vol. water content of soil and control (water content 30.4% vol. in relation to grain yield per vegetative pot. The trial was conducted in vegetative pots according to the RBD method of two-factorial experiment with 10 winter barley cultivars (7 tworowed and 3 six-rowed and 2 treatments in 3 repetitions. The stressed variant was exposed to water reduction three times (end of tillering stage, flag leaf to beginning of heading stage, grain filling stage. From sowing to maturity, the air temperature varied from -3.9°C to 32.9°C and water content from 16.4 % to 39.0 % of soil volume in vegetative pot. Significant differences were found for grain yield among the cultivars. The short-term drought stress caused significant reductions in grain yield per pot. The photosynthetic efficiency parameters were significant between cultivars, but significant effects for treatments and interaction were only detected for the Fv/Fm parameter. Photosynthetic efficiency parameters did not have significant correlation coefficients with grain yield and its stability in both treatments. Stability indexes of the parameters PIABS and Fv/Fm had positive but not significant correlations with grain yield in stressed variant (0.465 and 0.452 and stability index of grain yield (0.337 and 0.481.

  18. Synthesis of Salt Soluble Proteins in Barley. Pulse-Labeling Study of Grain Filling in Liquid-Cultured Detached Spikes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Hejgaard, Jørn

    1984-01-01

    The accumulation of salt-soluble proteins in the endosperm of developing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains was examined. Detached spikes of barley were cultured at different levels of nitrogen nutrition and pulse-labeled with [14C] sucrose at specific times after anthesis. Proteins were extracted...... to increased nitrogen nutrition. Two major components, β-amylase and protein Z in particular, had a synthesis profile almost identical to that of the endosperm storage protein, hordein....

  19. Oil content and fatty acid composition of some varieties of barley and sorghum grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood, M. G.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil content of sorghum grains (average 4.57 % was nearly twice that of barley (average 2.27 %. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were the most abundant fatty acids and that stearic acid content was low in barley and sorghum. The content of linolenic acid was higher in barley than in sorghum. The composition of sorghum oil, in general, was similar to corn oil and could be used for cooking and other uses of edible oils.El contenido en aceite de granos de sorgo (media del 4.57 % fue aproximadamente el doble del de cebada (media del 2,27 %. Los ácidos grasos más abundantes fueron el palmítico, oleico y linoleico y siendo bajo el ácido esteárico, esto tanto en cebada como en sorgo. El contenido del ácido linolénico fue mayor en la cebada que en el sorgo. En general la composición del aceite de sorgo fue similar a la del aceite de maíz y podría utilizarse para el cocinado y otros usos de los aceites comestibles.

  20. Combining functional features of whole-grain barley and legumes for dietary reduction of cardiometabolic risk: a randomised cross-over intervention in mature women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Juscelino; Nilsson, Anne; Johansson, Maria; Björck, Inger

    2014-02-01

    The usefulness of dietary strategies against cardiometabolic risk is increasingly being acknowledged. Legumes and whole grains can modulate risk markers associated with cardiometabolic diseases, but their possible additive/synergistic actions are unknown. The objective of the present study was to assess, in healthy subjects, the effect of a diet including specific whole-grain barley products and legumes with prior favourable outcomes on cardiometabolic risk parameters in semi-acute studies. A total of forty-six overweight women (50-72 years, BMI 25-33 kg/m² and normal fasting glycaemia) participated in a randomised cross-over intervention comparing a diet rich in kernel-based barley products, brown beans and chickpeas (D1, diet 1 (functional diet)) with a control diet (D2, diet 2 (control diet)) of similar macronutrient composition but lacking legumes and barley. D1 included 86 g (as eaten)/d brown beans, 82 g/d chickpeas, 58 g/d whole-grain barley kernels and 216 g/d barley kernel bread. Both diets followed the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, providing similar amounts of dietary fibre (D1: 46·9 g/d; D2: 43·5 g/d), with wheat-based products as the main fibre supplier in D2. Each diet was consumed for 4 weeks under weight-maintenance conditions. Both diets decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels, but D1 had a greater effect on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels (Plegume diet improves cardiometabolic risk-associated biomarkers in a healthy cohort, showing potential preventive value beyond that of a nutritionally well-designed regimen.

  1. Murciano-Granadina Goat Performance and Methane Emission after Replacing Barley Grain with Fibrous By-Products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ibáñez

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day. The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL, another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH. After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average. No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P < 0.05 fat mobilization (-42.8 kJ/kg of BW0.75, on average than BRL (19.2 kJ/kg of BW0.75. Pentadecanoic acid (15:0 and heptadecanoic acid (17:0 were potential biomarkers of rumen function because the higher contents found in the milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average. Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance.

  2. Comparative effect of salinity on ion accumulation, grain yield and stability salt tolerance degree of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. in different growth stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdennaceur Ben Khaled

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions of the world, excess salts in agricultural land can limit crop production. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is one of the most salt tolerant crop species. This study was conducted to determine the effects of salinity on seed germination, mineral content and yield production of 14 barley accessions from two regions in the Southern Tunisia. First experiment was conducted in laboratory to test the effect of nine levels of NaCl concentrations in different germination parameter. Second experiments were conducted in a greenhouse. The accessions were grown in soil and exposed to three salinity levels. Salinity decreased significantly the germination rate and the germination rate index for all accessions. Na+ content, total dry matter and grain yield vary significantly with increasing salinity levels. The degree of tolerance varies between accessions in the different growth stage. A significant correlation were observed between ranking using grain yield and multivariate parameter. The tolerance degree based in germination rate and Na+ content don’t present significant correlation with yield ranking. Therefore, ranking using multivariate parameter can be the appropriate method to analysis the tolerance degree of barley under saline conditions. The differences response between accessions of local population of barley “Ardhaoui” reflected an important internal genetic variability against the salinity. This variability could be more explored and used for the barley breeding program. The accessions Ettalah, Chneni Tatouine and Elhezma showed more salt tolerance at 13 dS/m as indicated by the multivariate ranking using germination rate, Na+ content and grain yield.

  3. Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Hai Ha; Bailly, Christophe; Corbineau, Françoise; Leymarie, Juliette

    2013-04-01

    In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature.

  4. Investigation of the Germination of Barley and Wheat Grains with a Design of Experiments for the Production of Hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Bertolt; Koch, Milena; Schapfl, Matthias; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    The production of hydrolases from cereals has been examined in order to investigate food-derived enzymes as an alternative source to microbial enzymes for the use in food processes. For that, the influence of temperature on the pretreatment, imbibition and germination of barley and wheat grains was determined by measuring the β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and lipase activities using a design of experiments. The evaluation of the statistical model showed an increase of the β-glucosidase activity with low imbibition and low germination temperature for barley grains and low imbibition and high germination temperature for wheat grains. The maximum β-glucosidase activity in wheat extracts was (585±151) nkat per g of dry mass (dm), while in barley extracts it was (109±15) nkat per g of dm. The maximum β-galactosidase activities in barley and wheat extracts were (34±12) and (63±23) nkat per g of dm, respectively. The maximum lipase activities of (6.7±0.1) and (4.6±4.4) nkat per g of dm in barley and wheat extracts, respectively, were rather low compared to the glycosidase activities. The extracts were also tested for other hydrolase activities (e.g. peptidase and α-amylase activities). The insights obtained enable the basis for the potential use of cereal hydrolases in food processing, which might be attractive to consumers.

  5. Dynamics of phosphorus compounds in ripening and germinating cereal grains. Part II. Changes in phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat, barley and rye grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tłuczkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of phosphorus compounds was investigated in the embryos and endosperm of wheat (Grana, barley (Kosmos and rye (Pancerne grain after 2, 4 and 6 days of germination. In germinating grain the phosphorus compounds transformations ran along the way of synthesis in the embryo and of breakdown in the endosperm. The level of phosphorus: inorganic, nucleotides, saccharides esters and their metabolites, lipid, RNA, DNA, phytin free and phytin bound with proteins and proteins rapidly increased in germinating seed embryos. The content of phosphorus free phytin and that bound with proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA in the endosperm rapidly decreased during germination. On the other hand, the saccharides phosphorus and that of their metabolites did not change, and inorganic, nuclotides and proteins-P slightly increased. Germinating rye grains showed a higher rate of synthesis in the embryos and of breakdown in the endosperm of the investigated phosphorus compounds than wheat and barley grains.

  6. Integrating statistical and ecophysiological analysis of genotype by environment interaction for grain filling of barley in Mediterranean areas. I. Individual grain weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voltas, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Sombrero, A.; Lafarga, A.; Igartua, E.; Romagosa, I.

    1999-01-01

    In Mediterranean-type environments, grain weight of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is influenced by the presence of terminal abiotic stresses such as drought or elevated temperature. The relative importance of these climatic constraints acting together prior to and after anthesis, as well as the specif

  7. Multi-method research strategy for understanding changes in storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa

    , the increases in the nitrogen fertiliser are not accompanied by a good quallity of protein composition in barley grain. Hodeins are coded by highly polymorphic genes which are clustered into four main families. B.C.D and γ. The high N-dosage promotes C-hordein synthesis, the class with the lowest content...

  8. Selection of barley grain affects ruminal fermentation, starch digestibility, and productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, C; Oba, M; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 lots of barley grain cultivars differing in expected ruminal starch degradation on dry matter (DM) intake, ruminal fermentation, ruminal and total tract digestibility, and milk production of dairy cows when provided at 2 concentrations in the diet. Four primiparous ruminally cannulated (123 +/- 69 d in milk; mean +/- SD) and 4 multiparous ruminally and duodenally cannulated (46 +/- 14 d in milk) cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 16-d periods. Primiparous and multiparous cows were assigned to different squares. Treatments were 2 dietary starch concentrations (30 vs. 23% of dietary DM) and 2 lots of barley grain cultivars (Xena vs. Dillon) differing in expected ruminal starch degradation. Xena had higher starch concentration (58.7 vs. 50.0%) and greater in vitro 6-h starch digestibility (78.0 vs. 73.5%) compared with Dillon. All experimental diets were formulated to supply 18.3% crude protein and 20.0% forage neutral detergent fiber. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment. Milk fat concentration (3.55 vs. 3.29%) was greater for cows fed Dillon compared with Xena, but was not affected by dietary starch concentration. Ruminal starch digestion was greater for cows fed high-starch diets compared with those fed low-starch diets (4.55 vs. 2.49 kg/d), and tended to be greater for cows fed Xena compared with those fed Dillon (3.85 vs. 3.19 kg/d). Ruminal acetate concentration was lower, and propionate concentration was greater, for cows fed Xena or high-starch diets compared with cows fed Dillon or low-starch diets, respectively. Furthermore, cows fed Xena or high-starch diets had longer duration that ruminal pH was below 5.8 (6.6 vs. 4.0 and 6.4 vs. 4.2 h/d) and greater total tract starch digestibility (94.3 vs. 93.0 and 94.3 vs. 93.0%) compared with cows fed Dillon or low-starch diets, respectively. These results

  9. The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed.

  10. Bulk carbohydrate grain filling of barley ß-glucan mutants studied by 1H HR MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Viereck, Nanna;

    2008-01-01

    ) during grain filling. For the first time, 1H HR MAS NMR spectra of flour from immature barley seeds are analyzed. Spectral assignments are made using two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Both α- and β-glucan biosynthesis were characterized by inspection of the spectra as well as by calibration......Temporal and genotypic differences in bulk carbohydrate accumulation in three barley genotypes differing in the content of mixed linkage β-(1→3),(1→4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) and starch were investigated using proton high-resolution, magic angle spinning, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR MAS NMR...

  11. Selenium speciation in malt, wort, and beer made from selenium-biofortified two-rowed barley grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Sara; Santamaria, Oscar; Chen, Yi; McGrath, Steve P; Poblaciones, Maria J

    2014-06-25

    Selenium (Se) biofortification of barley is a suitable strategy to increase the Se concentration in grain. In the present paper, the suitability of this Se-biofortified grain for making Se-enriched beer is analyzed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different Se fertilizer doses (0, 10, and 20 g of Se ha(-1)) and forms (sodium selenate or sodium selenite) on the Se loss during the malting and brewing processes and Se speciation in grain, malt, wort, and beer. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS for total Se and speciation. Mashing-lautering was the process with the greatest Se loss (83.8%). After malting and brewing, only 7.3% of the initial Se was retained in beer, mainly in selenite form. Even so, the fertilizer application of sodium selenate at 20 g ha(-1) increased the total Se concentration almost 6-fold in the final beer in comparison to the use of grain derived from unfertilized barley. The present paper provides evidence that the use of Se-biofortified barley grain as a raw material to produce Se-enriched beer is possible, and the results are comparable to other methods in terms of efficiency.

  12. Grain yield, symbiotic N2 fixation and interspecific competition for inorganic N in pea-barley intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    only 9% of total fertilizer-N recovery in the intercrop. The amount of symbiotic N-2 fixation in the intercrop was less than expected from its composition and the fixation in monocrop. This indicates that the competition from barley had a negative effect on the fixation, perhaps via shading...... g N-15-labeled N m(-2). The effect of intercropping on the dry matter and N yields, competition for inorganic N among the intercrop components, symbiotic fixation in pea and N transfer from pea to barley were determined. As an average of four years the grain yields were similar in monocropped pea...... by the intercrop components, resulting in reduced competition for inorganic N, rather than a facilitative effect, in which symbiotically fixed N-2 is made available to barley....

  13. Replacement of Dietary Barley Grain by Different Levels of Restaurant Waste and Its Effect on Hybrid Lambs Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moradi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the nutritive value of restaurant waste (RW, substituted with dietary barley grain and its effects on the performance of finishing lambs. Dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and ash content of RW were 33.4, 95.9, 15.1, 14.1 and 4 percent respectively. 36 male and female lambs, (initial weight of 33.4± 0.5 and 29.7± 0.5 kg respectively were used in the experiment. The experimental lambs were from three hybrid groups: Ghezel*Merino (n=12, Merino*Moghani (n=18 and Ghezel*Baluchi (n=6. Dietary barley grains at the levels of 50 and 100 percent were replaced with RW and along with control group (no RW compromised experimental treatments.. Experimental diets were offered three times daily at 6.00, 14.00 and 20.00 hours. Dry matter intake was not significantly different between the treatments. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were differ between sexes. Weight gain of male and female lambs during the fattening period was 250.3 and 171.6 g/day respectively. Replacement of barley grain with RW in the 3rd treatment significantly affected ruminal pH, N-NH3 and total volatile fatty acids content and fecal pH, as well as blood glucose and BUN comparing the control group. Replacement of RW with barley grain at levels of 50 and 100 percent reduced cost of the live weight gain up to 24 and 37.7 percent respectively versus control diet.

  14. Drying kinetics of barley grains and effects on the germination index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Aparecida Bomfim SOARES

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to assess the drying kinetics of barley grains and, using mathematical modeling, to evaluate the diffusivity during drying and after drying to evaluate the effect of high drying temperatures on the seed germination index for malt production. Three drying temperatures 40, 60 and 80°C were used. The last two, 60 and 80°C, reached moisture close to ideal for storage with 6 and 4 hours respectively; at 40°C, drying process took 12 hours and would still take additional hours to reach 13% moisture on a dry basis. Drying temperature influenced the germination power. The protein content was reduced according to increased drying time. The diffusivity coefficient was higher in conventional than in intermittent drying, probably due to heat loss in the intermittent process. It was observed that higher the temperature higher is the diffusivity. Ks values of the Omoto model ranged from 1.07 to 2.05E-4.

  15. Purification, characterization and stability of barley grain peroxidase BP1, a new type of plant peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christine B; Henriksen, Anette; Abelskov, A. Katrine

    1997-01-01

    The major peroxidase of barley grain (BP 1) has enzymatic and spectroscopic properties that are very differeant from those of other known plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) and can therefore contribute to the understanding of the many physiological functions ascribed to these enzymes. To study...... the structure-function relationships of this unique model peroxidase, large-scale and laboratory-scale purifications have been developed. The two batches of pure BP 1 obtained were identical in their enzymatic and spectral properties, and confirmed that BP 1 is different from the prototypical horseradish...... peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRP C). However, when measuring the specific activity of BP 1 at pH 4.0 in the presence of 1 mM CaCl2, the enzyme was as competent as HRP C at neutral pH towards a variety of substrates (mM mg(-1) min(-1)): coniferyl alcohol (930+/-48), caffeic acid (795+/-53), ABTS (2,2(1)-azino...

  16. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Bowra, S; Schmidt, Daiana;

    2016-01-01

    family members. Analysis of the AA composition of the transgenic lines showed that the level of essential amino acids increased with a concomitant reduction in proline and glutamine. Both the barley C-hordein and wheat ω-gliadin genes proved successful for RNAi-gene mediated suppression of barley C......C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi...... silencing technology directed towards C-hordein we obtained transgenic barley lines with up to 94.7 % reduction in the levels of C-hordein protein relative to the parental line. The composition of the prolamin fraction of the barley parental line cv. Golden Promise was resolved using SDS...

  17. Drought stress effects on the grain yield among different barley cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshadi Aram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined commercial barley cultivars in two sequential growing season by including irrigation and rainfed conditions under a randomized complete block experimental design. There were positive and significant correlations between the yeild and either of the indices including Mean productivity (MP, Stress Tolerance Index (STI, Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP, Harmonic Mean Productivity (HMP, and Mean Relative Performance (MRP in both irrigated and drought conditions. The PC1 and PC2 justified 94.86 and 94.44% of total variation in the first year and second year, respectively. According to 3-dimensional diagram and based on STI, genotypes 2, 3, and 8 in the first year and gentypes 4, 3, 8, and 2 in the second year were clustered together in group A, and therefore, called the most tolerant cultivars to drought stress.

  18. Activity-based protein profiling of hydrolytic enzymes induced by gibberellic acid in isolated aleurone layers of malting barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; Grosse-Holz, Friederike M; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Roberts, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    During barley germination, the aleurone layer secretes most of the enzymes required to degrade the endosperm, many of which are yet to be characterized. We used activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) to detect a range of active enzymes extracted from aleurone layers isolated from grains of a commercial malting barley variety incubated with or without gibberellic acid (GA). Enzymes found to be induced by GA were putative aleurains, cathepsin-B-like proteases and serine hydrolases. By using an inhibitory sugar panel, a specific active retaining β-glycosidase in the barley aleurone was identified as a putative xylanase. Our results show that ABPP can be used rapidly to identify a variety of active enzyme isoforms in cereal aleurone without the need for enzyme purification.

  19. The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen fertilisation on the chemical composition and nutritional value of wheat and barley grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-08-01

    A rising atmospheric CO2 concentration might influence the nutrient composition of feedstuffs and consequently the nutritional value for livestock. The present study investigates the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the chemical composition and nutritional value of winter wheat cv. "Batis" and winter barley cv. "Theresa". Both cereals were grown at two different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 [AMBI]: 380 ppm and enriched CO2 [free air carbon dioxide enrichment, FACE]: 550 ppm) for two growing seasons. The influence of two different nitrogen (N) fertilisation levels (adequate N supply [N100] and nearly 50% of adequate N supply [N50]) were studied as well. A significant effect was observed for the crude protein content, which declined at FACE condition in a range of 8-16 g kg(-1) in wheat and of 10-20 g kg(-1) in barley. A reduced N fertilisation level resulted in a strong reduction of crude protein concentration in both cereal species. In wheat, a decrease in N supply significantly enhanced the concentration of starch and crude fibre. In barley, only the concentration of fructose increased under FACE condition and reduced N fertilisation. The FACE did not have major effects on the concentrations of minerals, while the influence of N fertilisation was different for both cereals. Whereas no effects could be observed for barley, a reduced N supply caused a significant reduction in concentrations of zinc, manganese and iron in wheat. Furthermore, an undirected effect of atmospheric CO2 and N fertilisation levels were found for the amino acid concentrations. Based on these results, future scenarios of climate change would have an impact on the nutritional value of cereal grains.

  20. Barley HvHMA1 is a heavy metal pump involved in mobilizing organellar Zn and Cu and plays a role in metal loading into grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dalgaard Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P(1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P(1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated the properties of HvHMA1, which is a barley orthologue of Arabidopsis thaliana AtHMA1 localized to the chloroplast envelope. HvHMA1 was localized to the periphery of chloroplast of leaves and in intracellular compartments of grain aleurone cells. HvHMA1 expression was significantly higher in grains compared to leaves. In leaves, HvHMA1 expression was moderately induced by Zn deficiency, but reduced by toxic levels of Zn, Cu and Cd. Isolated barley chloroplasts exported Zn and Cu when supplied with Mg-ATP and this transport was inhibited by the AtHMA1 inhibitor thapsigargin. Down-regulation of HvHMA1 by RNA interference did not have an effect on foliar Zn and Cu contents but resulted in a significant increase in grain Zn and Cu content. Heterologous expression of HvHMA1 in heavy metal-sensitive yeast strains increased their sensitivity to Zn, but also to Cu, Co, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Fe. Based on these results, we suggest that HvHMA1 is a broad-specificity exporter of metals from chloroplasts and serve as a scavenging mechanism for mobilizing plastid Zn and Cu when cells become deficient in these elements. In grains, HvHMA1 might be involved in mobilizing Zn and Cu from the aleurone cells during grain filling and germination.

  1. Caspase-like activities accompany programmed cell death events in developing barley grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tran

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death is essential part of development and cell homeostasis of any multicellular organism. We have analyzed programmed cell death in developing barley caryopsis at histological, biochemical and molecular level. Caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities increased with aging of pericarp coinciding with abundance of TUNEL positive nuclei and expression of HvVPE4 and HvPhS2 genes in the tissue. TUNEL-positive nuclei were also detected in nucellus and nucellar projection as well as in embryo surrounding region during early caryopsis development. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of micro-dissected grain tissues revealed the expression of HvVPE2a, HvVPE2b, HvVPE2d, HvPhS2 and HvPhS3 genes exclusively in the nucellus/nucellar projection. The first increase in cascade of caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities in the endosperm fraction may be related to programmed cell death in the nucellus and nucellar projection. The second increase of all above caspase-like activities including of caspase-9-like was detected in the maturating endosperm and coincided with expression of HvVPE1 and HvPhS1 genes as well as with degeneration of nuclei in starchy endosperm and transfer cells. The distribution of the TUNEL-positive nuclei, tissues-specific expression of genes encoding proteases with potential caspase activities and cascades of caspase-like activities suggest that each seed tissue follows individual pattern of development and disintegration, which however harmonizes with growth of the other tissues in order to achieve proper caryopsis development.

  2. The detection of QTLs in barley associated with endosperm hardness, grain density, grain size and malting quality using rapid phenotyping tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra K; Ford, Rebecca; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Panozzo, Joe F

    2013-10-01

    Using a barley mapping population, 'Vlamingh' × 'Buloke' (V × B), whole grain analyses were undertaken for physical seed traits and malting quality. Grain density and size were predicted by digital image analysis (DIA), while malt extract and protein content were predicted using near infrared (NIR) analysis. Validation of DIA and NIR algorithms confirmed that data for QTL analysis was highly correlated (R (2) > 0.82), with high RPD values (the ratio of the standard error of prediction to the standard deviation, 2.31-9.06). Endosperm hardness was measured on this mapping population using the single kernel characterisation system. Grain density and endosperm hardness were significantly inter-correlated in all three environments (r > 0.22, P hardness QTLs were found on 1H, 5H, and 7H. In this study, the majority of the genomic regions associated with grain texture were also coincident with QTLs for grain size, yield, flowering date and/or plant development genes. This study highlights the complexity of genomic regions associated with the variation of endosperm hardness and grain density, and their relationships with grain size traits, agronomic-related traits, and plant development loci.

  3. Characterization of the microchemical structure of seed endosperm within a cellular dimension among six barley varieties with distinct degradation kinetics, using ultraspatially resolved synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yu, Peiqiang

    2010-07-14

    Barley varieties have similar chemical composition but exhibit different rumen degradation kinetics and nutrient availability. These biological differences may be related to molecular, structural, and chemical makeup among the seed endosperm tissue. No detailed study was carried out. The objectives of this study were: (1) to use a molecular spectroscopy technique, synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM), to determine the microchemical-structural features in seed endosperm tissue of six developed barley varieties; (2) to study the relationship among molecular-structural characteristics, degradation kinetics, and nutrient availability in six genotypes of barley. The results showed that inherent microchemical-structural differences in the endosperm among the six barley varieties were detected by the synchrotron-based analytical technique, SFTIRM, with the univariate molecular spectral analysis. The SFTIRM spectral profiles differed (P degradation). Weak correlations may indicate that limited variations of these six barley varieties might not be sufficient to interpret the relationship between spectroscopic information and the nutrient value of barley grain, although significant differences in biodegradation kinetics were observed. In conclusion, the studies demonstrated the potential of ultraspatially resolved synchrotron based technology (SFTIRM) to reveal the structural and chemical makeup within cellular and subcellular dimensions without destruction of the inherent structure of cereal grain tissue.

  4. Improved bioavailability of dietary phenolic acids in whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus johnsonii , and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, Anastasia S; Rud, Ida; Grimmer, Stine; Sigl, Stefanie; Narvhus, Judith; Sahlstrøm, Stefan

    2012-06-27

    The aim of this study was to improve the bioavailability of the dietary phenolic acids in flours from whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibiting high feruloyl esterase activity (FAE). The highest increase of free phenolic acids was observed after fermentation with three probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, with maximum increases from 2.55 to 69.91 μg g(-1) DM and from 4.13 to 109.42 μg g(-1) DM in whole grain barley and oat groat, respectively. Interestingly, higher amounts of bound phenolic acids were detected after both water treatment and LAB fermentation in whole grain barley, indicating higher bioaccessibility, whereas some decrease was detected in oat groat. To conclude, cereal fermentation with specific probiotic strains can lead to significant increase of free phenolic acids, thereby improving their bioavailability.

  5. Products based on a high fiber barley genotype, but not on common barley or oats, lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeberg, H G; Granfeldt, Y E; Björck, I M

    1996-02-01

    Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to cereal products made from common barley, oats or a barley genotype containing elevated levels of beta-glucans were evaluated in nine healthy subjects. Porridges were made from commercial Swedish whole-meal barley or oat flours, and a mixed whole-meal porridge using the high fiber barley genotype and commercial Swedish common barley (50:50). Also studied were two types of flour-based bread products composed of high fiber barley and common barley in ratios of 50:50 or 80:20, respectively. The common oat and barley porridges produced postprandial glucose and insulin responses similar to the white wheat bread reference, suggesting that the naturally occurring dietary fiber in these whole-meal flours has no impact on the glucose tolerance. In contrast, all high fiber barley products induced significantly lower responses than did the reference product, with the glycemic and insulin indices ranging from 57 to 72 or 42 to 72%, respectively. It is concluded that "lente" products of high sensory quality can be prepared from a barley genotype with an elevated content of soluble dietary fiber. The glycemic index of these products compares favorably with that of products made from common cereals, suggesting their use as a potential component of diets for patients with diabetes and hyperlipidemia, and for individuals predisposed to metabolic disease.

  6. Barley metallothioneins: MT3 and MT4 are localized in the grain aleurone layer and show differential zinc binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2012-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and protein abundance during grain development. MT3 was present in tissues of both maternal and filial origin throughout grain filling. In contrast, MT4 was confined to the embryo and aleurone layer, where it appeared during tissue specialization and remained until maturity. Using state-of-the-art speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on recombinant MT3 and MT4, their specificity and capacity for metal ion binding were quantified, showing a strong preferential Zn binding relative to Cu and cadmium (Cd) in MT4, which was not the case for MT3. When complementary DNAs from barley MTs were expressed in Cu- or Cd-sensitive yeast mutants, MT3 provided a much stronger complementation than did MT4. We conclude that MT3 may play a housekeeping role in metal homeostasis, while MT4 may function in Zn storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations.

  7. A pathway-specific microarray analysis highlights the complex and co-ordinated transcriptional networks of the developing grain of field-grown barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Friis, Carsten; Bowra, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the molecular and biochemical interactions associated with amino acid biosynthesis and storage protein accumulation in the developing grains of field-grown barley. Our strategy was to analyse the transcription of genes associated with the biosynthesis of stora...

  8. Genome-wide association mapping in winter barley for grain yield and culm cell wall polymer content using the high-throughput CoMPP technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellucci, Andrea; Tondelli, Alessandro; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    A collection of 112 winter barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) was grown in the field for two years (2008/09 and 2009/10) in northern Italy and grain and straw yields recorded. In the first year of the trial, a severe attack of barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) strongly influenced final...... gene, which is known to regulate resistance to BaYMV. Subsequently the QTL was shown to be tightly linked to rym4, a locus for resistance to the virus. GWAs on arabinans quantified by LM6 resulted in the identification of major QTLs closely located on 3H and hypotheses regarding putative candidate...

  9. Exploring the Plant–Microbe Interface by Profiling the Surface-Associated Proteins of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    -associated proteins and xylanolytic activities of two barley cultivars. The surface-associated proteome was dominated by plant proteins with roles in defense and stress-responses, while the relatively less abundant microbial (bacterial and fungal) proteins were involved in cell-wall and polysaccharide degradation...... and included xylanases. The surface-associated proteomes showed elevated xylanolytic activity and contained several xylanases. Integration of proteomics with enzyme assays is a powerful tool for analysis and characterization of the interaction between microbial consortia and plants in their natural environment....

  10. Co-fermentation of hemicellulose and starch from barley straw and grain for efficient pentoses utilization in acetone-butanol-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Zhang, Junhua; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to efficiently use hemicellulose-based biomass for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production by co-fermentation with starch-based biomass. Two processes were investigated: (I) co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and starch in a mixture of barley straw and grain that was pretreated with dilute acid; (II) co-fermentation of straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate and gelatinized grain slurry in which the straw was pretreated with dilute acid. The two processes produced 11.3 and 13.5 g/L ABE that contains 7.4 and 7.8 g/L butanol, respectively. In process I, pretreatment with 1.0% H2SO4 resulted in better ABE fermentability than with 1.5% H2SO4, but only 19% of pentoses were consumed. In process II, 95% of pentoses were utilized even in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate pretreated with more severe condition (1.5% H2SO4). The results suggest that process II is more favorable for hemicellulosic biomass utilization, and it is also attractive for sustainable biofuel production due to great biomass availability.

  11. Barley Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) as Feedstock for Production of Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Wal, van der H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) represent important co-product from commercial yeast fermentations, including bioethanol, from grains. In view of the current expansion of the bioethanol fermentation process, with the concomitant increase in production of DDGS, alternative applications t

  12. Inositol phosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatzack, F.; Hübel, F.; Zhang, W.

    2001-01-01

    Inositolphosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants and their parent variety were analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR. Compound assignment was carried out by comparison of retention times using a chemical hydrolysate of phytate [Ins(1,2,3,4,5,6)P(6)] as a reference; Co......-inciding retention times indicated the presence of phytate, D/L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P(5), Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P(6), D/L-(1,2,4,5,6)P(5), D/L-(1,2,3,4)P(4), D/L-Ins(1,2,5,6)P(4) and D/L-Ins(1,4,5,6)P(4) in PLP1B mutants as well as the parent variety. In grain extracts from mutant lines PLP1A, PLP2A and PLP3A unusual...... accumulations of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) were observed whereas phytate and the above-mentioned inositol phosphates were present in relatively small amounts. Assignment of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) was corroborated by precise co-chromatography with a commercial Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) standard and by NMR spectroscopy. Analysis...

  13. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcerek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  14. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Chen, Guang; Veljanoski, Filip; Wang, Gang; Shabala, Sergey; Zhou, Meixue; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis), and molecular techniques (RT-PCR and qPCR) to investigate stomatal behavior and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterization of stomatal behavior of a large number of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant cultivar CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture under 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive cultivar Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield under salt treatment. Phenotypic characterization and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to higher barley grain yield in the field.

  15. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 2 HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological and molecular techniques (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis, and gene expression to investigate stomatal behaviour and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterisation of stomatal behaviour of large numbers of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we have found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture in 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield in salt treatment. Phenotypic characterisation and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to high barley grain yield in the field.

  16. Biotesting of radioactively contaminated forest soils using barley-based bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel’nikova, T. V.; Polyakova, L. P.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Findings from radioactivity and phytotoxicity study are presented for soils from nine study-sites of the Klintsovsky Forestry located in the Bryansk region that were radioactively contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. According to the bioassay based on barley as test-species, stimulating effect of the soils analyzed is revealed for biological indexes of the length of barley roots and sprouts. From data on 137Cs specific activities in soils and plant biomass, the migration potential of radionuclide in the "soil-plant" system is assessed as a transfer factor. With correlation analysis, an impact of 137Cs in soil on the biological characteristics of barley is estimated.

  17. Field studies on the regulation of abscisic acid content and germinability during grain development of barley: molecular and chemical analysis of pre-harvest sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Honda, Ichiro; Shinoda, Shoko; Kushiro, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Yuji; Nambara, Eiji; Kawakami, Naoto; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) content was related to germinability during grain development, two cDNAs for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (HvNCED1 and HvNCED2) and one cDNA for ABA 8'-hydroxylase (HvCYP707A1), which are enzymes thought to catalyse key regulatory steps in ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, respectively, were cloned from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Expression and ABA-quantification analysis in embryo revealed that HvNCED2 is responsible for a significant increase in ABA levels during the early to middle stages of grain development, and HvCYP707A1 is responsible for a rapid decrease in ABA level thereafter. The change in the embryonic ABA content of imbibing grains following dormancy release is likely to reflect changes in the expression patterns of HvNCEDs and HvCYP707A1. A major change between dormant and after-ripened grains occurred in HvCYP707A1; the increased expression of HvCYP707A1 in response to imbibition, followed by a rapid ABA decrease and a high germination percentage, was observed in the after-ripened grains, but not in the dormant grains. Under field conditions, HvNCED2 showed the same expression level and pattern during grain development in 2002, 2003, and 2004, indicating that HvNCED2 expression is regulated in a growth-dependent manner in the grains. By contrast, HvNCED1 and HvCYP707A1 showed a different expression pattern in each year, indicating that the expression of these genes is affected by environmental conditions during grain development. The varied expression levels of these genes during grain development and imbibition, which would have effects on the activity of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, might be reflected, in part, in the germinability in field-grown barley.

  18. Transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) expressing the wheat aluminium resistance gene (TaALMT1) shows enhanced phosphorus nutrition and grain production when grown on an acid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Taylor, Phillip; Hocking, Peter J; Simpson, Richard J; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E

    2009-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), genetically modified with the Al(3+) resistance gene of wheat (TaALMT1), was compared with a non-transformed sibling line when grown on an acidic and highly phosphate-fixing ferrosol supplied with a range of phosphorus concentrations. In short-term pot trials (26 days), transgenic barley expressing TaALMT1 (GP-ALMT1) was more efficient than a non-transformed sibling line (GP) at taking up phosphorus on acid soil, but the genotypes did not differ when the soil was limed. Differences in phosphorus uptake efficiency on acid soil could be attributed not only to the differential effects of aluminium toxicity on root growth between the genotypes, but also to differences in phosphorus uptake per unit root length. Although GP-ALMT1 out-performed GP on acid soil, it was still not as efficient at taking up phosphorus as plants grown on limed soil. GP-ALMT1 plants grown in acid soil possessed substantially smaller rhizosheaths than those grown in limed soil, suggesting that root hairs were shorter. This is a probable reason for the lower phosphorus uptake efficiency. When grown to maturity in large pots, GP-ALMT1 plants produced more than twice the grain as GP plants grown on acid soil and 80% of the grain produced by limed controls. Expression of TaALMT1 in barley was not associated with a penalty in either total shoot or grain production in the absence of Al(3+), with both genotypes showing equivalent yields in limed soil. These findings demonstrate that an important crop species can be genetically engineered to successfully increase grain production on an acid soil.

  19. Microwave irradiation induced changes in protein molecular structures of barley grains: relationship to changes in protein chemical profile, protein subfractions, and digestion in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaogang; Khan, Nazir A; Zhang, Fangyu; Yang, Ling; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-16

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate microwave irradiation (MIR) induced changes in crude protein (CP) subfraction profiles, ruminal CP degradation characteristics and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP), and protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains. Samples from hulled (n = 1) and hulless cultivars (n = 2) of barley, harvested from four replicate plots in two consecutive years, were evaluated. The samples were either kept as raw or irradiated in a microwave for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). Compared to raw grains, MIR5 decreased the contents of rapidly degradable CP subfraction (from 45.22 to 6.36% CP) and the ruminal degradation rate (from 8.16 to 3.53%/h) of potentially degradable subfraction. As a consequence, the effective ruminal degradability of CP decreased (from 55.70 to 34.08% CP) and RUP supply (from 43.31 to 65.92% CP) to the postruminal tract increased. The MIR decreased the spectral intensities of amide 1, amide II, α-helix, and β-sheet and increased their ratios. The changes in protein spectral intensities were strongly correlated with the changes in CP subfractions and digestive kinetics. These results show that MIR for a short period (5 min) with a lower energy input can improve the nutritive value and utilization of CP in barely grains.

  20. Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250  g/calf/d of barley grain or with 250 g/calf/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi-  tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish  Friesian male calves were used in the study and they were housed in individual wooden stalls (0.83 x 1.80 m. The health  status of all the calves was satisfactory for the entire fattening period and no specific medical treatment was required  during the trial. Calves fed wheat straw showed a greater intake of solid feed (196 vs. 139 g/d; P  average daily gain (1288 vs. 1203 g/d; P  not affected by the type of solid feed and no milk refusal episodes were detected. The haemoglobin concentration was  similar in calves receiving the two feeding treatments despite the higher iron intake provided by the wheat straw through-  out the fattening period (2.12 vs. 1.15 g; P  calves’ metabolism. Feeding behaviour was affected by the provision of solid feeds. Eating and chewing were prolonged  in calves receiving ground wheat straw and the same solid feed reduced the frequency of oral stereotypies at the end of  the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, no differences were observed between the feeding treatments as regards  carcass weight and dressing percentage. The calves fed ground wheat straw had a heavier weight of the empty omasum  (518 vs. 341 g; P  fed barley grain. The incidence of abomasal erosions, ulcers and scars was similar in both treatments; however the index  of abomasal damage, which considers the number and the seriousness of different type of lesions, was higher in calves  receiving barley grain. Therefore, the grinding of straw particles, as opposed to barley grain, can reduce the abrasive-  ness of roughage at the abomasum level. Visual evaluation of the

  1. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    conditions continue to be key to discovering the roles of individual protein forms and posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation. Activity-based proteomics, particularly in combination with new gene editing technologies, has great potential to elucidate the network of enzymes in barley...

  2. Grain protein concentration and harvestable protein under future climate conditions. A study of 108 spring barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn;

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein concentra......In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein...

  3. Effect of different doses of post-emergence-applied iodosulfuron on weed control and grain yield of malt barley (Hordeum distichum L., under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros José Calado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out over a two year period (2009/2010 and 2012/2013 on an experimental farm in the Alentejo region (Beja, in southern Portugal where rainfed malt barley (Hordeum distichum L. is sown at the end of autumn or beginning of winter (November- December. The aim of this experiment was to study the efficiency of the herbicide iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium to control post-emergence broadleaved weeds in this cereal crop. The malt barley crop was established using no-till farming. This technology provides the necessary machine bearing capacity of the soil to assure the post-emergence application of herbicides at two different weed development stages. The herbicide iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium was applied at three doses (5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 g a. i. · ha-1 and at two different broadleaved weed development stages (3 to 4 and 6 to 7 pairs of leaves, that also corresponded to two different crop development stages (beginning of tillering and complete tillering. The results indicated that early herbicide application timing provided a significantly higher efficiency for all the applied herbicide doses, but this better weed control was not reflected in a higher crop grain yield. The lack of a higher crop grain yield was probably due to a crop phytotoxicity of the herbicide, when used at an early application timing.

  4. Grain Yield Variation in Malting Barley Cultivars in Uruguay and Its Consequences for the Design of a Trials Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceretta, S.S.E.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of cultivar trial networks is an important subject in official cultivar testing. We investigated this efficiency for malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Uruguay, using data on 213 cultivars tested across an eight-year period at six locations. The variance-components approach was us

  5. High moisture airtight storage of barley and triticale: Effect of moisture level and grain processing on nitrogen and phosphorus solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    moisture levels (20, 23, 26 and 29% moisture) and to compare HMA storage of cereals with dry storage for 49 days. Dry stored barley and triticale (10 and 13% moisture, respectively) were kept in 10 L plastic buckets for 0 and 49 days. HMA stored cereals were kept in airtight bags (400 g per bag) at 15 °C...

  6. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on protein quality/quantity and Zn content of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Lange, Mette; Schjørring, Jan Kofod;

    2011-01-01

    it is estimated that nearly half of the world’s population, primarily children and women in the developing world, suffer from zinc deficiency as they live on a diet that mostly is based on cereals and other starch-rich staples that have a quite low Zn content and with poor zinc bioavailability. The rise...... the increases of yield is primarily in the form of starch there will be a “dilution” of other nutrients like minerals and proteins in the grain with severe consequences for the nutrition of human and livestock Although the nutritional short-comings could be met by using higher amounts of nitrogen and mineral...... fertilizer it would increase nitrogen and mineral load (in particular for zinc in areas with intensive pig production) so this strategy may not be warranted. Alternative approaches to increase grain Zn content are to create transgenic lines that accumulate more Zn or to exploit natural variation in zinc...

  7. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus.

  8. The effect of beta-glucanase supplementation of barley- and oat-based diets on growth performance and fermentation in broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefiak, D; Rutkowski, A; Jensen, B B; Engberg, R M

    2006-02-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether grain type (barley or oats) and ss-glucanase inclusion influence the performance and the gastrointestinal ecosystem of broiler chickens, taking the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids and lactic acid, pH, ileal viscosity, and the weight of the caeca and liver into consideration. 2. The inclusion of beta-glucanase in the oat-based diet improved body weight gains. Enzyme supplementation of barley-based diets improved feed conversion efficiency and reduced intestinal viscosity. 3. Irrespective of the type of cereal, beta-glucanase supplementation increased the lactic acid concentration and lowered the pH of the crop contents. No such changes in fermentation were observed in the contents of the gizzard and ileum. 4. Larger amounts of total dietary fibre and its fractions (arabinoxylans and beta-glucans) in oats decreased the weight of the caeca. 5. Molar ratios of acetate, propionate and butyrate in the caecal chyme were affected by cereal type but not by enzyme supplementation. The barley-based diet increased the butyrate:propionate ratio but the opposite effect was observed with the oat-based diet.

  9. A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2012-06-01

    Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of methods to evaluate genotypes accurately under field conditions. Although many screening criteria have been suggested to distinguish between genotypes for their salt tolerance under controlled environmental conditions, there is a need to test these criteria in the field. In this study, the salt tolerance, ion concentrations, and accumulation of compatible solutes of genotypes of barley with a range of putative salt tolerance were investigated using three growing conditions (hydroponics, soil in pots, and natural saline field). Initially, 60 genotypes of barley were screened for their salt tolerance and uptake of Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) at 150 mM NaCl and, based on this, a subset of 15 genotypes was selected for testing in pots and in the field. Expression of salt tolerance in saline solution culture was not a reliable indicator of the differences in salt tolerance between barley plants that were evident in saline soil-based comparisons. Significant correlations were observed in the rankings of genotypes on the basis of their grain yield production at a moderately saline field site and their relative shoot growth in pots at EC(e) 7.2 [Spearman's rank correlation (rs)=0.79] and EC(e) 15.3 (rs=0.82) and the crucial parameter of leaf Na(+) (rs=0.72) and Cl(-) (rs=0.82) concentrations at EC(e) 7.2 dS m(-1). This work has established screening procedures that correlated well with grain yield at sites with moderate levels of soil salinity. This study also showed that both salt exclusion and osmotic tolerance are involved in salt tolerance and that the relative importance of these traits may differ with the severity of the salt stress. In soil, ion exclusion tended to be more important at low to moderate levels of stress but osmotic stress became more important at higher stress levels. Salt exclusion coupled with a synthesis of organic solutes were shown to be important components of

  10. Dynamics of phosphorus compounds in ripening and germinating cereal grains. Part I. Changes in phosphorus compounds content during ripening of wheat, barley and rye grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tłuczkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of phosphorus compounds was followed in ripening wheat (Grana, barley (Kosmos and rye (Pancerne seeds. In the investigated ontogenesis period the content in the seeds of total and acid-soluble phosphorus doubled. The phosphorus of free phytin and phytin that bound with proteins increased to the end of maturation. In dormant seeds the contribution of phosphorus bound with phytin was 62-70 per cent of total P. As the seeds ripened, the content of inorganic and nucleotides-P decreased, while that of saccharides-P and their metabolites started to decrease from the moment of wax ripeness. Later RNA-P and DNA-P level decreased only slight.ly and that of lipids-P markedly. Phosphoproteid content diminished at the beginning of ripening and further remained at almost the same level. Wheat, barley and rye seed exhibited similar dynamics of metabolically active (nucleotides, saccharide-P esters and their metabolites, functional (nucleic acids and structural (phospholipids phosphorus compounds. Accumulation of storage forms (phytin of phosphorus was higher in wheat and successively lower in rye and barley.

  11. Improvement of Fermentation and Nutritive Quality of Straw-grass Silage by Inclusion of Wet Hulless-barley Distillers’ Grains in Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xianjun; Yu, Chengqun; Shimojo, M.; Shao, Tao

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop methods that would enlarge the feed resources in Tibet, mixtures of hulless-barley straw and tall fescue were ensiled with four levels (0, 10%, 20%, and 30% of fresh weight) of wet hulless-barley distillers’ grains (WHDG). The silos were opened after 7, 14 or 30 d of ensiling, and the fermentation characteristics and nutritive quality of the silages were analyzed. WHDG addition significantly improved fermentation quality, as indicated by the faster decline of pH, rapid accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (p<0.05), and lower butyric acid content and ammonia-N/total N (p<0.05) as compared with the control. These results indicated that WHDG additions not only effectively inhibited the activity of aerobic bacteria, but also resulted in faster and greatly enhanced LA production and pH value decline, which restricted activity of undesirable bacteria, resulting in more residual water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the silages. The protein content of WHDG-containing silages were significantly higher (p<0.05) higher than that of the control. In conclusion, the addition of WHDG increased the fermentation and nutritive quality of straw-grass silage, and this effect was more marked when the inclusion rate of WHDG was greater than 20%. PMID:25049588

  12. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms based on RNA sequencing data of diverse bio-geographical accessions in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahagi, Kotaro; Uehara-Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Mochida, Keiichi; Saisho, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Barley is one of the founder crops of Old world agriculture and has become the fourth most important cereal worldwide. Information on genome-scale DNA polymorphisms allows elucidating the evolutionary history behind domestication, as well as discovering and isolating useful genes for molecular breeding. Deep transcriptome sequencing enables the exploration of sequence variations in transcribed sequences; such analysis is particularly useful for species with large and complex genomes, such as barley. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of 20 barley accessions, comprising representatives of several biogeographic regions and a wild ancestor. We identified 38,729 to 79,949 SNPs in the 19 domesticated accessions and 55,403 SNPs in the wild barley and revealed their genome-wide distribution using a reference genome. Genome-scale comparisons among accessions showed a clear differentiation between oriental and occidental barley populations. The results based on population structure analyses provide genome-scale properties of sub-populations grouped to oriental, occidental and marginal groups in barley. Our findings suggest that the oriental population of domesticated barley has genomic variations distinct from those in occidental groups, which might have contributed to barley’s domestication. PMID:27616653

  13. Vitro-antioxidative activity of polyphenol from barley spent grains%大麦糟多酚体外抗氧化活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅进; 丁文平; 刘航; 庄坤; 张轩

    2015-01-01

    用不同方法评价了大麦糟多酚的抗氧化活性,如测定大麦糟多酚的还原能力、羟基自由基、超氧阴离子自由基以及DPPH自由基的清除能力。试验结果表明,大麦糟多酚清除羟基自由基、超氧阴离子自由基和DPPH自由基的能力较强,大麦糟多酚精提取液的半抑制浓度(IC50)分别为4.132、89.504、15.304μg/ml ,而粗提取液的半抑制浓度分别为87.408、113.795、26.873μg/m l;在测定大麦糟多酚的还原能力试验中,当吸光值为0.6时,儿茶素、V C、大麦糟多酚精提取液和粗提取液的质量浓度分别为48.8、54.8、44.1和72.9μg/m l ,大麦糟多酚精提取液体外抗氧化能力明显优于儿茶素、VC和粗提取液。%The antioxidant activity of barley spent gains was investigated with different methods .The reductive ability and the scavenging of hydroxy free radical ,superoxide anion free radical ,DPPH free radical of barley spent gains polyphenols were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity .Results demonstrated that polyphenol from barley spent grains showed high scaven‐ging activity of hydroxyl radical ,superoxide anion radical and DPPH radical ,the concentrations for 50% inhibition of essence extract were 4 .132 ,89 .504 ,15 .304μg/ml ,respectively ,the concentrations for 50% inhibition of crude extract were 87 .408 , 113 .795 ,26 .873 μg/ml ,respectively .In the determination of the reducing ability of barley spent gains polyphenols ,w hen the absorbance was at 0 .6 ,the mass concentration of catechin ,vitamin C ,essence extract and crude extract were 48 .8 ,54 .8 ,44 .1 and 72 .9 μg/ml ,respectively .The essence extract of polyphenol from barley spent gains was higher than catechin ,vitamin C and crude extract in vitro‐antioxidative activity .

  14. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Imidiazolium based ionic liquids: effects of different anions and alkyl chains lengths on the barley seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetko Bubalo, Marina; Hanousek, Karla; Radošević, Kristina; Gaurina Srček, Višnja; Jakovljević, Tamara; Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana

    2014-03-01

    We studied the effects of five imidiazolium based ionic liquids with different anions and length of alkyl chains linked to imidazolium ring on the early development of barley (Hordeum vulgare). The inhibitory effect depends on the ionic liquids concentration and chemical structure, whereby the most toxic one was [C10mim][Br], followed by [C7mim][Br], [C4mim][Br], [C4mim][CH3CO2] and [C4mim][BF4]. Both anion and cation structures affected the toxicity of ionic liquid indicating that selection of more biocompatible anions such as [CH3CO2] does not necessarily indicate lower toxicity. Alternation in the extent of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activities were found in barley plants due to ionic liquid treatments. When seedlings were exposed to higher concentrations of ionic liquids, antioxidant system could not effectively remove reactive oxidative species, leading to lipid peroxidation and damage of the photosynthetic system. However, overall data indicated that the performance of barley seedling was improved when all measured enzymes involved in scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased with special emphasis on GPX activities. Since there are no studies about ionic liquid (IL) toxicity in plants, that simultaneously evaluates the antioxidative enzyme system in response to different ILs, this work is valuable for gaining knowledge about the protection mechanism of plants from oxidative stress caused by IL exposure.

  16. Non-wheat pasta based on pearl millet flour containing barley and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Deep N; Balasubramanian, S; Kaur, Jaspreet; Anand, Tanupriya; Singh, Ashish K

    2014-10-01

    Non-wheat pasta was prepared with pearl millet supplemented with 10-30 % barley flour, 5-15 % whey protein concentrate, 2.5-4 % carboxy methyl cellulose and 27-33 % water using response surface methodology (RSM) following central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Results showed that barley flour and whey protein concentrate (WPC) had significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive effect on lightness and negative effect on stickiness of pasta, thus improved the overall acceptability (OAA). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) improved the textural attributes i.e. increased firmness and decreased stickiness significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in solids losses in gruel. Based upon the experiments, the optimized level of ingredients were barley flour 13.80 g 100 g(-1) pearl millet flour (PMF), WPC 12.27 g 100 g(-1) PMF, CMC 3.45 g 100 g(-1) PMF and water 27.6 mL 100 g(-1) ingredients premix with 88 % desirability. The developed pasta had protein 16.47 g, calcium 98.53 mg, iron 5.43 mg, phosphorus 315.5 mg and β-glucan 0.33 g 100 g(-1) pasta (db).

  17. Differential gene expression for suicide-substrate serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) in vegetative and grain tissues of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, T.H.; Marttila, S.; Rasmussen, S.K.;

    2003-01-01

    Proteins of the serpin superfamily (similar to43 kDa) from mature cereal grains are in vitro suicide-substrate inhibitors of specific mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family. However, unlike the 'standard-mechanism' serine proteinase inhibitors (

  18. Characterization of protected designation of origin Italian meat products obtained from heavy pigs fed barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Gallo, A; Faeti, V; Della Casa, G

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the quality and sensory properties of protected designation of origin (PDO) Parma ham and Piacentina neck obtained from heavy pigs (Italian Duroc × Italian Large White) fed barley-based diets. Four diets were tested: 1) a corn-based diet (control), 2) the control diet with 80% of a normal-amylose hulled barley variety (Cometa), 3) the control diet with 80% of a normal-amylose hulless barley variety (Astartis), and 4) the control diet with 80% of a low-amylose hulless barley variety (Alamo). All the meat products were analyzed for physicochemical and color parameters. The dry-cured hams and necks were also evaluated for sensory properties. The data of physicochemical, color, and sensory parameters were separately analyzed by multivariate factor analysis, and interpretation of each extracted factor was based on specific original variables loading on each one. The meat products obtained from pigs fed the barley-based diets differed from those obtained from the control pigs on the PUFA factors characterized by C18:2-6 and omega-3:omega-6 ratio. In particular, the meat products obtained from pigs fed the barley-based diets had a lower content of C18:2-6 and a higher omega-3:omega-6 ratio ( diets had subcutaneous fat (SC) with a lower iodine number and a higher SFA level compared with those produced from the control pigs ( diets. The hams from barrows differed from those obtained from gilts on the lean properties factor describing properties related to aspect and odor of dry-cured hams. Indeed, the hams from barrows were depreciated compared with the hams from gilts for minor intensity, brightness, and uniformity of the lean, pinkish intermuscular fat and cured odor. In conclusion, barley could be used as a replacement for corn in heavy pig diets for the production of PDO Italian products without negative effects on the physicochemical, color, or sensory characteristics of meat products.

  19. Does Whole Grain Consumption Alter Gut Microbiota and Satiety?

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle N. Cooper; Martin, Roy J.; Keim, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Studies comparing whole grains to their refined grain counterparts were considered, as were studies comparing different grain types. Possible mechanisms linking microbial metabolism and satiety are described. Clinical trials show that whole grain wheat, maize, and barley alter the human gut microbiota, but these findings are based on a few studies that do not...

  20. Integrating statistical and ecophysiological analysis of genotype by environment interaction for grain filling of barley in Mediterranean areas. II. Grain growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voltas, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Araus, J.L.; Romagosa, I.

    1999-01-01

    In Mediterranean areas, grain growth of temperate cereals often progresses under the harmful influence of drought and high temperature. Genotypic responses are mediated by the specific occurrence of these constraints, thus causing genotype by environment (G × E) interaction. Field experiments were c

  1. Differential appearance of isoforms and cultivar variation in protein temporal profiles revealed in the maturing barley grain proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    -peroxiredoxin isoform was identified in three spots, one present throughout grain filling, one appearing during desiccation and one observed only in mature seeds. This suggested post-translational modification of the protein to different degrees during seed maturation. Distinct isoforms of several proteins were...

  2. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  3. A constitutive model of nanocrystalline metals based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Gurses, Ercan

    2011-12-01

    In this work, a viscoplastic constitutive model for nanocrystalline metals is presented. The model is based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms. In particular, inelastic deformations caused by grain boundary diffusion, grain boundary sliding and dislocation activities are considered. Effects of pressure on the grain boundary diffusion and sliding mechanisms are taken into account. Furthermore, the influence of grain size distribution on macroscopic response is studied. The model is shown to capture the fundamental mechanical characteristics of nanocrystalline metals. These include grain size dependence of the strength, i.e., both the traditional and the inverse Hall-Petch effects, the tension-compression asymmetry and the enhanced rate sensitivity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of inclusion of distillers dried grains and solubles from barley, wheat and corn in isonutritive diets on the performance and caecal environment of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alagón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate how the dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS could affect the performance and caecal environment of growing rabbits, four experimental diets were formulated from a control diet without DDGS (C, including 20% of barley DDGS (Db20, 20% of wheat DDGS (Dw20 and 20 (Dc20 or 40% (Dc40 of corn DDGS. Animals had free access to medicated versions of the diets until 49 d, and then to unmedicated diets until 59 d of age. The performance trial was done using 475 three-way crossbred weaned rabbits of 28 d of age, individually housed in 5 batches. Caecal fermentation traits were determined in 20 animals per diet and at 42 d and at 59 d of age. No significant effect of the growing diet on mortality, morbidity or sanitary risk index was observed. In the whole period and respect to the control group, animals fed with Db20 showed higher dry matter (DM and digestible energy (DE intake (+6 and +12%, respectively; P<0.05, but similar daily weight gain (DWG and increased feed conversion ratio (+9%; P<0.05. Similarly, and regardless of its inclusion level, the increase in DE intake of animals fed with corn DDGS (+9, respectively; P<0.05 did not increase DWG. In contrast, higher DM and DE intake of animals fed with Dw20 (+8; P<0.05 resulted in a higher DWG (+2.8 g/d; P<0.05 than those fed with C. Although inclusion of DDGS at 20% did not affected main caecal parameters controlled at 42 d, caecum of animals fed with the diet Dc40 was characterized by greater N-NH3 and valeric acid and lower total volatile fatty acids and acetic acid concentrations than the average of the other groups (on av. +5.2±1.7 mmol/L, +0.29±0.07 mol/100 mol, –17.17±4.41 μmol/L and –2.60±0.99 mol/100 mol, respectively; P<0.05. At 59 d of age, higher caecal DM, and propionic and valeric acid concentration and lower values of total volatile fatty acids and acetic/propionic rate were observed for DDGS inclusion at 20% compared to the control (+1

  5. Strengths and Limitations of Operational Use of 1 Km EO Biophysical Products for Regional Prediction of Grain Yelds in Europe (wheat, barley and maize)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, M.; LEO, O.; Lopez-Lozano, R.; Baruth, B.; Duveiller, G.; Garcia-Condado, S.; Hooker, J.; Seguini, L.

    2014-12-01

    The site-specific relationship between EO indicators and actual crop yields has been explored in many different studies, describing semi-empirical regression models between spatially aggregated biophysical parameters or vegetation indices and observed yields (from field measurements or official statistics). However, when considering larger extensions -from countries to continents- agro-climatic conditions and crop management may differ substantially among regions, and these differences may greatly influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and the observed yields, which may be also driven by limiting factors other than green biomass formation. The present study aims to better assess the contribution of EO indicators within an operational crop yield forecasting system in Europe and neighbouring countries, by evaluating how these above mentioned geographic differences influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and crop yield. We therefore explore, as a first step, the correspondence between fAPAR time-series (1999-2013) and the inter-annual yield variability of wheat, barley and grain maize, at sub-national level across Europe (270-450 Administrative Units, depending on crop). In a second step, we map the agro-climatic contexts in which EO indicators better explain the observed yield inter-annual variability, identify the influence of some meteorological events on the fAPAR -yield relationship and provide some recommendations for further investigation. The results indicate that in water-limited environments (e.g. Mediterranean and Black Sea areas), fAPAR is highly correlated with yields whereas in northern Europe, crop yield appears much less limited by leaf area expansion along the season, and the relationship between yield and EO products becomes more difficult to interpret.

  6. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  7. Cisgenic Barley with Improved Phytase Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    based on the cisgenesis concept. In contrast to transgenesis, cisgenesis implies that the plant is transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material. Furthermore, all “helper” genes and gene sequences of foreign nature are removed from the transformed plant lines. Cisgenic crops...... are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...... barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  8. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    based on the cisgenesis concept. In contrast to transgenesis, cisgenesis implies that the plant is transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material. Furthermore, all “helper” genes and gene sequences of foreign nature are removed from the transformed plant lines. Cisgenic crops...... are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...... barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  9. Zinc absorption in humans from meals based on rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale and whole wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, B.A.; Almgren, A.; Kivistoe, B.C.; Cederblad, A.

    1987-11-01

    The absorption of zinc from meals based on 60 g of rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale or whole wheat was studied by use of extrinsic labelling with /sup 65/Zn and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclide. The cereals were prepared in the form of bread or porridge and were served with 200 mL of milk. The oatmeal flakes were also served without further preparation. The absorption of zinc was negatively correlated to the phytic acid content of the meal with the highest absorption, 26.8 +/- 7.4%, from the rye bread meal containing 100 mumol of phytic acid and the lowest, 8.4 +/- 1.0%, from oatmeal porridge with a phytic acid content of 600 mumol. It is concluded that food preparation that decreases the phytic acid content improves zinc absorption.

  10. Zinc absorption in humans from meals based on rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale and whole wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, B; Almgren, A; Kivistö, B; Cederblad, A

    1987-11-01

    The absorption of zinc from meals based on 60 g of rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale or whole wheat was studied by use of extrinsic labelling with 65Zn and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclide. The cereals were prepared in the form of bread or porridge and were served with 200 mL of milk. The oatmeal flakes were also served without further preparation. The absorption of zinc was negatively correlated to the phytic acid content of the meal with the highest absorption, 26.8 +/- 7.4%, from the rye bread meal containing 100 mumol of phytic acid and the lowest, 8.4 +/- 1.0%, from oatmeal porridge with a phytic acid content of 600 mumol. It is concluded that food preparation that decreases the phytic acid content improves zinc absorption.

  11. Differences in phytase activity and phytic acid content between cultivated and Tibetan annual wild barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Xu, Yang; Cai, Shengguan; Qiu, Boyin; Zhang, Guoping

    2010-11-24

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China is considered to be one of the original centers of cultivated barley. At present, little is known about the phytase activity (Phy) or phytic acid content (PA) in grains of Tibetan annual wild barley. Phy and PA were determined in grains of 135 wild and 72 cultivated barleys. Phy ranged from 171.3 to 1299.2 U kg(-1) and from 219.9 to 998.2 U kg(-1) for wild and cultivated barleys, respectively. PA and protein contents were much higher in wild barley than in cultivated barley. Tibetan annual wild barley showed a larger genetic diversity in phytase activity and phytic acid and protein contents and is of value for barley breeding. There is no significant correlation between phytase activity and phytic acid or protein content in barley grains, indicating that endogenous phytase activity had little effect on the accumulation of phytic acid.

  12. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle size, and total dissolved solids analysis. Standard recipe for barley milk was used without added additives. Barley grain was ground and mixed in a blender for 15, 30, 45, and 60 seconds. The samples were filtered and particle size of the grains was determined by laser diffraction particle sizing. The plant milk was also analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, in the range from 904 to 1699 nm. Furthermore, conductivity of each sample was determined and microphotographs were taken in order to identify the structure of fat globules and particles in the barley milk. NIR spectra, particle size distribution, and conductivity results all point to 45 seconds as the optimal blending time, since further blending results in the saturation of the samples.

  13. Shoot apex development date of anthesis and grain yield of autumn-sown spring and winter barley hordeum-vulgare after different sowing times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, E.

    1985-01-01

    One spring and eight winter barley cultivars were sown at intervals from the middle of September (normal) until the end of October (late). The apical meristem of the spring cultivar had developed furthest until the onset of winter. It had started ear differentiation after normal sowing. Among the...

  14. BAC library resources for map-based cloning and physical map construction in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Cheng-Cang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Although second generation sequencing (2GS technologies allow re-sequencing of previously gold-standard-sequenced genomes, whole genome shotgun sequencing and de novo assembly of large and complex eukaryotic genomes is still difficult. Availability of a genome-wide physical map is therefore still a prerequisite for whole genome sequencing for genomes like barley. To start such an endeavor, large insert genomic libraries, i.e. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC libraries, which are unbiased and representing deep haploid genome coverage, need to be ready in place. Result Five new BAC libraries were constructed for barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivar Morex. These libraries were constructed in different cloning sites (HindIII, EcoRI, MboI and BstXI of the respective vectors. In order to enhance unbiased genome representation and to minimize the number of gaps between BAC contigs, which are often due to uneven distribution of restriction sites, a mechanically sheared library was also generated. The new BAC libraries were fully characterized in depth by scrutinizing the major quality parameters such as average insert size, degree of contamination (plate wide, neighboring, and chloroplast, empty wells and off-scale clones (clones with 250 fragments. Additionally a set of gene-based probes were hybridized to high density BAC filters and showed that genome coverage of each library is between 2.4 and 6.6 X. Conclusion BAC libraries representing >20 haploid genomes are available as a new resource to the barley research community. Systematic utilization of these libraries in high-throughput BAC fingerprinting should allow developing a genome-wide physical map for the barley genome, which will be instrumental for map-based gene isolation and genome sequencing.

  15. TRI12 based quantitative real-time PCR assays reveal the distribution of trichothecene genotype of F. graminearum and F. culmorum isolates in Danish small grain cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. K.; Jensen, J. D.; Rodríguez, A.;

    2012-01-01

    species complex, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium cerealis and Fusarium pseudograminearum. These assays were applied on a total of 378 field samples of cereal grain of wheat, barley, triticale, rye and oats collected from 2003 to 2007 to study the trichothecene genotype composition in Danish cereals. The three...... in wheat. The NIV genotype was found at low levels in most samples. Study of genotype composition within the Danish F. graminearum and F. culmorum population was based on principal component analysis (PCA). PCA revealed that the dominating genotype of F. graminearum in wheat is 15ADON. For barley, the PCA...... analysis indicated that the F. graminearum population consisted of all three genotypes, and in triticale, the F. graminearum population consisted mainly of 15ADON genotype. F. culmorum/F. cerealis showed correlation to the NIV genotype in wheat and triticale but not in barley. F. culmorum/F. cerealis also...

  16. Barley HvHMA1 is a heavy metal pump involved in mobilizing organellar Zn and Cu and plays a role in metal loading into grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Pedas, Pai; Schiller, Michaela;

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated...... interference did not have an effect on foliar Zn and Cu contents but resulted in a significant increase in grain Zn and Cu content. Heterologous expression of HvHMA1 in heavy metal-sensitive yeast strains increased their sensitivity to Zn, but also to Cu, Co, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Fe. Based on these results, we...... suggest that HvHMA1 is a broad-specificity exporter of metals from chloroplasts and serve as a scavenging mechanism for mobilizing plastid Zn and Cu when cells become deficient in these elements. In grains, HvHMA1 might be involved in mobilizing Zn and Cu from the aleurone cells during grain filling...

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oat and barley grain fibre and increase in faecal bulk (ID 819, 822) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to oat and barley grain fibre and increase in faecal bulk. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders....... In the context of the clarifications provided by Member States and the references provided, the Panel assumes that the claimed effect refers to the improvement of bowel function by increasing faecal bulk. The Panel considers that an increase in faecal bulk may be a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing...

  18. Effect of Barley and Enzyme on Performance, Carcass, Enzyme Activity and Digestion Parameters of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid kalantar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Corn has been recently used for producing ethanol fuel in the major corn-producing countries such as the US and Brazil. Recent diversion of corn for biofuel production along with the increased world's demand for this feedstuff has resulted in unprecedented rise in feed cost for poultry worldwide. Alternative grains such as wheat and barley can be successfully replaced for corn in poultry diets. These cereal grains can locally grow in many parts of the world as they have remarkably lower water requirement than corn. Wheat and barley are generally used as major sources of energy in poultry diets. Though the major components of these grains are starch and proteins, they have considerable content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs, derived from the cell walls (Olukosi et al. 2007; Mirzaie et al. 2012. NSPs are generally considered as anti-nutritional factors (Jamroz et al. 2002. The content and structure of NSP polymers vary between different grains, which consequently affect their nutritive value (Olukosi et al. 2007.Wheat and barley are generally used as major sources of energy in poultry diets. The major components of these grains are starch and proteins, they have considerable content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs, derived from the cell walls. NSPs are generally considered as anti-nutritional factors. The content and structure of NSP polymers vary between different grains, which consequently affect their nutritive value. The major part of NSPs in barley comprises polymers of (1→3 (1→4-β- glucans which could impede growth factors and consequently carcass quality through lowering the rate and amount of available nutrients in the mucosal surface of the intestinal. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of corn and barley based diets supplemented with multi-enzyme on growth, carcass, pancreas enzyme activity and physiological characteristics of broilers. A total number of 375 one day old

  19. HvDep1 Is a Positive Regulator of Culm Elongation and Grain Size in Barley and Impacts Yield in an Environment-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Toni; Holme, Inger; Dockter, Christoph; Preuß, Aileen; Thomas, William; Waugh, Robbie; Braumann, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are intracellular membrane-attached signal transducers involved in various cellular processes in both plants and animals. They consist of three subunits denoted as α, β and γ. The γ-subunits of the so-called AGG3 type, which comprise a transmembrane domain, are exclusively found in plants. In model species, these proteins have been shown to participate in the control of plant height, branching and seed size and could therefore impact the harvestable yield of various crop plants. Whether AGG3-type γ-subunits influence yield in temperate cereals like barley and wheat remains unknown. Using a transgenic complementation approach, we show here that the Scottish malting barley cultivar (cv.) Golden Promise carries a loss-of-function mutation in HvDep1, an AGG3-type subunit encoding gene that positively regulates culm elongation and seed size in barley. Somewhat intriguingly, agronomic field data collected over a 12-year period reveals that the HvDep1 loss-of-function mutation in cv. Golden Promise has the potential to confer either a significant increase or decrease in harvestable yield depending on the environment. Our results confirm the role of AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes in shaping plant architecture, but interestingly also indicate that the impact HvDep1 has on yield in barley is both genotypically and environmentally sensitive. This may explain why widespread exploitation of variation in AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes has not occurred in temperate cereals while in rice the DEP1 locus is widely exploited to improve harvestable yield. PMID:28005988

  20. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.

  1. Understanding Solidification Based Grain Refinement in Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    interatomic spacing along [uvw]s, and 0 = the angle between the [uvwjjand [uvw]n.^’ Work on the grain refinement of aluminum and magnesium alloys has found...chemistry ternary plot from ASPEX system. The author found some evidence of reactions occurring with some rare earth oxide or sulfide inclusions and... sulfide .^^"^^ Another approach would be to react a sample of misch metal or rare earth silicide at elevated temperatures to form the desired oxide or

  2. Identification of Mild Freezing Shock Response Pathways in Barley Based on Transcriptome Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Wu, Dezhi; Yang, Qian; Zeng, Jianbin; Jin, Gulei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Zhang, Guoping; Dai, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress affecting crop growth and productivity. A better understanding of low temperature tolerance mechanisms is imperative for developing the crop cultivars with improved tolerance. We herein performed an Illumina RNA-sequencing experiment using two barley genotypes differing in freezing tolerance (Nure, tolerant and Tremois, sensitive), to determine the transcriptome profiling and genotypic difference under mild freezing shock treatment after a very short acclimation for gene induction. A total of 6474 differentially expressed genes, almost evenly distributed on the seven chromosomes, were identified. The key DEGs could be classified into six signaling pathways, i.e., Ca(2+) signaling, PtdOH signaling, CBFs pathway, ABA pathway, jasmonate pathway, and amylohydrolysis pathway. Expression values of DEGs in multiple signaling pathways were analyzed and a hypothetical model of mild freezing shock tolerance mechanism was proposed. Expression and sequence profile of HvCBFs cluster within Frost resistance-H2, a major quantitative trait locus on 5H being closely related to low temperature tolerance in barley, were further illustrated, considering the crucial role of HvCBFs on freezing tolerance. It may be concluded that multiple signaling pathways are activated in concert when barley is exposed to mild freezing shock. The pathway network we presented may provide a platform for further exploring the functions of genes involved in low temperature tolerance in barley.

  3. Application of fluorescence-based semi-automated AFLP analysis in barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, G.; Herz, M.; Huang, X.Q.

    2000-01-01

    Genetic mapping and the selection of closely linked molecular markers for important agronomic traits require efficient, large-scale genotyping methods. A semi-automated multifluorophore technique was applied for genotyping AFLP marker loci in barley and wheat. In comparison to conventional P-33...

  4. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    , the molecular mechanisms of barley defense to Fusarium graminearum at the early infection stage were studied. Antibodies against barley β-amylases were shown to be the markers for infection at proteome level and for selection of the time for proteome analysis before extensive degradation caused by the fungus...... proteases which could be responsible for proteolysis of β-amylases in the infected barley. In Chapter 4, the in vitro secretome of F. graminearum on the 2-D gels in the presence of substrates of barley or wheat grain was studied. Totally 69 unique fungal proteins identified were mainly cell....... In addition, sharper increase in fungal biomass was observed in barley than in wheat and fungal induced proteolytic fragments of - amylases were only observed in barley not in wheat. Furthermore, a barley PR17 protein and a fungal hypothetical protein were expressed in E. coli and purified in Chapter 5...

  5. Thymus vulgaris L., Glycyrrhiza glabra or Combo® enzyme in corn vs. barley-based broiler diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Kalantar; Mostafa Rezaei; Jalal Salary; Hamid Reza Hemati Matin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris) or Glycyrrhizaglabra (G. glabra) in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1), the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount), Combo ® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively) in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6) based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively.Results:The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05). All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05). Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05). All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.

  6. Thymus vulgaris L., Glycyrrhiza glabra or Combo® enzyme in corn vs. barley-based broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kalantar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris or Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1, the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount, Combo® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6 based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively. Results: The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05. All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05. Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05. All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05. Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.

  7. Uso industrial de grãos de cevada de lavouras dessecadas em pré-colheita Industrial suitability for malting of grains from desiccated pre-harvest barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da antecipação da colheita de lavouras de cevada sobre a germinação dos grãos, ao longo de 12 meses de armazenamento. O ensaio de campo foi realizado em 2002 e 2003. As parcelas colhidas foram armazenadas nos anos subseqüentes aos dos ensaios em campo, e a germinação foi monitorada mensalmente. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: dessecação com os princípios ativos glifosato e paraquat, nas doses 1, 1,5 e 2 L ha-1, além das testemunhas, colhidas normalmente e de forma antecipada, sem dessecação. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A colheita antecipada sem dessecação foi o tratamento de maior prejuízo qualitativo à germinação dos grãos. A deterioração qualitativa temporal dos grãos, nos tratamentos com herbicidas dessecantes, foi estatisticamente similar à observada nas amostras oriundas da testemunha colhida normalmente, sem dessecação. Não foram encontradas evidências de que o uso de herbicidas dessecantes acelere o processo de perda de germinação de grãos de cevada, ao longo do período de armazenagem, para os produtos e doses testados.The objective of this work was to assess the impact of early harvesting of barley on grain germination, along 12 months of storage. A field trial was carried out in 2002 and 2003. The plot yields were stored during the years subsequent to the field trial, and germination was monitored monthly. The following treatments were evaluated: desiccation with glyphosate and paraquat, at 1, 1.5, and 2 L ha-1, and the checks, which were normal and early harvest without desiccation. A randomized block design with three replications was utilized. The early harvest without desiccation treatment had the greatest quality loss regarding grain germination. Qualitative deterioration of grains within time was statistically similar both in treatments with desiccation and those with normal harvest without desiccation

  8. Brewing with fractionated barley

    OpenAIRE

    Donkelaar, van, CC René

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw barley, however, contains less endogenous enzymes and more undesired components for the use of beer brewing, compared to malted barley.  The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how ba...

  9. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN ON PHENOLIC ACID AND PROTEIN CONTENT IN BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L. ) GRAIN%氮素对大麦籽粒中酚酸和蛋白质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥军; 齐军仓; 贾力群; 王倩; 王琴; 马建峰; 王仙; 曹连莆

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the necessary nutrient elements for crop growth. The primary and secondary metabolisms of plant are regulated by nitrogen nutrient levels. As important secondary metabolites, phenolic acids play significant roles in plant resistances, and potentially contribute to barley qualities. However, little is known concerning effects of nitrogen on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ) phenolic acids. In the present study, two barley cultivars were used, and seven nitrogen concentration treatments (0,412.5, 825.0, 1237.5, 1650, 3300, and 4950mg/L, respectively) under in vitro spike culture were conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen on phenolic acid and protein contents in barley grain. Results showed that the development of barley grain was inhibited under high nitrogen levels (3300 ~ 4950mg/L), and grain weight decreasing significantly was as the response. Total hydroxybenzoic acid content (THBA), total hydroxycinnamic acid content (THCA), total phenolic acid content (TPA) and THBA/THCA ratio were all significantly affected by nitrogen concentration, cultivar and the interaction between nitrogen concentration and cultivar. Four indexes above were all significantly positively correlated with nitrogen concentration. Except for hordein content ( HC ), the protein indexes of crude protein content (CPC), salt-soluble protein content (SSPC), and glutelin content (GC) were all significantly affected by nitrogen concentration, moreover, SSPC and GC were significantly affected by cultivar and the interaction between nitrogen concentration and cultivar. Excluding HC and GC in the four indexes, CPC and SSPC were significantly positive-correlated with nitrogen concentration. The results also indicated that phenolic acid contents (including THBA, THCA, and TPA) in barley grain increased cooperated with CPC and SSPC when the nitrogen nutrient level went up.%采用穗培养技术在7个氮素(NH4NO3为氮源)浓度水平(N1:0mg/L;N2:412.5 mg/L;N3:825.0mg/L;N4

  10. The effect of added enzymes on process potentials derived from different qualities of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Zhuang, Shiwen; Hansen, Preben Bøje;

    Barley sorting is an important step for picking up grain of desired quality. Whilst brewing with 100% sorted barley (picked high quality) has become realistic with the addition of exogenous enzymes, the effect of added enzymes on process potentials derived from un-sorted barley (mixed) and sorted...... filterability, the Ondea® Pro treatment resulted in significantly lower turbidity and smaller particle size compared to Cellic® CTec2; however, this effect was observed in sorted and un-sorted barley but not in sorted-out barley. Consequently the un-sorted barley demonstrated great potential in brewing process...

  11. Barley metallothioneins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    and protein abundance during grain development. MT3 was present in tissues of both maternal and filial origin throughout grain filling. In contrast, MT4 was confined to the embryo and aleurone layer, where it appeared during tissue specialization and remained until maturity. Using state-of-the-art speciation...... storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations....

  12. Population-based resequencing analysis of wild and cultivated barley revealed weak domestication signal of selection and bottleneck in the Rrs2 scald resistance gene region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi

    2012-02-01

    Many plant disease resistance (R) genes have been cloned, but the potential of utilizing these plant R-gene genomic resources for genetic inferences of plant domestication history remains unexplored. A population-based resequencing analysis of the genomic region near the Rrs2 scald resistance gene was made in 51 accessions of wild and cultivated barley from 41 countries. Fifteen primer pairs were designed to sample the genomic region with a total length of 10 406 bp. More nucleotide diversity was found in wild (π = 0.01846) than cultivated (π = 0.01507) barley samples. Three distinct groups of 29 haplotypes were detected for all 51 samples, and they were well mixed with wild and cultivated barley samples from different countries and regions. The neutrality tests by Tajima's D were not significant, but a significant (P domestication. Together, the domestication signal in the genomic region was weak both in human selection and domestication bottleneck.

  13. Determination of basal ileal endogenous losses and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in barley fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Hanna Katharina; Mosenthin, Rainer; Rosenfelder, Pia;

    2016-01-01

    to tabulated values. Moreover, these SID values were greater than those reported in literature, based on correction of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP and AA for their IAAend values. Summarized, the results of the present regression analysis indicate greater IAAend in barley-based diets compared......BackgroundBasal ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) losses (IAAend) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of cereal grains, such as barley, are apparently underestimated when determined according to the nitrogen (N)-free method. Regression analysis between the dietary apparent ileal...

  14. Solidification Based Grain Refinement in Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    likely to form, the author conducted a Schiel solidification analysis using Thermo-Calc. Table 2 lists the steel chemistry used based on the actual...the phases present during freezing were calculated. Table 3 Steel chemistry used fur Schiel analysis. C (wt. %) Mn (wt %) AKwt. %) Ti(wt. %) N(wt...0.4 0.6 0.8 Mole fraction of all solid phases Figure 23 Schiel solidification analysis for 0.1 % Ti containing 1030 steel. Figure 25 depicts the

  15. Molecular identification based on coat protein sequences of the Barley yellow dwarf virus from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Bernardon Mar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow dwarf disease, one of the most important diseases of cereal crops worldwide, is caused by virus species belonging to the Luteoviridae family. Forty-two virus isolates obtained from oat (Avena sativa L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., corn (Zea mays L., and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. collected between 2007 and 2008 from winter cereal crop regions in southern Brazil were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers designed on ORF 3 (coat protein - CP for the presence of Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV. PCR products of expected size (~357 bp for subgroup II and (~831 bp for subgroup I were obtained for three and 39 samples, respectively. These products were cloned and sequenced. The subgroup II 3' partial CP amino acid deduced sequences were identified as BYDV-RMV (92 - 93 % of identity with "Illinois" Z14123 isolate. The complete CP amino acid deduced sequences of subgroup I isolates were confirmed as BYDV-PAV (94 - 99 % of identity and established a very homogeneous group (identity higher than 99 %. These results support the prevalence of BYDV-PAV in southern Brazil as previously diagnosed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and suggest that this population is very homogeneous. To our knowledge, this is the first report of BYDV-RMV in Brazil and the first genetic diversity study on B/CYDV in South America.

  16. Kinetics of Grain Growth in 718 Ni-Base Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Z.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Haynes® 718 Ni-base superalloy has been investigated by use of modern material characterization, metallographic and heat treatment equipment. Grain growth annealing experiments at temperatures in the range of 1050 – 1200 oC (1323–1473K for time durations in the range of 20 min-22h have been conducted. The kinetic equations and an Arrhenius-type equation have been applied to compute the grain-growth exponent n and the activation energy for grain growth, Qg, for the investigated alloy. The grain growth exponent, n, was computed to be in the range of 0.066-0.206; and the n values have been critically discussed in relation to the literature. The activation energy for grain growth, Qg, for the investigated alloy has been computed to be around 440 kJ/mol; and the Qg data for the investigated alloy has been compared with other metals and alloys and ceramics; and critically analyzed in relation to our results.

  17. Development of PCR-Based DNA markers flanking three low phytic acid mutant loci in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytic acid (PA) is the most abundant form of phosphorus (P) in cereal grains. PA chelates mineral cations to form an indigestible salt, and is thus regarded as an antinutritional agent and a contributor to water pollution. Grain with low phytic acid (lpa) genotypes could aid in mitigating this prob...

  18. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  19. Estimation of Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L. Crop Water Requirements Using Cropwat Software in Ksar-Chellala Region, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Laouisset

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the reference Evapotranspiration (ET0 and Water requirements of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. in Ksar-Chellala region, Algeria, for one dry year by using CROPWAT software. Determination of Evapotranspiration ( ET is important in application such as irrigation design, irrigation scheduling, water resource management, hydrology and cropping systems modeling. Estimation of crop water requirements of barley ( CWR b respected the methodology adopted by the service of development and management service of FAO, based on the use of software CROPWAT 8.0. The total water requirements for barley depend on a variety of target yields and crops management. The period of climatic data used is 23 years (1990-2012, the average rain in this period is 254 mm. The total rain of the dry year is 190 mm. The results of this study show, during the vegetative cycle of barley which is 6 months, the calculation of ET 0 is 453 mm, the potential water which was used by the crop barley is estimated at 281.4 mm, the efficiency of rainfall is 69 mm and a total water requirements of barley ( CWR b equals to 211 mm, this amount distributed on three months coincided with important stages of development in barley. The supplementary irrigation in these conditions with optimal contents equals water requirements estimated by CROPWAT software that increases significantly grain yield of barely. Consequently, the gross irrigation water requirements ( GIWR of 1250000 ha which project to grow barley in the Algerian steppes regions are estimated at 3.77 billion and this for a dry year and a irrigation efficiency of 70%.

  20. Issues surrounding health claims for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Nancy P; Rhymer, Camille R

    2008-06-01

    Government-approved health claims support dietary intervention as a safe and practical approach to improving consumer health and provide industry with regulatory guidelines for food product labels. Claims already allowed in the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden, and The Netherlands for reducing cholesterol through consumption of oat or barley soluble fiber provide a basis for review, but each country may have different criteria for assessing clinical evidence for a physiological effect. For example, the FDA-approved barley health claim was based on a petition that included 39 animal model studies and 11 human clinical trials. Since then, more studies have been published, but with few exceptions, clinical data continue to demonstrate that the consumption of barley products is effective for lowering total and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to fully understand the mechanism of cholesterol reduction and the role of beta-glucan molecular weight, viscosity, and solubility. In an assessment of the physiological efficacy of a dietary intervention, consideration should also be given to the potential impact of physical and thermal food-processing treatments and genotypic variation in the barley source. New barley cultivars have been generated specifically for food use, possessing increased beta-glucan, desirable starch composition profiles, and improved milling/processing traits. These advances in barley production, coupled with the establishment of a government-regulated health claim for barley beta-glucan, will stimulate new processing opportunities for barley foods and provide consumers with reliable, healthy food choices.

  1. Adaptation of barley to harsh Mediterranean environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, van E.

    1993-01-01

    Research ObjectivesBarley is in Syria the dominant crop in areas receiving less than 300 mm annual precipitation. Grain yield is often below 1 ton ha -1, and is reduced by low temperatures in winter and terminal drought stress in spring. Variation i

  2. Influence of α-tocopherol supplementation on trans-18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid profiles in beef from steers fed a barley-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Dugan, M E R; Juárez, M; Basarab, J A; Baron, V S; Turner, T; Yang, X; Aldai, N; Aalhus, J L

    2012-11-01

    The current study was conducted to determine the effect of different α-tocopherol (vitamin E) inclusion levels on trans(t)-18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) profiles in subcutaneous and intramuscular fat of steers fed a barley-based diet. Fifty-six feedlot steers were offered a barley-based finisher diet (73% steam rolled barley, 22% barley silage and 5% supplement as-fed basis) with four levels of supplementary dl-α-tocopheryl acetate (340, 690, 1040 or 1740 IU/steer per day) for 120 days. Adding vitamin E to the diet had little effect on the overall fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat. The proportion of individual and total t,t- and cis(c),t-CLA, n-3 fatty acids, total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), mono-unsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids to PUFA ratio in subcutaneous fat were not influenced (P > 0.05) by dietary vitamin E supplementation. Increasing levels of vitamin E led to linear reductions in t6-/t7-/t8-18:1 and t10-18:1 (P < 0.05), and linear increase in t11-/t10-18:1 ratio (P < 0.05) in subcutaneous fat. The content of 20:3n-6 and total n-6 in subcutaneous fat decreased (P < 0.05) linearly with increasing amounts of vitamin E. The subcutaneous fat n-6:n-3 ratio showed a quadratic (P < 0.05) response to vitamin E. In conclusion, although vitamin E supplementation has some potential to reduce t10-18:1 formation and increase t11-/t10-18:1 ratio in subcutaneous fat of cattle fed barley-based diets, the changes in the present study were limited and may not have been sufficient to impact on human health.

  3. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B;

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  4. Methane production, digestion, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance, and milk production of cows fed corn silage- or barley silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing barley silage (BS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter basis) with the forage portion consisting of either barley silage (0% CS; 0% CS and 54.4% BS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (27% CS; 27.2% CS and 27.2% BS in the TMR), or corn silage (54% CS; 0% BS and 54.4% CS in the TMR). Increasing the CS proportion (i.e., at the expense of BS) also involved increasing the proportion of corn grain (at the expense of barley grain). Intake and digestibility of dry matter and milk production increased linearly as the proportion of CS increased in the diet. Increasing dietary CS proportion decreased linearly the acetate molar proportion and increased linearly that of propionate. Daily CH4 emissions tended to respond quadratically to increasing proportions of CS in the diet (487, 540, and 523 g/d for 0, 27, and 54% CS, respectively). Methane production adjusted for dry matter or gross energy intake declined as the amount of CS increased in the diet; this effect was more pronounced when cows were fed the 54% CS diet than the 27% CS diet. Increasing the CS proportion in the diet improved N utilization, as reflected by decreases in ruminal ammonia concentration and urinary N excretion and higher use of dietary N for milk protein secretion. Total replacement of BS with CS in dairy cow diets offers a strategy to decrease CH4 energy losses and control N losses without negatively affecting milk performance.

  5. Controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana e rendimento de grãos em cevada após aplicação de elicitores e fungicida = Bipolaris sorokiniana control and grain yield in barley after application of elicitors and fungicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemir Antoniazzi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A mancha marrom causada pelo fungo Bipolaris sorokiniana é considerada um dos problemas fitossanitários mais importantes na cevada provocando reduções na produtividade e prejuízos na qualidade cervejeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos elicitores goma xantana e alicina e do fungicida epoxiconazole + piraclostrobina no controle da mancha marrom em cevada cervejeira, cultivar BRS 195 em dois ciclos de cultivo. O experimento foi conduzido na Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária (FAPA, em Guarapuava, Estado do Paraná, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, comquatro repetições. A aplicação de elicitores e fungicida resultou em maior peso de mil sementes, sem interferir no teor de proteínas e na classificação comercial. O rendimento de grãos foi superior após duas ou três aplicações de alicina. A incidência e severidade de B.sorokiniana nas folhas de plantas tratadas com elicitores foram semelhantes àquelas com fungicida.The disease spot blotch, caused by the fungi Bipolaris sorokiniana, is considered one of the most important phytosanitary problems ofbarley crop resulting on low productivity and damage on beer quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the elicitors xanthan gum and alicin and fungicide epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin on spot blotch control of barley cultivar BRS 195 during two cultivation cycles. The experiment was carried out at Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária (FAPA, Guarapuava, state of Paraná. The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks, with four replications. Treatment of barley plants withelicitors and fungicide resulted in higher thousand-seed weight without interfering on protein content and commercial classification. The grain yield increased after two or three alicin treatments. Bipolaris sorokiniana incidence and severety on the leaves of plants treated with elicitors were similar to those treated with fungicide.

  6. Fermentation of barley by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: examination of barley as a feedstock for bioethanol production and value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Curtis, Jonathan M; Bressler, David C

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermentations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) were also analyzed for nutritional and value-added characteristics. A VHG traditional fermentation approach utilizing jet-cooking fermentation revealed that both dehulled Bold and Xena barley produced ethanol concentrations higher than that produced by wheat (12.3, 12.2, and 11.9%, respectively) but lower than that produced by corn (13.8%). VHG-modified Stargen-based fermentation of dehulled Bold barley demonstrated comparable performance (14.3% ethanol) relative to that of corn (14.5%) and wheat (13.3%). Several important components were found to survive fermentation and were concentrated in DDGS. The highest yield of phenolics was detected in the DDGS (modified Stargen 001, 20% solids) of Xena (14.6 mg of gallic acid/g) and Bold (15.0 mg of gallic acid/g) when the hull was not removed before fermentation. The highest concentration of sterols in DDGS from barley was found in Xena (3.9 mg/g) when the hull was included. The DDGS recovered from corn had the highest concentration of fatty acids (72.6 and 77.5 mg/g). The DDGS recovered from VHG jet-cooking fermentations of Fibar, dehulled Bold, and corn demonstrated similar levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Corn DDGS was highest in crude fat but was lowest in crude protein and in vitro energy digestibility. Wheat DDGS was highest in crude protein content, similar to previous studies. The barley DDGS was the highest in in vitro energy digestibility.

  7. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  8. Effect of adding wet hulless barley distillers' grains on fermentation quality of mixed ensilage of hulless barley straw and tall fescue in Tibet%添加青稞酒糟对西藏地区青稞秸秆和高羊茅混合青贮发酵品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原现军; 余成群; 李志华; 下条雅敬; 邵涛

    2012-01-01

    为评价添加不同水平青稞酒糟对青稞秸秆与高羊茅(4∶6)混合青贮发酵品质的影响,试验设对照组( Control)和3个添加水平(10%,20%和30%)的青稞酒糟处理组,青贮后第7,14和30天后打开青贮窖,测定青贮饲料发酵品质.结果表明,添加青稞酒糟可以抑制青贮早期好氧性微生物的活性,促进乳酸发酵,使pH值快速下降,青贮饲料快速进入稳定阶段.青贮30 d后,与对照组相比酒糟处理显著降低(P<0.05)了青贮饲料的pH值,提高了乳酸和水溶性碳水化合物含量,降低了(P<0.05)氨态氮/总氮及丙酸和丁酸含量.综合考虑,添加20%酒糟效果更佳.%The effect of adding wet,hulless barley distillers' grains (WHDG) on the fermentation quality in mixed silage of hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare) straw and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) during ensiling was assessed.There were three treatments of different WHDG addition ratios (10%,20% and 30% of fresh weight) plus a control.The silos were opened on 7,14 and 30 days after ensiling and the fermentation quality was analyzed.WHDG addition significantly improved the mixed silage fermentation quality,as indicated by a sharp accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (Pbarley straw and tall fescue.

  9. Glycemic Index of (Zummita A Commonly Barley Based Consumed Traditional Libyan Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Libya especially in Benghazi, Zummita is a traditional Libyan food consisting of 85% whole barley flour and is commonly consumed as a breakfast meal, and. Due to an increase in Type 2 diabetes and a lack of information on the effects of Zummita consumption on glycemic response, this study was performed to determine the glycemic index (GI of Zummita. Fasted healthy subjects (6 males and 6 females volunteered to consume either glucose or Zummita. The blood glucose concentrations were analyzed using capillary blood samples immediately before, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after glucose or Zummita consumption. The GI value of Zummita was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC value for Zummita as a percentage of each subject’s average IAUC value for the glucose. The GI value of Zummita was found as 46.90 ± 7.56. This result indicates that Zummita should be classified as low GI food. More importantly, our result provides the GI value of a Libyan traditional food which was not determined previously. This valuable information will be significant for management and the prevention of diabetes mellitus in Libya and other countries having similar food tradition.

  10. Estimating Biomass of Barley Using Crop Surface Models (CSMs Derived from UAV-Based RGB Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bendig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop monitoring is important in precision agriculture. Estimating above-ground biomass helps to monitor crop vitality and to predict yield. In this study, we estimated fresh and dry biomass on a summer barley test site with 18 cultivars and two nitrogen (N-treatments using the plant height (PH from crop surface models (CSMs. The super-high resolution, multi-temporal (1 cm/pixel CSMs were derived from red, green, blue (RGB images captured from a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. Comparison with PH reference measurements yielded an R2 of 0.92. The test site with different cultivars and treatments was monitored during “Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und CHemische Industrie” (BBCH Stages 24–89. A high correlation was found between PH from CSMs and fresh biomass (R2 = 0.81 and dry biomass (R2 = 0.82. Five models for above-ground fresh and dry biomass estimation were tested by cross-validation. Modelling biomass between different N-treatments for fresh biomass produced the best results (R2 = 0.71. The main limitation was the influence of lodging cultivars in the later growth stages, producing irregular plant heights. The method has potential for future application by non-professionals, i.e., farmers.

  11. Compositional Analysis of Whole Grains, Processed Grains, Grain Co-Products, and Other Carbohydrate Sources with Applicability to Pet Animal Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Buff, Preston R; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2016-03-25

    Our objective was to measure the proximate, starch, amino acid, and mineral compositions of grains, grain co-products, and other carbohydrate sources with potential use in pet foods. Thirty-two samples from barley (barley flake, cut barley, ground pearled barley, malted barley, whole pearled barley, pearled barley flakes, and steamed rolled barley); oats (groats, ground oatmeal, ground steamed groats, instant oats, oat bran, oat fiber, oat flour, quick oats, regular rolled oats, steamed rolled oat groats, and steel cut groats); rice (brown rice, polished rice, defatted rice bran, and rice flour); and miscellaneous carbohydrate sources (canary grass seed, hulled millet, whole millet, quinoa, organic spelt hull pellets, potato flake, sorghum, whole wheat, and whole yellow corn) were analyzed. Crude protein, amino acid, fat, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and mineral concentrations were highly variable among the respective fractions (i.e., barley flake vs. malted barley vs. steamed rolled barley) as well as among the various grains (i.e., barley flake vs. brown rice vs. canary grass seed). These ingredients not only provide a readily available energy source, but also a source of dietary fiber, resistant starch, essential amino acids, and macrominerals for pet diets.

  12. Formation of Jupiter using opacities based on detailed grain physics

    CERN Document Server

    Movshovitz, Naor; Podolak, Morris; Lissauer, Jack J

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulations, based on the core-nucleated accretion model, are presented for the formation of Jupiter at 5.2 AU in 3 primordial disks with three different assumed values of the surface density of solid particles. The grain opacities in the envelope of the protoplanet are computed using a detailed model that includes settling and coagulation of grains and that incorporates a recalculation of the grain size distribution at each point in time and space. We generally find lower opacities than the 2% of interstellar values used in previous calculations [Hubickyj, O., Bodenheimer, P., Lissauer, J. J., 2005. Icarus 179, 415--431; Lissauer, J. J., Hubickyj, O., D'Angelo, G., Bodenheimer, P., 2009. Icarus 199, 338-350]. These lower opacities result in more rapid heat loss from and more rapid contraction of the protoplanetary envelope. For a given surface density of solids, the new calculations result in a substantial speedup in formation time as compared with those previous calculations. Formation times are c...

  13. Immunological characterization of the gluten fractions and their hydrolysates from wheat, rye and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabhandi, Prasad; Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-18

    Gluten proteins in wheat, rye and barley cause celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, which affects approximately 1% of the world population. Gluten is comprised of prolamin and glutelin. Since avoidance of dietary gluten is the only option for celiac patients, a sensitive gluten detection and quantitation method is warranted. Most regulatory agencies have set a threshold of 20 ppm gluten in foods labeled gluten-free, based on the currently available ELISA methods. However, these methods may exhibit differences in gluten quantitation from different gluten-containing grains. In this study, prolamin and glutelin fractions were isolated from wheat, rye, barley, oats and corn. Intact and pepsin-trypsin (PT)-digested prolamin and glutelin fractions were used to assess their immunoreactivity and gluten recovery by three sandwich and two competitive ELISA kits. The Western blots revealed varied affinity of ELISA antibodies to gluten-containing grain proteins and no reactivity to oat and corn proteins. ELISA results showed considerable variation in gluten recoveries from both intact and PT-digested gluten fractions among different kits. Prolamin fractions showed higher gluten recovery compared to their respective glutelin fractions. Among prolamins, barley exhibited higher recovery compared to wheat and rye with most of the ELISA kits used. Hydrolysis resulted in reduced gluten recovery of most gluten fractions. These results suggest that the suitability of ELISA for accurate gluten quantitation is dependent upon various factors, such as grain source, antibody specificity, gluten proteins and the level of their hydrolysis in foods.

  14. Production responses by early lactation cows to whole sunflower seed or tallow supplementation of a diet based on barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, S B; Wittenberg, K M; Ingalls, J R; Undi, M

    1996-10-01

    A 2-yr study to evaluate the effectiveness of whole sunflower seed as a source of fat was conducted with 18 primiparous and 31 multiparous Holstein cows. The three diets evaluated were a basal diet based on barley (control), a basal diet supplemented with 2.7% tallow, and a basal diet supplemented with 7.1% whole sunflower seeds. The DMI of lactating cows during the 16-wk test period was not influenced by supplementation with either sunflower seeds or tallow. Milk production was 34.4, 34.6, and 35.5 kg/d for cows fed the control diet or the diets supplemented with sunflower or tallow, respectively, and was not influenced by diet. The production and concentrations of milk protein, fat, and SNF also were not influenced by diet. The concentrations of C6:0 to C14:1 fatty acids were highest in the milk of cows fed the control diet. The concentrations of C10:0 to C16:1 were higher when cows were fed the diet with the tallow supplement than when they were fed the diet with the sunflower supplement. However, the concentrations of C18:0 to C18:2 and C20:0 were higher in the milk of cows that were fed the sunflower supplement than in the milk of cows that were fed the tallow supplement or the control diet. Concentrations of individual VFA and the ratio of acetate to propionate were not influenced by diet. Body weight, body condition score, and reproduction parameters were similar for all diets, suggesting that there were no effects on subsequent production. The performance of cows fed whole sunflower seeds as a source of energy appeared to be similar to the performance of cows fed traditional high energy diets based on barley. The fatty acid profile of the milk of cows fed diets supplemented with sunflower seeds was more favorable than that of the milk of cows fed diets supplemented with tallow.

  15. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dörsch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM. Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and return as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilised cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha−1 throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (60 kg NH4+-N + 50 kg organic N ha−1 before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilised cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009 had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha−1. Based on measurements covering the growing season 2010, organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilisation (47 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain.

  16. Analysis of Grain Boundary Character in a Fine-Grained Nickel-Based Superalloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, L. S.; dos Santos, D. S.; Godet, S.; Dille, J.; Pinto, A. L.; de Almeida, L. H.

    2014-11-01

    In the current work, sheets of superalloy 718 were processed via thermomechanical route by hot and cold rolling, followed by annealing below the δ phase solvus temperature and precipitation hardening to optimum strength. Grain boundary character distribution throughout the processing was mapped via EBSD and its evolution discussed. The results show that it is possible to process the alloy to a fine grain size obtaining concomitantly a considerably high proportion of special boundaries Σ3, Σ9, and Σ27. The precipitation of δ phase presented a strong grain refining role, without significantly impairing the twinning mechanism and, consequently, the Σ3, Σ9, and Σ27 boundary formations.

  17. MICROTHREAD BASED (MTB) COARSE GRAINED FAULT TOLERANCE SUPERSCALAR PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fault tolerance in microprocessor systems has become a popular topic of architecture research.Much work has been done at different levels to accomplish reliability against soft errors, and some fault tolerance architectures have been proposed. But little attention is paid to the thread level superscalar fault tolerance.This letter introduces microthread concept into superscalar processor fault tolerance domain, and puts forward a novel fault tolerance architecture, namely, MicroThread Based (MTB) coarse grained transient fault tolerance superscalar processor architecture, then discusses some detailed implementations.

  18. A system for coarse-grained location-based synchronisation

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, André; Silva, Mário; José, Rui

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a system for supporting coarse-grained location-based synchronisation. This type of synchronisation may occur when people need only some awareness about the location of others within the specific context of an on-going activity. We have identified a number of reference scenarios for this type of synchronisation and we have implemented and deployed a prototype to evaluate the type of support provided. The results of the evaluation suggest a good acceptance of the overall concept, indicating that this might be a valuable approach for many of the indicated scenarios, possibly replacing or complementing existing synchronisation practices.

  19. Does Whole Grain Consumption Alter Gut Microbiota and Satiety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Cooper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Studies comparing whole grains to their refined grain counterparts were considered, as were studies comparing different grain types. Possible mechanisms linking microbial metabolism and satiety are described. Clinical trials show that whole grain wheat, maize, and barley alter the human gut microbiota, but these findings are based on a few studies that do not include satiety components, so no functional claims between microbiota and satiety can be made. Ten satiety trials were evaluated and provide evidence that whole oats, barley, and rye can increase satiety, whereas the evidence for whole wheat and maize is not compelling. There are many gaps in the literature; no one clinical trial has examined the effects of whole grains on satiety and gut microbiota together. Once understanding the impact of whole grains on satiety and microbiota is more developed, then particular grains might be used for better appetite control. With this information at hand, healthcare professionals could make individual dietary recommendations that promote satiety and contribute to weight control.

  20. New starch phenotypes produced by TILLING in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sparla

    Full Text Available Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1, GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I, LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1, SSI (Starch Synthase I, SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa. Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications.

  1. Nutrient utilization and manure P excretion in growing pigs fed corn-barley-soybean based diets supplemented with microbial phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiola, Adewale; Akinremi, Oluwole; Slominski, Bogdan; Nyachoti, C Martin

    2009-02-01

    The effect of high levels of microbial phytase supplementation in diets for growing pigs was studied in a 2-week performance and nutrient digestibility trial involving 28 growing pigs weighing 16.4 +/- 1.06 (mean +/- SD) kg. Seven corn-barley-soybean meal-based diets consisting of a positive control (PC) formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements; a negative control (NC) with non-phytate P reduced by 0.1% unit from NRC requirement and fed without or with 500 or 1000 U/kg; a doubled negative control (DNC) with no added inorganic P and fed without or with 2000 or 4000 U/kg. Chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker and all diets were fed as mash. Pigs fed the PC diet had a higher P digestibility compared with those fed the NC (P DNC (P DNC diet resulted in linear (P DNC diets. Apparent total tract digestibility of N, OM and DM were higher (P DNC diet, but not the NC diet (P DNC diet resulted in a linear increase (P DNC diets linearly decreased fecal P (P DNC diets (P < 0.05). The results of this study show that complete removal of inorganic P from growing pig diets coupled with phytase supplementation improves digestibility and retention of P and N, thus reducing manure P excretion without any negative effect on pig performance.

  2. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify soluble beta-glucans in oats and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampitsch, Christof; Ames, Nancy; Storsley, Joanne; Marien, Lindsay

    2003-09-24

    A set of 31 murine monoclonal antibodies was produced against (1-->3,1-->4)beta-d-glucan from oats (Avena sativa L.) chemically cross-linked to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Monoclonal antibodies were tested for their cross-reactivity to related and unrelated polysaccharides. The antibodies reacted strongly to unmodified beta-glucan from oats and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and to lichenan from Icelandic moss, a polysaccharide with a structure similar to that of beta-glucan but which is not encountered in cereals. Cross-reaction to other polysaccharides tested was minimal at physiological levels. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that could routinely detect and quantify nanogram levels of soluble beta-glucan extracted from the flour of oats or barley was designed with one of these monoclonal antibodies. The beta-glucan extraction procedure from ground oat and barley samples and the ELISA were both optimized for reproducibility, accuracy, and throughput, and results were compared to values obtained from an established, commercially available enzyme-based assay. Correlations between the two assays were consistently high (r (2) > 0.9), indicating that the ELISA presented in this paper is a valuable alternative for assaying beta-glucan levels in cereals and cereal products, both routinely and in preparations in which beta-glucans are present in nanogram amounts. Development of the extraction procedure for ELISA is discussed.

  3. The Effects of the Substitution of Wood Fiberwith Agro-based Fiber (Barley Straw on the Properties of Natural Fiber/Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyvärinen Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological concerns and the impending depletion of fossil fuels are driving the development of new bio-based, green products. Natural fibers are used increasingly as a filler or reinforcement in commercial thermoplastics due to their low cost, high specific properties and renewable nature. Agricultural byproducts and wastes are excellent alternative materials to supplement or substitute wood material as a reinforcement in composites.This comparative study focuses on the effects of the substitution of wood fiber with agro-basedfiber (barley straw on the mechanical and physical properties of natural fiber/polypropylene composites. The studied mechanical properties are flexural strength and modulus, Brinell hardness and Charpy impact strength. Water absorption and thickness swelling are studied as physical properties. Generally, the research resultsindicate that almost all the studied properties weakened significantlyas woodwas substituted with barley straw.Ofmechanical properties, the major decrease wasobserved in hardness.However, the use of barley straw slightlyimproved impact strength.The moisture-related properties, water absorption and thickness swelling,which have a great impact on the durability of a composite material, weakened significantly.

  4. The potential link between high angle grain boundary morphology and grain boundary deformation in a nickel-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Jennifer L.W., E-mail: jennifer.w.carter@case.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States); Sosa, John M. [Center for Accelerated Maturation of Materials, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States); Shade, Paul A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials & Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RXCM, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Fraser, Hamish L. [Center for Accelerated Maturation of Materials, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States); Uchic, Michael D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials & Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RXCM, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Mills, Michael J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Focused ion beam (FIB) based serial sectioning was utilized to characterize the morphology of two high angle grain boundaries (HAGB) in a nickel based superalloy, one that experienced grain boundary sliding (GBS) and the other experienced strain accumulation, during elevated temperature constant stress loading conditions. A custom script was utilized to serial section and collect ion-induced secondary electron images from the FIB-SEM system. The MATLAB based MIPAR{sup TM} software was utilized to align, segment and reconstruct 3D volumes from the sectioned images. Analysis of the 3D data indicates that the HAGB that exhibited GBS had microscale curvature that was planar in nature, and local serrations on the order of ±150 nm. In contrast, the HAGB that exhibited strain accumulation was not planar and had local serrations an order of magnitude greater than the other grain boundary. It is hypothesized that the serrations and the local grain boundary network are key factors in determining which grain boundaries experience GBS during creep deformation.

  5. Intragranular nucleation sites of massive gamma grains in a TiAl-based alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Suhash Ranjan; Bouzy, E.; Hazotte, A.

    2007-01-01

    Massive gamma grains were generated in a TiAl-based alloy through ice-water quenching from the alpha domain. Apart from those located along alpha(2)/alpha(2) grain boundaries, a few massive gamma grains were detected inside the alpha(2) grains. Some of these intragranular grains were revealed...... to be attached to particular alpha(2) twins (K-1: "{212103}" eta(1): ), in a Blackburn orientation relationship with them. Others were identified as developing in feathery colonies of similar crystallographic orientation. Whatever the nucleation site, further growth of all massive gamma grains involves...

  6. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The cisgenesis concept implies that plants are transformed only with their own genetic materials or genetic materials from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization. Furthermore, foreign sequences such as selection genes and vector-backbone sequences should be absent. We used a barley...... phytase gene (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during grain filling to evaluate the cisgenesis concept in barley. The marker gene elimination method was used to obtain marker-free plant lines. Here, the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders to allow unlinked integration...... of the two genes. We analysed the transformants for co-transformation efficiency, increased phytase activities in the grain, integration of the kanamycin resistance gene of the vector-backbone and segregation between the HvPAPhy_a insert and the hygromycin resistance gene. The frequencies of the four...

  7. Effects of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content and phosphorus bioavailability in laying hens fed on maize- or barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesch, M; Broz, J; Brufau, J

    2005-06-01

    A 24-week performance trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content and phosphorus excretion in laying hens fed on either a maize- or a barley-based diet. At the end of the trial, an ileal absorption assay was conducted in order to determine the influence of phytase supplementation on the apparent absorption of calcium and total phosphorus (P). Each experimental diet was formulated either as a positive control containing 3.2 g/kg non-phytate phosphorus (NPP), with the addition of dicalcium phosphate (DCP), or as a low P one, without DCP addition. Both low P diets (containing 1.3 or 1.1 g/kg NPP) were supplemented with microbial phytase at 0, 150, 300 and 450 U/kg. The birds were housed in cages, allocating two hens per cage as the experimental unit. Each of 10 dietary treatments was assigned to 16 replicates. Low dietary NPP (below 1.3 g/kg) was not able to support optimum performance of hens during the laying cycle (from 22 to 46 weeks of age), either in maize or barley diets. Rate of lay, daily egg mass output, feed consumption, tibia ash percentage and weight gain were reduced in hens fed low NPP diets. The adverse effects of a low P diet were more severe in hens on a maize diet than in those on a barley diet. Low dietary NPP reduced egg production, weight gain, feed consumption and tibia ash content and microbial phytase supplementation improved these parameters. Hens given low NPP diets supplemented with phytase performed as well as the hens on positive control diets containing 3.2 g/kg of NPP. A 49% reduction of excreta P content was achieved by feeding hens on low NPP diets supplemented with phytase, without compromising performance. Phytase addition to low NPP diets increased total phosphorus absorption at the ileal level, from 0.25 to 0.51 in the maize diet and from 0.34 to 0.58 in the barley diet. Phosphorus absorption increased linearly with increasing levels of dietary phytase

  8. Changes of Limiting Dextrinase in Germinating Process of Malting Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiu-mei; LI Fen; WANG Hong-zhen; WANG Xing-zhi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five different species of barley, the foot layer analytic method was used to examine the activity and heat-resistance of the limiting dextrinase. The study was conducted on the dynamic changes of several types of the dextrinase in barley germinating process, the effect of temperature on the dextrinase and the divergence of dextrinase in different barley variety. The probability of the dextrinase that as reference index is used for screening and evaluating beer barley was discussed. The importance of dextrinase in brewing and its significant function was also discussed.

  9. Predicting spring barley yield from variety-specific yield potential, disease resistance and straw length, and from environment-specific disease loads and weed pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Kristensen, Kristian; Pinnschmidt, Hans O.;

    2008-01-01

    For low-input crop production, well-characterised varieties increase the possibilities of managing diseases and weeds. This analysis aims at developing a framework for analyzing grain yield using external varietal information about disease resistance, weed competitiveness and yield potential...... and quantifying the impact of susceptibility grouping and straw length scores (as a measure for weed competitiveness) for predicting spring barley grain yield under variable biotic stress levels. The study comprised 52 spring barley varieties and 17 environments, i.e., combinations of location, growing system...... and year. Individual varieties and their interactions with environments were analysed by factorial regression of grain yield on external variety information combined with observed environmental disease loads and weed pressure. The external information was based on the official Danish VCU testing. The most...

  10. Dryland malt barley yield and quality affected by tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is needed on the effects of management practices on dryland malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) yields and quality. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland malt barley and pea yields, grain characterist...

  11. Cisgenic barley for animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Service and Sejet Plant Breeding based on the Cisgenesis concept. Cisgenesis implies that the plants are transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material and that the final Cisgenic plants have to be free of any foreign genes. The Cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction...... of extra gene copies of a particular gene whereby a particular trait can be accentuated. Transgenic crops generated by the Cisgenesis concept are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. In our part of the project we are focusing on barley phytases as candidate genes...... using a genomic barley lambda library. The clone has been inserted into a Cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. T0-plants show...

  12. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news......: fighting crystalline starch energy deposits in the cell. Trends in Plant Science Vol. 15, 4:236-240 Hebelstrup, K. H., Christiansen, M. W., Carciofi, M., Tauris, B., Brinch-Pedersen, H., Bach Holm, P. (2010). UCE: A uracil excision (USER™)-based toolbox for transformation of cereals. Plant Methods 6:15...

  13. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news......: fighting crystalline starch energy deposits in the cell. Trends in Plant Science Vol. 15, 4:236-240 Hebelstrup, K. H., Christiansen, M. W., Carciofi, M., Tauris, B., Brinch-Pedersen, H., Bach Holm, P. (2010). UCE: A uracil excision (USER™)-based toolbox for transformation of cereals. Plant Methods 6:15...

  14. Barley callus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Nielsen, Morten M.;

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties...... and cloned. This knowledge suggests a number of strategies and a series of candidate genes for genetic transformation of crops to generate new types of starch-based polymers. However transformation of cereals is a slow process and there is no easy model system available to test the efficiency of candidate...... suggest that this method can be used as a time-efficient model system for fast screening of candidate genes for the generation of modified starch or new types of carbohydrate polymers....

  15. The topographic grain concept in DEM-based geomorphometric mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsa, Edina

    2016-04-01

    A common drawback of geomorphological analyses based on digital elevation datasets is the definition of search window size for the derivation of morphometric variables. The fixed-size neighbourhood determines the scale of the analysis and mapping, which can lead to the generalization of smaller surface details or the elimination of larger landform elements. The methods of DEM-based geomorphometric mapping are constantly developing into the direction of multi-scale landform delineation, but the optimal threshold for search window size is still a limiting factor. A possible way to determine the suitable value for the parameter is to consider the topographic grain principle (Wood, W. F. - Snell, J. B. 1960, Pike, R. J. et al. 1989). The calculation is implemented as a bash shell script for GRASS GIS to determine the optimal threshold for the r.geomorphon module. The approach relies on the potential of the topographic grain to detect the characteristic local ridgeline-to-channel spacing. By calculating the relative relief values with nested neighbourhood matrices it is possible to define a break-point where the increase rate of local relief encountered by the sample is significantly reducing. The geomorphons approach (Jasiewicz, J. - Stepinski, T. F. 2013) is a cell-based DEM classification method for the identification of landform elements at a broad range of scales by using line-of-sight technique. The landforms larger than the maximum lookup distance are broken down to smaller elements therefore the threshold needs to be set for a relatively large value. On the contrary, the computational requirements and the size of the study sites determine the upper limit for the value. Therefore the aim was to create a tool that would help to determine the optimal parameter for r.geomorphon tool. As a result it would be possible to produce more objective and consistent maps with achieving the full efficiency of this mapping technique. For the thorough analysis on the

  16. Influence of Temperature on the Extractibility of Polysaccharides in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barley contains substantial amounts of both soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. The main watersoluble NSP in barley are highly viscous β-glucans. Monogastric animals, including humans and birds, cannotsynthesize β-glucanase, and the amount of β-glucanase derived from barley grain and bacteria in the gastrointestinaltract is insufficient to completely hydrolyze β-glucans. In the present investigation, we have studied the influence oftemperature and heating time on the extractibility of soluble polysaccharides in barley. Heating the barley samples at60°C and 80°C before extraction has the effect of lowering the soluble fraction of the polysaccharides. The dynamicviscosity values of water extracts from barley decreased up to 21.68% when heating at 60ºC for 15 minutes, and upto 25.30% when heating at 80ºC for 15 minutes, when the determinations were made immediately after extractseparation. Heating the barley samples for 15 minutes at 80°C deactivates the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes.

  17. Purification and characterization of three chitinases and one beta-1,3-glucanase accumulating in the medium of cell suspension cultures of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, K.M.; Jacobsen, S.; Dalgaard Mikkelsen, J.;

    1991-01-01

    chromatography. Two of the chitinases were identified as the previously described endochitinases T and C from barley grain. The third and novel chitinase, designated K, was the major basic chitinase in the medium constituting 4% of the soluble protein. Chitinase K was found to be a 33-kDa endochitinase with p...... chitinases from barley aleurone and barley, bean and potato leaves. The purified beta-1,3-glucanase with a molecular weight (MW) of 32 kDa and pI greater-than-or-equal-to 9.8 constituted 1% of the soluble protein in the medium. Based on similar MW, pI and amino acid composition as well as identical N...

  18. High Standard Capital Farmland Construction Based on Grain Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi ZHANG; Zhongxiang YU

    2016-01-01

    In the context that global grain security is still in very severe situation,the grain security situation in China is not optimistic as well. The " Red Line of Farmland Area" cannot completely solve the grain security problems in China. We still need to seek new breakthroughs in the quality and yield of farmland. The construction of high standard capital farmland is the important premise to guarantee national grain security. On this basis,this paper has summarized the difficulties we are facing in the construction of high standard capital farmland,and has proposed the methods and measures to construct high standard capital farmland and lay a solid foundation for grain security in China.

  19. The barley grain thioredoxin system - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Björnberg, Olof; Navrot, Nicolas;

    2013-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type Trx facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent Trx reductase. This review presents a summary of the resear...

  20. Application of genotyping-by-sequencing on semiconductor sequencing platforms: a comparison of genetic and reference-based marker ordering in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mascher

    Full Text Available The rapid development of next-generation sequencing platforms has enabled the use of sequencing for routine genotyping across a range of genetics studies and breeding applications. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, a low-cost, reduced representation sequencing method, is becoming a common approach for whole-genome marker profiling in many species. With quickly developing sequencing technologies, adapting current GBS methodologies to new platforms will leverage these advancements for future studies. To test new semiconductor sequencing platforms for GBS, we genotyped a barley recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Based on a previous GBS approach, we designed bar code and adapter sets for the Ion Torrent platforms. Four sets of 24-plex libraries were constructed consisting of 94 RILs and the two parents and sequenced on two Ion platforms. In parallel, a 96-plex library of the same RILs was sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000. We applied two different computational pipelines to analyze sequencing data; the reference-independent TASSEL pipeline and a reference-based pipeline using SAMtools. Sequence contigs positioned on the integrated physical and genetic map were used for read mapping and variant calling. We found high agreement in genotype calls between the different platforms and high concordance between genetic and reference-based marker order. There was, however, paucity in the number of SNP that were jointly discovered by the different pipelines indicating a strong effect of alignment and filtering parameters on SNP discovery. We show the utility of the current barley genome assembly as a framework for developing very low-cost genetic maps, facilitating high resolution genetic mapping and negating the need for developing de novo genetic maps for future studies in barley. Through demonstration of GBS on semiconductor sequencing platforms, we conclude that the GBS approach is amenable to a range of platforms and can easily be modified as new

  1. Application of genotyping-by-sequencing on semiconductor sequencing platforms: a comparison of genetic and reference-based marker ordering in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Martin; Wu, Shuangye; Amand, Paul St; Stein, Nils; Poland, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of next-generation sequencing platforms has enabled the use of sequencing for routine genotyping across a range of genetics studies and breeding applications. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a low-cost, reduced representation sequencing method, is becoming a common approach for whole-genome marker profiling in many species. With quickly developing sequencing technologies, adapting current GBS methodologies to new platforms will leverage these advancements for future studies. To test new semiconductor sequencing platforms for GBS, we genotyped a barley recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Based on a previous GBS approach, we designed bar code and adapter sets for the Ion Torrent platforms. Four sets of 24-plex libraries were constructed consisting of 94 RILs and the two parents and sequenced on two Ion platforms. In parallel, a 96-plex library of the same RILs was sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000. We applied two different computational pipelines to analyze sequencing data; the reference-independent TASSEL pipeline and a reference-based pipeline using SAMtools. Sequence contigs positioned on the integrated physical and genetic map were used for read mapping and variant calling. We found high agreement in genotype calls between the different platforms and high concordance between genetic and reference-based marker order. There was, however, paucity in the number of SNP that were jointly discovered by the different pipelines indicating a strong effect of alignment and filtering parameters on SNP discovery. We show the utility of the current barley genome assembly as a framework for developing very low-cost genetic maps, facilitating high resolution genetic mapping and negating the need for developing de novo genetic maps for future studies in barley. Through demonstration of GBS on semiconductor sequencing platforms, we conclude that the GBS approach is amenable to a range of platforms and can easily be modified as new sequencing

  2. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... crops and barley is a genetically very well characterized. Aiming at producing new starch qualities in the cereal system, we used RNAi and overexpression strategies to produce pure amylose and high-phosphate starch, respectively, using the barley kernel as a polymer factory. By simultaneous silencing...... of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...

  3. A grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis challenge causes translocation of lipopolysaccharide and triggers inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafipour, E; Krause, D O; Plaizier, J C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of a grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge on translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the peripheral circulation, acute phase proteins in blood and milk, feed intake, milk production and composition, and blood metabolites were determined in 8 lactating Holstein cows. Between wk 1 and 5 of 2 successive 6-wk periods, cows received a total mixed ration ad libitum with a forage to concentrate (F:C) ratio of 50:50. In wk 6 of both periods, the SARA challenge was conducted by replacing 21% of the dry matter of the total mixed ration with pellets containing 50% wheat and 50% barley. Rumen pH was monitored continuously using indwelling pH probes in 4 rumen cannulated cows. Rumen fluid samples were collected 15 min before feed delivery and at 2, 4, 6, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 24 h after feed delivery for 2 d during wk 5 (control) and wk 6 (SARA). Peripheral blood samples were collected using jugular catheters 15 min before feeding and at 6 and 12 h after feeding at the same days of the rumen fluid collections. The SARA challenge significantly reduced average daily pH from 6.17 to 5.97 and increased the duration of rumen pH below pH 5.6 from 118 to 279 min/d. The challenge reduced dry matter intake (16.5 vs. 19 kg/d), milk yield (28.3 vs. 31.6 kg/d), and milk fat (2.93 vs. 3.30%, 0.85 vs. 0.97 kg/d), and tended to increase milk protein percentage (3.42 vs. 3.29%), without affecting milk protein yield (1.00 vs. 0.98 kg/d). The challenge also increased the concentration of free LPS in rumen fluid from 28,184 to 107,152 endotoxin units (EU)/mL. This was accompanied by an increase in LPS in peripheral blood plasma (0.52 vs. <0.05 EU/mL) with a peak at 12 h after feeding (0.81 EU/mL). Concentrations of the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, and LPS-binding protein (LBP) in peripheral blood as well as LBP concentration in milk increased (438.5 vs. 167.4, 475.6 vs. 0, 53.1 vs. 18.2, and 6.94 vs. 3.02 microg/mL, respectively) during

  4. Assessing the ratio of leaf carbon to nitrogen in winter wheat and spring barley based on hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-gang; Gu, Xiao-he; Song, Xiao-yu; Xu, Bo; Yu, Hai-yang; Yang, Gui-jun; Feng, Hai-kuan

    2016-10-01

    The metabolic status of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as two essential elements of crop plants has significant influence on the ultimate formation of yield and quality in crop production. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) from crop leaves, defined as ratio of LCC (leaf carbon concentration) to LNC (leaf nitrogen concentration), is an important index that can be used to diagnose the balance between carbon and nitrogen, nutrient status, growth vigor and disease resistance in crop plants. Thus, it is very significant for effectively evaluating crop growth in field to monitor changes of leaf C/N quickly and accurately. In this study, some typical indices aimed at N estimation and chlorophyll evaluation were tested to assess leaf C/N in winter wheat and spring barley. The multi-temporal hyperspectral measurements from the flag-leaf, anthesis, filling, and milk-ripe stages were used to extract these selected spectral indices to estimate leaf C/N in wheat and barley. The analyses showed that some tested indices such as MTCI, MCARI/OSAVI2, and R-M had the better performance of assessing C/N for both of crops. Besides, a mathematic algorithm, Branch-and-Bound (BB) method was coupled with the spectral indices to assess leaf C/N in wheat and barley, and yielded the R2 values of 0.795 for winter wheat, R2 of 0.727 for spring barley, 0.788 for both crops combined. It demonstrates that using hyperspectral data has a good potential for remote assessment of leaf C/N in crops.

  5. Grain growth in thoria and thoria-base fuel pellets (LWBR development program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smid, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetics of grain growth in ThO/sub 2/-base sintered compacts were investigated to determine the cause of a nonuniform microstructural cross section. It was concluded that trace impurities which inhibit continuous grain growth at the pellet interior were removed by vaporization at the pellet exterior. This resulted in relatively normal grain growth at the pellet surface and discontinuous grain growth at the pellet interior. Calcining the starting ThO/sub 2/ powder to a slightly higher temperature removed inhibiting impurities but also decreased the driving force for grain growth by reducing the surface area of the powder. Mixing high and low temperature calcined ThO/sub 2/ resulted in improved grain growth. Increased oxygen partial pressure and temperature during sintering increased grain boundary mobility in spite of the inhibiting impurity. The specific inhibiting impurity was not isolated during this investigation.

  6. Determination of ergosterol levels in barley and malt varieties in the Czech Republic via HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicková, Lenka; Gadas, David; Havlová, Pavla; Havel, Josef

    2008-06-11

    Ergosterol is considered to be a suitable indicator of mold infestation in barley and malt. In this study ergosterol levels in different varieties of barley and malt produced in the Czech Republic were determined. A modified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was statistically processed, validated (Effivalidation program), and applied to 124 samples of barley and malt. Ergosterol was isolated by extraction and saponification, and the quantification was performed using HPLC with diode array detection. The content of ergosterol ranged between the limit of detection (LOD) and 36.3 mg/kg in barley and between the LOD and 131.1 mg/kg in malt. Ergosterol is presumably connected with metabolites generated when barley grain is attacked by pathogens, and such barley often shows a high overfoaming (gushing) value. However, it was found that the content of ergosterol does not correlate with the degree of beer gushing.

  7. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Carvalho; Sayed AzamAli; M. John Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experi-ments under wel watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in wel watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90%available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  8. Synchrotron-based and globar-sourced molecular (micro)spectroscopy contributions to advances in new hulless barley (with structure alteration) research on molecular structure, molecular nutrition, and nutrient delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-01-02

    This paper aimed to review synchrotron-based and globar-sourced molecular infrared (micro)spectroscopy contributions to advances in new hulless barley (with structure alteration) research on molecular structure, molecular nutrition, and nutrient delivery in ruminants. It reviewed recent progress in barley varieties, its utilization for animal and human, inherent structure features and chemical make-up, evaluation and research methodology, breeding progress, rumen degradation, and intestinal digestion. The emphasis of this review was focused on the effect of alteration of carbohydrate traits of newly developed hulless barley on molecular structure changes and nutrient delivery and quantification of the relationship between molecular structure features and changes and truly absorbed nutrient supply to ruminants. This review provides an insight into how inherent structure changes on a molecular basis affect nutrient utilization and availability in ruminants.

  9. The multiscale coarse-graining method. XI. Accurate interactions based on the centers of charge of coarse-grained sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Zhen; Voth, Gregory A., E-mail: gavoth@uchicago.edu [Department of Chemistry, James Franck Institute, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, and Computation Institute, The University of Chicago, 5735 S Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    It is essential to be able to systematically construct coarse-grained (CG) models that can efficiently and accurately reproduce key properties of higher-resolution models such as all-atom. To fulfill this goal, a mapping operator is needed to transform the higher-resolution configuration to a CG configuration. Certain mapping operators, however, may lose information related to the underlying electrostatic properties. In this paper, a new mapping operator based on the centers of charge of CG sites is proposed to address this issue. Four example systems are chosen to demonstrate this concept. Within the multiscale coarse-graining framework, CG models that use this mapping operator are found to better reproduce the structural correlations of atomistic models. The present work also demonstrates the flexibility of the mapping operator and the robustness of the force matching method. For instance, important functional groups can be isolated and emphasized in the CG model.

  10. Coarse-Grained Multifractality Analysis Based on Structure Function Measurements to Discriminate Healthy from Distressed Foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a combined coarse-grained multifractal method to discriminate between distressed and normal foetuses. The coarse-graining operation was performed by means of a coarse-grained procedure and the multifractal operation was based on a structure function. The proposed method was evaluated by one hundred recordings including eighty normal foetuses and twenty distressed foetuses. We found that it was possible to discriminate between distressed and normal foetuses using the Hurst exponent, singularity, and Holder spectra.

  11. Barley peroxidase isozymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per; Henriksen, Anette; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Thirteen peroxidase spots on two-dimensional gels were identified by comprehensive proteome analysis of the barley seed. Mass spectrometry tracked multiple forms of three different peroxidase isozymes: barley seed peroxidase 1, barley seed-specific peroxidase BP1 and a not previously identified putative barley peroxidase. The presence of multiple spots for each of the isozymes reflected variations in post-translational glycosylation and protein truncation. Complete sequence coverage was achieved by using a series of proteases and chromatographic resins for sample preparation prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination. In summary, a subset of three peroxidase isozymes was found to occur in the seed, whereas products of four other barley peroxidase genes were not detected. The present analysis documents the selective expression profiles and post-translational modifications of isozymes from a large plant gene family.

  12. Properties and interfacial microstructure of cement-based materials with composite micro-grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Qi; BA Heng-jing; LIU Jun-zhe

    2005-01-01

    Silica fume, fly ash and nano-fiber mineral materials (NR powder) are employed to incorporate into cement-based materials. According to the grain grading mathematical model of cement-based materials, two packing systems, namely, spherical grading system and nano-fiber reinforced system were designed. Properties and interfacial microstructure of the two systems were studied according to secondary interface theory. It was shown that nano-fiber mineral materials can improve the grain grading of the admixture, increase the density of the system, improve the microstructure of the interface and the hardened paste, and enhance the uniformity of cement-based materials mixed with composite micro-grains and greatly increase their wearable rigidity and flexure strength. In this paper, two kinds of interface models, including spherical grain model and nano-fiber reinforced interface model of the cement-based materials mixed with composite micro-grains, were brought forward.

  13. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (P<0.05) average daily gain, final live weight and proportions of total n-6 FA, non-conjugated 18:2 biohydrogenation products (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (P<0.05) the proportions of total n-3 FA, conjugated linolenic acids, branched-chain FA, odd-chain FA and 16:0. Feeding DDGS-15 and DDGS-30 diets v. the SS diet further increased (P<0.05) average daily gains, final live weight, carcass weight, hot dressing percentage, fat thickness, rib-eye muscle area, and improved instrumental and sensory panel meat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  14. A model for grain growth based on the novel description of dendrite shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wodo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We use novel description of dendritic shape in the micro solid phase growth model. The model describes evolution of both primary solid solution dendrite and eutectic that forms between arms and grains in the last stage of solidification. Obtained results show that our approach can be used in grain growth model to determine more reliable eutectic distribution. In the paper no kinetics connected with the eutectic transformation is taken into account. However, this does not affect the eutectic distribution because at the beginning of eutectic reaction all liquid phase was assumed to fully transform into eutectic. Results for solid phase growth model based on this description are presented. The obtained results of eutectic distribution are especially important in the hypoeutectic alloy solidification case, where the eutectic grains grow between formed solid solution grains. Thus, the distribution of solid solution grain becomes crucial due to its influence on the delay in solid fraction increase of eutectic grains.

  15. Dendritic grain growth simulation in weld pool of nickel base alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan Xiaohong; Wei Yanhong; Ma Rui; Dong Zhibo

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic grain growth at the edge of the weld pool is simulated using a stochastic numerical model of cellular automaton algorithm. The grain growth model is established based upon the balance of solute in the solid/liquid interface of the dendrite tip. Considering the complicated nucleation condition and competitive growth, the dendrite morphologies of different nucleation condition are simulated. The simulated results reproduced the dendrite grain evolution process at the edge of the weld pool. It is indicated that the nucleation condition is an important factor influencing the grain morphologies especially the morphologies of secondary and tertiary arms.

  16. Material grain size characterization method based on energy attenuation coefficient spectrum and support vector regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhou, Tong; Song, Yanan

    2016-07-01

    A grain size characterization method based on energy attenuation coefficient spectrum and support vector regression (SVR) is proposed. First, the spectra of the first and second back-wall echoes are cut into several frequency bands to calculate the energy attenuation coefficient spectrum. Second, the frequency band that is sensitive to grain size variation is determined. Finally, a statistical model between the energy attenuation coefficient in the sensitive frequency band and average grain size is established through SVR. Experimental verification is conducted on austenitic stainless steel. The average relative error of the predicted grain size is 5.65%, which is better than that of conventional methods.

  17. Evolution of Grain Selection in Spiral Selector during Directional Solidification of Nickel-base Superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangbin Meng; Jinguo Li; Tao Jin; Xiaofeng Sun; Changbo Sun; Zhuangqi Hu

    2011-01-01

    The process of grain selection in the spiral selector was investigated by both a ProCAST simulation based on a cellular automaton finite element (CAFE) model and experimental confirmation. The results show that the height of starter block, the spiral diameter and initial angle play an important role in grain selection. The dimension of selector should be maintained in a stable range to optimize the grain orientation and select a single crystal efficiently. A selector which can efficiently select a single crystal had been successfully designed. Grain orientation fluctuation in the spiral part was also studied by means of the variation of thermal condition.

  18. Glycaemic response to barley porridge varying in dietary fibre content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondre, Pariyarath S; Wang, Ke; Rosenthal, Andrew J; Henry, Christiani J K

    2012-03-01

    The interest in barley as a food is increasing worldwide because of its high dietary fibre (DF) content and low glycaemic index (GI). DF in cereals may prove beneficial in improving blood glucose response in the long term. However, a dose-dependent effect of insoluble fibre on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels is yet to be proven. The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic response to two barley porridges prepared from whole barley grains varying in fibre content. In two separate non-blind randomised crossover trials, ten human subjects consumed barley porridge with 16 g/100 g and 10 g/100 g fibre content provided in different serving sizes (equivalent to 25 and 50 g available carbohydrate). The glycaemic response to both barley porridges was significantly lower than the reference glucose (P porridges. We concluded that irrespective of the difference in total fibre content or serving size of barley porridges, their GI values did not differ significantly.

  19. Laboratory-based grain-shape models for simulating dust infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschke, H.; Min, M.; Tamanai, A.

    2009-01-01

    Context. Analysis of thermal dust emission spectra for dust mineralogy and physical grain properties depends on comparison spectra, which are either laboratory-measured infrared extinction spectra or calculated extinction cross sections based on certain grain models. Often, the agreement between the

  20. Hardware-based image processing for high-speed inspection of grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high-speed, low-cost, image-based sorting device was developed to detect and separate grains with slight color differences and small defects on grains The device directly combines a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) color image sensor with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) which...

  1. Misorientation related microstructure at the grain boundary in a nickel-based single crystal superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ming; Zhuo, Longchao [National Center for Electron Microscopy in Beijing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Zhanli [Applied Mechanics Lab, School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lu, Xiaogang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai (China); Shi, Zhenxue; Li, Jiarong [Science and Technology on Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Zhu, Jing, E-mail: jzhu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [National Center for Electron Microscopy in Beijing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-07-29

    The mechanical properties of nickel-based single crystal superalloys deteriorate with increasing misorientation, thus the finished product rate of the casting of single crystal turbine airfoils may be reduced due to the formation of grain boundaries especially when the misorientation angle exceeds to some extent. To this day, evolution of the microstructures at the grain boundaries with misorientation and the relationship between the microstructures and the mechanical properties are still unclear. In this work a detailed characterization of the misorientation related microstructure at the grain boundary in DD6 single crystal superalloy has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques; the elemental distribution at the grain boundaries has been analyzed by energy dispersive (EDS) X-ray mapping; and the effect of precipitation of μ phases at the grain boundary on the mechanical property has been evaluated by finite element calculation. It is shown that the proportion of γ phase at the grain boundaries decreases, while the proportion of γ′ phase at the grain boundaries increases with increasing misorientation; the μ phase is precipitated at the grain boundaries when the misorientation angle exceeds about 10° and thus it could lead to a dramatic deterioration of the mechanical properties, as well as that the enrichment of Re and W gradually disappears as the misorientation angle increases. All these factors may result in the degradation of the mechanical properties at the grain boundaries as the misorientation increases. Furthermore, the finite element calculation confirms that precipitation of μ phases at the grain boundary is responsible for the significant deterioration of the mechanical properties when the misorientation exceeds about 10°. This work provides a physical imaging of the microstructure for understanding the relationship between the mechanical properties and the misorientation

  2. Optimised quantification of the antiyeast activity of different barley malts towards a lager brewing yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nierop, Sandra N E; Axcell, Barry C; Cantrell, Ian C; Rautenbach, Marina

    2008-10-01

    The brewing of beer involves two major biological systems, namely malted barley (malt) and yeast. Both malt and yeast show natural variation and assessing the impact of differing malts on yeast performance is important in the optimisation of the brewing process. Currently, the brewing industry uses well-established tests to assess malt quality, but these frequently fail to predict malt-associated problem fermentations, such as incomplete fermentations, premature yeast flocculation (PYF) and gushing of the final beer product. Antimicrobial compounds, and in particular antiyeast compounds in malt, may be one of the unknown and unmeasured malt factors leading to problem fermentations. In this study, the adaptation of antimicrobial assays for the determination of antiyeast activity in malt is described. Our adapted assay was able to detect differing antiyeast activities in nine malt samples. For this sample set, malts associated with PYF during fermentation and gushing activity in beer showed high antiyeast activity. Both PYF and gushing are malt quality issues associated with fungal infection of barley in the field which may result in elevated antimicrobial activity in the barley grain. Also, two more malts that passed the normal quality control tests were also observed to have high antiyeast activity and such malts must be considered as suspect. Based on our results, this assay is a useful measure of malt quality as it quantifies the antiyeast activity in malt which may adversely impact on brewery fermentation.

  3. The application of AMMI model for barley cultivars evaluation in multi-year trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosavljević Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of new varieties performance is disturbed under the influence of genotype-by-environment interaction. Among several methods used for understanding this effect, one of the most frequently used methods is Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI analysis. In this study we used AMMI method with the aim to estimate the genotype - environment interaction of 14 barley genotypes, and to identify barley genotypes that have high and stable performance in different environments. The trials were conducted during 11 growing seasons (1995/96 - 2005/06, arranged in a randomized complete block (RCB design with four replications in location Rimski Šančevi. The results showed that the influence of environment (seasons, genotypes and their interaction on barley grain yield were significant (p < 0.01. Based on AMMI method, two-rowed variety Novosadski 317 and the six-rowed variety Novosadski 331 can be distinguished due their high and stable yields. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31066

  4. The untranslated leader sequence of the barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene confers embryo-specific expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouster, J.; Mechelen J. van; Cameron-Mills, V.

    1998-01-01

    The barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene encodes a protein expressed in embryos during grain development and germination and in leaves after methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Transient gene expression assays in germinating barley embryos were used to identify cis-regulatory elements involved in the em

  5. Contracts for Grain Biosecurity and Grain Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Abougamos, Hoda; White, Benedict; Sadler,Rohan

    2012-01-01

    The export of grain from Western Australia depends upon a grain supply network that takes grain from farm to port through Cooperative Bulk Handling receival and storage sites. The ability of the network to deliver pest free grain to the port and onto ship depends upon the quality of grain delivered by farmers and the efficacy of phosphine based fumigation in controlling stored grain pests. Phosphine fumigation is critical to the grain supply network because it is the cheapest effective fumiga...

  6. Malting barley BRS Borema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclydes Minella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Borema is an early maturing, two-rowed spring barley registered in 2003 for commercial production inSouthern Brazil, bred by Embrapa Trigo. It combines good yield potential with superior malting quality and a reasonable levelof disease (net blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rust resistance. It is well-adapted to all major production regions of maltingbarley in Brazil.

  7. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Plant-availability to barley of phosphorus in ash from thermally treated animal manure in comparison to other manure based materials and commercial fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2010-01-01

     kg P ha-1 in both soils had no significant effect on barley DM yield and P uptake. The overall efficiency for liquid fertilizers was much higher than for solid ones and relative effectiveness (RE) of ExL was comparable to RE of DSP. Despite the low P level in soils, the ryegrass crop grew very well......Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient and a limited resource, yet excess P is applied to agricultural land and can cause environmental problems in areas with intensive animal farming. In this study, the fertilizing effects of P in several animal manure-based products (including thermal treatment...... (GA) and a corresponding neutralized acid extract of the ash (ExL) in liquid form were the products in focus. Other products in use were: pelletized pig manure biogas residue (PEL), incinerated PEL (IA), anaerobically digested pig slurry (DS), dried ExL, dried fraction of separated pig slurry (SS...

  9. THE EFFECT OF NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDES DERIVED FROM DIFFERENT GRAINS ON PERFORMANCE AND DIGESTIVE ACTIVITY IN LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to observe the effect of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP onperformance and digestive activity of laying hens. Thirty-two ISA Brown hens were individually cagedand offered four diets (wheat-based, millrun-based, barley-based, and barley-enzymes diets for 10weeks. The present experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design with 8 replicates perdietary treatment. Wheat- and barley diets caused significantly higher (P<0.05 viscosity than otherdiets. Increased viscosity caused lower digesta dry matter (DM (P<0.01 and higher excreta moisture(P<0.05. The wheat diet did not cause a negative effect on intestinal starch digestibility, feed intake, andbird performance (P>0.05. Birds fed the barley-based diet had lower weight gain (P<0.05 and highercaecal weight (P<0.05 than those given other diets. Enzyme supplementation on barley dietssignificantly (P<0.05 reduced jejunal digesta viscosity and caecal weight, increased weight gain(P<0.05 and ileal digesta DM (P<0.01, and numerically reduced excreta moisture. The current studydemonstrated that NSP have a profound effect on digesta viscosity, performance, and digestive organs ofbirds; however, the NSP action may be modified by an interaction with each other and with other cellwallcomponents of grains in the gut. Enzyme supplementation reduced the negative effect of digestaviscosity.

  10. Effect of feeding corn, hull-less or hulled barley on fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, V; Burns, J C; Marshall, D S

    2008-05-01

    Increased demands for corn grain warrant the evaluation of alternative grain types for ruminant production systems. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hulled and hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars compared with corn (Zea mays L.) as an alternative grain type on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fermentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided equally between 2 feedings) consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay pellets (40% of dry matter) and 1) ground corn, 2) hulled barley, or 3) hull-less barley concentrate (60% of dry matter) in each fermentor. Following an adaptation period of 5 d, culture samples were taken at 2 h after the morning feeding on d 6, 7, and 8 of each period for analysis. A second run of the fermentors followed the same treatment sequence to provide replication. Culture pH was reduced with corn (5.55) and did not differ between barley cultivars (average pH 5.89). Total volatile fatty acid concentration and acetate to propionate ratio were not different across grain type or barley cultivar with the exception of greater total volatile fatty acid concentrations with hull-less barley. Corn produced less methane (14.6 mmol/d) and ammonia-N (7.3 mg/100 mL) compared with barley (33.1 mmol/d and 22 mg/100 mL, respectively); methane was greater with hull-less barley but ammonia-N concentration was similar between the 2 barley cultivars. Hull-less barley had greater digestibility compared with hulled barley, and corn had reduced digestibility compared with barley. Concentrations of C18:0 were greater and those of C18:1 and C18:2 lesser in cultures fed hulled and hull-less barley compared with corn. Our data indicate that grain type and barley cultivar have an impact on ruminal fermentation. The lesser starch concentration of barley minimized the drop in culture pH and improved digestibility.

  11. Increased gut hormones and insulin sensitivity index following a 3-d intervention with a barley kernel-based product: a randomised cross-over study in healthy middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Johansson-Boll, Elin V; Björck, Inger M E

    2015-09-28

    Certain purified indigestible carbohydrates such as inulin have been shown to stimulate gut-derived hormones involved in glycaemic regulation and appetite regulation, and to counteract systemic inflammation through a gut microbiota-mediated mechanism. Less is known about the properties of indigestible carbohydrates intrinsic to food. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to affect release of endogenous gut hormones and ameliorate appetite control and glycaemic control by ingestion of a whole-grain cereal food product rich in NSP and resistant starch in healthy humans. In all, twenty middle-aged subjects were provided with a barley kernel-based bread (BB) or a reference white wheat bread during 3 consecutive days, respectively, in a randomised cross-over design study. At a standardised breakfast the following day (day 4), blood was collected for the analysis of blood (b) glucose regulation, gastrointestinal hormones, markers of inflammation and markers of colonic fermentation; 3 d of intervention with BB increased gut hormones in plasma (p) the next morning at fasting (p-glucagon-like peptide-1; 56%) and postprandially (p-glucagon-like peptide-2; 13% and p-peptide YY; 18%). Breath H₂ excretion and fasting serum (s) SCFA concentrations were increased (363 and 18%, respectively), and b-glucose (22%) and s-insulin responses (17%) were decreased after BB intervention. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI(composite)) was also improved (25%) after BB. In conclusion, 3 d of intervention with BB increased systemic levels of gut hormones involved in appetite regulation, metabolic control and maintenance of gut barrier function, as well as improved markers of glucose homoeostasis in middle-aged subjects, altogether relevant for the prevention of obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  12. A Comparison of Residual Stress Development in Inertia Friction Welded Fine Grain and Coarse Grain Nickel-Base Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, N.; Rolph, J.; Moat, R.; Hughes, D.; Hofmann, M.; Kelleher, J.; Baxter, G.; Withers, P. J.; Preuss, M.

    2011-12-01

    The effect of the base material microstructure on the development of residual stresses across the weld line in inertia friction welds (IFWs) of high-strength nickel-base superalloy RR1000 was studied using neutron diffraction. A comparison was carried out between tubular IFW specimens generated from RR1000 heat treated below (fine grain (FG) structure) and above (coarse grain (CG) structure) the γ'-solvus. Residual stresses were mapped in the as-welded (AW) condition and, after a postweld heat treatment (PWHT), optimized for maximum alloy strength. The highest tensile stresses were generally found in the hoop direction at the weld line near the inner diameter of the tubular-shaped specimens. A comparison between the residual stresses generated in FG and CG RR1000 suggests that the starting microstructure has little influence on the maximum residual stresses generated in the weld even though different levels of energy must be input to achieve a successful weld in each case. The residual stresses in the postweld heat treated samples were about 35 pct less than for the AW condition. Despite the fact that the high-temperature properties of the two parent microstructures are different, no significant differences in terms of stress relief were found between the FG and CG RR1000 IFWs. Since the actual weld microstructures of FG and CG RR1000 inertia welds are very similar, the results suggest that it is the weld microstructure and its associated high-temperature properties rather than the parent material that affects the overall weld stress distribution and its subsequent stress relief.

  13. Exploring options for managing strategies for pea-barley intercropping using a modeling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Launay, M.; Brisson, N.; Satger, S.;

    2009-01-01

    A modeling study was carried out into pea–barley intercropping in northern Europe. The two objectives were (a) to compare pea–barley intercropping to sole cropping in terms of grain and nitrogen yield amounts and stability, and (b) to explore options for managing pea–barley intercropping systems...... Kingdom and France), and using 10 years of weather records. A preliminary stage evaluated the STICS intercrop model's ability to predict grain and nitrogen yields of the two species, using a 2-year dataset from trials conducted at the three sites. The work was carried out in two phases, (a) the model......) intercropping made better use of environmental resources as regards yield amount and stability than sole cropping, with a noticeable site effect, (2) pea growth in intercrops was strongly linked to soil moisture, and barley yield was determined by nitrogen uptake and light interception due to its height...

  14. The effect of temperature and rainfall on participation of the pathogens causing root and stem rot in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Łacicowa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments conducted in the years 1990-1995 were localized at the Plaiit Cultivation Station, Ulhówek to repeat the cultivation of spring barley cultivars Roland and Lot. In conditions of monoculture, Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium culmorum were of the foremost importance in causing root and stem rot. The proportion of infected plants did not increase with time. Depending on the period of vegetation and the cultivar, the percentage of seedlings with necrosis symptoms ranged from 6% to 53,5% and that of stem base rot from 14% to 59%. In the case of both cultivars. root and stem rot was especially intensive in the third successive season of vegetation, i, e,. in 1992. That season was characterized by warm and wet weather conditions. favourable for the infection of seedlings by B.sorokiniane during the period of six weeks after the sowing of grain. Bipolaris sorokiniana always had the greatest proportion in the infction of spring barley but not in the seasons distinguished by hot and dry weather conditions. On the other hand, during dry and hot weather conditions the only or the dominating fungus obtained from the infcted stem base after the heading of spring barley was F. culmorum. In conditions of monoculture, favourable for root and stem rot of spring barley, the temperature and rainfalls clearly distinguished the proportion of B. sorokiniana and F. culmorum in plant infection.

  15. Composition and Functional Lipid Profiles of Low-Phyate Barleys and Related Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, one of the earliest cultivated cereal grains in the world, is gaining renewed interest for use in food, feed and as a bioethanol feedstock. Like other grains, its high phytate content is undesirable since phytate affects mineral bioavailability and contributes to P pollution to environment....

  16. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  17. Formation and characterization of metallic iron grains in coal-based reduction of oolitic iron ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong-sheng; Han, Yue-xin; Li, Yan-feng; Li, Yan-jun

    2017-02-01

    To reveal the formation and characteristics of metallic iron grains in coal-based reduction, oolitic iron ore was isothermally reduced in various reduction times at various reduction temperatures. The microstructure and size of the metallic iron phase were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and a Bgrimm process mineralogy analyzer. In the results, the reduced Fe separates from the ore and forms metallic iron protuberances, and then the subsequent reduced Fe diffuses to the protuberances and grows into metallic iron grains. Most of the metallic iron grains exist in the quasi-spherical shape and inlaid in the slag matrix. The cumulative frequency of metallic iron grain size is markedly influenced by both reduction time and temperature. With increasing reduction temperature and time, the grain size of metallic iron obviously increases. According to the classical grain growth equation, the growth kinetic parameters, i.e., time exponent, growth activation energy, and pre-exponential constant, are estimated to be 1.3759 ± 0.0374, 103.18 kJ·mol-1, and 922.05, respectively. Using these calculated parameters, a growth model is established to describe the growth behavior of metallic iron grains.

  18. Coercivity enhancement in Ce-Fe-B based magnets by core-shell grain structuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ito

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ce-based R2Fe14B (R= rare-earth nano-structured permanent magnets consisting of (Ce,Nd2Fe14B core-shell grains separated by a non-magnetic grain boundary phase, in which the relative amount of Nd to Ce is higher in the shell of the magnetic grain than in its core, were fabricated by Nd-Cu infiltration into (Ce,Nd2Fe14B hot-deformed magnets. The coercivity values of infiltrated core-shell structured magnets are superior to those of as-hot-deformed magnets with the same overall Nd content. This is attributed to the higher value of magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the shell phase in the core-shell structured infiltrated magnets compared to the homogeneous R2Fe14B grains of the as-hot-deformed magnets, and to magnetic isolation of R2Fe14B grains by the infiltrated grain boundary phase. First order reversal curve (FORC diagrams suggest that the higher anisotropy shell suppresses initial magnetization reversal at the edges and corners of the R2Fe14B grains.

  19. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...... for variations in storage protein and AA composition. These cultivars were selected based on their higher protein contents (11.8–17.6%). The results obtained indicated that substantial variation not only in the distribution of the hordein polypeptides but also in the relative proportions of the storage proteins...

  20. Distinct developmental defense activations in barley embryos identified by transcriptome profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, ME; Lok, F; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    analyses of > 22,000 genes, which together with measurements of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid during embryo development provide new information on the initiation in the developing barley embryo of at least two distinct types of developmental defense activation (DDA). Early DDA is characterized by the up......-regulation of several PR genes is notable. Throughout barley embryo development, there are no indications of an increased biosynthesis of either jasmonic acid or salicylic acid. Collectively, the results help explain how the proposed DDA enables protection of the developing barley embryo and grain for purposes...

  1. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    Three years of experiments with spring barley showed significant differences in weed suppression ability among varieties. Weed dry matter in the most suppressive variety, Ida, was 48% lower than the mean weed dry matter of all varieties, whereas it was 31% higher in the least suppressive variety......, Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... interception model was developed to describe the light interception profiles of the varieties. A study of the estimated parameters showed significant correlation between weed dry matter, rate of canopy height development and the light interception profile. However, when estimates were standardized to eliminate...

  2. Reproductive performance of reindeer fed all-grain and hay-grain rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Blanchard

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance of grain-fed reindeer {Rangifer tarandus was evaluated over a 2-year period. Groups of pregnant reindeer were fed one of three rations, (1 100% whole-grain barley, (2 98.9% whole-grain barley and 1.2% mineral and trace element supplement, and (3 70% whole-grain barley and 30% finely-chopped bluegrass hay. Reindeer fed unsupplemented whole-barley failed to produce a single live calf. The addition of mineral and trace element supplement to the ration did not result in any significant improvement in reproductive performance. Eighty-five percent of the reindeer consuming unsupplemented and supplemented all-barley rations became pregnant; however, 76% of the pregnancies resulted in stillborn calves. One-hundred percent of the cows maintained on the grain/hay ration produced live calves. We speculate that reproductive failure in reindeer cows maintained on all-grain rations is most likely a result of a diet induced disfunction in maternal rumen and/or carbohydrate metabolism rather than a micro-nutrient deficiency. More research is neeeded to determine which metabolic pathways are affected.

  3. Mutations in Barley Row Type Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Shoot Branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Brit Liller

    Full Text Available Cereal crop yield is determined by different yield components such as seed weight, seed number per spike and the tiller number and spikes. Negative correlations between these traits are often attributed to resource limitation. However, recent evidence suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules can regulate both inflorescence branching and tillering. It is therefore important to explore the role of genetic correlations between different yield components in small grain cereals. In this work, we studied pleiotropic effects of row type genes on seed size, seed number per spike, thousand grain weight, and tillering in barley to better understand the genetic correlations between individual yield components. Allelic mutants of nine different row type loci (36 mutants, in the original spring barley varieties Barke, Bonus and Foma and introgressed in the spring barley cultivar Bowman, were phenotyped under greenhouse and outdoor conditions. We identified two main mutant groups characterized by their relationships between seed and tillering parameters. The first group comprises all mutants with an increased number of seeds and significant change in tiller number at early development (group 1a or reduced tillering only at full maturity (group 1b. Mutants in the second group are characterized by a reduction in seeds per spike and tiller number, thus exhibiting positive correlations between seed and tiller number. Reduced tillering at full maturity (group 1b is likely due to resource limitations. In contrast, altered tillering at early development (groups 1a and 2 suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules affect inflorescence and shoot branching. Understanding the genetic bases of the trade-offs between these traits is important for the genetic manipulation of individual yield components.

  4. Transcriptome study of storage protein genes of field-grown barley in response to inorganic nitrogen fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Bowra, Steve; Lange, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    The storage proteins of barley, in terms of both amino acid profile and quantity, are traits strongly influenced by the amount of nitrogen applied. Given this, we performed a developmental expression analysis of the genes from barley grains grown under field conditions to further our understanding...... of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning nitrogen utilization. A barley grain specific micro-array, where a comprehensive set of genes involved in nitrogen mobilization, storage protein synthesis and amino acid metabolism were assembled, was used to obtain a global but focused gene expression...

  5. Genetic analysis and ecological association of Hina genes based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Tao; Huang, Xia; Wang, Ji-Rui; Chen, Guo-Yue; Nevo, Eviatar; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yu-Ming

    2010-02-01

    Specific primers were designed to amplify the sequences of Hina genes from 121 wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) accessions belonging to 18 populations from Iran, Israel and Turkey. Forty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), nine indels, and 26 haplotypes were determined by sequence analysis. The genetic polymorphism (P), genetic diversity (He), and Shannon's information index (I) in the 18 populations were 0.486, 0.181 and 0.269, respectively. Approximately 2/3 genetic variations of Hina genes were presented within populations, while approximately 1/3 genetic variations were observed between populations. Broad gene flow (Nm= 3.31) and low genetic variation (Gst= 0.0702) were detected. However, the genetic differentiation between populations was independent of geographical distances according to the Mantel test (p = 0.478). The result of Spearman rank correlations (r(s)) showed that the genetic indices (P, He and I) of Hina were not significantly correlated with ecological factors. Only eight SNP positions correlated significantly with ecological factors. Of the eight SNP positions that positively correlated with ecological factors, only one SNP (769, T-C) was located in the coding region; however, it was not responsible for the amino acid change.

  6. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  7. Control of equiaxed grains in a complicated Cu-Ni based alloy prepared by centrifugal casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Zongqiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A complicated Cu-Ni based alloy was developed to fabricate wear-resisting bush for high temperature application. The concern focuses on the control of equiaxed grains in the developed alloy ingot prepared by centrifugal casting. The results show that the equiaxed grains are determined by the pouring temperature of the melt, the cooling rate and the rotation speed of the mold. With the decrease in pouring temperature, the fraction of the equiaxed grains in the transverse section of the ingot increases and the average length of columnar grain decreases. When the pouring temperature is confined below 1,250℃, complete equiaxed grains can be obtained. Based on the optimal centrifugal casting processing, the tensile strength of the developed alloy ingot with complete equiaxed grains reaches to 810 MPa and 435 MPa at room temperature and 500℃, respectively, which is 14% and 110% higher than that of common commercial QAl10-4-4 alloy. The wear rate of the developed alloy is 7.0 × 10-8 and 3.8 × 10-7 mm3•N-1•mm-1 at room temperature and 500℃, respectively, which is 5 times and 39 times lower than that of QAl10-4-4 alloy.

  8. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny eBorling Welin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un inoculated (M, inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W, or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB; and one treatment based on dried barley (D. After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8 – 4.1. In M, W and WLAB, moulds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Moulds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively.

  9. Redevelopment of liftoff rates of saltating sand grains based on a simple optimization model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a redevelopment result of liftoff rates of saltating sand grains based on our previous work.Aeolian sand flow is a complex multi-phase flow because of a special two-phase gas-solid flow near ground surface.Despite extensive research on the movement of blowing sand,no model fully characterizes aeolian sand flow,and large differences often exist between simulations of aeolian sand movement and field observations.One key problem is a few of sufficient research on liftoff rates of saltating sand grains(also called the number of liftoff sand grains per unit time and per unit bed area).It is necessary to re-search in advance liftoff rates of saltating sand grains.We redeveloped liftoff rates of saltating sand grains by establishing an optimization model based on the flux of aeolian sand flow at different heights of the sampler in wind tunnel and the simulated capture of saltating sand grains by different heights of the sampler that are from different liftoff position(distance from the sampler) in order to revise previous inversion condition of liftoff rates of saltating sand grains.Liftoff rates increased rapidly with increasing wind speed.For frictional wind velocities of u=0.67,0.77,0.82,0.83,and 0.87 m s-1,liftoff rates were 3840,954502,5235114,5499407,and 7696291 sand grain s-1 m-2,respectively.These rates could be expressed as the square of the instantaneous frictional wind velocity and a constant(0.663) that differs from the critical(threshold) frictional wind velocity at which saltation begins.Although our results require additional experimental validation and the simple optimization model must be improved,they nonetheless provide a strong basis for future research.

  10. A laser ablation ICP-MS based method for multiplexed immunoblot analysis: applications to manganese-dependent protein dynamics of photosystem II in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bang, Thomas Christian; Petersen, Jørgen; Pedas, Pai Rosager

    2015-01-01

    developed a multiplexed antibody-based assay and analysed selected PSII subunits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A selection of antibodies were labelled with specific lanthanides and immunoreacted with thylakoids exposed to Mn deficiency after western blotting. Subsequently, western blot membranes were...... analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), which allowed selective and relative quantitative analysis via the different lanthanides. The method was evaluated against established liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC...

  11. An Action-Based Fine-Grained Access Control Mechanism for Structured Documents and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mang Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents. Firstly, we define a describing model for structured documents and analyze the application scenarios. The describing model could support the permission management on chapters, pages, sections, words, and pictures of structured documents. Secondly, based on the action-based access control (ABAC model, we propose a fine-grained control protocol for structured documents by introducing temporal state and environmental state. The protocol covering different stages from document creation, to permission specification and usage control are given by using the Z-notation. Finally, we give the implementation of our mechanism and make the comparisons between the existing methods and our mechanism. The result shows that our mechanism could provide the better solution of fine-grained access control for structured documents in complicated networks. Moreover, it is more flexible and practical.

  12. Radiation-resistant composite scintillators based on GSO and GPS grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarintsev, A. Yu.; Galunov, N. Z.; Gerasymov, Ia. V.; Karavaeva, N. L.; Krech, A. V.; Levchuk, L. G.; Popov, V. F.; Sidletskiy, O. Ts.; Sorokin, P. V.; Tarasenko, O. A.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the scintillation light output, optical transmittance, and luminescent spectra of composite scintillators based on grains of single crystals Gd2SiO5:Ce (GSO) and Gd2Si2O7:Ce (GPS) is studied. The dielectric gel Sylgard-184 is the base and the binder for the grains inside the composite scintillator. The paper presents and analyzes the results obtained for the scintillators exposed by 10 MeV electrons from the linear electron accelerator at room temperature. The exposure doses D≤250 Mrad. The dose rate is 0.2 or 1500 Mrad/h. The study has shown that the composite scintillators based on the grains of GSO and GPS are radiation-resistant over the range of the irradiation.

  13. Effect of solidification rate on competitive grain growth in directional solidification of a nickel-base superalloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU YiZhou; SUN XiaoFeng

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of grain structure evolution during directional solidification is a fundamental subject in material science.Within the published research there exist conflicting views on the mechanism of grain overgrowth.To study the effect of solidification rate on grain structure evolution,bi-crystals samples were produced in a nickel-base superalloy at different solidification rates.It was found that at the convergent grain boundaries those grains better aligned with respect to the heat flux more readily overgrew neighbouring grains with misaligned orientations and the effect became more pronounced as solidification rate was increased.However,at diverging grain boundaries the rate of overgrowth was invariant to the solidification rate.These experimental results were compared with models in the literature.Thus,a better insight into competitive grain growth in directional solidification processes was obtained.

  14. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...

  15. Constructing the barley model for genetic transformation in Triticeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Bo; WU Jia-jie; FU Dao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest domesticated crops, showing dramatic adaptation to various climate and environmental conditions. As a major cereal crop, barley ranks the 4th after wheat, maize and rice in terms of planting area and production al over the world. Due to its diploid nature, the cultivated barley is considered as an ideal model to study the polyploid wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, we reviewed the development, optimization, and application of transgenic approaches in barley. The most efifcient and robust genetic transformation has been built on the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer in conjunction with the immature embryo-based regeneration. We then discussed future considerations of using more practical technologies in barley transformation, such as the T-DNA/transposon tagging and the genome editing. As a cereal crop amenable to genetic transformation, barley wil serve as the most valuable carrier for global functional genomics in Triticeae and is becoming the most practical model for generating value-added products.

  16. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopade Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. Methods A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. Results According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Conclusions Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area.

  17. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  18. Correlation-maximizing surrogate gene space for visual mining of gene expression patterns in developing barley endosperm tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usadel Björn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro- and macroarray technologies help acquire thousands of gene expression patterns covering important biological processes during plant ontogeny. Particularly, faithful visualization methods are beneficial for revealing interesting gene expression patterns and functional relationships of coexpressed genes. Such screening helps to gain deeper insights into regulatory behavior and cellular responses, as will be discussed for expression data of developing barley endosperm tissue. For that purpose, high-throughput multidimensional scaling (HiT-MDS, a recent method for similarity-preserving data embedding, is substantially refined and used for (a assessing the quality and reliability of centroid gene expression patterns, and for (b derivation of functional relationships of coexpressed genes of endosperm tissue during barley grain development (0–26 days after flowering. Results Temporal expression profiles of 4824 genes at 14 time points are faithfully embedded into two-dimensional displays. Thereby, similar shapes of coexpressed genes get closely grouped by a correlation-based similarity measure. As a main result, by using power transformation of correlation terms, a characteristic cloud of points with bipolar sandglass shape is obtained that is inherently connected to expression patterns of pre-storage, intermediate and storage phase of endosperm development. Conclusion The new HiT-MDS-2 method helps to create global views of expression patterns and to validate centroids obtained from clustering programs. Furthermore, functional gene annotation for developing endosperm barley tissue is successfully mapped to the visualization, making easy localization of major centroids of enriched functional categories possible.

  19. Potential CO2 emission reduction by development of non-grain-based bioethanol in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Wang, Limao; Shen, Lei

    2010-10-01

    Assessment of the potential CO(2) emission reduction by development of non-grain-based ethanol in China is valuable for both setting up countermeasures against climate change and formulating bioethanol policies. Based on the land occupation property, feedstock classification and selection are conducted, identifying sweet sorghum, cassava, and sweet potato as plantation feedstocks cultivated from low-quality arable marginal land resources and molasses and agricultural straws as nonplantation feedstocks derived from agricultural by-products. The feedstock utilization degree, CO(2) reduction coefficient of bioethanol, and assessment model of CO(2) emission reduction potential of bioethanol are proposed and established to assess the potential CO(2) emission reduction by development of non-grain-based bioethanol. The results show that China can obtain emission reduction potentials of 10.947 and 49.027 Mt CO(2) with non-grain-based bioethanol in 2015 and 2030, which are much higher than the present capacity, calculated as 1.95 Mt. It is found that nonplantation feedstock can produce more bioethanol so as to obtain a higher potential than plantation feedstock in both 2015 and 2030. Another finding is that developing non-grain-based bioethanol can make only a limited contribution to China's greenhouse gas emission reduction. Moreover, this study reveals that the regions with low and very low potentials for emission reduction will dominate the spatial distribution in 2015, and regions with high and very high potentials will be the majority in 2030.

  20. Evolution of the Annealing Twin Density during δ-Supersolvus Grain Growth in the Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel™ 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain growth experiments were performed on Inconel™ 718 to investigate the possible correlation of the annealing twin density with grain size and with annealing temperature. Those experiments were conducted at different temperatures in the δ supersolvus domain and under such conditions that only capillarity forces were involved in the grain boundary migration process. In the investigated range, there is a strong inverse correlation of the twin density with the average grain size. On the other hand, the twin density at a given average grain size is not sensitive to annealing temperature. Consistent with previous results for pure nickel, the twin density evolution in Inconel™ 718 is likely to be mainly controlled by the propagation of the pre-existing twins of the growing grains; i.e., the largest ones of the initial microstructure. Almost no new twin boundaries are created during the grain growth process itself. Therefore, the twin density at a given average grain size is mainly dependent on the twin density in the largest grains of the initial microstructure and independent of the temperature at which grains grow. Based on the observations, a mean field model is proposed to predict annealing twin density as a function of grain size during grain growth.

  1. Yield and yield structure of spring barley (Hodeum vulgare L. grown in monoculture after different stubble crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2006- 2008 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The experimental factor was the type of stubble crop ploughed in each year after harvest of spring barley: white mustard, lacy phacelia, winter rape, and a mixture of narrow-leaf lupin with field pea. In the experiment, successive spring barley crops were grown one after the other (in continuous monoculture. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of stubble crops used on the size and structure of barley yield. The three-year study showed an increasing trend in grain yield of spring barley grown after the mixture of legumes, lacy phacelia, and white mustard compared to its size in the treatment with no cover crop. Straw yield was significantly higher when barley was grown after the mixture of narrowleaf lupin with field pea than in the other treatments of the experiment. The type of ploughed-in stubble crop did not modify significantly plant height, ear length, and grain weight per ear. Growing the mixture of leguminous plants as a cover crop resulted in a significant increase in the density of ears per unit area in barley by an average of 14.7% relative to the treatment with winter rape. The experiment also showed the beneficial effect of the winter rape cover crop on 1000-grain weight of spring barley compared to that obtained in the treatments with white mustard and the mixture of legumes. All the cover crops caused an increase in the number of grains per ear of barley relative to that found in the control treatment. However, this increase was statistically proven only for the barley crops grown after lacy phacelia and the mixture of legumes.

  2. Diffusion-Based Coarse Graining in Hybrid Continuum--Discrete Solvers: Applications in CFD--DEM

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Rui

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a coarse graining method previously proposed by the authors based on solving diffusion equations is applied to CFD--DEM simulations, where coarse graining is used to obtain solid volume fraction, particle phase velocity, and fluid--particle interaction forces. By examining the conservation requirements, the variables to solve diffusion equations for in CFD--DEM simulations are identified. The algorithm is then implemented to a CFD--DEM solver based on OpenFOAM and LAMMPS, the former being a general-purpose, three-dimensional CFD solver based on unstructured meshes. Numerical simulations are performed for a fluidized bed by using the CFD--DEM solver with the diffusion-based coarse graining algorithm. Converged results are obtained on successively refined meshes, even for meshes with cell sizes comparable to or smaller than the particle diameter. This is a critical advantage of the proposed method over many existing coarse graining methods, and would be particularly valuable when small cells are r...

  3. Effect of crop density on competition by wheat and barley with Agrostemma githago and other weeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, H.; Holm, U.; Søgaard, B.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of Agrostemma githago L. and other naturally occurring weeds on biomass production and grain yield was studied in winter wheat and winter barley. Naturally occurring weeds had only a negligible effect on barley, but reduced wheat grain yield by 10% at a quarter of normal crop density...... had a better competitive ability than A. githago. Wheat and A. githago utilized resources for growth better when grown in mixture than when grown in pure stands as the relative yield totals were significantly larger than unity....

  4. The Combination Forecasting Model of Grain Production Based on Stepwise Regression Method and RBF Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy of grain production forecasting, this study proposed a new combination forecasting model, the model combined stepwise regression method with RBF neural network by assigning proper weights using inverse variance method. By comparing different criteria, the result indicates that the combination forecasting model is superior to other models. The performance of the models is measured using three types of error measurement, which are Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE, Theil Inequality Coefficient (Theil IC and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE. The model with smallest value of MAPE, Theil IC and RMSE stands out to be the best model in predicting the grain production. Based on the MAPE, Theil IC and RMSE evaluation criteria, the combination model can reduce the forecasting error and has high prediction accuracy in grain production forecasting, making the decision more scientific and rational.

  5. The effect of fungicidal treatment on selected quality parameters of barley and malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlová, Pavla; Lancová, Katerina; Vánová, Marie; Havel, Josef; Hajslová, Jana

    2006-02-22

    Protection of barley grain against contamination by fungi such as Fusarium spp., particularly by those producing mycotoxins, secondary metabolites with adverse health effects, is of principal importance. Fungicides applied immediately after full heading of spring barley is one method of direct protection. In this work, extensive two-year field experiments combined with a detailed chemical laboratory analysis (barley and malt) were performed with the aim to study the effect of previous crops, different fungicides, and other conditions on the selected barley and malt quality parameters (content of beta-glucans, pentosans, oxalic acid, deoxynivalenol, and gushing), while the main task was to follow the effect of the fungicide (used as a treatment to protect against pathogens, mostly Fusarium) on changes of the chemical composition in barley and malt, and gushing. It was found that the relationship between the studied factors and the parameters usually applied to the evaluation of barley and malt quality is quite complex and not straightforward. The responses show typical features of a multifactorial influence with both positive and negative correlations resulting in a decrease or increase in grain quality (concentrations of beta-glucans, pentosans, deoxynivalenol, and other studied parameters). The role of previous crops was also found to be important. The fungicides should be applied at the time of heading but not at the very beginning of this period.

  6. Modelling phytate degradation kinetics in soaked wheat and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Strathe, A B; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    for describing the phytate degradation profiles of the soaked wheat and barley. The in vitro results showed that heat-treatment of the cereals increased the F0 and reduced the K although the plant phytase activity was reduced. This was possible due to induced structural changes of the grain that increased...... the contact between phytate and plant phytases. The lack of effect of additions of Phytase 1 or Phytase 2 on the phytate degradation in the cereals was possible due to a poor access of the microbial phytases to phytate. Therefore, more knowledge is needed about processing technologies that increase the access...... of plant and microbial phytases to phytate in the grains....

  7. The grain grading model and prediction of deleterious porosity of cement-based materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Qi; LIU Jun-zhe

    2008-01-01

    The calculating model for the packing degree of spherical particles system was modified. The grain grading model of cement-based materials was established and could be applied in the global grading system as well as in the nano-fiber reinforced system. According to the grain grading model, two kinds of mortar were de-signed by using the global grain materials and nano-fiber materials such as fly ash, silica fume and NR powder.In this paper, the densities of two above systems cured for 90d were tested and the relationship of deleterious porosity and the total porosity of hardened mortar was discussed. Research results show that nano-fiber materialsuch as NR powder can increase the density of cement-based materials. The relationship of deleterious porosity and the total porosity of hardened mortar accords with logarithmic curve. The deleterious porosity and the ration-ality of the grading can be roughly predicted through calculating the packing degree by the grain grading model of cement-based materials.

  8. Use of Selection Indices Based on Multivariate Analysis for Improving Grain Yield in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein SABOURI; Babak RABIEI; Maryam FAZLALIPOUR

    2008-01-01

    In order to study selection indices for improving rice grain yield, a cross was made between an Iranian traditional rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety, Tarommahalli and an improved indica rice variety, Khazar in 2006. The traits of the parents (30 plants), F1 (30 plants) and F2 generations (492 individuals) were evaluated at the Rice Research institute of Iran (RRII) during 2007. Heritabilities of the number of panicles per plant, plant height, days to heading and panicle exsertion were greater than that of grain yield. The selection indices were developed using the results of multivariate analysis. To evaluate selection strategies to maximize grain yield, 14 selection indices were calculated based on two methods (optimum and base) and combinations of 12 traits with various economic weights. Results of selection indices showed that selection for grain weight, number of panicles per plant and panicle length by using their phenotypic and/or genotypic direct effects (path coefficient) as economic weights should serve as an effective selection criterion for using either the optimum or base index.

  9. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  10. Strain Amount Dependent Grain Size and Orientation Developments during Hot Compression of a Polycrystalline Nickel Based Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoai He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Controlling grain size in polycrystalline nickel base superalloy is vital for obtaining required mechanical properties. Typically, a uniform and fine grain size is required throughout forging process to realize the superplastic deformation. Strain amount occupied a dominant position in manipulating the dynamic recrystallization (DRX process and regulating the grain size of the alloy during hot forging. In this article, the high-throughput double cone specimen was introduced to yield wide-range strain in a single sample. Continuous variations of effective strain ranging from 0.23 to 1.65 across the whole sample were achieved after reaching a height reduction of 70%. Grain size is measured to be decreased from the edge to the center of specimen with increase of effective strain. Small misorientation tended to generate near the grain boundaries, which was manifested as piled-up dislocation in micromechanics. After the dislocation density reached a critical value, DRX progress would be initiated at higher deformation region, leading to the refinement of grain size. During this process, the transformations from low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs to high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs and from subgrains to DRX grains are found to occur. After the accomplishment of DRX progress, the neonatal grains are presented as having similar orientation inside the grain boundary.

  11. Integration of weed management and tillage practices in spring barley production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring barley can be used to diversify and intensify winter wheat-based production systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, but the response of barley to conservation tillage systems, which are needed to reduce the risk of soil erosion, is not well documented. The objective of this study was to descri...

  12. Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Spliid, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly...

  13. EFFECTS OF BARLEY PROCESSING ON THE BIOPRODUCTIVE INDICES IN FATTENING WEANED LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VOIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our researches was to observe the nutritive and productive effect of the ratio, offered at discretion, composed of alfalfa hay and barley under the following presentation forms: whole grains, roughly ground (4mm with and without addition of yeast, strain Yea-Sacc1026, to lambs submitted for fattening. The experiment lasted 54 days, the biological material was represented by Turcana lambs, grouped in three lots (n=12. Growth performances were significant bigger (p< 0.04 for the final body weight, total weight gain and average daily gain, but the specific intake was decreased with 0.49 UNC in lambs that consumed ground barley prior to those that consumed whole barley grains. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, strain Yea-Sacc1026 in the ground barley at 4 mm has a more productive and evident effect (p<0.02 regarding final body weight, total weight and average daily weigh compared to the lambs fed with whole barley grains, with a specific intake lower with 0.89 UNC.

  14. Genetics- and genomics-based interventions for nutritional enhancement of grain legume crops: status and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Abhishek; Sahrawat, Kanwar L; Kumar, Shiv; Joshi, Rohit; Parihar, Ashok K; Singh, Ummed; Singh, Deepak; Singh, Narendra P

    2015-05-01

    Meeting the food demands and ensuring nutritional security of the ever increasing global population in the face of degrading natural resource base and impending climate change is the biggest challenge of the twenty first century. The consequences of mineral/micronutrient deficiencies or the hidden hunger in the developing world are indeed alarming and need urgent attention. In addressing the problems associated with mineral/micronutrient deficiency, grain legumes as an integral component of the farming systems in the developing world have to play a crucial role. For resource-poor populations, a strategy based on selecting and/or developing grain legume cultivars with grains denser in micronutrients, by biofortification, seems the most appropriate and attractive approach to address the problem. This is evident from the on-going global research efforts on biofortification to provide nutrient-dense grains for use by the poorest of the poor in the developing countries. Towards this end, rapidly growing genomics technologies hold promise to hasten the progress of breeding nutritious legume crops. In conjunction with the myriad of expansions in genomics, advances in other 'omics' technologies particularly plant ionomics or ionome profiling open up novel opportunities to comprehensively examine the elemental composition and mineral networks of an organism in a rapid and cost-effective manner. These emerging technologies would effectively guide the scientific community to enrich the edible parts of grain legumes with bio-available minerals and enhancers/promoters. We believe that the application of these new-generation tools in turn would provide crop-based solutions to hidden hunger worldwide for achieving global nutritional security.

  15. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities.

  16. An extended particle swarm optimization algorithm based on coarse-grained and fine-grained criteria and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-mei; ZHANG Li-hui; QI Jian-xun; ZHANG Su-fang

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the problem that particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm can easily trap into local mechanism when analyzing the high dimensional complex optimization problems, the optimization calculation using the information in the iterative process of more particles was analyzed and the optimal system of particle swarm algorithm was improved. The extended particle swarm optimization algorithm (EPSO) was proposed. The coarse-grained and free-grained criteria that can control the selection were given to ensure the convergence of the algorithm. The two criteria considered the parameter selection mechanism under the situation of random probability. By adopting MATLAB7.1, the extended particle swarm optimization algorithm was demonstrated in the resource leveling of power project scheduling. EPSO was compared with genetic algorithm (GA) and common PSO, the result indicates that the variance of the objective function of resource leveling is decreased by 7.9%, 18.2%, respectively, certifying thee effectiveness and stronger global convergence ability of the EPSO.

  17. Effects of ratios of basal to topdressed nitrogen on post-anthesis photosynthesis,dry matter distribution and grain yield in malting barley%氮肥基追比对啤酒大麦花后叶片光合特性、干物质分配及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈会权; 蔡剑; 陈和; 陈晓静; 陶红; 姜东; 戴廷波; 曹卫星

    2009-01-01

    Two malting barley cultivars, Supi 3 and Dan 2, were planted in two eco-sites, Nanjing and Yancheng, Jiangsu Province. At a total nitrogen dose of 225 kg· hm~(-2), split nitrogen application effects were studied on post-anthesis photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content, dry matter accumulation and redistribution and grain yield. The penult leaf photosynthetic rate and LAI generally increased with increasing ratio of basal to topdressed nitrogen, and reached the maximum values at the ratio of 7:3, and then decreased. The same responses of yield and amount of post-anthesis accumulated dry matter transferred to grain to ratio of basal to topdressed nitrogen were observed. Further, a high photosynthetic rate benefited the accumulation and redistribution of dry matter aftert-anthesis, which contributed to a high grain yield under an appropriate ratio of basal to topdressed nitrogen.%在江苏南京和盐城两生态点研究总施氮量为225 kg·hm~(-2)条件下,氮肥基追比对苏啤3和单2两个大麦品种花后叶片光合特性、干物质分配及产量的影响.结果表明:大麦花后叶片净光合速率、叶面积指数、花后干物质转运量及对籽粒贡献率均随着氮肥基追比先升高后降低,在氮肥基追比为7∶3时达到最大.大麦籽粒产量亦呈现相同的趋势,以氮肥基追比7∶3处理的产量最高.进一步分析表明,采用合理的氮肥基追比、保持花后较高的光合速率有利于提高花后干物质积累和再分配,最终提高籽粒产量.

  18. Analysis of early events in the interaction between Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Scarlett

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Svensson, Birte;

    2010-01-01

    after inoculation. This coincided with the appearance of discrete F. graminearum-induced proteolytic fragments of beta-amylase. Based on these results, analysis of grain proteome changes prior to extensive proteolysis enabled identification of barley proteins responding early to infection by the fungus...... function was identified. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of selected genes showed a correlation between high gene expression and detection of the corresponding proteins. Fungal genes encoding alkaline protease and endothiapepsin were expressed during 1-3 days after inoculation, making them...... candidates for generation of the observed beta-amylase fragments. These fragments have potential to be developed as proteome-level markers for fungal infection that are also informative about grain protein quality....

  19. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...... strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research....

  20. Grain Boundary Engineering of a Low Stacking Fault Energy Ni-based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarley, Joshua; Helmink, Randolph; Goetz, Robert; Tin, Sammy

    2017-02-01

    The effects of thermo-mechanical processing parameters on the resulting microstructure of an experimental Nickel-based superalloy containing 24 wt pct Co were investigated. Hot compression tests were performed at temperatures ranging from 1293 K to 1373 K (1020 to 1100 °C) and strain rates ranging from 0.0005 to 0.1/s. The mechanically deformed samples were also subject to annealing treatments at sub-solvus 1388 K (1115 °C) and super-solvus 1413 K (1140 °C) temperatures. This investigation sought to quantify and subsequently understand the behavior and evolution of both the grain boundary structure and length fraction of Σ3 twin boundaries in the low stacking fault energy superalloy. Over the range of deformation parameters investigated, the corresponding deformation mechanism map revealed that dynamic recrystallization or dynamic recovery was dominant. These conditions largely promoted post-deformation grain refinement and the formation of annealing twins following annealing. Samples deformed at strain rates of 0.0005 and 0.001/s at 1333 K and 1373 K (1060 °C and 1100 °C) exhibited extensive grain boundary sliding/rotation associated with superplastic flow. Upon annealing, deformation conditions that resulted predominately in superplastic flow were found to provide negligible enhancement of twin boundaries and produced little to no post-deformation grain refinement.

  1. Grain Boundary Engineering of a Low Stacking Fault Energy Ni-based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarley, Joshua; Helmink, Randolph; Goetz, Robert; Tin, Sammy

    2017-04-01

    The effects of thermo-mechanical processing parameters on the resulting microstructure of an experimental Nickel-based superalloy containing 24 wt pct Co were investigated. Hot compression tests were performed at temperatures ranging from 1293 K to 1373 K (1020 to 1100 °C) and strain rates ranging from 0.0005 to 0.1/s. The mechanically deformed samples were also subject to annealing treatments at sub-solvus 1388 K (1115 °C) and super-solvus 1413 K (1140 °C) temperatures. This investigation sought to quantify and subsequently understand the behavior and evolution of both the grain boundary structure and length fraction of Σ3 twin boundaries in the low stacking fault energy superalloy. Over the range of deformation parameters investigated, the corresponding deformation mechanism map revealed that dynamic recrystallization or dynamic recovery was dominant. These conditions largely promoted post-deformation grain refinement and the formation of annealing twins following annealing. Samples deformed at strain rates of 0.0005 and 0.001/s at 1333 K and 1373 K (1060 °C and 1100 °C) exhibited extensive grain boundary sliding/rotation associated with superplastic flow. Upon annealing, deformation conditions that resulted predominately in superplastic flow were found to provide negligible enhancement of twin boundaries and produced little to no post-deformation grain refinement.

  2. The Metabolic Signature of Biomass Formation in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mohammad R; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Usadel, Björn; Junker, Björn; Schreiber, Falk; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2016-09-01

    The network analysis of genome-wide transcriptome responses, metabolic signatures and enzymes' relationship to biomass formation has been studied in a diverse panel of 12 barley accessions during vegetative and reproductive stages. The primary metabolites and enzymes involved in central metabolism that determine the accumulation of shoot biomass at the vegetative stage of barley development are primarily being linked to sucrose accumulation and sucrose synthase activity. Interestingly, the metabolic and enzyme links which are strongly associated with biomass accumulation during reproductive stages are related to starch accumulation and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citrate, malate, trans-aconitate and isocitrate. Additional significant associations were also found for UDP glucose, ATP and the amino acids isoleucine, valine, glutamate and histidine during the reproductive stage. A network analysis resulted in a combined identification of metabolite and enzyme signatures indicative for grain weight accumulation that was correlated with the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), a rate-limiting enzyme involved in starch biosynthesis, and with that of alanine amino transferase involved in the synthesis of storage proteins. We propose that the mechanism related to vegetative and reproductive biomass formation vs. seed biomass formation is being linked to distinct fluxes regulating sucrose, starch, sugars and amino acids as central resources. These distinct biomarkers can be used to engineer biomass production and grain weight in barley.

  3. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  4. The presence of inositol phosphates in gastric pig digesta is affected by time after feeding a nonfermented or fermented liquid wheat- and barley-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaabjerg, K; Jørgensen, H; Tauson, A-H; Poulsen, H D

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to quantify the retention of digesta and evaluate the degradation of phytate or inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) and lower inositol phosphates (InsP₅, InsP₄, InsP₃, and InsP₂) in the stomach at different times after feeding pigs a fermented liquid diet with microbial phytase or a nonfermented diet with or without microbial phytase. Six barrows fitted with gastric cannulas were used. The experiment was a 3 × 3 Latin square with 3 pigs fed 3 diets during 3 wk in 2 replicates. Each experimental period lasted for 7 d, comprising 3 d of adaptation and 4 d of total collection of gastric digesta. For each pig, the digesta was collected once daily at 1, 2, 3, or 5 h after feeding the morning meal. A basal wheat- and barley-based diet was steam-pelleted at 90°C. The dietary treatments were a nonfermented basal diet (NF-BD), the NF-BD with microbial phytase (750 phytase units of phytase/kg, as-fed basis; NF-BD + phytase), and the NF-BD + phytase fermented for 17.5 h (F-BD + phytase). Gastric InsP₆-P was not detected at all in pigs fed F-BD + phytase because of complete InsP₆ degradation during fermentation of the feed before feeding. Gastric InsP₆-P decreased over time (P feed at an initial gastric pH from 6.5 to 5.0 is needed. Feeding F-BD + phytase compensated for the shortage of time because the InsP₆ degradation was completed during fermentation before feeding. The degradation of InsP₆ to InsP₅ is the bottleneck for plant P utilization in pigs because the degradation of the lower inositol phosphates is rapid and almost complete.

  5. Relationship among grain size, annealing twins and shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaixia; Peng, Huabei; Zhang, Chengyan; Wang, Shanling; Wen, Yuhua

    2016-07-01

    In order to clarify the relationship among grain size, annealing twins and the shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys, the Fe-21.63Mn-5.60Si-9.32Cr-5.38Ni (weight %) alloy with a grain size ranging from 48.9 μm-253.6 μm was obtained by adjusting the heating temperature or heating time after 20% cold-rolling. The densities of grain boundaries and annealing twins increase with a decrease in grain size, whereas the volume fraction and width of stress-induced ɛ martensite after 9% deformation at Ms + 10 K decrease. This result indicates that grain refinement raises the constraint effects of grain boundaries and annealing twins upon martensitic transformation. In this case, the ability to suppress the plastic deformation and facilitate the stress-induced ɛ martensite transformation deteriorates after grain refinement owing to the enhancement of the constraint effects. It is demonstrated by the result that the difference at Ms + 10 K between the critical stress for plastic yielding and that for inducing martensitic transformation is smaller for the specimen with a grain size of 48.9 μm than for the specimen with a grain size of 253.6 μm. Therefore, the shape memory effect declined by decreasing the grain size.

  6. Challenges of Engineering Grain Boundaries in Boron-Based Armor Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Shawn P.; Hernandez-Rivera, Efrain; Behler, Kristopher D.; Synowczynski-Dunn, Jennifer; Tschopp, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    Boron-based ceramics are appealing for lightweight applications in both vehicle and personnel protection, stemming from their combination of high hardness, high elastic modulus, and low density as compared to other ceramics and metal alloys. However, the performance of these ceramics and ceramic composites is lacking because of their inherent low fracture toughness and reduced strength under high-velocity threats. The objective of the present article is to briefly discuss both the challenges and the state of the art in experimental and computational approaches for engineering grain boundaries in boron-based armor ceramics, focusing mainly on boron carbide (B4C) and boron suboxide (B6O). The experimental challenges involve processing these ceramics at full density while trying to promote microstructure features such as intergranular films to improve toughness during shock. Many of the computational challenges for boron-based ceramics stem from their complex crystal structure which has hitherto complicated the exploration of grain boundaries and interfaces. However, bridging the gaps between experimental and computational studies at multiple scales to engineer grain boundaries in these boron-based ceramics may hold the key to maturing these material systems for lightweight defense applications.

  7. Experimental Barley Flour Production in 12,500-Year-Old Rock-Cut Mortars in Southwestern Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Eitam, David; Kislev, Mordechai; Karty, Adiel; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Experimental archaeology at a Natufian site in the Southern Levant documents for the first time the use of 12,500-year-old rock-cut mortars for producing wild barley flour, some 2,000 to 3,000 years before cereal cultivation. Our reconstruction involved processing wild barley on the prehistoric threshing floor, followed by use of the conical mortars (a common feature in Natufian sites), thereby demonstrating the efficient peeling and milling of hulled grains. This discovery complements nearly...

  8. Critical yield-point model to estimate damage caused by brown spot and powdery mildew in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenita Agostinetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgaris L. is the second most important winter crop in Southern Brazil. The excessive rainfall in this region during the crop-growing season increases the frequency and intensity of foliar fungal diseases. The research aimed to determine the damage function equations (DFE for the multiple pathosystem of barley brown spot and powdery mildew based on the relationship between grain yield and diseases intensity at different 'BRS Cauê' cultivar growth stages (GS during 2009 and 2010 growing seasons in Southern Brazil. The experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with nine treatments and four replicates. The disease gradients were generated by strobilurins and triazols fungicides rates and number of applications on barley cv. Cauê. The fungicide applications and disease incidence and severity assessments were performed at the 22, 31, 39, 45 and 56 plant GS. The DFE were obtained by variance analysis and linear regression between grain yield and diseases intensity. Significant and negative DFE were obtained and the damage coefficients (DC varied from 29.48 to 100.08 (2009 and from 36.08 to 113.57kg ha-1 (2010 for incidence, and from 219.5 to 6,276.6 (2009 and 102.3 to 5,292.5kg ha-1 (2010 for severity. The largest damage coefficients were obtained when diseases assessments were made on GS 22 and 31 on both growing seasons evaluated. DFE were used to calculate the economic damage threshold (EDT as a criterion to indicate the fungicide application moment to control the diseases in cultivars similar to 'BRS Cauê' in Southern Brazil.

  9. Redistribution of mineral elements in wheat grain when applying the complex enzyme preparations based on phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic minerals play an important role in the whole human nutrition, but they are included in the grain of the phytates that reduces their bioavailability. Whole wheat bread is generally considered a healthy food, but the presence of mineral elements in it is insignificant, because of weak phytate degradation. From all sources of exogenous phytase the most productive are microscopic fungi. To accelerate the process of transition hard mineral elements are mobilized to implement integrated cellulolytic enzyme preparation based on the actions of phytase (producer is Penicillium canescens. Phytase activity was assessed indirectly by the rate of release of phosphate from the substrate. It has been established that the release rate of the phosphoric acid substrate is dependent on the composition of the drug and the enzyme complex is determined by the presence of xylanase. The presented experimental data shows that a cellulase treatment of the grain in conjunction with the β-glucanase or xylanase leading to an increase in phytase activity could be 1.4 - 2.3 times as compared with the individual enzymes. As a result of concerted action of enzymes complex preparation varies topography grain, increase the pore sizes in seed and fruit shells that facilitate the penetration of the enzyme phytase in the aleurone layer to the site of phytin hydrolysis and leads to an increase in phytase activity. In terms of rational parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis, the distribution of mineral elements in the anatomical parts of the grain after processing complex enzyme preparation with the help of X-ray detector EMF miniCup system in a scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM 6390 were investigated. When processing enzyme preparation wheat trend in the distribution of mineral elements, characteristic of grain - the proportion of these elements in the aleurone layer decreases, and in the endosperm increases. Because dietary fiber and phytate found together in the

  10. Model reduction for agent-based social simulation: coarse-graining a civil violence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Fonoberov, Vladimir A; Fonoberova, Maria; Mezic, Igor; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G

    2012-06-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM) constitutes a powerful computational tool for the exploration of phenomena involving emergent dynamic behavior in the social sciences. This paper demonstrates a computer-assisted approach that bridges the significant gap between the single-agent microscopic level and the macroscopic (coarse-grained population) level, where fundamental questions must be rationally answered and policies guiding the emergent dynamics devised. Our approach will be illustrated through an agent-based model of civil violence. This spatiotemporally varying ABM incorporates interactions between a heterogeneous population of citizens [active (insurgent), inactive, or jailed] and a population of police officers. Detailed simulations exhibit an equilibrium punctuated by periods of social upheavals. We show how to effectively reduce the agent-based dynamics to a stochastic model with only two coarse-grained degrees of freedom: the number of jailed citizens and the number of active ones. The coarse-grained model captures the ABM dynamics while drastically reducing the computation time (by a factor of approximately 20).

  11. An Impulse-C Hardware Accelerator for Packet Classification Based on Fine/Coarse Grain Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current software-based packet classification algorithms exhibit relatively poor performance, prompting many researchers to concentrate on novel frameworks and architectures that employ both hardware and software components. The Packet Classification with Incremental Update (PCIU algorithm, Ahmed et al. (2010, is a novel and efficient packet classification algorithm with a unique incremental update capability that demonstrated excellent results and was shown to be scalable for many different tasks and clients. While a pure software implementation can generate powerful results on a server machine, an embedded solution may be more desirable for some applications and clients. Embedded, specialized hardware accelerator based solutions are typically much more efficient in speed, cost, and size than solutions that are implemented on general-purpose processor systems. This paper seeks to explore the design space of translating the PCIU algorithm into hardware by utilizing several optimization techniques, ranging from fine grain to coarse grain and parallel coarse grain approaches. The paper presents a detailed implementation of a hardware accelerator of the PCIU based on an Electronic System Level (ESL approach. Results obtained indicate that the hardware accelerator achieves on average 27x speedup over a state-of-the-art Xeon processor.

  12. A comparison of energy use and productivity of wheat and barley (case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Ziaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of energy productivity of different crops can be used as an effective tool to prioritize crops planting in each area. This study was conducted in order to compare wheat and barley farms of Sistan and Baluchestan province in Iran in relation to various aspects of energy consumption at 2009. 100 wheat and 100 barley fields were selected randomly from main 11 cities in the studied region. Input data and yield of wheat and barley fields were collected in the form of questionnaires in a face-to-face interview. Results showed that total energy inputs of wheat and barley fields were 32492.97 and 25655.81 MJ ha−1, respectively. Total energy outputs for wheat and barley fields were 48517.24 and 49800.87 MJ ha−1, respectively. Based on these results the amount of energy use efficiency for wheat and barley fields were 1.49 and 1.94, respectively, and the amount of energy productivity for mentioned fields were 0.056 and 0.066. The share of renewable energy as one of the sustainability indexes of agricultural systems was 19.60 for wheat and 14.60 for barley fields. Therefore, it seems that barley production is more efficient from various aspects of energy consumption rather than wheat in the studied region.

  13. In vitro gas production profiles and fermentation end-products in processed barley, maize and milo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarfar, A.; Namgay, K.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Tamminga, S.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An experiment was carried out to establish whether using a pre-compacting device (expander) changes the contribution of dry matter (DM) and degradative behaviour of grains of barley, maize and milo pre-processed by grinding over the different DM fractions (non-washable (NWF), insoluble w

  14. Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

  15. Spatial and temporal regulation of DNA fragmentation in the aleurone of germinating barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Oppedijk, B.J.; Caspers, M.P.M.; Lamers, G.E.M.; Boot, M.J.; Geerlings, D.N.G.; Bakhuizen, B.; Meijer, A.H.; Duijn, B. van

    1998-01-01

    During germination of barley grains, the appearance of DNA fragmentation started in aleurone cells near the embryo and extended to the distal end in a time-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation was demonstrated to occur only after the expression of α-amylase mRNA in the aleurone layer. In addition, ce

  16. Comparison of Automated Image-Based Grain Sizing to Standard Pebble Count Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, K. B.

    2009-12-01

    This study explores the use of an automated, image-based method for characterizing grain-size distributions (GSDs) of exposed, open-framework gravel beds. This was done by comparing the GSDs measured with an image-based method to distributions obtained with two pebble-count methods. Selection of grains for the two pebble-count methods was carried out using a gridded sampling frame and the heel-to-toe Wolman walk method at six field sites. At each site, 500-partcle pebble-count samples were collected with each of the two pebble-count methods and digital images were systematically collected over the same sampling area. For the methods used, the pebble counts collected with the gridded sampling frame were assumed to be the most accurate representations of the true grain-size population, and results from the image-based method were compared to the grid derived GSDs for accuracy estimates; comparisons between the grid and Wolman walk methods were conducted to give an indication of possible variation between commonly used methods for each particular field site. Comparison of grain sizes were made at two spatial scales. At the larger scale, results from the image-based method were integrated over the sampling area required to collect the 500-particle pebble-count samples. At the smaller sampling scale, the image derived GSDs were compared to those from 100-particle, pebble-count samples obtained with the gridded sampling frame. The comparisons show that the image-based method performed reasonably well on five of the six study sites. For those five sites, the image-based method slightly underestimate all grain-size percentiles relative to the pebble counts collected with the gridded sampling frame. The average bias for Ψ5, Ψ50, and Ψ95 between the image and grid count methods at the larger sampling scale was 0.07Ψ, 0.04Ψ, and 0.19Ψ respectively; at the smaller sampling scale the average bias was 0.004Ψ, 0.03Ψ, and 0.18Ψ respectively. The average bias between the

  17. Development of DNA markers associated with beer foam stability for barley breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Ichikawa, Seiichiro; Ito, Kazutoshi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Traits conferring brewing quality are important objectives in malting barley breeding. Beer foam stability is one of the more difficult traits to evaluate due to the requirement for a relatively large amount of grain to be malted and then the experimental costs for subsequent brewing trials. Consequently, foam stability tends to be evaluated with only advanced lines in the final stages of the breeding process. To simplify the evaluation and selection for this trait, efficient DNA makers were developed in this study. Previous studies have suggested that the level of both of the foam-associated proteins Z4 and Z7 were possible factors that influenced beer foam stability. To confirm the relationship between levels of these proteins in beer and foam stability, 24 beer samples prepared from malt made from 10 barley cultivars, were examined. Regression analyses suggested that beer proteins Z4 and Z7 could be positive and negative markers for beer foam stability, respectively. To develop DNA markers associated with contents of proteins Z4 and Z7 in barley grain, nucleotide sequence polymorphisms in barley cultivars in the upstream region of the translation initiation codon, where the promoter region might be located were compared. As a result, 5 and 23 nucleotide sequence polymorphisms were detected in protein Z4 and protein Z7, respectively. By using these polymorphisms, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers were developed. The CAPS markers for proteins Z4 and Z7 were applied to classify the barley grain content of 23 barley cultivars into two protein Z4 (pZ4-H and pZ4-L) and three protein Z7 (the pZ7-H, pZ7-L and pZ7-L2) haplotypes, respectively. Barley cultivars with pZ4-H showed significantly higher levels of protein Z4 in grain, and those with pZ7-L and pZ7-L2 showed significantly lower levels of protein Z7 in grain. Beer foam stability in the cultivars with pZ4-H and pZ7-L was significantly higher than that with pZ4-L and pZ7-H, respectively. Our

  18. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore...... the opportunity to give a forecast of the taste of the bread, as the AA composition is known to control certain aspects of the taste. We uses a MSE approach on a time of flight instrument coupled to a UPLC and in gel digestion to identify and characterize the different D-hordeins responsible for baking quality...

  19. Analysis of grain structure evolution based on optical measurements of mc Si wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Theresa; Demant, Matthias; Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan; Rein, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Grain structure and grain competition have a strong impact on bulk lifetime in multicrystalline (mc) silicon. A fast and thorough characterization of grain structure is crucial in order to improve industrial crystal growth. This work introduces key parameters of grain structure, extracted with a newly developed image processing tool. Four bricks grown with different concepts were chosen to investigate the value of the identified key parameters and to identify characteristic developments along the brick. Optical measurements on as-cut wafers from these bricks serve as a basis to extract grain structure properties, i.e., size, shape, homogeneity and distribution of grain size. By connecting the 2D-information over brick height, a statistical insight into the entire brick is gained. Weighted percentiles of grain area offer a robust measure to characterize grain size distribution. As twinning has a large impact on grain competition, twinned grains are detected via grain shape. Additionally, regions with strong grain competition are highlighted for investigations on grain overgrowth. It is found that the share of twin grains increases with brick height in high-performance mc (HPM) silicon with fine-granular seeds from almost zero up to about 15% whereas it remains rather constant over the whole brick height in standard mc-Si. The results of the investigated bricks show clearly that towards the brick top, the material differences in grain size decrease. This suggests that an energetically favorable state may exist for grain structure development.

  20. Barley Leaf Area and Leaf Growth Rates Are Maximized during the Pre-Anthesis Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Alqudah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf developmental traits are an important component of crop breeding in small-grain cereals. Surprisingly, little is known about the genetic basis for the differences in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. leaf development. The two barley row-type classes, i.e., two- and six-rowed, show clear-cut differences in leaf development. To quantify these differences and to measure the genetic component of the phenotypic variance for the leaf developmental differences in both row-type classes we investigated 32 representative spring barley accessions (14 two- and 18 six-rowed accessions under three independent growth conditions. Leaf mass area is lower in plants grown under greenhouse (GH conditions due to fewer, smaller, and lighter leaf blades per main culm compared to pot- and soil-grown field plants. Larger and heavier leaf blades of six-rowed barley correlate with higher main culm spike grain yield, spike dry weight, and harvest index; however, smaller leaf area (LA in two-rowed barley can be attributed to more spikes, tillers, and biological yield (aboveground parts. In general, leaf growth rate was significantly higher between awn primordium and tipping stages. Moderate to very high broad-sense heritabilities (0.67–0.90 were found under all growth conditions, indicating that these traits are predominantly genetically controlled. In addition, our data suggests that GH conditions are suitable for studying leaf developmental traits. Our results also demonstrated that LA impacts single plant yield and can be reconsidered in future breeding programs. Six-rowed spike 1 (Vrs1 is the major determinate of barley row-types, the differences in leaf development between two- and six-rowed barleys may be attributed to the regulation of Vrs1 in these two classes, which needs further testing.

  1. Evaluation of qualitative and quantitative immunoassays to detect barley contamination in gluten-free beer with confirmation using LC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Laura K; Sealey Voyksner, Jennifer A; Voyksner, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    To meet the need for the detection and quantitation of barley gluten in beer, qualitative screening and quantitative immunoassays based on the monoclonal antigluten antibody 401/21 (Skerritt) were validated in a single laboratory. Sample replicates were tested at each stage of beer production using multiple yeast strains and methods of end-stage protein removal. Quantitation was performed using barley-specific standards based on barley flour extracts. Immunoassay results were confirmed using LC/MS/MS for barley-specific peptides. The LOD for the qualitative screening test was 5 mg/L barley gluten. Recovery for the barley-spiked worts ranged from 81 to 128% in the quantitative ELISA assay; the LOD was methods were found to be fit for the purposes of detection of low levels of barley gluten in beer.

  2. Dominant point detecting based non-uniform B-spline approximation for grain contour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO XiuYang; YIN YanSheng; YANG Bo

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimension reconstruction from serial sections has been used in the last decade to obtain information concerning three-dimensional microstructural geometry. One of the crucial steps of three-dimension reconstruction is getting compact and fairing grain contours. Based on the achievement of closed raw contours of ceramic composite grains by using wavelet and level set, an adaptive method is adopted for the polygonal approximation of the digitized raw contours. Instead of setting a fixed length of support region in advance, the novel method computes the suitable length of support region for each point to find the best estimated curvature. The dominant points are identified as the points with local maximum estimated curvatures. Periodic closed B-spline approximation is used to find the most compact B-spline grain boundary contours within the given tolerance. A flexible distance selection approach is adopted to obtain the common knot vector of serial contours consisting of less knots that contain enough degrees of freedom to guarantee the existence of a B-spline curve interpolating each contour. Finally, a B-spline surface interpolating the serial contours is generated via B-spline surface skinning.

  3. Dominant point detecting based non-uniform B-spline approximation for grain contour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimension reconstruction from serial sections has been used in the last decade to obtain information concerning three-dimensional microstructural ge-ometry. One of the crucial steps of three-dimension reconstruction is getting compact and fairing grain contours. Based on the achievement of closed raw con-tours of ceramic composite grains by using wavelet and level set, an adaptive method is adopted for the polygonal approximation of the digitized raw contours. Instead of setting a fixed length of support region in advance, the novel method computes the suitable length of support region for each point to find the best es-timated curvature. The dominant points are identified as the points with local maximum estimated curvatures. Periodic closed B-spline approximation is used to find the most compact B-spline grain boundary contours within the given tolerance. A flexible distance selection approach is adopted to obtain the common knot vector of serial contours consisting of less knots that contain enough degrees of freedom to guarantee the existence of a B-spline curve interpolating each contour. Finally, a B-spline surface interpolating the serial contours is generated via B-spline surface skinning.

  4. Evaluation of a method based on image analysis to obtain shape parameters in crushed sand grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Goldoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this paper is to evaluate a method based on image analysis to obtain shape parameters in crushed sand grains. There is no consensus about standards and rules for testing aggregates, the lack of methodology to prepare and conduct tests may produce incorrect results, which do not satisfactorily represent the aggregate characteristics. One way to perform these analyzes is the use of images obtained with magnifying glasses or similar equipment. To contribute to this, three experiments were prepared with samples of crushed sand from the city of Passo Fundo. The fixed and evaluated parameters were: samples preparation, zoom used for image acquisition and number of grains representative of the shape parameters. The results were statistically analyzed and significant differences were obtained to the shape factor regarding the fixed parameters, except for the number of grains needed to characterize it, which differs from the currently literature used by academic studies. According to this work it is possible to realize that it is necessary to standardize the tests for shape analysis to eliminate errors generated by the interpretation of incorrect results, which may have been generated by changes in the methodology for conducting the tests.

  5. DNA polymorphisms and haplotype patterns of transcription factors involved in barley endosperm development are associated with key agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stracke Silke

    2010-01-01

    genes only explained a minor part of the total genetic variation although they are known to be important factors influencing the expression of seed quality traits. Therefore, we assume that grain quality as well as plant height and flowering time are influenced by many factors each contributing a small part to the expression of the phenotype. A genome-wide association analysis could provide a more comprehensive picture of loci involved in the regulation of grain quality, thousand grain weight and the other agronomic traits that were analyzed in this study. However, despite available high-throughput genotyping arrays the marker density along the barely genome is still insufficient to cover all associations in a whole genome scan. Therefore, the candidate gene-based approach will further play an important role in barley association studies.

  6. From field barley to malt: detection and specification of microbial activity for quality aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noots, I; Delcour, J A; Michiels, C W

    1999-01-01

    Barley grain carries a numerous, variable, and complex microbial population that mainly consists of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi and that can partly be detected and quantified using plating methods and microscopic and molecular techniques. The extent and the activity of this microflora are determined by the altering state of the grain and the environmental conditions in the malt production chain. Three ecological systems can be distinguished: the growing cereal in the field, the dry barley grain under storage, and the germinating barley kernel during actual malting. Microorganisms interact with the malting process both by their presence and by their metabolic activity. In this respect, interference with the oxygen uptake by the barley grain and secretion of enzymes, hormones, toxins, and acids that may affect the plant physiological processes have been studied. As a result of the interaction, microorganisms can cause important losses and influence malt quality as measured by brewhouse performance and beer quality. Of particular concern is the occurrence of mycotoxins that may affect the safety of malt. The development of the microflora during malt production can to a certain extent be controlled by the selection of appropriate process conditions. Physical and chemical treatments to inactivate the microbial population on the barley grain are suggested. Recent developments, however, aim to control the microbial activity during malt production by promoting the growth of desirable microbial cultures, selected either as biocontrol agents inhibiting mycotoxin-producing molds or as starter cultures actively contributing to malt modification. Such techniques may offer natural opportunities to improve the quality and safety of malt.

  7. TILLING-BASED ANALYSIS OF DISEASE RESISTANCE GENES IN BARLEY%大麦TILLING体系在抗病基因研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡鑫; 齐新丽; 吕波; 吴佳洁; 付道林

    2012-01-01

    TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes) is a powerful reverse genetic tool widely used in many important crops. In this study, 2154 M2 mutant lines were developed from barley genotype Tamalpais' which was treated by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). A CEL I (celery juice extract) based screening system was developed. In plants, EDRl and NPRl genes regulate plant defense responses through the Salicylic acid(SA) signaling pathway. Mutants of both EDRl and NPRl genes were screened in the current M2 population. Five mutants were obtained. Two mutations occurred in the intron region; the rest three mutations included one silent mutation of the NPRl gene and two missense mutations (His351Tyr and Pro556Ser) in the EDRl gene. This work provides preliminary data to develop reverse genetics tool in Triticeae Crops.%基因组靶向定位诱导损伤技术(Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes,TILLING)是在化学诱变和PCR定向筛选基础上发展起来的检测点突变的反向遗传学研究方法,在多种重要农作物上都有应用.本研究使用化学诱变剂甲基磺酸乙酯(Ethyl methane sulfonate,EMS)处理大麦品种‘Tamalpais’,获得了2154个M2株系,同时开发了基于芹菜内切酶CEL I(celery juice extract)的酶切筛选体系.针对植物水杨酸抗病途径相关的两个重要基因EDR1和NPR1,检测到5个M2突变株系.序列分析表明,2个突变发生在内含子、1个NPR1基因的同义突变、2个EDR1基因的错义突变(His351Tyr和Pro556Ser).本项研究为麦类作物反向遗传学研究奠定了基础.

  8. Doping Effects of Rare Earth on Dielectric Properties of Fine-Grained BaTiO3-Based Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲霞; 郭炜; 吴霞宛; 王洪儒; 张志萍

    2003-01-01

    The doping effects of rare earth oxides Ho2O3 and Er2O3 on dielectric properties of BaTiO3-based ceramics were studied. After adding rare earth elements, grain growth in this system was inhibited and the grain size was reduce devidently which realized the fine-grained effect. In this system, the trivalent oxides Ho2O3 and Er2O3 were added to BaTiO3 ceramics. The rare earth oxides do not enter into inner lattice totally to replace A or B sites. Some of additives can improve dielectric strength by forming nonferroelectric phases, and the rest maintained at grain boundaries controls overgrowth of grains. The dielectric constant at room temperature is increased up to 3000 and the curve of TCC becomes flat. Meanwhile, the dielectric strength Eb becomes higher.

  9. Glycemic index of cracked corn, oat groats and rolled barley in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose-Cunilleras, E; Taylor, L E; Hinchcliff, K W

    2004-09-01

    Muscle glycogen synthesis depends on glucose availability. This study was undertaken to determine the glycemic and insulinemic response of horses to equal amounts of hydrolyzable carbohydrates (starch and sugar) in the form of one of three grain meals or intragastric administration of a glucose solution. In a randomized crossover design, seven horses were fed each of three grain meals (cracked corn, steamed oat groats, or rolled barley) or were infused intragastrically with glucose solution at 2 g of hydrolyzable carbohydrate (starch plus sugar) per kilogram of BW. The quantity of hydrolyzable carbohydrate ingested was not different among all treatments (P = 0.70). Plasma glucose concentration peaked in all four treatments by 1.5 to 2 h after feeding. Plasma glucose concentration remained higher than baseline in oat groats or barley-fed horses throughout 8 h, whereas plasma glucose returned to baseline by 5 to 6 h in corn-fed horses or after glucose administration. Meal consumption was slower in oat groats-fed horses than in corn-fed ones, which may confound the glycemic and insulinemic responses observed after grain feeding. Plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) was 63% both in corn and oat groats and 57% in barley-fed horses compared with that of horses administered glucose (P = 0.13). Serum immunoreactive insulin concentration peaked between 2 and 3 h after feeding or glucose administration, and barley-fed horses had lower serum immunoreactive insulin concentration by 3 to 4 h than corn-fed horses or after glucose administration (P oat groats, corn, and barley result in similar plasma glucose AUC and, compared with the glycemic index of 100 as the glucose reference, corn, oat groats, and barley had a glycemic index of approximately 60.

  10. Gene Targeting Without DSB Induction Is Inefficient in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Mihaly; Steinbiss, Hans-Henning; Reiss, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Double strand-break (DSB) induction allowed efficient gene targeting in barley (Hordeum vulgare), but little is known about efficiencies in its absence. To obtain such data, an assay system based on the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene was established, a target gene which had been used previously in rice and Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of recombinases RAD51 and RAD54 had been shown to improve gene targeting in A. thaliana and positive-negative (P-N) selection allows the routine production of targeted mutants without DSB induction in rice. We implemented these approaches in barley and analysed gene targeting with the ALS gene in wild type and RAD51 and RAD54 transgenic lines. In addition, P-N selection was tested. In contrast to the high gene targeting efficiencies obtained in the absence of DSB induction in A. thaliana or rice, not one single gene targeting event was obtained in barley. These data suggest that gene targeting efficiencies are very low in barley and can substantially differ between different plants, even at the same target locus. They also suggest that the amount of labour and time would become unreasonably high to use these methods as a tool in routine applications. This is particularly true since DSB induction offers efficient alternatives. Barley, unlike rice and A. thaliana has a large, complex genome, suggesting that genome size or complexity could be the reason for the low efficiencies. We discuss to what extent transformation methods, genome size or genome complexity could contribute to the striking differences in the gene targeting efficiencies between barley, rice and A. thaliana.

  11. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J

    2008-01-01

    A screening programme for crop variety competitiveness would ideally be based on only a few, non-destructive measurements of key growth traits. In this study we measured the weed suppressive ability of 79 varieties of spring barley in two ways: (i) directly, by weed coverage assessments under wee...

  12. Evaluation of a malting barley quality assessment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonkhuijsen, H.J. van; Douma, A.C.; Angelino, S.A.G.F.

    1998-01-01

    New malting barley varieties are annually tested for their malting and brewing potential according to a field trial set-up combined with quality evaluation on pilot scale. To assess the effects of trial year and location on quality evaluation data, a data base consisting of quality data from Dutch m

  13. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring i...

  14. NAC Transcription Factors of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their Involvement in Leaf Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    yielding cereal crops are generated. In cereals, the process of leaf senescence is of utmost relevance when discussing yield. It is during the senescence process that all nutrients are transported from the withering leaf to the developing grains. Furthermore, the timing of senescence determines...... parts of the senescence process. The specific aims of this study were therefore (1) to establish and characterise the NAC transcription factors of the model cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (2) to identify and study putative barley NAC transcription factors involved in the regulation of leaf...

  15. Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    Grain legumes are known to increase the soil mineral nitrogen (N) content, reduce the infection pressure of soil borne pathogens, and hence enhance subsequent cereals yields. Replicated field experiments were performed throughout W. Europe (Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy....... In the replacement design the total relative plant density is kept constant, while the additive design uses the optimal sole crop density for pea supplementing with ‘extra’ barley plants. The pea and barley crops were followed by winter wheat with and without N application. Additional experiments in Denmark...

  16. High grain diets perturb rumen and plasma metabolites and induce inflammatory responses in early lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Ametaj

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Immediately after parturition dairy cows are fed diets containing high proportions of grain which are associated with high incidence of metabolic disorders. However, the reason behind these effects is not clear. The goal of this study was to investigate metabolic and immune responses of early postpartum dairy cows to feeding increasing proportions of barley grain in the diet. Rumen endotoxin content increased several fold and rumen fluid pH was lower in cows fed the highest amount of barley grain. Results indicate that feeding high proportions of barley grain in early lactation dairy cows was associated with induction of an acute phase response and changes in multiple plasma metabolites. Further research is warranted to understand the mechanism(s by which feeding of barley grain causes disturbances in plasma metabolites and stimulates an inflammatory response in dairy cows.

  17. Screening of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsvali, Alireza; Farzaneh, Vahid; Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Zare, Zahra; Karami, Zahra; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Carvalho, Isabel. S.

    2016-10-01

    An understanding of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt is necessary for the appropriate design of equipment for the handling, shipping, dehydration, grading, sorting and warehousing of this strategic crop. Malting is a complex biotechnological process that includes steeping; germination and finally, the dehydration of cereal grains under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In this investigation, the biophysical properties of barley malt were predicted using two models of artificial neural networks as well as response surface methodology. Stepping time and germination time were selected as the independent variables and 1 000 kernel weight, kernel density and terminal velocity were selected as the dependent variables (responses). The obtained outcomes showed that the artificial neural network model, with a logarithmic sigmoid activation function, presents more precise results than the response surface model in the prediction of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of produced barley malt. This model presented the best result with 8 nodes in the hidden layer and significant correlation coefficient values of 0.783, 0.767 and 0.991 were obtained for responses one thousand kernel weight, kernel density, and terminal velocity, respectively. The outcomes indicated that this novel technique could be successfully applied in quantitative and qualitative monitoring within the malting process.

  18. Genetic Engineering of Cereal Grains with Starch Consisting of More Than 99% Amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Numerous textbooks tell us that plant starches are a mix of two starch types: amylopectin and amylose. We recently succeeded in engineering a cereal crop – a barley line – producing grain starch consisting of more than 99% amylose1. This amylose-only starch contains a high residual fraction...... that is resistant to enzymatic degradation, even when gelatinized by cooking. The barley plants producing the grains had a moderate yield loss of 25% in comparison with other barley plants of the same cultivar. We believe that the method can be applied to produce amylose-only starch in other cereal crops including...

  19. Chromosomal loci associated with endosperm hardness in a malting barley cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra K; Panozzo, J F; Ford, R; Eckermann, P; Moody, D; Lehmensiek, A; Appels, R

    2011-01-01

    A breeding objective for the malting barley industry is to produce lines with softer, plumper grain containing moderate protein content (9-12%) as they are more likely to imbibe water readily and contain more starch per grain, which in turn produces higher levels of malt extract. In a malting barley mapping population, 'Arapiles' × 'Franklin', the most significant and robust quantitative trait locus (QTL) for endosperm hardness was observed on the short arm of chromosome 1H, across three environments over two growing seasons. This accounted for 22.6% (Horsham 2000), 26.8% (Esperance 2001), and 12.0% (Tarranyurk 2001) of the genetic variance and significantly increased endosperm hardness by 2.06-3.03 SKCS hardness units. Interestingly, Arapiles and Franklin do not vary in Ha locus alleles. Therefore, this region, near the centromere on chromosome 1H, may be of great importance when aiming to manipulate endosperm hardness and malting quality. Interestingly, this region, close to the centromere on chromosome 1H, in our study, aligns with the region of the genome that includes the HvCslF9 and the HvGlb1 genes. Potentially, one or both of these genes could be considered to be candidate genes that influence endosperm hardness in the barley grain. Additional QTLs for endosperm hardness were detected on chromosomes 2H, 3H, 6H and 7H, confirming that the hardness trait in barley is complex and multigenic, similar to many malting quality traits of interest.

  20. The effect of interspecies interactions and water deficit on spring barley and red clover biomass accumulation at successive growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jastrzębska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in Olsztyn, Poland, in the period 2010–2012. The aim of the study was to examine whether soil water deficit would change biomass volume and distribution of pure sown spring barley and red clover as well as growth rate during their joint vegetation and mutual interactions. The interactions between spring barley and red clover were of a competitive character, and the cereal was the stronger crop. The strength of this competition increased in time with the growing season. Through most of the growing season, the competition was poorer in water deficit conditions. The impact of clover on barley before the heading stage showed facilitation symptoms. Interspecific competition reduced the rate of barley biomass accumulation and decreased stem and leaf biomass towards the end of the growing season. Intensified translocation of assimilates from the vegetative parts to grain minimized the decrease in spike biomass. Water deficit stress had a more inhibitory effect on the biomass and growth rate of barley than competition, and competition did not exacerbate the adverse influence of water deficit stress on barley. Competition from barley significantly reduced the biomass and biomass accumulation rate of clover. Water deficit stress did not exacerbate barley’s competitive effect on clover, but it strongly inhibited the growth of aboveground biomass in pure-sown clover.

  1. Path to Support Development of Production and Operation of Big Grain Production Households - Based on Investigation of Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiu-li; Wang Yu-qing; Ji He-wen; Yin Bao-hua; Tan Hong-yu

    2015-01-01

    Developing production and operation in scales in the major grain producing areas is the direction of the paper. Seizing the opportunity of modern agriculture comprehensive reform in two plains (Songnen Plain and Sanjiang Plain) of Heilongjiang Province and supporting to build a new type of production and management based on the big grain production householding, which plays demonstration and leading roles, have an important strategic position in improving agricultural comprehensive production capacity and ensuring national food security. In this paper, based on the survey data about the big grain production households production operations and analyses of the obstacles in expansion of production in Heilongjiang Province, specific suggestions in supporting the development of the big grain production household were put forward, such as, increasing agricultural production socialized level;perfecting the service system of land transferring; improving financial policies and farmer-friendly policy measures and perfecting the agriculture socialized service system.

  2. Zinc absorption from low phytic acid genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and Rice (Oryza sativa L.) assessed in a suckling rat pup model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Mendoza, Concepcion; Brown, Kenneth H; Rutger, J Neil; Raboy, Victor

    2011-05-11

    Dietary phytic acid is a major causative factor for low Zn bioavailability in many cereal- and legume-based diets. The bioavailability of Zn in seed of low phytic acid (lpa) variants of maize ( Zea mays L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) was evaluated using a suckling rat pup model. Suckling rat pups (14 days old, n = 6-8/treatment) were fasted for 6 h and intubated with (65)Zn-radiolabeled suspensions prepared using seed produced by either wild-type (normal phytic acid) or lpa genotypes of each cereal. Test solutions were radiolabeled overnight (all genotypes) or immediately prior to intubation (barley genotypes). Pups were killed 6 h postintubation and tissues removed and counted in a gamma counter. Zn absorption was low from wild-type genotypes of maize (21, 33%) and rice (26%), and phytic acid reduction resulted in significantly higher Zn absorption, 47-52 and 35-52%, respectively. Zn absorption from wild-type barley incubated overnight was high (86-91%), and phytate reduction did not improve Zn absorption (84-90%), which is likely due to endogenous phytase activity. When the wild-type barley solutions were prepared immediately before intubation, Zn absorption was significantly lower (63, 78%) than from the lpa cultivars (92, 96%). Variation in seed or flour phenolic acid levels did not affect Zn absorption. Differences in seed Zn levels did not substantially affect Zn absorption. Thus, when phytic acid is abundant in a diet, it has a larger effect on Zn absorption than the level of Zn. Therefore, reducing the phytic acid content of staple cereal grains may contribute to enhancing Zn nutrition of populations consuming these staple foods.

  3. Mechanisms regulating grain contamination with trichothecenes translocated from the stem base of wheat (Triticum aestivum) infected with Fusarium culmorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Mark; Koopmann, Birger; Döll, Katharina; Karlovsky, Petr; Kropf, Ute; Schlüter, Klaus; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Factors limiting trichothecene contamination of mature wheat grains after Fusarium infection are of major interest in crop production. In addition to ear infection, systemic translocation of deoxynivalenol (DON) may contribute to mycotoxin levels in grains after stem base infection with toxigenic Fusarium spp. However, the exact and potential mechanisms regulating DON translocation into wheat grains from the plant base are still unknown. We analyzed two wheat cultivars differing in susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB), which were infected at the stem base with Fusarium culmorum in climate chamber experiments. Fungal DNA was found only in the infected stem base tissue, whereas DON and its derivative, DON-3-glucoside (D3G), were detected in upper plant parts. Although infected stem bases contained more than 10,000 μg kg⁻¹ dry weight (DW) of DON and mean levels of DON after translocation in the ear and husks reached 1,900 μg kg⁻¹ DW, no DON or D3G was detectable in mature grains. D3G quantification revealed that DON detoxification took mainly place in the stem basis, where ≤ 50% of DON was metabolized into D3G. Enhanced expression of a gene putatively encoding a uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase (GenBank accession number FG985273) was observed in the stem base after infection with F. culmorum. Resistance to F. culmorum stem base infection, DON glycosylation in the stem base, and mycotoxin translocation were unrelated to cultivar resistance to FHB. Histological studies demonstrated that the vascular transport of DON labeled with fluorescein as a tracer from the peduncle to the grain was interrupted by a barrier zone at the interface between grain and rachilla, formerly described as "xylem discontinuity". This is the first study to demonstrate the effective control of influx of systemically translocated fungal mycotoxins into grains at the rachilla-seed interface by the xylem discontinuity tissue in wheat ears.

  4. Grain size effect on the thermal-induced martensitic transformation in polycrystalline Cu-based shape memory alloys

    OpenAIRE

    la Roca, Paulo Matías; Isola, Lucio Manuel; Sobrero, Cesar Enrique; Vermaut, P.; Malarria, Jorge Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In Cu-based SMA alloys, the grain size (d) effect on the martensitic transformation temperature was investigated for a wide range of d. Specimens were prepared by different heat treatments in order to create a range of grain sizes, from about 500 nm (ribbons and tapes obtained by rapid solidification techniques) up to 6 mm diameter single-crystals (grown by the Bridgman method). Information obtained from the literature was also included in the set of analyzed experimental data. The reduction ...

  5. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable....... A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling seed...... dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was identified...

  6. Effect of Soil Erosion on Spring Barley Growth in East Anglia,England:Preliminary Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUXI-XI; Y.BIOT

    1994-01-01

    The effect of soil erosion on spring barley growth was studied on a deep loamy soil in East Anglia,England,in 1992,Soil erosion was simulated by three levels of soil desurfacing,7.5,18and 30cm with three replicates.Significant differences in crop height,ground cover and crop yield were observed between the three levels of desurfacing.Soil desurfacing also has a singnificant effect on soil moisture at the 20cm depth.The interaction between soil removal and crop performance affected soil moisture at the depths of 50 and 100cm,No significant differences were found in runoff and sediment etween the three topsoil removals due to very dry growing season.Regression equations were developed between spring barley yield and soil desurfacing Spring barley grain yield declined by 97.6kg/ha per cm soil desurfacing.

  7. A general end point free energy calculation method based on microscopic configurational space coarse-graining

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Pu

    2015-01-01

    Free energy is arguably the most important thermodynamic property for physical systems. Despite the fact that free energy is a state function, presently available rigorous methodologies, such as those based on thermodynamic integration (TI) or non-equilibrium work (NEW) analysis, involve energetic calculations on path(s) connecting the starting and the end macrostates. Meanwhile, presently widely utilized approximate end-point free energy methods lack rigorous treatment of conformational variation within end macrostates, and are consequently not sufficiently reliable. Here we present an alternative and rigorous end point free energy calculation formulation based on microscopic configurational space coarse graining, where the configurational space of a high dimensional system is divided into a large number of sufficiently fine and uniform elements, which were termed conformers. It was found that change of free energy is essentially decided by change of the number of conformers, with an error term that accounts...

  8. GIS-based spatial decision support system for grain logistics management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Tong; Ge, Hongyi; Jiang, Yuying; Che, Yi

    2010-07-01

    Grain logistics is the important component of the social logistics, which can be attributed to frequent circulation and the great quantity. At present time, there is no modern grain logistics distribution management system, and the logistics cost is the high. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been widely used for spatial data manipulation and model operations and provide effective decision support through its spatial database management capabilities and cartographic visualization. In the present paper, a spatial decision support system (SDSS) is proposed to support policy makers and to reduce the cost of grain logistics. The system is composed of two major components: grain logistics goods tracking model and vehicle routing problem optimization model and also allows incorporation of data coming from external sources. The proposed system is an effective tool to manage grain logistics in order to increase the speed of grain logistics and reduce the grain circulation cost.

  9. Properties of grain boundaries in BCC iron and iron-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terentyev, D.; He, Xinfu

    2010-08-15

    The report contains a summary of work done within the collaboration established between SCK-CEN and CIEA, performed during the internship of Xinfu He (CIAE) in the period of September 2009 to June 2010. In this work, we have carried out an atomistic study addressing the properties of grain boundaries in BCC Fe and Fe-Cr alloys. Throughout this work we report on the structural and cohesive properties of grain boundaries; thermal stability; interaction of grain boundaries with He and diffusivity of He in the core of the grain boundaries; equilibrium segregation of Cr near the grain boundary zone; cleavage fracture of grain boundaries; influence of the Cr precipitates, voids and He bubbles on the structure and strength of grain boundaries.

  10. Capacity of Fusarium species isolated from brewer's barley to synthesise zearalenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Fusarium, known as toxigenic species, are very of- ten parasites and contaminants of brewer's barley. In this paper, the composition of the genus Fusarium species in brewer's barley samples and their potential in the zearalenone synthesis were investigated. The tests were done on different brewer's barley varieties, crop 2003, samples (SSK1, SSK2, SSK3 SSK4, SSK5, SSK6, SSK7, SSK8, SSK9, SSK10 and SSK12 from Kragujevac locality. The isolation and identification of the Fusarium species were done according to the methods described by N e l s o n et al. (1983. The identified Fusarium species (6 were tested for their capacity to synthesise zearalenone. The isolates were cultivated on sterilised barley grains at the temperature of 25°C for 14 days, and then the zearalenone concentration was determined by the fluorometric method on the fluorometer "VI- CAM" series 4. The following seven Fusarium species were isolated from barley samples: F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. tricinctum. F. poae was the most distributed species (10.26%. The zearalenone concentration within the range of 12.0 to 430.0 g kg-1 was determined in cultures of barley grain inoculated with F. avenacuem (SSK6 and SSK12, F. culmorum (SSK8, F. tricinctum (SSK1, F. sporotrichioides (SSK7 and SSK12 and F. poae (SSK5, SSK9 and SSK10. Isolates of F. equiseti (SSK2 and F. poae (SSK6 did not express capacity to synthesise this toxic metabolite.

  11. Evaluation of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Tolerance to Metribuzine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi Darbandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of barely and wheat cultivars tolerance to metribuzin, a factorial experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with three replications in Greenhouse of Agricultural Research at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included wheat cultivars (Backcross roshan, Cross Arvand, Bahar, Sepahan, Gascosion, Sayonez, Bam garmsiry, Garmsiri, Ghods, Pishtaz, Chamran and Shoori 6, barely cultivars (Macouyi, Karoon and Bahman and metribuzin application rates ( 0, 175, 350, 700, 1050, 1400 and 2100 gr. ai.ha-1. Metribuzine was applied at 3-4 leaf stage and 3 weeks after herbicide spraying, plants survival and their biomass were determined. Results showed that metribuzin application had a significant effect (p≤0.01 on barley and wheat dry weight. Based on results, mertibuzin application did not affect on barley cultivars up to 30 g.a.i.ha-1 but in wheat varieties lead to significant reduction in their biomass and survival. Increasing of metribuzin rates reduced wheat and barley cultivars biomass (p≤0.01. Barely varieties were less sensitive than wheat cultivars to metribuzine. The highest and the lowest ED50 in wheat cultivars were observed in cross arvand (940 and shoori (25 varieties, respectively. In barley cultivars the highest and lowest ED50 were observed in Macouyi (614 and Karoon (396, respectively.

  12. Assessment of genetic diversity among barley cultivars and breeding lines adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and its implications in breeding barley for imidazolinone-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Rustgi

    Full Text Available Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the 'Bob' barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, since it comprises ∼23% (335,000 ha of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the 'Bob' AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29-53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358-471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158-2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%-90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed.

  13. Possible application of brewer’s spent grain in biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Jelena D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain is the major by-product in beer production. It is produced in large quantities (20 kg per 100 liters of produced beer throughout the year at a low cost or no cost, and due to its high protein and carbohydrates content it can be used as a raw material in biotechnology. Biotechnological processes based on renewable agro-industrial by-products have ecological (zero CO2 emission, eco-friendly by-products and economical (cheap raw materials and reduction of storage costs advantages. The use of brewer’s spent grain is still limited, being basically used as animal feed. Researchers are trying to improve the application of brewer’s spent grain by finding alternative uses apart from the current general use as an animal feed. Its possible applications are in human nutrition, as a raw material in biotechnology, energy production, charcoal production, paper manufacture, as a brick component, and adsorbent. In biotechnology brewer’s spent grain could be used as a substrate for cultivation of microorganisms and enzyme production, additive of yeast carrier in beer fermentation, raw material in production of lactic acid, bioethanol, biogas, phenolic acids, xylitol, and pullulan. Some possible applications for brewer’s spent grain are described in this article including pre-treatment conditions (different procedures for polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and cellulose hydrolysis, working microorganisms, fermentation parameters and obtained yields. The chemical composition of brewer’s spent grain varies according to barley variety, harvesting time, malting and mashing conditions, and a quality and type of unmalted raw material used in beer production. Brewer’s spent grain is lignocellulosic material rich in protein and fibre, which account for approximately 20 and 70% of its composition, respectively.

  14. Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Maize (Zea maize L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possess a significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) possess little or virtually no pre-formed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during...

  15. Long-term influence of feeding barley treated with lactic acid and heat on performance and energy balance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Leonhard; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Humer, Elke; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief M; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2017-02-01

    The study evaluated the long-term influence of feeding ground barley treated with lactic acid (LA) alone or with LA and heat on performance, energy and protein balance in dairy cows. Thirty cows were fed three diets differing in the treatment of barley grain, either unprocessed ground barley (Control), ground barley steeped in 1% LA at room temperature (LA-treated barley) or ground barley steeped in 1% LA with an additional heating at 55°C (LAH-treated barley). Cows were studied from week 3 to 17 post-partum. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and composition and body weight (BW) were measured daily. Estimated energy and protein balances were calculated and blood samples were collected three times during the experiment and analysed for common metabolites of energy and lipid metabolism. Digestibility of different treated barley and other dietary ingredients was investigated in vivo using four wethers. The treatment of barley with LA and LAH increased the digestibility of organic matter (OM) by approximately 5% and the content of metabolisable energy by 0.5-0.6 MJ/kg DM. Data showed no effect of feeding diets containing LA- or LAH-treated barley at 39% of DM on overall DMI, BW, BW change, milk production and composition and on the blood variables studied. Diet influenced the estimated balances of net energy of lactation (p balances. In conclusion, feeding diets containing LA- or LAH-treated barley had no influence on performance, milk composition and blood metabolites, but LA treatment without heat seems to improve the energy balance of cows.

  16. Refining The Grain: Using Resident-Based Walkability Audits To Better Understand Walkable Urban Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Evers, Cody; Moreno, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Researchers use measures of street connectivity to assess neighborhood walkability and many studies show a relationship between neighborhood design and walking activity. Yet, the core of those connectivity measures are based on constructs designed for analyzing automobile mobility – the street network - not pedestrian movement. This paper examines the effect of a finer grained characterization of street connectivity and illustrates the idea using parent ratings of street and intersection walkability for children throughout a suburban school district in Oregon. Several policy and practice recommendations are presented, including a discussion that extends Michael Southworth’s (1993; 2005) foundational representation of streets and the walkable city using a refined, more pedestrian-centered approach to visualizing connectivity and walkable urban form. PMID:27668012

  17. 我国粮食安全测度方法设计--基于FAO对粮食安全的定义%Design of national grain security evaluation methods:based on the definition of grain security by FAO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜为公; 李艳芳; 徐李

    2014-01-01

    针对全球粮食生产产量下降和粮食供需的不平衡,本研究基于FAO对粮食安全的定义,设计了我国粮食安全测度方法。粮食安全测度包括“国家粮食安全”,“家庭粮食安全”,“粮食营养安全”三项指标。考虑未来粮食安全的风险,还包括“数量安全”,“质量安全”,“生态安全”三个方面指标。%Facing the global issues about decline of grain production along with the imbalance of grain distribution , this research elicits the evaluation methods of national grain security , based on the definition of grain security by FAO.Grain Security Evaluation ,which is known to be made up by three main components:National Grain Security , Household Grain Security and Nutritional Grain Security , should not exclude another three important parts , which are Quantitative Security ,Quality Security and Ecological Security ,in order to get ready for the risks about grain se-curity we may need to .undertake in the future .

  18. 酸法提取青稞麸皮结合酚工艺优化%Optimization of combined phenols extraction with sulfuric acid from hulless barley bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐菲; 杨希娟; 党斌; 赵亚东; 吴昆仑; 迟德钊

    2016-01-01

    about the phenolic in hulless barley are of great significance. Free form, soluble combined form and insoluble combined form are the 3 main states of polyphenols in grain, and combined form is the most common state of polyphenols in grain. Research found that when respectively using acid and alkaline hydrolysis to extract combined phenols from lychee, different type and content were obtained, and the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the former were higher than the latter; a similar result was also obtained when using wheat as raw material, but related researches on combined phenol of hulless barley have not yet been reported. In order to further develop the most characteristics crop on the Tibetan plateau, taking hulless barley as the raw material, central composite design was used to optimize the extraction process of combined phenols based on the single factor experiments in this paper. Different extraction reagents, NaOH, HCl and H2SO4were compared and H2SO4solution was selected as the best extraction reagent. Acid concentration, extraction pH value, solid-liquid ratio, and extraction temperature were studied with combined phenols content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity as indices. Solid-liquid ratio, acid concentration and extraction temperature were selected as 3 factors when using Box-Behnken central composite design to optimize the extraction parameters. Results showed that the optimum extraction parameters should be as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:17 g/mL, acid concentration of 11.10%, and extraction temperature of 75℃. Under the condition, polyphenol content was 224.33 mg/(100 g) and DPPH radical scavenging capacity was 9 919.28μmol/(100 g) which were consistent with predicted values and significantly better than rice, wheat and oat. High performance liquid chromatography was used to detect this optimum extract and 8 kinds of phenolic acids and 8 kinds of flavonoids were found using acid method , such as, gallic acid, 2,4-dihydroxy

  19. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  20. Uzu mutation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reduces the leaf unrolling response to brassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ichiro; Zeniya, Haruko; Yoneyama, Koichi; Chono, Makiko; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2003-05-01

    A sensitive method to examine the brassinolide (BL) response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using dark-grown leaf segments was established based on the known method for wheat. BL responses of 53 dwarf isogenic lines of barley were examined, and two lines were found having a uzu gene that doesn't respond significantly. These results indicate that uzu dwarfism may be caused by the non-responding character to BL.

  1. A comparison of controlled self-pollination and open pollination results based on maize grain quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sulewska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. grain endosperm is triploid (3n, of which 2n come from the male (transferred by pollen and only 1n from the female plant, thus a major impact of the male form can be expected on grain quality parameters. A good example of this relationship is the phenomenon of xenia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pollen on grain quality. The field experiment was conducted in 2011; seeds were harvested from eight cultivars: Bosman, Blask, Tur, Kozak, Bielik, Smok, SMH 220 and Kresowiak, derived from free pollination and controlled self-pollination of maize. Analyses of nutrient contents and starch content in the grain were conducted in the laboratory. In addition, 1000 grain weight and the hectoliter weight of all grain samples were recorded. The results confirmed differences in grain quality of maize hybrids obtained by self-pollination and by open pollination. Grain of maize plants obtained by open-pollination was characterised by higher contents of N-free extract and starch, and lower protein content. Undertaking further studies on this subject may indicate specific recommendations for agricultural practice, such as mixtures of hybrids with good combining abilities, which will contribute to improved grain quality without additional costs.

  2. Grain Boundary Engineering for Assessing Durability and Aging Issues with Nickel-Based Superalloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Grain Boundary Engineering (GBE) approach, successfully demonstrated in Phase I, that microstructural optimization provides a very significant improvement in...

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF GENUS Triticum, SENSU LATO AND SENSU STRICTO, BASED ON SPIKE AND GRAIN MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo P. STOYANOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of the present classifications of species of the genus Triticum associates mainly with several plant morphological factors such as fragility of the spikes spindle, grains threshability, grain sphericity, shape and position of glumes, lemmas and paleas and awns, compactness, etc. Special attention is paid to the factor "cultural/wild" form, the ploidy and the genomic constitution of the species, often supported by molecular data which provides considerable comfort in disclosing phylogenetic features in a particular taxonomic unit. Such taxonomic determination is associated with certain disadvantages. It is not sufficiently focused on the spike morphology related to the reproductive apparatus of the plant, and also the causes of phylogenetic differentiation of certain parameters, such as spike branching, multiple spikelets, as well as the ratios of quantitative properties. The existing classifications do not give a precise answer to the taxonomic position of amphidiploids in the genus Triticum, and also for those obtained from hybrid combinations with genera Aegilops, Secale, Haynaldia, Hordeum, Elymus, Leymus, Elytrigia, Agropyron, as transitional and similar forms. Based on studies of spike and grain morphology of a large number of representatives of the genus Triticum and other interspecific and intergeneric amphidiploid forms, a classification of the genus sensu lato and sensu stricto is composed. Sensu stricto, genus Triticum covers all existing wild and cultivated known wheat forms, together with interspecific artificial synthetic forms. Sensu lato, the genus includes intergeneric hybrids, for which a specific generic epithet was coined - ×Triticum, and also a specific epithet, consistent with the originator of the amphidiploid. Special attention was paid to species and amphidiploids with the genus Aegilops. Classification sensu strictissimo was also formulated where the genus Triticum brings together only diploid species

  4. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles and fibrolytic enzymes on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and fibrolytic enzymes (FE) on ruminal fermentation, in situ ruminal and in vivo total tract digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 6 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 794 ± 44.2 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were a control diet consisting of 50% barley silage, 10% grass hay, and 40% barley grain-based concentrate (CON) and the CON with 15% DDGS substituted for barley grain (WDG) combined with either 0, 1, or 2 mL FE/kg diet DM, respectively. Inclusion of DDGS increased total tract digestibility of CP ( effects of DDGS inclusion or FE on ruminal pH or VFA concentration except that propionate was greater ( = 0.04) with the WDG. In situ ruminal DM and NDF disappearance of barley silage was greater ( < 0.04) in heifers fed the WDG than in heifers fed the CON after 24 h of incubation. Increasing FE linearly ( = 0.03) increased in situ NDF disappearance of barley silage after 24 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 120 weaned steers (initial BW of 289 ± 11.0 kg) were fed diets similar to those in Exp. 1. The steers fed the WDG had greater ( < 0.01) final BW, ADG, DMI, and G:F compared with steers fed the CON. Increasing FE did not alter ADG or G:F but tended ( < 0.07) to linearly decrease DMI. There were interactions ( < 0.02) between DDGS and FE on eating rate and the time spent at the feed bunk. Supplementing FE decreased ( < 0.01) time at the bunk and increased ( < 0.01) eating rate for steers fed the WDG but not for steers fed the CON. Eating rate ( < 0.01) and meal frequency ( = 0.02) were greater but eating duration was shorter ( < 0.01) for steers fed the WDG than for those fed the CON. These results indicate that inclusion of wheat DDGS in a growing diet increased total tract digestibility of NDF and CP and improved the

  5. Environmental impacts of barley cultivation under current and future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Saxe, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the environmental impacts of spring barley cultivation in Denmark under current (year 2010) and future (year 2050) climatic conditions. Therefore, a Life Cycle Assessment was carried out for the production of 1 kg of spring barley in Denmark, at farm gate....... Both under 2010 and 2050 climatic conditions, four subscenarios were modelled, based on a combination of two soil types and two climates. Included in the assessment were seed production, soil preparation, fertilization, pesticide application, and harvest. When processes in the life cycle resulted in co...... categories, except human and freshwater eco-toxicity, are higher when the barley is produced under climatic circumstances representative for 2050. Comparison of the 2010 and 2050 climatic scenarios indicates that a predicted decrease in barley yields under the 2050 climatic conditions is the main driver...

  6. Molecular characterization of two lipoxygenases from barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechelen, J.R. van; Schuurink, R.C.; Smits, M.; Graner, A.; Douma, A.C.; Sedee, N.J.A.; Schmitt, N.F.; Valk, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two full-length lipoxygenase cDNA sequences (LoxB and LoxC) from barley (Hordeum distichum cv. L. Triumph) are described. The cDNAs share high homology with the barley LoxA cDNA. Southern blotting experiments indicate single copy numbers of the three lipoxygenase genes. RFLP mapping revealed the pre

  7. Analysis of alkylresorcinols in wheat germ oil and barley germ oil via HPLC and flourescence detection: Cochromatography with tocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkylresorcinols are long chain phenolic compounds that have been reported to be localized in the outer layers of the kernels of wheat, rye, barley and other grains. A sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection was recently reported for the quantitative analysis of alkylresorcinols in cereal...

  8. Synthesis, processing and export of cytoplasmic endo-ß-1,4-xylanase from barley aleurone during germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspers, M.P.M.; Lok, F.; Sinjorgo, K.M.C.; Zeijl, M. van; Nielsen, K.A.; Cameron-Mills, V.

    2001-01-01

    We have identified the major endo-β-l,4-xylanase (XYN-1) in the aleurone of germinating barley grain, and show that it is expressed as a precursor of Mr 61 500 with both N- and C-terminal propeptides. XYN-1 is synthesized as an inactive enzyme in the cytoplasm, and only becomes active at a late stag

  9. Experimental Investigation of Polycrystalline Material Deformation Based on a Grain Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi-De; YANG Yan; WEI Cheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ We propose an experimental approach for investigation of the polycrystalline deformation behaviour at a grain scale. The technique is characterized by the joint application of micro material testing systems and the intragranular deformation analysis methods. It is attempting to map the deformation evolution at grain scale during the elastic and plastic deformations of polycrystalline specimens.

  10. Role of grain orientation in the failure of Sn-based solder joints under thermomechanical fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing HAN; Hongtao CHEN; Mingyu LI

    2012-01-01

    A small Pb-free solder joint exhibits an extremely strong anisotropy due to the bodycentered tetragonal (BCT) lattice structure of β-Sn.Grain orientations can significantly influence the failure mode of Pb-free solder joints under thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) due to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch of β-Sn grains.The research work in this paper focused on the microstructure and damage evolution of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu BGA packages as well as individual Sn3.5Ag solder joints without constraints introduced by the package structure under TMF tests.The microstructure and damage evolution in cross-sections of solder joints under thermomechanical shock tests were characterized using optical microscopy with cross-polarized light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM),and orientations of Sn grains were determined by orientation imaging microscopy (OIM).During TMF,obvious recrystallization regions were observed with different thermomechanical responses depending on Sn grain orientations.It indicates that substantial stresses can build up at grain boundaries,leading to significant grain boundary sliding.The results show that recrystallized grains prefer to nucleate along pre-existing high-angle grain boundaries and fatigue cracks tend to propagate intergranularly in recrystallized regions,leading to an accelerated damage after recrystallization.

  11. Influence of Grain Boundary on Fatigue Behavior of Ni-base Bicrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the grain boundary on the fatigue behavior was studied by two three-point-bending (TPB) specimens.One TPB specimen was named Bicrystal 1, whose pre-crack was along the grain boundary and the applied loadparalleled to pre-crack direction, while the other TPB specimen was named Bicrystal 2, whose the pre-crack wasperpendicular to the grain boundary and the applied load paralleled also to the pre-crack. It was found that the rateof the fatigue crack growth of Bicrystal 1 was about a tenfold higher than that of Bicrystal 2. The fatigue behaviorof Bicrystal 2 specimens was dependent on the distance between the crack tip and grain boundary. The crack growthrate was highest when the crack tip was at a critical distance to the grain boundary, while the rate was the lowestwhen the crack tip reached grain boundary. After the crack was over the grain boundary, the crack growth rateincreased. The crystallographic finite element method was applied to analyze the stress and strain structure aheadof the crack, in order to reveal the above characteristics of the fatigue behavior. It is the grain boundary-inducedredistribution of stresses near the crack tip that induces the difference of fatigue behavior.

  12. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  13. Grain-Size Based Additivity Models for Scaling Multi-rate Uranyl Surface Complexation in Subsurface Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Liu, Chongxuan; Hu, Bill X.; Hu, Qinhong

    2016-07-01

    This study statistically analyzed a grain-size based additivity model that has been proposed to scale reaction rates and parameters from laboratory to field. The additivity model assumed that reaction properties in a sediment including surface area, reactive site concentration, reaction rate, and extent can be predicted from field-scale grain size distribution by linearly adding reaction properties for individual grain size fractions. This study focused on the statistical analysis of the additivity model with respect to reaction rate constants using multi-rate uranyl (U(VI)) surface complexation reactions in a contaminated sediment as an example. Experimental data of rate-limited U(VI) desorption in a stirred flow-cell reactor were used to estimate the statistical properties of multi-rate parameters for individual grain size fractions. The statistical properties of the rate constants for the individual grain size fractions were then used to analyze the statistical properties of the additivity model to predict rate-limited U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment, and to evaluate the relative importance of individual grain size fractions to the overall U(VI) desorption. The result indicated that the additivity model provided a good prediction of the U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment. However, the rate constants were not directly scalable using the additivity model, and U(VI) desorption in individual grain size fractions have to be simulated in order to apply the additivity model. An approximate additivity model for directly scaling rate constants was subsequently proposed and evaluated. The result found that the approximate model provided a good prediction of the experimental results within statistical uncertainty. This study also found that a gravel size fraction (2-8mm), which is often ignored in modeling U(VI) sorption and desorption, is statistically significant to the U(VI) desorption in the sediment.

  14. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  15. 青稞酒糟对紫花苜蓿和多年生黑麦草混合青贮发酵品质的影响%Effect of adding wet hulless barley distillers' grains on fermentation quality of mixed ensilage of alfalfa and perennial ryegrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春旺; 原现军; 李君风; 闻爱友; 白晰; 肖慎华; 郭刚; 魏化敬; 邵涛

    2016-01-01

    [Objectives] The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding different ratios of wet hulless barley distillers' grains(WHBDG) on the fermentation qualities of mixed ensilage of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)(3∶7).[Methods] The treatments were as follows:control (without WHBDG)and three treatments of different WHBDG addition rations(10%,20%,30% of fresh weight).These silos were opened 7,14,30 and 60 days after ensiling and the fermentation quality was analyzed.[Results] The results showed the WHBGD improved the mixed silage fermentation quality,as indicated by a sharp accumulation of lactic acid (LA),faster decline of pH,and the treatments of PAW20 and PAW30 markedly increased the concentrations of LA and decreased pH when compared with the control.The content of acetic acid was gradually decreasing with the WHBDG ratio increasing,and the lactic acid/acetic acid of treatments was higher than that of control,indicating the homofermentative lactic bacteria held a dominant position in the silage.The contents of propionic acid and butyric acid of treatments were very low(<2 g· kg-1)and the ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen of them was lower than that of control.These results indicated that WHBDG addition effectively reduced the loss of water soluble carbohydrate.[Conclusions] Taking fermentation quality and rational utilization of resources into account,it was suggested that PAW20 treatment was the most suitable choice.%[目的]本文旨在研究添加不同比例的青稞酒糟对紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativaL.)和多年生黑麦草(Lolium perenne L.)(质量比为3∶7)混合青贮发酵品质的影响.[方法]试验设对照组(CK)与10% (PAW10)、20% (PAW20)和30% (PAW30)青稞酒糟添加水平处理组,分别在青贮后7、14、30和60d打开实验室青贮窖,取样分析青贮饲料发酵品质.[结果]与对照相比,青稞酒糟添加组提高了乳酸含量,降低了pH值,其中PAW20

  16. Culture-Based Arts Education That Teaches against the Grain: A Model for Place-Specific Material Culture Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bequette, James W.

    2014-01-01

    When 50 Midwest teachers in two public schools and one Reservation school worked in respectful, knowledgeable, and power-sharing ways with local Indigenous elders, artists, and academics, the outcome was often culture-based arts education that teaches against the grain. This collaboration and the culturally responsive pedagogy it inspired led to…

  17. High-level expression of the native barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Pernille Ollendorff; Ostergaard, Peter Rahbek; Lange, Lene;

    2008-01-01

    An expression system for high-level expression of the native Hordeum vulgare alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) has been developed in Pichia pastoris, using the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. To optimize expression, two codon-optimized coding regions have been designed...... and characterized by Edman degradation, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and insoluble blue starch assay, and was shown to possess the same characteristics as wild-type protein purified from barley grains....

  18. HydrogeoSieveXL: an Excel-based tool to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain-size analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, J. F.

    2015-06-01

    For over a century, hydrogeologists have estimated hydraulic conductivity ( K) from grain-size distribution curves. The benefits of the practice are simplicity, cost, and a means of identifying spatial variations in K. Many techniques have been developed over the years, but all suffer from similar shortcomings: no accounting of heterogeneity within samples (i.e., aquifer structure is lost), loss of grain packing characteristics, and failure to account for the effects of overburden pressure on K. In addition, K estimates can vary by an order of magnitude between the various methods, and it is not generally possible to identify the best method for a given sample. The drawbacks are serious, but the advantages have seen the use of grain-size distribution curves for K estimation continue, often using a single selected method to estimate K in a given project. In most cases, this restriction results from convenience. It is proposed here that extending the analysis to include several methods would be beneficial since it would provide a better indication of the range of K that might apply. To overcome the convenience limitation, an Excel-based spreadsheet program, HydrogeoSieveXL, is introduced here. HydrogeoSieveXL is a freely available program that calculates K from grain-size distribution curves using 15 different methods. HydrogeoSieveXL was found to calculate K values essentially identical to those reported in the literature, using the published grain-size distribution curves.

  19. Synergism of Cattle and Bison Inoculum on Ruminal Fermentation and Select Bacterial Communities in an Artificial Rumen (Rusitec) Fed a Barley Straw Based Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oss, Daniela B.; Ribeiro, Gabriel O.; Marcondes, Marcos I.; Yang, WenZhu; Beauchemin, Karen A.; Forster, Robert J.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of increasing the proportion of bison relative to cattle inoculum on fermentation and microbial populations within an artificial rumen (Rusitec). The experiment was a completely randomized design with a factorial treatment structure (proportion cattle:bison inoculum; 0:100, 33:67, 67:33, and 100:0) replicated in two Rusitec apparatuses (n = 8 fermenters). The experiment was 15 d with 8 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling. Fermenters were fed a diet of 70:30 barley straw:concentrate (DM basis). True digestibility of DM was determined after 48 h of incubation from d 13 to 15, and daily ammonia (NH3) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production were measured on d 9–12. Protozoa counts were determined at d 9, 11, 13, and 15 and particle-associated bacteria (PAB) from d 13 to 15. Select bacterial populations in the PAB were measured using RT-qPCR. Fermenter was considered the experimental unit and day of sampling as a repeated measure. Increasing the proportion of bison inoculum resulted in a quadratic effect (P 0.05). Increasing bison inoculum linearly increased (P < 0.05) concentrate aNDF disappearance, total and concentrate N disappearance as well as total daily VFA and acetate production. A positive quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed for daily NH3-N, propionate, butyrate, valerate, isovalerate and isobutyrate production, as well as the acetate:propionate ratio. Increasing the proportion of bison inoculum linearly increased (P < 0.05) total protozoa numbers. No effects were observed on pH, total gas and methane production, microbial N synthesis, or copies of 16S rRNA associated with total bacteria, Selenomonas ruminantium or Prevotella bryantii. Increasing bison inoculum had a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on Fibrobacter succinogenes, and tended to linearly (P < 0.10) increase Ruminococcus flavefaciens and decrease (P < 0.05) Ruminococcus albus copy numbers. In conclusion, bison inoculum increased the degradation of feed protein

  20. Intake and digestion of whole-crop barley and wheat silages by dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustas, B-O; Bertilsson, J; Martinsson, K; Elverstedt, T; Nadeau, E

    2011-12-01

    The effect of maturity at harvest on the digestibility and intake of large bale silage made from whole-crop barley and wheat when fed to growing heifers was evaluated. Two crops of spring barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Filippa and Kinnan) and 1 of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Olevin) were harvested at the heading, milk, and dough stages of maturity. The silage was fed to 36 dairy heifers in a balanced crossover experiment with 3 periods and 9 treatments (diets based on 3 crops and 3 stages of maturity), organized into 6 pairs of 3 × 3 Latin squares. No clear relationship was observed between intake and stage of maturity of whole-crop cereal silage, but intake was positively correlated to silage DM content (P silage (P = 0.034). The NDF digestibility decreased between the heading and milk stages in all crops (P < 0.001), whereas it decreased in 1 barley crop (P < 0.001), increased in the other barley (P = 0.025), and was unchanged in the wheat between the milk and dough stages of maturity. Starch digestibility was less in the 2 barley crops compared with the wheat at the dough stage of maturity (P < 0.001). The feeding value of the whole-crop barley and wheat declined between the heading and milk stages of maturity, but thereafter the effect of maturity on the feeding value was minor.

  1. In vitro digestion characteristics of unprocessed and processed whole grains and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernot, David C; Boileau, Thomas W; Bauer, Laura L; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C

    2008-11-26

    Chemical composition and in vitro digestion properties of select whole grains, before and after processing, and their components were measured. Substrates included barley, corn, oat, rice, and wheat. In addition to whole grain flours, processed substrates also were tested as were corn bran, oat bran, wheat bran, and wheat germ. Processing of most substrates resulted in higher dry matter and digestible starch and lower resistant starch concentrations. Dietary fiber fractions varied among substrates with processing. Digestion profiles for most substrates correlated well with their chemical composition. Corn bran and rice substrates were the least fermentable. Extrusion rendered barley, corn, and wheat more hydrolytically digestible and barley and oat more fermentatively digestible. Except for corn bran, all components had greater or equal fermentability compared with their native whole grains. Understanding digestion characteristics of whole grains and their components will allow for more accurate utilization of these ingredients in food systems.

  2. Laboratory Liquefaction Test of Sand Based on Grain Size and Relative Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquefaction due to strong earthquakes often occurs in sandy soil under low water table conditions with certain physical properties. The physical properties of sandy soil that give effect to liquefaction resistance include grain size and relative density. This paper presents the physical properties of sand soils related to their resistance to vibration. Vibration tests were conducted by using a shaking table. The acceleration and settlement of the samples were recorded during shaking. The tests were conducted with variation of soil density and mean grain size. The test results showed that average grain size and relative density of sand have a unique effect on liquefaction resistance. It can be concluded that there is a density limit with respect to the mean grain size of the sand particles associated with the liquefaction resistance for a certain acceleration.

  3. Biomarker of whole grain wheat intake associated lower BMI in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids in the bran fraction of some whole grains (wheat, rye and barley). Plasma AR reflect recent intake of these whole grains. We examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR (measured by LCMS/ MS), whole wheat intake, and body mass index (BMI) in ...

  4. Electrochemical treatment of rice grain-based distillery effluent: chemical oxygen demand and colour removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Abhinesh Kumar; Chaudhari, Parmesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical (EC) treatment of rice grain-based distillery wastewater was carried out in a 1.5 dm3 electrolytic batch reactor using aluminium plate electrodes. With the four-plate configurations, a current density (j) of 89.3 A/m2 and pH 8 was found to be optimal, obtaining a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal of 93% and 87%, respectively. The chemical dissolution of aluminium was strongly influenced by initial pH (pHi). At higher pHi (pH 9.5) anode consumption decreased while energy consumption increased. At the optimal current density 89.3 A/m2, the aluminium electrode consumption was 16.855 g/dm3 wastewater and energy consumption was 31.4 Wh/dm3 achieving a maximum COD removal of 87%. The settling and filterability characteristics ofelectrochemically treated sludge were also analysed at different pH. It was noted that treated slurry at pHi 9.5 gave best settling characteristic, which decreased with increase in pH. EC-treated effluent at pHi 8 had provided best filterability. Characteristics of scum and residues are also analysed at different pH.

  5. Fine-grained parallelism accelerating for RNA secondary structure prediction with pseudoknots based on FPGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Jin, Guoqing

    2014-06-01

    PKNOTS is a most famous benchmark program and has been widely used to predict RNA secondary structure including pseudoknots. It adopts the standard four-dimensional (4D) dynamic programming (DP) method and is the basis of many variants and improved algorithms. Unfortunately, the O(N(6)) computing requirements and complicated data dependency greatly limits the usefulness of PKNOTS package with the explosion in gene database size. In this paper, we present a fine-grained parallel PKNOTS package and prototype system for accelerating RNA folding application based on FPGA chip. We adopted a series of storage optimization strategies to resolve the "Memory Wall" problem. We aggressively exploit parallel computing strategies to improve computational efficiency. We also propose several methods that collectively reduce the storage requirements for FPGA on-chip memory. To the best of our knowledge, our design is the first FPGA implementation for accelerating 4D DP problem for RNA folding application including pseudoknots. The experimental results show a factor of more than 50x average speedup over the PKNOTS-1.08 software running on a PC platform with Intel Core2 Q9400 Quad CPU for input RNA sequences. However, the power consumption of our FPGA accelerator is only about 50% of the general-purpose micro-processors.

  6. Digestion during continuous culture fermentation when replacing perennial ryegrass with barley and steam-flaked corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, W J; Kolver, E S; Egan, A R

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the optimal inclusion rate of grain required to maximize nutrient digestion of a diet based on highly digestible pasture. It was hypothesized that maximum digestion would occur at a rate of grain inclusion that resulted in a culture pH of 6.0, reflecting the pH below which fiber digestion would be expected to be compromised. Four dual-flow continuous culture fermenters were used to establish the effects on digestion of replacing freeze-dried, highly digestible ryegrass with 0, 15, 30, and 45% of dry matter as 60% barley, 35% steam-flaked corn, and 5% molasses mix. The respective composite diets were fed twice daily to mimic intake patterns observed in dairy cows offered supplements during milking and offered half their daily allowance of pasture after each milking. Digesta samples were collected during the last 3 d of each of four 9-d experimental periods. Average daily culture pH decreased linearly as proportion of cereal grain in the diet increased, with average daily pH ranging from 6.29 to 5.74. Concentrations of neutral detergent fiber and total fatty acids decreased linearly with increasing proportion of cereal grain in the diet. Digestion of organic matter (OM) was maximized at an interpolated value of 24% grain inclusion and culture pH of 6.0, but the difference in the OM digestibility over the range of grain treatments from 0 to 45% was small (3 percentage units) despite pH changes over a range of 6.3 to 5.7. The relatively small change in OM digestibility was explained by reduced fiber and crude protein digestibilities being balanced by an increased digestion of nonstructural carbohydrate. Although different relationships between ruminal pH and digestibility appear to exist when cows are fed pasture alone compared with a total mixed ration, when starch supplements are included in pasture diets, the relationships associated with feeding a total mixed ration may then be more likely to apply.

  7. Assessment and introduction of quantitative resistance to Fusarium head blight in elite spring barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkmeyer, A; Götz, M; Hu, L; Asam, S; Rychlik, M; Hausladen, H; Hess, M; Hückelhoven, R

    2013-12-01

    Breeding for resistance is a key task to control Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of small cereals leading to economic losses and grain contamination with mycotoxins harmful for humans and animals. In the present work, FHB resistance of the six-rowed spring barley 'Chevron' to FHB in Germany was compared with those of adapted German spring barley cultivars. Both under natural infection conditions and after spray inoculation with conidia of Fusarium culmorum, F. sporotrichioides, and F. avenaceum under field conditions, Chevron showed a high level of quantitative resistance to the infection and contamination of grain with diverse mycotoxins. This indicates that Chevron is not only a little susceptible to deoxynivalenol-producing Fusarium spp. but also to Fusarium spp. producing type A trichothecenes and enniatins. Monitoring the initial infection course of F. culmorum on barley lemma tissue by confocal laser-scanning microscopy provided evidence that FHB resistance of Chevron is partially mediated by a preformed penetration resistance, because direct penetration of floral tissue by F. culmorum was observed rarely on Chevron but was common on susceptible genotypes. Alternatively, F. culmorum penetrated Chevron lemma tissue via stomata, which was unusual for susceptible genotypes. We generated double-haploid barley populations segregating for the major FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) Qrgz-2H-8 of Chevron. Subsequently, we characterized these populations by spray inoculation with conidia of F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides. This suggested that Qrgz-2H-8 was functional in the genetic background of European elite barley cultivars. However, the degree of achieved resistance was very low when compared with quantitative resistance of the QTL donor Chevron, and the introgression of Qrgz-2H-8 was not sufficient to mediate the cellular resistance phenotype of Chevron in the European backgrounds.

  8. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dörsch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM. Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilized cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha−1 throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010 all plots were ploughed (with and without GM and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (110 kg N ha−1 before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilized cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009 had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha−1. Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain.

  9. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  10. Electrical Properties and Grain Growth Kinetics of PZN-based Ceramics Using Microwave Sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effectiveness of microwave sintering process through investigation of microstructural characteristics and electrical properties of x(0.94PbZn1/3 Nb2/3O3 + 0.06BaTiO3) + (1 - x)PbZryTi1-yO3 (PBZNZT) ceramics with x = 0.6 and y = 0.52 was evaluated. The relative density of 95% was achieved with sintering at 800℃ for 2 h. The small grain growth exponents indicate how easy the grain growth in these materials sintered using microwave radiation. Grain growth rate increases abruptly and is higher than that of conventional sintering at a temperature higher than 1050℃. This is attributed to the lower activation energy and higher grain boundary mobility. The activation energy required for the grain growth is found to be 132kJ/mol. Higher remanent polarization (Pr = 50.1μC/cm2) and increase in remanent polarization with sintering temperature are observed in microwave sintering process when compared to that of conventional sintering process,due to fast increase in grain growth rate and homogeneity in the specimen. The results indicate lower sintering energy and reduction of PbO pollution in the working environment by microwave sintering process.

  11. Weight Determining of Factors Influencing Grain Output Based on Entropy Weight Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article selects 8 main factors(the number of rural employees,total power of agricultural machinery,effective irrigation area of crops,growing area of grain crops,fertilizer consumption,electricity consumption in rural areas,area affected and area covered) as the factors influencing grain output,and offers the method of determining weight of factors influencing grain output using entropy weight method.According to the relevant data in the period 1985-2005,we analyze the weight of factors influencing grain output in China by example.The results show that the electricity consumption in rural areas has the greatest impact on grain output,followed by total power of agricultural machinery,fertilizer consumption and area covered.To increase grain output,we must enhance the degree of mechanization,free people from the former process of direct cultivation,strengthen water conservancy construction,and do a good job in disaster prevention and mitigation.

  12. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight...... into these aspects four experiments were set up; (1) a mapping experiment aiming at identifying QTL’s controlling disease levels under field conditions was conducted in two winterbarley populations. (2) a toxin assay testing the parental lines used in the mapping populations for response to Rubellin D was developed....... (3) microarray analysis of transcriptional response in barley to inoculation with R. collo-cygni was carried out, and finally the (4) population genetic structure of R. collo-cygni was assessed by AFLP and gene sequencing. Based on these experiments interaction was compared to the interactions of C...

  13. Dependence of deformation mechanisms on grain orientations and their changes calculated based on Sachs model in magnesium alloy AZ31

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-ge XIE; Ping YANG; Li MENG

    2008-01-01

    During deformation, the orientation of a grain influences not only the deformation mechanisms (slip or twinning) and the specific selection of activated slip or twinning systems for that grain, but also the kinetics of different types of transformation. Schmid factor analysis was applied to determine the orientation dependency of deformation mechanisms in magnesium alloys AZ31 in this work. The orientation changes after the operation of the specific deformation mechanisms were also calcu-lated based on Sachs model. It was found that different deformation mechanisms proceeded differently according to theoretical predictions. Basal slip occurred when basal planes of grains were tilted toward ND around TD. Prismatic slip dominated when basal planes were approxi-mately perpendicular to TD. Calculation results also indi-cated that the operating of pyramidal slip can not be neglected. {10 12} twinning was favorable when basal planes were approximately normal to RD and { 10 11 } twinning was analyzed to be related to the grains with basal orientations. The operating of slip could greatly suppress the activating of twinning by our Schmid factor analysis. Basal orientations with TD and RD scattering can favor basal slip and tension twinning, respectively, after the operation of compression twinning based on the Schmid factor calculations.

  14. Visual Perception-Based Statistical Modeling of Complex Grain Image for Product Quality Monitoring and Supervision on Assembly Production Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Liu

    Full Text Available Computer vision as a fast, low-cost, noncontact, and online monitoring technology has been an important tool to inspect product quality, particularly on a large-scale assembly production line. However, the current industrial vision system is far from satisfactory in the intelligent perception of complex grain images, comprising a large number of local homogeneous fragmentations or patches without distinct foreground and background. We attempt to solve this problem based on the statistical modeling of spatial structures of grain images. We present a physical explanation in advance to indicate that the spatial structures of the complex grain images are subject to a representative Weibull distribution according to the theory of sequential fragmentation, which is well known in the continued comminution of ore grinding. To delineate the spatial structure of the grain image, we present a method of multiscale and omnidirectional Gaussian derivative filtering. Then, a product quality classifier based on sparse multikernel-least squares support vector machine is proposed to solve the low-confidence classification problem of imbalanced data distribution. The proposed method is applied on the assembly line of a food-processing enterprise to classify (or identify automatically the production quality of rice. The experiments on the real application case, compared with the commonly used methods, illustrate the validity of our method.

  15. Factors influencing adolescent whole grain intake: A theory-based qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamar, Maya; Evans, Charlotte; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan

    2016-06-01

    Whole grain consumption is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease. One-fifth of UK adults and children do not consume any whole grains, and adolescents have low consumption rates. Factors affecting whole grain intake among adolescents are not well understood. This study examined the socio-economic, environmental, lifestyle and psychological factors likely to influence consumption and explored whether outcomes aligned with behavioural predictors proposed in the Reasoned Action Approach. Five focus groups explored young people's attitudes towards, knowledge and consumption of wholegrain foods, as well as barriers to, and facilitators of, consumption. Participants were male and female adolescents (n = 50) aged 11-16 years from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds and ethnicities, recruited through schools in the city of Leeds, UK. Focus groups were analysed using thematic analysis. Most participants had tried wholegrain food products, with cereal products being the most popular. Many recognised whole grain health benefits related to digestive health but not those related to heart disease or cancers. Several barriers to eating whole grains were identified including: difficulties in identifying wholegrain products and their health benefits; taste and visual appeal; and poor availability outside the home. Suggested facilitators of consumption were advertisements and educational campaigns, followed by improved sensory appeal, increased availability and choice, and tailoring products for young people. All constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action were identifiable in the data, suggesting that the factors influencing whole grain intake in adolescents are well captured by this model. Study outcomes may inform research and health promotion to increase whole grain intake in this age group.

  16. Impact of Pre-Anthesis Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Plants Grown under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria I. Al-Ajlouni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought at pre-anthesis stages can influence barley growth and results in yield losses. Therefore, it is important to understand how drought at pre-anthesis can affect different traits associated with yield reduction in barley. The objective of this study was to understand the relevance of the genetic background of major flowering time genes in barley plants subjected to pre-anthesis drought and its impact on yield and yield components. A glasshouse experiment using a Randomized Complete Block Design was conducted to investigate the effect of drought and its timing on yield and yield components on eleven barley genotypes, which were selected to represent genetic diversity of major flowering time genes (PPDH1, PPDH2, HvVrn1, HvVrn2 and HvVrn3. Barley plants were exposed to three water regimes, non-stressed and stressed, which was applied at two pre-anthesis growth stages, tillering (SS and stem elongation (SE. Results identified differences among genotypes in all measured traits. Grain yield, grain number and "thousand kernel weight" were reduced in all genotypes due to drought, irrespective of the growth stage. Early flowering genotypes had better performance as reflected in higher yield compared with late flowering genotypes. Results verified the fundamental importance of early flowering to improve productivity in response to pre-anthesis drought. The results of this study can help in selecting barley lines for future breeding purposes with improved resilience to drought conditions in Mediterranean environments.

  17. Community dynamics and metabolite target analysis of spontaneous, backslopped barley sourdough fermentations under laboratory and bakery conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, Henning; Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-07-02

    Barley flour is not commonly used for baking because of its negative effects on bread dough rheology and loaf volume. However, barley sourdoughs are promising ingredients to produce improved barley-based breads. Spontaneous barley sourdough fermentations were performed through backslopping (every 24h, 10days) under laboratory (fermentors, controlled temperature of 30°C, high dough yield of 400) and bakery conditions (open vessels, ambient temperature of 17-22°C, low dough yield of 200), making use of the same batch of flour. They differed in pH evolution, microbial community dynamics, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species composition. After ten backsloppings, the barley sourdoughs were characterized by the presence of the LAB species Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis in the case of the laboratory productions (fast pH decrease, pHsourdough productions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole yeast species. Breads made with wheat flour supplemented with 20% (on flour basis) barley sourdough displayed a firmer texture, a smaller volume, and an acceptable flavour compared with all wheat-based reference breads. Hence, representative strains of the LAB species mentioned above, adapted to the environmental conditions they will be confronted with, may be selected as starter cultures for the production of stable barley sourdoughs and flavourful breads.

  18. Effect of cultivar and year on phyllochron in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and growth of leaves in cereals significantly affects grain yield since dry matter accumulation depends on the leaf area that intercepts light. Phyllochron (PHY is defined as time interval between the emergences of successive leaves on the main stem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of year and cultivar on phyllochron in winter barley. Twelve cultivars of winter barley differing in origin and time of anthesis were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. The highest PHY across GSs was determined in the two-rowed cultivar Cordoba (81.6°Cd and the lowest in the two-rowed cultivar Novosadski 581 (71.0°Cd. The early cultivars had fast leaf development, the medium cultivars medium and the late cultivars slow development, 72.5°Cd, 75.6°Cd and 78.9°Cd, respectively. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in the PHY, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  19. Genome-wide association study of production and stability traits in barley cultivated under future climate scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Backes, Gunter; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2015-01-01

    Future barley cultivars will have to produce under the constraints of higher temperature in combination with increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone as a consequence of climate change. A diverse set of 167 spring barley genotypes was cultivated under elevated levels...... to identify markers for increased primary production under climate change conditions and reveal possible genes of interest. Phenotyped traits included grain yield, number of grains, number of ears per plant, aboveground vegetative biomass, harvest index and stability of the production parameters over the five...... applied treatments. The GWAS encompassed 7864 SNP markers (Illumina iselect), a compressed mixed linear model with the GAPIT package, and conservative validation of markers. A total of 60 marker-trait associations [−log10(P value) 2.97–5.58] were identified, e.g. grain yield under elevated temperature...

  20. Probing the structural dynamics of the SNARE recycling machine based on coarse-grained modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjun

    2016-08-01

    Membrane fusion in eukaryotes is driven by the formation of a four-helix bundle by three SNARE proteins. To recycle the SNARE proteins, they must be disassembled by the ATPase NSF and four SNAP proteins which together form a 20S supercomplex. Recently, the first high-resolution structures of the NSF (in both ATP and ADP state) and 20S (in four distinct states termed I, II, IIIa, and IIIb) were solved by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), which have paved the way for structure-driven studies of the SNARE recycling mechanism. To probe the structural dynamics of SNARE disassembly at amino-acid level of details, a systematic coarse-grained modeling based on an elastic network model and related analyses were performed. Our normal mode analysis of NSF, SNARE, and 20S predicted key modes of collective motions that partially account for the observed structural changes, and illuminated how the SNARE complex can be effectively destabilized by untwisting and bending motions of the SNARE complex driven by the amino-terminal domains of NSF in state II. Our flexibility analysis identified regions with high/low flexibility that coincide with key functional sites (such as the NSF-SNAPs-SNARE binding sites). A subset of hotspot residues that control the above collective motions, which will make promising targets for future mutagenesis studies were also identified. Finally, the conformational changes in 20S as induced by the transition of NSF from ATP to ADP state were modeled, and a concerted untwisting motion of SNARE/SNAPs and a sideway flip of two amino-terminal domains were observed. In sum, the findings have offered new structural and dynamic details relevant to the SNARE disassembly mechanism, and will guide future functional studies of the SNARE recycling machinery. Proteins 2016; 84:1055-1066. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Grain boundaries at the surface of consolidated MgO nanocrystals and acid-base functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingurt, Dima; Fuks, David; Landau, Miron V; Vidruk, Roxana; Herskowitz, Moti

    2013-09-21

    The increase of the surface basicity-acidity of MgO material by factors of 1.8-3.0 due to consolidation of its nanocrystals was demonstrated by the indicator titration. It was shown that the parallel increase of surface acidity and basicity is attributed to the formation of grain boundaries (GB) after MgO aerogel densification. A simple model predicting the increase of surface acidity-basicity of MgO that correlates with the results of direct measurements was proposed. The model is based on the study of the fine atomic structure at GB surface areas in consolidated MgO nanocrystals in the framework of Density Functional Theory. It is found that the displacements of coordinatively unsaturated surface ions near the GB are significant at the distances ~3-4 atomic layers from the geometrical contact plane between nanocrystals. The detailed analysis of atomic positions inside GB demonstrated the coordination deficiency of surface atoms at the GB areas leading to the formation of stretched bonds and to creation of low coordinated surface ions due to splitting of coordination numbers of surface atoms belonging to GB areas. Density of states for electrons shows the existence of additional states in the band gap close to the bottom of the conduction band. The adsorption energy of CO2 molecules atop oxygen atoms exposed at surface GB areas is of the same order of magnitude as that reported for oxygen atoms at crystallographic edges and corners of MgO crystals. It provides additional options for bonding of molecules at the surface of nanocrystalline MgO increasing the adsorption capacity and catalytic activity.

  2. Quality Control System for Beer Developed with Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Barley Lipid Transfer Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Murakami-Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP in barley grain reacted with the IgE in sera drawn from food allergy patients. A sandwich-type of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed with mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against LTP purified with barley flour. This ELISA showed a practical working range of 0.3–3 ng/mL and no cross-reactivity with wheat, adlay and rye. Using this ELISA, LTP was determined in several types of barley-foods, including fermented foods such as malt vinegar, barley-malt miso and beer. LTP content in beer of the same kind was approximately constant, even if manufacturing factory and production days were different. Not only as a factor of foam formation and stability but also as an allergen, controlling and monitoring of LTP in beer should be considered. Taken together, our LTP-detecting ELISA can be proposed as an appropriate system for the quality control of beer.

  3. Wild Barley,Hordeum spontaneum,a Genetic Resource for Crop Improvement in Cold and Arid Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eviatar; Nevo

    2008-01-01

    Food security in cold and arid regions in the world is threatened by stressful and unpredictable environments.The sus-tainable and economically viable solution for increasing stability of food productivity in cold and arid regions is genetic improvement of crops towards high resistance to abiotic stresses,mainly cold and drought resistance.It is often empha-sized that crop genetic improvement lies in exploiting the gene pools of the wild relatives of the crop plant.Wild barley,H.spontaneum,the progenitor of cultivated barley,is a selfing annual grass of predominantly Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian distribution that penetrates into desert environments where it maintains stable populations.Wild barley is also found in cold regions,such as in Tibet.The adaptation of wild barley to the arid region in Israel and Jordan,and the cold region in Tibet has accumulated rich genetic diversities for drought,salt,and cold resistances in wild barley,which is the genetic resource for barley and other crop improvement in arid and cold regions.These genetic diversities are revealed by allozymes,DNA-based molecular markers,and morphological and physiological traits of wild barley plants.Quantita-tive trait loci(QTLs) related to drought resistance were identified in wild barley via the QTL mapping approach.Drought resistance genes such as dehydrins,hsdr4,and eibi1 were identified in wild barley based on the candidate gene approach,gene differential expression approach,and molecular genetic approach,respectively.Genetics and genomics of wild bar-ley cold resistance have not been exploited yet,remaining a huge treasure for future crop improvement of cold resistance.Advanced backcross QTL analysis,the introgression libraries based on wild barley as donors,a QTL approach based on wide crosses using wild barley,and positional cloning of natural QTLs will play prevailing roles to help us understand the molecular control of cold and drought tolerance.Integration of QTL information into a

  4. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedas, Pai; Schiller Stokholm, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Ladegård, Anne Hald; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Husted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2, which encode membrane-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts decreased under the same conditions, indicating non-overlapping functions for the two genes. In barley leaves, the expression of both MTP8 genes declined in response to toxic Mn additions to the roots suggesting a role in ensuring proper delivery of Mn to Golgi. Based on the above we suggest that barley MTP8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi localized Mn2+ transport proteins in a monocot plant species.

  5. Effects of feeding hull-less barley on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Corl, B A; Thomason, W E; Griffey, C A

    2017-03-16

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing corn and hull-less barley (cultivar Amaze 10) in different proportions as the grain source. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily (1200 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). All diets contained ∼20% grain (dry matter basis). Treatments consisted of 100% corn (0B), 67% corn and 33% hull-less barley (33B), 33% corn and 67% hull-less barley (67B), and 100% hull-less barley (100B) as the grain sources. Total-tract nutrient digestibility was estimated using lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) as an external marker. Dry matter intake differed quadratically among treatments, being lowest for 67B and highest for 0B and 100B. Feeding hull-less barley did not affect milk yield, and milk fat concentration differed cubically among treatments. The cubic response was attributed to the higher milk fat concentration observed for the diet containing 67B. Neither the concentrations in milk of protein and lactose nor the yields of protein and lactose differed among treatments. The proportion of de novo synthesized fatty acids in milk did not differ among treatments. The apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber did not differ among treatments. Although a quadratic effect was observed, starch digestibility was minimally affected by treatments. In conclusion, this study indicates that hull-less barley grain is as good as corn grain as an energy source when formulating diets for high-producing dairy cows.

  6. The competitive ability of pea–barley intercrops against weeds and the interactions with crop productivity and soil N availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corre-Hellou, G.; Dibet, A.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Grain legumes, such as peas (Pisum sativum L.), are known to be weak competitors against weeds when grown as the sole crop. In this study, the weed-suppression effect of pea–barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) intercropping compared to the respective sole crops was examined in organic field experiments...... (2003–2005). The weed biomass was three times higher under the pea sole crops than under both the intercrops and barley sole crops at maturity. The inclusion of joint experiments in several countries and various growing conditions showed that intercrops maintain a highly asymmetric competition over...... weeds, regardless of the particular weed infestation (species and productivity), the crop biomass or the soil nitrogen availability. The intercropping weed suppression was highly resilient, whereas the weed suppression in pea sole crops was lower and more variable. The pea–barley intercrops exhibited...

  7. Phytochemical Pharmacokinetics and Bioactivity of Oat and Barley Flour: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleigh M. Sawicki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While dietary fiber plays an important role in the health benefits associated with whole grain consumption, other ingredients concentrated in the outer bran layer, including alkylresorcinols, lignans, phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols, may also contribute to these outcomes. To determine the acute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of the major phytochemicals found in barley and oats, we conducted a randomized, three-way crossover trial in 13 healthy subjects, aged 40–70 years with a body mass index (BMI of 27–35.9 kg/m2. After a two-day run-in period following a diet low in phytochemicals, subjects were randomized to receive muffins made with either 48 g whole oat flour, whole barley flour, or refined wheat flour plus cellulose (control, with a one-week washout period between each intervention. At the same time, an oral glucose tolerance test was administered. In addition to plasma phytochemical concentrations, glucose and insulin responses, biomarkers of antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and vascular remodeling were determined over a 24-h period. There was no significant effect on acute bioavailability or pharmacokinetics of major phytochemicals. Administered concurrently with a glucose bolus, the source of whole grains did not attenuate the post-prandial response of markers of glucoregulation and insulin sensitivity, inflammation, nor vascular remodeling compared to the refined grain control. No significant differences were observed in the bioavailability or postprandial effects between whole-oat and whole-barley compared to a refined wheat control when administered with a glucose challenge. These null results may be due, in part, to the inclusion criteria for the subjects, dose of the whole grains, and concurrent acute administration of the whole grains with the glucose bolus.

  8. Mesoporous PbI2 assisted growth of large perovskite grains for efficient perovskite solar cells based on ZnO nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shibin; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Hao; Wang, Yafei; Liu, Detao; Wu, Jiang; Sarvari, Hojjatollah; Chen, Zhi David

    2017-02-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted great attention due to their low cost and high power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, the defects and grain boundaries in perovskite films dramatically degrade their performance. Here, we show a two-step annealing method to produce mesoporous PbI2 films for growth of continuous, pinhole-free perovskite films with large grains, followed by additional ethanol vapor annealing of perovskite films to reduce the defects and grain boundaries. The large perovskite grains dramatically suppress the carrier recombination, and consequently we obtain ZnO-nanorod-based PSCs that exhibit the best efficiency of 17.3%, with high reproducibility.

  9. New co-products from grain-based fuel ethanol production and their drying performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel ethanol production in the U.S. and elsewhere is an important and growing industry. In the U.S, about 40% of annual corn production is now converted into fuel ethanol. During co-product recovery, condensed distillers solubles (CDS) has to be mixed with distillers wet grains before drying due to ...

  10. Cropland Contribution Index Based on the Regional Cropland-Grain-Population Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the attribute clearly and to understand the situation of the regional cropland-grain-population relationship,this paper presents the "cropland contribution index" model,and divides the cropland contribution land index into four levels,that is below subsistence,subsistence,well-off,and richness.Then,it analyzes the whole China,13 main producing regions,11 grain balancing regions,and 7 main sales regions.Results show that the overall cropland contribution index presented a rising trend in 1949 to 2010,it once reached well-off level in 1996 to 1999,and it reached the well-off level again in 2010,but there is still a long way to reach the level of richness.The cropland contribution index is relatively high in main producing regions.In 2010,all main producing regions reached the well-off level,and some provinces even reached the richness level.However,the cropland contribution index of main sales regions is lower and takes on a downtrend,especially in Guangdong,Zhejiang,and Fujian provinces.The cropland contribution index in grain balancing regions is not high,and most provinces are still at subsistence level.Researches have indicated that the cropland contribution index can simply and rapidly reflect the relation between regional cropland,grain and population.

  11. Mechanical properties of fine-grained dual phase low-carbon steels based on dynamic transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiwei Xu; Wangyue rang; Zuqing Sun

    2008-01-01

    The fine grained dual phase (FG-DP) steel with ferrite grains of 2-4.5 μm and martensite islands smaller than 3 μm was obtained through the mechanism of deformation-enhanced ferrite transformation (DEFT). Mechanical properties of the steel were tested at room temperature. The results indicated that with a similar volume fraction of martensite (about 20vol%), FG-DP steel ex-hibited a superior combination of higher strength and more rapid strain hardening at low strains compared with the coarse-grained dual phase (CG-DP) steel obtained by critical annealing. The combination of higher strength, large elongation, and more rapid strain hardening of FG-DP steel can be attributed to the fine ferrite grain and finely dispersed martensite islands. In addition, the uniformly distributed martensite islands in FG-DP steel have smaller interspaeing compared with that of CG-DP steel. So, at the initial plastic deformation stage, the plastic deformation of ferrite was restrained and more pronounced load was transferred from ferrite to marten-site. The plastic deformation of martensite in FG-DP steel started earlier.

  12. 2015 nationwide survey revealed Barley stripe mosaic virus in Korean barley fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    A seed-transmitted virus has consistently caused significant economic damage to barley crops in Korea in recent years, and may be increasing because many farmers save seed for replanting. Because some barley seed is imported, there is the potential for introduction of new seed-transmitted viruses, c...

  13. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...

  14. Comparison of the potential rate of population increase of brown and green color morphs of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on barley infected and uninfected with Barley yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Thieme, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Life tables of brown and green color morphs of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) reared on barley under laboratory conditions at 20 ± 1°C, 65% ± 5% relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16 : 8 h (L : D) were compared. The plants were either: (i) infected with the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV); (ii) not infected with virus but previously infested with aphids; or (iii) healthy barley plants, which were not previously infested with aphids. Generally, both color morphs of S. avenae performed significantly better when fed on BYDV-infected plants than on plants that were virus free but had either not been or had been previously infested with aphids. Furthermore, when fed on BYDV-infected plants, green S. avenae developed significantly faster and had a significantly shorter reproductive period than the brown color morph. There were no significant differences in this respect between the two color morphs of S. avenae when they were reared on virus-free plants that either had been or not been previously infested with aphids. These results indicate that barley infected with BYDV is a more favorable host plant than uninfected barley for both the color morphs of S. avenae tested, particularly the green color morph.

  15. Health status of five spring barley cultivars cultivated under organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baturo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare health status of harvested grain of spring barley cv. Rudzik, Rodos, Start and Maresi cultivated in organic system and cv. Damazy grown in an organic farm. Analyses showed that prevalent pathogen on grain was Bipolaris sorokiniana isolated from 48% of grains. Fungi from genus of Fusarium were obtained less numerously, from 27% of grains and were represented mainly by F. poae and F. avenaceum. Microscopic analysis of F. poae was confirmed by PCR analysis. All cultivars were intensively diseased by B. sorokiniana, thus it is impossible to show a cultivar especially recommended for this system, where B. sorokiniana can be serious problem. However cv. Damazy showed relatively the lowest infestation by B. sorokiniana and it also was not more intensively diseased by Fusarium spp. It is very important in nutrition aspect because these fungi can be dangerous for both human and animal health due to their abilities to produce mycotoxins.

  16. Sequencing of 15 622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Lonardi, Stefano; Luo, MingCheng; Madishetty, Kavitha; Svensson, Jan T; Moscou, Matthew J; Wanamaker, Steve; Jiang, Tao; Kleinhofs, Andris; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Wise, Roger P; Stein, Nils; Ma, Yaqin; Rodriguez, Edmundo; Kudrna, Dave; Bhat, Prasanna R; Chao, Shiaoman; Condamine, Pascal; Heinen, Shane; Resnik, Josh; Wing, Rod; Witt, Heather N; Alpert, Matthew; Beccuti, Marco; Bozdag, Serdar; Cordero, Francesca; Mirebrahim, Hamid; Ounit, Rachid; Wu, Yonghui; You, Frank; Zheng, Jie; Simková, Hana; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Duma, Denisa; Altschmied, Lothar; Blake, Tom; Bregitzer, Phil; Cooper, Laurel; Dilbirligi, Muharrem; Falk, Anders; Feiz, Leila; Graner, Andreas; Gustafson, Perry; Hayes, Patrick M; Lemaux, Peggy; Mammadov, Jafar; Close, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) possesses a large and highly repetitive genome of 5.1 Gb that has hindered the development of a complete sequence. In 2012, the International Barley Sequencing Consortium released a resource integrating whole-genome shotgun sequences with a physical and genetic framework. However, because only 6278 bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs) in the physical map were sequenced, fine structure was limited. To gain access to the gene-containing portion of the barley genome at high resolution, we identified and sequenced 15 622 BACs representing the minimal tiling path of 72 052 physical-mapped gene-bearing BACs. This generated ~1.7 Gb of genomic sequence containing an estimated 2/3 of all Morex barley genes. Exploration of these sequenced BACs revealed that although distal ends of chromosomes contain most of the gene-enriched BACs and are characterized by high recombination rates, there are also gene-dense regions with suppressed recombination. We made use of published map-anchored sequence data from Aegilops tauschii to develop a synteny viewer between barley and the ancestor of the wheat D-genome. Except for some notable inversions, there is a high level of collinearity between the two species. The software HarvEST:Barley provides facile access to BAC sequences and their annotations, along with the barley-Ae. tauschii synteny viewer. These BAC sequences constitute a resource to improve the efficiency of marker development, map-based cloning, and comparative genomics in barley and related crops. Additional knowledge about regions of the barley genome that are gene-dense but low recombination is particularly relevant.

  17. Dendrite core grain refining and interdendritic coarsening behaviour in W-containing γ-TiAl based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.L., E-mail: sunhl@home.swjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Huang, Z.W.; Zhu, D.G.; Jiang, X.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2013-03-05

    Graphical abstract: Geometric features observed in the grain refined regions of Nb, W-containing TiAl alloys: (a) a two dimensional equilateral triangle based on the (11{sup ¯}1) basal plane of the Thompson reference tetrahedron. (b) BSE micrograph of alloy 44Al showing the similar geometric features in a group of lamellar colonies. Highlights: ► Two W-containing γ-TiAl based alloys were studied in as-cast ingot condition. ► Segregation of W, Nb in dendrite core and Al in interdendritic region were found. ► The large α{sub p} grains (α{sub 2} + γ lamellar colonies) formed in the interdendritic regions. -- Abstract: Two W-containing γ-TiAl based alloys were studied in as-cast ingot condition. Pronounced partitioning of heavy-metals–light-metals were found to occur, causing segregation of W and Nb into dendrite core and Al in interdendritic region. The average Al content in α{sub 2} + γ lamellae was close to 46% in interdendritic region, and below 44% in dendrite cores, regardless of the nominal Al content of the alloy. About 15% coarse colonies formed in alloy 44Al and 60% in alloy 46Al. Effective grain refinement can be achieved in the dendrite core where both the Al depletion and Nb, W and Ti enrichment ensured a L → β solidification route. In contrast, the solidification in interdendritic regions involves a peritectic reaction L + β → α{sub p}. As a result, unusually large α{sub p} grains (α{sub 2} + γ lamellar colonies) formed in the interdendritic regions.

  18. Assessment of Flood Catastrophe Risk for Grain Production at the Provincial Scale in China Based on the BMM Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Lei; ZHANG Qiao; ZHOU Ai-lian; HUO Ran

    2013-01-01

    Flood catastrophe risk assessment is imperative for the steady development of agriculture under the context of global climate change, and meanwhile, it is an urgent scientiifc issue need to be solved in agricultural risk assessment discipline. This paper developed the methodology of lfood catastrophe risk assessment, which can be shown as the standard process of crop loss calculation, Monte Carlo simulation, the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) iftting, and risk evaluation. Data on crop loss were collected based on hectares covered by natural disasters, hectares affected by natural disasters, and hectares destroyed by natural disasters using the standard equation. Monte Carlo simulation based on appropriate distribution was used to expand sample size to overcome the insufifciency of crop loss data. Block maxima model (BMM) approach based on the extreme value theory was for modeling the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) of lfood catastrophe loss, and then lfood catastrophe risk at the provincial scale in China was calculated. The Type III Extreme distribution (Weibull) has a weighted advantage of modeling lfood catastrophe risk for grain production. The impact of lfood catastrophe to grain production in China was signiifcantly serious, and high or very high risk of lfood catastrophe mainly concentrates on the central and eastern regions of China. Given the scenario of suffering once-in-a-century lfood disaster, for majority of the major-producing provinces, the probability of 10% reduction of grain output is more than 90%. Especially, the probabilities of more than 15% decline in grain production reach up to 99.99, 99.86, 99.69, and 91.60% respectively in Anhui, Jilin, Liaoning, and Heilongjiang. Flood catastrophe assessment can provide multifaceted information about lfood catastrophe risk that can help to guide management of lfood catastrophe.

  19. Characterization of Antibodies for Grain-Specific Gluten Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Rallabhandi, Prasad; Williams, Kristina M; Pahlavan, Autusa

    2016-03-01

    Gluten ingestion causes immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy or celiac disease in sensitive individuals, and a strict gluten-free diet greatly limits food choices. Immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are used to quantify gluten to ensure labeling compliance of gluten-free foods. Anti-gluten antibodies may not exhibit equal affinity to gluten from wheat, rye, and barley. Moreover, because wheat gluten is commonly used as a calibrator in ELISA, accurate gluten quantitation from rye and barley contaminated foods may be compromised. Immunoassays utilizing grain-specific antibodies and calibrators may help improve gluten quantitation. In this study, polyclonal antibodies raised against gluten-containing grain-specific peptides were characterized for their immunoreactivity to gluten from different grain sources. Strong immunoreactivity to multiple gluten polypeptides from wheat, rye, and barley was observed in the range 34 to 43 kDa with anti-gliadin, 11 to 15 and 72 to 95 kDa with anti-secalin, and 30 to 43 kDa with anti-hordein peptide antibodies, respectively. Minimal or no cross-reactivity with gluten from other grains was observed among these antibodies. The anti-consensus peptide antibody raised against a repetitive amino acid sequence of proline and glutamine exhibited immunoreactivity to gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and oat. The antibodies exhibited similar immunoreactivity with most of the corresponding grain cultivars by ELISA. The high specificity and minimal cross-reactivity of grain-specific antibodies suggest their potential use in immunoassays for accurate gluten quantitation.

  20. Grain Boundary Induced Bias Instability in Soluble Acene-Based Thin-Film Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Ky V. Nguyen; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John E.; Jung Hun Lee; Eunjoo Song; Boseok Kang; Kilwon Cho; Wi Hyoung Lee

    2016-01-01

    Since the grain boundaries (GBs) within the semiconductor layer of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have a strong influence on device performance, a substantial number of studies have been devoted to controlling the crystallization characteristics of organic semiconductors. We studied the intrinsic effects of GBs within 5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl) anthradithiophene (TES-ADT) thin films on the electrical properties of OFETs. The GB density was easily changed by controlling nulceatio...

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF POTASSIUM NITRATE BASED SOLID PROPELLANT GRAINS FORMULATION USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo Olaosebikan Ogunleye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of propellant formulation and geometry on the solid propellant grains internal ballistic performance using core, bates, rod and tubular and end-burn geometries. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to analyze and optimize the effect of sucrose, potassium nitrate and carbon on the chamber pressure, temperature, thrust and specific impulse of the solid propellant grains through Central Composite Design (CCD of the experiment. An increase in potassium nitrate increased the specific impulse while an increase in sucrose and carbon decreased specific impulse. The coefficient of determination (R2 for models of chamber pressure, temperature, thrust and specific impulse in terms of composition and geometry were 0.9737, 0.9984, 0.9745 and 0.9589, respectively. The optimum specific impulse of 127.89 s, pressure (462201 Pa, temperature (1618.3 K and thrust (834.83 N were obtained using 0.584 kg of sucrose, 1.364 kg of potassium nitrate and 0.052 kg of carbon as well as bate geometry. There was no significant difference between the calculated and experimented ballistic properties at p < 0.05. The bate grain geometry is more efficient for minimizing the oscillatory pressure in the combustion chamber.

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSP17.8 and their association with agronomic traits in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanshi Xia

    Full Text Available Small heat shock protein 17.8 (HSP17.8 is produced abundantly in plant cells under heat and other stress conditions and may play an important role in plant tolerance to stress environments. However, HSP17.8 may be differentially expressed in different accessions of a crop species exposed to identical stress conditions. The ability of different genotypes to adapt to various stress conditions resides in their genetic diversity. Allelic variations are the most common forms of genetic variation in natural populations. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the HSP17.8 gene were investigated across 210 barley accessions collected from 30 countries using EcoTILLING technology. Eleven SNPs including 10 from the coding region of HSP17.8 were detected, which form nine distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. Among the 10 SNPs in the coding region, six are missense mutations and four are synonymous nucleotide changes. Five of the six missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to HSP17.8 function. The accessions from Middle East Asia showed the higher nucleotide diversity of HSP17.8 than those from other regions and wild barley (H. spontaneum accessions exhibited greater diversity than the cultivated barley (H. vulgare accessions. Four SNPs in HSP17.8 were found associated with at least one of the agronomic traits evaluated except for spike length, namely number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, plant height, flag leaf area and leaf color. The association between SNP and these agronomic traits may provide new insight for study of the gene's potential contribution to drought tolerance of barley.

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSP17.8 and their association with agronomic traits in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yanshi; Li, Ronghua; Ning, Zhengxiang; Bai, Guihua; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Yan, Guijun; Baum, Michael; Varshney, Rajeev K; Guo, Peiguo

    2013-01-01

    Small heat shock protein 17.8 (HSP17.8) is produced abundantly in plant cells under heat and other stress conditions and may play an important role in plant tolerance to stress environments. However, HSP17.8 may be differentially expressed in different accessions of a crop species exposed to identical stress conditions. The ability of different genotypes to adapt to various stress conditions resides in their genetic diversity. Allelic variations are the most common forms of genetic variation in natural populations. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the HSP17.8 gene were investigated across 210 barley accessions collected from 30 countries using EcoTILLING technology. Eleven SNPs including 10 from the coding region of HSP17.8 were detected, which form nine distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. Among the 10 SNPs in the coding region, six are missense mutations and four are synonymous nucleotide changes. Five of the six missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to HSP17.8 function. The accessions from Middle East Asia showed the higher nucleotide diversity of HSP17.8 than those from other regions and wild barley (H. spontaneum) accessions exhibited greater diversity than the cultivated barley (H. vulgare) accessions. Four SNPs in HSP17.8 were found associated with at least one of the agronomic traits evaluated except for spike length, namely number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, plant height, flag leaf area and leaf color. The association between SNP and these agronomic traits may provide new insight for study of the gene's potential contribution to drought tolerance of barley.

  4. A Pyramid Breeding of Eight Grain-yield Related Quantitative Trait Loci Based on Marker-assistant and Phenotype Selection in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zong; Ahong Wang; Lu Wang; Guohua Liang; Minghong Gu; Tao Sang; Bin Han

    2012-01-01

    1000-Grain weight and spikelet number per panicle are two important components for rice grain yield.In our previous study,eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring spikelet number per panicle and 1000-grain weight were mapped through sequencing-based genotyping of 150 rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs).In this study,we validated the effects of four QTLs from Nipponbare using chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs),and pyramided eight grain yield related QTLs.The new lines containing the eight QTLs with positive effects showed increased panicle and spikelet size as compared with the parent variety 93-11.We further proposed a novel pyramid breeding scheme based on marker-assistant and phenotype selection (MAPS).This scheme allowed pyramiding of as many as 24QTLs at a tingle hybridization without massive cross work.This study provided insights into the molecular basis of rice grain yield for direct wealth for high-yielding rice breeding.

  5. Creation of the first ultra-low gluten barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for coeliac and gluten-intolerant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Gregory J; Blundell, Malcolm J; Colgrave, Michelle L; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-04-01

    Coeliac disease is a well-defined condition that is estimated to affect approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity is a condition that is less well defined, but is estimated to affect up to 10% of the population, and is often self-diagnosed. At present, the only remedy for both conditions is a lifelong gluten-free diet. A gluten-free diet is often expensive, high in fat and low in fibre, which in themselves can lead to adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is an opportunity to use novel plant breeding strategies to develop alternative gluten-free grains. In this work, we describe the breeding and characterization of a novel ultra-low gluten (ULG) barley variety in which the hordein (gluten) content was reduced to below 5 ppm. This was achieved using traditional breeding strategies to combine three recessive alleles, which act independently of each other to lower the hordein content in the parental varieties. The grain of the initial variety was shrunken compared to wild-type barleys. We implemented a breeding strategy to improve the grain size to near wild-type levels and demonstrated that the grains can be malted and brewed successfully. The ULG barley has the potential to provide novel healthy foods and beverages for those who require a gluten-free diet.

  6. Virus-induced gene-silencing in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of HMW-GS-encoding genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Meng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV-based vector has been developed and used for gene silencing in barley and wheat seedlings to assess gene functions in pathogen- or insect-resistance, but conditions for gene silencing in spikes and grains have not been evaluated. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using BSMV for gene silencing in wheat spikes or grains. Results Apparent photobleaching on the spikes infected with BSMV:PDS at heading stage was observed after13 days post inoculation (dpi, and persisted until 30dpi, while the spikes inoculated with BSMV:00 remained green during the same period. Grains of BSMV:PDS infected spikes also exhibited photobleaching. Molecular analysis indicated that photobleached spikes or grains resulted from the reduction of endogenous PDS transcript abundances, suggesting that BSMV:PDS was able to induce PDS silencing in wheat spikes and grains. Inoculation onto wheat spikes from heading to flowering stage was optimal for efficient silencing of PDS in wheat spikes. Furthermore, we used the BSMV-based system to reduce the transcript level of 1Bx14, a gene encoding for High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit 1Bx14 (HMW-GS 1Bx14, by 97 % in the grains of the BSMV:1Bx14 infected spikes at 15dpi, compared with that in BSMV:00 infected spikes, and the reduction persisted until at least 25 dpi. The amount of the HMW-GS 1Bx14 was also detectably decreased. The percentage of glutenin macropolymeric proteins in total proteins was significantly reduced in the grains of 1Bx14-silenced plants as compared with that in the grains of BSMV:00 infected control plants, indicating that HMW-GS 1Bx14 is one of major components participating in the formation of glutenin macropolymers in wheat grains. Conclusion This is one of the first reports of successful application of BSMV-based virus-induced-gene-silencing (VIGS for gene knockdown in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of

  7. Evaluating the addition of activated carbon to heat-treated mushroom casing for grain-based and compost-based substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, Mark A; Heinemann, P H; Walker, P N; Demirci, A; Romaine, C P

    2009-10-01

    Two substrates, a non-composted grain spawn substrate and a traditional composted substrate, each covered with peat-based casing that contained varying amounts of activated carbon (AC) and each receiving different heat-treatment durations, were tested for Agaricus bisporus mushroom production. The amounts of AC were 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% v/v, and the heat treatments were 0, 60, and 180 min at 121 degrees C and 103.4 kPa. Overall, the addition of AC up to 10-15% of casing for a grain spawn substrate increased mushroom yield. However, the addition of AC to the casing for compost substrates had no significant effect on yield, whereas heat-treating the casing increased yield. The onset of fruiting was retarded in grain spawn treatments not receiving AC with heat-treatment durations of 60 and 180 min, whereas this effect was not as apparent for the compost substrates. On average, mushroom yield was greater for the grain spawn substrate (366 g) than for compost substrate (287 g). For grain spawn substrate, the results show that the addition of AC ranging from 5% to 10% was adequate for maximum mushroom production.

  8. Differential Antioxidative Responses to Water Deficit Among four Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Future climate changes are expected to increase risks of drought, which already represent the most common stress factor for stable barley (Hordeum vulgare L. production in Iran. Up to now, extensive research projects have been done to study effects of drought stress on the antioxidant enzyme activity. While there is a few works of such studies on the field condition. In order to study of water deficit effects on the antioxidant enzymes activities as a secondary stress, we evaluate the effects of mild and severe drought stress on activities of antioxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and peroxidase, among four barley genotypes, differing in the capacity to maintain the grain yield under drought condition during beginning on anthesis, kernel watery ripe and late milk stages under field condition. Results showed that drought increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in all genotypes. At beginning of anthesis, POX activity of Q22 was higher than it in other genotypes ( P

  9. Differential Synthesis in Vitro of Barley Aleurone and Starchy Endosperm Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundy, John; Hejgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Annette

    1986-01-01

    RNAs from isolated endosperm and aleurone tissues (developing and mature grain) and from cultured (germinating) aleurone layers treated with abscisic acid (ABA) and GA(3). B and C hordein polypeptides and the salt-soluble proteins beta-amylase, protein Z, protein C, the chymotrypsin inhibitors (CI-1 and 2......To widen the selection of proteins for gene expression studies in barley seeds, experiments were performed to identify proteins whose synthesis is differentially regulated in developing and germinating seed tissues. The in vitro synthesis of nine distinct barley proteins was compared using m......, expression of genes encoding ASI, PSI, protein C, and PAPI is tissue and stage-specific during seed development. Only ASI, CI-1, and PAPI were synthesized in significant amounts with mRNA from cultured aleurone layers. The levels of synthesis of PAPI and CI-1 were independent of hormone treatment...

  10. CDNA cloning, characterization and expression of an endosperm-specific barley peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård; Welinder, K.G.; Hejgaard, J.

    1991-01-01

    A barley peroxidase (BP 1) of pI ca. 8.5 and M(r) 37000 has been purified from mature barley grains. Using antibodies towards peroxidase BP 1, a cDNA clone (pcR7) was isolated from cDNA expression library. The nucleotide sequence of pcR7 gave a derived amino acid sequence identical to the 158 C......-terminal amino acid residues of mature BP 1. The clone pcR7 encodes an additional C-terminal sequence of 22 residues, which apparently are removed during processing. BP 1 is less than 50% identical to other sequenced plant peroxidases. Analyses of RNA and protein from aleurone, endosperm and embryo tissue showed...

  11. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.;

    1989-01-01

    represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise...

  12. Evaluation of Barley as Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Köten

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley, as animal feed, raw material for malting and human food, constitute an important part among cereal sources in the world. Majority of barley that produced both in Turkey and other countries of the world, is being used as animal feed. Poor baking quality, taste and appearance of barley restricted its use in human nutrition. However, recently high protein, fiber, especially β-glucan and high starch content appeal to food industry. Many scientific researches established that β-glucan, a soluble fiber, has an effect in healing coronary-hearth diseases, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level, preventing obesity. Being a healthy cereal that can be used in various purposes, and an additive in many food products, barley is considered a very promising cereal, and research to increase possibilities of its use in human nutrition is being increased. In the literature, there has been researches on making noodles, bulgur, kavut (roasted cereal, breakfast cereals. In this study the researches relating to evaluation of barley, importance of which is increased every day, as human food was reviewed.

  13. Grain legume-cereal intercropping: The practical application of diversity, competition and facilitation in arable and organic cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jørnsgaard, B.; Kinane, J.;

    2008-01-01

    in Denmark over three consecutive cropping seasons including dual grain legume (pea, faba bean and lupin)-barley intercropping as compared to the respective sole crops (SC). Yield stability of intercrops (IC) was not greater than that of grain legume SC, with the exception of the IC containing faba bean....... Faba bean and lupin had lower yield stability than pea and fertilized barley. However, the different IC used environmental resources for plant growth up to 50% (LER=0.91-1.51) more effectively as compared to the respective SC, but with considerable variation over location, years and crops. The SC...... was comparable; however, it tended to be the highest in sole cropped faba bean, lupin and unfertilized barley, where the application of urea to barley reduced the weed infestation by around 50%. Reduction in disease was observed in all IC systems compared to the corresponding SC, with a general disease reduction...

  14. GrainSpotter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren

    2014-01-01

    A new approach for indexing multigrain diffraction data is presented. It is based on the use of a monochromatic beam simultaneously illuminating all grains. By operating in sub-volumes of Rodrigues space, a powerful vertex-finding algorithm can be applied, with a running time that is compatible...... with online analysis. The resulting program, GrainSpotter, is sufficiently fast to enable online analysis during synchrotron sessions. The program applies outlier rejection schemes, leading to more robust and accurate data. By simulations it is shown that several thousand grains can be retrieved. A new method...... to derive partial symmetries, called pseudo-twins, is introduced. Uniquely, GrainSpotter includes an analysis of pseudo-twins, which is shown to be critical to avoid erroneous grains resulting from the indexing....

  15. Multiscale design of coarse-grained elastic network-based potentials for the μ opioid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossépré, Mathieu; Leherte, Laurence; Laaksonen, Aatto; Vercauteren, Daniel P

    2016-09-01

    Despite progress in computer modeling, most biological processes are still out of reach when using all-atom (AA) models. Coarse-grained (CG) models allow classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to be accelerated. Although simplification of spatial resolution at different levels is often investigated, simplification of the CG potential in itself has been less common. CG potentials are often similar to AA potentials. In this work, we consider the design and reliability of purely mechanical CG models of the μ opioid receptor (μOR), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In this sense, CG force fields (FF) consist of a set of holonomic constraints guided by an elastic network model (ENM). Even though ENMs are used widely to perform normal mode analysis (NMA), they are not often implemented as a single FF in the context of MD simulations. In this work, various ENM-like potentials were investigated by varying their force constant schemes and connectivity patterns. A method was established to systematically parameterize ENM-like potentials at different spatial resolutions by using AA data. To do so, new descriptors were introduced. The choice of conformation descriptors that also include flexibility information is important for a reliable parameterization of ENMs with different degrees of sensitivity. Hence, ENM-like potentials, with specific parameters, can be sufficient to accurately reproduce AA MD simulations of μOR at highly coarse-grained resolutions. Therefore, the essence of the flexibility properties of μOR can be captured with simple models at different CG spatial resolutions, opening the way to mechanical approaches to understanding GPCR functions. Graphical Abstract All atom structure, residue interaction network and coarse-grained elastic network models of the μ opioid receptor (μOR).

  16. Sequencing-based analysis of the bacterial and fungal composition of kefir grains and milks from multiple sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J Marsh

    Full Text Available Kefir is a fermented milk-based beverage to which a number of health-promoting properties have been attributed. The microbes responsible for the fermentation of milk to produce kefir consist of a complex association of bacteria and yeasts, bound within a polysaccharide matrix, known as the kefir grain. The consistency of this microbial population, and that present in the resultant beverage, has been the subject of a number of previous, almost exclusively culture-based, studies which have indicated differences depending on geographical location and culture conditions. However, culture-based identification studies are limited by virtue of only detecting species with the ability to grow on the specific medium used and thus culture-independent, molecular-based techniques offer the potential for a more comprehensive analysis of such communities. Here we describe a detailed investigation of the microbial population, both bacterial and fungal, of kefir, using high-throughput sequencing to analyse 25 kefir milks and associated grains sourced from 8 geographically distinct regions. This is the first occasion that this technology has been employed to investigate the fungal component of these populations or to reveal the microbial composition of such an extensive number of kefir grains or milks. As a result several genera and species not previously identified in kefir were revealed. Our analysis shows that the bacterial populations in kefir are dominated by 2 phyla, the Firmicutes and the Proteobacteria. It was also established that the fungal populations of kefir were dominated by the genera Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces and Naumovozyma, but that a variable sub-dominant population also exists.

  17. Sediment transport modelling based on grain size trend analysis in Augusta Harbour (Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Giuseppe; Feo, Roberto; Freni, Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    To support marine civil engineer in pollutant studies, sediment management or dredging operations, is useful to know how the sediments move in accumulation basin. This paper investigates the dynamic of the sediment path using a two-dimensional numeric model: the Grain Size Trend Analysis (GSTA). The GSTA was applied using GiSedTrend plugin, under GIS software. The case study is the Augusta Harbour, which is one of the most polluted Italian harbours. It is the marine part of the Site of National Interest (SNI) of Priolo Gargallo (Siracusa, Italy) and it can be hydrodynamically considered as a lagoon. Two scenarios were obtained by using different geostatistical criteria.

  18. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  19. Maize, Sunflower and Barley Sensitivity to the Residual Activity of Clomazone in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Gajić Umiljendić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of maize, sunflower and barley to clomazone residues in loamy soil wasassessed in the study using bioassay. Clomazone was applied at a series of concentrationsfrom 0.12 to 12 mg a.i./kg of soil. After 14 days, morphological (shoot height, fresh and dryweight and physiological (content of carotenoids, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b parameterswere measured. The results showed that morphological parameters are not valid indicatorsof clomazone sensitivity. Based on the results showing inhibition of the physiologicalparameters, I50 values were calculated and used to estimate the difference in sensitivitybetween the species tested. Sunflower was the most sensitive species, while the differencein sensitivity between maize and barley was not significant.Nomenclature: clomazone (2-(2-chlorbenzyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, maize(Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

  20. The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L K; Cook, D J; Edwards, S G; Ray, R V

    2014-06-02

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium

  1. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...... forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...

  2. Long-Run Impact of Corn-Based Ethanol on the Grain, Oilseed, and Livestock Sectors: A Preliminary Assessment, The

    OpenAIRE

    Amani Elobeid; Simla Tokgoz; Dermot J. Hayes; Bruce A. Babcock; Hart, Chad E.

    2006-01-01

    The ongoing growth of corn-based ethanol production raises some fundamental questions about what impact continued growth will have on U.S. and world agriculture. Estimates of the long-run potential for ethanol production can be made by calculating the corn price at which the incentive to expand ethanol production disappears. Under current ethanol tax policy, if the prices of crude oil, natural gas, and distillers grains stay at current levels, then the break-even corn price is $4.05 per bushe...

  3. Long-term reticuloruminal pH dynamics and markers of liver health in early-lactating cows of various parities fed diets differing in grain processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, E; Khol-Parisini, A; Gruber, L; Gasteiner, J; Abdel-Raheem, Sh M; Zebeli, Q

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the long-term effect of feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (La) with or without thermal treatment on reticuloruminal pH dynamics and metabolic activity of the liver in 12 primiparous and 18 multiparous early-lactating dairy cows. All cows were included on d 21 postpartum and sampled until d 90 postpartum. Cows were fed a diet based on differently processed ground barley grain: untreated grain (control diet, CON), or grain treated with 1% La alone for 24 h before feeding (La), or with an additional oven-heating at 55°C for 12 h (LaH). The reticuloruminal pH and temperature were measured via indwelling sensors that allowed for continuous (every 10min) and long-term measurement from d 21 to 80 postpartum. Blood samples were taken on d 21, 40, and 90 of lactation and analyzed for liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase, as well as bilirubin, bile acids, and serum amyloid A. Dry matter intake was higher in multiparous cows (20.7±0.27 kg/d) compared with primiparous cows (18.2±0.33 kg/d), but was not affected by dietary treatment. Overall, the relatively short duration (51±5min/d) of reticuloruminal pH pH pH pH readings and shorter periods in which the ruminal pH dropped below the threshold of pH 5.8. The reticuloruminal temperature was not affected by dietary treatment, whereas parity affected the time duration of reticuloruminal temperature >39.5°C, being 60±19min/d shorter in primiparous cows. The measured activities of the liver enzymes AST, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase, as well as bilirubin, bile acids, and the acute phase protein serum amyloid A, were not affected by grain feeding. Additionally, only one small effect of parity on investigated serum variables was noticed, showing slightly but significantly higher values of AST in multiparous (80.5±1.4 U/L) compared with primiparous cows (76.0±1.7 U/L). In conclusion, our

  4. Electro-Discharge Fine Truing of Metal-Bonded Fine-Grain Diamond Wheel Based on Real-Time Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Weidong; REN Chengzu; HUA Jinhai; WANG Taiyong

    2005-01-01

    A data acquisition system based on LabVIEW is designed and implemented, and electro-discharge(ED) fine truing of metal-bonded fine-grain diamond wheel based on real-time monitoring is researched. Real-time monitoring not only makes efficient impulse specification of ED truing easily obtained, but also is good for timely identifying no-load, avoiding short circuit and arc discharge phenomena and then for obtaining normal machining state. ED fine truing of the fine-grain wheel includes two steps: rough truing for high efficiency and fine truing for high precision. Final ED truing precision and efficiency not only depend on electric process specification, but also is concerned with electrode shape, insulated performance of operating fluid and vertical feed quantity value and frequency. Experiments indicate that ED fine truing based on real-time monitoring can improve the truing precision and efficiency. Average machining efficiency of W10 wheel is about 0.95 μm/min; the final run-out by ED truing is less than 2 μm.

  5. Grain Boundary Complexions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    theories of grain boundary adsorption were based on the McLean model, which assumes that segregation is constrained to a monolayer of atomic sites at the...New York: McGraw- Hill ; 1956. [58] de Boer JH. The dynamical character of adsorption . London: Oxford University Press; 1953. [59] McLean D. Grain...Overview No. 152 Grain boundary complexions Patrick R. Cantwell a, Ming Tang b,1, Shen J. Dillon c, Jian Luo d, Gregory S . Rohrer e, Martin P. Harmer

  6. Factors determining accumulation of mycotoxin producers in cereal grain during harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugauskas, Albinas; Raila, Algirdas; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Railiene, Marija; Novosinskas, Henrikas

    2007-01-01

    During the meteorologically contrasting period of 2003-2005, the contamination of winter wheat, malt barley and fodder barley grain with micromycetes during grain harvesting and preparation for storage was investigated. Micromycetes of over 70 species ascribed to 16 genera were isolated and identified, the density of their populations in grain was determined. Micromycetes with a population density of >50% were attributed to dominant species. Short biological characteristic, ecological peculiarities of the dominating micromycetes are provided; factors determining intensity of their development and abilities to synthesise and excrete toxic metabolites are indicated. The importance of grain drying for stabilisation of its contamination with micromycete propagules is highlighted. It is noted that in grain dried in shaft dryer using air at 90 degrees C the number of cfu (colony forming units) was reduced from 2.2 to 8.2 times. When active ventilation is applied, conditions favourable for the development of micromycetes remain longest in the upper layers of the mound. The airflow passing through the layer of damp grain inhibits the development of micromycetes, but an increase of comparative air flow for more than 500 m3x(txh)(-1) did not reduce the abundance of micromycete cfu. After drying Alternaria alternata, Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, Penicillum verrucosum dominated in wheat grain; Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. culmorum, F. tricinctum in malts barley grain; Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. tricinctum, Alternaria alternata in fodder barley grain. It has been determined that all micromycetes recorded on grain after drying are potential producers of toxic metabolites, i.e. are hazardous to human health.

  7. 基于ARM和WI-FI技术的大麦田间监控系统设计%Barley field monitoring system based on the ARM and WI-FI technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛红玉; 高晓阳; 李红岭; 张明艳; 杨占峰; 孔彦龙; 杨倩

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented a monitoring system which carried out barley images acquisition and wireless transmission based on ARM and WI-FI technology.The system used the wireless monitoring net-work coupled with PC under the control of monitoring software designed,employed WI-FI wireless commu-nication and adopted wireless sensor network and ARM precessor which had realized barely video acquisi-tion and automatic wireless transmission.The build client system displayed 25 frames per second to meet the requirement.%试验介绍了一种基于 ARM和 WI-FI 技术的大麦图像采集与无线传输系统的设计。系统构建了基于Linux的嵌入式系统的无线监控网络,采用 WI-FI 无线通信技术,将大麦田间图像信息经由无线传感器网络和ARM控制器处理,在设计的视频采集软硬件控制下,实现了大麦生长视频信息的自动采集和无线传输,结果表明:搭建系统的客户端能满足25帧/s显示的视频流要求。该研究对发展现代农业生产和实现大麦栽培决策信息化具有重要意义。

  8. Effects of whole grains on coronary heart disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kristina A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2010-11-01

    Characterizing which types of carbohydrates, including whole grains, reduce the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is challenging. Whole grains are characterized as being high in resistant carbohydrates as compared with refined grains, meaning they typically are high in fiber, nutrients, and bound antioxidants. Whole grain intake consistently has been associated with improved cardiovascular disease outcomes, but also with healthy lifestyles, in large observational studies. Intervention studies that assess the effects of whole grains on biomarkers for CHD have mixed results. Due to the varying nutrient compositions of different whole grains, each could potentially affect CHD risk via different mechanisms. Whole grains high in viscous fiber (oats, barley) decrease serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure and improve glucose and insulin responses. Grains high in insoluble fiber (wheat) moderately lower glucose and blood pressure but also have a prebiotic effect. Obesity is inversely related to whole grain intake, but intervention studies with whole grains have not produced weight loss. Visceral fat, however, may be affected favorably. Grain processing improves palatability and can have varying effects on nutrition (e.g., the process of milling and grinding flour increases glucose availability and decreases phytochemical content whereas thermal processing increases available antioxidants). Understanding how individual grains, in both natural and processed states, affect CHD risk can inform nutrition recommendations and policies and ultimately benefit public health.

  9. Web-based computational chemistry education with CHARMMing II: Coarse-grained protein folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Pickard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A lesson utilizing a coarse-grained (CG Gō-like model has been implemented into the CHARMM INterface and Graphics (CHARMMing web portal (www.charmming.org to the Chemistry at HARvard Macromolecular Mechanics (CHARMM molecular simulation package. While widely used to model various biophysical processes, such as protein folding and aggregation, CG models can also serve as an educational tool because they can provide qualitative descriptions of complex biophysical phenomena for a relatively cheap computational cost. As a proof of concept, this lesson demonstrates the construction of a CG model of a small globular protein, its simulation via Langevin dynamics, and the analysis of the resulting data. This lesson makes connections between modern molecular simulation techniques and topics commonly presented in an advanced undergraduate lecture on physical chemistry. It culminates in a straightforward analysis of a short dynamics trajectory of a small fast folding globular protein; we briefly describe the thermodynamic properties that can be calculated from this analysis. The assumptions inherent in the model and the data analysis are laid out in a clear, concise manner, and the techniques used are consistent with those employed by specialists in the field of CG modeling. One of the major tasks in building the Gō-like model is determining the relative strength of the nonbonded interactions between coarse-grained sites. New functionality has been added to CHARMMing to facilitate this process. The implementation of these features into CHARMMing helps automate many of the tedious aspects of constructing a CG Gō model. The CG model builder and its accompanying lesson should be a valuable tool to chemistry students, teachers, and modelers in the field.

  10. Web-based computational chemistry education with CHARMMing II: Coarse-grained protein folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Frank C; Miller, Benjamin T; Schalk, Vinushka; Lerner, Michael G; Woodcock, H Lee; Brooks, Bernard R

    2014-07-01

    A lesson utilizing a coarse-grained (CG) Gō-like model has been implemented into the CHARMM INterface and Graphics (CHARMMing) web portal (www.charmming.org) to the Chemistry at HARvard Macromolecular Mechanics (CHARMM) molecular simulation package. While widely used to model various biophysical processes, such as protein folding and aggregation, CG models can also serve as an educational tool because they can provide qualitative descriptions of complex biophysical phenomena for a relatively cheap computational cost. As a proof of concept, this lesson demonstrates the construction of a CG model of a small globular protein, its simulation via Langevin dynamics, and the analysis of the resulting data. This lesson makes connections between modern molecular simulation techniques and topics commonly presented in an advanced undergraduate lecture on physical chemistry. It culminates in a straightforward analysis of a short dynamics trajectory of a small fast folding globular protein; we briefly describe the thermodynamic properties that can be calculated from this analysis. The assumptions inherent in the model and the data analysis are laid out in a clear, concise manner, and the techniques used are consistent with those employed by specialists in the field of CG modeling. One of the major tasks in building the Gō-like model is determining the relative strength of the nonbonded interactions between coarse-grained sites. New functionality has been added to CHARMMing to facilitate this process. The implementation of these features into CHARMMing helps automate many of the tedious aspects of constructing a CG Gō model. The CG model builder and its accompanying lesson should be a valuable tool to chemistry students, teachers, and modelers in the field.

  11. Small grain size zirconium-based coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, O., E-mail: omar.jimenez.udg@gmail.com [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, AP 307, CP 45101 Zapopan, Jal (Mexico); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Audronis, M.; Leyland, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Flores, M.; Rodriguez, E. [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, AP 307, CP 45101 Zapopan, Jal (Mexico); Kanakis, K.; Matthews, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-30

    Hard, partly amorphous, ZrTiB(N) coatings were deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) onto (111) silicon wafers at low substrate temperatures of 85 and 110 °C using Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering. A segmented rectangular sputter target composed of three pieces (Zr/TiB{sub 2}/Zr) was used as the source of evaporation of coating components. Two different substrate biases (i.e. floating potential and − 50 V) and N{sub 2} reactive-gas flow rates of 2, 4 and 6 sccm were employed as the main deposition parameter variables. The chemical composition, structure, morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using a variety of analytical techniques such as Glow-Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy, cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) and nanoindentation. With other parameters fixed, coating properties were found to be dependent on the substrate negative bias and nitrogen flow rate. Linear scan profiles and SEM imaging revealed that all coatings were smooth, dense and featureless (in fracture cross section) with no apparent columnar morphology or macro-defects. GAXRD structural analysis revealed that mostly metallic phases were formed for coatings containing no nitrogen, whereas a solid solution (Zr,Ti)N single phase nitride was found in most of the reactively deposited coatings — exhibiting a very small grain size due to nitrogen and boron grain refinement effects. Hardness values from as low as 8.6 GPa up to a maximum of 25.9 GPa are related mainly to solid solution strengthening effects. The measured elastic moduli correlated with the trends in hardness behaviour; values in the range of 120–200 GPa were observed depending on the selected deposition parameters. Also, high H/E values (> 0.1) were achieved with several of the coatings.

  12. NAM-1gene polymorphism and grain protein content in Hordeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamar, Catherine; Loffet, Francois; Frettinger, Patrick; Ramsay, Luke; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; du Jardin, Patrick

    2010-04-15

    Grain protein content (GPC) is a key quality factor for malting and brewing process. In wheat, a QTL explaining a large part of GPC variation was identified, which co-localizes with a gene encoding a NAC transcription factor (TtNAM-B1). NAC transcription factors influence GPC by their role in the regulation of senescence and in protein remobilization. An orthologous gene was discovered on barley chromosome 6H where a GPC QTL was mapped. In this study, we identify allelic variation of the NAM-1 gene for three species of Hordeum representing wild and cultivated barley and we investigate the possible link with GPC. Three haplotypes were identified, one corresponds to the sequences of 11 European varieties representing H. vulgare, one corresponds to the sequence found in H. spontaneum and one represents the sequence of H. bulbosum. Three SNPs were identified between H. spontaneum sequence and H. vulgare sequence. One of the H. bulbosum polymorphisms leads to the introduction of a stop codon and a non-functional protein. Differences in GPC between the 11 varieties were found but no polymorphism in the NAM-1 gene was observed, suggesting that differences in expression of the HvNAM-1 gene or other genes should play a role in GPC regulation. Nevertheless based on published values for GPC of H. bulbosum and H. spontaneum compared to GPC measured here in H. vulgare, the non-functional protein is associated with the lower GPC, suggesting that loss of functionality of the NAM-1 gene in Hordeum is related to lower GPC. Moreover H. spontaneum GPC seems to be higher than H. vulgare GPC, suggesting also that allelic variation of the functional NAM-1 gene could be associated with GPC variation within the genus Hordeum.

  13. Using of Different Grain Sources with or without Monensin on Fattening Performance of Brown Swiss Male Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bashtani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of barley or triticale and monensin on fattening performance of Brown Swiss calves (with average body weight of 170±30 kg were studied in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement of 2×2 and 4 replicates. Experimental treatments were: 1- barley grain without monensin 2- barley grain with monensin 3- triticale grain without monensin and 4- triticale grain with monensin. The amount of monensin in the ration was set to be 30 mg/kg DM. Calves weighing was undertaken monthly and dry matter intake was measured daily. Sampling from rumen fluid was carried out using a stomach tube, and blood sampes were taken at the end of each month. Average daily gain, feed conversion ratio and daily feed intake were not significantly affected by the treatments. Monensin had no significant effect on blood glucose concentration. Ruminal N-NH3, blood urea nitrogen and ruminal pH were not significantly affected by the experimental treatments. As grain sources and monensin application had no effect on fattening performance of the calves. it can therefore concluded that triticale grain might be utilized substituted with barley grain in feed lot diets. This substitutionn can be important from the economical of view in calves feed lot interprise.

  14. Catalytic thermal treatment (catalytic thermolysis) of a rice grain-based biodigester effluent of an alcohol distillery plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Abhinesh Kumar; Chaudhari, Parmesh Kumar; Mazumdar, Bidyut; Choudhary, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic thermolysis (CT) process is an effective and novel approach to treat rice grain-based biodigester effluent (BDE) of the distillery plant. CT treatment of rice grain-based distillery wastewater was carried out in a 0.5 dm(3) thermolytic batch reactor using different catalysts such as CuO, copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate. With the CuO catalyst, a temperature of 95°C, catalyst loading of 4 g/dm(3) and pH 5 were found to be optimal, obtaining a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal of 80.4% and 72%, respectively. The initial pH (pHi) was an important parameter to remove COD and colour from BDE. At higher pHi (pH 9.5), less COD and colour reduction were observed. The settling characteristics of CT-treated sludge were also analysed at different temperatures. It was noted that the treated slurry at a temperature of 80°C gave best settling characteristics. Characteristics of residues are also analysed at different pH.

  15. Transgenic Production of an Anti HIV Antibody in the Barley Endosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz Hensel

    Full Text Available Barley is an attractive vehicle for producing recombinant protein, since it is a readily transformable diploid crop species in which doubled haploids can be routinely generated. High amounts of protein are naturally accumulated in the grain, but optimal endosperm-specific promoters have yet to be perfected. Here, the oat GLOBULIN1 promoter was combined with the legumin B4 (LeB4 signal peptide and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER retention signal (SEKDEL. Transgenic barley grain accumulated up to 1.2 g/kg dry weight of recombinant protein (GFP, deposited in small roundish compartments assumed to be ER-derived protein bodies. The molecular farming potential of the system was tested by generating doubled haploid transgenic lines engineered to synthesize the anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibody 2G12 with up to 160 μg recombinant protein per g grain. The recombinant protein was deposited at the periphery of protein bodies in the form of a mixture of various N-glycans (notably those lacking terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues, consistent with their vacuolar localization. Inspection of protein-A purified antibodies using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy showed that their equilibrium and kinetic rate constants were comparable to those associated with recombinant 2G12 synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  16. Risk assessment by sowing date for barley (Hordeum vulgare) in northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, A.A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Habtu, S.; Keesstra, S.D.; Berhe, M.; Hadgu Meles, K.

    2012-01-01

    Risks of dry and wet sowing methods of rainfed barley were evaluated in northern Ethiopia. The evaluation was based on yield simulation using a validated AquaCrop model. Risks of failure (false start) were assessed by taking biomass threshold levels (

  17. An integrated resource for barley linkage map and malting quality QTL alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) is an economically important model plant for genetics research that is currently served by a comprehensive set of tools for genetic analysis. High density genetic linkage maps constructed from the inheritance of robust gene-based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism...

  18. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  19. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  20. DECK: Distance and environment-dependent, coarse-grained, knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakser Ilya A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational approaches to protein-protein docking typically include scoring aimed at improving the rank of the near-native structure relative to the false-positive matches. Knowledge-based potentials improve modeling of protein complexes by taking advantage of the rapidly increasing amount of experimentally derived information on protein-protein association. An essential element of knowledge-based potentials is defining the reference state for an optimal description of the residue-residue (or atom-atom pairs in the non-interaction state. Results The study presents a new Distance- and Environment-dependent, Coarse-grained, Knowledge-based (DECK potential for scoring of protein-protein docking predictions. Training sets of protein-protein matches were generated based on bound and unbound forms of proteins taken from the DOCKGROUND resource. Each residue was represented by a pseudo-atom in the geometric center of the side chain. To capture the long-range and the multi-body interactions, residues in different secondary structure elements at protein-protein interfaces were considered as different residue types. Five reference states for the potentials were defined and tested. The optimal reference state was selected and the cutoff effect on the distance-dependent potentials investigated. The potentials were validated on the docking decoys sets, showing better performance than the existing potentials used in scoring of protein-protein docking results. Conclusions A novel residue-based statistical potential for protein-protein docking was developed and validated on docking decoy sets. The results show that the scoring function DECK can successfully identify near-native protein-protein matches and thus is useful in protein docking. In addition to the practical application of the potentials, the study provides insights into the relative utility of the reference states, the scope of the distance dependence, and the coarse-graining of

  1. Fractionation and Characterization of Brewers' Spent Grain Protein Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Celus, Inge; BRIJS, Kristof; Delcour, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates with a low and high degree of hydrolysis were enzymatically produced from brewers' spent grain (BSG), the insoluble residue of barley malt resulting from the manufacture of wort in the production of beer. To that end, BSG protein concentrate (BPC), prepared by alkaline extraction of BSG and subsequent acid precipitation, was enzymatically hydrolyzed with Alcalase during both 1.7 and 120 min. Because these hydrolysates contained many different peptides, fractionation of th...

  2. Liquid digestate from anaerobic treatment of source-separated household waste as fertilizer to barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Andersen, Uno; Krogstad, Tore; Sørheim, Roald

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the efficiency of different organic waste materials as NPK fertilizer, in addition to the risk for leaching losses related to shower precipitation in the first part of the growing season. The experiment was tested in a pot trial on a sandy soil in a greenhouse. Six organic fertilizers were evaluated: liquid anaerobic digestate (LAD) sourced from separated household waste, nitrified liquid anaerobic digestate (NLAD) of the same origin as LAD, meat and bone meal (MBM), hydrolysed salmon protein (HSP), reactor-composted catering waste (CW) and cattle manure (CM). An unfertilized control, calcium nitrate (CN) and Fullgjødsel® 21-4-10 were used as reference fertilizers. At equal amounts of mineral nitrogen both LAD and Fullgjødsel® gave equal yield of barley in addition to equal uptake of N, P, and K in barley grain. NLAD gave significantly lower barley yield than the original LAD due to leaching of nitrate-N after a simulated surplus of precipitation (28 mm) at Zadoks 14. There was significantly increased leaching of nitrate N from the treatments receiving 160 kg N ha(-1) of CN and NLAD in comparison with all the other organic fertilizers. In this study LAD performed to the same degree as Fullgjødsel® NPK fertilizer and it was concluded that LAD can be recommended as fertilizer for cereals. Nitrification of the ammonium N in the digestate caused significantly increased nitrate leaching, and cannot be recommended.

  3. Viability of barley seeds after long-term exposure to outer side of international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi C.; Elena, Shagimardanova; Gusev, Oleg A.; Kihara, Makoto; Hoki, Takehiro; Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2011-09-01

    Barley seeds were exposed to outer space for 13 months in a vented metal container without a climate control system to assess the risk of physiological and genetic mutation during long-term storage in space. The space-stored seeds (S0 generation), with an 82% germination rate in 50 seeds, lost about 20% of their weight after the exposure. The germinated seeds showed normal growth, heading, and ripening. The harvested seeds (S1 generation) also germinated and reproduced (S2 generation) as did the ground-stored seeds. The culm length, ear length, number of seed, grain weight, and fertility of the plants from the space-stored seeds were not significantly different from those of the ground-stored seeds in each of the S0 and S1 generation. Furthermore, the S1 and S2 space-stored seeds respectively showed similar β-glucan content to those of the ground-stored seeds. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis with 16 primer combinations showed no specific fragment that appears or disappears significantly in the DNA isolated from the barley grown from the space-stored seeds. Though these data are derived from nine S0 space-stored seeds in a single exposure experiment, the results demonstrate the preservation of barley seeds in outer space for 13 months without phenotypic or genotypic changes and with healthy and vigorous growth in space.

  4. Enzymic hydrolysis and industrial importance of barley. beta. -glucans and wheat flour pentosans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleary, B.V.; Gibson, T.S.; Allen, H.; Gams, T.C.

    1986-12-01

    Mixed linkage ..beta..-glucane and pentosanes (mainly arabinoxylanes) are the major endosperm cell-wall polysaccharides of barley and wheat respectively. These polysaccharides, although minor components of the whole grain, significantly affect the industrial utilization of these cereals. The modification of barley corns during malting requires the dissolution of the ..beta..-glucane in the cell-wall of the starch endosperm. High ..beta..-glucane concentration in wort and beer effect the rate of filtration and can also lead to precipitate or gel formation in the final product. In a similar manner, pentosane is thought to cause filtration problems with wheat starch hydrolysates by increasing viscosity and by producing gelatinous precipitate which blocks filters. Ironically, it is this same viscosity building and water binding capacity which is considered to render pentosanes of considerable value in dough development and bread storage (anti-staling functions). In the current paper, some aspects of the beneficial and detrimental effects of pentosanes and ..beta..-glucane in the industrial utilization of wheat and barley are discussed. More specifically, enzymic methods for the preparation, analysis and identification of these polysaccharides and for the removal of their functional properties, are described in detail.

  5. Performance of spring barley varieties and variety mixtures as affected by manure application and their order in an organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Berntsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a high and stable yield of organic spring barley, production should be optimized according to the specific environment. To test the performance of spring barley varieties under varying cropping conditions, a field experiment was carried out in 2003 and 2004 in a six-field mixed...... organic crop rotation. We investigated the choice of variety, the order in a rotation, and the application of manure (slurry and farmyard manure; 0 to 120 total-N ha−1) on grain yields of six selected varieties with different characteristics grown in either pure stands or in two spring barley mixtures......, each consisting of three varieties. Average grain yield of the barley varieties varied between 3.3 t DM ha−1 and 4.1 t DM ha−1. Grain yields of the two mixtures were 4.0 and 3.6 t DM ha−1, respectively. The varieties/mixtures interacted with crop order and year. Foliar diseases were more severe...

  6. Cementation of sand grains based on carbonate precipitation induced by microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Microbes can produce 2 3 CO32-in an environment conductive to precipitation,so the incompact sands will be consolidated.This technology is environmentally friendly not only because it gives strength to the sand body,but also it allows water to penetrate into the sand body,which is unlike silicate cement that will destroy the ecosystem of the earth.After comparing the activity of three kinds of bacteria,the most suitable one was chosen for the study.However,the activity of this bacterium was still not high enough for the purpose,so it was purified.A suitable program for the consolidation and cementation of sands was also found in the experiment.The compressive strength and the porosity of the cemented sand body were tested to characterize the cementation effectiveness.XRD analysis showed that a new phase of calcite was produced between sand grains.The content of calcite was detected by TG.The study showed that the precipitation program was quite important to obtain a sound cemented sand body in addition to the activity of the bacteria.

  7. Grain Boundary Induced Bias Instability in Soluble Acene-Based Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ky V.; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John E.; Lee, Jung Hun; Song, Eunjoo; Kang, Boseok; Cho, Kilwon; Lee, Wi Hyoung

    2016-09-01

    Since the grain boundaries (GBs) within the semiconductor layer of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have a strong influence on device performance, a substantial number of studies have been devoted to controlling the crystallization characteristics of organic semiconductors. We studied the intrinsic effects of GBs within 5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl) anthradithiophene (TES-ADT) thin films on the electrical properties of OFETs. The GB density was easily changed by controlling nulceation event in TES-ADT thin films. When the mixing time was increased, the number of aggregates in as-spun TES-ADT thin films were increased and subsequent exposure of the films to 1,2-dichloroethane vapor led to a significant increase in the number of nuleation sites, thereby increasing the GB density of TES-ADT spherulites. The density of GBs strongly influences the angular spread and crystallographic orientation of TES-ADT spherulites. Accordingly, the FETs with higher GB densities showed much poorer electrical characteristics than devices with lower GB density. Especially, GBs provide charge trapping sites which are responsible for bias-stress driven electrical instability. Dielectric surface treatment with a polystyrene brush layer clarified the GB-induced charge trapping by reducing charge trapping at the semiconductor-dielectric interface. Our study provides an understanding on GB induced bias instability for the development of high performance OFETs.

  8. Characterizing DNA Star-Tile-Based Nanostructures Using a Coarse-Grained Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, John S; Romano, Flavio; Zimmer, Matthew H; Louis, Ard A; Doye, Jonathan P K

    2016-04-26

    We use oxDNA, a coarse-grained model of DNA at the nucleotide level, to simulate large nanoprisms that are composed of multi-arm star tiles, in which the size of bulge loops that have been incorporated into the tile design is used to control the flexibility of the tiles. The oxDNA model predicts equilibrium structures for several different nanoprism designs that are in excellent agreement with the experimental structures as measured by cryoTEM. In particular we reproduce the chiral twisting of the top and bottom faces of the nanoprisms, as the bulge sizes in these structures are varied due to the greater flexibility of larger bulges. We are also able to follow how the properties of the star tiles evolve as the prisms are assembled. Individual star tiles are very flexible, but their structures become increasingly well-defined and rigid as they are incorporated into larger assemblies. oxDNA also finds that the experimentally observed prisms are more stable than their inverted counterparts, but interestingly this preference for the arms of the tiles to bend in a given direction only emerges after they are part of larger assemblies. These results show the potential for oxDNA to provide detailed structural insight as well as to predict the properties of DNA nanostructures and hence to aid rational design in DNA nanotechnology.

  9. Meta-Analysis of the Association Between Whole and Refined Grain Consumption and Stroke Risk Based on Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianguo; Huang, Qingfeng; Shi, Wei; Yang, Liu; Chen, Jian; Lan, Qing

    2016-10-01

    The association between whole and refined grain consumption and stroke risk remains unclear. A search using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed through February 29, 2016. Seven prospective studies with a total of 446 451 subjects and 5892 stroke events were included. The summary relative risk (SRR) of stroke for the high versus low consumption was 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83-1.14) for total grains, 0.92 (95% CI = 0.72-1.17) for whole grains, and 0.99 (95% CI = 0.84-1.16) for refined grains. Diets rich in whole grains were inversely associated with ischemic stroke risk (SRR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.60-0.95). Our meta-analysis revealed that whole and refined grain consumption is not associated with total stroke risk; however, whole grain consumption is associated with reduced ischemic stroke risk.

  10. Non-Markovian coarse-grained modeling of polymeric fluids based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Li, Xiantao; Karniadakis, George

    The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) models and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we incorporate memory effects into CG modeling by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons on both static and dynamic properties between the CG models with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations will be presented. Supported by the DOE Center on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4) and an INCITE grant.

  11. How barley growing conditions and its output change in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Erdélyi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that climate change has started. It is very important to make effort in developing impact analyses and adaptation strategies. First we were investigated how theproduction risk of winter barley is changing with time using the E,V efficiency criterion. Based on the regional yearly production data of the crop, we can conclude that beside other non-climatic effects, the changing climate has considerable impact on crops yield; its variability is increasing with the variability of meteorological parameters. We have used production data from 1951 to nowadays. Next, using comparison analyses for climate scenarios, we predict what we can expect in the future. For detecting the reasons of risk increase in the past, and forecasting the potential main points of future risk we have analysed statistically whether the climate needs of winter barley will be satisfied ornot in its important periods of growing. Frequency calculations were made based on the daily meteorological data. The situation doesn’t show big change, but It is no doubt that the anomalies of the indicators have been becoming more and more frequent. The morefrequent the extreme weather events are, the more we can be convinced of uncertainty.

  12. GWAS of Barley Phenotypes Established Under Future Climate Conditions of Elevated Temperature, CO2, O3 and Elevated Temperature and CO2 Combined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Backes, G.; Lyngkjær, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is likely to decrease crop yields worldwide. Developing climate resilient cultivars is one way to combat this production scarcity, however, little is known of crop response to future climate conditions and in particular the variability within crops.In Scandinavia, barley is widely...... cultivated, but yields have stagnated since the start of this century. In this study we cultivated 138 spring barley accessions in a climate phytotron under four treatments mimicking forecasted levels of temperature, carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and ozone ([O3]) at the end of the 21st century1...... yield, grain protein concentration, grain protein harvested, number of grains, number of ears, aboveground vegetative biomass and harvest index. In addition, stability of the production was calculated over the applied treatments for the assessed parameters.In the climate scenario of elevated temperature...

  13. Chemical genetics and cereal starch metabolism: structural basis of the non-covalent and covalent inhibition of barley β-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejzek, Martin; Stevenson, Clare E; Southard, Andrew M; Stanley, Duncan; Denyer, Kay; Smith, Alison M; Naldrett, Mike J; Lawson, David M; Field, Robert A

    2011-03-01

    There are major issues regarding the proposed pathway for starch degradation in germinating cereal grain. Given the commercial importance but genetic intractability of the problem, we have embarked on a program of chemical genetics studies to identify and dissect the pathway and regulation of starch degradation in germinating barley grains. As a precursor to in vivo studies, here we report systematic analysis of the reversible and irreversible inhibition of the major β-amylase of the grain endosperm (BMY1). The molecular basis of inhibitor action was defined through high resolution X-ray crystallography studies of unliganded barley β-amylase, as well as its complexes with glycone site binder disaccharide iminosugar G1M, irreversible inhibitors α-epoxypropyl and α-epoxybutyl glucosides, which target the enzyme's catalytic residues, and the aglycone site binders acarbose and α-cyclodextrin.

  14. Distinguishing the Asian dust sources based on cathodoluminescence analysis of single quartz grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, K.; Nishido, H.; Kayama, M.; Tada, R.; Isozaki, Y.; Sun, Y.; Igarashi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous tracers, such as mineralogical component, strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and neodymium (eNd(0)) isotopes (Liu et al., 1994; Biscaye et al.,1997; Bory et al., 2002, 2003; Kanayama et al., 2002, 2005), rare earth element composition (e.g., Svensson et al., 2000), oxygen isotope (Mizota et al., 1992; Hou et al., 2003) and ESR intensity of quartz (Ono et al., 1998; Sun et al., 2007), have been investigated to discriminate source areas of Asian dust. However, these analyses need large volume of samples (mostly more than 10 mg) and the applications to the dust samples are limited. Then, here we developed a provenance-tracing method by using a cathodoluminescence (CL) spectral of “single” quartz grain for applying it to small volume of aeolian dust samples, such as aeolian dust in the ice cores and marine sediments with the location of long distance from the Asian deserts. CL is the emission from a material which is excited by electron beam. Since CL spectroscopy and microscopy provide information on the existence and distribution of defects and trace elements in minerals, CL analyses have potential to characterize dust-source areas. CL spectra of quartz have been demonstrated to show different patterns between the quartz from hydrothermal, plutonic, volcanic and metamorphic origins (e.g., Zinkernagel, 1978; Götze et al., 2001), suggesting the spectra reflect the condition of the quartz formation and the local environment. Then, here we conducted CL spectral analysis of silt size quartz in the surface samples from the major Asian deserts, such as the Taklimakan Desert and Gobi Desert in southern Mongolia (hereafter Mongolian Gobi). CL spectra were measured in the areas of approximately 4 micron square for each quartz grain by a Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) at the Okayama University of Science, a SEM (Jeol: JSM-5410) attached with a grating monochromator (Oxford Instruments: Mono CL2), where EDS system can be used in combination with SEM

  15. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymøller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2014-05-01

    Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich

  16. Overexpression of cytokinin dehydrogenase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise fundamentally affects morphology and fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Mrízová

    Full Text Available Barley is one of the most important cereal crops grown worldwide. It has numerous applications, but its utility could potentially be extended by genetically manipulating its hormonal balances. To explore some of this potential we identified gene families of cytokinin dehydrogenases (CKX and isopentenyl transferases, enzymes that respectively irreversibly degrade and synthesize cytokinin (CK plant hormones, in the raw sequenced barley genome. We then examined their spatial and temporal expression patterns by immunostaining and qPCR. Two CKX-specific antibodies, anti-HvCKX1 and anti-HvCKX9, predominantly detect proteins in the aleurone layer of maturing grains and leaf vasculature, respectively. In addition, two selected CKX genes were used for stable, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the barley cultivar Golden Promise. The results show that constitutive overexpression of CKX causes morphological changes in barley plants and prevents their transition to flowering. In all independent transgenic lines roots proliferated more rapidly and root-to-shoot ratios were higher than in wild-type plants. Only one transgenic line, overexpressing CKX under the control of a promoter from a phosphate transporter gene, which is expressed more strongly in root tissue than in aerial parts, yielded progeny. Analysis of several T1-generation plants indicates that plants tend to compensate for effects of the transgene and restore CK homeostasis later during development. Depleted CK levels during early phases of development are restored by down-regulation of endogenous CKX genes and reinforced de novo biosynthesis of CKs.

  17. SNP Analysis and Haplotype Identification in Chymotrypsin Inhibitor-2 (CI-2) Gene of Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xiang-hui; WEI Yu-ming; JIANG Qian-tao; QI Peng-fei; ZHENG You-liang

    2009-01-01

    Barley chymotrypsin inhibitor-2 (CI-2) was considered to be a promising candidate for enhancing the nutritional value of other cereals by increasing its concentration as it is rich in lysine than any other storage protein. Also, it was proposed that CI-2 might play an important role in the inhibition of proteolytic enzymes from pests or pathogens as CI-2 can strongly inhibit chymotrypsin and subtilisin. In this study, a total of 93 CI-2 gene sequences were isolated from wild and cultivated barley. 48 SNPs and 4 indels were detected across the entire sequences. The frequency of SNPs in the non-coding region (1 out of 9 bases) was slightly higher than that in the coding region (1 out of 10.7 bases). In all, 33.3% of the candidate cSNPs resulted in amino acid changes. As a total, the 24 cSNPs resulted in 15 amino acid changes. Ten distinguishable haplotypes were detected, among which 3 haplotypes were shared in the most barley accessions, whereas the rest of the haplotypes appeared at a lower frequency. In addition, three haplotypes (haplotype 4, 8, and 9) were unique for single accessions. These results suggested that low diversity at the CI-2 locus was detected among the cultivated and wild barley.

  18. Lysine-Rich Proteins in High-Lysine Hordeum Vulgare Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    The salt-soluble proteins in barley grain selected for high-lysine content (Hiproly, CI 7115 and the mutants 29 and 86) and of a control (Carlsberg II) with normal lysine content, contain identical major proteins as determined by MW and electrophoretic mobility. The concentration of a protein group...

  19. Further Experiments on Gibberellin-Stimulated Amylase Production in Cereal Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppage, Jo; Hill, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments conducted on wheat and barley grains to analyze activities of alpha- and beta-amylase enzymes. Gibberellins were used exogenously. Techniques are described in detail. Results on different cultivars revealed that beta-amylase was not an invariable result of imbibition. Techniques employed can be used by school students. (PS)

  20. Mixed-starter Fermentation of New-type Highland Barley Liquor%新型青稞酒混曲发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉蛟; 易欣; 吴正云; 张文学

    2015-01-01

    In this study, highland barley from Qinghai was used as raw materials, mixed-starter fermentation (new-type highland barley Daqu and Rhizopus Xiaoqu) was adopted to produce soft-taste highland barley liquor, and the technology of steaming and distilling one time respec-tively was applied. The experimental results suggested that, as the mixed ratio of highland barley Daqu and Rhizopus Xiaoqu was 10∶1, the yield and the quality of soft-taste highland barley liquor were better than that by traditional production methods. This study provided theoretical and technical base for efficient utilization of highland barley resources and the expansion of highland barley liquor market.%以青海青稞为主要酿酒原料,探讨了新型青稞大曲与根霉小曲混曲发酵酿造绵柔青稞酒的“清蒸一次清”工艺。研究发现,青稞大曲∶根霉小曲为10∶1混曲发酵时,绵柔青稞酒酒精产率及成品酒品质均优于传统青稞酒。该项研究结果为高原青稞资源的有效利用以及青稞酒市场的进一步拓展奠定了理论和技术基础。

  1. Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...

  2. The role of grain boundary chemistry and structure in the environmentally-assisted intergranular cracking of nickel-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, G.S.

    1992-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking tests in constant extension rate tensile (CERT) and constant load tensile (CLT) tests were conducted on Ni-xCr- 9Fe-yC in Ar, water, and a LiOH-boric acid solution. Cr and C improve the resistance of Ni-base alloys to IG cracking in both Ar and water at 360C. Since creep plays a role in IG cracking, one possible explanation for the role of the environment involves its effect on the creep. Experiments were conducted on the role of C in the deformation behavior and failure mode of Ni-16Cr-9Fe. Constant load experiments were conducted on Ni-16Cr-9Fe to determine if the CLT test is more aggressive than CERT. The electron backscattering technique in a SEM is being developed in order to extend the IG cracking studies to grain sizes typical of commercial alloys, 20-30 microns.

  3. Economic efficiency of the maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mariana Dincu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, was calculated and the level of profitability for several levels of production for grain maize cultivation. We chose corn because it is one of the most important forage crops, we could say even the largest, occupying third place among cultivated plants worldwide. Along with wheat and barley, the food is the biggest part of the population in the world, directly or converted to animal products. Maize can be used in animal feed in various forms. The most used is corn grain, which is characterized by a very high nutritional value, this product is properly regarded as a feed concentrate. Culture of maize have been designed two levels of production: 4000 kg / ha and 6000 kg / ha.

  4. Grain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Our fundamental knowledge of interstellar grain composition has grown substantially during the past two decades thanks to significant advances in two areas: astronomical infrared spectroscopy and laboratory astrophysics. The opening of the mid-infrared, the spectral range from 4000-400 cm(sup -1) (2.5-25 microns), to spectroscopic study has been critical to this progress because spectroscopy in this region reveals more about a materials molecular composition and structure than any other physical property. Infrared spectra which are diagnostic of interstellar grain composition fall into two categories: absorption spectra of the dense and diffuse interstellar media, and emission spectra from UV-Vis rich dusty regions. The former will be presented in some detail, with the latter only very briefly mentioned. This paper summarized what we have learned from these spectra and presents 'doorway' references into the literature. Detailed reviews of many aspects of interstellar dust are given.

  5. High mature grain phytase activity in the Triticeae has evolved by duplication followed by neofunctionalization of the purple acid phosphatase phytase (PAPhy) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holme, Inger

    2013-01-01

    The phytase activity in food and feedstuffs is an important nutritional parameter. Members of the Triticeae tribe accumulate purple acid phosphatase phytases (PAPhy) during grain filling. This accumulation elevates mature grain phytase activities (MGPA) up to levels between ~650 FTU/kg for barley...

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismagul, Ainur; Mazonka, Iryna; Callegari, Corinne; Eliby, Serik

    2014-01-01

    Barley biotechnology requires efficient genetic engineering tools for producing transgenic plants necessary for conducting reverse genetics analyses in breeding and functional genomics research. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is an important technique for producing barley transgenics with simple low-copy number transgenes. This chapter reports a refined protocol for the systematic high-throughput transformation of the advanced Australian spring barley breeding line WI4330.

  7. Effect of a Transverse Magnetic Field on Stray Grain Formation of Ni-Based Single Crystal Superalloy During Directional Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Weidong; Liu, Huan; Lan, Jian; Li, Chuanjun; Zhong, Yunbo; Li, Xi; Cao, Guanghui; Ren, Zhongming

    2016-08-01

    The effect of a transverse magnetic field on stray grain formation during directional solidification of superalloy was investigated. Experimental results indicated that the transverse magnetic field effectively suppressed the stray grain formation on the side the primary dendrite diverges from the mold wall. Moreover, the quenched experimental results indicated that the solid/liquid interface shape was obviously changed in a transverse magnetic field. The effect of a transverse magnetic field on stray grain formation was discussed.

  8. Phytoremediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils around Isfahan Oil Refinery (Iran by Sorghum and Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Irajy Asiabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum compounds are one of the most frequently encountered pollutants in soils adjacent to oil refineries. Phytoremediation,where feasible, has become a cost-effective alternative to physicochemical methods of soil remediation. In this study, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and barley (Hordeum vulgare were selected for phytoremediationand the diminution in the concentration of oil-based contaminants was measured during a 90-day period. Contaminated and control treatments were compared in terms of root and shoot dry weight. Comparisons revealed reductions of about 22% and 30% in root dry matter and 51% and 42% in shoot dry matter of sorghum and barley in contaminated soil, respectively. The control and planted soils were significantly different in total and oil-degrading bacterial counts. Moreover, the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons decreased by 52%-64% in 90 days. Since planting the contaminated soil with sorghum and barley resulted in an improvement of 30% compared to unplanted contaminated soil, the two plants were highly efficient in removing petroleum from oil-contaminated soils. Therefore, despite the necessity of further studies to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation by assessing the appropriateness of various plant species, some genotypes like sorghum and barley were found suitable choices for phytoremediation of the investigated petroleum-contaminated soil.

  9. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate...... the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral...

  10. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, Sarah K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-05-01

    To determine values for the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), it is recommended that ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility values obtained in growing pigs are used to characterise protein quality in different foods. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in eight cereal grains (yellow dent maize, Nutridense maize, dehulled barley, dehulled oats, polished white rice, rye, sorghum and wheat) fed to pigs, where SID values in pigs can be used to calculate approximate DIAAS values in humans. In the present experiment, twenty-four barrows with a T-cannula inserted in the distal ileum were allotted to eight diets and fed for three periods to give a total of nine replicate pigs per diet. Each period lasted 14 d, and ileal digesta samples were collected on days 13 and 14. Among the SID values obtained for all cereal grains, values for total indispensable AA were greatest (P< 0·05) in rice and lowest (P< 0·05) in rye and sorghum. The concentrations of SID indispensable AA in rice were less (P< 0·05) than in dehulled oats, but greater (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, and the concentrations of SID indispensable AA in Nutridense maize were greater (P< 0·05) than in yellow dent maize and sorghum, but less (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, except rye. In conclusion, results indicate that to meet dietary requirements for AA in humans, diets based on yellow dent maize or sorghum require more AA supplementation than diets based on other cereal grains.

  11. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  12. Potential for Optical Sensor-Based Nitrogen Fertilization in Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Rodriguez, Kamil

    Ground-based active-optical (GBAO) crop sensors have become an effective tool to improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to predict yield early in the growing season, particularly for grass crops. Commercially available canopy sensors calculate the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) by emitting light in the red and near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The NDVI is used to evaluate vigor status and to estimate yield potential. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the performance of commercially available sensors. Therefore, a study was conducted using the most common crop canopy sensors: i) N-Tech's GreenSeeker(TM) (GS), ii) Holland Scientific's Crop Circle(TM) (CC), and iii) Minolta's SPAD-502 chlorophyll content meter (CCM). The objective of this study was to find the optimum time for sensing and compare the relative performance of the sensors in estimating the yield potential of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Treatments included six levels of N fertilization (0, 37, 74, 111, 148, and 185 kg N/ ha), applied in a single split 20 days after planting (DAP). Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replications, in four locations in Arkansas, during 2012 and 2013. Sensors readings at vegetative growth stages V3, 4, 5 and 6. Results from simple regression analysis showed that the V3-V4 growth stage correlated better with grain yield than readings collected and any other time. In season estimated yield (INSEY) obtained at V3 captured 41, 57, 78, and 61% of the variation in grain sorghum yield when red NDVI of GS, red NDVI of CC, red edge for CC and CCM, respectively, were used. Results from these studies suggest that the CC sensor has a better potential for in-season site-specific N application in Arkansas than the GS sensor. The GS reflectance values appear to saturate after the V3 stage, in contrast with CC values that allow for discrimination past the V3 Stage. Therefore, the red

  13. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  14. Designing coarse grained-and atom based-potentials for protein-protein docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobi Dror

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein docking is a challenging computational problem in functional genomics, particularly when one or both proteins undergo conformational change(s upon binding. The major challenge is to define a scoring function soft enough to tolerate these changes and specific enough to distinguish between near-native and "misdocked" conformations. Results Using a linear programming (LP technique, we developed two types of potentials: (i Side chain-based and (ii Heavy atom-based. To achieve this we considered a set of 161 transient complexes and generated a large set of putative docked structures (decoys, based on a shape complementarity criterion, for each complex. The demand on the potentials was to yield, for the native (correctly docked structure, a potential energy lower than those of any of the non-native (misdocked structures. We show that the heavy atom-based potentials were able to comply with this requirement but not the side chain-based one. Thus, despite the smaller number of parameters, the capability of heavy atom-based potentials to discriminate between native and "misdocked" conformations is improved relative to those of the side chain-based potentials. The performance of the atom-based potentials was evaluated by a jackknife test on a set of 50 complexes taken from the Zdock2.3 decoys set. Conclusions Our results show that, using the LP approach, we were able to train our potentials using a dataset of transient complexes only the newly developed potentials outperform three other known potentials in this test.

  15. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  16. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  17. Grain-size based sea-level reconstruction in the south Bohai Sea during the past 135 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liang; Chen, Yanping

    2013-04-01

    Future anthropogenic sea-level rise and its impact on coastal regions is an important issue facing human civilizations. Due to the short nature of the instrumental record of sea-level change, development of proxies for sea-level change prior to the advent of instrumental records is essential to reconstruct long-term background sea-level changes on local, regional and global scales. Two of the most widely used approaches for past sea-level changes are: (1) exploitation of dated geomorphologic features such as coastal sands (e.g. Mauz and Hassler, 2000), salt marsh (e.g. Madsen et al., 2007), terraces (e.g. Chappell et al., 1996), and other coastal sediments (e.g. Zong et al., 2003); and (2) sea-level transfer functions based on faunal assemblages such as testate amoebae (e.g. Charman et al., 2002), foraminifera (e.g. Chappell and Shackleton, 1986; Horton, 1997), and diatoms (e.g. Horton et al., 2006). While a variety of methods has been developed to reconstruct palaeo-changes in sea level, many regions, including the Bohai Sea, China, still lack detailed relative sea-level curves extending back to the Pleistocene (Yi et al., 2012). For example, coral terraces are absent in the Bohai Sea, and the poor preservation of faunal assemblages makes development of a transfer function for a relative sea-level reconstruction unfeasible. In contrast, frequent alternations between transgression and regression has presumably imprinted sea-level change on the grain size distribution of Bohai Sea sediments, which varies from medium silt to coarse sand during the late Quaternary (IOCAS, 1985). Advantages of grainsize-based relative sea-level transfer function approaches are that they require smaller sample sizes, allowing for replication, faster measurement and higher spatial or temporal resolution at a fraction of the cost of detail micro-palaeontological analysis (Yi et al., 2012). Here, we employ numerical methods to partition sediment grain size using a combined database of

  18. A molecular based strategy for rapid diagnosis of toxigenic Fusarium species associated to cereal grains from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro, D A; Marín, P; Iglesias, J; Presello, D A; Vattuone, M A; Catalan, C A N; Gonzalez Jaen, M T

    2010-01-01

    assays evaluated in this work are reliable diagnostic tools to detect the main toxigenic Fusarium species associated to cereal grains in Argentina. An extensive epidemiological survey based on the approach presented in this work is currently in progress to know the mycotoxigenic hazard of Fusarium species in cereal grains from the subtropical region of Argentina.

  19. The NAC transcription factors of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael; Holm, Preben Bach; Gregersen, Per L.

    2011-01-01

    ). From these data we have identified not only putative regulators of leaf senescence (HvNAC005, HvNAC027 and HvNAC029), but also possible regulators of secondary wall synthesis (HvNAC033, HvNAC034 and HvNAC039), lateral root formation (HvNAC022) and seed development (HvNAC017, HvNAC018, HvNAC019 and Hv...... genes characterized so far have regulatory functions in a broad range of plant developmental processes and tolerances to both biotic and abiotic stresses. This makes the NAC family highly interesting target genes for plant researchers and breeders. As part of a larger project on the identification...... of Hordeum vulgare (barley) leaf senescence regulators, we have attempted to characterize for the first time all presently available barley NAC genes (HvNACs). By searching the NCBI barley EST database using the tBLASTn function, with all known NAC genes from Brachypodium and rice as input, in combination...

  20. The effect of grain refinement on the room-temperature ductility of as-cast Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, S.; Andleigh, V.K.; McKamey, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys exhibit poor room-temperature ductility in the as-cast condition. In this study, the effect of grain refinement of the as-cast alloy on room-temperature ductility was investigated. Small melts of Fe-28 at. % Al-5 at. % Cr were inoculated with various alloying additions and cast into a 50- x 30- x 30-mm graphite mold. The resulting ingots were examined metallographically for evidence of grain refinement, and three-point bend tests were conducted on samples to assess the effect on room-temperature ductility. Ductility was assumed to correlate with the strain corresponding to the maximum stress obtained in the bend test. The results showed that titanium was extremely effective in grain refinement, although it severely embrittled the alloy in contents exceeding 1%. Boron additions strengthened the alloy significantly, while carbon additions reduced both the strength and ductility. The best ductility was found in an alloy containing titanium, boron, and carbon. In order to verify the results of the grain refinement study, vacuum-induction melts of selected compositions were prepared and cast into a larger 25- x 150- x 100-mm graphite mold. Tensile specimens were machined from the ingots, and specimens were tested at room temperature. The results of the tensile tests agreed with the results of the grain refinement study; in addition, the addition of molybdenum was found to significantly increase room-temperature tensile ductility over that of the base alloy.

  1. Tiny grains give huge gains: nanocrystal-based signal amplification for biomolecule detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sheng; Ren, Binbin; Zheng, Zhilan; Shen, Han; Bao, Gang

    2013-06-25

    Nanocrystals, despite their tiny sizes, contain thousands to millions of atoms. Here we show that the large number of atoms packed in each metallic nanocrystal can provide a huge gain in signal amplification for biomolecule detection. We have devised a highly sensitive, linear amplification scheme by integrating the dissolution of bound nanocrystals and metal-induced stoichiometric chromogenesis, and demonstrated that signal amplification is fully defined by the size and atom density of nanocrystals, which can be optimized through well-controlled nanocrystal synthesis. Further, the rich library of chromogenic reactions allows implementation of this scheme in various assay formats, as demonstrated by the iron oxide nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (ILISA) and blotting assay developed in this study. Our results indicate that, owing to the inherent simplicity, high sensitivity and repeatability, the nanocrystal based amplification scheme can significantly improve biomolecule quantification in both laboratory research and clinical diagnostics. This novel method adds a new dimension to current nanoparticle-based bioassays.

  2. The promoter of the barley aleurone-specific gene encoding a putative 7 kDa lipid transfer protein confers aleurone cell-specific expression in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, R; Shimamoto, K; Potter, R; Nielsen, P S; Linnestad, C; Olsen, O A

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes the aleurone-specific gene Ltp2 from barley, which encodes a putative 7 kDa non-specific lipid transfer protein. As shown by Northern and in situ hybridization analyses, the Ltp2 transcript is present in barley aleurone cells shortly after the initiation of aleurone cell differentiation. The expression of Ltp2 increases until grain mid-maturity, but the mRNA is absent from mature grains. The Ltp2 transcript is undetectable in the embryo and vegetative tissues, confirming the aleurone specificity of the Ltp2 gene. The ability of the isolated 801 bp Ltp2 promoter to direct aleurone-specific expression in immature barley grains is demonstrated by particle bombardment experiments. In these experiments, the activity of the Ltp2 promoter is 5% of the activity of the strong constitutive Actin1 promoter from rice, as quantified by GUS activity measurements. In stably transformed rice plants containing the Ltp2 promoter-Gus construct, the specificity of the Ltp2 promoter is confirmed in vivo by the presence of GUS activity exclusively in the aleurone layer. This study demonstrates the conserved nature of the regulatory signals involved in aleurone-specific gene transcription in cereal grains.

  3. Quantification of amylose, amylopectin and β-glucan in the search for genes controlling the three major quality traits in barley using genome-wide association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren K Rasmussen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS for amylose, amylopectin and β-glucan concentration in a collection of 254 European spring barley varieties allowed to identify 20, 17 and 21 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP markers, respectively, associated with these important grain quality traits. Negative correlations between the content of amylose and β-glucan (R=-0.62, P<0.01 and amylopectin and β-glucan (R= -0.487, P<0.01 were found in this large collection of spring barley varieties. Besides HvCslF6, amo1 and AGPL2, sex6 and waxy were identified among the major genes responsible for β-glucan, amylose and amylopectin content, respectively. Several minor genes like HvGSL4, HvGSL3 and HvCesA6, PWD were also detected by GWAS for the first time. Furthermore, the gene encoding β-fructofuranosidase, located on the short arm of chromosome 7H at 1.49cM, and SRF6, encoding ‘leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase protein’ on chromosome 2H, are proposed to be new candidate genes for amylopectin formation in barley endosperm. Several of the associated SNPs on chromosome 1H, 5H, 6H and 7H mapped to overlapping regions containing QTLs and genes controlling the three grain constituents. In particular chromosomes 5H and 7H carry many QTLs controlling barley grain quality. Amylose, amylopectin and β-glucan were interacted among each other through a metabolic network connected by UDP showing pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these results showed that cereal quality traits related each other and regulated through an interaction network, the identified major genes and genetic regions for amylose, amylopectin and β-glucan is a helpful for further research on carbohydrates and barley breeding.

  4. Additive effects of Na+ and Cl- ions on barley growth under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Coventry, Stewart; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2011-03-01

    Soil salinity affects large areas of the world's cultivated land, causing significant reductions in crop yield. Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions in high concentrations in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na(+) accumulation. It has previously been suggested that Cl(-) toxicity may also be an important cause of growth reduction in barley plants. Here, the extent to which specific ion toxicities of Na(+) and Cl(-) reduce the growth of barley grown in saline soils is shown under varying salinity treatments using four barley genotypes differing in their salt tolerance in solution and soil-based systems. High Na(+), Cl(-), and NaCl separately reduced the growth of barley, however, the reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greatest under NaCl stress and were mainly additive of the effects of Na(+) and Cl(-) stress. The results demonstrated that Na(+) and Cl(-) exclusion among barley genotypes are independent mechanisms and different genotypes expressed different combinations of the two mechanisms. High concentrations of Na(+) reduced K(+) and Ca(2+) uptake and reduced photosynthesis mainly by reducing stomatal conductance. By comparison, high Cl(-) concentration reduced photosynthetic capacity due to non-stomatal effects: there was chlorophyll degradation, and a reduction in the actual quantum yield of PSII electron transport which was associated with both photochemical quenching and the efficiency of excitation energy capture. The results also showed that there are fundamental differences in salinity responses between soil and solution culture, and that the importance of the different mechanisms of salt damage varies according to the system under which the plants were grown.

  5. 454 sequencing of pooled BAC clones on chromosome 3H of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaji Nami

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome sequencing of barley has been delayed due to its large genome size (ca. 5,000Mbp. Among the fast sequencing systems, 454 liquid phase pyrosequencing provides the longest reads and is the most promising method for BAC clones. Here we report the results of pooled sequencing of BAC clones selected with ESTs genetically mapped to chromosome 3H. Results We sequenced pooled barley BAC clones using a 454 parallel genome sequencer. A PCR screening system based on primer sets derived from genetically mapped ESTs on chromosome 3H was used for clone selection in a BAC library developed from cultivar "Haruna Nijo". The DNA samples of 10 or 20 BAC clones were pooled and used for shotgun library development. The homology between contig sequences generated in each pooled library and mapped EST sequences was studied. The number of contigs assigned on chromosome 3H was 372. Their lengths ranged from 1,230 bp to 58,322 bp with an average 14,891 bp. Of these contigs, 240 showed homology and colinearity with the genome sequence of rice chromosome 1. A contig annotation browser supplemented with query search by unique sequence or genetic map position was developed. The identified contigs can be annotated with barley cDNAs and reference sequences on the browser. Homology analysis of these contigs with rice genes indicated that 1,239 rice genes can be assigned to barley contigs by the simple comparison of sequence lengths in both species. Of these genes, 492 are assigned to rice chromosome 1. Conclusions We demonstrate the efficiency of sequencing gene rich regions from barley chromosome 3H, with special reference to syntenic relationships with rice chromosome 1.

  6. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    (III) at concentrations of 10-50-mu-g/ml did not significantly alter the concentrations of polyamines nor the chitinase activities in either species, however, at 100-mu-g/ml in barley Cr(III) induced an increase in putrescine concentration after 6 days of exposure. The induction of chitinases and the increases...... in the putrescine level caused by Cr(VI) but not by Cr(III) (10-50-mu-g/ml) exposure is similar in the two species suggesting an analogous defense system in both mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. The anionic form of Cr(VI) seems to be more potent than the cationic form of Cr(III). Grain of barley plants grown...

  7. Quantitative Assessment of the Impact of China’s Direct Grain Subsidies on Grain Yield--Based on the Empirical Analysis of Panel Data Pertaining to 29 Provinces in the Period 2004-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We build the influence function empirical model of China’s grain production at the present stage in view of the factors influencing direct grain subsidies,using Cobb-Douglas production function model.And we estimate the elasticity coefficient of impact of China’s direct grain subsidies on grain yield,using the panel data pertaining to 29 provinces in the period 2004-2007;comparatively analyze the validity and limitation of policy factors of direct grain subsidies on China’s grain yield.The results show that at the present stage,the elasticity coefficient of impact of China’s direct grain subsidies on grain yield is 0.002 3,and under the existing subsidy system and level,direct grain subsidies play a positive role in increasing grain yield,but the role is limited;the elasticity coefficient of impact of the food price on grain yield is much larger than that of impact of direct grain subsidies on grain yield.Therefore,the government should strengthen and improve direct grain subsidy policies;in the mean time,pay full attention to the use of market mechanism to consolidate the basic role of the food price in promoting food security to a great extent.

  8. Cloning and characterization of purple acid phosphatase phytases from wheat, barley, maize, and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, G.; Madsen, C. K.; Holm, P. B.;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here...... type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. despite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during grain...... development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed...

  9. Influence of preparation process on sintering behavior and mechanical properties of ultrafine grained Ti(C, N)-based cermets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ping; HE Yue-hui; XIAO Yi-feng; LIU Wen-jun; XIONG Wei-hao

    2007-01-01

    The influences of forming and sintering processes on distortion, cracking as well as mechanical properties of sintered bodies of ultrafine grained Ti(C, N)-based cermets were investigated. The results show that lubricant is indispensable to fabrication of ultrafine Ti(C, N)-based cermets, however, with low binder content in powder mixture, the lubrication action of paraffin is attenuated. A appropriate level of 2% (mass fraction) paraffin is determined for a cermet with binder content of 36% (mass fraction). It is also found that the influence of compaction pressure on distortion and cracking of sintered bodies presents a complex relationship. A relatively lower or higher compaction pressure, less than 100 MPa and more than 400 MPa respectively, favors uniform density distribution in green compact. The heating rate of sintering should be strictly controlled. Too fast heating rate results in enclosed pores to burst and forms large size pores in sintering body. A heating rate of 3 ℃/min is recommended.

  10. A record flexible piezoelectric KNN ultrafine-grained nanopowder-based nanogenerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-tang Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore a type piezoelectric material 0.9525(K0.5Na0.5NbO3-0.0475LiTaO3 (KNN-LTS which can be used to fabricate nanogenerator with high output voltage and current due to its high piezoelectric constant (d33. Because of its unique structure mixed with multi-wall carbon nanotube and polydimethylsiloxane, the output voltage is up to 53 V and the output current is up to 15 uA (current density of 12.5 uA/cm2 respectively. The value of the output voltage and output current represent the highest level in the piezoelectric field reported to date. The KNN-LTS nanopowder-based nanogenerator can also be used as a sensitive motion detection sensor.

  11. Combining unmalted barley and pearling gives good quality brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Hageman, Jos A.; Oguz, Serhat; Noordman, Tom R.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with unmalted barley can reduce the use of raw materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the brewing process. However, unmalted barley contains several undesired components for brewing and has a low enzymatic activity. Pearling, an abrasive milling method, has been proposed as a pre

  12. Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...

  13. Progressive hull removal from barley using the Fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to explore an alternative use of the Fitzpatrick Comminuting Machine: to use it to remove the hull from hulled barley while keeping the barley kernel intact. Traditionally, this mill is used to grind material, but we have recently discovered that it also has the abili...

  14. The USDA barley core collection: genetic diversity, population structure, and potential for genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Muñoz-Amatriaín

    Full Text Available New sources of genetic diversity must be incorporated into plant breeding programs if they are to continue increasing grain yield and quality, and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Germplasm collections provide a source of genetic and phenotypic diversity, but characterization of these resources is required to increase their utility for breeding programs. We used a barley SNP iSelect platform with 7,842 SNPs to genotype 2,417 barley accessions sampled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection of 33,176 accessions. Most of the accessions in this core collection are categorized as landraces or cultivars/breeding lines and were obtained from more than 100 countries. Both STRUCTURE and principal component analysis identified five major subpopulations within the core collection, mainly differentiated by geographical origin and spike row number (an inflorescence architecture trait. Different patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD were found across the barley genome and many regions of high LD contained traits involved in domestication and breeding selection. The genotype data were used to define 'mini-core' sets of accessions capturing the majority of the allelic diversity present in the core collection. These 'mini-core' sets can be used for evaluating traits that are difficult or expensive to score. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS of 'hull cover', 'spike row number', and 'heading date' demonstrate the utility of the core collection for locating genetic factors determining important phenotypes. The GWAS results were referenced to a new barley consensus map containing 5,665 SNPs. Our results demonstrate that GWAS and high-density SNP genotyping are effective tools for plant breeders interested in accessing genetic diversity in large germplasm collections.

  15. Plan of Using Modern Agriculture High-New Information Technology for Building Stable Nation Commercial Grain and Green Agriculture Base of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The North-East China is nation commercial grain base of China. It provides important grain supply for other areas of the country every year. The nation and modern farmers are looking for advanced technological solutions to increase production and preserve environment. Considering of this aim,this paper introduce a new planning that using 3S technology to develop precision farming, explaining its technology frame, operation steps and advantages. On the other hand,this paper also introduce the concept of precision farming and discusses the role of 3S technology as a data collection,management and analysis tool.

  16. Contrôle du maclage thermique et de la taille de grains par traitements thermomécaniques dans deux superalliages base de Ni

    OpenAIRE

    Souai, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    Co-encadrement de la thèse : Loïc Nazé; This work has investigated the microstructure evolution of nickel-base superalloys during thermomechanical processing emphasis being placed on grain size and annealing twining. The aim is to assess the possibility of optimizing the properties of these materials through grain boundary engineering principle. We studied grades belonging to precipitation-hardened superalloys: the alloy PER®72 processed by ingot casting and, less thoroughly, the alloy N19 pr...

  17. Conformational Temperature-Dependent Behavior of a Histone H2AX: A Coarse-Grained Monte Carlo Approach Via Knowledge-Based Interaction Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    table [19] which is employed in studying scaffolding of short peptides [20]. Even though the knowledge-based matrix elements eij are simplified...hairpin peptide. Biopolym 81: 167–178. 45. Wang Y, Feng S, Voth G (2009) Transferable coarse-grained models for ionic liquids. Chem Theory Comput 5

  18. Keypoint Density-Based Region Proposal for Fine-Grained Object Detection and Classification Using Regions with Convolutional Neural Network Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    convolution, activation functions, and pooling. For a model trained on classes, the output from the classification layer comprises + 1...Keypoint Density-based Region Proposal for Fine-Grained Object Detection and Classification using Regions with Convolutional Neural Network...Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) enable them to outperform conventional techniques on standard object detection and classification tasks, their

  19. Effects of sorghum wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of sorghum wet distillers grains (SWDGS) in finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility. In Exp. 1, 240 steers (initial BW = 379 +/-1 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with or without 25%...

  20. 3D random Voronoi grain-based models for simulation of brittle rock damage and fabric-guided micro-fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ghazvinian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A grain-based distinct element model featuring three-dimensional (3D Voronoi tessellations (random poly-crystals is proposed for simulation of crack damage development in brittle rocks. The grain boundaries in poly-crystal structure produced by Voronoi tessellations can represent flaws in intact rock and allow for numerical replication of crack damage progression through initiation and propagation of micro-fractures along grain boundaries. The Voronoi modelling scheme has been used widely in the past for brittle fracture simulation of rock materials. However the difficulty of generating 3D Voronoi models has limited its application to two-dimensional (2D codes. The proposed approach is implemented in Neper, an open-source engine for generation of 3D Voronoi grains, to generate block geometry files that can be read directly into 3DEC. A series of Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS tests are simulated in 3DEC to verify the proposed methodology for 3D simulation of brittle fractures and to investigate the relationship between each micro-parameter and the model's macro-response. The possibility of numerical replication of the classical U-shape strength curve for anisotropic rocks is also investigated in numerical UCS tests by using complex-shaped (elongated grains that are cemented to one another along their adjoining sides. A micro-parameter calibration procedure is established for 3D Voronoi models for accurate replication of the mechanical behaviour of isotropic and anisotropic (containing a fabric rocks.