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Sample records for barley grain based

  1. In situ identification and quantification of starch-hydrolyzing bacteria attached to barley and corn grain in the rumen of cows fed barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert; Yang, Hee-Eun; Forster, Robert; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; McAllister, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Cereal grains rich in starch are widely used to meet the energy demands of high-producing beef and dairy cattle. Bacteria are important players in starch digestion in the rumen, and thus play an important role in the hydrolysis and fermentation of cereal grains. However, our understanding of the composition of the rumen starch-hydrolyzing bacteria (SHB) is limited. In this study, BODIPY FL DQ starch staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative FISH were applied to label, identify and quantify SHB possessing active cell-surface-associated (CSA) α-amylase activity in the rumen of heifers fed barley-based diets. When individual cells of SHB with active CSA α-amylase activity were enumerated, they constituted 19-23% of the total bacterial cells attached to particles of four different cultivars of barley grain and corn. Quantitative FISH revealed that up to 70-80% of these SHB were members of Ruminococcaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but were not Streptococcus bovis, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinomonas amylolytica, Bifidobacterium spp. or Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, all of whose amylolytic activities have been demonstrated previously in vitro. The proportion of barley grain in the diet had a large impact on the percentage abundance of total SHB and Ruminococcaceae SHB in these animals.

  2. In situ identification and quantification of starch-hydrolyzing bacteria attached to barley and corn grain in the rumen of cows fed barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert; Yang, Hee-Eun; Forster, Robert; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; McAllister, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Cereal grains rich in starch are widely used to meet the energy demands of high-producing beef and dairy cattle. Bacteria are important players in starch digestion in the rumen, and thus play an important role in the hydrolysis and fermentation of cereal grains. However, our understanding of the composition of the rumen starch-hydrolyzing bacteria (SHB) is limited. In this study, BODIPY FL DQ starch staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative FISH were applied to label, identify and quantify SHB possessing active cell-surface-associated (CSA) α-amylase activity in the rumen of heifers fed barley-based diets. When individual cells of SHB with active CSA α-amylase activity were enumerated, they constituted 19-23% of the total bacterial cells attached to particles of four different cultivars of barley grain and corn. Quantitative FISH revealed that up to 70-80% of these SHB were members of Ruminococcaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but were not Streptococcus bovis, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinomonas amylolytica, Bifidobacterium spp. or Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, all of whose amylolytic activities have been demonstrated previously in vitro. The proportion of barley grain in the diet had a large impact on the percentage abundance of total SHB and Ruminococcaceae SHB in these animals. PMID:26142428

  3. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin, evolution and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-GPC (grain protein content. Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73% to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44% than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7 caused by a base mutations (at position 544 in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. SNPs and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding

  4. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A;

    2015-01-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with ...

  5. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  6. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  7. STUDIES ON SYNBIOTIC BARLEY GRAIN EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated that effect of prebiotic food containing oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains. Barley grains probioticated using different strains of probiotics are Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefir,and saccharomyces boluradii. To select a suitable prebiotics like inulin for the development of Synbiotic barley and tested for antibacterial activity against diarrhoea causing pathogen such as Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae. Analysis of identified compound from synbiotic barley grain using GC-MS.

  8. Differential levels of mite infestation of wheat and barley in Czech grain stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Hubert; Zuzana Kucerova; Radek Aulicky; Marta Nesvoma; Vaclav Stejskal

    2009-01-01

    While mites are able to utilize numerous food sources, the suitability of the food strongly influences population growth. The different suitabilities of various stored agricultural products will thus affect the level of infestation. In this study, we compared field mite infestation rates in two stored cereals: wheat and barley. We analyzed mite abundance, frequency and species composition in samples of grain obtained from 79 selected Czech grain stores. Stored barley seemed to be more vulnerable to mite attack than wheat, as we consistently found more infested samples, more species and higher mean and median mite abundance per sample in barley as compared to wheat. The mean mite abundance per sample were 55 and 506 individuals for wheat and barley, respectively. In barley, 10% of samples exceeded allergen risk threshold (i.e., 1 000 individuals per kg of grain). Altogether, 25 species were identified from approximately 35 000 individuals. The most frequently identified species were the same in wheat and barley, that is, Tydeus interruptus Sig Thor, Acarus siro L., Tarsonemus granarius Lindquist, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and 1),rophagusputrescentiae (Schrank). Based on principal components analysis, we found a closer association of T. interruptus, T. putrescentiae, L. destructor and Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) with barley samples, corresponding to the high frequency and abundance values of these mites. The probable reasons for the higher infestation, especially mite abundance in barley, are discussed in relation to the higher proportion of crushed parts, which may release favorable nutrient sources and amplify the abundance values.

  9. A proteomics-based study of endogenous and microbial xylanases and xylanase inhibitors associated with barley grains used for liquid feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida

    The mature barley grain contains a complement of enzymes that are synthesized during seed development for degradation of seed storage reserves during germination. These enzyme activities (first wave enzymes) are considered important for maximizing nutrient digestibility in food and feed. Several...... approach was applied to profile and characterize the composition of the fungal community populating the surface of barley grains across different cultivars and their secretomes. It was revealed, the barley cultivars with high microbial xylanase activity levels were found to contain high numbers of storage...... strategies, such as liquid feed and supplementation of amino acids and microbial exogenous enzymes, are applied to improve protein absorption. A diverse commensal microbial community populates the cereal grains. The colonizing microflora constitute an integrated part of the seeds and interact...

  10. Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing;

    2007-01-01

     Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed...

  11. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in stored barley grain in Spain and impact of PCR-based strategies to assess the occurrence of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Eva M; Gil-Serna, Jéssica; Patiño, Belén; Jiménez, Misericordia

    2011-09-15

    Contamination of barley by moulds and mycotoxins results in quality and nutritional losses and represents a significant hazard to the food chain. The presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in stored barley in Spain has been studied. Species-specific PCR assays were used for detection of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus, A. steynii, A. westerdijkiae, A. carbonarius and A. niger aggregate in mycotoxin-positive barley samples at different incubation times (0, 1 and 2 days). Classical enumeration techniques (CFU/g) in different culture media for evaluation of Aspergillus in sections Flavi, Circumdati and Nigri were also used. One hundred and five barley kernel samples were collected in Spanish grain stores from 2008 to 2010, and analyzed using a previously optimized method involving accelerated solvent extraction, cleanup by immunoaffinity column, liquid chromatographic separation, post-column derivatization with iodine and fluorescence detection. Twenty-nine samples were contaminated with at least one of the studied mycotoxins. AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, and OTA were detected in 12.4%, 2.9%, 4.8%, 2.9%, and 20% of the samples, respectively. Aflatoxins and OTA co-occurred in 4.8% of the samples. Maximum mycotoxin levels (ng/g) were 0.61 (AFB1), 0.06 (AFB2), 0.26 (AFG1), 0.05 (AFG2), and 2.0 (OTA). The results of PCR assays indicated the presence of all the studied species, except A. westerdijkiae. The PCR assays showed high levels of natural contamination of barley with the studied species of Aspergillus which do not correspond to the expected number of CFU/g in the cultures. These results suggest that a high number of non-viable spores or hyphae may exist in the samples. This is the first study carried out on the levels of aflatoxins and OTA in barley grain in Spain. Likewise, this is the first report on the presence of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus spp. in barley grain naturally

  12. Comparatiave analysis of the grain proteome fraction in barley genotypes with contrasting salinity tolerance during germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witzel, K.; Weidner, A.; Surabhi, G.K.; Varshney, R.K.; Kunze, G.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Börner, A.; Mock, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, we based a search for candidates underlying different levels of salinity tolerance during germination in the Oregon Wolfe Barley mapping population (DOM × REC) by proteomic profiling of the mature grain of lines showing differing levels of salinity tolerance. By contrasting the

  13. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  14. Cyclitols in maturing grains of wheat, triticale and barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the feeding of stem-flag leaf-ear explants of wheat, triticale and barley with d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol was used for modification of the composition of soluble carbohydrates in grains without genetic transformation of plants. Maturing grains indicated ability to uptake exogenously applied cyclitols, not occurring naturally in cereal plants, and synthesized their a-d-galactosides. The pattern of changes in soluble carbohydrates during grain maturation and germination was not disturbed by the uptake and accumulation of cyclitols. Both, d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol as well as their a-d-galactosides can be an additional pool of soluble carbohydrates accumulated by maturing grains, without decreasing seeds viability. This is the first report indicating the possibility of introduction of cyclitols with potentially human health benefits properties into cereal grains.

  15. Exploring the Plant–Microbe Interface by Profiling the Surface-Associated Proteins of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte;

    2016-01-01

    xylanase inhibitors. To gain insight into the importance of the microbial consortia and their interaction with barley grains, we used a combined gel-based (2-DE coupled to MALDI-TOF-TOF MS) and gel-free (LC–MS/MS) proteomics approach complemented with enzyme activity assays to profile the surface......-associated proteins and xylanolytic activities of two barley cultivars. The surface-associated proteome was dominated by plant proteins with roles in defense and stress-responses, while the relatively less abundant microbial (bacterial and fungal) proteins were involved in cell-wall and polysaccharide degradation...

  16. Advances in protein improvement of spring barley by mutation breeding based on a quantitative genetic approach with integrated selection for protein content, lysine content and grain yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous selection for several quantitative breeding characters is demonstrated by an 'integrated selection method' on spring barley with the characters protein content, lysine content and grain yield. A mutation breeding programme (modified pedigree selection) and a cross-breeding programme (pedigree selection) are compared on the basis of different selection procedures (integrated selection, selection using independent culling levels). The differences are demonstrated on a realized gain through selection (RGSsub(r)), relative to parents in M9. Application of 'integrated selection' is demonstrated in two stages, resulting in a general selection model for protein characters in relation to grain yield. Significant mutants selected in M9 on the basis of improved utilizable protein yield (UPY = gram utilizable protein/m2) are compared with their mutagenic origin. Differences in mutagenic efficiency among varieties and among types and numbers of repeated treatments are discussed. A significant improvement using integrated selection for UPY is found to be possible in the range of 10 to 15%, compared with parents. Improvement is observed in three significant fractions: (1) protein improved at higher rates than grain yield, (2) protein improved at equal rates with grain yield, and (3) protein improved at lower rates than grain yield. All mutants selected from the mutation breeding programme were found to inherit the three characters quantitatively. Selection between families (M2 to M7) and within families (M8 to M9) was effective at both stages, provided genetic advance was determined by the significant selection rates used throughout the entire selection process. (author)

  17. A roadmap for zinc trafficking in the developing barley grain based on laser capture microdissection and gene expression profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauris, Birgitte; Borg, Søren; Gregersen, Per L;

    2009-01-01

    profiles have been generated of four different tissue types: the transfer cells, the aleurone layer, the endosperm, and the embryo. Cells from these tissues were isolated with the ‘laser capture microdissection' technology and the extracted RNA was subjected to three rounds of T7-based amplification...

  18. Analysis on Interaction between Genotype of Four Main Flavonoids of Barley Grain and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YANG; Chengli DUAN; Yawen ZENG; Juan DU; Shuming YANG; Xiaoying PU; Shengchao YANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to analyze the interaction between genotype of flavonoids of barley grain and environment, to increase the flavonoid content of barley grain in cultivation and breeding. [Method] In this study, the content of cate- chin, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol of barley grain planted in Kunming, Qujing and Baoshan were determined by HPLC, and the genotype, environment, genotype- environment interaction of the flavonoid content of barley grain were analyzed. [Result] According to the experimental results, the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction variance of catechin and kaempferol contents show the same trend: genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance, envi- ronmental variance and G × E interaction variance of quercetin and total flavonoid contents show the same trend: genetype variation 〉 G × E interaction variation 〉 environmental variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance and environmental variance of myricetin content both reach a extremely sig- nificant level, while the G × E interaction variance reaches a significant level, showing an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation; the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction vari- ance of total flavonoid content show an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation. Among different barley varieties, Ziguang- mangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai in Qujing, Kunming and Baoshan have relatively high content of quercetin, while other barley varieties barely contain any quercetin. The grains of Ziguangmangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai are purple, while the grains of other barley varieties are yellow. [Conclusion] Four main flavonoids and the total flavonoids of barley grain are mainly under genetic control and

  19. USE OF BARLEY OZONIZED GRAIN AND PROBIOTICS FOR INCREASING BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temiraev R. B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents experimental data indicating that for the optimization of biological and food processing meat value at risk of aflatoxicosis in feeding chicken-broilers with barley-wheat and sunflower type one should include hullless barley grain at exposure of ozone of 3.0 hour complex with Bifidumbacterinum probiotics

  20. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change.

  1. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change. PMID:26111197

  2. The role of alpha-glucosidase in germinating barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Naested, Henrik; Smedley, Mark; Otero, Sofía; Fahy, Brendan; Thorpe, Frazer; Nash, Robert J; Harwood, Wendy; Svensson, Birte; Denyer, Kay; Field, Robert A; Smith, Alison M

    2011-02-01

    The importance of α-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an α-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition of seedling growth was primarily a direct effect of the inhibitors on roots and coleoptiles rather than an indirect effect of the inhibition of endosperm metabolism. It may reflect inhibition of glycoprotein-processing glucosidases in these organs. In transgenic seedlings carrying an RNA interference silencing cassette for HvAgl97, α-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the α-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing the conversion of maltose to Glc but is not required for starch degradation. However, the effects of three glucosidase inhibitors on starch degradation in the endosperm indicate the existence of unidentified glucosidase(s) required for this process.

  3. Genotypic and Environmental Variations of Arabinoxylan Content and Endoxylanase Activity in Barley Grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-qin; XUE Da-wei; WU Fei-bo; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2013-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) content in barley grains is an important quality determinant when barley is used as raw material of malt or beer production. The cultivar and environmental variations of total arabinoxylan (TAX), water extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) and endoxylanase activity (EA) were investigated using eight barley cultivars growing at seven locations with diverse environmental conditions. The results showed that both barley cultivar and location significantly affected the TAX, WEAX and EA levels, but the variations of TAX content and EA were mainly attributed to cultivar, while the impact of location on WEAX content was greater than that of cultivar. Correlation analysis indicated that TAX was significantly correlated to WUAX.

  4. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El-Mageed, Nehal M.

    2011-01-01

    Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains are valuable in weight loss diets and regulate lipid metabolism. They may reduce risk of fatty liver. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with celery, chicory, and barley powder on liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched diet. This study used four groups of rats fed with 3% cholesterol were supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and one group was fed on cholesterol-free basal...

  6. Quality of rolled barley flakes as affected by batch of grain and processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, B; Abrahamsson, L; Aman, P

    1994-02-01

    Rolled barely flakes were prepared from three different batches of grain by pearling, steaming and rolling. Autoclaved and malted barleys from the three batches were also processed in the same way. Analysis of the nine products showed that both batch of barley and process had significant effects on chemical composition and viscosity. Puddings were prepared from the products and mechanical consistency, juiciness and grain consistency were graded on both newly prepared and heated puddings by a sensory taste panel. Batch of barley had no effect on mechanical consistency but significant effects on juiciness and grain consistency. Type of processing had significant effect on all three parameters for both newly prepared and heated puddings. PMID:8153065

  7. DNA microarray revealed and RNAi plants confirmed key genes conferring low Cd accumulation in barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Fei;

    2015-01-01

    accumulation and tolerance between the two contrasting barley genotypes: W6nk2 (a low-grain-Cd-accumulating and Cd-sensitive genotype) and Zhenong8 (a high-grain-Cd-accumulating and tolerant genotype). A DNA microarray analysis detected large-scale changes of gene expression in response to Cd stress...... with a substantial difference between the two genotypes. Cd stress led to higher expression of genes involved in transport, carbohydrate metabolism and signal transduction in the low-grain-Cd-accumulating genotype. Novel transporter genes such as zinc transporter genes were identified as being associated with low Cd......-grain-Cd-accumulation. Conclusion Novel transporter genes such as HvZIP3 and HvZIP8 were identified as being associated with low-grain-Cd-accumulation. In addition to advancing academic knowledge, our findings may also result in potential economic benefits for molecular breeding of low Cd accumulating barley and other crops....

  8. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    The importance of alpha-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementa...

  9. Degradability Characteristics of Treated and Untreated Barley Grain Using In situ Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Taghizadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine of degradability characteristics of untreated barely grain (UBG and treated barley grain with autoclaving at 120°C, 5´ (TBG1 and 20' (TBG2, treated barley grain at 100°C, 5´ (TBG3 and 20' (TBG4, using in situ technique in Ghizel sheep’s. The sheep fed diet content 40% alfalfa: 60% concentrate containing 2.9 Mcal kg-1 DM and 14% CP. The incubation times were 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 36 and 48 h and rumen degradation of cp and DM was measured. The equation of p = a+b (1-e-ct was used for fitting of dry matter and crude protein disappearance data. The dry matter disappearance of TBG1 and TBG2 at 24 and 48 h were lower than the other treatments (p<0.05. The crude protein disappearance of 24 and 48 h of UBG was more than the other treatment (p<0.05. Treating of barley grain of 120°C (5' and 20' can be decreased ruminal crude protein degradability of barley grain resulting high escaped crude protein into lower digestive tract.

  10. Grain Composition and Functional Ingredients of Barley Varieties Created in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šterna Vita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.

  11. Accelerated rates of protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes might be legacy of domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Dimitrov, Ivan; Zhang, Yinling; Tax, Frans E; Yi, Jing; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Jia

    2015-10-01

    Traits related to grain and reproductive organs in grass crops have been under continuous directional selection during domestication. Barley is one of the oldest domesticated crops in human history. Thus genes associated with the grain and reproductive organs in barley may show evidence of dramatic evolutionary change. To understand how artificial selection contributes to protein evolution of biased genes in different barley organs, we used Digital Gene Expression analysis of six barley organs (grain, pistil, anther, leaf, stem and root) to identify genes with biased expression in specific organs. Pairwise comparisons of orthologs between barley and Brachypodium distachyon, as well as between highland and lowland barley cultivars mutually indicated that grain and pistil biased genes show relatively higher protein evolutionary rates compared with the median of all orthologs and other organ biased genes. Lineage-specific protein evolutionary rates estimation showed similar patterns with elevated protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes, yet protein sequences generally evolve much faster in the lowland barley cultivar. Further functional annotations revealed that some of these grain and pistil biased genes with rapid protein evolution are related to nutrient biosynthesis and cell cycle/division. Our analyses provide insights into how domestication differentially shaped the evolution of genes specific to different organs of a crop species, and implications for future functional studies of domestication genes.

  12. The Barley Grain Thioredoxin System – an Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per eHägglund

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type thioredoxin facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. This review presents a summary of the research conducted during the last ten years to elucidate the structure and function of the barley seed thioredoxin system at the molecular level combined with proteomic approaches to identify target proteins.

  13. Effects of Zn fertilization on hordein transcripts at early developmental stage of barley grain and correlation with increased Zn concentration in the mature grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nasir Uddin

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency is causing malnutrition for nearly one third of world populations. It is especially relevant in cereal-based diets in which low amounts of mineral and protein are present. In biological systems, Zn is mainly associated with protein. Cereal grains contain the highest Zn concentration during early developmental stage. Although hordeins are the major storage proteins in the mature barley grain and suggested to be involved in Zn binding, very little information is available regarding the Zn fertilization effects of hordein transcripts at early developmental stage and possible incorporation of Zn with hordein protein of matured grain. Zinc fertilization experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with barley cv. Golden Promise. Zn concentration of the matured grain was measured and the results showed that the increasing Zn fertilization increased grain Zn concentration. Quantitative real time PCR showed increased level of total hordein transcripts upon increasing level of Zn fertilization at 10 days after pollination. Among the hordein transcripts the amount of B-hordeins was highly correlated with the Zn concentration of matured grain. In addition, protein content of the matured grain was analysed and a positive linear relationship was found between the percentage of B-hordein and total grain Zn concentration while C-hordein level decreased. Zn sensing dithizone assay was applied to localize Zn in the matured grain. The Zn distribution was not limited to the embryo and aleurone layer but was also present in the outer part of the endosperm (sub-aleurone layers which known to be rich in proteins including B-hordeins. Increased Zn fertilization enriched Zn even in the endosperm. Therefore, the increased amount of B-hordein and decreased C-hordein content suggested that B-hordein upregulation or difference between B and C hordein could be one of the key factors for Zn biofortification of cereal grains due to the Zn fertilization.

  14. Dormancy of the barley grain is correlated with gibberellic Acid responsiveness of the isolated aleurone layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurink, R C; Sedee, N J; Wang, M

    1992-12-01

    The relationship between barley grain dormancy and gibberellic acid (GA(3)) responsiveness of aleurone layers has been investigated. Barley (Hordeum distichum L. cvs Triumph and Kristina) grains were matured under defined conditions in a phytotron. Grains of Triumph plants grown under long-day/warm conditions had lower dormancy levels than grains of plants grown under short-day/cool conditions. Aleurone layers isolated from grains of long-day Triumph plants secreted more alpha-amylase and had a higher responsiveness to GA(3) as measured by alpha-amylase secretion. Storage of the grains increased both the percentage of germination and the responsiveness of the aleurone to GA(3). Use of different sterilization methods to break dormancy confirmed the correlation between germination percentage and aleurone layer GA(3) responsiveness. The response of embryoless Triumph grains to GA(3) was lower than that of the isolated aleurone layers, suggesting a role of the starchy endosperm in regulating the GA(3) response of the aleurone layer. Grains of the cultivar Kristina harvested from short day- and long day-grown plants lacked dormancy, and their isolated aleurone layers had a similar responsiveness to GA(3) as measured by alpha-amylase secretion. The data indicate that the physiological state of the aleurone layers contributes to the percentage germination of the grains.

  15. Effects of split nitrogen fertilization on post-anthesis photoassimilates, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai;

    2011-01-01

    photosynthesis after anthesis, dry matter accumulation and assimilates remobilization, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield to fraction of topdressed nitrogen treatments were investigated in malting barley. Net photosynthetic rate of the penultimate leaf, leaf area index and light extinction coefficient...... and agronomic nitrogen use efficiencies. The enhanced nitrogen use efficiency was corresponding to the improved photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency in the leaves at fraction of topdressed nitrogen of 30%. In conclusion, appropriate fraction of topdressed nitrogen application on malting barley improved...... assimilation rate and nitrogen use efficiency resulting in higher grain yields and proper grain protein content in malting barley....

  16. Differences in grain ultrastructure, phytochemical and proteomic profiles between the two contrasting grain Cd-accumulation barley genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Sun

    Full Text Available To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low-grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars.

  17. Genetic Variation of Functional Components in Grains of Improved Barley Lines from Four Continents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawen ZENG; Xiaoying PU; Jing ZHANG; Juan DU; Ganggang GUO; Tao YANG; ChunyanZHAO; Shuming YANG; Dawei ZHAO; Junjie TANG; Ping JIA

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to analyze functional components in improved barley grains. [Method] Genetic variations of functional components in grains among 629 barley improved lines from four continents were determined with DU640-type ul- traviolet spectrophotometry (BECKMAN). [Result] The contents (mg/100 g) of total flavones and GABA in grains of Asian barley lines (123.09_+29.56, 9.49_+4.34) were significantly higher than that of American barley lines (103.85_22.33, 7.38_+3.59), while no significant difference was observed between Asia/Americas and Europe (115.47_+11.41, 9.66-+3.98) and Australia (104.20-+4.76, 8.83-+3.41); furthermore, there was no significant difference of resistant starch content (%) in barley grains among four continents [Asia (1.63_+1.44), America (1.54_+1.13), Europe (1.20+0.85) and Aus- tralia (0.27_+0.26)]. The contents (%) of resistant starch in grains of two-rowed barley (ssp. Hordeurn distichon Koern., 1.45_+1.20) was significantly lower than that of poly- rowed barley (ssp. Hordeum vulgare Orlov., 1.95_+1.24). On the contrary, the content of total flavones in two-rowed lines (111.43_+27.79 mg/100 g) wa, s significantly higher than that of poly-rowed lines (102.15_+14.95 mg/100 g), and the content of GABA in two-rowed lines (8.55+_3.73 mg/100 g) was also significantly higher than that of poly-rowed lines (5.96_+3.95 mg/100 g). There was the most significant correlation between GABA content and resistant starch (-0.21)/total flavones content (0.12 , P〈0.01, n=-629). There were great genotype differences among the functional compo- nents in barley grains. The coefficient of variation (78.60%) and range (0-9.29%) of resistant starch (1.56_+1.22%) were relatively large, including 11 high-resistant starch lines above 5%; the coefficient of variation (49.00%) and range (0-30.67 mg/100g) of GABA (8.00-

  18. GA Enhanced a-Amylase Synthesis in Halved Grains of Barley (Hordeum vulgare): A Simple Laboratory Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration is suggested for the formation of a-amylase enzyme in halved grains of barley. Data presented in the article provide some information of the pattern of a- and b-amylase activity during germination. (PS)

  19. Murciano-Granadina Goat Performance and Methane Emission after Replacing Barley Grain with Fibrous By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Carla; Criscioni, Patricia; Arriaga, Haritz; Merino, Pilar; Espinós, Francisco Juan; Fernández, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg) and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day). The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL), another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP) and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH). After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average). No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average). Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance. PMID:26983120

  20. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    and higher viscosity than malt wort. Furthermore, the use of 100 % unmalted grains resulted in a decrease in the levels of colour and brightness, as well as higher alcohols and esters in the final beers. Consequently, the study provides valuable information for exploring beer brewing with 100 % unmalted...

  1. A functional genomics approach to understand the control and regulation of storage protein biosynthesis in barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, É; Hansen, M; Bowra, S;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain an insight into amino acid and storage protein metabolism in the developing barley grain at the molecular level. Our strategy was to analyse the transcriptome of relevant pathways in developing grains of field grown barley using a grain specific microarray...... reference to the temporal expression levels of a range of genes involved in the photosynthesis process, amino acid and storage protein metabolism. We conclude that the grain specific microarray is a reliable and cost-effective tool for monitoring temporal changes in the transcriptome of the major metabolic...... pathways in the barley grain. The study described here could provide a strong complement to existing knowledge assisting further  understanding of seed development and thereby provide a foundation for plant breeding towards storage protein with improved nutritional quality....

  2. Expression of the Arabidopsis vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase gene (AVP1) improves the shoot biomass of transgenic barley and increases grain yield in a saline field

    KAUST Repository

    Schilling, Rhiannon K.

    2013-11-22

    Cereal varieties with improved salinity tolerance are needed to achieve profitable grain yields in saline soils. The expression of AVP1, an Arabidopsis gene encoding a vacuolar proton pumping pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase), has been shown to improve the salinity tolerance of transgenic plants in greenhouse conditions. However, the potential for this gene to improve the grain yield of cereal crops in a saline field has yet to be evaluated. Recent advances in high-throughput nondestructive phenotyping technologies also offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the growth of transgenic plants under abiotic stress through time. In this study, the growth of transgenic barley expressing AVP1 was evaluated under saline conditions in a pot experiment using nondestructive plant imaging and in a saline field trial. Greenhouse-grown transgenic barley expressing AVP1 produced a larger shoot biomass compared to segregants, as determined by an increase in projected shoot area, when grown in soil with 150 mm NaCl. This increase in shoot biomass of transgenic AVP1 barley occurred from an early growth stage and also in nonsaline conditions. In a saline field, the transgenic barley expressing AVP1 also showed an increase in shoot biomass and, importantly, produced a greater grain yield per plant compared to wild-type plants. Interestingly, the expression of AVP1 did not alter barley leaf sodium concentrations in either greenhouse- or field-grown plants. This study validates our greenhouse-based experiments and indicates that transgenic barley expressing AVP1 is a promising option for increasing cereal crop productivity in saline fields. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, J; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd;

    2012-01-01

    The harmonious combination of malting barley yield, quality and nitrogen (N) use-efficiency under nitrogen (N) rates applications was greatly conducive to production in China. The malting barley cultivar Supi 3 was planted during the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at two contrasting sites in China....... Five nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha−1) were applied for research of effects of N rates application on grain yield, protein content and N use-efficiency. At both sites and in both years, grain yield increased with increasing N application rates up to 225 kg N ha−1...... with a quadrant model, the optimum N application rates for high grain yield with high nitrogen use-efficiency in malting barley could be indicated. So, the higher yields could be mainly ascribed to the higher accumulation of photoassimilates between anthesis and maturity. In order to achieve high grain yield...

  4. Synthesis of Salt Soluble Proteins in Barley. Pulse-Labeling Study of Grain Filling in Liquid-Cultured Detached Spikes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Hejgaard, Jørn

    1984-01-01

    The accumulation of salt-soluble proteins in the endosperm of developing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains was examined. Detached spikes of barley were cultured at different levels of nitrogen nutrition and pulse-labeled with [14C] sucrose at specific times after anthesis. Proteins were extracted...... to increased nitrogen nutrition. Two major components, β-amylase and protein Z in particular, had a synthesis profile almost identical to that of the endosperm storage protein, hordein....

  5. Variation of Grain and Malt Qualities in Barley as Affected by Cultivars and Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-mei; ZHANG Guo-ping; CHEN Jin-xin; DING Shou-ren; ZHOU Ti-yao

    2003-01-01

    Inferior and unstable quality of malt barley in China has limited its wide use in malting and brewing industries. In this research, eight two-rowed barley cultivars were planted at 7 locations with different ecological conditions in southern China, to investigate the cultivar and environmental effect on grain and malt qualities. The results showed that grain protein content differed dramatically among locations, but there were no significant differences among cultivars. For four malt qualities including diastatic power, wort viscosity,Kolbach index and malt extract, significant differences were found among cultivars and locations, except for diastatic power among cultivars. Coefficients of variance (CV) caused by location were greater than those caused by cuitivar for each quality parameter, especially for diastatic power and Kolbach index, indicating the predominant influence of environment on malt quality. The analysis showed that grain protein content was positively related to diastatic power and wort viscosity, and negatively to malt extract. Kolbach index was positively related to malt extract, and negatively to diastatic power and wort viscosity. Diastatic power showed positive and negative correlation with wort viscosity and malt extract, respectively.

  6. Murciano-Granadina Goat Performance and Methane Emission after Replacing Barley Grain with Fibrous By-Products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ibáñez

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day. The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL, another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH. After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average. No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P < 0.05 fat mobilization (-42.8 kJ/kg of BW0.75, on average than BRL (19.2 kJ/kg of BW0.75. Pentadecanoic acid (15:0 and heptadecanoic acid (17:0 were potential biomarkers of rumen function because the higher contents found in the milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average. Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance.

  7. Inositol phosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatzack, F.; Hübel, F.; Zhang, W.;

    2001-01-01

    Inositolphosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants and their parent variety were analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR. Compound assignment was carried out by comparison of retention times using a chemical hydrolysate of phytate [Ins(1,2,3,4,5,6)P(6)] as a reference; Co-inciding rete......Inositolphosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants and their parent variety were analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR. Compound assignment was carried out by comparison of retention times using a chemical hydrolysate of phytate [Ins(1,2,3,4,5,6)P(6)] as a reference; Co...

  8. Generation mean analysis of grain yield and its related traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Raikwar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Generation mean analysis was performed using three crosses namely DL 88 x K 560, K 603 x Azad, RD 2552 x NDB 1020 to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects for yield and its component characters in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. The F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of these crosses along with P1 and P2 were studied for six morphological traits. Additive x additive (i epistatic effect was more important and higher than the dominance x dominance (l epistatic effect in the inheritance of no. of effective tillers/plant in DL88 x K560, length of main spike and grain yield/plant in RD 2552 x NDB1020. The length of main spike, weight of grains/main spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield/plant were significantly higher in RD 2552 x NDB 1020.Thus, these characters were mainly under the control of dominance x dominance (l type of epistasis. Therefore, selection for these characters would be fruitful, if delayed till dominance and epistasis effects are reduced to minimum. The additive × additive (i type gene interaction and duplicate epistasis also seen in this trait suggest the possibilities of obtaining transgressive segregants in later generations. The study revealed the importance of both additive and non-additive types of gene interaction for all the traits studied.

  9. Integrating statistical and ecophysiological analysis of genotype by environment interaction for grain filling of barley in Mediterranean areas. I. Individual grain weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voltas, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Sombrero, A.; Lafarga, A.; Igartua, E.; Romagosa, I.

    1999-01-01

    In Mediterranean-type environments, grain weight of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is influenced by the presence of terminal abiotic stresses such as drought or elevated temperature. The relative importance of these climatic constraints acting together prior to and after anthesis, as well as the specif

  10. Integrated transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Renaut, Jenny;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the effect of nitrogen (N) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) storage protein production (hordeins) during grain filling. Using a combination of advanced biochemistry methods, we could comprehensively describe...

  11. Spatio-temporal dynamics of fructan metabolism in developing barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peukert, Manuela; Thiel, Johannes; Peshev, Darin; Weschke, Winfriede; Van den Ende, Wim; Mock, Hans-Peter; Matros, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain development follows a series of defined morphological and physiological stages and depends on the supply of assimilates (mainly sucrose) from the mother plant. Here, spatio-temporal patterns of sugar distributions were investigated by mass spectrometric imaging, targeted metabolite analyses, and transcript profiling of microdissected grain tissues. Distinct spatio-temporal sugar balances were observed, which may relate to differentiation and grain filling processes. Notably, various types of oligofructans showed specific distribution patterns. Levan- and graminan-type oligofructans were synthesized in the cellularized endosperm prior to the commencement of starch biosynthesis, while during the storage phase, inulin-type oligofructans accumulated to a high concentration in and around the nascent endosperm cavity. In the shrunken endosperm mutant seg8, with a decreased sucrose flux toward the endosperm, fructan accumulation was impaired. The tight partitioning of oligofructan biosynthesis hints at distinct functions of the various fructan types in the young endosperm prior to starch accumulation and in the endosperm transfer cells that accomplish the assimilate supply toward the endosperm at the storage phase. PMID:25271242

  12. Barley grain maturation and germination: Metabolic pathway and regulatory network commonalities and differences highlighted by new MapMan/PageMan profiling tools

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivasulu, N.; Usadel, B.; Winter, A.; Radchuk, V.; Scholz, U.; Stein, N.; Weschke, W.; Strickert, M.; Close, T; Stitt, M.; Graner, A; Wobus, U

    2008-01-01

    Plant seeds prepare for germination already during seed maturation. We performed a detailed transcriptome analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain maturation, desiccation, and germination in two tissue fractions (starchy endosperm / aleurone and embryo / scutellum) using the Affymetrix Barley1 GeneChip. To aid data evaluation, Arabidopsis thaliana MapMan and PageMan tools were adapted to barley. The analyses allow a number of conclusions: (1) Cluster analysis revealed a smooth transition in...

  13. Selenium speciation in malt, wort, and beer made from selenium-biofortified two-rowed barley grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Sara; Santamaria, Oscar; Chen, Yi; McGrath, Steve P; Poblaciones, Maria J

    2014-06-25

    Selenium (Se) biofortification of barley is a suitable strategy to increase the Se concentration in grain. In the present paper, the suitability of this Se-biofortified grain for making Se-enriched beer is analyzed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different Se fertilizer doses (0, 10, and 20 g of Se ha(-1)) and forms (sodium selenate or sodium selenite) on the Se loss during the malting and brewing processes and Se speciation in grain, malt, wort, and beer. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS for total Se and speciation. Mashing-lautering was the process with the greatest Se loss (83.8%). After malting and brewing, only 7.3% of the initial Se was retained in beer, mainly in selenite form. Even so, the fertilizer application of sodium selenate at 20 g ha(-1) increased the total Se concentration almost 6-fold in the final beer in comparison to the use of grain derived from unfertilized barley. The present paper provides evidence that the use of Se-biofortified barley grain as a raw material to produce Se-enriched beer is possible, and the results are comparable to other methods in terms of efficiency.

  14. Grain yield, symbiotic N2 fixation and interspecific competition for inorganic N in pea-barley intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    g N-15-labeled N m(-2). The effect of intercropping on the dry matter and N yields, competition for inorganic N among the intercrop components, symbiotic fixation in pea and N transfer from pea to barley were determined. As an average of four years the grain yields were similar in monocropped pea...... competitive than pea for inorganic N. Consequently, barley obtained a more than proportionate share of the inorganic N in the intercrop. At maturity the total recovery of fertilizer N was not significantly different between crops, averaging 65% of the supplied N. The fertilizer N recovered in pea constituted...... only 9% of total fertilizer-N recovery in the intercrop. The amount of symbiotic N-2 fixation in the intercrop was less than expected from its composition and the fixation in monocrop. This indicates that the competition from barley had a negative effect on the fixation, perhaps via shading...

  15. Genomic analysis of 6,000-year-old cultivated grain illuminates the domestication history of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Martin; Schuenemann, Verena J; Davidovich, Uri; Marom, Nimrod; Himmelbach, Axel; Hübner, Sariel; Korol, Abraham; David, Michal; Reiter, Ella; Riehl, Simone; Schreiber, Mona; Vohr, Samuel H; Green, Richard E; Dawson, Ian K; Russell, Joanne; Kilian, Benjamin; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Waugh, Robbie; Fahima, Tzion; Krause, Johannes; Weiss, Ehud; Stein, Nils

    2016-09-01

    The cereal grass barley was domesticated about 10,000 years before the present in the Fertile Crescent and became a founder crop of Neolithic agriculture. Here we report the genome sequences of five 6,000-year-old barley grains excavated at a cave in the Judean Desert close to the Dead Sea. Comparison to whole-exome sequence data from a diversity panel of present-day barley accessions showed the close affinity of ancient samples to extant landraces from the Southern Levant and Egypt, consistent with a proposed origin of domesticated barley in the Upper Jordan Valley. Our findings suggest that barley landraces grown in present-day Israel have not experienced major lineage turnover over the past six millennia, although there is evidence for gene flow between cultivated and sympatric wild populations. We demonstrate the usefulness of ancient genomes from desiccated archaeobotanical remains in informing research into the origin, early domestication and subsequent migration of crop species. PMID:27428749

  16. Study of Barley Grain Molecular Structure for Ruminants Using DRIFT, FTIR-ATR and Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy (SR-IMS): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2012-05-01

    Barley inherent structures are highly associated with nutrient utilization and availability in both humans and animals. Barley has different degradation kinetics compared with other cereal grains. It has a relatively higher degradation rate and extent, which often cause digestive disorder in the rumen. Therefore understanding barley inherent structure at cellular and molecular levels and processing-induced structure changes is important, because we can manipulate barley inherent structures and digestive behaviors. Several molecular spectroscopy techniques can be used to detect barley inherent structures at cellular and molecular levels. This article reviews several applications of the IR molecular spectral bioanalytical techniques - DRIFT, FT/IR-ATR and SR-IMS for barley chemistry, molecular structure and molecular nutrition research

  17. Differential appearance of isoforms and cultivar variation in protein temporal profiles revealed in the maturing barley grain proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina;

    2006-01-01

    Proteome analysis of mature barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) seeds has led to the identification of proteins in about 450 spots on 2D-gels. To shed light on the role of some of these proteins, their temporal appearance was monitored over 5 weeks during grain-filling and maturation of field......-grown barley. Appearance profiles are described for 105 proteins identified in 185 2D-gel spots in the overlapping pI ranges 4-7 and 6-11. Grouping of proteins according to appearance across functional categories revealed instances of differential regulation of protein forms. Thus, a single 1-cys......-peroxiredoxin isoform was identified in three spots, one present throughout grain filling, one appearing during desiccation and one observed only in mature seeds. This suggested post-translational modification of the protein to different degrees during seed maturation. Distinct isoforms of several proteins were...

  18. Accumulation of mixed linkage (1¿3) (1¿4)-ß-D-glucan during grain filling in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Jespersen, Birthe P Møller;

    2009-01-01

    the normal control Cork were studied. The Cork and lys3a genotypes showed a linear BG accumulation throughout the grain filling to reach a maximum of approximately 6 and 4% BG (w/w) dry matter, respectively. However, lys5f mutant exhibited an exponential increase in BG synthesis to a maximum of approximately......The accumulation of mixed linkage barley (1 → 3) (1 → 4)-β-d-glucan (BG) during grain filling at eight stages was studied using standard reference methods and infrared spectroscopy. Two mutant barley genotypes having higher (starch mutant lys5f) and lower (high lysine mutant lys3a) BG content than...

  19. Purification, characterization and stability of barley grain peroxidase BP1, a new type of plant peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christine B; Henriksen, Anette; Abelskov, A. Katrine;

    1997-01-01

    The major peroxidase of barley grain (BP 1) has enzymatic and spectroscopic properties that are very differeant from those of other known plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) and can therefore contribute to the understanding of the many physiological functions ascribed to these enzymes. To study...... the structure-function relationships of this unique model peroxidase, large-scale and laboratory-scale purifications have been developed. The two batches of pure BP 1 obtained were identical in their enzymatic and spectral properties, and confirmed that BP 1 is different from the prototypical horseradish...... peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRP C). However, when measuring the specific activity of BP 1 at pH 4.0 in the presence of 1 mM CaCl2, the enzyme was as competent as HRP C at neutral pH towards a variety of substrates (mM mg(-1) min(-1)): coniferyl alcohol (930+/-48), caffeic acid (795+/-53), ABTS (2,2(1)-azino...

  20. Effects of reducing dietary starch content by replacing barley grain with wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles in dairy cow rations on ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, E; Colazo, M G; Gobikrushanth, M; Sun, Y Q; Ruiz-Sanchez, A L; Ponce-Barajas, P; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary starch content, altered by partial substitution of dietary grain with wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), on the interval from calving to first ovulation, concentrations of hormones and metabolites in plasma and follicular fluid, and granulosa cell gene expression in preovulatory follicles. Sixty lactating dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 diets from calving until 84d postpartum. Diets were formulated to contain either 17.3% rolled barley grain (29.2% starch) or 17.2% wheat DDGS (19.1% starch), with 43.0% barley silage and 21.6% rolled corn grain as the other major ingredients (dry matter basis). Transrectal ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to monitor ovarian dynamics from 7 ± 2d postpartum until ovulation or until 56d in milk, whichever occurred earlier. Plasma concentrations of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in all 60 cows, and that of glucose, fatty acids, and urea in a subset of 24 cows, representing those in which the first ovulation occurred spontaneously within 5 wk postpartum. Estradiol (proestrus) and progesterone (12d postovulation) in plasma were also measured. Concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, glucose, fatty acids, and urea were determined in follicular fluid (wk 9), and the expression of LH receptor, estrogen receptor β, cytochrome P450 aromatase, and plasma type glutathione peroxidase genes measured in granulosa cells obtained from the preovulatory follicles at wk 9 postpartum in the subset of 24 cows. Diets did not alter the interval from calving to first ovulation (32.3 ± 2.5d), but a significantly lower proportion of cows on the DDGS diet (20%) ovulated multiple (≥ 2) follicles at the first ovulation than those on the barley grain diet (40%). The incidence of multiple ovulations tended to be lower at first insemination (10 vs. 21% for cows fed DDGS and barley grain diets, respectively). Mean plasma concentration of insulin was

  1. Effects of partial replacement of barley grain with beet pulp on performance, ruminal fermentation and plasma concentration of metabolites in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, A; Alikhani, M; Riasi, A; Ghorbani, G R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of partial replacement of barley grain with beet pulp (BP) on dry matter intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, plasma concentration of metabolites and milk yield of transition dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows [735 ± 26 kg of body weights and 3.5 ± 0.05 of body condition score (BCS)] were used in a randomized complete block design. Cows were assigned randomly on day 28 relative to expected parturition date to one of three treatments containing (i) 0% BP, (ii) 25% BP or (iii) 50% BP substituted for barley grain on a DM basis. During the pre-partum period, DMI and energy intake were greater (P cows fed the BP diet compared with cows fed the barley grain diet. During the post-partum period, substituting BP for barley grain caused a response in DMI and energy intake, with the highest amount for the 25% BP diet and lowest for the 50% BP diet (P period, cows fed the 50% BP diets had greater rumen pH, molar proportion of butyrate and acetate: propionate ratio (P cows fed the 0% BP diets. In addition, cows fed the BP diets had greater (P cows fed the barley grain diets. Results showed that substituting BP for barley grain was effective in increasing DMI, but it did not have a significant effect on net energy balance during the post-partum period. However, replacing BP for barley grain at 50% had adverse effects on DMI, milk yield and metabolic status, as indicated by key blood metabolite concentrations. PMID:25816899

  2. Activity-based protein profiling of hydrolytic enzymes induced by gibberellic acid in isolated aleurone layers of malting barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; Grosse-Holz, Friederike M; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Roberts, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    During barley germination, the aleurone layer secretes most of the enzymes required to degrade the endosperm, many of which are yet to be characterized. We used activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) to detect a range of active enzymes extracted from aleurone layers isolated from grains of a commercial malting barley variety incubated with or without gibberellic acid (GA). Enzymes found to be induced by GA were putative aleurains, cathepsin-B-like proteases and serine hydrolases. By using an inhibitory sugar panel, a specific active retaining β-glycosidase in the barley aleurone was identified as a putative xylanase. Our results show that ABPP can be used rapidly to identify a variety of active enzyme isoforms in cereal aleurone without the need for enzyme purification.

  3. Bulk carbohydrate grain filling of barley ß-glucan mutants studied by 1H HR MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Viereck, Nanna;

    2008-01-01

    Temporal and genotypic differences in bulk carbohydrate accumulation in three barley genotypes differing in the content of mixed linkage β-(1→3),(1→4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) and starch were investigated using proton high-resolution, magic angle spinning, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR MAS NMR......) during grain filling. For the first time, 1H HR MAS NMR spectra of flour from immature barley seeds are analyzed. Spectral assignments are made using two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Both α- and β-glucan biosynthesis were characterized by inspection of the spectra as well as by calibration...... unexpected lack of intensity in the high β-glucan mutant lys5f at seed maturity, resulting in poor calibration to reference β-glucan content. We hypothesize that the lack of β-glucan signal in lys5f indicates partial immobilization of the β-glucan that appears to be either genotypic dependent or water...

  4. Barley HvHMA1 is a heavy metal pump involved in mobilizing organellar Zn and Cu and plays a role in metal loading into grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dalgaard Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P(1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P(1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated the properties of HvHMA1, which is a barley orthologue of Arabidopsis thaliana AtHMA1 localized to the chloroplast envelope. HvHMA1 was localized to the periphery of chloroplast of leaves and in intracellular compartments of grain aleurone cells. HvHMA1 expression was significantly higher in grains compared to leaves. In leaves, HvHMA1 expression was moderately induced by Zn deficiency, but reduced by toxic levels of Zn, Cu and Cd. Isolated barley chloroplasts exported Zn and Cu when supplied with Mg-ATP and this transport was inhibited by the AtHMA1 inhibitor thapsigargin. Down-regulation of HvHMA1 by RNA interference did not have an effect on foliar Zn and Cu contents but resulted in a significant increase in grain Zn and Cu content. Heterologous expression of HvHMA1 in heavy metal-sensitive yeast strains increased their sensitivity to Zn, but also to Cu, Co, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Fe. Based on these results, we suggest that HvHMA1 is a broad-specificity exporter of metals from chloroplasts and serve as a scavenging mechanism for mobilizing plastid Zn and Cu when cells become deficient in these elements. In grains, HvHMA1 might be involved in mobilizing Zn and Cu from the aleurone cells during grain filling and germination.

  5. A fitful fungus from a hot, arid climate increases grain yield in cool-cultivated barley

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Brian R.; Fiona M Doohan; HODKINSON, TREVOR R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The fungus Piriformospora indica was first isolated from plants growing in arid, hot desert conditions and has been shown to have significant potential as a biocontrol and biofertilising organism in barley under optimal growth conditions. However, it was not thought to be effective in plants grown in low temperatures and has consequently not been well tested in cold-stressed crops. This study sought to determine the effects of inoculating barley plants with this f...

  6. Differential gene expression for suicide-substrate serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) in vegetative and grain tissues of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, T.H.; Marttila, S.; Rasmussen, S.K.;

    2003-01-01

    Proteins of the serpin superfamily (similar to43 kDa) from mature cereal grains are in vitro suicide-substrate inhibitors of specific mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family. However, unlike the 'standard-mechanism' serine proteinase inhibitors (kDa), the biological functions...... of plant serpins are unknown. Expression studies of genes encoding members of three subfamilies of serpins (BSZx, BSZ4 and BSZ7) in developing grain and vegetative tissues of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) showed that transcripts encoding BSZx, which inhibits distinct proteinases at overlapping reactive...... their irreversible inhibitory mechanism in the inhibition of exogenous proteinases capable of breaking down seed storage proteins, and in the defence of specific cell types in vegetative tissues....

  7. Effect of β-glucanase and xylanase supplementation of barley- and rye-based diets on caecal microbiota of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefiak, Damian; Rutkowski, A; Kaczmarek, S;

    2010-01-01

    1. The aim was to investigate the effect of grain type (barley or rye) and exogenous enzymes (β-glucanase or xylanase) on the composition of chicken caecal microbiota as examined by classical culturing and molecular techniques (fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) and terminal-restriction fra......1. The aim was to investigate the effect of grain type (barley or rye) and exogenous enzymes (β-glucanase or xylanase) on the composition of chicken caecal microbiota as examined by classical culturing and molecular techniques (fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) and terminal......-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (T-RFLP)). 2. Plate counting revealed higher total numbers of anaerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in caecal contents of birds fed with rye-based diets than in birds fed with barley-based diets. 3. As assessed by FISH analysis, the most abundant bacterial groups...

  8. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Bowra, S; Schmidt, Daiana;

    2016-01-01

    C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi sil...

  9. Improving the nutritional quality of the barley and wheat grain storage proteins by antisense technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Lange, Mette; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    gliadins) are also available from Germany and UK. We have grown them under different N regimes (high, medium and low N) in semi-field conditions. Previously five different antisense C-hordein lines of barley have been characterized in our laboratory. The analyses revealed that the lysine, threonine...

  10. Barley metallothioneins: MT3 and MT4 are localized in the grain aleurone layer and show differential zinc binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2012-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and protein abundance during grain development. MT3 was present in tissues of both maternal and filial origin throughout grain filling. In contrast, MT4 was confined to the embryo and aleurone layer, where it appeared during tissue specialization and remained until maturity. Using state-of-the-art speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on recombinant MT3 and MT4, their specificity and capacity for metal ion binding were quantified, showing a strong preferential Zn binding relative to Cu and cadmium (Cd) in MT4, which was not the case for MT3. When complementary DNAs from barley MTs were expressed in Cu- or Cd-sensitive yeast mutants, MT3 provided a much stronger complementation than did MT4. We conclude that MT3 may play a housekeeping role in metal homeostasis, while MT4 may function in Zn storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations.

  11. A pathway-specific microarray analysis highlights the complex and co-ordinated transcriptional networks of the developing grain of field-grown barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Friis, Carsten; Bowra, Steve;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the molecular and biochemical interactions associated with amino acid biosynthesis and storage protein accumulation in the developing grains of field-grown barley. Our strategy was to analyse the transcription of genes associated with the biosynthesis of stora...

  12. Development of DArT-based PCR markers for selecting drought-tolerant spring barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiust, Anna; Rapacz, Marcin; Wójcik-Jagła, Magdalena; Tyrka, Mirosław

    2015-08-01

    The tolerance of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars to spring drought is an important agronomic trait affecting crop yield and quality in Poland. Therefore, breeders require new molecular markers to select plants with lower spring drought susceptibility. With the advent of genomic selection technology, simple molecular tools may still be applicable to screen material for markers of the most important traits and in-depth genome scanning. In previous studies, diversity arrays technology (DArT)-based genetic maps were constructed for F2 populations of Polish fodder and malt barley elite breeding lines, and 15 and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to spring drought tolerance were identified, respectively. In this paper, we show the results of a conversion of 30 DArT markers corresponding to 11 QTLs into simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence tagged site (STS) markers. Twenty-two polymorphic markers were obtained, including 13 DArT-based SSRs. Additionally, 31 SSR markers, located in close proximity to the DArT markers, were selected from the GrainGenes database and tested. Further analyses of 24 advanced breeding lines with different drought tolerances confirmed that five out of the 30 converted markers, as well as three out of the 31 additional SSR markers, were effective in marker-assisted selection for drought tolerance. The possible function of clones related to these markers in drought tolerance is discussed. PMID:25716655

  13. Methane emissions from two breeds of beef cows offered diets containing barley straw with either grass silage or brewers' grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Hyslop, J J; Waterhouse, A

    2015-10-01

    Increasing the concentration of dietary lipid is a promising strategy for reducing methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of replacing grass silage with brewers' grains on CH4 emissions of pregnant, non-lactating beef cows of two breeds. The experiment was a two×two factorial design comprising two breeds (LIMx, crossbred Limousin; and LUI, purebred Luing) and two diets consisting of (g/kg diet dry matter (DM)) barley straw (687) and grass silage (301, GS), or barley straw (763) and brewers' grains (226, BG), which were offered ad libitum. Replacing GS with BG increased the acid-hydrolysed ether extract concentration from 21 to 37 g/kg diet DM. Cows (n=48) were group-housed in equal numbers of each breed across two pens and each diet was allocated to one pen. Before measurements of CH4, individual dry matter intake (DMI), weekly BW and weekly body condition score were measured for a minimum of 3 weeks, following a 4-week period to acclimatise to the diets. CH4 emissions were subsequently measured on one occasion from each cow using individual respiration chambers. Due to occasional equipment failures, CH4 measurements were run over 9 weeks giving 10 observations for each breed×treatment combination (total n=40). There were no differences between diets for daily DMI measured in the chambers (9.92 v. 9.86 kg/day for BG and GS, respectively; P>0.05). Cows offered the BG diet produced less daily CH4 than GS-fed cows (131 v. 156 g/day: P0.05). However, when expressed as a proportion of metabolic BW (BW0.75), LUI cows had greater DMI than LIMx cows (84.5 v. 75.7 g DMI/kg BW0.75, Pbeef cows, with no suppression of DMI. PMID:26145179

  14. Barley Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) as Feedstock for Production of Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Wal, van der H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) represent important co-product from commercial yeast fermentations, including bioethanol, from grains. In view of the current expansion of the bioethanol fermentation process, with the concomitant increase in production of DDGS, alternative applications t

  15. Effect of time and temperature on the hydration process of barley grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanuci, Flávia Daiana; Jorge, Luiz Mario Matos; Jorge, Regina Maria Matos

    2015-03-01

    The barley behavior during hydration regarding to water absorption, density, volume variation, and solids loss is identified, as well as employ mathematical models such as diffusional, Peleg, Weibull distribution function and first order kinetics, in order to verify the effect of temperature on the process. Hydration was carried out over 32 h at six different temperatures: 35, 30, 25, 20, 15 and 10 °C. The hydration isotherms were divided into two phases, the first one comprising the first 8 h, with a high hydration rate, and the second one in which the moisture content increases slowly until it reaches the equilibrium moisture content. During the first hour of process, the solids loss at 35 °C was 3.95 % higher than at 10 °C. The effective diffusion coefficients ranged from 5.14 to 10.8 × 10-12 m2/s. The model of Peleg and the first order kinetics model best described the water absorption characteristics at the temperatures investigated.

  16. Advances in the use of mutation induction for genetic improvement of barley and native grains in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds of two varieties were treated with several doses of gamma rays and sodium azide. Seeds of a quinoa (Chenopodium) variety were treated with three doses of gamma rays. Yield trials were conducted also for doubled haploid lines of barley derived from earlier mutagenic treatments. Some promising new barley mutant lines were identified in the yield trials. The results from the Chenopodium trials facilitate the determination of the optimum dose of gamma rays for the PRQ-22 variety. (author)

  17. Field studies on the regulation of abscisic acid content and germinability during grain development of barley: molecular and chemical analysis of pre-harvest sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Honda, Ichiro; Shinoda, Shoko; Kushiro, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Yuji; Nambara, Eiji; Kawakami, Naoto; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) content was related to germinability during grain development, two cDNAs for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (HvNCED1 and HvNCED2) and one cDNA for ABA 8'-hydroxylase (HvCYP707A1), which are enzymes thought to catalyse key regulatory steps in ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, respectively, were cloned from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Expression and ABA-quantification analysis in embryo revealed that HvNCED2 is responsible for a significant increase in ABA levels during the early to middle stages of grain development, and HvCYP707A1 is responsible for a rapid decrease in ABA level thereafter. The change in the embryonic ABA content of imbibing grains following dormancy release is likely to reflect changes in the expression patterns of HvNCEDs and HvCYP707A1. A major change between dormant and after-ripened grains occurred in HvCYP707A1; the increased expression of HvCYP707A1 in response to imbibition, followed by a rapid ABA decrease and a high germination percentage, was observed in the after-ripened grains, but not in the dormant grains. Under field conditions, HvNCED2 showed the same expression level and pattern during grain development in 2002, 2003, and 2004, indicating that HvNCED2 expression is regulated in a growth-dependent manner in the grains. By contrast, HvNCED1 and HvCYP707A1 showed a different expression pattern in each year, indicating that the expression of these genes is affected by environmental conditions during grain development. The varied expression levels of these genes during grain development and imbibition, which would have effects on the activity of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, might be reflected, in part, in the germinability in field-grown barley.

  18. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    proteases which could be responsible for proteolysis of β-amylases in the infected barley. In Chapter 4, the in vitro secretome of F. graminearum on the 2-D gels in the presence of substrates of barley or wheat grain was studied. Totally 69 unique fungal proteins identified were mainly cell......Due to the great loss of barley grain yield and quality in addition to mycotoxins contamination caused by Fusarium head blight (FHB), it is essential to understand the molecular interaction between barley and Fusarium graminearum, one of the primary Fusarium species causing FHB, in order to control...... the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D gels, it is used as a tool for studying the barley- Fusarium graminearum interaction form three different...

  19. Antioxidant-guided isolation and mass spectrometric identification of the major polyphenols in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel P; Gallagher, Eimear; Hossain, Mohammad B

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the relative contribution of individual/classes of polyphenols in barley, to its antioxidant properties, was evaluated. Flash chromatography was used to fractionate the total polyphenol extract of Irish barley cultivar 'Irina', and fractions with highest antioxidant properties were identified using total phenolic content and three in vitro antioxidant assays: DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC. Flavanols (catechin, procyanidin B, prodelphinidin B, procyanidin C) and a novel substituted flavanol (catechin dihexoside, C27H33O16(-), m/z 613.17), were identified as constituents of the fraction with highest antioxidant capacity. Upon identification of phenolics in the other active fractions, the order of most potent contributors to observed antioxidant capacity of barley extract were, flavanols>flavonols (quercetin)>hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, caffeic, coumaric acids). The most abundant polyphenol in the overall extract was ferulic acid (277.7μg/gdw barley), followed by procyanidin B (73.7μg/gdw barley). PMID:27211640

  20. Transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) expressing the wheat aluminium resistance gene (TaALMT1) shows enhanced phosphorus nutrition and grain production when grown on an acid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Taylor, Phillip; Hocking, Peter J; Simpson, Richard J; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E

    2009-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), genetically modified with the Al(3+) resistance gene of wheat (TaALMT1), was compared with a non-transformed sibling line when grown on an acidic and highly phosphate-fixing ferrosol supplied with a range of phosphorus concentrations. In short-term pot trials (26 days), transgenic barley expressing TaALMT1 (GP-ALMT1) was more efficient than a non-transformed sibling line (GP) at taking up phosphorus on acid soil, but the genotypes did not differ when the soil was limed. Differences in phosphorus uptake efficiency on acid soil could be attributed not only to the differential effects of aluminium toxicity on root growth between the genotypes, but also to differences in phosphorus uptake per unit root length. Although GP-ALMT1 out-performed GP on acid soil, it was still not as efficient at taking up phosphorus as plants grown on limed soil. GP-ALMT1 plants grown in acid soil possessed substantially smaller rhizosheaths than those grown in limed soil, suggesting that root hairs were shorter. This is a probable reason for the lower phosphorus uptake efficiency. When grown to maturity in large pots, GP-ALMT1 plants produced more than twice the grain as GP plants grown on acid soil and 80% of the grain produced by limed controls. Expression of TaALMT1 in barley was not associated with a penalty in either total shoot or grain production in the absence of Al(3+), with both genotypes showing equivalent yields in limed soil. These findings demonstrate that an important crop species can be genetically engineered to successfully increase grain production on an acid soil.

  1. High moisture airtight storage of barley and triticale: Effect of moisture level and grain processing on nitrogen and phosphorus solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Labouriau, Rodrigo;

    2015-01-01

    moisture levels (20, 23, 26 and 29% moisture) and to compare HMA storage of cereals with dry storage for 49 days. Dry stored barley and triticale (10 and 13% moisture, respectively) were kept in 10 L plastic buckets for 0 and 49 days. HMA stored cereals were kept in airtight bags (400 g per bag) at 15 °C...... for 0, 14, 29 and 49 days. The cereals were dry stored or HMA stored in rolled or whole form without or with an enzyme combination. Samples in triplicate were measured for dry matter (DM), pH, N and P solubility, phytate P and total P. HMA storage of rolled barley and rolled triticale at 26 and 29......) in HMA storage at 29% moisture to a greater extent compared with dry storage (P levels increased P solubility (rolled barley, whole and rolled triticale) and N solubility (whole and rolled triticale) linearly and decreased Phytate P:Total P (rolled barley) linearly...

  2. Cultivar and Environmental Effects on β-glucanase Activity in Both Barley Grain and Malt and Its Function in β-glucan Degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-mei; ZHANG Guo-ping; CHEN Jin-xin; SHEN Qiu-quan

    2003-01-01

    Eight two-rowed barley cultivars were grown at seven locations in the southern winter-barleyzone of China. Mean grain β-glucanase activity ranged from 39.89 U kg-1 for Suyin2 to 49.75 U kg-1 for Xi-umai3 in 8 cultivars grown at 7 locations, and from 38.74 U kg-1 in Zhengzhou to 57. 96 U kg-1 in Putianamong 7 locations on an average of all cultivars. Correspondingly, mean malt β-glucanase activity of 8 culti-vars ranged from 313.33 U kg-1 for ZAU3 to 489.89 U kg-1 for Daner Barley, and of 7 locations from 330.40U kg-1 in Yancheng to 418.24 U kg-1 in Putian. There were significant differences among cultivars and loca-tions in malt β-glucanase activities. The locations showed much larger variation in malt β-glucanase activitiesthan cultivars. The reduction of total β-glucan content after malting varied in both cultivars and locations,with a mean of 78.31%. The analysis of correlations showed that malt β-glucan content was significantly posi-tively and negatively correlated with grain β-glucan content and malt β-glucanase activity, respectively, andmalt β-glucanase activity was significantly positively correlated with grain β-glucanase activity.

  3. Microwave irradiation induced changes in protein molecular structures of barley grains: relationship to changes in protein chemical profile, protein subfractions, and digestion in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaogang; Khan, Nazir A; Zhang, Fangyu; Yang, Ling; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-16

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate microwave irradiation (MIR) induced changes in crude protein (CP) subfraction profiles, ruminal CP degradation characteristics and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP), and protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains. Samples from hulled (n = 1) and hulless cultivars (n = 2) of barley, harvested from four replicate plots in two consecutive years, were evaluated. The samples were either kept as raw or irradiated in a microwave for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). Compared to raw grains, MIR5 decreased the contents of rapidly degradable CP subfraction (from 45.22 to 6.36% CP) and the ruminal degradation rate (from 8.16 to 3.53%/h) of potentially degradable subfraction. As a consequence, the effective ruminal degradability of CP decreased (from 55.70 to 34.08% CP) and RUP supply (from 43.31 to 65.92% CP) to the postruminal tract increased. The MIR decreased the spectral intensities of amide 1, amide II, α-helix, and β-sheet and increased their ratios. The changes in protein spectral intensities were strongly correlated with the changes in CP subfractions and digestive kinetics. These results show that MIR for a short period (5 min) with a lower energy input can improve the nutritive value and utilization of CP in barely grains.

  4. Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250  g/calf/d of barley grain or with 250 g/calf/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi-  tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish  Friesian male calves were used in the study and they were housed in individual wooden stalls (0.83 x 1.80 m. The health  status of all the calves was satisfactory for the entire fattening period and no specific medical treatment was required  during the trial. Calves fed wheat straw showed a greater intake of solid feed (196 vs. 139 g/d; P  average daily gain (1288 vs. 1203 g/d; P  not affected by the type of solid feed and no milk refusal episodes were detected. The haemoglobin concentration was  similar in calves receiving the two feeding treatments despite the higher iron intake provided by the wheat straw through-  out the fattening period (2.12 vs. 1.15 g; P  calves’ metabolism. Feeding behaviour was affected by the provision of solid feeds. Eating and chewing were prolonged  in calves receiving ground wheat straw and the same solid feed reduced the frequency of oral stereotypies at the end of  the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, no differences were observed between the feeding treatments as regards  carcass weight and dressing percentage. The calves fed ground wheat straw had a heavier weight of the empty omasum  (518 vs. 341 g; P  fed barley grain. The incidence of abomasal erosions, ulcers and scars was similar in both treatments; however the index  of abomasal damage, which considers the number and the seriousness of different type of lesions, was higher in calves  receiving barley grain. Therefore, the grinding of straw particles, as opposed to barley grain, can reduce the abrasive-  ness of roughage at the abomasum level. Visual evaluation of the

  5. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    of germination in the context of industrial malting. For transcriptomics, recent advances in sequencing the barley genome allow next-generation sequencing approaches to reveal novel effects of variety and environment on germination. For proteomics, selection of the source tissue(s) and the protein extraction...... conditions continue to be key to discovering the roles of individual protein forms and posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation. Activity-based proteomics, particularly in combination with new gene editing technologies, has great potential to elucidate the network of enzymes in barley...

  6. A roadmap for zinc transport into the developing barley grain. Gene expression profiling using laser microdissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Tauris, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    profiles have been generated of four different tissue types: the transfer cells, the aleurone layer, the endosperm, and the embryo. Cells from these tissues were isolated with the 'laser capture microdissection' technology and the extracted RNA was subjected to three rounds of T7-based amplification...

  7. Effect of different doses of post-emergence-applied iodosulfuron on weed control and grain yield of malt barley (Hordeum distichum L., under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros José Calado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out over a two year period (2009/2010 and 2012/2013 on an experimental farm in the Alentejo region (Beja, in southern Portugal where rainfed malt barley (Hordeum distichum L. is sown at the end of autumn or beginning of winter (November- December. The aim of this experiment was to study the efficiency of the herbicide iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium to control post-emergence broadleaved weeds in this cereal crop. The malt barley crop was established using no-till farming. This technology provides the necessary machine bearing capacity of the soil to assure the post-emergence application of herbicides at two different weed development stages. The herbicide iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium was applied at three doses (5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 g a. i. · ha-1 and at two different broadleaved weed development stages (3 to 4 and 6 to 7 pairs of leaves, that also corresponded to two different crop development stages (beginning of tillering and complete tillering. The results indicated that early herbicide application timing provided a significantly higher efficiency for all the applied herbicide doses, but this better weed control was not reflected in a higher crop grain yield. The lack of a higher crop grain yield was probably due to a crop phytotoxicity of the herbicide, when used at an early application timing.

  8. Zinc Blotting Assay for Detection of Zinc-Binding Prolamin in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Langkilde, Ane; Vincze, Éva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc...

  9. Grain Yield Variation in Malting Barley Cultivars in Uruguay and Its Consequences for the Design of a Trials Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceretta, S.S.E.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of cultivar trial networks is an important subject in official cultivar testing. We investigated this efficiency for malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Uruguay, using data on 213 cultivars tested across an eight-year period at six locations. The variance-components approach was us

  10. Grain protein concentration and harvestable protein under future climate conditions. A study of 108 spring barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn;

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein...

  11. Differential expression of two ß-amylase genes (Bmy1 and Bmy2) in developing and mature barley grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm-specific (Bmy1) and ubiquitous (Bmy2) ß-amylase were studied during the late maturation phase of seed development in four genotypes. Sequencing of Bmy2 from genomic DNA revealed six polymorphisms in the introns and two synonymous SNPs in the coding region. Acc...

  12. Anti-biofilm and sporicidal activity of peptides based on wheat puroindoline and barley hordoindoline proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagaghi, Nadin; Alfred, Rebecca L; Clayton, Andrew H A; Palombo, Enzo A; Bhave, Mrinal

    2016-07-01

    The broad-spectrum activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and low probability of development of host resistance make them excellent candidates as novel bio-control agents. A number of AMPs are found to be cationic, and a small proportion of these are tryptophan-rich. The puroindolines (PIN) are small, basic proteins found in wheat grains with proposed roles in biotic defence of seeds and seedlings. Synthetic peptides based on their unique tryptophan-rich domain (TRD) display antimicrobial properties. Bacterial endospores and biofilms are highly resistant cells, with significant implications in both medical and food industries. In this study, the cationic PIN TRD-based peptides PuroA (FPVTWRWWKWWKG-NH2 ) and Pina-M (FSVTWRWWKWWKG-NH2 ) and the related barley hordoindoline (HIN) based Hina (FPVTWRWWTWWKG-NH2 ) were tested for effects on planktonic cells and biofilms of the common human pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and the non-pathogenic Listeria innocua. All peptides showed significant bactericidal activity. Further, PuroA and Pina-M at 2 × MIC prevented initial biomass attachment by 85-90% and inhibited >90% of 6-h preformed biofilms of all three organisms. However Hina, with a substitution of Lys-9 with uncharged Thr, particularly inhibited Listeria biofilms. The PIN based peptides were also tested against vegetative cells and endospores of Bacillus subtilis. The results provided evidence that these tryptophan-rich peptides could kill B. subtilis even in sporulated state, reducing the number of viable spores by 4 log units. The treated spores appeared withered under scanning electron microscopy. The results establish the potential of these tryptophan-rich peptides in controlling persistent pathogens of relevance to food industries and human health. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27238815

  13. DIFFERENTIATION OF BARLEY GENOTYPES BASED ON DNA POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tomka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for improving the quality of cultivated varieties in breeding programs. Information about the origin of varieties can help farmers in selecting appropriate varieties to specific growing conditions or end use of crops. A set of ten microsatellite markers was used to describe genetic diversity in a sample of 30 barley (Hordeum vulgare L. genotypes. A total of 55 different alleles were amplified using ten SSR markers localized on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 3H, 5H, 6H, 7H with an average number of 5.5 alleles per locus. On the basis of allele frequencies we have calculated diversity index, polymorphic information content and index of probability, which have mean values of 0.664; 0.643 and 0.126 respectively. These values indicate high differentiation ability of SSR markers. In the created dendrogram using hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm we were able to differentiate all 30 barley genotypes. The results show that DNA markers are suitable for the identification and differentiation of genotypes and indicated the effectiveness of microsatellite markers to describe genetic diversity.

  14. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus.

  15. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus. PMID:26613658

  16. A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2012-06-01

    Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of methods to evaluate genotypes accurately under field conditions. Although many screening criteria have been suggested to distinguish between genotypes for their salt tolerance under controlled environmental conditions, there is a need to test these criteria in the field. In this study, the salt tolerance, ion concentrations, and accumulation of compatible solutes of genotypes of barley with a range of putative salt tolerance were investigated using three growing conditions (hydroponics, soil in pots, and natural saline field). Initially, 60 genotypes of barley were screened for their salt tolerance and uptake of Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) at 150 mM NaCl and, based on this, a subset of 15 genotypes was selected for testing in pots and in the field. Expression of salt tolerance in saline solution culture was not a reliable indicator of the differences in salt tolerance between barley plants that were evident in saline soil-based comparisons. Significant correlations were observed in the rankings of genotypes on the basis of their grain yield production at a moderately saline field site and their relative shoot growth in pots at EC(e) 7.2 [Spearman's rank correlation (rs)=0.79] and EC(e) 15.3 (rs=0.82) and the crucial parameter of leaf Na(+) (rs=0.72) and Cl(-) (rs=0.82) concentrations at EC(e) 7.2 dS m(-1). This work has established screening procedures that correlated well with grain yield at sites with moderate levels of soil salinity. This study also showed that both salt exclusion and osmotic tolerance are involved in salt tolerance and that the relative importance of these traits may differ with the severity of the salt stress. In soil, ion exclusion tended to be more important at low to moderate levels of stress but osmotic stress became more important at higher stress levels. Salt exclusion coupled with a synthesis of organic solutes were shown to be important components of

  17. A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2012-06-01

    Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of methods to evaluate genotypes accurately under field conditions. Although many screening criteria have been suggested to distinguish between genotypes for their salt tolerance under controlled environmental conditions, there is a need to test these criteria in the field. In this study, the salt tolerance, ion concentrations, and accumulation of compatible solutes of genotypes of barley with a range of putative salt tolerance were investigated using three growing conditions (hydroponics, soil in pots, and natural saline field). Initially, 60 genotypes of barley were screened for their salt tolerance and uptake of Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) at 150 mM NaCl and, based on this, a subset of 15 genotypes was selected for testing in pots and in the field. Expression of salt tolerance in saline solution culture was not a reliable indicator of the differences in salt tolerance between barley plants that were evident in saline soil-based comparisons. Significant correlations were observed in the rankings of genotypes on the basis of their grain yield production at a moderately saline field site and their relative shoot growth in pots at EC(e) 7.2 [Spearman's rank correlation (rs)=0.79] and EC(e) 15.3 (rs=0.82) and the crucial parameter of leaf Na(+) (rs=0.72) and Cl(-) (rs=0.82) concentrations at EC(e) 7.2 dS m(-1). This work has established screening procedures that correlated well with grain yield at sites with moderate levels of soil salinity. This study also showed that both salt exclusion and osmotic tolerance are involved in salt tolerance and that the relative importance of these traits may differ with the severity of the salt stress. In soil, ion exclusion tended to be more important at low to moderate levels of stress but osmotic stress became more important at higher stress levels. Salt exclusion coupled with a synthesis of organic solutes were shown to be important components of

  18. Multi-method research strategy for understanding changes in storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated in a range of diverse environments and is widely utilised as feed for animal and as malt in brewing. Nitrogen (N) is a key macronutrient whch directly increases plant growth and is used as a fertiliser to meet the demands for higher yield. However, the in...... regimes. To reach the objective, integrated transcriptomics and proteomics analysis complemented with AAs profiling have been undertaken....

  19. Improvement of Fermentation and Nutritive Quality of Straw-grass Silage by Inclusion of Wet Hulless-barley Distillers’ Grains in Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xianjun; Yu, Chengqun; Shimojo, M.; Shao, Tao

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop methods that would enlarge the feed resources in Tibet, mixtures of hulless-barley straw and tall fescue were ensiled with four levels (0, 10%, 20%, and 30% of fresh weight) of wet hulless-barley distillers’ grains (WHDG). The silos were opened after 7, 14 or 30 d of ensiling, and the fermentation characteristics and nutritive quality of the silages were analyzed. WHDG addition significantly improved fermentation quality, as indicated by the faster decline of pH, rapid accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (p<0.05), and lower butyric acid content and ammonia-N/total N (p<0.05) as compared with the control. These results indicated that WHDG additions not only effectively inhibited the activity of aerobic bacteria, but also resulted in faster and greatly enhanced LA production and pH value decline, which restricted activity of undesirable bacteria, resulting in more residual water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the silages. The protein content of WHDG-containing silages were significantly higher (p<0.05) higher than that of the control. In conclusion, the addition of WHDG increased the fermentation and nutritive quality of straw-grass silage, and this effect was more marked when the inclusion rate of WHDG was greater than 20%. PMID:25049588

  20. Shoot apex development date of anthesis and grain yield of autumn-sown spring and winter barley hordeum-vulgare after different sowing times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, E.

    1985-01-01

    the winter cultivars, five were after all sowing times completely vegetative, three cultivars had started ear differentiation after the first sowing time. Presumably, these latter ones are of the alternative types. Until the end of winter all cultivars had started ear differentiation after the earlier sowing......One spring and eight winter barley cultivars were sown at intervals from the middle of September (normal) until the end of October (late). The apical meristem of the spring cultivar had developed furthest until the onset of winter. It had started ear differentiation after normal sowing. Among...... dates. There were no clear differences between spring and winter cultivars any more. Within one sowing time there was no relation between the developmental succession of the cultivars at the end of winter and their date of anthesis. Grain yield was the lower the later the sowing time. Six...

  1. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms based on RNA sequencing data of diverse bio-geographical accessions in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahagi, Kotaro; Uehara-Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Mochida, Keiichi; Saisho, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Barley is one of the founder crops of Old world agriculture and has become the fourth most important cereal worldwide. Information on genome-scale DNA polymorphisms allows elucidating the evolutionary history behind domestication, as well as discovering and isolating useful genes for molecular breeding. Deep transcriptome sequencing enables the exploration of sequence variations in transcribed sequences; such analysis is particularly useful for species with large and complex genomes, such as barley. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of 20 barley accessions, comprising representatives of several biogeographic regions and a wild ancestor. We identified 38,729 to 79,949 SNPs in the 19 domesticated accessions and 55,403 SNPs in the wild barley and revealed their genome-wide distribution using a reference genome. Genome-scale comparisons among accessions showed a clear differentiation between oriental and occidental barley populations. The results based on population structure analyses provide genome-scale properties of sub-populations grouped to oriental, occidental and marginal groups in barley. Our findings suggest that the oriental population of domesticated barley has genomic variations distinct from those in occidental groups, which might have contributed to barley’s domestication. PMID:27616653

  2. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on protein quality/quantity and Zn content of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Lange, Mette; Schjørring, Jan Kofod;

    2011-01-01

    Among all metals Zn is required by the largest number of proteins. In plants, Zn deficiency leads to reduction of photosynthesis, decreased starch and protein formations, reduced auxin and amino acids levels and increased permeability of bio-membranes, which enhance inorganic P uptake. In humans...... it is estimated that nearly half of the world’s population, primarily children and women in the developing world, suffer from zinc deficiency as they live on a diet that mostly is based on cereals and other starch-rich staples that have a quite low Zn content and with poor zinc bioavailability. The rise...... the increases of yield is primarily in the form of starch there will be a “dilution” of other nutrients like minerals and proteins in the grain with severe consequences for the nutrition of human and livestock Although the nutritional short-comings could be met by using higher amounts of nitrogen and mineral...

  3. Non-wheat pasta based on pearl millet flour containing barley and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Deep N; Balasubramanian, S; Kaur, Jaspreet; Anand, Tanupriya; Singh, Ashish K

    2014-10-01

    Non-wheat pasta was prepared with pearl millet supplemented with 10-30 % barley flour, 5-15 % whey protein concentrate, 2.5-4 % carboxy methyl cellulose and 27-33 % water using response surface methodology (RSM) following central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Results showed that barley flour and whey protein concentrate (WPC) had significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive effect on lightness and negative effect on stickiness of pasta, thus improved the overall acceptability (OAA). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) improved the textural attributes i.e. increased firmness and decreased stickiness significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in solids losses in gruel. Based upon the experiments, the optimized level of ingredients were barley flour 13.80 g 100 g(-1) pearl millet flour (PMF), WPC 12.27 g 100 g(-1) PMF, CMC 3.45 g 100 g(-1) PMF and water 27.6 mL 100 g(-1) ingredients premix with 88 % desirability. The developed pasta had protein 16.47 g, calcium 98.53 mg, iron 5.43 mg, phosphorus 315.5 mg and β-glucan 0.33 g 100 g(-1) pasta (db).

  4. Imidiazolium based ionic liquids: effects of different anions and alkyl chains lengths on the barley seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetko Bubalo, Marina; Hanousek, Karla; Radošević, Kristina; Gaurina Srček, Višnja; Jakovljević, Tamara; Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana

    2014-03-01

    We studied the effects of five imidiazolium based ionic liquids with different anions and length of alkyl chains linked to imidazolium ring on the early development of barley (Hordeum vulgare). The inhibitory effect depends on the ionic liquids concentration and chemical structure, whereby the most toxic one was [C10mim][Br], followed by [C7mim][Br], [C4mim][Br], [C4mim][CH3CO2] and [C4mim][BF4]. Both anion and cation structures affected the toxicity of ionic liquid indicating that selection of more biocompatible anions such as [CH3CO2] does not necessarily indicate lower toxicity. Alternation in the extent of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activities were found in barley plants due to ionic liquid treatments. When seedlings were exposed to higher concentrations of ionic liquids, antioxidant system could not effectively remove reactive oxidative species, leading to lipid peroxidation and damage of the photosynthetic system. However, overall data indicated that the performance of barley seedling was improved when all measured enzymes involved in scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased with special emphasis on GPX activities. Since there are no studies about ionic liquid (IL) toxicity in plants, that simultaneously evaluates the antioxidative enzyme system in response to different ILs, this work is valuable for gaining knowledge about the protection mechanism of plants from oxidative stress caused by IL exposure.

  5. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:15705762

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oat and barley grain fibre and increase in faecal bulk (ID 819, 822) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to oat and barley grain fibre and increase in faecal bulk. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders...... the evidence, the Panel took into account that the role of cereal grain fibre in increasing faecal bulk in humans is well established, that the mechanisms by which cereal grain fibre exerts the claimed effect are known, that oat fibre has a significant bulking effect in humans, and that a similar effect can...

  7. Integrating statistical and ecophysiological analysis of genotype by environment interaction for grain filling of barley in Mediterranean areas. II. Grain growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voltas, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Araus, J.L.; Romagosa, I.

    1999-01-01

    In Mediterranean areas, grain growth of temperate cereals often progresses under the harmful influence of drought and high temperature. Genotypic responses are mediated by the specific occurrence of these constraints, thus causing genotype by environment (G × E) interaction. Field experiments were c

  8. Effects of inter-varietal diversity, biotic stresses and environmental productivity on grain yield of spring barley variety mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib M.; Østergård, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    than their component varieties when accounting also for the general response to environmental productivity. Hence, most mixtures adapted slightly better to environmental productivity and were less sensitive to environmental stress than their component varieties. We conclude that the efficacy of variety...... mixtures may be enhanced by mixing relatively high-yielding varieties differing in responsiveness to environmental productivity....... derived for each component variety in each trial. The relationship between intervarietal diversity of each characteristic and the mixing effect on grain yield was analysed. Additionally, various types of yield stability were estimated and compared among mixtures and component varieties. One mixture out...

  9. A constitutive model of nanocrystalline metals based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Gurses, Ercan

    2011-12-01

    In this work, a viscoplastic constitutive model for nanocrystalline metals is presented. The model is based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms. In particular, inelastic deformations caused by grain boundary diffusion, grain boundary sliding and dislocation activities are considered. Effects of pressure on the grain boundary diffusion and sliding mechanisms are taken into account. Furthermore, the influence of grain size distribution on macroscopic response is studied. The model is shown to capture the fundamental mechanical characteristics of nanocrystalline metals. These include grain size dependence of the strength, i.e., both the traditional and the inverse Hall-Petch effects, the tension-compression asymmetry and the enhanced rate sensitivity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. SNP-based high density genetic map and mapping of btwd1 dwarfing gene in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xifeng; Wang, Jibin; Liu, Lipan; Sun, Genlou; Li, Chengdao; Luo, Hong; Sun, Dongfa

    2016-01-01

    A high-density linkage map is a valuable tool for functional genomics and breeding. A newly developed sequence-based marker technology, restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing, has been proven to be powerful for the rapid discovery and genotyping of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and for the high-density genetic map construction. The objective of this research was to construct a high-density genetic map of barley using RAD sequencing. 1894 high-quality SNP markers were developed and mapped onto all seven chromosomes together with 68 SSR markers. These 1962 markers constituted a total genetic length of 1375.8 cM and an average of 0.7 cM between adjacent loci. The number of markers within each linkage group ranged from 209 to 396. The new recessive dwarfing gene btwd1 in Huaai 11 was mapped onto the high density linkage maps. The result showed that the btwd1 is positioned between SNP marks 7HL_6335336 and 7_249275418 with a genetic distance of 0.9 cM and 0.7 cM on chromosome 7H, respectively. The SNP-based high-density genetic map developed and the dwarfing gene btwd1 mapped in this study provide critical information for position cloning of the btwd1 gene and molecular breeding of barley. PMID:27530597

  11. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  12. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  13. Effect of inclusion of distillers dried grains and solubles from barley, wheat and corn in isonutritive diets on the performance and caecal environment of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alagón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate how the dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS could affect the performance and caecal environment of growing rabbits, four experimental diets were formulated from a control diet without DDGS (C, including 20% of barley DDGS (Db20, 20% of wheat DDGS (Dw20 and 20 (Dc20 or 40% (Dc40 of corn DDGS. Animals had free access to medicated versions of the diets until 49 d, and then to unmedicated diets until 59 d of age. The performance trial was done using 475 three-way crossbred weaned rabbits of 28 d of age, individually housed in 5 batches. Caecal fermentation traits were determined in 20 animals per diet and at 42 d and at 59 d of age. No significant effect of the growing diet on mortality, morbidity or sanitary risk index was observed. In the whole period and respect to the control group, animals fed with Db20 showed higher dry matter (DM and digestible energy (DE intake (+6 and +12%, respectively; P<0.05, but similar daily weight gain (DWG and increased feed conversion ratio (+9%; P<0.05. Similarly, and regardless of its inclusion level, the increase in DE intake of animals fed with corn DDGS (+9, respectively; P<0.05 did not increase DWG. In contrast, higher DM and DE intake of animals fed with Dw20 (+8; P<0.05 resulted in a higher DWG (+2.8 g/d; P<0.05 than those fed with C. Although inclusion of DDGS at 20% did not affected main caecal parameters controlled at 42 d, caecum of animals fed with the diet Dc40 was characterized by greater N-NH3 and valeric acid and lower total volatile fatty acids and acetic acid concentrations than the average of the other groups (on av. +5.2±1.7 mmol/L, +0.29±0.07 mol/100 mol, –17.17±4.41 μmol/L and –2.60±0.99 mol/100 mol, respectively; P<0.05. At 59 d of age, higher caecal DM, and propionic and valeric acid concentration and lower values of total volatile fatty acids and acetic/propionic rate were observed for DDGS inclusion at 20% compared to the control (+1

  14. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based backgrounding diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to characterize the effects of CP concentration and ruminal degradability of barley-based backgrounding diets on route and chemical form of N excretion, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and nutrient digestion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (479 ± 14.6 kg average BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square. The basal diet consisted of 54% barley silage and 46% barley grain-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (12% CP) or diets formulated to contain 14% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). The amount of feed offered was restricted to 95% of ad libitum intake. There was no effect of the diets on DMI (P = 0.38), and therefore, N intake was less (P 0.10) on the amount of urine N output. Urine N output was 38.9 and 45.1 ± 5.50% of N intake in heifers fed the 12% CP and 14% CP diets (P < 0.05), respectively. Urea N, the form of N most susceptible to NH3-N volatilization and loss, was the major form of N in urine (75.5% in heifers fed the 12% CP diet and 81.4 ± 1.7% in heifers fed the 14% CP diets; P < 0.05). Supplemental RDP (UREA+CM) and RUP combined with urea (UREA+CGM+xSBM) to provide 14% CP increased (P < 0.05) ruminal NH3-N but had no effect on ruminal peptide N (P = 0.62) and free AA N (P = 0.18) concentration, the flow of microbial (P = 0.34) and feed (P = 0.55) N, and ruminal (starch, P = 0.11; NDF, P = 0.78) and total tract nutrient digestibility (OM, P = 0.21; starch, P = 0.16). Supplementation of barley-based backgrounding diets containing 12% CP with NPN alone or combined with ruminally degradable and undegradable true protein to attain 14% CP had no effect on fecal N output, but urine N and urea N increased irrespective of protein source. In addition, the ruminal degradability of

  15. Strengths and Limitations of Operational Use of 1 Km EO Biophysical Products for Regional Prediction of Grain Yelds in Europe (wheat, barley and maize)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, M.; LEO, O.; Lopez-Lozano, R.; Baruth, B.; Duveiller, G.; Garcia-Condado, S.; Hooker, J.; Seguini, L.

    2014-12-01

    The site-specific relationship between EO indicators and actual crop yields has been explored in many different studies, describing semi-empirical regression models between spatially aggregated biophysical parameters or vegetation indices and observed yields (from field measurements or official statistics). However, when considering larger extensions -from countries to continents- agro-climatic conditions and crop management may differ substantially among regions, and these differences may greatly influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and the observed yields, which may be also driven by limiting factors other than green biomass formation. The present study aims to better assess the contribution of EO indicators within an operational crop yield forecasting system in Europe and neighbouring countries, by evaluating how these above mentioned geographic differences influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and crop yield. We therefore explore, as a first step, the correspondence between fAPAR time-series (1999-2013) and the inter-annual yield variability of wheat, barley and grain maize, at sub-national level across Europe (270-450 Administrative Units, depending on crop). In a second step, we map the agro-climatic contexts in which EO indicators better explain the observed yield inter-annual variability, identify the influence of some meteorological events on the fAPAR -yield relationship and provide some recommendations for further investigation. The results indicate that in water-limited environments (e.g. Mediterranean and Black Sea areas), fAPAR is highly correlated with yields whereas in northern Europe, crop yield appears much less limited by leaf area expansion along the season, and the relationship between yield and EO products becomes more difficult to interpret.

  16. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  17. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  18. Zinc absorption in humans from meals based on rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale and whole wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, B.A.; Almgren, A.; Kivistoe, B.C.; Cederblad, A.

    1987-11-01

    The absorption of zinc from meals based on 60 g of rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale or whole wheat was studied by use of extrinsic labelling with /sup 65/Zn and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclide. The cereals were prepared in the form of bread or porridge and were served with 200 mL of milk. The oatmeal flakes were also served without further preparation. The absorption of zinc was negatively correlated to the phytic acid content of the meal with the highest absorption, 26.8 +/- 7.4%, from the rye bread meal containing 100 mumol of phytic acid and the lowest, 8.4 +/- 1.0%, from oatmeal porridge with a phytic acid content of 600 mumol. It is concluded that food preparation that decreases the phytic acid content improves zinc absorption.

  19. Zinc absorption in humans from meals based on rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale and whole wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, B; Almgren, A; Kivistö, B; Cederblad, A

    1987-11-01

    The absorption of zinc from meals based on 60 g of rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale or whole wheat was studied by use of extrinsic labelling with 65Zn and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclide. The cereals were prepared in the form of bread or porridge and were served with 200 mL of milk. The oatmeal flakes were also served without further preparation. The absorption of zinc was negatively correlated to the phytic acid content of the meal with the highest absorption, 26.8 +/- 7.4%, from the rye bread meal containing 100 mumol of phytic acid and the lowest, 8.4 +/- 1.0%, from oatmeal porridge with a phytic acid content of 600 mumol. It is concluded that food preparation that decreases the phytic acid content improves zinc absorption. PMID:2824731

  20. Zinc absorption in humans from meals based on rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale and whole wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption of zinc from meals based on 60 g of rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale or whole wheat was studied by use of extrinsic labelling with 65Zn and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclide. The cereals were prepared in the form of bread or porridge and were served with 200 mL of milk. The oatmeal flakes were also served without further preparation. The absorption of zinc was negatively correlated to the phytic acid content of the meal with the highest absorption, 26.8 +/- 7.4%, from the rye bread meal containing 100 mumol of phytic acid and the lowest, 8.4 +/- 1.0%, from oatmeal porridge with a phytic acid content of 600 mumol. It is concluded that food preparation that decreases the phytic acid content improves zinc absorption

  1. Zinc absorption in humans from meals based on rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale and whole wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, B; Almgren, A; Kivistö, B; Cederblad, A

    1987-11-01

    The absorption of zinc from meals based on 60 g of rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale or whole wheat was studied by use of extrinsic labelling with 65Zn and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclide. The cereals were prepared in the form of bread or porridge and were served with 200 mL of milk. The oatmeal flakes were also served without further preparation. The absorption of zinc was negatively correlated to the phytic acid content of the meal with the highest absorption, 26.8 +/- 7.4%, from the rye bread meal containing 100 mumol of phytic acid and the lowest, 8.4 +/- 1.0%, from oatmeal porridge with a phytic acid content of 600 mumol. It is concluded that food preparation that decreases the phytic acid content improves zinc absorption.

  2. Genome-wide SNP discovery and linkage analysis in barley based on genes responsive to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostoks, Nils; Mudie, Sharon; Cardle, Linda; Russell, Joanne; Ramsay, Luke; Booth, Allan; Svensson, Jan T; Wanamaker, Steve I; Walia, Harkamal; Rodriguez, Edmundo M; Hedley, Peter E; Liu, Hui; Morris, Jenny; Close, Timothy J; Marshall, David F; Waugh, Robbie

    2005-12-01

    More than 2,000 genome-wide barley single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were developed by resequencing unigene fragments from eight diverse accessions. The average genome-wide SNP frequency observed in 877 unigenes was 1 SNP per 200 bp. However, SNP frequency was highly variable with the least number of SNP and SNP haplotypes observed within European cultivated germplasm reflecting effects of breeding history on genetic diversity. More than 300 SNP loci were mapped genetically in three experimental mapping populations which allowed the construction of an integrated SNP map incorporating a large number of RFLP, AFLP and SSR markers (1,237 loci in total). The genes used for SNP discovery were selected based on their transcriptional response to a variety of abiotic stresses. A set of known barley abiotic stress QTL was positioned on the linkage map, while the available sequence and gene expression information facilitated the identification of genes potentially associated with these traits. Comparison of the sequenced SNP loci to the rice genome sequence identified several regions of highly conserved gene order providing a framework for marker saturation in barley genomic regions of interest. The integration of genome-wide SNP and expression data with available genetic and phenotypic information will facilitate the identification of gene function in barley and other non-model organisms. PMID:16244872

  3. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić; Maja Benković; Ingrid Bauman

    2015-01-01

    Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle si...

  4. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle size, and total dissolved solids analysis. Standard recipe for barley milk was used without added additives. Barley grain was ground and mixed in a blender for 15, 30, 45, and 60 seconds. The samples were filtered and particle size of the grains was determined by laser diffraction particle sizing. The plant milk was also analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, in the range from 904 to 1699 nm. Furthermore, conductivity of each sample was determined and microphotographs were taken in order to identify the structure of fat globules and particles in the barley milk. NIR spectra, particle size distribution, and conductivity results all point to 45 seconds as the optimal blending time, since further blending results in the saturation of the samples.

  5. Effects of drought stress on growth and yield of barley

    OpenAIRE

    H. Samarah, Nezar

    2005-01-01

    International audience Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grown in Mediterranean regions undergoes drought stress during the grain-filling period. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of drought stress on grain growth and yield of barley. Plants were exposed to three drought treatments at the beginning of grain filling: (1) well-watered at 100% field capacity, (2) mild drought stress at 60% field capacity, and (3) severe drought stress at 20% field capacity until grain maturity....

  6. Barley HvHMA1 is a heavy metal pump involved in mobilizing organellar Zn and Cu and plays a role in metal loading into grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Pedas, Pai; Schiller, Michaela;

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated...... interference did not have an effect on foliar Zn and Cu contents but resulted in a significant increase in grain Zn and Cu content. Heterologous expression of HvHMA1 in heavy metal-sensitive yeast strains increased their sensitivity to Zn, but also to Cu, Co, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Fe. Based on these results, we...... suggest that HvHMA1 is a broad-specificity exporter of metals from chloroplasts and serve as a scavenging mechanism for mobilizing plastid Zn and Cu when cells become deficient in these elements. In grains, HvHMA1 might be involved in mobilizing Zn and Cu from the aleurone cells during grain filling...

  7. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (Pacid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (Pacids, branched-chain FA, odd-chain FA and 16:0. Feeding DDGS-15 and DDGS-30 diets v. the SS diet further increased (Pacids. PMID:25075808

  8. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    using N-15-labelled residues. Field pea fixed 75% of its N requirement and the N-2 fixation almost balanced the N removed with the seeds. The barley crop recovered 80% of the N-15-labelled fertilizer N supplied and the N in the barley grain corresponded to 80% of the fertilizer N taken up by the crop....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  9. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.

  10. Quantity Intelligent Reckoning for Packaged Granary Grain Based Onimage Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Liu, Yong; Sun, Yueheng; Sun, Yanhong

    This paper presents a quantity intelligent reckoning approach for packaged granary grain based on image processing. The actual scene video was taken as the analysis object, and the dual-threshold Canny operator and the morphology processing method are used to extract the object grain bags' characteristic outline-- the boundary of the counter-band of light. Then, a counting algorithm which integrates mode theory and variance analysis technology is presented for the quantity second-judgment. Experimental results show that by accurately extracting the characteristic outline and counting the number of the characteristic outline, the algorithm presents an effective method for grain quantity detection with high recognition precision and efficiency.

  11. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore the obje...... modifications of the identified hordein which needs further investigation. Our results strongly indicate genetic variations in the relative proportions of the storage proteins affecting the amino acid compositions and baking quality.......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore...... the total AA composition and the hordein pattern indicated that there are genetic variations not only in the distributions of the hordein polypeptides but also in the relative proportions of the storage proteins affecting the AA compositions. The free AA composition in the grain may also provide us...

  12. Thymus vulgaris L., Glycyrrhiza glabra or Combo® enzyme in corn vs. barley-based broiler diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Kalantar; Mostafa Rezaei; Jalal Salary; Hamid Reza Hemati Matin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris) or Glycyrrhizaglabra (G. glabra) in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1), the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount), Combo ® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively) in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6) based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively.Results:The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05). All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05). Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05). All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.

  13. Physiological tests for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiological tests for characterizing drought tolerance in barley (H. vulgare L.) and durum wheat (T. durum L.) were evaluated. These tests involved: 1) germination in osmotic solution (-13 atm by d-mannitol); 2) thermal stress on seedlings (42 deg. C for 5 hours); 3) stability of the cellular membrane under osmotic stress (PEG 6000 at 43%). For both species genotypic variability which was associated with drought tolerance in the field was identified by the laboratory evaluation techniques. Based on these procedures, the two-row barley types were more drought tolerant than six-row types. In durum wheat, only some local populations and some varieties, bred in drought environments, showed high laboratory test values. Weak and not significant correlations were found between the physiological tests indicating that the genetic mechanisms which control these traits may be independent and process-specific. Yield trials, in barley, have been carried out in environments with drought conditions and the correlation between grain and physiological tests were significant. Of the three procedures evaluated in this study, the dry matter increase after a period of thermal stress and electrolyte leakage seemed to be most reliable and potentially useful for screening for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat. (author). 13 refs, 6 tabs

  14. Genetic diversity in some tunisian barley land races based on raped markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic diversity analysis of 15 barley land races was carried out using RAPD markers.These land races were collected from various bio climatic Tunisian zones. The amplification products varied from 4 to 11 bands ranging between 250 pb and 3000 pb. On 698 fragments counted, 578 are polymorphic showing a high level of polymorphism (82.8%). The relationship between the studied land races was evaluated according to (UPGMA) method that classified barley land races in 4 homogeneous groups. Among which, the group D included the majority of the land races with the introduced variety 'Martin'. The genetic distance between these land races is reduced, may be because of the presence of a common ancestor which led to a narrow genetic diversity. (author)

  15. Physics-Based Reactive Burn Model: Grain Size Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; Hamate, Y.; Horie, Y.

    2007-12-01

    We have been developing a physics-based reactive burn (PBRB) model, which was formulated based on the concept of a statistical hot spot cell. In the model, essential thermomechanics and physiochemical features are explicitly modeled. In this paper, we have extended the statistical hot spot model to explicitly describe the ignition and growth of hot spots. In particular, grain size effects are explicitly delineated through introduction of grain size-dependent, thickness of the hot-region, energy deposition criterion, and specific surface area. Besides the linear relationships between the run distance to detonation and the critical diameter with respect to the reciprocal specific surface area of heterogeneous explosives (HE), which is based on the original model and discussed in a parallel paper of this meeting, parametric studies have shown that the extended PBRB model can predict a non-monotonic variation of shock sensitivity with grain size, as observed by Moulard et al.

  16. TRI12 based quantitative real-time PCR assays reveal the distribution of trichothecene genotypes of F. graminearum and F. culmorum isolates in Danish small grain cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L K; Jensen, J D; Rodríguez, A; Jørgensen, L N; Justesen, A F

    2012-07-16

    Quantitative real-time PCR assays, based on polymorphisms in the TRI12 gene of the trichothecene pathway, were developed to identify and quantify the trichothecene genotypes producing 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15ADON) or nivalenol (NIV) in the Fusarium graminearum species complex, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium cerealis and Fusarium pseudograminearum. These assays were applied on a total of 378 field samples of cereal grain of wheat, barley, triticale, rye and oats collected from 2003 to 2007 to study the trichothecene genotype composition in Danish cereals. The three genotypes, 3ADON, 15ADON and NIV were found in all five cereal species, great annual variation in the occurrence of the trichothecene genotypes was evident with considerable variation between the samples. 3ADON was the dominant genotype in barley, triticale, rye and oats while 15ADON was most dominant in wheat. The NIV genotype was found at low levels in most samples. Study of genotype composition within the Danish F. graminearum and F. culmorum population was based on principal component analysis (PCA). PCA revealed that the dominating genotype of F. graminearum in wheat is 15ADON. For barley, the PCA analysis indicated that the F. graminearum population consisted of all three genotypes, and in triticale, the F. graminearum population consisted mainly of 15ADON genotype. F. culmorum/F. cerealis showed correlation to the NIV genotype in wheat and triticale but not in barley. F. culmorum/F. cerealis also showed some correlation to 3ADON especially in wheat and triticale. Selected wheat and barley samples from 1957 to 2000 showed low amounts of F. graminearum and F. culmorum in general but with a dominance of the 3ADON genotype. 15ADON was not detected in these samples, except for very low amounts in the sample representing the years from 1997 to 2000. Detection of low amounts of the 15ADON genotype in these historical samples and the relatively high amounts of 15ADON

  17. Barley metallothioneins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    and protein abundance during grain development. MT3 was present in tissues of both maternal and filial origin throughout grain filling. In contrast, MT4 was confined to the embryo and aleurone layer, where it appeared during tissue specialization and remained until maturity. Using state-of-the-art speciation...... storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations....

  18. Population-based resequencing analysis of wild and cultivated barley revealed weak domestication signal of selection and bottleneck in the Rrs2 scald resistance gene region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi

    2012-02-01

    Many plant disease resistance (R) genes have been cloned, but the potential of utilizing these plant R-gene genomic resources for genetic inferences of plant domestication history remains unexplored. A population-based resequencing analysis of the genomic region near the Rrs2 scald resistance gene was made in 51 accessions of wild and cultivated barley from 41 countries. Fifteen primer pairs were designed to sample the genomic region with a total length of 10 406 bp. More nucleotide diversity was found in wild (π = 0.01846) than cultivated (π = 0.01507) barley samples. Three distinct groups of 29 haplotypes were detected for all 51 samples, and they were well mixed with wild and cultivated barley samples from different countries and regions. The neutrality tests by Tajima's D were not significant, but a significant (P domestication. Together, the domestication signal in the genomic region was weak both in human selection and domestication bottleneck.

  19. Effect of Barleys Having Different Liter Weights on Performance, Economic Value, Ruminal Fermentation of Lambs, and Nutrient Digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLER, Talat; ŞAHİN, Kazım; ÇERÇİ, İ.Halil; ERTAS, O. Nihat

    1999-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing barleys having different liter weights (It wt) on average daily gain, feed efficiency, profit margins, ruminal fermentation, and carcass characteristics of lambs and diet digestibility. 16 Akkaraman lambs approximately 8 mo old (averaging 30 kg) were used in a randomized design. Treatment groups consisting of barley grains and barley grains were classified to liter weights as follows: 1. Barley has 643 g lt wt (Grou...

  20. Kinetics of Grain Growth in 718 Ni-Base Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Z.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Haynes® 718 Ni-base superalloy has been investigated by use of modern material characterization, metallographic and heat treatment equipment. Grain growth annealing experiments at temperatures in the range of 1050 – 1200 oC (1323–1473K for time durations in the range of 20 min-22h have been conducted. The kinetic equations and an Arrhenius-type equation have been applied to compute the grain-growth exponent n and the activation energy for grain growth, Qg, for the investigated alloy. The grain growth exponent, n, was computed to be in the range of 0.066-0.206; and the n values have been critically discussed in relation to the literature. The activation energy for grain growth, Qg, for the investigated alloy has been computed to be around 440 kJ/mol; and the Qg data for the investigated alloy has been compared with other metals and alloys and ceramics; and critically analyzed in relation to our results.

  1. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  2. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    2015-01-01

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  3. Molecular identification based on coat protein sequences of the Barley yellow dwarf virus from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Bernardon Mar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow dwarf disease, one of the most important diseases of cereal crops worldwide, is caused by virus species belonging to the Luteoviridae family. Forty-two virus isolates obtained from oat (Avena sativa L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., corn (Zea mays L., and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. collected between 2007 and 2008 from winter cereal crop regions in southern Brazil were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers designed on ORF 3 (coat protein - CP for the presence of Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV. PCR products of expected size (~357 bp for subgroup II and (~831 bp for subgroup I were obtained for three and 39 samples, respectively. These products were cloned and sequenced. The subgroup II 3' partial CP amino acid deduced sequences were identified as BYDV-RMV (92 - 93 % of identity with "Illinois" Z14123 isolate. The complete CP amino acid deduced sequences of subgroup I isolates were confirmed as BYDV-PAV (94 - 99 % of identity and established a very homogeneous group (identity higher than 99 %. These results support the prevalence of BYDV-PAV in southern Brazil as previously diagnosed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and suggest that this population is very homogeneous. To our knowledge, this is the first report of BYDV-RMV in Brazil and the first genetic diversity study on B/CYDV in South America.

  4. Radiotracer evidence implicating phosphoryl and phosphatidyl bases as intermediates in betaine synthesis by water-stressed barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In pulse-chase experiments with barley wilted leaves, label from [14C]-ethanolamine continued to accumulate in betaine as it was being lost from phosphatidylcholine. When [14C]monomethylethanolamine was supplied to wilted leaves, phosphatidylcholine was initially more heavily labeled than betaine. These results are qualitatively consistent with a precursor-to-product relationship between phosphatidylcholine and betaine. The following experiments, in which tracer amounts of [14C]ethanolamine or [14C]formate were supplied to wilted barley leaves, implicated phosphoryl and phosphatidyl bases as intermediates in the methylation steps between ethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Label from both [14C]ethanolamine and [14C]formate entered phosphorylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphorylcholine very rapidly; these phosphoryl bases were the most heavily labeled products at 15 to 30 minutes after label addition and lost label rapidly as the fed 14C-labeled precursor was depleted. Phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine were also significantly labeled from [14C]ethanolamine and [14]formate at early times; the corresponding free bases and nucleotide bases were not. Addition of a trapping pool of phosphorylcholine reduced [14C]ethanolamine conversion to both phosphatidylcholine and betaine, and resulted in accumulation of labe in the trap. A computer model of the synthesis of betaine via phosphatidylcholine was developed from 14C kinetic data. The model indicates that about 20% of the total leaf phosphatidylcholine behaves as an intermediate in betaine biosynthesis and that a marked decrease (greater than or equal to2-fold) in the half-life of this metabolically active phosphatidylcholine fraction accompanies wilting

  5. Rapid assignment of malting barley varieties by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - Time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedo, Ondrej; Kořán, Michal; Jakešová, Michaela; Mikulíková, Renata; Boháč, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2016-09-01

    A method for discriminating malting barley varieties based on direct matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) fingerprinting of proteins was developed. Signals corresponding to hordeins were obtained by simple mixing of powdered barley grain with a MALDI matrix solution containing 12.5mgmL(-1) of ferulic acid in an acetonitrile:water:formic acid 50:33:17 v/v/v mixture. Compared to previous attempts at MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of barley proteins, the extraction and fractionation steps were practically omitted, resulting in a significant reduction in analytical time and costs. The discriminatory power was examined on twenty malting barley varieties and the practicability of the method was tested on sixty barley samples acquired from Pilsner Urquell Brewery. The method is proposed as a rapid tool for variety assignment and purity determination of malting barley that may replace gel electrophoresis currently used for this purpose. PMID:27041307

  6. Development of PCR-Based DNA markers flanking three low phytic acid mutant loci in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytic acid (PA) is the most abundant form of phosphorus (P) in cereal grains. PA chelates mineral cations to form an indigestible salt, and is thus regarded as an antinutritional agent and a contributor to water pollution. Grain with low phytic acid (lpa) genotypes could aid in mitigating this prob...

  7. A high-throughput screening system for barley/powdery mildew interactions based on automated analysis of light micrographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweizer Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To find candidate genes that potentially influence the susceptibility or resistance of crop plants to powdery mildew fungi, an assay system based on transient-induced gene silencing (TIGS as well as transient over-expression in single epidermal cells of barley has been developed. However, this system relies on quantitative microscopic analysis of the barley/powdery mildew interaction and will only become a high-throughput tool of phenomics upon automation of the most time-consuming steps. Results We have developed a high-throughput screening system based on a motorized microscope which evaluates the specimens fully automatically. A large-scale double-blind verification of the system showed an excellent agreement of manual and automated analysis and proved the system to work dependably. Furthermore, in a series of bombardment experiments an RNAi construct targeting the Mlo gene was included, which is expected to phenocopy resistance mediated by recessive loss-of-function alleles such as mlo5. In most cases, the automated analysis system recorded a shift towards resistance upon RNAi of Mlo, thus providing proof of concept for its usefulness in detecting gene-target effects. Conclusion Besides saving labor and enabling a screening of thousands of candidate genes, this system offers continuous operation of expensive laboratory equipment and provides a less subjective analysis as well as a complete and enduring documentation of the experimental raw data in terms of digital images. In general, it proves the concept of enabling available microscope hardware to handle challenging screening tasks fully automatically.

  8. Estimation of Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L. Crop Water Requirements Using Cropwat Software in Ksar-Chellala Region, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Laouisset

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the reference Evapotranspiration (ET0 and Water requirements of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. in Ksar-Chellala region, Algeria, for one dry year by using CROPWAT software. Determination of Evapotranspiration ( ET is important in application such as irrigation design, irrigation scheduling, water resource management, hydrology and cropping systems modeling. Estimation of crop water requirements of barley ( CWR b respected the methodology adopted by the service of development and management service of FAO, based on the use of software CROPWAT 8.0. The total water requirements for barley depend on a variety of target yields and crops management. The period of climatic data used is 23 years (1990-2012, the average rain in this period is 254 mm. The total rain of the dry year is 190 mm. The results of this study show, during the vegetative cycle of barley which is 6 months, the calculation of ET 0 is 453 mm, the potential water which was used by the crop barley is estimated at 281.4 mm, the efficiency of rainfall is 69 mm and a total water requirements of barley ( CWR b equals to 211 mm, this amount distributed on three months coincided with important stages of development in barley. The supplementary irrigation in these conditions with optimal contents equals water requirements estimated by CROPWAT software that increases significantly grain yield of barely. Consequently, the gross irrigation water requirements ( GIWR of 1250000 ha which project to grow barley in the Algerian steppes regions are estimated at 3.77 billion and this for a dry year and a irrigation efficiency of 70%.

  9. Adaptation of barley to harsh Mediterranean environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, van E.

    1993-01-01

    Research ObjectivesBarley is in Syria the dominant crop in areas receiving less than 300 mm annual precipitation. Grain yield is often below 1 ton ha -1, and is reduced by low temperatures in winter and terminal drought stress in spring. Variation i

  10. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B;

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  11. Controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana e rendimento de grãos em cevada após aplicação de elicitores e fungicida = Bipolaris sorokiniana control and grain yield in barley after application of elicitors and fungicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemir Antoniazzi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A mancha marrom causada pelo fungo Bipolaris sorokiniana é considerada um dos problemas fitossanitários mais importantes na cevada provocando reduções na produtividade e prejuízos na qualidade cervejeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos elicitores goma xantana e alicina e do fungicida epoxiconazole + piraclostrobina no controle da mancha marrom em cevada cervejeira, cultivar BRS 195 em dois ciclos de cultivo. O experimento foi conduzido na Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária (FAPA, em Guarapuava, Estado do Paraná, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, comquatro repetições. A aplicação de elicitores e fungicida resultou em maior peso de mil sementes, sem interferir no teor de proteínas e na classificação comercial. O rendimento de grãos foi superior após duas ou três aplicações de alicina. A incidência e severidade de B.sorokiniana nas folhas de plantas tratadas com elicitores foram semelhantes àquelas com fungicida.The disease spot blotch, caused by the fungi Bipolaris sorokiniana, is considered one of the most important phytosanitary problems ofbarley crop resulting on low productivity and damage on beer quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the elicitors xanthan gum and alicin and fungicide epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin on spot blotch control of barley cultivar BRS 195 during two cultivation cycles. The experiment was carried out at Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária (FAPA, Guarapuava, state of Paraná. The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks, with four replications. Treatment of barley plants withelicitors and fungicide resulted in higher thousand-seed weight without interfering on protein content and commercial classification. The grain yield increased after two or three alicin treatments. Bipolaris sorokiniana incidence and severety on the leaves of plants treated with elicitors were similar to those treated with fungicide.

  12. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  13. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... on the physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...

  14. Estimating Biomass of Barley Using Crop Surface Models (CSMs Derived from UAV-Based RGB Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bendig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop monitoring is important in precision agriculture. Estimating above-ground biomass helps to monitor crop vitality and to predict yield. In this study, we estimated fresh and dry biomass on a summer barley test site with 18 cultivars and two nitrogen (N-treatments using the plant height (PH from crop surface models (CSMs. The super-high resolution, multi-temporal (1 cm/pixel CSMs were derived from red, green, blue (RGB images captured from a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. Comparison with PH reference measurements yielded an R2 of 0.92. The test site with different cultivars and treatments was monitored during “Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und CHemische Industrie” (BBCH Stages 24–89. A high correlation was found between PH from CSMs and fresh biomass (R2 = 0.81 and dry biomass (R2 = 0.82. Five models for above-ground fresh and dry biomass estimation were tested by cross-validation. Modelling biomass between different N-treatments for fresh biomass produced the best results (R2 = 0.71. The main limitation was the influence of lodging cultivars in the later growth stages, producing irregular plant heights. The method has potential for future application by non-professionals, i.e., farmers.

  15. Analysis of Grain Boundary Character in a Fine-Grained Nickel-Based Superalloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, L. S.; dos Santos, D. S.; Godet, S.; Dille, J.; Pinto, A. L.; de Almeida, L. H.

    2014-11-01

    In the current work, sheets of superalloy 718 were processed via thermomechanical route by hot and cold rolling, followed by annealing below the δ phase solvus temperature and precipitation hardening to optimum strength. Grain boundary character distribution throughout the processing was mapped via EBSD and its evolution discussed. The results show that it is possible to process the alloy to a fine grain size obtaining concomitantly a considerably high proportion of special boundaries Σ3, Σ9, and Σ27. The precipitation of δ phase presented a strong grain refining role, without significantly impairing the twinning mechanism and, consequently, the Σ3, Σ9, and Σ27 boundary formations.

  16. Uptake of [14C]triadimenol via grain and root after seed treatment of winter barley with a flowable seed dressing: Influence of soil moisture and sowing date on the distribution of radioactivity and active ingredient content in plant and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter barley seed of the 'Vogelsander Gold' variety was shown in a total of 7 lysimeters after seed treatment with [benzene ring-U-14C]triadimenol in the formulation as [14C]Baytan 075 FS and [14C]Baytan 25 DS at an early (September) and a late date (October). After both dates of sowing, the FS-treated winter barley developed under 3 different soil moisture conditions. The radioactivity and active ingredient contents in plants and soil were recorded until tillering as a function of low, high and natural precipitation after sowing. Details on the uptake of radioactivity via grain and roots were quantitatively and qualitatively studied in two further lysimeters, a pot experiment as well as experiments in the growth chamber. The results are presented and discussed in detail. (orig./MG)

  17. A system for coarse-grained location-based synchronisation

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, André; Silva, Mário; José, Rui

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a system for supporting coarse-grained location-based synchronisation. This type of synchronisation may occur when people need only some awareness about the location of others within the specific context of an on-going activity. We have identified a number of reference scenarios for this type of synchronisation and we have implemented and deployed a prototype to evaluate the type of support provided. The results of the evaluation suggest a good acceptance of the overall concept, indicating that this might be a valuable approach for many of the indicated scenarios, possibly replacing or complementing existing synchronisation practices.

  18. MICROTHREAD BASED (MTB) COARSE GRAINED FAULT TOLERANCE SUPERSCALAR PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fault tolerance in microprocessor systems has become a popular topic of architecture research.Much work has been done at different levels to accomplish reliability against soft errors, and some fault tolerance architectures have been proposed. But little attention is paid to the thread level superscalar fault tolerance.This letter introduces microthread concept into superscalar processor fault tolerance domain, and puts forward a novel fault tolerance architecture, namely, MicroThread Based (MTB) coarse grained transient fault tolerance superscalar processor architecture, then discusses some detailed implementations.

  19. The potential link between high angle grain boundary morphology and grain boundary deformation in a nickel-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Jennifer L.W., E-mail: jennifer.w.carter@case.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States); Sosa, John M. [Center for Accelerated Maturation of Materials, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States); Shade, Paul A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials & Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RXCM, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Fraser, Hamish L. [Center for Accelerated Maturation of Materials, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States); Uchic, Michael D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials & Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RXCM, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Mills, Michael J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 44321 (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Focused ion beam (FIB) based serial sectioning was utilized to characterize the morphology of two high angle grain boundaries (HAGB) in a nickel based superalloy, one that experienced grain boundary sliding (GBS) and the other experienced strain accumulation, during elevated temperature constant stress loading conditions. A custom script was utilized to serial section and collect ion-induced secondary electron images from the FIB-SEM system. The MATLAB based MIPAR{sup TM} software was utilized to align, segment and reconstruct 3D volumes from the sectioned images. Analysis of the 3D data indicates that the HAGB that exhibited GBS had microscale curvature that was planar in nature, and local serrations on the order of ±150 nm. In contrast, the HAGB that exhibited strain accumulation was not planar and had local serrations an order of magnitude greater than the other grain boundary. It is hypothesized that the serrations and the local grain boundary network are key factors in determining which grain boundaries experience GBS during creep deformation.

  20. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dörsch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM. Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and return as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilised cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha−1 throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (60 kg NH4+-N + 50 kg organic N ha−1 before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilised cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009 had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha−1. Based on measurements covering the growing season 2010, organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilisation (47 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain.

  1. Does Whole Grain Consumption Alter Gut Microbiota and Satiety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Cooper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Studies comparing whole grains to their refined grain counterparts were considered, as were studies comparing different grain types. Possible mechanisms linking microbial metabolism and satiety are described. Clinical trials show that whole grain wheat, maize, and barley alter the human gut microbiota, but these findings are based on a few studies that do not include satiety components, so no functional claims between microbiota and satiety can be made. Ten satiety trials were evaluated and provide evidence that whole oats, barley, and rye can increase satiety, whereas the evidence for whole wheat and maize is not compelling. There are many gaps in the literature; no one clinical trial has examined the effects of whole grains on satiety and gut microbiota together. Once understanding the impact of whole grains on satiety and microbiota is more developed, then particular grains might be used for better appetite control. With this information at hand, healthcare professionals could make individual dietary recommendations that promote satiety and contribute to weight control.

  2. Intragranular nucleation sites of massive gamma grains in a TiAl-based alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Suhash Ranjan; Bouzy, E.; Hazotte, A.

    2007-01-01

    Massive gamma grains were generated in a TiAl-based alloy through ice-water quenching from the alpha domain. Apart from those located along alpha(2)/alpha(2) grain boundaries, a few massive gamma grains were detected inside the alpha(2) grains. Some of these intragranular grains were revealed...... to be attached to particular alpha(2) twins (K-1: "{212103}" eta(1): ), in a Blackburn orientation relationship with them. Others were identified as developing in feathery colonies of similar crystallographic orientation. Whatever the nucleation site, further growth of all massive gamma grains involves...

  3. Systematic and Simulation-Free Coarse Graining of Polymeric Systems: A Structure-based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Delian; Wang, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    We propose a systematic and simulation-free strategy for coarse graining of multicomponent polymeric systems, where we use the Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model theory, instead of many-chain molecular simulations, to calculate the structure and thermodynamic properties of both the original and coarse-grained (CG) models, and quantitatively examine how the effective CG pair potentials and properties of CG systems vary with the coarse-graining level. Our strategy is general and versatile, is much faster than those using many-chain simulations, and practically solves the transferability problem of coarse graining. As an example, here we apply it to structure-based coarse graining of homopolymer melts, which matches the structure correlations of CG segments between the original and CG systems. Our numerical results clearly show that structure-based coarse graining cannot give thermodynamic consistency between the original and CG systems at any coarse-graining level due to the information loss of coarse graining.

  4. The Effects of the Substitution of Wood Fiberwith Agro-based Fiber (Barley Straw on the Properties of Natural Fiber/Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyvärinen Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological concerns and the impending depletion of fossil fuels are driving the development of new bio-based, green products. Natural fibers are used increasingly as a filler or reinforcement in commercial thermoplastics due to their low cost, high specific properties and renewable nature. Agricultural byproducts and wastes are excellent alternative materials to supplement or substitute wood material as a reinforcement in composites.This comparative study focuses on the effects of the substitution of wood fiber with agro-basedfiber (barley straw on the mechanical and physical properties of natural fiber/polypropylene composites. The studied mechanical properties are flexural strength and modulus, Brinell hardness and Charpy impact strength. Water absorption and thickness swelling are studied as physical properties. Generally, the research resultsindicate that almost all the studied properties weakened significantlyas woodwas substituted with barley straw.Ofmechanical properties, the major decrease wasobserved in hardness.However, the use of barley straw slightlyimproved impact strength.The moisture-related properties, water absorption and thickness swelling,which have a great impact on the durability of a composite material, weakened significantly.

  5. Viabilization of a new aluminium grain refiner based on Zirconium halide salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new aluminium grain refiner based on Zirconium halide salt is proposed. Its efficiency, as grain refiner is analysed varying the salt amount, the inoculation temperature and holding time. The grain size reduction shows to be dependent on the salt amount and independent on the inoculation temperature. The holding time effects is dependent on the innoculated salt amount. (Author)

  6. Whole grain foods and health – a Scandinavian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frølich, Wenche; Åman, Per; Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The food-based dietary guidelines in the Scandinavian countries that recommend an intake of minimum 75 g whole grain per 10 MJ (2,388 kcal) per day are mainly derived from prospective cohort studies where quantitative but little qualitative details are available on whole grain products. The objective of the current paper is to clarify possible differences in nutritional and health effects of the types of whole grain grown and consumed in the Scandinavian countries. A further objective is to substantiate how processing may influence the nutritional value and potential health effects of different whole grains and whole grain foods. The most commonly consumed whole grain cereals in the Scandinavian countries are wheat, rye, and oats with a considerable inter-country variation in the consumption patterns and with barley constituting only a minor role. The chemical composition of these different whole grains and thus the whole grain products consumed vary considerably with regard to the content of macro- and micronutrients and bioactive components. A considerable amount of scientific substantiation shows that processing methods of the whole grains are important for the physiological and health effects of the final whole grain products. Future research should consider the specific properties of each cereal and its processing methods to further identify the uniqueness and health potentials of whole grain products. This would enable the authorities to provide more specific food-based dietary guidelines in relation to whole grain to the benefit of both the food industry and the consumer. PMID:23411562

  7. Whole grain foods and health – a Scandinavian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Frølich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The food-based dietary guidelines in the Scandinavian countries that recommend an intake of minimum 75 g whole grain per 10 MJ (2,388 kcal per day are mainly derived from prospective cohort studies where quantitative but little qualitative details are available on whole grain products. The objective of the current paper is to clarify possible differences in nutritional and health effects of the types of whole grain grown and consumed in the Scandinavian countries. A further objective is to substantiate how processing may influence the nutritional value and potential health effects of different whole grains and whole grain foods. The most commonly consumed whole grain cereals in the Scandinavian countries are wheat, rye, and oats with a considerable inter-country variation in the consumption patterns and with barley constituting only a minor role. The chemical composition of these different whole grains and thus the whole grain products consumed vary considerably with regard to the content of macro- and micronutrients and bioactive components. A considerable amount of scientific substantiation shows that processing methods of the whole grains are important for the physiological and health effects of the final whole grain products. Future research should consider the specific properties of each cereal and its processing methods to further identify the uniqueness and health potentials of whole grain products. This would enable the authorities to provide more specific food-based dietary guidelines in relation to whole grain to the benefit of both the food industry and the consumer.

  8. Comparing Multiple Reaction Monitoring and Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical Mass Spectra for the Relative Quantification of Barley Gluten in Selectively Bred Barley Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Heidelberger, Sibylle; Lane, Catherine S; Tanner, Gregory J; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-09-20

    Celiac disease (CD) is a disease of the small intestine that occurs in genetically susceptible subjects triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins for which the only treatment is strict adherence to a life-long gluten-free diet. Barley contains four gluten protein families, and the existence of barley genotypes that do not accumulate the B-, C-, and D-hordeins paved the way for the development of an ultralow gluten phenotype. Using conventional breeding strategies, three null mutations behaving as recessive alleles were combined to create a hordein triple-null barley variety. Proteomics has become an invaluable tool for characterization and quantification of the protein complement of cereal grains. In this study multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry, viewed as the gold standard for peptide quantification, was compared to the data-independent acquisition strategy known as SWATH-MS (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra). SWATH-MS was comparable (p gluten) in eight barley lines. The results of SWATH-MS analysis further confirmed the absence of the B-, C-, and D-hordeins in the triple-null barley line and showed significantly reduced levels ranging from <1% to 16% relative to wild-type (WT) cv Sloop for the minor γ-hordein class. SWATH-MS represents a valuable tool for quantitative proteomics based on its ability to generate reproducible data comparable with MRM-MS, but has the added benefits of allowing reinterrogation of data to improve analytical performance, ask new questions, and in this case perform quantification of trypsin-resistant proteins (C-hordeins) through analysis of their semi- or nontryptic fragments. PMID:27533879

  9. The topographic grain concept in DEM-based geomorphometric mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsa, Edina

    2016-04-01

    A common drawback of geomorphological analyses based on digital elevation datasets is the definition of search window size for the derivation of morphometric variables. The fixed-size neighbourhood determines the scale of the analysis and mapping, which can lead to the generalization of smaller surface details or the elimination of larger landform elements. The methods of DEM-based geomorphometric mapping are constantly developing into the direction of multi-scale landform delineation, but the optimal threshold for search window size is still a limiting factor. A possible way to determine the suitable value for the parameter is to consider the topographic grain principle (Wood, W. F. - Snell, J. B. 1960, Pike, R. J. et al. 1989). The calculation is implemented as a bash shell script for GRASS GIS to determine the optimal threshold for the r.geomorphon module. The approach relies on the potential of the topographic grain to detect the characteristic local ridgeline-to-channel spacing. By calculating the relative relief values with nested neighbourhood matrices it is possible to define a break-point where the increase rate of local relief encountered by the sample is significantly reducing. The geomorphons approach (Jasiewicz, J. - Stepinski, T. F. 2013) is a cell-based DEM classification method for the identification of landform elements at a broad range of scales by using line-of-sight technique. The landforms larger than the maximum lookup distance are broken down to smaller elements therefore the threshold needs to be set for a relatively large value. On the contrary, the computational requirements and the size of the study sites determine the upper limit for the value. Therefore the aim was to create a tool that would help to determine the optimal parameter for r.geomorphon tool. As a result it would be possible to produce more objective and consistent maps with achieving the full efficiency of this mapping technique. For the thorough analysis on the

  10. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...... grain filling, maturation, germination and radicle elongation. Cultivar comparisons and genetic mapping of polymorphic protein spots in doubled haploid populations provide a means to link the genome to the proteome and identify proteins that can influence grain quality. Many proteins appear in multiple...... forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...

  11. Effects of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content and phosphorus bioavailability in laying hens fed on maize- or barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesch, M; Broz, J; Brufau, J

    2005-06-01

    A 24-week performance trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content and phosphorus excretion in laying hens fed on either a maize- or a barley-based diet. At the end of the trial, an ileal absorption assay was conducted in order to determine the influence of phytase supplementation on the apparent absorption of calcium and total phosphorus (P). Each experimental diet was formulated either as a positive control containing 3.2 g/kg non-phytate phosphorus (NPP), with the addition of dicalcium phosphate (DCP), or as a low P one, without DCP addition. Both low P diets (containing 1.3 or 1.1 g/kg NPP) were supplemented with microbial phytase at 0, 150, 300 and 450 U/kg. The birds were housed in cages, allocating two hens per cage as the experimental unit. Each of 10 dietary treatments was assigned to 16 replicates. Low dietary NPP (below 1.3 g/kg) was not able to support optimum performance of hens during the laying cycle (from 22 to 46 weeks of age), either in maize or barley diets. Rate of lay, daily egg mass output, feed consumption, tibia ash percentage and weight gain were reduced in hens fed low NPP diets. The adverse effects of a low P diet were more severe in hens on a maize diet than in those on a barley diet. Low dietary NPP reduced egg production, weight gain, feed consumption and tibia ash content and microbial phytase supplementation improved these parameters. Hens given low NPP diets supplemented with phytase performed as well as the hens on positive control diets containing 3.2 g/kg of NPP. A 49% reduction of excreta P content was achieved by feeding hens on low NPP diets supplemented with phytase, without compromising performance. Phytase addition to low NPP diets increased total phosphorus absorption at the ileal level, from 0.25 to 0.51 in the maize diet and from 0.34 to 0.58 in the barley diet. Phosphorus absorption increased linearly with increasing levels of dietary phytase

  12. Efect of organic barley-based crop rotations on soil nutrient balance in a semiarid environment for a 16-year experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meco, Ramón; María Moreno, Marta; Lacasta, Carlos; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    In natural ecosystems with no percolating moisture regime, the biogeochemical cycle can be considered a closed system because the nutrients extracted by the roots will be returned to the soil after a certain time. In organic farming, a cycle model as close as possible is taken as a guideline, but we have to consider that unlike natural ecosystems, where most of the nutrients remain in the cycle, the agrosystems are open cycles. To achieve a sustainable fertility of the soil, the soil nutrient levels, the extractions according to the expected crop yields and the export refunds in the form of crop residues, biological nitrogen fixation, green manure or compost will have to be determined. Nutrient balance should be closed with external inputs, always avoiding to be a source of negative impacts on the environment. In organic farming without exogenous inputs, the effect of the crop rotations is much more noticeable in the nutrient balance than in the conventional farming fields which every year receive inputs of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in the form of chemical fertilizers. The most extractive crop rotations are those that produce a greater decrease in soil reserves, and in these cases exogenous inputs to maintain sustainability should be considered; however, in less extractive crop rotations, extractions can be restored by the edaphogenesis processes. In this work, soil organic matter, phosphorus and potassium balances were analyzed in different organic barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture [b-b] and in rotation with vetch for hay production [B-Vh], vetch as green manure [B-Vm], sunflower [B-S], chickpea [B-C] and fallow [B-F]) in clay soils under a semiarid environment ("La Higueruela" Experimental Farm, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain) over a 16 year period. Additionally, barley monoculture in conventional farming [B-B] was included. In the organic system, the fertilization involved the barley straw in all rotations, the sunflower

  13. Changes of Limiting Dextrinase in Germinating Process of Malting Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiu-mei; LI Fen; WANG Hong-zhen; WANG Xing-zhi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five different species of barley, the foot layer analytic method was used to examine the activity and heat-resistance of the limiting dextrinase. The study was conducted on the dynamic changes of several types of the dextrinase in barley germinating process, the effect of temperature on the dextrinase and the divergence of dextrinase in different barley variety. The probability of the dextrinase that as reference index is used for screening and evaluating beer barley was discussed. The importance of dextrinase in brewing and its significant function was also discussed.

  14. Secretomics identifies Fusarium graminearum proteins involved in the interaction with barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, Jens D.; Svensson, Birte;

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a phytopathogenic fungus primarily infecting small grain cereals, including barley and wheat. Secreted enzymes play important roles in the pathogenicity of many fungi. In order to access the secretome of F. graminearum, the fungus was grown in liquid culture with barley...... secreted proteins which may be involved in Fusarium head blight....

  15. The barley grain thioredoxin system - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Björnberg, Olof; Navrot, Nicolas;

    2013-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type Trx facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent Trx reductase. This review presents a summary of the resear...

  16. TRI12 based quantitative real-time PCR assays reveal the distribution of trichothecene genotypes of F. graminearum and F. culmorum isolates in Danish small grain cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.K.; Jensen, Jens Due; Rodriguez, A.;

    2012-01-01

    species complex, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium cerealis and Fusarium pseudograminearum. These assays were applied on a total of 378 field samples of cereal grain of wheat, barley, triticale, rye and oats collected from 2003 to 2007 to study the trichothecene genotype composition in Danish cereals. The three...... genotypes, 3ADON, 15ADON and NIV were found in all five cereal species, great annual variation in the occurrence of the trichothecene genotypes was evident with considerable variation between the samples. 3ADON was the dominant genotype in barley, triticale, rye and oats while 15ADON was most dominant...

  17. Application of genotyping-by-sequencing on semiconductor sequencing platforms: a comparison of genetic and reference-based marker ordering in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mascher

    Full Text Available The rapid development of next-generation sequencing platforms has enabled the use of sequencing for routine genotyping across a range of genetics studies and breeding applications. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, a low-cost, reduced representation sequencing method, is becoming a common approach for whole-genome marker profiling in many species. With quickly developing sequencing technologies, adapting current GBS methodologies to new platforms will leverage these advancements for future studies. To test new semiconductor sequencing platforms for GBS, we genotyped a barley recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Based on a previous GBS approach, we designed bar code and adapter sets for the Ion Torrent platforms. Four sets of 24-plex libraries were constructed consisting of 94 RILs and the two parents and sequenced on two Ion platforms. In parallel, a 96-plex library of the same RILs was sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000. We applied two different computational pipelines to analyze sequencing data; the reference-independent TASSEL pipeline and a reference-based pipeline using SAMtools. Sequence contigs positioned on the integrated physical and genetic map were used for read mapping and variant calling. We found high agreement in genotype calls between the different platforms and high concordance between genetic and reference-based marker order. There was, however, paucity in the number of SNP that were jointly discovered by the different pipelines indicating a strong effect of alignment and filtering parameters on SNP discovery. We show the utility of the current barley genome assembly as a framework for developing very low-cost genetic maps, facilitating high resolution genetic mapping and negating the need for developing de novo genetic maps for future studies in barley. Through demonstration of GBS on semiconductor sequencing platforms, we conclude that the GBS approach is amenable to a range of platforms and can easily be modified as new

  18. Barley callus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Nielsen, Morten M.;

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties...... and cloned. This knowledge suggests a number of strategies and a series of candidate genes for genetic transformation of crops to generate new types of starch-based polymers. However transformation of cereals is a slow process and there is no easy model system available to test the efficiency of candidate...... suggest that this method can be used as a time-efficient model system for fast screening of candidate genes for the generation of modified starch or new types of carbohydrate polymers....

  19. Influence of Temperature on the Extractibility of Polysaccharides in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barley contains substantial amounts of both soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. The main watersoluble NSP in barley are highly viscous β-glucans. Monogastric animals, including humans and birds, cannotsynthesize β-glucanase, and the amount of β-glucanase derived from barley grain and bacteria in the gastrointestinaltract is insufficient to completely hydrolyze β-glucans. In the present investigation, we have studied the influence oftemperature and heating time on the extractibility of soluble polysaccharides in barley. Heating the barley samples at60°C and 80°C before extraction has the effect of lowering the soluble fraction of the polysaccharides. The dynamicviscosity values of water extracts from barley decreased up to 21.68% when heating at 60ºC for 15 minutes, and upto 25.30% when heating at 80ºC for 15 minutes, when the determinations were made immediately after extractseparation. Heating the barley samples for 15 minutes at 80°C deactivates the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes.

  20. SNP-Based QTL Mapping of 15 Complex Traits in Barley under Rain-Fed and Well-Watered Conditions by a Mixed Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Freddy; Quitral, Yerko A; Matus, Ivan; Russell, Joanne; Waugh, Robbie; Del Pozo, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    This study identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with 15 complex traits in a breeding population of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) consisting of 137 recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSL), evaluated under contrasting water availability conditions in the Mediterranean climatic region of central Chile. Given that markers showed a very strong segregation distortion, a quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) mapping mixed model was used to account for the heterogeneity in genetic relatedness between genotypes. Fifty-seven QTL were detected under rain-fed conditions, which accounted for 5-22% of the phenotypic variation. In full irrigation conditions, 84 SNPs were significantly associated with the traits studied, explaining 5-35% of phenotypic variation. Most of the QTL were co-localized on chromosomes 2H and 3H. Environment-specific genomic regions were detected for 12 of the 15 traits scored. Although most QTL-trait associations were environment and trait specific, some important and stable associations were also detected. In full irrigation conditions, a relatively major genomic region was found underlying hectoliter weight (HW), on chromosome 1H, which explained between 27% (SNP 2711-234) and 35% (SNP 1923-265) of the phenotypic variation. Interestingly, the locus 1923-265 was also detected for grain yield at both environmental conditions, accounting for 9 and 18%, in the rain-fed and irrigation conditions, respectively. Analysis of QTL in this breeding population identified significant genomic regions that can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of barley in areas where drought is a significant constraint. PMID:27446139

  1. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were......Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... crops and barley is a genetically very well characterized. Aiming at producing new starch qualities in the cereal system, we used RNAi and overexpression strategies to produce pure amylose and high-phosphate starch, respectively, using the barley kernel as a polymer factory. By simultaneous silencing...

  2. A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K.

    2012-01-01

    Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of methods to evaluate genotypes accurately under field conditions. Although many screening criteria have been suggested to distinguish between genotypes for their salt tolerance under controlled environmental conditions, there is a need to test these criteria in the field. In this study, the salt tolerance, ion concentrations, and accumulation of compatible solutes of genotypes of barley with a range of puta...

  3. Coarse-Grained Multifractality Analysis Based on Structure Function Measurements to Discriminate Healthy from Distressed Foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a combined coarse-grained multifractal method to discriminate between distressed and normal foetuses. The coarse-graining operation was performed by means of a coarse-grained procedure and the multifractal operation was based on a structure function. The proposed method was evaluated by one hundred recordings including eighty normal foetuses and twenty distressed foetuses. We found that it was possible to discriminate between distressed and normal foetuses using the Hurst exponent, singularity, and Holder spectra.

  4. Screening for Barley Waterlogging Tolerance in Nordic Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L. Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence on Hydroponically-Grown Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils-Ove Bertholdsson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Waterlogging can reduce crop yield by 20%–50% or more, and lack of efficient selection methods is an obstacle in plant breeding. The methods currently used are mainly indices based on germination ability in Petri dishes and leaf chlorosis in plants grown in waterlogged soils. Cultivation in oxygen-depleted nutrient solution is the ultimate waterlogging system. Therefore methods based on root growth inhibition and on fluorescence in plant material hydroponically grown in oxygen-depleted solution were evaluated against data on biomass accumulation in waterlogged soils. Both traits were correlated with waterlogging tolerance in soil, but since it was easier to measure fluorescence, this method was further evaluated. A selection of F2 plants with high and low fluorescence revealed a small but significant screening effect in F3 plants. A test of 175 Nordic cultivars showed large variations in chlorophyll fluorescence in leaves from oxygen-stressed seedlings, indicating that adaptation to waterlogging has gradually improved over the past 40–50 years with the introduction of new cultivars onto the market. However, precipitation also increased during the period and new cultivars may have inadvertently been adapted to this while breeding barley for grain yield. The results suggest that the hydroponic method can be used for screening barley populations, breeding lines or phenotyping of populations in developing markers for quantitative trait loci.

  5. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Carvalho; Sayed AzamAli; M. John Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experi-ments under wel watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in wel watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90%available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  6. Properties and interfacial microstructure of cement-based materials with composite micro-grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Qi; BA Heng-jing; LIU Jun-zhe

    2005-01-01

    Silica fume, fly ash and nano-fiber mineral materials (NR powder) are employed to incorporate into cement-based materials. According to the grain grading mathematical model of cement-based materials, two packing systems, namely, spherical grading system and nano-fiber reinforced system were designed. Properties and interfacial microstructure of the two systems were studied according to secondary interface theory. It was shown that nano-fiber mineral materials can improve the grain grading of the admixture, increase the density of the system, improve the microstructure of the interface and the hardened paste, and enhance the uniformity of cement-based materials mixed with composite micro-grains and greatly increase their wearable rigidity and flexure strength. In this paper, two kinds of interface models, including spherical grain model and nano-fiber reinforced interface model of the cement-based materials mixed with composite micro-grains, were brought forward.

  7. Transgenic Production of an Anti HIV Antibody in the Barley Endosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz Hensel; Doreen M Floss; Elsa Arcalis; Markus Sack; Stanislav Melnik; Friedrich Altmann; Twan Rutten; Jochen Kumlehn; Eva Stoger; Udo Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Barley is an attractive vehicle for producing recombinant protein, since it is a readily transformable diploid crop species in which doubled haploids can be routinely generated. High amounts of protein are naturally accumulated in the grain, but optimal endosperm-specific promoters have yet to be perfected. Here, the oat GLOBULIN1 promoter was combined with the legumin B4 (LeB4) signal peptide and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (SE)KDEL. Transgenic barley grain accumulated up...

  8. Digital grain-size analysis based on autocorrelation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhixuan; Liu, Haijiang

    2015-08-01

    Grain size is one of the most important parameters in geology and coastal engineering. However, all traditional methods are time consuming, laborious, and expensive. In this study, the autocorrelation technique, which was first expounded by Rubin (2004), was extended to estimate the size of well-sorted sediments and the grain-size distribution of mixed-size sediments. Long and intermediate axes of well-sorted sediments ranging from 1 to 20 mm obtained from applying the autocorrelation method are compared with the corresponding results measured using a vernier caliper. Using the autocorrelation technique, the sediment mean size was calculated and was found to compare better with point counts than sieving. Regarding the mixed-size sediment, a nonlinear programming method, which is different from the conventional 'least-squares with non-negativity' method, the kernel density method, and the maximum entropy method, was used to obtain the representative grain sizes and associated sediment inherent parameters, such as mean diameter, median diameter, sorting, skewness, and kurtosis. Image pre-processing was used in the present analysis to enhance the contrast of the recorded image, and a conversion method applied to take into account the difference between the two-dimensional digital image method and the three-dimensional sieving method. Using the modified fitting points and the improved Gaussian function fitting method, the cumulative grain-size distribution curve and the probability density curve of the mixed-size sediments were obtained. The enhanced autocorrelation technique that was developed from the traditional 'look-up-catalogue' approach provided a more accurate estimation of the grain-size distribution, as well as the relevant physical parameters of the mixed-size sediment.

  9. An Informatics Based Approach to Reduce the Grain Size of Cast Hadfield Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Swati; Pathak, Shankha; Sheoran, Sumit; Kela, Damodar H.; Datta, Shubhabrata

    2016-04-01

    Materials Informatics concept using computational intelligence based approaches are employed to bring out the significant alloying additions to achieve grain refinement in cast Hadfield steel. Castings of Hadfield steels used for railway crossings, requires fine grained austenitic structure. Maintaining proper grain size of this component is very crucial in order to achieve the desired properties and service life. This work studies the important variables affecting the grain size of such steels which includes the compositional and processing variables. The computational findings and prior knowledge is used to design the alloy, which is subjected to a few trials to validate the findings.

  10. Dendritic grain growth simulation in weld pool of nickel base alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan Xiaohong; Wei Yanhong; Ma Rui; Dong Zhibo

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic grain growth at the edge of the weld pool is simulated using a stochastic numerical model of cellular automaton algorithm. The grain growth model is established based upon the balance of solute in the solid/liquid interface of the dendrite tip. Considering the complicated nucleation condition and competitive growth, the dendrite morphologies of different nucleation condition are simulated. The simulated results reproduced the dendrite grain evolution process at the edge of the weld pool. It is indicated that the nucleation condition is an important factor influencing the grain morphologies especially the morphologies of secondary and tertiary arms.

  11. Material grain size characterization method based on energy attenuation coefficient spectrum and support vector regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhou, Tong; Song, Yanan

    2016-07-01

    A grain size characterization method based on energy attenuation coefficient spectrum and support vector regression (SVR) is proposed. First, the spectra of the first and second back-wall echoes are cut into several frequency bands to calculate the energy attenuation coefficient spectrum. Second, the frequency band that is sensitive to grain size variation is determined. Finally, a statistical model between the energy attenuation coefficient in the sensitive frequency band and average grain size is established through SVR. Experimental verification is conducted on austenitic stainless steel. The average relative error of the predicted grain size is 5.65%, which is better than that of conventional methods.

  12. Evolution of Grain Selection in Spiral Selector during Directional Solidification of Nickel-base Superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangbin Meng; Jinguo Li; Tao Jin; Xiaofeng Sun; Changbo Sun; Zhuangqi Hu

    2011-01-01

    The process of grain selection in the spiral selector was investigated by both a ProCAST simulation based on a cellular automaton finite element (CAFE) model and experimental confirmation. The results show that the height of starter block, the spiral diameter and initial angle play an important role in grain selection. The dimension of selector should be maintained in a stable range to optimize the grain orientation and select a single crystal efficiently. A selector which can efficiently select a single crystal had been successfully designed. Grain orientation fluctuation in the spiral part was also studied by means of the variation of thermal condition.

  13. A Homolog of Blade-On-Petiole 1 and 2 (BOP1/2) Controls Internode Length and Homeotic Changes of the Barley Inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Matthias; Taketa, Shin; Mascher, Martin; Himmelbach, Axel; Yuo, Takahisa; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Rutten, Twan; Druka, Arnis; Schmutzer, Thomas; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Beier, Sebastian; Taudien, Stefan; Scholz, Uwe; Morgante, Michele; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

    2016-06-01

    Inflorescence architecture in small-grain cereals has a direct effect on yield and is an important selection target in breeding for yield improvement. We analyzed the recessive mutation laxatum-a (lax-a) in barley (Hordeum vulgare), which causes pleiotropic changes in spike development, resulting in (1) extended rachis internodes conferring a more relaxed inflorescence, (2) broadened base of the lemma awns, (3) thinner grains that are largely exposed due to reduced marginal growth of the palea and lemma, and (4) and homeotic conversion of lodicules into two stamenoid structures. Map-based cloning enforced by mapping-by-sequencing of the mutant lax-a locus enabled the identification of a homolog of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2 as the causal gene. Interestingly, the recently identified barley uniculme4 gene also is a BOP1/2 homolog and has been shown to regulate tillering and leaf sheath development. While the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BOP1 and BOP2 genes act redundantly, the barley genes contribute independent effects in specifying the developmental growth of vegetative and reproductive organs, respectively. Analysis of natural genetic diversity revealed strikingly different haplotype diversity for the two paralogous barley genes, likely affected by the respective genomic environments, since no indication for an active selection process was detected. PMID:27208226

  14. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (P<0.05) average daily gain, final live weight and proportions of total n-6 FA, non-conjugated 18:2 biohydrogenation products (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (P<0.05) the proportions of total n-3 FA, conjugated linolenic acids, branched-chain FA, odd-chain FA and 16:0. Feeding DDGS-15 and DDGS-30 diets v. the SS diet further increased (P<0.05) average daily gains, final live weight, carcass weight, hot dressing percentage, fat thickness, rib-eye muscle area, and improved instrumental and sensory panel meat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  15. The effect of irradiation treatment on Beta-Glucan and protein quality of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of barley (hordeum vulgare L) grains were tested for nutritional value after being irradiated at dose levels of 10, 20, and 30 KGy. The gross composition of raw and irradiated beans was similar. Soluble protein was reduced by 16.76%, 28.84% and 44.76% when barley grains were irradiated at 10, 20, and 30 KGy, respectively, The amount of water-soluble beta-glucan in raw barley was increased linearly from 1.76 to 2.40 g/100 g of sample as a function of dose. Meanwhile, the effect of irradiation treatment on total beta-glucan (3.90 g/100 g) was insignificant while the level of insoluble beta-glucan was decreased with increasing the dose levels of irradiation. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) of processed barley grains at the doses applied was increased by 6.38%, 12.77%, and 1135%, respectively as compared with the value for raw grains. The data showed that the radiation processing of raw barley grains increased the solubility of beta-glucan, the most anti nutritional factor in the grains and improved the PER in rats. Therefore it could be concluded thal the irradiation treatment (up tp 30 KGy) up-grade the biological value of barley through increase the solubility of Beta-glucan that affect the performance of animals

  16. Consolidated conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Taylor, Frank; Hicks, Kevin B

    2011-06-01

    A novel process using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic treatment for conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars was developed. The purpose of this process is to convert both lignocellulosic polysaccharides and starch in hulled barley grains into fermentable sugars simultaneously without a need for grinding and hull separation. In this study, hulled barley grains were treated with 0.1 and 1.0 wt.-% sulfuric acid at various temperatures ranging from 110 to 170 °C in a 63-ml flow-through packed-bed stainless steel reactor. After sulfuric acid pretreatment, simultaneous conversion of lignocellulose and starch in the barley grains into fermentable sugars was performed using an enzyme cocktail, which included α-amylase, glucoamylase, cellulase, and β-glucosidase. Both starch and non-starch polysaccharides in the pre-treated barley grains were readily converted to fermentable sugars. The treated hulled barley grains, including their hull, were completely hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars with recovery of almost 100% of the available glucose and xylose. The pretreatment conditions of this chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) process for achieving maximum yield of fermentable sugars were 1.0 wt.% sulfuric acid and 110 °C. In addition to starch, the acid pretreatment also retained most of the available proteins in solid form, which is essential for subsequent production of fuel ethanol and high protein distiller's dried grains with solubles co-product. PMID:21229334

  17. Hardware-based image processing for high-speed inspection of grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high-speed, low-cost, image-based sorting device was developed to detect and separate grains with slight color differences and small defects on grains The device directly combines a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) color image sensor with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) which...

  18. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  19. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based finishing diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives were to characterize the effects of supplemental CP concentration and ruminal degradability in barley-based finishing diets on microbial protein synthesis, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion, and route and chemical form of N excretion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (564 ± 18 kg BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square with four 28-d periods (9 d for diet adaptation and 19 d for measurements). The basal diet consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% barley-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (13% CP) or diets containing 14.5% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). Nutrient digestion was determined using Yb as a digesta flow marker and purine N as a microbial marker with the collection of ruminal, duodenal, and fecal samples over 5 d. The next week, total collections of feces and urine were performed for 5 d to quantify route and chemical form of N excretion. Feed offered was restricted (95% of ad libitum) and there was no effect of the dietary treatments on DMI (P = 0.55); therefore, N intake was less (P < 0.05) in heifers fed the 13% CP diets than the 14.5% CP diets. Supplemental RDP and RUP had no effect on ruminal NH3-N (P = 0.17), peptide N (P = 0.46), and VFA (P = 0.62) concentrations, flow of microbial (P = 0.69) and feed (P = 0.22) N, and ruminal and total tract nutrient digestibility (P ≥ 0.18). Nutrient digestion in the rumen and total tract averaged 75.4 ± 3.8% and 84.6 ± 0.9% for OM, 80.8 ± 3.6% and 95.8 ± 0.8% for starch, and 41.2 ± 7.9% and 60.4 ± 3.3% of intake for NDF, respectively. Daily output of N in feces (P = 0.91) and urine (P = 0.14) were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fecal N output averaged 19.9 ± 1.9% (P = 0.30) and urine N output averaged 44.1 ± 2.8% (P = 0.63) of N intake

  20. A comparison of the rhizosphere-based method with DTPA, EDTA, CaCl2, and NaNO3 extraction methods for prediction of bioavailability of metals in soil to barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rhizosphere-based method was compared with DTPA, EDTA, CaCl2, and NaNO3 extraction methods for the evaluation of bioavailability of heavy metals in soil to barley. The extractable amounts of Cr, Cu, Zn and Cd analyzed by the rhizosphere-based method correlated significantly with the metal content of barley roots. The extractable metals identified by DTPA, EDTA, CaCl2 and NaNO3 methods exhibited relatively poor or no correlation with the metal content of barley roots. The stepwise multiple regression equation of the rhizosphere-based method was the simplest one, as no soil properties needed to be entered, whereas the equations for the DTPA, EDTA, CaCl2 and NaNO3 extraction methods always require those variables. The most distinct feature of the rhizosphere-based method was that the proposed method was suitable for acidic, neutral and near alkaline soils. In contrast, the other extraction methods were restricted to soil types. In summary, the rhizosphere-based method is the most robust approach for evaluation of bioavailability of metals in soil to barley. - The rhizosphere-based method is a preferred approach for evaluating bioavailability of metals in soil

  1. Barley mutant line with high protein yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding was initiated in 1969 at the Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia, aiming at developing high yielding barley lines having also high protein or lysine content. The final results were reported at the FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting at Nicosia in 1980. At that time some lines were superior to their mother line in grain yield, protein content or protein yield. However, high yield is essential for feed-barley as there is no premium price for protein content or quality. In the experiments reported earlier, the mean grain yield of mutant M-Att-73-337-1 was 3202 kg/ha, 9.9% higher than the mother variety 'Attiki'. The Kjeldahl protein content was 12.7% for the mutant line and 13.4% for the mother variety. The mutant line was further evaluated in field trials (11 m2 plots and 6 replications) during 1983-88, along with other promising material from the breeding programme. The mutant line outyielded its mother variety by 9.7% in grain yield and 16% in straw yield. These increases are apparently the result of increased 1000-grain weight and a higher number of culms per m2. Protein content of the mutant line was slightly lower, but its protein yield was 5.5% higher. The yield of the mutant line over 16 trials during 1983-88 was also 4% higher than the yield of the main commercially grown variety Athenais

  2. Using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy to detect effects of blend DDGS inclusion level on the molecular structure spectral and metabolic characteristics of the proteins in hulless barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of inclusion of a bioethanol co-product of blend DDGS (wheat:corn = 70%:30%) on protein molecular structure spectral and metabolic characteristics in hulless barley-based feed using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy. Hulless barley grain with the blend DDGS were mixed in the five ratios. The results showed that when blend DDGS was included at an increased ratio, predicted truly absorbed protein supply was highly and linearly increased (P products for dairy and beef cattle.

  3. Cloning and characterization of four B-hordein genes from Tibetan hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhao-Xue; Qian, Gang; Pan, Zhi-Fen; Deng, Guang-Bing; Wu, Fang; Tang, Ya-Wei; Qiang, Xiao-Lin; Yu, Mao-Qun

    2006-10-01

    Four B-hordein genes, designated BH1-BH4, were cloned using PCR amplification from two hull-less barley cultivars, ZQ7239 and ZQ148, collected from Tibet. The results of sequencing indicated that BH1-BH4 contained complete open reading frames (ORFs). Comparison of their predicted polypeptide sequences with the published sequences suggested that they all share the same basic protein structure. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the deduced amino-acid sequences of BH1-BH4 genes were more closely related to B-hordeins from cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) than to any other prolamins from wild barley and Aegilops tauschii. Comparison of the coding regions of BH1-BH4 genes showed that BH1 had a lower sequence identity to other previously published B-hordeins than the other three B-hordeins obtained in this study. BH1 was then cloned in a bacterial expression vector based on bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. The resulting plasmid produced a 28.15 kDa protein in Escherichia coli. The potential value of B-hordein genes in grain quality improvement of hull-less barley has been discussed. PMID:17046594

  4. Barley peroxidase isozymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per; Henriksen, Anette; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Thirteen peroxidase spots on two-dimensional gels were identified by comprehensive proteome analysis of the barley seed. Mass spectrometry tracked multiple forms of three different peroxidase isozymes: barley seed peroxidase 1, barley seed-specific peroxidase BP1 and a not previously identified putative barley peroxidase. The presence of multiple spots for each of the isozymes reflected variations in post-translational glycosylation and protein truncation. Complete sequence coverage was achieved by using a series of proteases and chromatographic resins for sample preparation prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination. In summary, a subset of three peroxidase isozymes was found to occur in the seed, whereas products of four other barley peroxidase genes were not detected. The present analysis documents the selective expression profiles and post-translational modifications of isozymes from a large plant gene family.

  5. Evaluation of different microbial phytases on phosphorus digestibility in pigs fed a wheat and barley based diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Strathe, Anders Bjerring;

    2010-01-01

    Phytase increases the availability of phytate phosphorus (P) in plant feedstuffs resulting in a reduced need for inorganic P addition and therefore minimized P excretion. Thus, the majority of pig feed is supplemented with microbial phytases. The present study aimed to examine three commercial...... phytases: one fungal 3-phytase from Aspergillus ficuum and two formulations of a bacterial 6-phytase from E. coli. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, soybean and rapeseed meal supplemented with vitamins and minerals without any added inorganic phosphate. Calcium was adjusted to 6.3 g...

  6. Genetic diversity analysis of Tibetan wild barley using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zong-Yun; Liu, Xian-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Zheng; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2006-10-01

    One hundred and six accessions of wild barley collected from Tibet, China, including 50 entries of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (HS), 29 entries of the six-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. agriocrithon (HA), and 27 entries of the six-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. agriocrithon var. lagunculiforme (HL), were analyzed using 30 SSR markers selected from the seven barley linkage groups for studying genetic diversity and evolutionary relationship of the three subspecies of Tibetan wild barley to cultivated barley in China. Over the 30 genetic loci that were studied, 229 alleles were identified among the 106 accessions, of which 70 were common alleles. H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum possesses about thrice more private alleles (2.83 alleles/locus) than HS (0.93 alleles/locus), whereas almost no private alleles were detected in HL. The genetic diversity among-subspecies is much higher than that within-subspecies. Generally, the genetic diversity among the three subspecies is of the order HS > HL > HA. Phylogenetic analysis of the 106 accessions showed that all the accessions of HS and HA was clustered in their own groups, whereas the 27 accessions of HL were separated into two groups (14 entries with group HS and the rest with group HA). This indicated that HL was an intermediate form between HS and HA. Based on this study and previous works, we suggested that Chinese cultivated barley might evolve from HS via HL to HA. PMID:17046592

  7. Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecene mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem around the world. During infection, trichothecene mycotoxins are produced and act as virulence factors, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. There are two types of tricho...

  8. Glycaemic response to barley porridge varying in dietary fibre content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondre, Pariyarath S; Wang, Ke; Rosenthal, Andrew J; Henry, Christiani J K

    2012-03-01

    The interest in barley as a food is increasing worldwide because of its high dietary fibre (DF) content and low glycaemic index (GI). DF in cereals may prove beneficial in improving blood glucose response in the long term. However, a dose-dependent effect of insoluble fibre on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels is yet to be proven. The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic response to two barley porridges prepared from whole barley grains varying in fibre content. In two separate non-blind randomised crossover trials, ten human subjects consumed barley porridge with 16 g/100 g and 10 g/100 g fibre content provided in different serving sizes (equivalent to 25 and 50 g available carbohydrate). The glycaemic response to both barley porridges was significantly lower than the reference glucose (P porridges. We concluded that irrespective of the difference in total fibre content or serving size of barley porridges, their GI values did not differ significantly.

  9. Symmetry-based coarse-graining of evolved dynamical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karalus, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Networks with prescribed subdiffusive dynamical behavior can be generated by evolutionary optimization applied to the spectrum of the graph Laplacian. When the evolution algorithm is constrained to preserve degree-regularity, the evolved networks display an abundance of certain motifs arranged into loops and long linear segments. We use algebraic graph theory to construct the quotient networks induced by the symmetries underlying the motifs. The resulting coarse-grained networks display improved pectral properties and provide an intuitive view of how the anomalous diffusive properties are realized in the evolved structures.

  10. Breeding of value added barley by mutation and protein engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley has been bred for food, feed and beverages over the past 5000 years by selecting for spontaneous mutations and random hybrids. Crosses with defined parents (since the turn of the century) and induced mutations (since 1927) have provided variability in selecting for novel varieties. Genetic transformation of barley has been a routine procedure since 1994 and permits the introduction of tailored genes for adding quality values to the grain. It complements, but does not replace, existing efficient breeding methods. Radiation and chemically induced mutations, as well as genes introduced by transformation, have to be fitted into the genome, which may take 50 years of breeding effort and testing for agronomic and industrial performance. The mutation breeding strategy for proanthocyanidin free malt barley, which has led to the commercial varieties Caminant and NFC 8808, is presented. As an example of the breeding strategy to improve barley endosperm cell wall degradation, a description is given of the protein engineering of a (1-3, 1-4)-β-glucanase towards heat stability and the insertion of the gene encoding this enzyme by genetic transformation. It is expected that such barley varieties will extend the use of the grain for beverage and feed uses as well as for the production of renewable raw materials by malting and mashing processes. (author). 34 refs, 1 tab

  11. Deformation characteristics of various grain boundary angles on AFM-based nanolithography using molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to verify the deformation characteristics of grain boundaries on the AFM-based nanolithography. The model used has about 750,000 (Cu) atoms and is composed of two different crystal orientations. The grain boundaries are located in the center of model and have 45, 90, 135, and -135 degree angles in the xz-plane. The tool is made of rigid diamond-like carbon and is in the shape of the Berkovich indenter. The simulation has four different stages: relaxation, indentation, re-relaxation, and lithography. The simulation results reveal that the lithography deforms the grain boundary shape by the tool. The deformation of grain boundary's angle proceeds to minimize the total potential energy of whole system. Consequently, the grain boundary angle is changed about 90 degrees

  12. Grain growth of Ni-based superalloy IN718 coating fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaocheng; Yang, Li; Dai, Jun; Huang, Zedong; Meng, Tao

    2016-06-01

    The pulsed laser deposited Ni-based superalloy coating was fabricated with successive 12 layers using single tracks. The microstructure of the deposited coating was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The grain growth and the grain boundary misorientation were investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), the precipitation phase was determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results showed that the dendrites were the most common microstructure in the coating, and the dendritic growth orientation was paralleled to the direction of the laser deposition. The dendrite got coarser and its space was increased with increasing laser deposited layers. Most grains grew along the preferential grain orientation and formed anisotropy with grain boundaries misorientation angle about 2° in the pulsed laser deposited coating. The grain size along the texture orientation was 3-10 times larger than that in the transverse orientation. The cross section microhardness of the coating ranged between 240-280 HV, and decreased along the depositional direction due to the reasons of the variation of eutectic morphology, grain size distribution, grain misorientation and a small amounts of strengthening phase precipitation.

  13. Strengthening of Mg based alloy through grain refinement for orthopaedic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Soumyaranjan; Bhushan, Bharat; Jayaganthan, R; Gopinath, P; Agarwal, R D; Lahiri, Debrupa

    2016-06-01

    Magnesium is presently attracting a lot of interest as a replacement to clinically used orthopaedic implant materials, due to its ability to solve the stress shielding problems, biodegradability and osteocompatibility. However, the strength of Mg is still lower than the requirement and it becomes worse after it starts degrading fast, while being exposed in living body environment. This research explores the effectiveness of 'grain refinement through deformation', as a tool to modify the strength (while keeping elastic modulus unaffected) of Mg based alloys in orthopaedic application. Hot rolled Mg-3wt% Zn alloy (MZ3) has been investigated for its potential in orthopaedic implant. Microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and biocompatibility of the rolled samples are probed into. Grain size gets refined significantly with increasing amount of deformation. The alloy experiences a marked improvement in hardness, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, strain and toughness with finer grain size. An increment in accelerated corrosion rate is noted with decreasing grain size, which is correlated to the increased grain boundary area and mechano-chemical dissolution. However, immersion test in simulated body fluid (SBF) reveals reduction in corrosion rate after third day of immersion. This was possible owing to precipitation of protective hydroxyapatite (HA) layer, formed out of the interaction of SBF and the alloy. More nucleation sites at the grain boundary for fine grained samples help in forming more HA and thus reduce the corrosion rate. Human osteosarcoma cells show less viability and adhesion on grain refined alloy. PMID:26745721

  14. Kinetics of heterogeneous nucleation and growth: An approach based on a grain explicit model

    OpenAIRE

    Rouet-Leduc, Bertrand; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Denoual, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    A model for phase transitions initiated on grain boundaries is proposed and tested against numerical simulations: this approach based on a grain explicit model (GEM) allows to consider the granular structure, yielding accurate predictions for a wide span of nucleation processes. Comparisons are made with classical models of homogeneous (JMAK) as well as heterogeneous (Cahn) nucleation. A transition scale based on material properties is proposed, allowing to discriminate between random and sit...

  15. The application of AMMI model for barley cultivars evaluation in multi-year trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosavljević Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of new varieties performance is disturbed under the influence of genotype-by-environment interaction. Among several methods used for understanding this effect, one of the most frequently used methods is Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI analysis. In this study we used AMMI method with the aim to estimate the genotype - environment interaction of 14 barley genotypes, and to identify barley genotypes that have high and stable performance in different environments. The trials were conducted during 11 growing seasons (1995/96 - 2005/06, arranged in a randomized complete block (RCB design with four replications in location Rimski Šančevi. The results showed that the influence of environment (seasons, genotypes and their interaction on barley grain yield were significant (p < 0.01. Based on AMMI method, two-rowed variety Novosadski 317 and the six-rowed variety Novosadski 331 can be distinguished due their high and stable yields. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31066

  16. Optimised quantification of the antiyeast activity of different barley malts towards a lager brewing yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nierop, Sandra N E; Axcell, Barry C; Cantrell, Ian C; Rautenbach, Marina

    2008-10-01

    The brewing of beer involves two major biological systems, namely malted barley (malt) and yeast. Both malt and yeast show natural variation and assessing the impact of differing malts on yeast performance is important in the optimisation of the brewing process. Currently, the brewing industry uses well-established tests to assess malt quality, but these frequently fail to predict malt-associated problem fermentations, such as incomplete fermentations, premature yeast flocculation (PYF) and gushing of the final beer product. Antimicrobial compounds, and in particular antiyeast compounds in malt, may be one of the unknown and unmeasured malt factors leading to problem fermentations. In this study, the adaptation of antimicrobial assays for the determination of antiyeast activity in malt is described. Our adapted assay was able to detect differing antiyeast activities in nine malt samples. For this sample set, malts associated with PYF during fermentation and gushing activity in beer showed high antiyeast activity. Both PYF and gushing are malt quality issues associated with fungal infection of barley in the field which may result in elevated antimicrobial activity in the barley grain. Also, two more malts that passed the normal quality control tests were also observed to have high antiyeast activity and such malts must be considered as suspect. Based on our results, this assay is a useful measure of malt quality as it quantifies the antiyeast activity in malt which may adversely impact on brewery fermentation. PMID:18721679

  17. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for metconazole in barley and oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from BASF SE Crop Protection to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance metconazole in barley and oats. In order to accommodate the intended uses of metconazole, the EMS proposed to raise the existing MRLs from 0.1 mg/kg to 0.3 mg/kg. The EMS drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.4 mg/kg for the proposed uses on barley and oats. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of metconazole in cereal grains at the validated LOQ of 0.02 mg/kg. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that with regard to the residue definition established for unprocessed commodities the intended use of metconazole on barley and oats will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a public health concern. The risk assessment however cannot be finalised since the dietary exposure to triazole derivative metabolites (TDMs and to compounds that might be formed under processing conditions could not be assessed at the moment.

  18. The untranslated leader sequence of the barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene confers embryo-specific expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouster, J.; Mechelen J. van; Cameron-Mills, V.

    1998-01-01

    The barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene encodes a protein expressed in embryos during grain development and germination and in leaves after methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Transient gene expression assays in germinating barley embryos were used to identify cis-regulatory elements involved in the em

  19. Evaluation of drought tolerance and yield capacity of barley (hordeum vulgare) genotypes under irrigated and water-stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve barley genotypes developed through different selection methods were evaluated under drought and irrigated conditions. The results of a correlation matrix revealed highly significant associations between Grain Yield (Yp) and Mean Productivity (MP), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) under irrigated conditions while the Mean Productivity (MP), Yield Stability Index (Yi), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) had a high response under stressed condition. Based on a principal component analysis, Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Mean Productivity (MP) and Stress Tolerance Index (STI) were considered to be the best parameters for selection of drought-tolerant genotypes. The 2-row barley genotypes B-07023 and B-07021 performed better in yield response under drought conditions and were more stable under stress conditions. Furthermore, drought stress reduced the yield of some genotypes while others were tolerant to drought, suggesting genetic variability in this material for drought tolerance. (author)

  20. THE EFFECT OF NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDES DERIVED FROM DIFFERENT GRAINS ON PERFORMANCE AND DIGESTIVE ACTIVITY IN LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to observe the effect of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP onperformance and digestive activity of laying hens. Thirty-two ISA Brown hens were individually cagedand offered four diets (wheat-based, millrun-based, barley-based, and barley-enzymes diets for 10weeks. The present experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design with 8 replicates perdietary treatment. Wheat- and barley diets caused significantly higher (P<0.05 viscosity than otherdiets. Increased viscosity caused lower digesta dry matter (DM (P<0.01 and higher excreta moisture(P<0.05. The wheat diet did not cause a negative effect on intestinal starch digestibility, feed intake, andbird performance (P>0.05. Birds fed the barley-based diet had lower weight gain (P<0.05 and highercaecal weight (P<0.05 than those given other diets. Enzyme supplementation on barley dietssignificantly (P<0.05 reduced jejunal digesta viscosity and caecal weight, increased weight gain(P<0.05 and ileal digesta DM (P<0.01, and numerically reduced excreta moisture. The current studydemonstrated that NSP have a profound effect on digesta viscosity, performance, and digestive organs ofbirds; however, the NSP action may be modified by an interaction with each other and with other cellwallcomponents of grains in the gut. Enzyme supplementation reduced the negative effect of digestaviscosity.

  1. Hulled and hull-less barley grains with the genetic trait for low-phytic acid increased the apparent total-tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in diets for young swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veum, T L; Raboy, V

    2016-03-01

    A 35-d experiment was conducted using 63 crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 28 gilts) with an initial average BW of 7.0 kg and age of 28 d to evaluate the efficacy of the low-phytic acid (LPA) genetic trait in hulled or hull-less barley in isocaloric diets. Hulled barleys were the normal barley (NB) cultivar Harrington and the near-isogenic LPA mutant 955 (M955) with P availabilities of 36 and 95%, respectively. Hull-less lines were produced by crossing NB and the LPA mutant 422 line with a hull-less line, producing hull-less NB (HNB) and hull-less mutant 422 (HM422) with P availabilities of 41 and 66%, respectively. Pigs were in individual metabolism cages or pens for Phase 1 (d 0 to 14) and Phase 2 (d 14 to 35). Diets defined as NB, HNB, HM422, or M955 with no added inorganic P (iP) had available P (aP) concentrations of 0.27, 0.28, 0.35, and 0.40% for Phase 1 and 0.15, 0.17, 0.23, and 0.31% for Phase 2, respectively. Only diet M955 was adequate in aP. Therefore, iP was added to the P-deficient diets to make diets NB + iP, HNB + iP, and HM422 + iP with aP equal to that in diet M955. Overall (d 0 to 35), ADG and G:F were greater ( < 0.01) for pigs fed diet M955 or the diets with added iP than for pigs fed the NB diet. Serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity on d 34 was greater ( < 0.01) for pigs fed the NB or HNB diets than for pigs fed the other diets. Bone breaking strength and P absorption (g/d) were greater ( < 0.01) for pigs fed diet M955 or the diets with iP than for pigs fed the NB or HNB diets. Pigs fed diet M955 absorbed greater ( < 0.01) percentages of P and Ca and had less ( < 0.01) fecal excretion of P (g/d and %) and Ca (%) than pigs fed the other diets. In conclusion, the LPA genetic trait was effective in hulled and hull-less barley in isocaloric diets fed to young pigs. Pigs fed the diet with LPA M955 consumed 31% less P and excreted 78% less fecal P and 30% less fecal Ca than pigs fed the diet with NB + iP that was equal to diet M955 in a

  2. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the phys......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...... spectrometry (Q-TOF) proved the identity of the HMW proteins and sequencing the digested peptides also revealed possible post translational modifications of the identified HMW hordeins. Our results strongly indicate that the variations in the relative proportions of the storage proteins of barley affect both...

  3. Effect of beta-glucans contained in barley- and oat-based diets and exogenous enzyme supplementation on gastrointestinal fermentation of finisher pigs and subsequent manure odor and ammonia emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, C J; Sweeney, T; Lynch, M B; Gahan, D A; Callan, J J; O'Doherty, J V

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the influence of dietary cereal sources of beta(1,3)(1,4)-d-glucan (beta-glucan) and enzyme supplementation on indices of environmental pollution from finisher pigs. An experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was initiated to investigate the effect of dietary source of beta-glucan (barley vs. oats) and enzyme supplementation (no vs. yes) on nutrient digestibility, N utilization, intestinal fermentation, and manure odor and ammonia emissions from finisher boars (n = 4; BW = 73.9 kg; SD = 4.7). Sixteen boars were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n = 4/treatment): 1) barley-based diet, 2) barley-based diet + exogenous enzyme, 3) oat-based diet, and 4) oat-based diet + enzyme. The enzyme supplement used contained endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase and endo-1,4-beta-xylanase. Experimental diets were formulated to contain similar concentrations of DE (13.5 MJ/kg) and digestible lysine (8.8 g/kg). Pigs offered oat-based diets had reduced digestibility of DM (0.795 vs. 0.849; SEM 0.007; P = 0.001), OM (0.808 vs. 0.865; SEM 0.007; P = 0.001), GE (0.806 vs. 0.845; SEM 0.006; P = 0.002), and NDF (0.233 vs. 0.423; SEM 0.033; P effect of enzyme inclusion on oat-based diets. In conclusion, pigs offered oat-based diets harbored increased Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. populations in the proximal colon and had decreased manure odor emissions compared with those offered barley-based diets. Enzyme inclusion had no effect on manure ammonia emissions from pigs offered oat-based diets. PMID:20023128

  4. Redevelopment of liftoff rates of saltating sand grains based on a simple optimization model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a redevelopment result of liftoff rates of saltating sand grains based on our previous work.Aeolian sand flow is a complex multi-phase flow because of a special two-phase gas-solid flow near ground surface.Despite extensive research on the movement of blowing sand,no model fully characterizes aeolian sand flow,and large differences often exist between simulations of aeolian sand movement and field observations.One key problem is a few of sufficient research on liftoff rates of saltating sand grains(also called the number of liftoff sand grains per unit time and per unit bed area).It is necessary to re-search in advance liftoff rates of saltating sand grains.We redeveloped liftoff rates of saltating sand grains by establishing an optimization model based on the flux of aeolian sand flow at different heights of the sampler in wind tunnel and the simulated capture of saltating sand grains by different heights of the sampler that are from different liftoff position(distance from the sampler) in order to revise previous inversion condition of liftoff rates of saltating sand grains.Liftoff rates increased rapidly with increasing wind speed.For frictional wind velocities of u=0.67,0.77,0.82,0.83,and 0.87 m s-1,liftoff rates were 3840,954502,5235114,5499407,and 7696291 sand grain s-1 m-2,respectively.These rates could be expressed as the square of the instantaneous frictional wind velocity and a constant(0.663) that differs from the critical(threshold) frictional wind velocity at which saltation begins.Although our results require additional experimental validation and the simple optimization model must be improved,they nonetheless provide a strong basis for future research.

  5. Artabas of grain or artabas of grains?

    OpenAIRE

    Clarysse, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Survey of the use of the singular and plural with Greek words for grain. The original plural gives way to the singular in the course of the Hellenistic period, but the plural reappears in the later Roman period for barley, whereas wheat, for which σῖτος is then used rather than πυρός, occurs in the singular. There are, however, a number of exceptions to the general picture, often depending on the case in which the words occur.

  6. Improvement of the nutritional quality of barley and spring wheat: A review of the FAO/SIDA/SAREC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the joint FAO/SIDA/SAREC project was to develop new varieties of barley and spring wheat adapted to conditions in developing countries and with increased protein and lysine contents of the grain. Six premier research institutes in Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey co-operated in the project under the technical leadership of Svaloev AB, formerly the Swedish Seed Association, during the period 1974 to 1981. Barley lines having grain with high protein and high lysine contents derived from Hiproly, Risoe 1508 and B1 were used as donors and backcrossed at Svaloev into adapted breeding material provided by breeders in the participating countries. Backcrosses and other progenies selected for homozygosity of the lysine genes on the basis of their protein content and dye-binding capacity (DBC) were distributed to the participants who continued selection in their own environments. A similar programme was initiated for wheat, based largely on Atlas 66, Nap Hal and Rageni as donors of high protein and lysine, but the expression of high lysine was very weakly inherited and selection was abandoned in 1978. It has proved extremely difficult, and so far impossible, to find high yielding lines with desirable agronomic characters combined with increased protein and lysine contents. Evidence of positive improvement in protein production per unit area was obtained in both wheat and barley in India. Under the aegis of the project over 14,000 lines of wheat and nearly 21,000 lines of barley, which included around 6,000 mutant progenies, were screened for protein content and DBC values at Svaloev, but no new prospective donors were identified that were superior to those already available. Conclusions are drawn concerning the benefit of the project and suggestions are made for further action. (author)

  7. The effect of temperature and rainfall on participation of the pathogens causing root and stem rot in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Łacicowa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments conducted in the years 1990-1995 were localized at the Plaiit Cultivation Station, Ulhówek to repeat the cultivation of spring barley cultivars Roland and Lot. In conditions of monoculture, Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium culmorum were of the foremost importance in causing root and stem rot. The proportion of infected plants did not increase with time. Depending on the period of vegetation and the cultivar, the percentage of seedlings with necrosis symptoms ranged from 6% to 53,5% and that of stem base rot from 14% to 59%. In the case of both cultivars. root and stem rot was especially intensive in the third successive season of vegetation, i, e,. in 1992. That season was characterized by warm and wet weather conditions. favourable for the infection of seedlings by B.sorokiniane during the period of six weeks after the sowing of grain. Bipolaris sorokiniana always had the greatest proportion in the infction of spring barley but not in the seasons distinguished by hot and dry weather conditions. On the other hand, during dry and hot weather conditions the only or the dominating fungus obtained from the infcted stem base after the heading of spring barley was F. culmorum. In conditions of monoculture, favourable for root and stem rot of spring barley, the temperature and rainfalls clearly distinguished the proportion of B. sorokiniana and F. culmorum in plant infection.

  8. Composition and Functional Lipid Profiles of Low-Phyate Barleys and Related Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, one of the earliest cultivated cereal grains in the world, is gaining renewed interest for use in food, feed and as a bioethanol feedstock. Like other grains, its high phytate content is undesirable since phytate affects mineral bioavailability and contributes to P pollution to environment....

  9. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  10. The wheat Lr34 gene provides resistance against multiple fungal pathogens in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, Joanna M; Selter, Liselotte L; Chauhan, Harsh; Krattinger, Simon G; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz; Viccars, Libby A; Richardson, Terese M; Buesing, Gabriele; Troller, Anna; Lagudah, Evans S; Keller, Beat

    2013-09-01

    The Lr34 gene encodes an ABC transporter and has provided wheat with durable, broad-spectrum resistance against multiple fungal pathogens for over 100 years. Because barley does not have an Lr34 ortholog, we expressed Lr34 in barley to investigate its potential as a broad-spectrum resistance resource in another grass species. We found that introduction of the genomic Lr34 sequence confers resistance against barley leaf rust and barley powdery mildew, two pathogens specific for barley but not virulent on wheat. In addition, the barley lines showed enhanced resistance against wheat stem rust. Transformation with the Lr34 cDNA or the genomic susceptible Lr34 allele did not result in increased resistance. Unlike wheat, where Lr34-conferred resistance is associated with adult plants, the genomic Lr34 transgenic barley lines exhibited multipathogen resistance in seedlings. These transgenic barley lines also developed leaf tip necrosis (LTN) in young seedlings, which correlated with an up-regulation of senescence marker genes and several pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. In wheat, transcriptional expression of Lr34 is highest in adult plants and correlates with increased resistance and LTN affecting the last emerging leaf. The severe phenotype of transgenic Lr34 barley resulted in reduced plant growth and total grain weight. These results demonstrate that Lr34 provides enhanced multipathogen resistance early in barley plant development and implies the conservation of the substrate and mechanism of the LR34 transporter and its molecular action between wheat and barley. With controlled gene expression, the use of Lr34 may be valuable for many cereal breeding programmes, particularly given its proven durability.

  11. Grain Yield Prediction of Henan Province Based on Spatio-temporal Regression Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using correlation analysis method,regression analysis method and time sequence method,we combine time and space,to establish grain yield spatio-temporal regression prediction model of Henan Province and all prefecture-level cities.At first,we use the grain yield in prefecture-level cities of Henan in the year 2000 and 2005,to establish regression model,and then taking the grain yield in one year as independent variable,we predict the grain yield in the fifth year afterwards.Taking the dependent variable value as independent variable again,we predict the grain yield at an interval of the same years,and based on this,predict year by year forward until the year we need.The research shows that the grain yield of Henan Province in the year 2015 and 2020 is 59.849 6 and 67.929 3 million t respectively,consistent with the research results of other scholars to some extent.

  12. An Action-Based Fine-Grained Access Control Mechanism for Structured Documents and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mang Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents. Firstly, we define a describing model for structured documents and analyze the application scenarios. The describing model could support the permission management on chapters, pages, sections, words, and pictures of structured documents. Secondly, based on the action-based access control (ABAC model, we propose a fine-grained control protocol for structured documents by introducing temporal state and environmental state. The protocol covering different stages from document creation, to permission specification and usage control are given by using the Z-notation. Finally, we give the implementation of our mechanism and make the comparisons between the existing methods and our mechanism. The result shows that our mechanism could provide the better solution of fine-grained access control for structured documents in complicated networks. Moreover, it is more flexible and practical.

  13. Distinct developmental defense activations in barley embryos identified by transcriptome profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, ME; Lok, F; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    analyses of > 22,000 genes, which together with measurements of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid during embryo development provide new information on the initiation in the developing barley embryo of at least two distinct types of developmental defense activation (DDA). Early DDA is characterized by the up......-regulation of several PR genes is notable. Throughout barley embryo development, there are no indications of an increased biosynthesis of either jasmonic acid or salicylic acid. Collectively, the results help explain how the proposed DDA enables protection of the developing barley embryo and grain for purposes...

  14. Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadayappan, M.; Thomson, J. P.; Elboujdaini, M.; Gu, G. Ping; Sahoo, M.

    2004-04-29

    control tool was proved in two foundries. The method can also correctly predict the onset of fading. The corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys was measured in two solutions having different hydrogen activities, pH 6 and pH8, and compared with the base alloys. Potentiodynamic polarization and long term weight loss experiments were conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance. Cu-Zn alloys were evaluated for dezincification. In general, the grain refined alloys performed marginally better than the base alloys.

  15. Mutations in Barley Row Type Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Shoot Branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Brit Liller

    Full Text Available Cereal crop yield is determined by different yield components such as seed weight, seed number per spike and the tiller number and spikes. Negative correlations between these traits are often attributed to resource limitation. However, recent evidence suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules can regulate both inflorescence branching and tillering. It is therefore important to explore the role of genetic correlations between different yield components in small grain cereals. In this work, we studied pleiotropic effects of row type genes on seed size, seed number per spike, thousand grain weight, and tillering in barley to better understand the genetic correlations between individual yield components. Allelic mutants of nine different row type loci (36 mutants, in the original spring barley varieties Barke, Bonus and Foma and introgressed in the spring barley cultivar Bowman, were phenotyped under greenhouse and outdoor conditions. We identified two main mutant groups characterized by their relationships between seed and tillering parameters. The first group comprises all mutants with an increased number of seeds and significant change in tiller number at early development (group 1a or reduced tillering only at full maturity (group 1b. Mutants in the second group are characterized by a reduction in seeds per spike and tiller number, thus exhibiting positive correlations between seed and tiller number. Reduced tillering at full maturity (group 1b is likely due to resource limitations. In contrast, altered tillering at early development (groups 1a and 2 suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules affect inflorescence and shoot branching. Understanding the genetic bases of the trade-offs between these traits is important for the genetic manipulation of individual yield components.

  16. Effects of Nitrogen Application Rates on Nitrogen Uptake and Use, Protein Accumulation, and Grain Yield in Malting Barley%施氮水平对啤酒大麦植株氮素吸收与利用及籽粒蛋白质积累和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡剑; 姜东; 戴廷波; 曹卫星

    2009-01-01

    In purpose of improving application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production, the experiments were conducted using two cultivars, Supi 3 and Dan 2, in sequential growing seasons from 2004 to 2006. Within the range of N application rate from 0 to 225 kg ha~(-1), the N accumulation before anthesis and its translocation to grains were in posi-tive responses to the increase of N rate, but there was a slight difference between the N rate treatments of 225 kg ha-1 and 300 kg ha~(-1). The translocation efficiency of N accumulated before anthesis, and its contribution to grains showed single-peak curve changes with the increase of N rate. The activities of glutamine synthetase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase in grains increased with the augment of N rate, indicating that more proteins were accumulated in grains at higher N rates. When N rate was lower than 197 kg ha~(-1), the protein content in grains met the malting requirement (lower than 12%). According to the regression analysis, the highest grain yield was observed at N application level of 241 kg ha~(-1). In addition, the N recovery efficiency was the largest in N rate treatment of 225 kg ha~(-1), and the N physiological use efficiency and N harvest index decreased when more N fertilizer applied. The results suggest that 150-197 kg ha~(-1) of N fertilizer should be favorable for malting barley production under environ-ments similar to that of the present experiment.%2004-2006年连续两个生长季,以苏啤3和单2两个啤酒大麦品种为材料,探讨施纯氮0、75、150、225和300 kg hm~(-2)条件下,啤酒大麦氮素积累和转运、氮素利用及籽粒产量和蛋白质积累的特性.在0~225 kg hm~(-2)施氮量范围内,啤酒大麦花前植株氮素积累量和转运量均随施氮水平的提高呈上升趋势,但施氮量提高至300 kg hm~(-2)后,提高幅度变小;而花前氮素转运效率及其对籽粒氮的贡献率则均随施氮水平提高呈单峰

  17. Effect of solidification rate on competitive grain growth in directional solidification of a nickel-base superalloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU YiZhou; SUN XiaoFeng

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of grain structure evolution during directional solidification is a fundamental subject in material science.Within the published research there exist conflicting views on the mechanism of grain overgrowth.To study the effect of solidification rate on grain structure evolution,bi-crystals samples were produced in a nickel-base superalloy at different solidification rates.It was found that at the convergent grain boundaries those grains better aligned with respect to the heat flux more readily overgrew neighbouring grains with misaligned orientations and the effect became more pronounced as solidification rate was increased.However,at diverging grain boundaries the rate of overgrowth was invariant to the solidification rate.These experimental results were compared with models in the literature.Thus,a better insight into competitive grain growth in directional solidification processes was obtained.

  18. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny eBorling Welin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un inoculated (M, inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W, or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB; and one treatment based on dried barley (D. After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8 – 4.1. In M, W and WLAB, moulds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Moulds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively.

  19. Grain refinement effects of Al based alloys with low titanium content produced by electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 王明星; 翁永刚; 宋天福; 谢敬佩; 霍裕平

    2002-01-01

    A series of Al based alloys with low titanium contents (mass fraction) from 0.178% to 0.526% were directly produced in ordinary industrial electrolyzer. The electrolyzing results show that producing Al based alloys with titanium contents of less than 0.30% without great loss of electrolysis efficiency is possible. The quantitative analysis shows that this method has a great refining effect on transiting the coarse columnar grains in pure Al to equiaxed grains. The grain sizes decrease with the increase of titanium content and tend to a low limit at about 130μm. During the solidification, the non-equilibrium distribution of titanium leads to a great growth-restricting effect and a constitutional under-cooling zone in front of the growing liquid /solid interface.

  20. Multiresolution Modeling of Polymer Solutions: Wavelet-Based Coarse-Graining and Reverse-Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Adorf, Carl Simon; Agarwal, Animesh; Iacovella, Christopher R.

    2014-03-01

    Unlike multiscale methods, which encompass multiple simulation techniques, multiresolution models uses one modeling technique at different length and time scales. We present a combined coarse-graining and reverse-mapping framework for modeling of semidilute polymer solutions, based on the wavelet-accelerated Monte Carlo (WAMC) method, which forms a hierarchy of resolutions to model polymers at length scales that cannot be reached via atomistic or even ``standard'' coarse-grained simulations. A universal scaling function is obtained so that potentials do not need to be recomputed as the scale of the system is changed. We show that coarse-grained polymer solutions can reproduce results obtained from the simulations of the more detailed atomistic system to a reasonable degree of accuracy. Reverse mapping proceeds similarly: using probability distributions obtained from coarse-graining the bond lengths, angles, torsions, and the non-bonded potentials, we can reconstruct a more detailed polymer consistent with both geometric constraints and energetic considerations. Using a ``convergence factor'' within a Monte Carlo-based energy optimization scheme, we can successfully reconstruct entire atomistic configurations from coarse-grained descriptions.

  1. Potential CO2 Emission Reduction by Development of Non-Grain-Based Bioethanol in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Wang, Limao; Shen, Lei

    2010-10-01

    Assessment of the potential CO2 emission reduction by development of non-grain-based ethanol in China is valuable for both setting up countermeasures against climate change and formulating bioethanol policies. Based on the land occupation property, feedstock classification and selection are conducted, identifying sweet sorghum, cassava, and sweet potato as plantation feedstocks cultivated from low-quality arable marginal land resources and molasses and agricultural straws as nonplantation feedstocks derived from agricultural by-products. The feedstock utilization degree, CO2 reduction coefficient of bioethanol, and assessment model of CO2 emission reduction potential of bioethanol are proposed and established to assess the potential CO2 emission reduction by development of non-grain-based bioethanol. The results show that China can obtain emission reduction potentials of 10.947 and 49.027 Mt CO2 with non-grain-based bioethanol in 2015 and 2030, which are much higher than the present capacity, calculated as 1.95 Mt. It is found that nonplantation feedstock can produce more bioethanol so as to obtain a higher potential than plantation feedstock in both 2015 and 2030. Another finding is that developing non-grain-based bioethanol can make only a limited contribution to China’s greenhouse gas emission reduction. Moreover, this study reveals that the regions with low and very low potentials for emission reduction will dominate the spatial distribution in 2015, and regions with high and very high potentials will be the majority in 2030.

  2. Unified microwave moisture sensing technique for grain and seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Samir; Nelson, Stuart O.

    2007-04-01

    A unified method for moisture sensing in cereal grain and oilseed from a single calibration equation, which is obtained from measurement of dielectric properties at a single microwave frequency, is presented. The method is based on a complex permittivity calibration function that is independent of both bulk density and kind of material. Performance of the method was tested for soybeans, corn, wheat, sorghum, barley and oats at 7 GHz and about 23 °C. The standard error of calibration for moisture prediction from complex permittivity measurements was 0.8%.

  3. Evolution of the Annealing Twin Density during δ-Supersolvus Grain Growth in the Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel™ 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain growth experiments were performed on Inconel™ 718 to investigate the possible correlation of the annealing twin density with grain size and with annealing temperature. Those experiments were conducted at different temperatures in the δ supersolvus domain and under such conditions that only capillarity forces were involved in the grain boundary migration process. In the investigated range, there is a strong inverse correlation of the twin density with the average grain size. On the other hand, the twin density at a given average grain size is not sensitive to annealing temperature. Consistent with previous results for pure nickel, the twin density evolution in Inconel™ 718 is likely to be mainly controlled by the propagation of the pre-existing twins of the growing grains; i.e., the largest ones of the initial microstructure. Almost no new twin boundaries are created during the grain growth process itself. Therefore, the twin density at a given average grain size is mainly dependent on the twin density in the largest grains of the initial microstructure and independent of the temperature at which grains grow. Based on the observations, a mean field model is proposed to predict annealing twin density as a function of grain size during grain growth.

  4. Diffusion-Based Coarse Graining in Hybrid Continuum--Discrete Solvers: Applications in CFD--DEM

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Rui

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a coarse graining method previously proposed by the authors based on solving diffusion equations is applied to CFD--DEM simulations, where coarse graining is used to obtain solid volume fraction, particle phase velocity, and fluid--particle interaction forces. By examining the conservation requirements, the variables to solve diffusion equations for in CFD--DEM simulations are identified. The algorithm is then implemented to a CFD--DEM solver based on OpenFOAM and LAMMPS, the former being a general-purpose, three-dimensional CFD solver based on unstructured meshes. Numerical simulations are performed for a fluidized bed by using the CFD--DEM solver with the diffusion-based coarse graining algorithm. Converged results are obtained on successively refined meshes, even for meshes with cell sizes comparable to or smaller than the particle diameter. This is a critical advantage of the proposed method over many existing coarse graining methods, and would be particularly valuable when small cells are r...

  5. On the formation of ultra-fine grained Fe-base alloys via phase transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chezan, AR; Craus, CB; Chechenin, NG; Vystavel, T; Niesen, L; De Hosson, JTM; Boerma, DO

    2004-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the formation of ultra-fine grained Fe-base alloys via phase transformations. In particular the manipulation of the microstructure of Fe-Ni-Ti and Fe-Ni-Cr alloys via phase cycling in the Fe-N system was investigated. Transitions between bcc (alpha-Fe), fee (gamma'-Fe4N) a

  6. Observation of Pseudopartial Grain Boundary Wetting in the NdFeB-Based Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumal, B. B.; Mazilkin, A. A.; Protasova, S. G.; Schütz, G.; Straumal, A. B.; Baretzky, B.

    2016-08-01

    The NdFeB-based alloys were invented in 1980s and remain the best-known hard magnetic alloys. In order to reach the optimum magnetic properties, the grains of hard magnetic Nd2Fe14B phase have to be isolated from one another by the (possibly thin) layers of a non-ferromagnetic Nd-rich phase. In this work, we observe that the few-nanometer-thin layers of the Nd-rich phase appear between Nd2Fe14B grains due to the pseudopartial grain boundary (GB) wetting. Namely, some Nd2Fe14B/Nd2Fe14B GBs are not completely wetted by the Nd-rich melt and have the high contact angle with the liquid phase and, nevertheless, contain the 2-4-nm-thin uniform Nd-rich layer.

  7. The Combination Forecasting Model of Grain Production Based on Stepwise Regression Method and RBF Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy of grain production forecasting, this study proposed a new combination forecasting model, the model combined stepwise regression method with RBF neural network by assigning proper weights using inverse variance method. By comparing different criteria, the result indicates that the combination forecasting model is superior to other models. The performance of the models is measured using three types of error measurement, which are Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE, Theil Inequality Coefficient (Theil IC and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE. The model with smallest value of MAPE, Theil IC and RMSE stands out to be the best model in predicting the grain production. Based on the MAPE, Theil IC and RMSE evaluation criteria, the combination model can reduce the forecasting error and has high prediction accuracy in grain production forecasting, making the decision more scientific and rational.

  8. Assessment of genetic diversity by simple sequence repeat markers among forty elite varieties in the germplasm for malting barley breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Jian-ming; Zhu, Jing-huan; Jia, Qiao-jun; Tao, Yue-zhi

    2010-10-01

    The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 elite barley varieties were analyzed based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping data. The amplified fragments from SSR primers were highly polymorphic in the barley accessions investigated. A total of 85 alleles were detected at 35 SSR loci, and allelic variations existed at 29 SSR loci. The allele number per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 2.4 alleles per locus detected from the 40 barley accessions. A cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity coefficients was conducted and the 40 varieties were classified into two groups. Seven malting barley varieties from China fell into the same subgroup. It was found that the genetic diversity within the Chinese malting barley varieties was narrower than that in other barley germplasm sources, suggesting the importance and feasibility of introducing elite genotypes from different origins for malting barley breeding in China. PMID:20872987

  9. Assessment of genetic diversity by simple sequence repeat markers among forty elite varieties in the germplasm for malting barley breeding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Jian-ming; Zhu, Jing-huan; Jia, Qiao-jun; Tao, Yue-zhi

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 elite barley varieties were analyzed based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping data. The amplified fragments from SSR primers were highly polymorphic in the barley accessions investigated. A total of 85 alleles were detected at 35 SSR loci, and allelic variations existed at 29 SSR loci. The allele number per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 2.4 alleles per locus detected from the 40 barley accessions. A cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity coefficients was conducted and the 40 varieties were classified into two groups. Seven malting barley varieties from China fell into the same subgroup. It was found that the genetic diversity within the Chinese malting barley varieties was narrower than that in other barley germplasm sources, suggesting the importance and feasibility of introducing elite genotypes from different origins for malting barley breeding in China. PMID:20872987

  10. Influence of inoculum and climatic factors on the severity of Fusarium head blight in German spring and winter barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkmeyer, Andrea; Hofer, Katharina; Rychlik, Michael; Herz, Markus; Hausladen, Hans; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Hess, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small cereals is a disease of global importance with regard to economic losses and mycotoxin contamination harmful to human and animal health. In Germany, FHB is predominantly associated with wheat and F. graminearum is recognised as the major causal agent of the disease, but little is known about FHB of barley. Monitoring of the natural occurrence of FHB on Bavarian barley revealed differences for individual Fusarium spp. in incidence and severity of grain infection between years and between spring and winter barley. Parallel measurement of fungal DNA content in grain and mycotoxin content suggested the importance of F. graminearum in winter barley and of F. langsethiae in spring barley for FHB. The infection success of these two species was associated with certain weather conditions and barley flowering time. Inoculation experiments in the field revealed different effects of five Fusarium spp. on symptom formation, grain yield and mycotoxin production. A significant association between fungal infection of grain and mycotoxin content was observed following natural or artificial infection with the type B trichothecene producer F. culmorum, but not with the type A trichothecene-producing species F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides. Trichothecene type A toxin contamination also occurred in the absence of significant damage to grain and did not necessarily promote fungal colonisation. PMID:26679010

  11. Microbes in the tailoring of barley malt properties

    OpenAIRE

    Laitila, Arja

    2007-01-01

    Microbes have a decisive role in the barley-malt-beer chain. A major goal of this thesis was to study the relationships between microbial communities and germinating grains during malting. Furthermore, the study provided a basis for tailoring of malt properties with natural, malt-derived microbes. The malting ecosystem is a dynamic process, exhibiting continous change. The first hours of steeping and kilning were the most important steps in the process with regard to microbiological qual...

  12. New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Sparla; Giuseppe Falini; Ermelinda Botticella; Claudia Pirone; Valentina Talamè; Riccardo Bovina; Silvio Salvi; Roberto Tuberosa; Francesco Sestili; Paolo Trost

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant...

  13. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...

  14. Effect of crop density on competition by wheat and barley with Agrostemma githago and other weeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, H.; Holm, U.; Søgaard, B.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of Agrostemma githago L. and other naturally occurring weeds on biomass production and grain yield was studied in winter wheat and winter barley. Naturally occurring weeds had only a negligible effect on barley, but reduced wheat grain yield by 10% at a quarter of normal crop density....... The interaction between the cereals and A. githago was studied in additive series employing different crop densities. Growth of this weed species was strongly dependent on crop density, which was more important for controlling weed growth than it was for obtaining a normal grain yield. Wheat and especially barley...... had a better competitive ability than A. githago. Wheat and A. githago utilized resources for growth better when grown in mixture than when grown in pure stands as the relative yield totals were significantly larger than unity....

  15. The grain grading model and prediction of deleterious porosity of cement-based materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Qi; LIU Jun-zhe

    2008-01-01

    The calculating model for the packing degree of spherical particles system was modified. The grain grading model of cement-based materials was established and could be applied in the global grading system as well as in the nano-fiber reinforced system. According to the grain grading model, two kinds of mortar were de-signed by using the global grain materials and nano-fiber materials such as fly ash, silica fume and NR powder.In this paper, the densities of two above systems cured for 90d were tested and the relationship of deleterious porosity and the total porosity of hardened mortar was discussed. Research results show that nano-fiber materialsuch as NR powder can increase the density of cement-based materials. The relationship of deleterious porosity and the total porosity of hardened mortar accords with logarithmic curve. The deleterious porosity and the ration-ality of the grading can be roughly predicted through calculating the packing degree by the grain grading model of cement-based materials.

  16. Use of Selection Indices Based on Multivariate Analysis for Improving Grain Yield in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein SABOURI; Babak RABIEI; Maryam FAZLALIPOUR

    2008-01-01

    In order to study selection indices for improving rice grain yield, a cross was made between an Iranian traditional rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety, Tarommahalli and an improved indica rice variety, Khazar in 2006. The traits of the parents (30 plants), F1 (30 plants) and F2 generations (492 individuals) were evaluated at the Rice Research institute of Iran (RRII) during 2007. Heritabilities of the number of panicles per plant, plant height, days to heading and panicle exsertion were greater than that of grain yield. The selection indices were developed using the results of multivariate analysis. To evaluate selection strategies to maximize grain yield, 14 selection indices were calculated based on two methods (optimum and base) and combinations of 12 traits with various economic weights. Results of selection indices showed that selection for grain weight, number of panicles per plant and panicle length by using their phenotypic and/or genotypic direct effects (path coefficient) as economic weights should serve as an effective selection criterion for using either the optimum or base index.

  17. Constructing the barley model for genetic transformation in Triticeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Bo; WU Jia-jie; FU Dao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest domesticated crops, showing dramatic adaptation to various climate and environmental conditions. As a major cereal crop, barley ranks the 4th after wheat, maize and rice in terms of planting area and production al over the world. Due to its diploid nature, the cultivated barley is considered as an ideal model to study the polyploid wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, we reviewed the development, optimization, and application of transgenic approaches in barley. The most efifcient and robust genetic transformation has been built on the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer in conjunction with the immature embryo-based regeneration. We then discussed future considerations of using more practical technologies in barley transformation, such as the T-DNA/transposon tagging and the genome editing. As a cereal crop amenable to genetic transformation, barley wil serve as the most valuable carrier for global functional genomics in Triticeae and is becoming the most practical model for generating value-added products.

  18. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  19. Plant-availability to barley of phosphorus in ash from thermally treated animal manure in comparison to other manure based materials and commercial fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Rubæk, Gitte Holton;

    2010-01-01

     kg P ha-1 in both soils had no significant effect on barley DM yield and P uptake. The overall efficiency for liquid fertilizers was much higher than for solid ones and relative effectiveness (RE) of ExL was comparable to RE of DSP. Despite the low P level in soils, the ryegrass crop grew very well......Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient and a limited resource, yet excess P is applied to agricultural land and can cause environmental problems in areas with intensive animal farming. In this study, the fertilizing effects of P in several animal manure-based products (including thermal treatment......), thermally gasified SS (GAs), thermally gasified poultry manure (GAp), crushed triple super phosphate (TSP) and disodium phosphate (DSP) was used as reference P fertilizer. For application of 20 kg P ha-1 mineral P fertilizer replacement value (RV) in the second year in the sandy soil was 76% and 99% for GA...

  20. The presence of inositol phosphates in gastric pig digesta is affected by time after feeding a non-fermented or fermented liquid wheat-barley based diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Jørgensen, Henry; Tauson, A.H.;

    2011-01-01

    , considerable amounts of intact InsP6 still passed the small intestine because of a shortage of time for InsP6 degradation in the stomach. Therefore, to increase the apparent digestibility of plant P in dry, wheat-barley-based diets, the development of phytases that can degrade InsP6 effectively immediately......The objective was to quantify the retention of digesta and evaluate the degradation of phytate or inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) and lower inositol phosphates (InsP5, InsP4, InsP3, and InsP2) in the stomach at different times after feeding pigs a fermented liquid diet with microbial phytase......-BD + phytase. The decrease was 45, 54, 56, and 61 percentage points greater at 1, 2, 3, and 5 h, respectively, in pigs fed NF-BD + phytase compared with NF-BD. However, still substantial amounts of InsP6 passed to the small intestine in pigs fed NF-BD + phytase, especially within the first hour (estimated...

  1. Correlation-maximizing surrogate gene space for visual mining of gene expression patterns in developing barley endosperm tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usadel Björn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro- and macroarray technologies help acquire thousands of gene expression patterns covering important biological processes during plant ontogeny. Particularly, faithful visualization methods are beneficial for revealing interesting gene expression patterns and functional relationships of coexpressed genes. Such screening helps to gain deeper insights into regulatory behavior and cellular responses, as will be discussed for expression data of developing barley endosperm tissue. For that purpose, high-throughput multidimensional scaling (HiT-MDS, a recent method for similarity-preserving data embedding, is substantially refined and used for (a assessing the quality and reliability of centroid gene expression patterns, and for (b derivation of functional relationships of coexpressed genes of endosperm tissue during barley grain development (0–26 days after flowering. Results Temporal expression profiles of 4824 genes at 14 time points are faithfully embedded into two-dimensional displays. Thereby, similar shapes of coexpressed genes get closely grouped by a correlation-based similarity measure. As a main result, by using power transformation of correlation terms, a characteristic cloud of points with bipolar sandglass shape is obtained that is inherently connected to expression patterns of pre-storage, intermediate and storage phase of endosperm development. Conclusion The new HiT-MDS-2 method helps to create global views of expression patterns and to validate centroids obtained from clustering programs. Furthermore, functional gene annotation for developing endosperm barley tissue is successfully mapped to the visualization, making easy localization of major centroids of enriched functional categories possible.

  2. Influence of dietary urea level on digestive function and growth performance of cattle fed steam-flaked barley-based finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, R A; Barrajas, R; Montano, M; Ware, R A

    2003-10-01

    Four Holstein steers (282 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of dietary urea level (0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2%, DM basis) in a steam-flaked barley-based finishing diet on digestive function. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.20) on ruminal digestion of OM and ADF. Increasing dietary urea level increased (linear, P 0.20) ruminal microbial protein synthesis or nonammonia N flow to the small intestine. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.20) on total-tract ADF digestion. Total tract digestion of OM (quadratic, P 0.20) ruminal molar proportions of acetate and propionate. One hundred twenty crossbred steers (252 kg; approximately 25% Brahman breeding) were used in an 84-d feeding trial (five pens per treatment) to evaluate treatment effects on growth performance. Daily weight gain increased (linear, P = 0.01) with increasing urea level, tending to be maximal (1.53 kg/d; quadratic, P = 0.13) at the 0.8% level of urea supplementation. Improvements in ADG were due to treatment effects (linear, P 0.20) the NE value of the diet for maintenance and gain. Observed dietary NE values, based on growth performance, were in close agreement with expected based on tabular values for individual feed ingredients, averaging 100.4%. We conclude that with steam-flaked barely-based finishing diets, ruminal and total-tract digestion of OM and ruminal microbial protein synthesis may not be increased by urea supplementation. In contrast, ADG was optimized by dietary inclusion of 0.8% urea. Urea supplementation may not enhance the net energy value of steam-flaked barely-based finishing diets when degradable intake protein is greater than 85% of microbial protein synthesis. PMID:14552362

  3. Uptake and utilization efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus in barley genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla KOSTADINOVA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was carried out in order to study the genotypic variation in nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and utilization by barley. The study included nine Bulgarian genotypes of two-rowed barley: three cultivars Krami, Krasen, Kristi and six perspectives breading lines. The genotypes were sown in a randomized, complete block design with four replications after maize as predecessor with the size of experimental plots of 7 m2. It was found that barley genotypes differed in the uptake efficiency of both elements - nitrogen and phosphorus. Genotypes were divided into two groups in regard to nitrogen. Cultivars Krami, Krasen, Kristi and lines 2390300, 24102400, 22506999 uptake 170-186 kg N*ha-1, and lines 704112296, 24201900, 689069970 demonstrated higher nitrogen uptake efficiency 213-241 kg N*ha-1. Most of the new lines had higher phosphorus uptake efficiency in a range 90-111 kg Р2О5 ha-1compared to the varieties. The ratio total N/total Р2О5 uptake was close to 2.0 for the most of genotypes. The obtained mean values of nitrogen utilization efficiency were 81.6 kg biomass and 34.0 kg grain per kg N, respectively. The mean values of phosphorus utilization efficiency were 171.3 kg biomass and 71.4 kg grain per kg P2O5, respectively. The barley genotypes utilized more efficient phosphorus then total uptake nitrogen for producing grain and straw. Line 24102400 demonstrated higher nitrogen utilization efficiency for biomass and grain from all studied genotypes, followed by variety Krami. These two genotypes could be recommended as perspective in future improves of nitrogen efficiency in barley. Uptake efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus positively correlated with the barley productivity and nutrients content in the grain and straw. In contrast, the relationship between total uptake of both elements at maturity and utilization efficiency of nitrogen or phosphorus for grain formation was negative.

  4. Yield and yield structure of spring barley (Hodeum vulgare L. grown in monoculture after different stubble crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2006- 2008 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The experimental factor was the type of stubble crop ploughed in each year after harvest of spring barley: white mustard, lacy phacelia, winter rape, and a mixture of narrow-leaf lupin with field pea. In the experiment, successive spring barley crops were grown one after the other (in continuous monoculture. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of stubble crops used on the size and structure of barley yield. The three-year study showed an increasing trend in grain yield of spring barley grown after the mixture of legumes, lacy phacelia, and white mustard compared to its size in the treatment with no cover crop. Straw yield was significantly higher when barley was grown after the mixture of narrowleaf lupin with field pea than in the other treatments of the experiment. The type of ploughed-in stubble crop did not modify significantly plant height, ear length, and grain weight per ear. Growing the mixture of leguminous plants as a cover crop resulted in a significant increase in the density of ears per unit area in barley by an average of 14.7% relative to the treatment with winter rape. The experiment also showed the beneficial effect of the winter rape cover crop on 1000-grain weight of spring barley compared to that obtained in the treatments with white mustard and the mixture of legumes. All the cover crops caused an increase in the number of grains per ear of barley relative to that found in the control treatment. However, this increase was statistically proven only for the barley crops grown after lacy phacelia and the mixture of legumes.

  5. An extended particle swarm optimization algorithm based on coarse-grained and fine-grained criteria and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-mei; ZHANG Li-hui; QI Jian-xun; ZHANG Su-fang

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the problem that particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm can easily trap into local mechanism when analyzing the high dimensional complex optimization problems, the optimization calculation using the information in the iterative process of more particles was analyzed and the optimal system of particle swarm algorithm was improved. The extended particle swarm optimization algorithm (EPSO) was proposed. The coarse-grained and free-grained criteria that can control the selection were given to ensure the convergence of the algorithm. The two criteria considered the parameter selection mechanism under the situation of random probability. By adopting MATLAB7.1, the extended particle swarm optimization algorithm was demonstrated in the resource leveling of power project scheduling. EPSO was compared with genetic algorithm (GA) and common PSO, the result indicates that the variance of the objective function of resource leveling is decreased by 7.9%, 18.2%, respectively, certifying thee effectiveness and stronger global convergence ability of the EPSO.

  6. Analysis of pregerminated barley using hyperspectral image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger; Larsen, Jan; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-11-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel's lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI(95%): 29-35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI(95%): 0-15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model provides class probabilities for each kernel, which can assist in achieving homogeneous germination profiles. This research can further be developed to establish an automated and faster procedure as an alternative to the standard procedures for pregerminated barley. PMID:21932866

  7. Challenges of Engineering Grain Boundaries in Boron-Based Armor Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Shawn P.; Hernandez-Rivera, Efrain; Behler, Kristopher D.; Synowczynski-Dunn, Jennifer; Tschopp, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    Boron-based ceramics are appealing for lightweight applications in both vehicle and personnel protection, stemming from their combination of high hardness, high elastic modulus, and low density as compared to other ceramics and metal alloys. However, the performance of these ceramics and ceramic composites is lacking because of their inherent low fracture toughness and reduced strength under high-velocity threats. The objective of the present article is to briefly discuss both the challenges and the state of the art in experimental and computational approaches for engineering grain boundaries in boron-based armor ceramics, focusing mainly on boron carbide (B4C) and boron suboxide (B6O). The experimental challenges involve processing these ceramics at full density while trying to promote microstructure features such as intergranular films to improve toughness during shock. Many of the computational challenges for boron-based ceramics stem from their complex crystal structure which has hitherto complicated the exploration of grain boundaries and interfaces. However, bridging the gaps between experimental and computational studies at multiple scales to engineer grain boundaries in these boron-based ceramics may hold the key to maturing these material systems for lightweight defense applications.

  8. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  9. Relationship among grain size, annealing twins and shape memory effect in Fe–Mn–Si based shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaixia; Peng, Huabei; Zhang, Chengyan; Wang, Shanling; Wen, Yuhua

    2016-07-01

    In order to clarify the relationship among grain size, annealing twins and the shape memory effect in Fe–Mn–Si based shape memory alloys, the Fe–21.63Mn–5.60Si–9.32Cr–5.38Ni (weight %) alloy with a grain size ranging from 48.9 μm–253.6 μm was obtained by adjusting the heating temperature or heating time after 20% cold-rolling. The densities of grain boundaries and annealing twins increase with a decrease in grain size, whereas the volume fraction and width of stress-induced ε martensite after 9% deformation at Ms + 10 K decrease. This result indicates that grain refinement raises the constraint effects of grain boundaries and annealing twins upon martensitic transformation. In this case, the ability to suppress the plastic deformation and facilitate the stress-induced ε martensite transformation deteriorates after grain refinement owing to the enhancement of the constraint effects. It is demonstrated by the result that the difference at Ms + 10 K between the critical stress for plastic yielding and that for inducing martensitic transformation is smaller for the specimen with a grain size of 48.9 μm than for the specimen with a grain size of 253.6 μm. Therefore, the shape memory effect declined by decreasing the grain size.

  10. Starch Bioengineering in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    by the amylolytic enzymes while the amylose-only endosperm starch exhibits high resistance to degradation and hence less available for degradation. With the aim to investigate the hypothesis, starch molecular structures were modulated with the above mentioned modifications and were studied for the effects....... This was achieved by endosperm-specific overexpression of Solanum tuberosum GWD to generate hyper-phosphorylated (HP) starch and endosperm-specific RNAi suppression of all three starch branching enzyme (SBE) isoforms to generate amylose-only (AO) starch in barley (cv. Golden Promise). In first and second study......Starch represents the most important carbohydrate used for food and feed purposes. Increasingly, it is also used as a renewable raw material, as a source of biofuel, and for many different industrial applications. Progress in understanding starch biosynthesis, and investigations of the genes...

  11. Redistribution of mineral elements in wheat grain when applying the complex enzyme preparations based on phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic minerals play an important role in the whole human nutrition, but they are included in the grain of the phytates that reduces their bioavailability. Whole wheat bread is generally considered a healthy food, but the presence of mineral elements in it is insignificant, because of weak phytate degradation. From all sources of exogenous phytase the most productive are microscopic fungi. To accelerate the process of transition hard mineral elements are mobilized to implement integrated cellulolytic enzyme preparation based on the actions of phytase (producer is Penicillium canescens. Phytase activity was assessed indirectly by the rate of release of phosphate from the substrate. It has been established that the release rate of the phosphoric acid substrate is dependent on the composition of the drug and the enzyme complex is determined by the presence of xylanase. The presented experimental data shows that a cellulase treatment of the grain in conjunction with the β-glucanase or xylanase leading to an increase in phytase activity could be 1.4 - 2.3 times as compared with the individual enzymes. As a result of concerted action of enzymes complex preparation varies topography grain, increase the pore sizes in seed and fruit shells that facilitate the penetration of the enzyme phytase in the aleurone layer to the site of phytin hydrolysis and leads to an increase in phytase activity. In terms of rational parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis, the distribution of mineral elements in the anatomical parts of the grain after processing complex enzyme preparation with the help of X-ray detector EMF miniCup system in a scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM 6390 were investigated. When processing enzyme preparation wheat trend in the distribution of mineral elements, characteristic of grain - the proportion of these elements in the aleurone layer decreases, and in the endosperm increases. Because dietary fiber and phytate found together in the

  12. Model reduction for agent-based social simulation: Coarse-graining a civil violence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Fonoberov, Vladimir A.; Fonoberova, Maria; Mezic, Igor; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.

    2012-06-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM) constitutes a powerful computational tool for the exploration of phenomena involving emergent dynamic behavior in the social sciences. This paper demonstrates a computer-assisted approach that bridges the significant gap between the single-agent microscopic level and the macroscopic (coarse-grained population) level, where fundamental questions must be rationally answered and policies guiding the emergent dynamics devised. Our approach will be illustrated through an agent-based model of civil violence. This spatiotemporally varying ABM incorporates interactions between a heterogeneous population of citizens [active (insurgent), inactive, or jailed] and a population of police officers. Detailed simulations exhibit an equilibrium punctuated by periods of social upheavals. We show how to effectively reduce the agent-based dynamics to a stochastic model with only two coarse-grained degrees of freedom: the number of jailed citizens and the number of active ones. The coarse-grained model captures the ABM dynamics while drastically reducing the computation time (by a factor of approximately 20).

  13. Model reduction for agent-based social simulation: coarse-graining a civil violence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Fonoberov, Vladimir A; Fonoberova, Maria; Mezic, Igor; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G

    2012-06-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM) constitutes a powerful computational tool for the exploration of phenomena involving emergent dynamic behavior in the social sciences. This paper demonstrates a computer-assisted approach that bridges the significant gap between the single-agent microscopic level and the macroscopic (coarse-grained population) level, where fundamental questions must be rationally answered and policies guiding the emergent dynamics devised. Our approach will be illustrated through an agent-based model of civil violence. This spatiotemporally varying ABM incorporates interactions between a heterogeneous population of citizens [active (insurgent), inactive, or jailed] and a population of police officers. Detailed simulations exhibit an equilibrium punctuated by periods of social upheavals. We show how to effectively reduce the agent-based dynamics to a stochastic model with only two coarse-grained degrees of freedom: the number of jailed citizens and the number of active ones. The coarse-grained model captures the ABM dynamics while drastically reducing the computation time (by a factor of approximately 20).

  14. Development Support Environment of Business ApplicationsBased on a Multi-Grain-Size Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Koichi; Izumi, Noriaki; Yamaguchi, Takahira

    In order to build the Web-based application as a shopping site on the Web, various ideas from the different viewpoints are required, such as enterprise modeling, workflow modeling, software development, and so on. From the above standpoint, this paper proposes an integrated environment to support the whole development process of analysis, design and implementation of business application. In order to reuse know-hows of various ideas in the business application development, we device a multi-grain-size repository, which consists of coarse-, middle-, and fine-grain-size repositories that correspond to the enterprise models, workflow models, and software models, respectively. We also provide a methodology that rebuilds heterogeneous information resources required for the business applications development into a multi-grain-size repository based on ontologies. The contents of the repositories are modeled by the is-a, has-a, and E-R relations, and described by the XML language. We have implemented Java-based prototype environment with the tools dealing with the multi-layered repository and confirmed that it supports us in various phases of business application development including business model manifestation, detailed business model definition and an implementation of business software applications.

  15. An Impulse-C Hardware Accelerator for Packet Classification Based on Fine/Coarse Grain Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current software-based packet classification algorithms exhibit relatively poor performance, prompting many researchers to concentrate on novel frameworks and architectures that employ both hardware and software components. The Packet Classification with Incremental Update (PCIU algorithm, Ahmed et al. (2010, is a novel and efficient packet classification algorithm with a unique incremental update capability that demonstrated excellent results and was shown to be scalable for many different tasks and clients. While a pure software implementation can generate powerful results on a server machine, an embedded solution may be more desirable for some applications and clients. Embedded, specialized hardware accelerator based solutions are typically much more efficient in speed, cost, and size than solutions that are implemented on general-purpose processor systems. This paper seeks to explore the design space of translating the PCIU algorithm into hardware by utilizing several optimization techniques, ranging from fine grain to coarse grain and parallel coarse grain approaches. The paper presents a detailed implementation of a hardware accelerator of the PCIU based on an Electronic System Level (ESL approach. Results obtained indicate that the hardware accelerator achieves on average 27x speedup over a state-of-the-art Xeon processor.

  16. Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Spliid, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly...

  17. Effects of ratios of basal to topdressed nitrogen on post-anthesis photosynthesis,dry matter distribution and grain yield in malting barley%氮肥基追比对啤酒大麦花后叶片光合特性、干物质分配及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈会权; 蔡剑; 陈和; 陈晓静; 陶红; 姜东; 戴廷波; 曹卫星

    2009-01-01

    Two malting barley cultivars, Supi 3 and Dan 2, were planted in two eco-sites, Nanjing and Yancheng, Jiangsu Province. At a total nitrogen dose of 225 kg· hm~(-2), split nitrogen application effects were studied on post-anthesis photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content, dry matter accumulation and redistribution and grain yield. The penult leaf photosynthetic rate and LAI generally increased with increasing ratio of basal to topdressed nitrogen, and reached the maximum values at the ratio of 7:3, and then decreased. The same responses of yield and amount of post-anthesis accumulated dry matter transferred to grain to ratio of basal to topdressed nitrogen were observed. Further, a high photosynthetic rate benefited the accumulation and redistribution of dry matter aftert-anthesis, which contributed to a high grain yield under an appropriate ratio of basal to topdressed nitrogen.%在江苏南京和盐城两生态点研究总施氮量为225 kg·hm~(-2)条件下,氮肥基追比对苏啤3和单2两个大麦品种花后叶片光合特性、干物质分配及产量的影响.结果表明:大麦花后叶片净光合速率、叶面积指数、花后干物质转运量及对籽粒贡献率均随着氮肥基追比先升高后降低,在氮肥基追比为7∶3时达到最大.大麦籽粒产量亦呈现相同的趋势,以氮肥基追比7∶3处理的产量最高.进一步分析表明,采用合理的氮肥基追比、保持花后较高的光合速率有利于提高花后干物质积累和再分配,最终提高籽粒产量.

  18. EFFECTS OF BARLEY PROCESSING ON THE BIOPRODUCTIVE INDICES IN FATTENING WEANED LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VOIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our researches was to observe the nutritive and productive effect of the ratio, offered at discretion, composed of alfalfa hay and barley under the following presentation forms: whole grains, roughly ground (4mm with and without addition of yeast, strain Yea-Sacc1026, to lambs submitted for fattening. The experiment lasted 54 days, the biological material was represented by Turcana lambs, grouped in three lots (n=12. Growth performances were significant bigger (p< 0.04 for the final body weight, total weight gain and average daily gain, but the specific intake was decreased with 0.49 UNC in lambs that consumed ground barley prior to those that consumed whole barley grains. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, strain Yea-Sacc1026 in the ground barley at 4 mm has a more productive and evident effect (p<0.02 regarding final body weight, total weight and average daily weigh compared to the lambs fed with whole barley grains, with a specific intake lower with 0.89 UNC.

  19. Comparison of Automated Image-Based Grain Sizing to Standard Pebble Count Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, K. B.

    2009-12-01

    This study explores the use of an automated, image-based method for characterizing grain-size distributions (GSDs) of exposed, open-framework gravel beds. This was done by comparing the GSDs measured with an image-based method to distributions obtained with two pebble-count methods. Selection of grains for the two pebble-count methods was carried out using a gridded sampling frame and the heel-to-toe Wolman walk method at six field sites. At each site, 500-partcle pebble-count samples were collected with each of the two pebble-count methods and digital images were systematically collected over the same sampling area. For the methods used, the pebble counts collected with the gridded sampling frame were assumed to be the most accurate representations of the true grain-size population, and results from the image-based method were compared to the grid derived GSDs for accuracy estimates; comparisons between the grid and Wolman walk methods were conducted to give an indication of possible variation between commonly used methods for each particular field site. Comparison of grain sizes were made at two spatial scales. At the larger scale, results from the image-based method were integrated over the sampling area required to collect the 500-particle pebble-count samples. At the smaller sampling scale, the image derived GSDs were compared to those from 100-particle, pebble-count samples obtained with the gridded sampling frame. The comparisons show that the image-based method performed reasonably well on five of the six study sites. For those five sites, the image-based method slightly underestimate all grain-size percentiles relative to the pebble counts collected with the gridded sampling frame. The average bias for Ψ5, Ψ50, and Ψ95 between the image and grid count methods at the larger sampling scale was 0.07Ψ, 0.04Ψ, and 0.19Ψ respectively; at the smaller sampling scale the average bias was 0.004Ψ, 0.03Ψ, and 0.18Ψ respectively. The average bias between the

  20. Dendritic growth and crystalline quality of nickel-base single grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siredey, Nathalie; Boufoussi, M'Bareck; Denis, Sabine; Lacaze, Jacques

    1993-05-01

    It is a usual observation that subgrains exist in nickel-base single grain components solidified by the lost wax process. The associated misorientations are generally small, but they can eventually lead to casting defects in the case of highly complex mold shapes. This work presents an attempt to relate the formation of subgrain boundaries with the development of the dendritic solidification microstructure. Experimental investigations have been undertaken on cast components made of AM1 nickel-base superalloy designed for high temperature turbine blades. Single grains were obtained by means of a grain selector at the bottom of each part. Metallographic observations have been made to characterize the dendritic array, together with gamma diffraction to measure the crystalline quality of the material and X-ray topography for mapping of misorientations on a dendritic scale. Small misorientations between dendrite stems have been found at the upper end of the selector which lead to the formation of subgrains. Moreover, during the growth process, the total mosaicity of the material increases, firstly as a consequence of an increase in the misorientations between subgrains, and secondly because of a decrease of the internal quality of each subgrain. It is proposed that misorientations are due to thermomechanical stresses which build up during λ' precipitation at temperatures slightly below the solidus temperature of the alloy.

  1. Dendritic growth and crystalline quality of nickel-base single grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siredey, N. (Lab. de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques, Ecole des Mines, 54 - Nancy (France)); Boufoussi, M.B. (Lab. de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques, Ecole des Mines, 54 - Nancy (France)); Denis, S. (Lab. de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques, Ecole des Mines, 54 - Nancy (France)); Lacaze, J. (Lab. de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques, Ecole des Mines, 54 - Nancy (France))

    1993-05-01

    It is a usual observation that subgrains exist in nickel-base single grain components solidified by the lost wax process. The association misorientations are generally small, but they can eventually lead to casting defects in the case of highly complex mold shapes. This work presents and attempt to relate the formation of subgrain boundaries with the development of the dendritic solidification microstructure. Experimental investigations have been undertaken on cast components made of AM1 nickel-base superalloy designed for high temperature turbine blades. Single grains were obtained by means of a grain selector at the bottom of each part. Metallographic observations have been made to characterize the dendritic array, together with gamma diffraction to measure the crystalline quality of the material and X-ray topography for mapping of misorientations on a dendritic scale. Small misorientations between dendrite stems have been found at the upper end of the selector which lead to the formation of subgrains. Moreover, during the growth process, the total mosaicity of the material increases, firstly as a consequence of an increase in the misorientations between subgrains, and secondly because of the decrease of the internal quality of each subgrain. It is proposed that misorientations are due to thermomechanical stresses which build up during [gamma]' precipitation at temperatures slightly below the solidus temperature of the alloy. (orig.)

  2. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...... strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research....

  3. The effect of lanthanum applications on drought tolerance in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Glasshouse investigations carried out by the authors on both perlite and soil, have repeatedly shown that several plant species, when treated with lanthanum, retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. Dry matter increases under water stress have been observed in some cases. Barley plants watered to 50% field capacity, and show-ing signs of water stress, yielded 18% more dry matter when treated with 5 kg/ha and 10 kg/ha of lanthanum than control plants (P<0.05). The results of these experiments suggest that increased dry matter production in crops under periods of water stress, is likely when previously treated with lanthanum. Consequently, it is conceivable that lanthanum may have potential as an agent that induces drought tolerance in grain crops, grown in low rainfall areas. Subsequent field trials using barley as a test crop at Walpeup, in the Mallee region of Victoria have shown that in a below average rainfall year, combined soil and foliar applications of lanthanum can significantly increase grain yield. This effect was not evident when barley grown on the same soil type was treated with lanthanum under above average rainfall conditions

  4. Barley metallothioneins differ in ontogenetic pattern and response to metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Pedas, Pai;

    2014-01-01

    pollination. However, among the MT grain transcripts MT2c was the most abundant, whereas MT4 was the least abundant. Excess Cu up-regulated three out of the six MTs expressed in leaves of young barley plants. In contrast, most MTs were down-regulated by excess Zn or Cd. Zn starvation led to up-regulation of......, the root-specific gene MT1b1 was 1000-fold up-regulated. Immunolocalizations provided the first evidence for accumulation of MT1a and MT2a proteins in planta, with correlation to transcript levels. In developing grains, MT2a and MT4 expression increased 4- and 300-fold over a 28-day-period after...... MT1a, whereas Cu starvation up-regulated MT2a, which has two copper-responsive elements in the promoter. Arabidopsis lines constitutively overexpressing barley MT2a showed increased sensitivity to excess Cd and Zn but no Cu-induced response. We suggest that barley MTs are differentially involved in...

  5. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  6. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  7. Critical yield-point model to estimate damage caused by brown spot and powdery mildew in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenita Agostinetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgaris L. is the second most important winter crop in Southern Brazil. The excessive rainfall in this region during the crop-growing season increases the frequency and intensity of foliar fungal diseases. The research aimed to determine the damage function equations (DFE for the multiple pathosystem of barley brown spot and powdery mildew based on the relationship between grain yield and diseases intensity at different 'BRS Cauê' cultivar growth stages (GS during 2009 and 2010 growing seasons in Southern Brazil. The experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with nine treatments and four replicates. The disease gradients were generated by strobilurins and triazols fungicides rates and number of applications on barley cv. Cauê. The fungicide applications and disease incidence and severity assessments were performed at the 22, 31, 39, 45 and 56 plant GS. The DFE were obtained by variance analysis and linear regression between grain yield and diseases intensity. Significant and negative DFE were obtained and the damage coefficients (DC varied from 29.48 to 100.08 (2009 and from 36.08 to 113.57kg ha-1 (2010 for incidence, and from 219.5 to 6,276.6 (2009 and 102.3 to 5,292.5kg ha-1 (2010 for severity. The largest damage coefficients were obtained when diseases assessments were made on GS 22 and 31 on both growing seasons evaluated. DFE were used to calculate the economic damage threshold (EDT as a criterion to indicate the fungicide application moment to control the diseases in cultivars similar to 'BRS Cauê' in Southern Brazil.

  8. Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (60Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples

  9. Zinc and iron speciation in the cereal grain

    OpenAIRE

    Schjoerring, Jan K.; Persson, Daniel P.; Hansen, Thomas H.; Laursen, Kristian H; Husted, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Phytic acid and proteins are believed to be important for the distribution and bio-availability of zinc and iron in the cereal grain, but little quantitative information is available on the relative importance of different organic ligands. We have used several chromatographic techniques including size exclusion chromatography (SEC) hyphenated to ICP-MS to analyse the molecular speciation of Fe and Zn in tissues of barley and rice seeds. The majority of Fe in barley embryos co-eluted with P as...

  10. APPLICATION OF WESTERN BLOT ANALYSIS FOR DETECTION OF PROLAMIN PROTEINS IN CEREAL GRAINS AND BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Cieślik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an inflammatory condition of the small intestine in genetically susceptible individuals caused by ingestion of wheat gluten and corresponding proteins from barley and rye. Cereal storage proteins (prolamins are responsible for immunological response of patients with celiac disease. Prolamins are alcohol soluble fractions, namely gliadins (wheat, hordeins (barley and secalins (rye. The main triggering factor is wheat fraction with low molecular weight (20-30 kDa called α-gliadins. Immunochemical detection of celiac active proteins is based on reactivity of gluten-detecting antibodies with prolamins extracted from cereals. In our study, we used Western blot analysis for detection of prolamin complex in cereal grains and processed foods (breads. Western blot was carried out by polyclonal antibody raised against wheat gluten. Reaction was positive for all kind of cereal grains. The samples of wheat and spelt wheat show much more positive affinity to antibody than rye and oat. As well as for cereal grains, all samples of bread showed positive immunological reaction with used antibody. Western blot analysis with gluten polyclonal antibody is suitable method for qualitative detection of prolamin complex in cereal grains and processed foods.doi:10.5219/115

  11. Performance of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties under organic and conventional conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokare, A.; Legzdina, L.; Beinarovica, I.; Niks, R.E.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture needs spring barley varieties that are adapted to organic growing conditions and have good and stable grain yield across years, even under less favourable growing conditions. The aim of this study was to compare how varieties differ in yield and yield stability under conventional

  12. Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

  13. Molecular Marker Development and Linkage Analysis in Three Low Phytic Acid Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mutant Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytate is the primary form of phosphorus found in mature cereal grain. This form of phosphorus is not available to monogastric animals due to a lack of the enzyme phytase in their digestive tract. Several barley low phytic acid (lpa) mutants have been identified that contain substantial decreases...

  14. A comparison of two milling strategies to reduce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain, is a threat to feed and food safety in the United States. New strategies to reduce the threat of DON need to be developed and implemented. Previous work has...

  15. Spatial and temporal regulation of DNA fragmentation in the aleurone of germinating barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Oppedijk, B.J.; Caspers, M.P.M.; Lamers, G.E.M.; Boot, M.J.; Geerlings, D.N.G.; Bakhuizen, B.; Meijer, A.H.; Duijn, B. van

    1998-01-01

    During germination of barley grains, the appearance of DNA fragmentation started in aleurone cells near the embryo and extended to the distal end in a time-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation was demonstrated to occur only after the expression of α-amylase mRNA in the aleurone layer. In addition, ce

  16. Doping Effects of Rare Earth on Dielectric Properties of Fine-Grained BaTiO3-Based Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲霞; 郭炜; 吴霞宛; 王洪儒; 张志萍

    2003-01-01

    The doping effects of rare earth oxides Ho2O3 and Er2O3 on dielectric properties of BaTiO3-based ceramics were studied. After adding rare earth elements, grain growth in this system was inhibited and the grain size was reduce devidently which realized the fine-grained effect. In this system, the trivalent oxides Ho2O3 and Er2O3 were added to BaTiO3 ceramics. The rare earth oxides do not enter into inner lattice totally to replace A or B sites. Some of additives can improve dielectric strength by forming nonferroelectric phases, and the rest maintained at grain boundaries controls overgrowth of grains. The dielectric constant at room temperature is increased up to 3000 and the curve of TCC becomes flat. Meanwhile, the dielectric strength Eb becomes higher.

  17. A rule-based model of barley morphogenesis, with special respect to shading and gibberellic acid signal transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Hemmerling, R.; Kniemeyer, O.; Burema, B.S.; Kurth, W.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims: Functional¿structural plant models (FSPM) constitute a paradigm in plant modelling that combines 3D structural and graphical modelling with the simulation of plant processes. While structural aspects of plant development could so far be represented using rule-based formalisms su

  18. Characterization of mutagenic activity in grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M.A.E.; Knize, M.G.; Felton, J.S.; Jagerstad, M.

    1994-06-01

    Several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees showed a mutagenic response in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024 and YG1O29 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders contained 150 to 500 TA98 and 1150 to 4050 YG1024 revertant colonies/gram, respectively. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC-and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitutes and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.

  19. Production of ethanol from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurantz M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US legislation requires the use of advanced biofuels to be made from non-food feedstocks. However, commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol technology is more complex than expected and is therefore running behind schedule. This is creating a demand for non-food, but more easily converted, starch-based feedstocks other than corn that can fill the gap until the second generation technologies are commercially viable. Winter barley is such a feedstock but its mash has very high viscosity due to its high content of β-glucans. This fact, along with a lower starch content than corn, makes ethanol production at the commercial scale a real challenge. Results A new fermentation process for ethanol production from Thoroughbred, a winter barley variety with a high starch content, was developed. The new process was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic process. In this process, in addition to the normal starch-converting enzymes, two accessory enzymes were used to solve the β-glucan problem. First, β-glucanases were used to hydrolyze the β-glucans to oligomeric fractions, thus significantly reducing the viscosity to allow good mixing for the distribution of the yeast and nutrients. Next, β-glucosidase was used to complete the β-glucan hydrolysis and to generate glucose, which was subsequently fermented in order to produce additional ethanol. While β-glucanases have been previously used to improve barley ethanol production by lowering viscosity, this is the first full report on the benefits of adding β-glucosidases to increase the ethanol yield. Conclusions In the EDGE process, 30% of total dry solids could be used to produce 15% v/v ethanol. Under optimum conditions an ethanol yield of 402 L/MT (dry basis or 2.17 gallons/53 lb bushel of barley with 15% moisture was achieved. The distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS co-product had extremely low β-glucan (below 0.2% making it suitable for use in both ruminant

  20. DNA polymorphisms and haplotype patterns of transcription factors involved in barley endosperm development are associated with key agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stracke Silke

    2010-01-01

    genes only explained a minor part of the total genetic variation although they are known to be important factors influencing the expression of seed quality traits. Therefore, we assume that grain quality as well as plant height and flowering time are influenced by many factors each contributing a small part to the expression of the phenotype. A genome-wide association analysis could provide a more comprehensive picture of loci involved in the regulation of grain quality, thousand grain weight and the other agronomic traits that were analyzed in this study. However, despite available high-throughput genotyping arrays the marker density along the barely genome is still insufficient to cover all associations in a whole genome scan. Therefore, the candidate gene-based approach will further play an important role in barley association studies.

  1. From field barley to malt: detection and specification of microbial activity for quality aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noots, I; Delcour, J A; Michiels, C W

    1999-01-01

    Barley grain carries a numerous, variable, and complex microbial population that mainly consists of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi and that can partly be detected and quantified using plating methods and microscopic and molecular techniques. The extent and the activity of this microflora are determined by the altering state of the grain and the environmental conditions in the malt production chain. Three ecological systems can be distinguished: the growing cereal in the field, the dry barley grain under storage, and the germinating barley kernel during actual malting. Microorganisms interact with the malting process both by their presence and by their metabolic activity. In this respect, interference with the oxygen uptake by the barley grain and secretion of enzymes, hormones, toxins, and acids that may affect the plant physiological processes have been studied. As a result of the interaction, microorganisms can cause important losses and influence malt quality as measured by brewhouse performance and beer quality. Of particular concern is the occurrence of mycotoxins that may affect the safety of malt. The development of the microflora during malt production can to a certain extent be controlled by the selection of appropriate process conditions. Physical and chemical treatments to inactivate the microbial population on the barley grain are suggested. Recent developments, however, aim to control the microbial activity during malt production by promoting the growth of desirable microbial cultures, selected either as biocontrol agents inhibiting mycotoxin-producing molds or as starter cultures actively contributing to malt modification. Such techniques may offer natural opportunities to improve the quality and safety of malt. PMID:10405796

  2. Measurement of grain size of polycrystalline materials with confocal energy dispersive micro-X-ray diffraction technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The confocal energy dispersive micro-X-ray diffraction (EDMXRD) based on polycapillary X-ray optics was used to determine the grain size of polycrystalline materials. The grain size of a metallographic specimen of nickel base alloy was measured by using the confocal EDMXRD. The experimental results demonstrated that the confocal EDMXRD had potential applications in measuring large grain size

  3. Physics-Based Reactive Burn Model: Grain size effects and binder effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Hamate, Yuichio; Horie, Yasuyuki

    2007-06-01

    We have been developing a physics-based reactive burn (PBRB) model aiming at expanding predictive capability. The PBRB model was formulated based on the concept of a statistical hot spot cell. In the model, thermomechanics and physiochemical features are explicitly modeled. In this paper, we have extended the statistical hot spot model to explicitly describe the ignition and growth of hot spots. In particular, grain size effects are explicitly delineated through introduction of a size-dependent thickness of the hot-region thickness, a size-dependent energy deposition criterion, and a specific surface area. Besides the linear relationships between the run distance to detonation and critical diameter with the reciprocal specific surface area of HE, as discussed in a parallel paper in this meeting, parametric studies have also shown that the PBRB can predict a non-monotonous variation of shock sensitivity with grain size, as observed by Moulard et al. The purpose of this work is to extend the model to include the effects of explosive binders explicitly. As a first step we investigate the thermomechanical effects of a binder by using direct mesoscale simulations. The results will be used in the extending the PBRB model to include binder thermomechanics explicitly.

  4. Patterns of genetic and eco-geographical diversity in Spanish barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiaoui, S; Igartua, Ernesto; Moralejo, M; Ramsay, L; Molina-Cano, J L; Ciudad, F J; Lasa, J M; Gracia, M P; Casas, A M

    2008-01-01

    The pool of Western Mediterranean landraces has been under-utilised for barley breeding so far. The objectives of this study were to assess genetic diversity in a core collection of inbred lines derived from Spanish barley landraces to establish its relationship to barleys from other origins, and to correlate the distribution of diversity with geographical and climatic factors. To this end, 64 SSR were used to evaluate the polymorphism among 225 barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) genotypes, comprising two-row and six-row types. These included 159 landraces from the Spanish barley core collection (SBCC) plus 66 cultivars, mainly from European countries, as a reference set. Out of the 669 alleles generated, a large proportion of them were unique to the six-row Spanish barleys. An analysis of molecular variance revealed a clear genetic divergence between the six-row Spanish barleys and the reference cultivars, whereas this was not evident for the two-row barleys. A model-based clustering analysis identified an underlying population structure, consisting of four main populations for the whole genotype set, and suggested further possible subdivision within two of these populations. Most of the six-row Spanish landraces clustered into two groups that corresponded to geographic regions with contrasting environmental conditions. The existence of wide genetic diversity in Spanish germplasm, possibly related to adaptation to a broad range of environmental conditions, and its divergence from current European cultivars confirm its potential as a new resource for barley breeders, and make the SBCC a valuable tool for the study of adaptation in barley. PMID:18026712

  5. Path to Support Development of Production and Operation of Big Grain Production Households - Based on Investigation of Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiu-li; Wang Yu-qing; Ji He-wen; Yin Bao-hua; Tan Hong-yu

    2015-01-01

    Developing production and operation in scales in the major grain producing areas is the direction of the paper. Seizing the opportunity of modern agriculture comprehensive reform in two plains (Songnen Plain and Sanjiang Plain) of Heilongjiang Province and supporting to build a new type of production and management based on the big grain production householding, which plays demonstration and leading roles, have an important strategic position in improving agricultural comprehensive production capacity and ensuring national food security. In this paper, based on the survey data about the big grain production households production operations and analyses of the obstacles in expansion of production in Heilongjiang Province, specific suggestions in supporting the development of the big grain production household were put forward, such as, increasing agricultural production socialized level;perfecting the service system of land transferring; improving financial policies and farmer-friendly policy measures and perfecting the agriculture socialized service system.

  6. Mechanisms regulating grain contamination with trichothecenes translocated from the stem base of wheat (Triticum aestivum) infected with Fusarium culmorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Mark; Koopmann, Birger; Döll, Katharina; Karlovsky, Petr; Kropf, Ute; Schlüter, Klaus; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Factors limiting trichothecene contamination of mature wheat grains after Fusarium infection are of major interest in crop production. In addition to ear infection, systemic translocation of deoxynivalenol (DON) may contribute to mycotoxin levels in grains after stem base infection with toxigenic Fusarium spp. However, the exact and potential mechanisms regulating DON translocation into wheat grains from the plant base are still unknown. We analyzed two wheat cultivars differing in susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB), which were infected at the stem base with Fusarium culmorum in climate chamber experiments. Fungal DNA was found only in the infected stem base tissue, whereas DON and its derivative, DON-3-glucoside (D3G), were detected in upper plant parts. Although infected stem bases contained more than 10,000 μg kg⁻¹ dry weight (DW) of DON and mean levels of DON after translocation in the ear and husks reached 1,900 μg kg⁻¹ DW, no DON or D3G was detectable in mature grains. D3G quantification revealed that DON detoxification took mainly place in the stem basis, where ≤ 50% of DON was metabolized into D3G. Enhanced expression of a gene putatively encoding a uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase (GenBank accession number FG985273) was observed in the stem base after infection with F. culmorum. Resistance to F. culmorum stem base infection, DON glycosylation in the stem base, and mycotoxin translocation were unrelated to cultivar resistance to FHB. Histological studies demonstrated that the vascular transport of DON labeled with fluorescein as a tracer from the peduncle to the grain was interrupted by a barrier zone at the interface between grain and rachilla, formerly described as "xylem discontinuity". This is the first study to demonstrate the effective control of influx of systemically translocated fungal mycotoxins into grains at the rachilla-seed interface by the xylem discontinuity tissue in wheat ears.

  7. Characteristic of grain contamination with weeds in some cereal varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Franciszek Pawłowski; Marian Wesołowski

    2013-01-01

    Grain contamination with weeds in winter wheat, winter rye, spring barley and seeding oats harvested with combines was examined. A different number of seeds and weed species was found to be present in 1 kg of grain of the cereal varieties compared. Certain similarities were noticed in the botanical composition and in the frequency of occurrence of weed seeds in the examined samples of cereal grains.

  8. Characteristic of grain contamination with weeds in some cereal varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Pawłowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain contamination with weeds in winter wheat, winter rye, spring barley and seeding oats harvested with combines was examined. A different number of seeds and weed species was found to be present in 1 kg of grain of the cereal varieties compared. Certain similarities were noticed in the botanical composition and in the frequency of occurrence of weed seeds in the examined samples of cereal grains.

  9. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J

    2008-01-01

    A screening programme for crop variety competitiveness would ideally be based on only a few, non-destructive measurements of key growth traits. In this study we measured the weed suppressive ability of 79 varieties of spring barley in two ways: (i) directly, by weed coverage assessments under wee...

  10. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring i...

  11. A general end point free energy calculation method based on microscopic configurational space coarse-graining

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Pu

    2015-01-01

    Free energy is arguably the most important thermodynamic property for physical systems. Despite the fact that free energy is a state function, presently available rigorous methodologies, such as those based on thermodynamic integration (TI) or non-equilibrium work (NEW) analysis, involve energetic calculations on path(s) connecting the starting and the end macrostates. Meanwhile, presently widely utilized approximate end-point free energy methods lack rigorous treatment of conformational variation within end macrostates, and are consequently not sufficiently reliable. Here we present an alternative and rigorous end point free energy calculation formulation based on microscopic configurational space coarse graining, where the configurational space of a high dimensional system is divided into a large number of sufficiently fine and uniform elements, which were termed conformers. It was found that change of free energy is essentially decided by change of the number of conformers, with an error term that accounts...

  12. NAC Transcription Factors of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their Involvement in Leaf Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    yielding cereal crops are generated. In cereals, the process of leaf senescence is of utmost relevance when discussing yield. It is during the senescence process that all nutrients are transported from the withering leaf to the developing grains. Furthermore, the timing of senescence determines...... parts of the senescence process. The specific aims of this study were therefore (1) to establish and characterise the NAC transcription factors of the model cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (2) to identify and study putative barley NAC transcription factors involved in the regulation of leaf...

  13. Properties of grain boundaries in BCC iron and iron-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terentyev, D.; He, Xinfu

    2010-08-15

    The report contains a summary of work done within the collaboration established between SCK-CEN and CIEA, performed during the internship of Xinfu He (CIAE) in the period of September 2009 to June 2010. In this work, we have carried out an atomistic study addressing the properties of grain boundaries in BCC Fe and Fe-Cr alloys. Throughout this work we report on the structural and cohesive properties of grain boundaries; thermal stability; interaction of grain boundaries with He and diffusivity of He in the core of the grain boundaries; equilibrium segregation of Cr near the grain boundary zone; cleavage fracture of grain boundaries; influence of the Cr precipitates, voids and He bubbles on the structure and strength of grain boundaries.

  14. Irradiation treatment of amaranth grain for shelf-life prolongation of amaranth-based biscuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiological control (total bacterial count, coliform bacteria, aerobic sporeforming bacteria, yeasts and moulds) of amaranth-based biscuits produced from the amaranth grain irradiated by various ionizing radiation doses (1.5, 3 and 5 kGy, radiation source 60Co) and stored for the period of 12 months at the laboratory temperature (20-25 deg C) were studied. The number of microorganisms in biscuits varied in dependence on the level of the starting raw-material treatment (non-irradiated grain - 10E6 CFU/g; irradiated by 1.5 and 3 kGy - 10E3 CFU/g; irradiated by 5 kGy - in the absence of the microflora). The rate of aerobic sporulants (Bacillus subtilis, B. brevis) surviving the shelf-life process, particularly in the samples untreated by radiation and in those treated by lower ionizing radiation doses (1.5 and 3 kGy), constituted 30 to 100 % of the total count of microorganisms. The ionizing radiation dose providing the biscuits maximum hygienic quality maintained up to the end of the one-year storage was 5 kGy

  15. Gay-Berne and electrostatic multipole based coarse-grain potential in implicit solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Johnny; Zhen, Xia; Shen, Hujun; Li, Guohui; Ren, Pengyu

    2011-10-01

    A general, transferable coarse-grain (CG) framework based on the Gay-Berne potential and electrostatic point multipole expansion is presented for polypeptide simulations. The solvent effect is described by the Generalized Kirkwood theory. The CG model is calibrated using the results of all-atom simulations of model compounds in solution. Instead of matching the overall effective forces produced by atomic models, the fundamental intermolecular forces such as electrostatic, repulsion-dispersion, and solvation are represented explicitly at a CG level. We demonstrate that the CG alanine dipeptide model is able to reproduce quantitatively the conformational energy of all-atom force fields in both gas and solution phases, including the electrostatic and solvation components. Replica exchange molecular dynamics and microsecond dynamic simulations of polyalanine of 5 and 12 residues reveal that the CG polyalanines fold into "alpha helix" and "beta sheet" structures. The 5-residue polyalanine displays a substantial increase in the "beta strand" fraction relative to the 12-residue polyalanine. The detailed conformational distribution is compared with those reported from recent all-atom simulations and experiments. The results suggest that the new coarse-graining approach presented in this study has the potential to offer both accuracy and efficiency for biomolecular modeling.

  16. Evaluation of drought resistance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars using agronomic characteristics and drought tolerance indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Saeidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the performance of barley under drought stress conditions and screening quantitative indices of drought tolerance, twelve barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars were tested in a split-plot arranged in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications under irrigated and post-anthesis water deficiency conditions. This study was carried out in the field research of campus of agriculture and natural resources, Razi university, Kermanshah state in the west of Iran during 2010-2011. The results showed that post anthesis water deficiency caused 22, 18.3, 5.9, 5.5 and 21.9 percent reduction in grain yield, biomass, thousand grain weight, number of grain per spike and number of spike per m2 in average respectively, but had no significant effect on harvest index. Mean comparisons showed that Nosrat cultivar with 838 g m-2 and Afzal cultivar with 392 g m-2, respectively had the highest and the lowest grain yield under non-stress condition. Under water stress environment Nosrat and Karoun cultivars with 696 and 656 g m-2 and also, Aras and Sahra cultivars with 322 and 327 g m-2, respectively had the highest and the lowest grain yield. The estimates of stress tolerance attributes indicated that the identification of drought-tolerant genotypes based on a single criterion was contradictory. For example, according to STI, GMP and MP cultivars Nosrat, Karoun and Sararud were the most, whereas Aras and Afzal cultivars the least relative tolerant genotypes. As to YI cultivars Nosrat, Karoun and Sararud were the most and Aras, Sahra and Afzal the least relative tolerant genotypes. According to YSI, SSPI, RDI and ATI indices selected the Sararud and Zarjo cultivars as the most relatively tolerant genotypes. DI selected the cultivars Sararud, Nosrat and Karoun as the best, while the cultivars Sahra, Aras and Reihan as the the worst relatively tolerant genotypes. Grain yield in stress condition was significantly and positively correlated

  17. Geographical origin of cereal grains based on element analyser-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-SIRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuluan; Luo, Donghui; Dong, Hao; Wan, Juan; Luo, Haiying; Xian, Yanping; Guo, Xindong; Qin, Fangfang; Han, Wanqing; Wang, Li; Wang, Bin

    2015-05-01

    The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (δ(13)C and δ(13)N) of different cereal grains from different regions were determined, using element analyser-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-SIRMS) as the key method. Systematically, δ(13)C and δ(13)N of 5 kinds of cereal grains of different origins, 30 wheat samples from different cultivation areas and 160 rice samples of different cultivars from Guangdong province of China were examined. The results indicated that the δ(13)C values of rice, soybean, millet, wheat and corn were significantly (P 0.05), which indicated that the cultivar of cereal grains was not significant based on δ(13)C value. Thus, the comparison of δ(13)C would be potentially useful for rapid and routine discrimination of geographical origin of cereal grains. PMID:25529718

  18. Development of a System to Measure Austenite Grain Size of Plate Steel Using Laser-Based Ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement system for austenite grain size of plate steel using laser-based ultrasonics has been developed. At first, the relationship between the ultrasonic attenuation coefficients using longitudinal waves and austenite grain size of samples was investigated in the laboratory experiments. According to the experimental results, the ultrasonic attenuation coefficients showed a good correlation with actual austenite grain sizes. For the next step, the system was installed in a hot rolling pilot plant of plate steel, and it was verified that the austenite grain size could be measured even in the environment of a hot rolling pilot plant. In the experiments, it was also confirmed that the fiber delivery system could deliver Nd:YAG laser beam of 810 mJ/pulse and ultrasonic signals could be obtained successfully

  19. 基于单叶反射光谱的转基因大麦光合特性分析%Study of Photosynthetic Characteristics of Transgenic Barley Based on Reflectance of Single Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彩霞; 袁飞; 张玉兰; 陈振华; 陈利军; 武志杰

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of leaf reflectance can provide a rich source of information about plant physiological process, surface properties of the leaf, as well as internal structure. In the present paper, the changes of reflectance spectra and spectral indices for transgenic barley and non-transgenic control variety based on measurements of single leaf were studied. The results showed that the ratio spectra that calculated by dividing one reflectance spectrum of transgenic barley by its' non-transgenic counterpart spectra were better to illustrate fine differences among spectra of leaves from different barley varieties. Ratio spectra varied between each pairs, but for most ratio spectrum indicated the reflectance differences between transgenic barley and non-transgenic counterpart were most obvious in the red spectrum around the chlorophyll peak and red edge (650~700 nm) and nearly identical in the green spectrum near 550 nm and within the near infra-red region (beyond 750 nm). Across the entire calculated spectrum, the changes of reflectance within the region from 650 to 700 nm seem to be very sensitive to respond to possible unintended effects of genetic modification. Six published reflectance indices, the red edge (X.RE), the modified normalized difference vegetation index (Mnd), the structure-independent pigment index (SIPI), the ratio of reflectance in the red and green regions of the spectrum (Rred/Rgreen), the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and the near-infrared reflectance at 800 nm (NIRR800) were used to make comparisons possible between species. The analyses of changes of these indices indicated that they were highly dependent on growth stages and barley varieties. Once indices described above have significant changes will mean that photosyn-thetic process, function and status of plants may be changed.%反射光谱分析可为植物叶片生理学过程、叶片表面及内部生化组分、结构特征等提供丰富信息.本文以转基因大麦及其原始

  20. The protein fraction from wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS): extraction and valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Torres, M F; Ward, J M; Lye, G J

    2015-12-25

    Nowadays there is worldwide interest in developing a sustainable economy where biobased chemicals are the lead actors. Various potential feedstocks are available including glycerol, rapeseed meal and municipal solid waste (MSW). For biorefinery applications the byproduct streams from distilleries and bioethanol plants, such as wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS), are particularly attractive, as they do not compete for land use. Wheat DDGS is rich in polymeric sugars, proteins and oils, making it ideal as a current animal feed, but also a future substrate for the synthesis of fine and commodity chemicals. This review focuses on the extraction and valorization of the protein fraction of wheat DDGS as this has received comparatively little attention to date. Since wheat DDGS production is expected to increase greatly in the near future, as a consequence of expansion of the bioethanol industry in the UK, strategies to valorize the component fractions of DDGS are urgently needed. PMID:25644639

  1. 我国粮食安全测度方法设计--基于FAO对粮食安全的定义%Design of national grain security evaluation methods:based on the definition of grain security by FAO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜为公; 李艳芳; 徐李

    2014-01-01

    针对全球粮食生产产量下降和粮食供需的不平衡,本研究基于FAO对粮食安全的定义,设计了我国粮食安全测度方法。粮食安全测度包括“国家粮食安全”,“家庭粮食安全”,“粮食营养安全”三项指标。考虑未来粮食安全的风险,还包括“数量安全”,“质量安全”,“生态安全”三个方面指标。%Facing the global issues about decline of grain production along with the imbalance of grain distribution , this research elicits the evaluation methods of national grain security , based on the definition of grain security by FAO.Grain Security Evaluation ,which is known to be made up by three main components:National Grain Security , Household Grain Security and Nutritional Grain Security , should not exclude another three important parts , which are Quantitative Security ,Quality Security and Ecological Security ,in order to get ready for the risks about grain se-curity we may need to .undertake in the future .

  2. Possible application of brewer’s spent grain in biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Jelena D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain is the major by-product in beer production. It is produced in large quantities (20 kg per 100 liters of produced beer throughout the year at a low cost or no cost, and due to its high protein and carbohydrates content it can be used as a raw material in biotechnology. Biotechnological processes based on renewable agro-industrial by-products have ecological (zero CO2 emission, eco-friendly by-products and economical (cheap raw materials and reduction of storage costs advantages. The use of brewer’s spent grain is still limited, being basically used as animal feed. Researchers are trying to improve the application of brewer’s spent grain by finding alternative uses apart from the current general use as an animal feed. Its possible applications are in human nutrition, as a raw material in biotechnology, energy production, charcoal production, paper manufacture, as a brick component, and adsorbent. In biotechnology brewer’s spent grain could be used as a substrate for cultivation of microorganisms and enzyme production, additive of yeast carrier in beer fermentation, raw material in production of lactic acid, bioethanol, biogas, phenolic acids, xylitol, and pullulan. Some possible applications for brewer’s spent grain are described in this article including pre-treatment conditions (different procedures for polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and cellulose hydrolysis, working microorganisms, fermentation parameters and obtained yields. The chemical composition of brewer’s spent grain varies according to barley variety, harvesting time, malting and mashing conditions, and a quality and type of unmalted raw material used in beer production. Brewer’s spent grain is lignocellulosic material rich in protein and fibre, which account for approximately 20 and 70% of its composition, respectively.

  3. An assessment of nutritional quality of hybryd maize grain based on chemical composition

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović Milan; Mladenović-Drinić Snežana; Dragičević Vesna; Camdžija Zoran; Filipović Milomir; Veličković Nevena; Stanković Goran

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition of grain of 20 maize hybrids, from different maturity groups, to define their nutritional quality from the point of main grain constituents: starch, total proteins, soluble proteins, oil, phytate, inorganic phosphorus, and soluble phenolics, as well as mass of 1.000 grains. A set of 20 ZP hybrids, FAO 400-800, were grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) at Zemun Polje (Serbia), during...

  4. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    . A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling...... seed dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was......Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable...

  5. Cereal bioengineering: amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were engineered by transgenic methods. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch branching enzymes (SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI) by a chimeric hairpin...... for the presence of a general mechanism in starch degradation in the plant kingdom where phosphorylation carried out by ectopic expression of StGWD tags barley starch granules for degradation by endogenous enzymes. Together this work shows two new strategies for in planta starch bioengineering of cereals....... It demonstrates that bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches, and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes....

  6. Effect of Soil Erosion on Spring Barley Growth in East Anglia,England:Preliminary Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUXI-XI; Y.BIOT

    1994-01-01

    The effect of soil erosion on spring barley growth was studied on a deep loamy soil in East Anglia,England,in 1992,Soil erosion was simulated by three levels of soil desurfacing,7.5,18and 30cm with three replicates.Significant differences in crop height,ground cover and crop yield were observed between the three levels of desurfacing.Soil desurfacing also has a singnificant effect on soil moisture at the 20cm depth.The interaction between soil removal and crop performance affected soil moisture at the depths of 50 and 100cm,No significant differences were found in runoff and sediment etween the three topsoil removals due to very dry growing season.Regression equations were developed between spring barley yield and soil desurfacing Spring barley grain yield declined by 97.6kg/ha per cm soil desurfacing.

  7. Grain Boundary Engineering for Assessing Durability and Aging Issues with Nickel-Based Superalloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Grain Boundary Engineering (GBE) approach, successfully demonstrated in Phase I, that microstructural optimization provides a very significant improvement in...

  8. A comparison of controlled self-pollination and open pollination results based on maize grain quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sulewska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. grain endosperm is triploid (3n, of which 2n come from the male (transferred by pollen and only 1n from the female plant, thus a major impact of the male form can be expected on grain quality parameters. A good example of this relationship is the phenomenon of xenia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pollen on grain quality. The field experiment was conducted in 2011; seeds were harvested from eight cultivars: Bosman, Blask, Tur, Kozak, Bielik, Smok, SMH 220 and Kresowiak, derived from free pollination and controlled self-pollination of maize. Analyses of nutrient contents and starch content in the grain were conducted in the laboratory. In addition, 1000 grain weight and the hectoliter weight of all grain samples were recorded. The results confirmed differences in grain quality of maize hybrids obtained by self-pollination and by open pollination. Grain of maize plants obtained by open-pollination was characterised by higher contents of N-free extract and starch, and lower protein content. Undertaking further studies on this subject may indicate specific recommendations for agricultural practice, such as mixtures of hybrids with good combining abilities, which will contribute to improved grain quality without additional costs.

  9. Comprehensive Evaluation on the Regional Economy of Commodity Grain Base in Heilongjiang Province Based on Factor Analysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking a total of 13 areas in Heilongjiang commodity grain base as the research objects,9 indices are selected,which are regional GDP(X1),per capita GDP(X2),total value of tertiary industry(X3),financial revenue(X4),urban fixed assets investment(X5),average salary(X6),gross industrial output value(X7),total output value of farming,forestry,husbandry and fishing(X8),and retail sales of social consumer goods(X9).Based on this,evaluation index system of regional economy is established.According to the 2006-2008 Heilongjiang Statistical Yearbook,average values within 3 years are used as analytical data.Factor Analysis Method is adopted to establish regression model and to carry out comprehensive analysis.Result shows that Heilongjiang commodity grain base has extremely uneven regional economic development in different areas.According to the score order and actual situation,the 13 areas are divided into 4 types.The first and second types are Harbin and Daqing,respectively.The third type is Qiqihaer,Suihua,Mudanjiang and Jiamusi.And the forth type is Jixi,Shuangyashan,Heihe,Yichun,Qitaihe,Hegang and Daxinganling.Suggestions for the development of these areas are put forward.

  10. Whole grain foods and health - A Scandinavian perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Wenche; Aman, Per; Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    of different whole grains and whole grain foods. The most commonly consumed whole grain cereals in the Scandinavian countries are wheat, rye, and oats with a considerable inter-country variation in the consumption patterns and with barley constituting only a minor role. The chemical composition...... and health effects of the final whole grain products. Future research should consider the specific properties of each cereal and its processing methods to further identify the uniqueness and health potentials of whole grain products. This would enable the authorities to provide more specific food...

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF GENUS Triticum, SENSU LATO AND SENSU STRICTO, BASED ON SPIKE AND GRAIN MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo P. STOYANOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of the present classifications of species of the genus Triticum associates mainly with several plant morphological factors such as fragility of the spikes spindle, grains threshability, grain sphericity, shape and position of glumes, lemmas and paleas and awns, compactness, etc. Special attention is paid to the factor "cultural/wild" form, the ploidy and the genomic constitution of the species, often supported by molecular data which provides considerable comfort in disclosing phylogenetic features in a particular taxonomic unit. Such taxonomic determination is associated with certain disadvantages. It is not sufficiently focused on the spike morphology related to the reproductive apparatus of the plant, and also the causes of phylogenetic differentiation of certain parameters, such as spike branching, multiple spikelets, as well as the ratios of quantitative properties. The existing classifications do not give a precise answer to the taxonomic position of amphidiploids in the genus Triticum, and also for those obtained from hybrid combinations with genera Aegilops, Secale, Haynaldia, Hordeum, Elymus, Leymus, Elytrigia, Agropyron, as transitional and similar forms. Based on studies of spike and grain morphology of a large number of representatives of the genus Triticum and other interspecific and intergeneric amphidiploid forms, a classification of the genus sensu lato and sensu stricto is composed. Sensu stricto, genus Triticum covers all existing wild and cultivated known wheat forms, together with interspecific artificial synthetic forms. Sensu lato, the genus includes intergeneric hybrids, for which a specific generic epithet was coined - ×Triticum, and also a specific epithet, consistent with the originator of the amphidiploid. Special attention was paid to species and amphidiploids with the genus Aegilops. Classification sensu strictissimo was also formulated where the genus Triticum brings together only diploid species

  12. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  13. WIP: A Web-based program for indexing planar features in quartz grains and its usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losiak, Anna; Golebiowska, Izabela; FerrièRe, Ludovic; Wojciechowski, Jacek; Huber, Matthew S.; Koeberl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz are the most important diagnostic features that allow the unambiguous identification of impact structures on Earth. In order to confirm that these features (that are characterized by planar character and form along specific crystallographic planes) are indeed PDFs, they need to be properly investigated and indexed. Following universal-stage measurements, the process of indexing is usually performed manually, using a Wulff stereonet and following a strict procedure, which is time consuming and error prone. In this article, we present WIP, a new Web-based program for indexing planar deformation features in quartz. The correctness of our program is shown by its application to measurements that had previously been indexed manually. The observed minor differences, especially in the absolute frequency percentage of PDFs, are negligible and not significant enough to influence the estimation of shock pressure that could be calculated from the indexed results. Usability of this program is shown using the spatial relationships between a statistically significant number of 278 quartz grains with 409 sets of PDFs analyzed within the area ( 35 mm2) of a single thin section of a meta-greywacke from the Bosumtwi impact structure. Our program is not only more accurate and faster than the manual (graphical) method but also removes the human error from the plotting process and allows control of several parameters, such as the value of estimated measurement error used in the indexing calculation or method of aggregated error handling. The program also provides information about the angles between the planes of the measured PDF sets present in a grain, which allows determination of the angles between (for example) indexed {10accent="true">1¯3} and {10accent="true">1¯1} sets.

  14. Competition and dry matter yield in intercrops of barley and legume for forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOLLAH JAVANMARD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For increasing land use efficiency intercropping plays a pivotal role. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., vetch (Vicia villosa, and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L. monocultures as well as mixtures of barley with each of the above legumes, in three seeding ratios (i.e., barley: legume 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75, based on seed numbers were used to investigated forage yield and competition indices such as land equivalent ratio (LER,competitive ratio (CR, relative crowding coefficient (RCC, aggressivity (A, actual yield loss (AYL, monetary advantage index (MAI and intercropping advantage (IA.The experimental was arranged asa randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications.The results showed that intercropping reduced the dry matter yield of the three component plants, compared with their respective monocrops. The greatest value of total dry matter yield was obtained from barley25-grass pea75 (5.44 t ha-1 mixture, followed by grass pea sole crop (4.99 t ha-1. The total AYL values were positive and greater than 0 in all mixtures, indicating an advantage from intercropping over sole crops. Intercropped barley had a higher relative crowding coefficient (K=1.64 than intercropped legumes (K=1.20, indicating that barley was more competitive than legumes in mixtures. Furthermore, grass pea was more competitive than vetch in mixtures with barley. The highest LER, SPI and MAI were obtained when barley was mixed at a rate of 25% with 75% seed rate of grass pea. It is concluded that intercropping of barley with grass pea has a good potential to improve the performance of forage with high land-use efficiency.

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity among barley cultivars and breeding lines adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and its implications in breeding barley for imidazolinone-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Rustgi

    Full Text Available Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the 'Bob' barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, since it comprises ∼23% (335,000 ha of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the 'Bob' AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29-53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358-471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158-2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%-90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed.

  16. Purification and characterization of three chitinases and one beta-1,3-glucanase accumulating in the medium of cell suspension cultures of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, K.M.; Jacobsen, S.; Dalgaard Mikkelsen, J.;

    1991-01-01

    Three basic chitinases and one basic beta-1,3-glucanase were secreted into the medium when embryogenic cell suspensions of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. 'Igri' were cultured as undifferentiated aggregates in the presence of 2,4-D. The enzymes were purified by affinity and ion exchange...... chromatography. Two of the chitinases were identified as the previously described endochitinases T and C from barley grain. The third and novel chitinase, designated K, was the major basic chitinase in the medium constituting 4% of the soluble protein. Chitinase K was found to be a 33-kDa endochitinase with p......I at 8.7. Further analysis showed that this enzyme is also expressed in barley grain. The amino acid composition and five partial amino acid sequences covering 93 residues of chitinase K were determined. A high similarity was found between chitinase K and barley chitinase T and C as well as basic...

  17. A fast 3D surface reconstruction and volume estimation method for grain storage based on priori model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xian-hua; Sun, Wei-dong

    2011-06-01

    Inventory checking is one of the most significant parts for grain reserves, and plays a very important role on the macro-control of food and food security. Simple, fast and accurate method to obtain internal structure information and further to estimate the volume of the grain storage is needed. Here in our developed system, a special designed multi-site laser scanning system is used to acquire the range data clouds of the internal structure of the grain storage. However, due to the seriously uneven distribution of the range data, this data should firstly be preprocessed by an adaptive re-sampling method to reduce the data redundancy as well as noise. Then the range data is segmented and useful features, such as plane and cylinder information, are extracted. With these features a coarse registration between all of these single-site range data is done, and then an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is carried out to achieve fine registration. Taking advantage of the structure of the grain storage being well defined and the types of them are limited, a fast automatic registration method based on the priori model is proposed to register the multi-sites range data more efficiently. Then after the integration of the multi-sites range data, the grain surface is finally reconstructed by a delaunay based algorithm and the grain volume is estimated by a numerical integration method. This proposed new method has been applied to two common types of grain storage, and experimental results shown this method is more effective and accurate, and it can also avoids the cumulative effect of errors when registering the overlapped area pair-wisely.

  18. Influence of Grain Boundary on Fatigue Behavior of Ni-base Bicrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the grain boundary on the fatigue behavior was studied by two three-point-bending (TPB) specimens.One TPB specimen was named Bicrystal 1, whose pre-crack was along the grain boundary and the applied loadparalleled to pre-crack direction, while the other TPB specimen was named Bicrystal 2, whose the pre-crack wasperpendicular to the grain boundary and the applied load paralleled also to the pre-crack. It was found that the rateof the fatigue crack growth of Bicrystal 1 was about a tenfold higher than that of Bicrystal 2. The fatigue behaviorof Bicrystal 2 specimens was dependent on the distance between the crack tip and grain boundary. The crack growthrate was highest when the crack tip was at a critical distance to the grain boundary, while the rate was the lowestwhen the crack tip reached grain boundary. After the crack was over the grain boundary, the crack growth rateincreased. The crystallographic finite element method was applied to analyze the stress and strain structure aheadof the crack, in order to reveal the above characteristics of the fatigue behavior. It is the grain boundary-inducedredistribution of stresses near the crack tip that induces the difference of fatigue behavior.

  19. Improvement of barley for drought tolerance by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley (cultivar Ardhaoui) is a traditional cereal adapted to the agroclimatic and abiotic stresses of South Tunisia. It is used by local communities as the food plant and source of proteins for animals. It is a heterogeneous mixtures of land races and represent the adapted natural germplasm which needs to be improved in yield, quality and tolerance to stress (especially drought). Irradiation technique is used in this work for the selection of barley lines tolerant to drought. Building on the obtained results, the technique will be used to develop barley lines matching specific environments prevailing in the south of Tunisia. The obtained mutants are characterized by the increased of grain yield and water use efficiency through a greater tolerance to drought. On the level of the physiological behavior, the mutants are more efficient regarding the values of rate of photosynthesis A, the stomatic conductance gs, the rate of transpiration E, chlorophyl rate and the internal CO2 concentration Ci. The content of proline shows that this amino acid is strongly concentrated at the irradiated lines. The analysis of nutritional behavior shows that the content of (Ca+Mg) in irradiated lines decreases by increasing the stress. The phosphorus content was also assigned by the water stress. On the contrary, the potassium content increases with the intensity of stress. Under water deficit, the growth parameter, the grain production and the number of spike and tillers are significantly reduced for the control (the reduction reached 42 to 50%). This reduction does not exceed 25% for the irradiated lines. The availability of these improved mutant seeds can contribute to increase food security for the local population. (author)

  20. Transcriptome study of storage protein genes of field-grown barley in response to inorganic nitrogen fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Bowra, Steve; Lange, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    The storage proteins of barley, in terms of both amino acid profile and quantity, are traits strongly influenced by the amount of nitrogen applied. Given this, we performed a developmental expression analysis of the genes from barley grains grown under field conditions to further our understanding...... of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning nitrogen utilization. A barley grain specific micro-array, where a comprehensive set of genes involved in nitrogen mobilization, storage protein synthesis and amino acid metabolism were assembled, was used to obtain a global but focused gene expression...... that the genes of the different storage protein families were subject to different transcriptional regulation and responded differently to environmental stimuli. This finding may open the intriguing possibility of breeding selectively for specific alleles or homologues to confer an enhanced amino acid profile...

  1. Study on the Production Techniques of Highland Barley Sake%青稞清酒酿造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于军

    2011-01-01

    Based on the production techniques of Moet distilled liquor and sweet fermented grains and by reference of the manufacturing principles of sake and yellow rice wine, the production process of highland barley sake had finally developed as following: high-quality Tibetan barley used as raw materials, Aspergiuus oryzae2146 or 3800 used as saccharifying bacteria, Sake yeast 1296 used as fermenting strains, and then followed the principle of "wine yeast used once, timely starter-adding, feeding gradually, high-concentration ingredients mixing, and multilateral fermentation".%青稞清酒酿造工艺是在酩馏酒和甜醅的酿造基础上,借鉴清酒和喂饭黄酒的酿造原理,选用青藏高原品质优良的青稞为原料,以米曲霉(Aspergiuus oryzae)2146或3800为糖化菌,清酒酵母(sake yeast)1296为发酵茵株,生产工艺为“一次酒母,适时添曲,分次喂饭,高浓配料,多边发酵”。

  2. 酸法提取青稞麸皮结合酚工艺优化%Optimization of combined phenols extraction with sulfuric acid from hulless barley bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐菲; 杨希娟; 党斌; 赵亚东; 吴昆仑; 迟德钊

    2016-01-01

    about the phenolic in hulless barley are of great significance. Free form, soluble combined form and insoluble combined form are the 3 main states of polyphenols in grain, and combined form is the most common state of polyphenols in grain. Research found that when respectively using acid and alkaline hydrolysis to extract combined phenols from lychee, different type and content were obtained, and the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the former were higher than the latter; a similar result was also obtained when using wheat as raw material, but related researches on combined phenol of hulless barley have not yet been reported. In order to further develop the most characteristics crop on the Tibetan plateau, taking hulless barley as the raw material, central composite design was used to optimize the extraction process of combined phenols based on the single factor experiments in this paper. Different extraction reagents, NaOH, HCl and H2SO4were compared and H2SO4solution was selected as the best extraction reagent. Acid concentration, extraction pH value, solid-liquid ratio, and extraction temperature were studied with combined phenols content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity as indices. Solid-liquid ratio, acid concentration and extraction temperature were selected as 3 factors when using Box-Behnken central composite design to optimize the extraction parameters. Results showed that the optimum extraction parameters should be as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:17 g/mL, acid concentration of 11.10%, and extraction temperature of 75℃. Under the condition, polyphenol content was 224.33 mg/(100 g) and DPPH radical scavenging capacity was 9 919.28μmol/(100 g) which were consistent with predicted values and significantly better than rice, wheat and oat. High performance liquid chromatography was used to detect this optimum extract and 8 kinds of phenolic acids and 8 kinds of flavonoids were found using acid method , such as, gallic acid, 2,4-dihydroxy

  3. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles and fibrolytic enzymes on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and fibrolytic enzymes (FE) on ruminal fermentation, in situ ruminal and in vivo total tract digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 6 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 794 ± 44.2 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were a control diet consisting of 50% barley silage, 10% grass hay, and 40% barley grain-based concentrate (CON) and the CON with 15% DDGS substituted for barley grain (WDG) combined with either 0, 1, or 2 mL FE/kg diet DM, respectively. Inclusion of DDGS increased total tract digestibility of CP ( effects of DDGS inclusion or FE on ruminal pH or VFA concentration except that propionate was greater ( = 0.04) with the WDG. In situ ruminal DM and NDF disappearance of barley silage was greater ( < 0.04) in heifers fed the WDG than in heifers fed the CON after 24 h of incubation. Increasing FE linearly ( = 0.03) increased in situ NDF disappearance of barley silage after 24 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 120 weaned steers (initial BW of 289 ± 11.0 kg) were fed diets similar to those in Exp. 1. The steers fed the WDG had greater ( < 0.01) final BW, ADG, DMI, and G:F compared with steers fed the CON. Increasing FE did not alter ADG or G:F but tended ( < 0.07) to linearly decrease DMI. There were interactions ( < 0.02) between DDGS and FE on eating rate and the time spent at the feed bunk. Supplementing FE decreased ( < 0.01) time at the bunk and increased ( < 0.01) eating rate for steers fed the WDG but not for steers fed the CON. Eating rate ( < 0.01) and meal frequency ( = 0.02) were greater but eating duration was shorter ( < 0.01) for steers fed the WDG than for those fed the CON. These results indicate that inclusion of wheat DDGS in a growing diet increased total tract digestibility of NDF and CP and improved the

  4. Uzu mutation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reduces the leaf unrolling response to brassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ichiro; Zeniya, Haruko; Yoneyama, Koichi; Chono, Makiko; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2003-05-01

    A sensitive method to examine the brassinolide (BL) response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using dark-grown leaf segments was established based on the known method for wheat. BL responses of 53 dwarf isogenic lines of barley were examined, and two lines were found having a uzu gene that doesn't respond significantly. These results indicate that uzu dwarfism may be caused by the non-responding character to BL.

  5. Grain-Size Based Additivity Models for Scaling Multi-rate Uranyl Surface Complexation in Subsurface Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Liu, Chongxuan; Hu, Bill X.; Hu, Qinhong

    2016-07-01

    This study statistically analyzed a grain-size based additivity model that has been proposed to scale reaction rates and parameters from laboratory to field. The additivity model assumed that reaction properties in a sediment including surface area, reactive site concentration, reaction rate, and extent can be predicted from field-scale grain size distribution by linearly adding reaction properties for individual grain size fractions. This study focused on the statistical analysis of the additivity model with respect to reaction rate constants using multi-rate uranyl (U(VI)) surface complexation reactions in a contaminated sediment as an example. Experimental data of rate-limited U(VI) desorption in a stirred flow-cell reactor were used to estimate the statistical properties of multi-rate parameters for individual grain size fractions. The statistical properties of the rate constants for the individual grain size fractions were then used to analyze the statistical properties of the additivity model to predict rate-limited U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment, and to evaluate the relative importance of individual grain size fractions to the overall U(VI) desorption. The result indicated that the additivity model provided a good prediction of the U(VI) desorption in the composite sediment. However, the rate constants were not directly scalable using the additivity model, and U(VI) desorption in individual grain size fractions have to be simulated in order to apply the additivity model. An approximate additivity model for directly scaling rate constants was subsequently proposed and evaluated. The result found that the approximate model provided a good prediction of the experimental results within statistical uncertainty. This study also found that a gravel size fraction (2-8mm), which is often ignored in modeling U(VI) sorption and desorption, is statistically significant to the U(VI) desorption in the sediment.

  6. Biologically active secondary metabolites of barley. I. Developing techniques and assessing allelopathy in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D L; Lovett, J V

    1993-10-01

    Allelopathic effects of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) were assessed using modified bioassays that reduced other environmental influences. In a Petri dish bioassay, germination of white mustard was delayed and the radicle lengths were significantly inhibited at a density of 0.5 barley seed/cm(2). In a 'siphoning' bioassay apparatus, when the two species were sown together, radicle elongation of white mustard was not inhibited one day after sowing but became increasingly inhibited as bioassay time increased. Barley allelochemicals were released from the roots in a hydroponic system for at least 70 days after commencement of barley germination. Solutions removed from the hydroponic system of growing barley delayed germination and inhibited growth of white mustard. The allelopathic activity of barley was further confirmed at a density of 0.3 barley seed/cm(2) in a modified stairstep apparatus. PMID:24248571

  7. Energy consumption in barley and turnip rape cultivation for bioethanol and biodiesel (RME) production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu; Ahokas, Jukka [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences, FIN-00014 Helsingin yliopisto (Finland); Pahkala, Katri [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Crop Science and Technology, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    The energy consumption for six spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production chains and five spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera (DC) Metsg.) production chains were compared with each other and in relation to the energy content of the seed yield. Two cultivation intensities, standard and intensive production, were used for barley. Fertiliser production and grain drying were the most energy consuming phases of the chains. The production of nitrogen fertiliser alone accounted for 1/3-1/2 of the total energy consumption of the production chains. If barley were direct drilled and the yield stored in airtight silos, instead of drying, the energy consumption would decrease by 30-34%. Use of wood-chips instead of oil for grain drying would decrease the use of fossil fuel to the same extent. The input-output ratios for the intensive barley production chains were 0.18-0.25. They were somewhat lower than the ratios for the standard production intensity. The intensive production was more energy efficient despite higher input rates. The input-output ratios for turnip rape production were 0.32-0.34. The energy consumption for manufacturing, repair and maintenance of machines and buildings requires more research because it is a significant factor but the data available are largely old and few studies have been conducted. (author)

  8. HydrogeoSieveXL: an Excel-based tool to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain-size analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    For over a century, hydrogeologists have estimated hydraulic conductivity (K) from grain-size distribution curves. The benefits of the practice are simplicity, cost, and a means of identifying spatial variations in K. Many techniques have been developed over the years, but all suffer from similar shortcomings: no accounting of heterogeneity within samples (i.e., aquifer structure is lost), loss of grain packing characteristics, and failure to account for the effects of overburden pressure on K. In addition, K estimates can vary by an order of magnitude between the various methods, and it is not generally possible to identify the best method for a given sample. The drawbacks are serious, but the advantages have seen the use of grain-size distribution curves for K estimation continue, often using a single selected method to estimate K in a given project. In most cases, this restriction results from convenience. It is proposed here that extending the analysis to include several methods would be beneficial since it would provide a better indication of the range of K that might apply. To overcome the convenience limitation, an Excel-based spreadsheet program, HydrogeoSieveXL, is introduced here. HydrogeoSieveXL is a freely available program that calculates K from grain-size distribution curves using 15 different methods. HydrogeoSieveXL was found to calculate K values essentially identical to those reported in the literature, using the published grain-size distribution curves.

  9. Production of fermented cheese whey-based beverage using kefir grains as starter culture: evaluation of morphological and microbial variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Nicolau, Ana; Dragone, Giuliano; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, José António; de Almeida Silva, João Batista; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2010-11-01

    Whey valorization concerns have led to recent interest on the production of whey beverage simulating kefir. In this study, the structure and microbiota of Brazilian kefir grains and beverages obtained from milk and whole/deproteinised whey was characterized using microscopy and molecular techniques. The aim was to evaluate its stability and possible shift of probiotic bacteria to the beverages. Fluorescence staining in combination with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy showed distribution of yeasts in macro-clusters among the grain's matrix essentially composed of polysaccharides (kefiran) and bacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis displayed communities included yeast affiliated to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kazachatania unispora, bacteria affiliated to Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. Kefirgranum, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. Kefiranofaciens and an uncultured bacterium also related to the genus Lactobacillus. A steady structure and dominant microbiota, including probiotic bacteria, was detected in the analyzed kefir beverages and grains. This robustness is determinant for future implementation of whey-based kefir beverages. PMID:20619643

  10. Genotypes-Independent Optimization of Nitrogen Supply for Isolated Microspore Cultures in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ruiju; Chen, Zhiwei; Gao, Runhong; He, Ting; Wang, Yifei; Xu, Hongwei; Guo, Guimei; Li, Yingbo

    2016-01-01

    To establish a high-efficiency system of isolated microspore culture for different barley genotypes, we investigated the effects of nitrogen sources and concentrations on callus induction and plant regeneration in different barley genotypes. The results showed that the organic nitrogen sources greatly increased the callus induction, and the great reduction of total nitrogen sources would significantly decrease the callus induction. And the further optimization experiments revealed that the increasing of organic nitrogen sources was much important in callus induction while it seemed different in plant regeneration. Based on the great effects of organic nitrogen on callus induction, the medium of N6-ANO1/4-2000 might be the best choice for the microspore culture system. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were clear differences of genetic backgrounds among these barley genotypes, and it also suggested that this medium for microspore culture had widespread utilization in different barley genotypes. PMID:27525264

  11. Holobiont nutrition: Considering the role of the gastrointestinal microbiota in the health benefits of whole grains

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Jens; Martínez, Inés; Rose, Devin J.

    2013-01-01

    Intake of whole grains and other food products high in dietary fiber have long been linked to the prevention of chronic diseases associated with inflammation. A contribution of the gastrointestinal microbiota to these effects has been suggested, but little is known on how whole grains interact with gut bacteria. We have recently published the first human trial that made use of next-generation sequencing to determine the effect of whole grains (whole grain barley, brown rice or a mixture of th...

  12. Malting Characteristics of Some Sorghum and Millet Grain Varieties Grown in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial malt in Kenya for commercial beer production is made exclusively from barley. This study explored the potential of producing suitable malt from some sorghum and finger millet grain varieties grown in Kenya. Malting characteristics of two sorghum grain varieties, KARI Mtama-1 and local Red variety, and that of finger millet was done and compared to that of barley. Among the grain characteristics determined before malting were water sensitivity, polyphenol (tannin) content and total protein. The grain was malted by striping in water for 48 h, followed by germination for four days at 25 degrees celcious, then kilned at 50 degrees celcious for 24 h. The malting characteristics determined included total soluble N, free amino N, wort pH and fermentable sugars. The local red sorghum and millet had high polyphenol content while KARI Mtama-1 and barley had low levels. KARI Mtama-1 had positive water sensitivity while barley had negative sensitivity. Finger millet and local red sorghum were water insensitive. Free amino N was 113, 125, 144, and 154mg 100g-1 malt for millet, barley, local Red and KARI Mtama-1, respectively. Total fermentation sugars were 307, 477, 610 and 178 mg 1-1 for finger millet, local red, barley and KARI Mtama1, respectively. The results showed that that the proteolytic and amyloytic characteristics of the KARI Mtama-1 malt are largely similar to those of barley. Hence the KARI Mtama-1 malt are largely similar to those of barley. Hence the KARI Mtama-1 has good potential fro conventional lager beer production. Malts of local Red sorghum grain and millet may be more suitable for industrial production of opaque/cloudy beer

  13. New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A

    1976-01-01

    Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

  14. Healthier cereal products: breadmaking with barley flour.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya Romero, Carolina; Novillo, Carmen; Rodríguez Badiola, Guillermo; Callejo González, Maria Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Promote consumption of barley breads, in order to improve intake of fibre and healthenhancing components: Instrumental evaluation of breads. Sensory consumer evaluation of breads. Bread-making performances of flours. Instrumental evaluation of barley substituted wheat Dough.

  15. Molecular characterization of two lipoxygenases from barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechelen, J.R. van; Schuurink, R.C.; Smits, M.; Graner, A.; Douma, A.C.; Sedee, N.J.A.; Schmitt, N.F.; Valk, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two full-length lipoxygenase cDNA sequences (LoxB and LoxC) from barley (Hordeum distichum cv. L. Triumph) are described. The cDNAs share high homology with the barley LoxA cDNA. Southern blotting experiments indicate single copy numbers of the three lipoxygenase genes. RFLP mapping revealed the pre

  16. Developing transgenic wheat and barley that exhibit resistance to Fusarium graminearum via glucoside conjugation of trichothecene mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium graminearum infection of wheat and barley results in production of trichothecene mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). These mycotoxins result in increased fungal virulence and reduce grain quality. Numerous transcriptomic studies have been conducted by our lab on t...

  17. The competitive ability of pea–barley intercrops against weeds and the interactions with crop productivity and soil N availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corre-Hellou, G.; Dibet, A.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Grain legumes, such as peas (Pisum sativum L.), are known to be weak competitors against weeds when grown as the sole crop. In this study, the weed-suppression effect of pea–barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) intercropping compared to the respective sole crops was examined in organic field experiments a...

  18. Repeated dose oral toxicological evaluation of concentrated barley β-glucan in CD-1 mice including a recovery phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaney, B.; Carlson, T.; Zheng, G.-H.; Hess, R.; Knutson, N.; Frazer, S.; Ostergren, K.; Zijverden, M. van; Knippels, L.; Jonker, D.; Penninks, A.

    2003-01-01

    The cholesterol-lowering effect observed following consumption of oats and barley is attributable to the β-glucan component of the soluble fiber fraction of these cereal grains. β-Glucan has also been reported to modulate immune activity, however, few studies have evaluated the hematological effects

  19. E-nose based rapid prediction of early mouldy grain using probabilistic neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Liu, Wei; Hui, Guohua; Fu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, early mouldy grain rapid prediction method using probabilistic neural network (PNN) and electronic nose (e-nose) was studied. E-nose responses to rice, red bean, and oat samples with different qualities were measured and recorded. E-nose data was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), back propagation (BP) network, and PNN, respectively. Results indicated that PCA and BP network could not clearly discriminate grain samples with different mouldy status and showed poo...

  20. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger;

    2011-01-01

    imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel’s lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis...... is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised...... classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI95%: 29–35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI95%: 0–15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model...

  1. The effect of grain source and grain processing on performance of feedlot cattle: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, F N; Secrist, D S; Hill, W J; Gill, D R

    1997-03-01

    Effects of grain species and grain processing method on DMI, rate and efficiency of gain, and feeding value for cattle fed high concentrate diets were appraised by statistically compiling results from 605 comparisons from feeding trials published in North American journals and experiment station bulletins since 1974. Metabolizable energy (ME) values for each grain and processing method were calculated by quadratic procedures from DMI and animal performance. Averaged across processing methods, ME values for corn, milo, and wheat grain (3.40, 3.22, and 3.46 Mcal/kg DM) fell within 9% of ME estimates from NRC (1996) for beef cattle. In contrast, ME values for barley and oats grain (3.55 and 3.46 Mcal/kg DM) were 24% and 17% greater than NRC (1996) estimates. Compared with the dry rolled forms, high moisture corn and milo resulted in lower ADG and DMI. Compared with dry rolling, either steam rolling or flaking of corn, milo, and wheat decreased DMI without decreasing ADG and improved feed efficiency by 10, 15, and 10%, respectively. Compared with dry rolled grain, steam flaking increased (P barley and oats. Higher moisture content of high-moisture corn decreased dry matter intake without depressing ADG and improved efficiency and increased ME of the grain. Compared with steam flakes of moderate thinness, processing milo or barley to a very thin flake tended to reduce ADG and failed to improve feed efficiency. The ideal roughage source and roughage moisture content for maximum ME and ADG varied with grain processing method. Feeding corn silage rather than alfalfa and wet rather than dry roughage depressed (P flaked corn or wheat. PMID:9078507

  2. Illumina-based analysis of core actinobacteriome in roots, stems, and grains of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenfeng; Zhai, Yanyan; Cao, Lixiang; Tan, Hongming; Zhang, Renduo

    2016-09-01

    Seed-borne microbiota can transmit vertically from generation to generation and be a favour mutualism between the endosymbionts and hosts. The aim of this study was to investigate the rice-associated actinobacterial taxa in roots, stems, and grains and explore vertically transmitted core actinobacteriome of rice plants. Illumina sequencing analyses of samples of rice grains, stems, and roots showed that the roots contained the most diverse actinobacteria among the tissues. The grains contained 78 actinobacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), among which 44 were shared with those in the stems, 30 shared with those in the roots. The coexisted OTUs in the three types of samples mainly belong to genera of Pseudonocardia, Dietzia, Nocardioides, Streptomyces, Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, Citricoccus, Salinibacterium, and Agrococcus, and other unclassified taxa. The dominant actinobacterial genera Pseudonocardia and Dietzia in the stems and roots were still detected in relatively high abundance in the grains. The Streptomyces isolated from surface sterilized grains could improve nitrogen use efficiency of rice seedlings and the resistance to rice blast fungus. The results suggested that the rice grains contained diverse actinobacterial taxa deriving from stems and roots and showed intimate correlation with the host plants. PMID:27393994

  3. Coarse-graining using the relative entropy and simplex-based optimization methods in VOTCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühle, Victor; Jochum, Mara; Koschke, Konstantin; Aluru, N. R.; Kremer, Kurt; Mashayak, S. Y.; Junghans, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Coarse-grained (CG) simulations are an important tool to investigate systems on larger time and length scales. Several methods for systematic coarse-graining were developed, varying in complexity and the property of interest. Thus, the question arises which method best suits a specific class of system and desired application. The Versatile Object-oriented Toolkit for Coarse-graining Applications (VOTCA) provides a uniform platform for coarse-graining methods and allows for their direct comparison. We present recent advances of VOTCA, namely the implementation of the relative entropy method and downhill simplex optimization for coarse-graining. The methods are illustrated by coarse-graining SPC/E bulk water and a water-methanol mixture. Both CG models reproduce the pair distributions accurately. SYM is supported by AFOSR under grant 11157642 and by NSF under grant 1264282. CJ was supported in part by the NSF PHY11-25915 at KITP. K. Koschke acknowledges funding by the Nestle Research Center.

  4. Weight Determining of Factors Influencing Grain Output Based on Entropy Weight Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article selects 8 main factors(the number of rural employees,total power of agricultural machinery,effective irrigation area of crops,growing area of grain crops,fertilizer consumption,electricity consumption in rural areas,area affected and area covered) as the factors influencing grain output,and offers the method of determining weight of factors influencing grain output using entropy weight method.According to the relevant data in the period 1985-2005,we analyze the weight of factors influencing grain output in China by example.The results show that the electricity consumption in rural areas has the greatest impact on grain output,followed by total power of agricultural machinery,fertilizer consumption and area covered.To increase grain output,we must enhance the degree of mechanization,free people from the former process of direct cultivation,strengthen water conservancy construction,and do a good job in disaster prevention and mitigation.

  5. Electrical Properties and Grain Growth Kinetics of PZN-based Ceramics Using Microwave Sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effectiveness of microwave sintering process through investigation of microstructural characteristics and electrical properties of x(0.94PbZn1/3 Nb2/3O3 + 0.06BaTiO3) + (1 - x)PbZryTi1-yO3 (PBZNZT) ceramics with x = 0.6 and y = 0.52 was evaluated. The relative density of 95% was achieved with sintering at 800℃ for 2 h. The small grain growth exponents indicate how easy the grain growth in these materials sintered using microwave radiation. Grain growth rate increases abruptly and is higher than that of conventional sintering at a temperature higher than 1050℃. This is attributed to the lower activation energy and higher grain boundary mobility. The activation energy required for the grain growth is found to be 132kJ/mol. Higher remanent polarization (Pr = 50.1μC/cm2) and increase in remanent polarization with sintering temperature are observed in microwave sintering process when compared to that of conventional sintering process,due to fast increase in grain growth rate and homogeneity in the specimen. The results indicate lower sintering energy and reduction of PbO pollution in the working environment by microwave sintering process.

  6. Intelligent classification methods of grain kernels using computer vision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a digital image analysis method was developed to classify seven kinds of individual grain kernels (common rice, glutinous rice, rough rice, brown rice, buckwheat, common barley and glutinous barley) widely planted in Korea. A total of 2800 color images of individual grain kernels were acquired as a data set. Seven color and ten morphological features were extracted and processed by linear discriminant analysis to improve the efficiency of the identification process. The output features from linear discriminant analysis were used as input to the four-layer back-propagation network to classify different grain kernel varieties. The data set was divided into three groups: 70% for training, 20% for validation, and 10% for testing the network. The classification experimental results show that the proposed method is able to classify the grain kernel varieties efficiently

  7. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  8. Factors influencing adolescent whole grain intake: A theory-based qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamar, Maya; Evans, Charlotte; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan

    2016-06-01

    Whole grain consumption is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease. One-fifth of UK adults and children do not consume any whole grains, and adolescents have low consumption rates. Factors affecting whole grain intake among adolescents are not well understood. This study examined the socio-economic, environmental, lifestyle and psychological factors likely to influence consumption and explored whether outcomes aligned with behavioural predictors proposed in the Reasoned Action Approach. Five focus groups explored young people's attitudes towards, knowledge and consumption of wholegrain foods, as well as barriers to, and facilitators of, consumption. Participants were male and female adolescents (n = 50) aged 11-16 years from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds and ethnicities, recruited through schools in the city of Leeds, UK. Focus groups were analysed using thematic analysis. Most participants had tried wholegrain food products, with cereal products being the most popular. Many recognised whole grain health benefits related to digestive health but not those related to heart disease or cancers. Several barriers to eating whole grains were identified including: difficulties in identifying wholegrain products and their health benefits; taste and visual appeal; and poor availability outside the home. Suggested facilitators of consumption were advertisements and educational campaigns, followed by improved sensory appeal, increased availability and choice, and tailoring products for young people. All constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action were identifiable in the data, suggesting that the factors influencing whole grain intake in adolescents are well captured by this model. Study outcomes may inform research and health promotion to increase whole grain intake in this age group.

  9. Factors influencing adolescent whole grain intake: A theory-based qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamar, Maya; Evans, Charlotte; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan

    2016-06-01

    Whole grain consumption is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease. One-fifth of UK adults and children do not consume any whole grains, and adolescents have low consumption rates. Factors affecting whole grain intake among adolescents are not well understood. This study examined the socio-economic, environmental, lifestyle and psychological factors likely to influence consumption and explored whether outcomes aligned with behavioural predictors proposed in the Reasoned Action Approach. Five focus groups explored young people's attitudes towards, knowledge and consumption of wholegrain foods, as well as barriers to, and facilitators of, consumption. Participants were male and female adolescents (n = 50) aged 11-16 years from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds and ethnicities, recruited through schools in the city of Leeds, UK. Focus groups were analysed using thematic analysis. Most participants had tried wholegrain food products, with cereal products being the most popular. Many recognised whole grain health benefits related to digestive health but not those related to heart disease or cancers. Several barriers to eating whole grains were identified including: difficulties in identifying wholegrain products and their health benefits; taste and visual appeal; and poor availability outside the home. Suggested facilitators of consumption were advertisements and educational campaigns, followed by improved sensory appeal, increased availability and choice, and tailoring products for young people. All constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action were identifiable in the data, suggesting that the factors influencing whole grain intake in adolescents are well captured by this model. Study outcomes may inform research and health promotion to increase whole grain intake in this age group. PMID:26921485

  10. Visual Perception-Based Statistical Modeling of Complex Grain Image for Product Quality Monitoring and Supervision on Assembly Production Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Liu

    Full Text Available Computer vision as a fast, low-cost, noncontact, and online monitoring technology has been an important tool to inspect product quality, particularly on a large-scale assembly production line. However, the current industrial vision system is far from satisfactory in the intelligent perception of complex grain images, comprising a large number of local homogeneous fragmentations or patches without distinct foreground and background. We attempt to solve this problem based on the statistical modeling of spatial structures of grain images. We present a physical explanation in advance to indicate that the spatial structures of the complex grain images are subject to a representative Weibull distribution according to the theory of sequential fragmentation, which is well known in the continued comminution of ore grinding. To delineate the spatial structure of the grain image, we present a method of multiscale and omnidirectional Gaussian derivative filtering. Then, a product quality classifier based on sparse multikernel-least squares support vector machine is proposed to solve the low-confidence classification problem of imbalanced data distribution. The proposed method is applied on the assembly line of a food-processing enterprise to classify (or identify automatically the production quality of rice. The experiments on the real application case, compared with the commonly used methods, illustrate the validity of our method.

  11. Dependence of deformation mechanisms on grain orientations and their changes calculated based on Sachs model in magnesium alloy AZ31

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-ge XIE; Ping YANG; Li MENG

    2008-01-01

    During deformation, the orientation of a grain influences not only the deformation mechanisms (slip or twinning) and the specific selection of activated slip or twinning systems for that grain, but also the kinetics of different types of transformation. Schmid factor analysis was applied to determine the orientation dependency of deformation mechanisms in magnesium alloys AZ31 in this work. The orientation changes after the operation of the specific deformation mechanisms were also calcu-lated based on Sachs model. It was found that different deformation mechanisms proceeded differently according to theoretical predictions. Basal slip occurred when basal planes of grains were tilted toward ND around TD. Prismatic slip dominated when basal planes were approxi-mately perpendicular to TD. Calculation results also indi-cated that the operating of pyramidal slip can not be neglected. {10 12} twinning was favorable when basal planes were approximately normal to RD and { 10 11 } twinning was analyzed to be related to the grains with basal orientations. The operating of slip could greatly suppress the activating of twinning by our Schmid factor analysis. Basal orientations with TD and RD scattering can favor basal slip and tension twinning, respectively, after the operation of compression twinning based on the Schmid factor calculations.

  12. GWAS of Barley Phenotypes Established Under Future Climate Conditions of Elevated Temperature, CO2, O3 and Elevated Temperature and CO2 Combined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Backes, G.; Lyngkjær, M. F.;

    2015-01-01

    yield, grain protein concentration, grain protein harvested, number of grains, number of ears, aboveground vegetative biomass and harvest index. In addition, stability of the production was calculated over the applied treatments for the assessed parameters.In the climate scenario of elevated temperature...... numerous barley accessions under future climate conditions and identifies candidate markers for abiotic stress tolerance - markers that could be used in the development of cultivars to secure future primary production....

  13. Development and characterization of polymorphic EST-SSR and genomic SSR markers for Tibetan annual wild barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mian; Mao, Weihua; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan annual wild barley is rich in genetic variation. This study was aimed at the exploitation of new SSRs for the genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of wild barley by data mining. We developed 49 novel EST-SSRs and confirmed 20 genomic SSRs for 80 Tibetan annual wild barley and 16 cultivated barley accessions. A total of 213 alleles were generated from 69 loci with an average of 3.14 alleles per locus. The trimeric repeats were the most abundant motifs (40.82%) among the EST-SSRs, while the majority of the genomic SSRs were di-nuleotide repeats. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.08 to 0.75 with a mean of 0.46. Besides this, the expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.0854 to 0.7842 with an average of 0.5279. Overall, the polymorphism of genomic SSRs was higher than that of EST-SSRs. Furthermore, the number of alleles and the PIC of wild barley were both higher than that of cultivated barley, being 3.12 vs 2.59 and 0.44 vs 0.37. Indicating more polymorphism existed in the Tibetan wild barley than in cultivated barley. The 96 accessions were divided into eight subpopulations based on 69 SSR markers, and the cultivated genotypes can be clearly separated from wild barleys. A total of 47 SSR-containing EST unigenes showed significant similarities to the known genes. These EST-SSR markers have potential for application in germplasm appraisal, genetic diversity and population structure analysis, facilitating marker-assisted breeding and crop improvement in barley. PMID:24736399

  14. Development and characterization of polymorphic EST-SSR and genomic SSR markers for Tibetan annual wild barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zhang

    Full Text Available Tibetan annual wild barley is rich in genetic variation. This study was aimed at the exploitation of new SSRs for the genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of wild barley by data mining. We developed 49 novel EST-SSRs and confirmed 20 genomic SSRs for 80 Tibetan annual wild barley and 16 cultivated barley accessions. A total of 213 alleles were generated from 69 loci with an average of 3.14 alleles per locus. The trimeric repeats were the most abundant motifs (40.82% among the EST-SSRs, while the majority of the genomic SSRs were di-nuleotide repeats. The polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.08 to 0.75 with a mean of 0.46. Besides this, the expected heterozygosity (He ranged from 0.0854 to 0.7842 with an average of 0.5279. Overall, the polymorphism of genomic SSRs was higher than that of EST-SSRs. Furthermore, the number of alleles and the PIC of wild barley were both higher than that of cultivated barley, being 3.12 vs 2.59 and 0.44 vs 0.37. Indicating more polymorphism existed in the Tibetan wild barley than in cultivated barley. The 96 accessions were divided into eight subpopulations based on 69 SSR markers, and the cultivated genotypes can be clearly separated from wild barleys. A total of 47 SSR-containing EST unigenes showed significant similarities to the known genes. These EST-SSR markers have potential for application in germplasm appraisal, genetic diversity and population structure analysis, facilitating marker-assisted breeding and crop improvement in barley.

  15. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, Sarah K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-05-01

    To determine values for the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), it is recommended that ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility values obtained in growing pigs are used to characterise protein quality in different foods. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in eight cereal grains (yellow dent maize, Nutridense maize, dehulled barley, dehulled oats, polished white rice, rye, sorghum and wheat) fed to pigs, where SID values in pigs can be used to calculate approximate DIAAS values in humans. In the present experiment, twenty-four barrows with a T-cannula inserted in the distal ileum were allotted to eight diets and fed for three periods to give a total of nine replicate pigs per diet. Each period lasted 14 d, and ileal digesta samples were collected on days 13 and 14. Among the SID values obtained for all cereal grains, values for total indispensable AA were greatest (Poats, but greater (Pcereal grains, and the concentrations of SID indispensable AA in Nutridense maize were greater (Pcereal grains, except rye. In conclusion, results indicate that to meet dietary requirements for AA in humans, diets based on yellow dent maize or sorghum require more AA supplementation than diets based on other cereal grains.

  16. Probing the structural dynamics of the SNARE recycling machine based on coarse-grained modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjun

    2016-08-01

    Membrane fusion in eukaryotes is driven by the formation of a four-helix bundle by three SNARE proteins. To recycle the SNARE proteins, they must be disassembled by the ATPase NSF and four SNAP proteins which together form a 20S supercomplex. Recently, the first high-resolution structures of the NSF (in both ATP and ADP state) and 20S (in four distinct states termed I, II, IIIa, and IIIb) were solved by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), which have paved the way for structure-driven studies of the SNARE recycling mechanism. To probe the structural dynamics of SNARE disassembly at amino-acid level of details, a systematic coarse-grained modeling based on an elastic network model and related analyses were performed. Our normal mode analysis of NSF, SNARE, and 20S predicted key modes of collective motions that partially account for the observed structural changes, and illuminated how the SNARE complex can be effectively destabilized by untwisting and bending motions of the SNARE complex driven by the amino-terminal domains of NSF in state II. Our flexibility analysis identified regions with high/low flexibility that coincide with key functional sites (such as the NSF-SNAPs-SNARE binding sites). A subset of hotspot residues that control the above collective motions, which will make promising targets for future mutagenesis studies were also identified. Finally, the conformational changes in 20S as induced by the transition of NSF from ATP to ADP state were modeled, and a concerted untwisting motion of SNARE/SNAPs and a sideway flip of two amino-terminal domains were observed. In sum, the findings have offered new structural and dynamic details relevant to the SNARE disassembly mechanism, and will guide future functional studies of the SNARE recycling machinery. Proteins 2016; 84:1055-1066. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27090373

  17. Grain boundaries at the surface of consolidated MgO nanocrystals and acid-base functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingurt, Dima; Fuks, David; Landau, Miron V; Vidruk, Roxana; Herskowitz, Moti

    2013-09-21

    The increase of the surface basicity-acidity of MgO material by factors of 1.8-3.0 due to consolidation of its nanocrystals was demonstrated by the indicator titration. It was shown that the parallel increase of surface acidity and basicity is attributed to the formation of grain boundaries (GB) after MgO aerogel densification. A simple model predicting the increase of surface acidity-basicity of MgO that correlates with the results of direct measurements was proposed. The model is based on the study of the fine atomic structure at GB surface areas in consolidated MgO nanocrystals in the framework of Density Functional Theory. It is found that the displacements of coordinatively unsaturated surface ions near the GB are significant at the distances ~3-4 atomic layers from the geometrical contact plane between nanocrystals. The detailed analysis of atomic positions inside GB demonstrated the coordination deficiency of surface atoms at the GB areas leading to the formation of stretched bonds and to creation of low coordinated surface ions due to splitting of coordination numbers of surface atoms belonging to GB areas. Density of states for electrons shows the existence of additional states in the band gap close to the bottom of the conduction band. The adsorption energy of CO2 molecules atop oxygen atoms exposed at surface GB areas is of the same order of magnitude as that reported for oxygen atoms at crystallographic edges and corners of MgO crystals. It provides additional options for bonding of molecules at the surface of nanocrystalline MgO increasing the adsorption capacity and catalytic activity. PMID:23907522

  18. Physical behaviors of impure atoms during relaxation of impure NiAl-based alloy grain boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Monte Carlo simulation with the energetics described by the embedded atom method has been employed to mainly study physical behaviors of boron atoms during relaxation of the Ni3Al-x at.% B grain boundary. During relaxation of impure Ni3Al grain boundaries, we suggest that for different types of impure atoms(Mg, B, Cr and Zr atoms etc.), as the segregating species, they have the different behaviors, but as the inducing species, they have the same behaviors, i.e. they all induce Ni atoms to substitute Al atoms. Calculations show that at the equilibrium, when x(the B bulk concentration) increases from 0.1 to 0.9 , the peak concentration of B increases, correspondently, the peak concentration of Ni maximizes but the valley concentration of Al minimizes, at x = 0.5. The calculations also show the approximate saturation of Ni at the grain boundary at x = 0.5.

  19. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dörsch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM. Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilized cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha−1 throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010 all plots were ploughed (with and without GM and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (110 kg N ha−1 before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilized cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009 had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha−1. Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg−1 N yield in barley grain.

  20. Assessment and introduction of quantitative resistance to Fusarium head blight in elite spring barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkmeyer, A; Götz, M; Hu, L; Asam, S; Rychlik, M; Hausladen, H; Hess, M; Hückelhoven, R

    2013-12-01

    Breeding for resistance is a key task to control Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of small cereals leading to economic losses and grain contamination with mycotoxins harmful for humans and animals. In the present work, FHB resistance of the six-rowed spring barley 'Chevron' to FHB in Germany was compared with those of adapted German spring barley cultivars. Both under natural infection conditions and after spray inoculation with conidia of Fusarium culmorum, F. sporotrichioides, and F. avenaceum under field conditions, Chevron showed a high level of quantitative resistance to the infection and contamination of grain with diverse mycotoxins. This indicates that Chevron is not only a little susceptible to deoxynivalenol-producing Fusarium spp. but also to Fusarium spp. producing type A trichothecenes and enniatins. Monitoring the initial infection course of F. culmorum on barley lemma tissue by confocal laser-scanning microscopy provided evidence that FHB resistance of Chevron is partially mediated by a preformed penetration resistance, because direct penetration of floral tissue by F. culmorum was observed rarely on Chevron but was common on susceptible genotypes. Alternatively, F. culmorum penetrated Chevron lemma tissue via stomata, which was unusual for susceptible genotypes. We generated double-haploid barley populations segregating for the major FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) Qrgz-2H-8 of Chevron. Subsequently, we characterized these populations by spray inoculation with conidia of F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides. This suggested that Qrgz-2H-8 was functional in the genetic background of European elite barley cultivars. However, the degree of achieved resistance was very low when compared with quantitative resistance of the QTL donor Chevron, and the introgression of Qrgz-2H-8 was not sufficient to mediate the cellular resistance phenotype of Chevron in the European backgrounds.

  1. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity by simple sequence repeat markers among forty elite varieties in the germplasm for malting barley breeding*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Jian-Ming; Zhu, Jing-huan; Jia, Qiao-jun; Tao, Yue-zhi

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 elite barley varieties were analyzed based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping data. The amplified fragments from SSR primers were highly polymorphic in the barley accessions investigated. A total of 85 alleles were detected at 35 SSR loci, and allelic variations existed at 29 SSR loci. The allele number per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 2.4 alleles per locus detected from the 40 barley accessions. A cluster analysis based o...

  3. Effect of Manipulation Technique on The Grains Quality in Post-harvesting Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Angelovič

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Experimental measurements during transporting and manipulating with grains were carried out at post-harvesting line under operational conditions. Measurements were carried out in Agro Division Selice and POD Abrahám. Effect of the transportation and manipulation on the external quality of grains was evaluated. Grain volume weight, foreign matters, impurities and grain damage were assessed. Obtained results: Manipulation with grain is a big source of grain mechanical damage. Bucket elevators are intended for vertical transportation of grain, they cause crushing the grain leading to breaking kernels rather than to small damages of transported grain. Chain conveyors (redlers are intended for horizontal transportation of grain. The mechanical damage of grain is particularly observed at the capacity lower than the nominal capacity. Screw conveyors with closed channel are rarely used in post-harvesting lines. They cause large damage of transported grain and therefore absolutely improper for malting barley (sprouts are broken by them.  

  4. Genetic effects of a combination of chronic 60Co-γ-radiation and lead nitrate on barley waxy-locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a highly sensitive test-system of a waxy change in pollen grains of waxy barley it was shown that chronic irradiation at dose-rates of 4.2-10.8x10-5 Gy/c increased the level of the induced waxy-reversions by 3.6-8.0 times in comparison with the spontaneous level. The introduction of lead nitrate to a soil-sand mixture modified the value of mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of radiation on barley waxy-locus

  5. Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

  6. Mechanical properties of fine-grained dual phase low-carbon steels based on dynamic transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiwei Xu; Wangyue rang; Zuqing Sun

    2008-01-01

    The fine grained dual phase (FG-DP) steel with ferrite grains of 2-4.5 μm and martensite islands smaller than 3 μm was obtained through the mechanism of deformation-enhanced ferrite transformation (DEFT). Mechanical properties of the steel were tested at room temperature. The results indicated that with a similar volume fraction of martensite (about 20vol%), FG-DP steel ex-hibited a superior combination of higher strength and more rapid strain hardening at low strains compared with the coarse-grained dual phase (CG-DP) steel obtained by critical annealing. The combination of higher strength, large elongation, and more rapid strain hardening of FG-DP steel can be attributed to the fine ferrite grain and finely dispersed martensite islands. In addition, the uniformly distributed martensite islands in FG-DP steel have smaller interspaeing compared with that of CG-DP steel. So, at the initial plastic deformation stage, the plastic deformation of ferrite was restrained and more pronounced load was transferred from ferrite to marten-site. The plastic deformation of martensite in FG-DP steel started earlier.

  7. Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulations for Phospholipid Membranes Based on a Four-To-One Coarse-Grained Mapping Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxu Li; Lianghui Gao; Weihai Fang

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a new set of parameters compatible with the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) force field is developed for phospholipids. The coarse-grained (CG) models of these molecules are constructed by mapping four heavy atoms and their attached hydrogen atoms to one bead. The beads are divided into types distinguished by charge type, polarizability, and hydrogen-bonding capacity. First, we derive the relationship between the DPD repulsive force and Flory-Huggins χ-parameters based on...

  8. Strain heterogeneity and the production of coarse grains in mechanically alloyed iron-based PM2000 alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Capdevila, Carlos; Miller, U; Jelenak, H; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanically alloyed iron-based ODS alloys have the potential for application in heat exchangers for biomass processing, with gas operating temperatures and pressures of approximately 1100°C and 15–30 bar. The yttria dispersion in such alloys improves the high-temperature creep and stress rupture life. The elevated temperature strength is enhanced by the development of a coarse-grained microstructure during recrystallisation. Factors controlling the evolution of this desirable micros...

  9. Impact of Pre-Anthesis Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Plants Grown under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria I. Al-Ajlouni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought at pre-anthesis stages can influence barley growth and results in yield losses. Therefore, it is important to understand how drought at pre-anthesis can affect different traits associated with yield reduction in barley. The objective of this study was to understand the relevance of the genetic background of major flowering time genes in barley plants subjected to pre-anthesis drought and its impact on yield and yield components. A glasshouse experiment using a Randomized Complete Block Design was conducted to investigate the effect of drought and its timing on yield and yield components on eleven barley genotypes, which were selected to represent genetic diversity of major flowering time genes (PPDH1, PPDH2, HvVrn1, HvVrn2 and HvVrn3. Barley plants were exposed to three water regimes, non-stressed and stressed, which was applied at two pre-anthesis growth stages, tillering (SS and stem elongation (SE. Results identified differences among genotypes in all measured traits. Grain yield, grain number and "thousand kernel weight" were reduced in all genotypes due to drought, irrespective of the growth stage. Early flowering genotypes had better performance as reflected in higher yield compared with late flowering genotypes. Results verified the fundamental importance of early flowering to improve productivity in response to pre-anthesis drought. The results of this study can help in selecting barley lines for future breeding purposes with improved resilience to drought conditions in Mediterranean environments.

  10. Interstellar Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Draine, B. T.

    2000-01-01

    Our current understanding of interstellar dust is summarized at an introductory level. Submicron-sized interstellar dust grains absorb and scatter light, and reradiate the absorbed energy in the infrared. The grain population spans a range of sizes, from molecules containing only tens of atoms, to particles containing 10^{10} atoms. Most of the grain mass appears to be due to two types of solid, in approximately equal amounts: amorphous silicate mineral, and carbonaceous material. Approximate...

  11. Genome-wide association study of production and stability traits in barley cultivated under future climate scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Backes, Gunter; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged;

    2015-01-01

    Future barley cultivars will have to produce under the constraints of higher temperature in combination with increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone as a consequence of climate change. A diverse set of 167 spring barley genotypes was cultivated under elevated levels...... to identify markers for increased primary production under climate change conditions and reveal possible genes of interest. Phenotyped traits included grain yield, number of grains, number of ears per plant, aboveground vegetative biomass, harvest index and stability of the production parameters over the five...... applied treatments. The GWAS encompassed 7864 SNP markers (Illumina iselect), a compressed mixed linear model with the GAPIT package, and conservative validation of markers. A total of 60 marker-trait associations [−log10(P value) 2.97–5.58] were identified, e.g. grain yield under elevated temperature...

  12. Assessment of Flood Catastrophe Risk for Grain Production at the Provincial Scale in China Based on the BMM Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Lei; ZHANG Qiao; ZHOU Ai-lian; HUO Ran

    2013-01-01

    Flood catastrophe risk assessment is imperative for the steady development of agriculture under the context of global climate change, and meanwhile, it is an urgent scientiifc issue need to be solved in agricultural risk assessment discipline. This paper developed the methodology of lfood catastrophe risk assessment, which can be shown as the standard process of crop loss calculation, Monte Carlo simulation, the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) iftting, and risk evaluation. Data on crop loss were collected based on hectares covered by natural disasters, hectares affected by natural disasters, and hectares destroyed by natural disasters using the standard equation. Monte Carlo simulation based on appropriate distribution was used to expand sample size to overcome the insufifciency of crop loss data. Block maxima model (BMM) approach based on the extreme value theory was for modeling the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) of lfood catastrophe loss, and then lfood catastrophe risk at the provincial scale in China was calculated. The Type III Extreme distribution (Weibull) has a weighted advantage of modeling lfood catastrophe risk for grain production. The impact of lfood catastrophe to grain production in China was signiifcantly serious, and high or very high risk of lfood catastrophe mainly concentrates on the central and eastern regions of China. Given the scenario of suffering once-in-a-century lfood disaster, for majority of the major-producing provinces, the probability of 10% reduction of grain output is more than 90%. Especially, the probabilities of more than 15% decline in grain production reach up to 99.99, 99.86, 99.69, and 91.60% respectively in Anhui, Jilin, Liaoning, and Heilongjiang. Flood catastrophe assessment can provide multifaceted information about lfood catastrophe risk that can help to guide management of lfood catastrophe.

  13. Dendrite core grain refining and interdendritic coarsening behaviour in W-containing γ-TiAl based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.L., E-mail: sunhl@home.swjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Huang, Z.W.; Zhu, D.G.; Jiang, X.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2013-03-05

    Graphical abstract: Geometric features observed in the grain refined regions of Nb, W-containing TiAl alloys: (a) a two dimensional equilateral triangle based on the (11{sup ¯}1) basal plane of the Thompson reference tetrahedron. (b) BSE micrograph of alloy 44Al showing the similar geometric features in a group of lamellar colonies. Highlights: ► Two W-containing γ-TiAl based alloys were studied in as-cast ingot condition. ► Segregation of W, Nb in dendrite core and Al in interdendritic region were found. ► The large α{sub p} grains (α{sub 2} + γ lamellar colonies) formed in the interdendritic regions. -- Abstract: Two W-containing γ-TiAl based alloys were studied in as-cast ingot condition. Pronounced partitioning of heavy-metals–light-metals were found to occur, causing segregation of W and Nb into dendrite core and Al in interdendritic region. The average Al content in α{sub 2} + γ lamellae was close to 46% in interdendritic region, and below 44% in dendrite cores, regardless of the nominal Al content of the alloy. About 15% coarse colonies formed in alloy 44Al and 60% in alloy 46Al. Effective grain refinement can be achieved in the dendrite core where both the Al depletion and Nb, W and Ti enrichment ensured a L → β solidification route. In contrast, the solidification in interdendritic regions involves a peritectic reaction L + β → α{sub p}. As a result, unusually large α{sub p} grains (α{sub 2} + γ lamellar colonies) formed in the interdendritic regions.

  14. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  15. Quality Control System for Beer Developed with Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Barley Lipid Transfer Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Murakami-Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP in barley grain reacted with the IgE in sera drawn from food allergy patients. A sandwich-type of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed with mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against LTP purified with barley flour. This ELISA showed a practical working range of 0.3–3 ng/mL and no cross-reactivity with wheat, adlay and rye. Using this ELISA, LTP was determined in several types of barley-foods, including fermented foods such as malt vinegar, barley-malt miso and beer. LTP content in beer of the same kind was approximately constant, even if manufacturing factory and production days were different. Not only as a factor of foam formation and stability but also as an allergen, controlling and monitoring of LTP in beer should be considered. Taken together, our LTP-detecting ELISA can be proposed as an appropriate system for the quality control of beer.

  16. Use of recurrent irradiation in plant breeding of quantitative characters of barley and wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work was applied recurrent irradiation by gamma radiation of cobalt 60 in different doses to barley and wheat seeds in order to generate genetic variation and facilitating the selection of quantitative characters. The first part of this work was realized without making any selection and the second one by means of selection toward the greatest number of tassel spikelets. The experimental evaluation of irradiated materials without selection indicated that in high doses it was obtained a best expression of the character and that this was greater increasing the generations of irradiation excepting the MI generation as in barley as wheat. According to the experimental evaluation, the selected lines of irradiated material of barley was greater yield that the original variety, but this did not occur with the wheat, because of the grain size of the selected lines was more little. The posterior selection for following increasing the spikelets number for tassel has been effective and in the barley the advances were greater than in the wheat. (Author). 4 refs, 5 figs

  17. The Discovery of Resistant Sources of Spring Barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and Unique Greenbug Biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mornhinweg, Dolores W; Payton, Mark E; Puterka, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for the complex of greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) that previously showed potential for greenbug resistance. Three of those entries, WBDC 53, WBDC 117, WBDC 336, exhibited very dominant sources of resistance to older known biotypes B, C, E, F, H, I, and TX1, which also add to the host-plant differentials used to separate these greenbug biotypes. We also re-evaluated the earlier known set of greenbug biotypes that have been in culture for several years against the known host-plant differentials, and included seven newer greenbug isolates collected from Wyoming to the full complement of small grain differentials. This resulted in the discovery of five new greenbug biotypes, WY10 MC, WY81, WY10 B, WY12 MC, and WY86. Wyoming isolates WY4 A and WY4 B were identical in their phenotypic profile, and should be combined as a single unique greenbug biotype. These barley trials resulted in finding new sources of host-plant resistance, although more research needs to be conducted on what type of resistance was found, and how it can be used. We also document that the Wheatland, Wyoming area serves as a very conducive environment for the development of new greenbug biotypes. PMID:26527793

  18. A mutant homeobox gene created six-rowed spike in barley domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased seed production has been a common goal during the domestication of cereal crops. Early cultivators of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) selected a phenotype with a six-rowed spike that stably produced three times the usual grain number during domestication. We isolated the SIX-ROWED SPIKE 1 (Vrs1) from barley by chromosome walking. We discovered that Vrs1 encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper I-class protein (HD-ZIP I), a potential transcription factor. RNA in situ hybridization revealed that the Vrs1 is expressed only in lateral spikelet primordia. Sequencing alleles of 54 six-rowed mutant lines revealed a single amino acid substitution in 22 lines, creation of a new stop codon in 12 lines, a nucleotide substitution in the conserved splicing site in 3 lines, a frameshift mutation by a deletion in 5 lines, complete deletion of the gene region in 7 lines, and no DNA changes throughout the coding region with no gene expression detected in the remaining 5 lines. We found three haplotypes among six-rowed barley revealing loss-of-function mutation of the homeobox gene Vrs1. We found that two of them independently originated from two different type two-rowed barleys, but origin of the remaining one six-rowed allele remained unclear. (author)

  19. Wild Barley,Hordeum spontaneum,a Genetic Resource for Crop Improvement in Cold and Arid Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eviatar; Nevo

    2008-01-01

    Food security in cold and arid regions in the world is threatened by stressful and unpredictable environments.The sus-tainable and economically viable solution for increasing stability of food productivity in cold and arid regions is genetic improvement of crops towards high resistance to abiotic stresses,mainly cold and drought resistance.It is often empha-sized that crop genetic improvement lies in exploiting the gene pools of the wild relatives of the crop plant.Wild barley,H.spontaneum,the progenitor of cultivated barley,is a selfing annual grass of predominantly Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian distribution that penetrates into desert environments where it maintains stable populations.Wild barley is also found in cold regions,such as in Tibet.The adaptation of wild barley to the arid region in Israel and Jordan,and the cold region in Tibet has accumulated rich genetic diversities for drought,salt,and cold resistances in wild barley,which is the genetic resource for barley and other crop improvement in arid and cold regions.These genetic diversities are revealed by allozymes,DNA-based molecular markers,and morphological and physiological traits of wild barley plants.Quantita-tive trait loci(QTLs) related to drought resistance were identified in wild barley via the QTL mapping approach.Drought resistance genes such as dehydrins,hsdr4,and eibi1 were identified in wild barley based on the candidate gene approach,gene differential expression approach,and molecular genetic approach,respectively.Genetics and genomics of wild bar-ley cold resistance have not been exploited yet,remaining a huge treasure for future crop improvement of cold resistance.Advanced backcross QTL analysis,the introgression libraries based on wild barley as donors,a QTL approach based on wide crosses using wild barley,and positional cloning of natural QTLs will play prevailing roles to help us understand the molecular control of cold and drought tolerance.Integration of QTL information into a

  20. Leaf stripe resistance of spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Nielsen, Bent J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of six years of screening trials clearly indicate that effective resistance against barley leaf stripe is available, also in modern cultivars. Among the spring barley cultivars that are currently most widely grown in Denmark, Cabaret, Troon, Sebastian, Justina and Brazil appear most resistant, but only Brazil combines a favourable resistance performance (= low mean and standard deviation of environment-adjusted leaf stripe incidence) with a high number of observations (= years of test...

  1. Molecular and structural characterization of barley vernalization genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zitzewitz, Jarislav; Szucs, Péter; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Yan, Liuling; Francia, Enrico; Pecchioni, Nicola; Casas, Ana; Chen, Tony H H; Hayes, Patrick M; Skinner, Jeffrey S

    2005-10-01

    Vernalization, the requirement of a period of low temperature to induce transition from the vegetative to reproductive state, is an evolutionarily and economically important trait in the Triticeae. The genetic basis of vernalization in cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) can be defined using the two-locus VRN-H1/VRN-H2 model. We analyzed the allelic characteristics of HvBM5A, the candidate gene for VRN-H1, from ten cultivated barley accessions and one wild progenitor accession (subsp. spontaneum), representing the three barley growth habits - winter, facultative, and spring. We present multiple lines of evidence, including sequence, linkage map location, and expression, that support HvBM5A being VRN-H1. While the predicted polypeptides from different growth habits are identical, spring accessions contain a deletion in the first intron of HvBM5A that may be important for regulation. While spring HvBM5A alleles are typified by the intron-localized deletion, in some cases, the promoter may also determine the allele type. The presence/absence of the tightly linked ZCCT-H gene family members on chromosome 4H perfectly correlates with growth habit and we conclude that one of the three ZCCT-H genes is VRN-H2. The VRN-H2 locus is present in winter genotypes and deleted from the facultative and spring genotypes analyzed in this study, suggesting the facultative growth habit (cold tolerant, vernalization unresponsive) is a result of deletion of the VRN-H2 locus and presence of a winter HvBM5A allele. All reported barley vernalization QTLs can be explained by the two-locus VRN-H1/VRN-H2 model based on the presence/absence of VRN-H2 and a winter vs. spring HvBM5A allele. PMID:16235110

  2. Diffusion-Based Coarse Graining in Hybrid Continuum--Discrete Solvers: Theoretical Formulation and A Priori Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Rui, Sun

    2014-01-01

    Coarse graining is an important ingredient in many multi-scale continuum-discrete solvers such as CFD--DEM (computational fluid dynamics--discrete element method) solvers for dense particle-laden flows. Although CFD--DEM solvers have become a mature technique that is widely used in multiphase flow research and industrial flow simulations, a flexible and easy-to-implement coarse graining algorithm that can work with CFD solvers of arbitrary meshes is still lacking. In this work, we proposed a new coarse graining algorithm for continuum--discrete solvers for dense particle-laden flows based on solving a transient diffusion equation. Via theoretical analysis we demonstrated that the proposed method is equivalent to the statistical kernel method with a Gaussian kernel, but the current method is much more straightforward to implement in CFD--DEM solvers. A priori numerical tests were performed to obtain the solid volume fraction fields based on given particle distributions, the results obtained by using the propos...

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF POTASSIUM NITRATE BASED SOLID PROPELLANT GRAINS FORMULATION USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo Olaosebikan Ogunleye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of propellant formulation and geometry on the solid propellant grains internal ballistic performance using core, bates, rod and tubular and end-burn geometries. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to analyze and optimize the effect of sucrose, potassium nitrate and carbon on the chamber pressure, temperature, thrust and specific impulse of the solid propellant grains through Central Composite Design (CCD of the experiment. An increase in potassium nitrate increased the specific impulse while an increase in sucrose and carbon decreased specific impulse. The coefficient of determination (R2 for models of chamber pressure, temperature, thrust and specific impulse in terms of composition and geometry were 0.9737, 0.9984, 0.9745 and 0.9589, respectively. The optimum specific impulse of 127.89 s, pressure (462201 Pa, temperature (1618.3 K and thrust (834.83 N were obtained using 0.584 kg of sucrose, 1.364 kg of potassium nitrate and 0.052 kg of carbon as well as bate geometry. There was no significant difference between the calculated and experimented ballistic properties at p < 0.05. The bate grain geometry is more efficient for minimizing the oscillatory pressure in the combustion chamber.

  4. Variability in nutrient composition of cereal grains from different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinyoung; Nam, Doo Seok; Kong, Changsu

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient composition of individual feed ingredient in mixed feed is important for accurate formulation of animal feeds. However, each feed ingredient can be different depending on its origin. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the variability in nutrient compositions of corn, wheat, and barley grains from different origins. Cereal grains used in this study were from 5 countries for 432 corn samples, 5 countries for 65 wheat samples, and 3 countries for 60 barley samples. They were imported to Korea between 2006 and 2015. These grain samples were subjected to analysis for moisture, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), ash, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and gross energy (GE). The concentrations of moisture, CP, EE, CF, ash, Ca, P, and GE of corn differed (P formulating animal feeds.

  5. Production of barley endoprotease B2 in Pichia pastoris and its proteolytic activity against native and recombinant hordeins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases are of fundamental biological importance during germination but may also have a large potential as commercial enzyme. Barley cysteine endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was expressed in Pichia pastoris from a pPICZαA based construct encoding a HvEPB2 C...

  6. A Pyramid Breeding of Eight Grain-yield Related Quantitative Trait Loci Based on Marker-assistant and Phenotype Selection in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zong; Ahong Wang; Lu Wang; Guohua Liang; Minghong Gu; Tao Sang; Bin Han

    2012-01-01

    1000-Grain weight and spikelet number per panicle are two important components for rice grain yield.In our previous study,eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring spikelet number per panicle and 1000-grain weight were mapped through sequencing-based genotyping of 150 rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs).In this study,we validated the effects of four QTLs from Nipponbare using chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs),and pyramided eight grain yield related QTLs.The new lines containing the eight QTLs with positive effects showed increased panicle and spikelet size as compared with the parent variety 93-11.We further proposed a novel pyramid breeding scheme based on marker-assistant and phenotype selection (MAPS).This scheme allowed pyramiding of as many as 24QTLs at a tingle hybridization without massive cross work.This study provided insights into the molecular basis of rice grain yield for direct wealth for high-yielding rice breeding.

  7. On the state of boride precipitates in grain refined TiAl-based alloys with high Nb content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartavykh, A.V., E-mail: karta@korolev-net.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr. 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (TISNCM), 7a Centralnaya Str., 142190 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gorshenkov, M.V.; Tcherdyntsev, V.V.; Podgorny, D.A. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr. 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Ti–44Al–7Nb–2B at.% grain refined alloy produced by directional solidification at TiB{sub 2} alloying. • TiB{sub 2} dissolved and re-precipitated into stiochiometric (Ti,Nb)B phase, where Ti/Nb ratio is 1:1. • (Ti,Nb)B inoculant characterization by SEM, EBSD, Auger spectrometry. • Hypothesis: Nb substitutes Ti in TiB precipitates up to NbB, worsening their nucleation potency. • Addition of trace amount of Be is proposed to enhance the grain refinement. -- Abstract: The work is aimed at the refinement of primary microstructure appearing in the refractory lightweight structural TiAl-based intermetallics during their solidification from the melt. The green alloy with Ti–46Al–8Nb (at.%) nominal composition is selected for applied study in microstructure engineering. For grain refining, the metallurgical alloying of the material was performed with microcrystalline titanium diboride TiB{sub 2} additive, along with subsequent Directional Solidification (DS) in the vertical multizone electro-furnace by power-down technique in pure argon environment. As a result the uniform equiaxed microstructure of Ti–44Al–7Nb–2B (at.%) ingots was produced with low dimensional scattering and characteristic grain diameter of 110–130 μm. DS samples were examined by SEM microanalysis along with EBSD and Auger spectrometry of boride particles in the alloy matrix. It was stated that initial diboride TiB{sub 2} additive was completely dissolved and has been afterwards re-precipitated in the course of DS into orthorhombic (Ti,Nb)B monoboride single-crystalline micro-particles of B27 structure, acting as randomly distributed point seeds for inoculated solid grains nucleation. The nature, exact composition and nucleation potency of newly formed borides are discussed along with the nucleation mechanism in relation to the literature data. The addition of trace amount (below 0.1 at.%) of beryllium solute is proposed for the enhancement of β-grain refinement

  8. Feeding behavior and productive performance of steers fed pearl millet grain-based diets containing proportions of babassu mesocarp bran

    OpenAIRE

    Wanderson Martins Alencar; João Restle; Regis Luis Missio; José Neuman Miranda Neiva; Fabrícia Rocha Chaves Miotto; Ithálo Barros de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior and feedlot productive performance of dairy-origin steers fed for 84 days ground pearl millet grain-based diets with 0, 120, 240, 360, and 480 g kg-1 of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB) and a standard diet based on ground corn. Thirty Holstein-Zebu steers with average initial body weight of 371.02±27 kg were used. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five replications. Dry matter intake showed better fit w...

  9. Health status of five spring barley cultivars cultivated under organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baturo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare health status of harvested grain of spring barley cv. Rudzik, Rodos, Start and Maresi cultivated in organic system and cv. Damazy grown in an organic farm. Analyses showed that prevalent pathogen on grain was Bipolaris sorokiniana isolated from 48% of grains. Fungi from genus of Fusarium were obtained less numerously, from 27% of grains and were represented mainly by F. poae and F. avenaceum. Microscopic analysis of F. poae was confirmed by PCR analysis. All cultivars were intensively diseased by B. sorokiniana, thus it is impossible to show a cultivar especially recommended for this system, where B. sorokiniana can be serious problem. However cv. Damazy showed relatively the lowest infestation by B. sorokiniana and it also was not more intensively diseased by Fusarium spp. It is very important in nutrition aspect because these fungi can be dangerous for both human and animal health due to their abilities to produce mycotoxins.

  10. Comparison of the potential rate of population increase of brown and green color morphs of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on barley infected and uninfected with Barley yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Thieme, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Life tables of brown and green color morphs of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) reared on barley under laboratory conditions at 20 ± 1°C, 65% ± 5% relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16 : 8 h (L : D) were compared. The plants were either: (i) infected with the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV); (ii) not infected with virus but previously infested with aphids; or (iii) healthy barley plants, which were not previously infested with aphids. Generally, both color morphs of S. avenae performed significantly better when fed on BYDV-infected plants than on plants that were virus free but had either not been or had been previously infested with aphids. Furthermore, when fed on BYDV-infected plants, green S. avenae developed significantly faster and had a significantly shorter reproductive period than the brown color morph. There were no significant differences in this respect between the two color morphs of S. avenae when they were reared on virus-free plants that either had been or not been previously infested with aphids. These results indicate that barley infected with BYDV is a more favorable host plant than uninfected barley for both the color morphs of S. avenae tested, particularly the green color morph. PMID:24382739

  11. Genomic analysis of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare) using sequence-tagged molecular markers. Estimates of divergence based on RFLP and PCR markers derived from stress-responsive genes, and simple-sequence repeats (SSRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestri, E; Malcevschi, A; Massari, A; Marmiroli, N

    2002-04-01

    Three types of molecular markers have been compared for their utility in evaluating genetic diversity among cultivars of Hordeum vulgare. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms at 71 sites were scored with the aid of probes corresponding to stress-responsive genes from barley and wheat, coding for a low-molecular-weight heat shock protein, a dehydrin, an aldose reductase homolog, and a 18.9-kDa drought-induced protein of unknown function. Indexes of genetic diversity computed in the total sample and within groups of cultivars (two-rowed and six-rowed, winter and spring varieties) indicated high values of genetic differentiation ( F (ST) >15%). A second assessment of genetic diversity was performed by PCR amplification of genomic DNA using as primers 13 arbitrary oligonucleotides derived from sequences of the same stress-responsive genes. A high degree of polymorphism was uncovered using these markers also, but they yielded low values for F (ST) (genetic distance among cultivars demonstrated a remarkable ability of the RFLPs associated with stress-responsive genes to discriminate on the basis of growth habit. The correlation with production data for the cultivars in different environments was also significant. This "functional genomics" strategy was therefore as informative as the "structural genomics" (SSR-based) approach, but requires the analysis of fewer probes. PMID:11976962

  12. Multiscale design of coarse-grained elastic network-based potentials for the μ opioid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossépré, Mathieu; Leherte, Laurence; Laaksonen, Aatto; Vercauteren, Daniel P

    2016-09-01

    Despite progress in computer modeling, most biological processes are still out of reach when using all-atom (AA) models. Coarse-grained (CG) models allow classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to be accelerated. Although simplification of spatial resolution at different levels is often investigated, simplification of the CG potential in itself has been less common. CG potentials are often similar to AA potentials. In this work, we consider the design and reliability of purely mechanical CG models of the μ opioid receptor (μOR), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In this sense, CG force fields (FF) consist of a set of holonomic constraints guided by an elastic network model (ENM). Even though ENMs are used widely to perform normal mode analysis (NMA), they are not often implemented as a single FF in the context of MD simulations. In this work, various ENM-like potentials were investigated by varying their force constant schemes and connectivity patterns. A method was established to systematically parameterize ENM-like potentials at different spatial resolutions by using AA data. To do so, new descriptors were introduced. The choice of conformation descriptors that also include flexibility information is important for a reliable parameterization of ENMs with different degrees of sensitivity. Hence, ENM-like potentials, with specific parameters, can be sufficient to accurately reproduce AA MD simulations of μOR at highly coarse-grained resolutions. Therefore, the essence of the flexibility properties of μOR can be captured with simple models at different CG spatial resolutions, opening the way to mechanical approaches to understanding GPCR functions. Graphical Abstract All atom structure, residue interaction network and coarse-grained elastic network models of the μ opioid receptor (μOR). PMID:27566318

  13. A high-speed multiplexer-based fine-grain pipelined architecture for digital fuzzy logic controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Bahram; Masoud Sayedi, Sayed

    2015-12-01

    Design and implementation of a high-speed multiplexer-based fine-grain pipelined architecture for a general digital fuzzy logic controller has been presented. All the operators have been designed at gate level. For the multiplication, a multiplexer-based modified Wallace tree multiplier has been designed, and for the division and addition multiplexer-based non-restoring parallel divider and multiplexer-based Manchester adder have been used, respectively. To further increase the processing speed, fine-grain pipelining technique has been employed. By using this technique, the critical path of the circuit is broken into finer pieces. Based on the proposed architecture, and by using Quartus II 9.1, a sample two-input, one-output digital fuzzy logic controller with eight rules has been successfully synthesised and implemented on Stratix II field programmable gate array. Simulations were carried out using DSP Builder in the MATLAB/Simulink tool at a maximum clock rate of 301.84 MHz.

  14. Sediment transport modelling based on grain size trend analysis in Augusta Harbour (Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Giuseppe; Feo, Roberto; Freni, Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    To support marine civil engineer in pollutant studies, sediment management or dredging operations, is useful to know how the sediments move in accumulation basin. This paper investigates the dynamic of the sediment path using a two-dimensional numeric model: the Grain Size Trend Analysis (GSTA). The GSTA was applied using GiSedTrend plugin, under GIS software. The case study is the Augusta Harbour, which is one of the most polluted Italian harbours. It is the marine part of the Site of National Interest (SNI) of Priolo Gargallo (Siracusa, Italy) and it can be hydrodynamically considered as a lagoon. Two scenarios were obtained by using different geostatistical criteria.

  15. Towards a unified framework for coarse-graining particle-based simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junghans, Christoph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-28

    Different coarse-graining techniques for soft matter systems have been developed in recent years, however it is often very demanding to find the method most suitable for the problem studied. For this reason we began to develop the VOTCA toolkit to allow for easy comparison of different methods. We have incorporated 6 different techniques into the package and implemented a powerful and parallel analysis framework plus multiple simulation back-ends. We will discuss the specifics of the package by means of various studies, which have been performed with the toolkit and highlight problems we encountered along the way.

  16. Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 displays an endophytic lifestyle in cultivated cereals and enhances yield in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Alós, Enriqueta; Rey, María Dolores; Prieto, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, an indigenous inhabitant of olive roots, displays an endophytic lifestyle in this woody crop and exerts biocontrol against the fungal phytopathogen Verticillium dahliae Here we report microscopy evidence that the strain PICF7 is also able to colonize and persist on or in wheat and barley root tissues. Root colonization of both cereal species followed a similar pattern to that previously reported in olive, including inner colonization of the root hairs. This demonstrates that strain PICF7 can colonize root systems of distant botanical species. Barley plants germinated from PICF7-treated seeds showed enhanced vegetative growth. Moreover, significant increases in the number of grains (up to 19.5%) and grain weight (up to 20.5%) per plant were scored in this species. In contrast, growth and yield were not significantly affected in wheat plants by the presence of PICF7. Proteomics analysis of the root systems revealed that different proteins were exclusively found depending on the presence or absence of PICF7 and only one protein with hydrogen ion transmembrane transporter activity was exclusively found in both PICF7-inoculated barley and wheat plants but not in the controls. PMID:27130938

  17. Sequencing-based analysis of the bacterial and fungal composition of kefir grains and milks from multiple sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J Marsh

    Full Text Available Kefir is a fermented milk-based beverage to which a number of health-promoting properties have been attributed. The microbes responsible for the fermentation of milk to produce kefir consist of a complex association of bacteria and yeasts, bound within a polysaccharide matrix, known as the kefir grain. The consistency of this microbial population, and that present in the resultant beverage, has been the subject of a number of previous, almost exclusively culture-based, studies which have indicated differences depending on geographical location and culture conditions. However, culture-based identification studies are limited by virtue of only detecting species with the ability to grow on the specific medium used and thus culture-independent, molecular-based techniques offer the potential for a more comprehensive analysis of such communities. Here we describe a detailed investigation of the microbial population, both bacterial and fungal, of kefir, using high-throughput sequencing to analyse 25 kefir milks and associated grains sourced from 8 geographically distinct regions. This is the first occasion that this technology has been employed to investigate the fungal component of these populations or to reveal the microbial composition of such an extensive number of kefir grains or milks. As a result several genera and species not previously identified in kefir were revealed. Our analysis shows that the bacterial populations in kefir are dominated by 2 phyla, the Firmicutes and the Proteobacteria. It was also established that the fungal populations of kefir were dominated by the genera Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces and Naumovozyma, but that a variable sub-dominant population also exists.

  18. GrainSpotter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren

    2014-01-01

    A new approach for indexing multigrain diffraction data is presented. It is based on the use of a monochromatic beam simultaneously illuminating all grains. By operating in sub-volumes of Rodrigues space, a powerful vertex-finding algorithm can be applied, with a running time that is compatible...... with online analysis. The resulting program, GrainSpotter, is sufficiently fast to enable online analysis during synchrotron sessions. The program applies outlier rejection schemes, leading to more robust and accurate data. By simulations it is shown that several thousand grains can be retrieved. A new...... method to derive partial symmetries, called pseudo-twins, is introduced. Uniquely, GrainSpotter includes an analysis of pseudo-twins, which is shown to be critical to avoid erroneous grains resulting from the indexing....

  19. Virus-induced gene-silencing in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of HMW-GS-encoding genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Meng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV-based vector has been developed and used for gene silencing in barley and wheat seedlings to assess gene functions in pathogen- or insect-resistance, but conditions for gene silencing in spikes and grains have not been evaluated. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using BSMV for gene silencing in wheat spikes or grains. Results Apparent photobleaching on the spikes infected with BSMV:PDS at heading stage was observed after13 days post inoculation (dpi, and persisted until 30dpi, while the spikes inoculated with BSMV:00 remained green during the same period. Grains of BSMV:PDS infected spikes also exhibited photobleaching. Molecular analysis indicated that photobleached spikes or grains resulted from the reduction of endogenous PDS transcript abundances, suggesting that BSMV:PDS was able to induce PDS silencing in wheat spikes and grains. Inoculation onto wheat spikes from heading to flowering stage was optimal for efficient silencing of PDS in wheat spikes. Furthermore, we used the BSMV-based system to reduce the transcript level of 1Bx14, a gene encoding for High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit 1Bx14 (HMW-GS 1Bx14, by 97 % in the grains of the BSMV:1Bx14 infected spikes at 15dpi, compared with that in BSMV:00 infected spikes, and the reduction persisted until at least 25 dpi. The amount of the HMW-GS 1Bx14 was also detectably decreased. The percentage of glutenin macropolymeric proteins in total proteins was significantly reduced in the grains of 1Bx14-silenced plants as compared with that in the grains of BSMV:00 infected control plants, indicating that HMW-GS 1Bx14 is one of major components participating in the formation of glutenin macropolymers in wheat grains. Conclusion This is one of the first reports of successful application of BSMV-based virus-induced-gene-silencing (VIGS for gene knockdown in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of

  20. Grain Marketing Tools: A Survey of Illinois Grain Elevators

    OpenAIRE

    Whitacre, Rick C.; Spaulding, Aslihan D.

    2007-01-01

    As with most sectors of the agriculture economy, the U. S. country grain elevator industry has experienced considerable consolidation and concentration. By the same token, the country elevator's customer base (grain producers and landlords) has also changed rather dramatically as grain production takes place on larger and fewer farms. The profitability of operating a country elevator is directly related to the volume of grain the country elevator purchases over the course of a marketing year....

  1. Prediction of Chinese per Capita Grain Yield Base on Residual Modification GM (1, 1 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To build effective grain yield prediction system and predict its trend scientifically, this study, on the basis of statistics, prognostics and agricultural economics, explains and functions grey system theory. As a new method, grey system still has many shortages. On the basis of comparison in correlative prediction, we propose GM (1, 1 grey prediction method by modifying ends to improve predictive precisions. Besides, combining with historic data during 2000-2009, predict, summary and propose the research future. Research indicates, whether theoretic basis or practice, grey model is more useful and convenient. It predicts the yield in future 5 years, the increasing speed will decrease. The increasing yield is 5-6 kilos per person, less than 8-10 kilos per person during 2003-2009. Surely, grain industry includes many son industries, such as rice, corn and wheat. The biggest son industry should be found to give different financial support, in order to eliminate errors. The innovation is to solve time responding function and incandesce equation of end residual sequence of GM (1, 1 model, to eliminate error. Besides, analyze practical examples to indicate its value in economic prediction and provide references for relative areas.

  2. The Genetic Basis of Composite Spike Form in Barley and 'Miracle-Wheat'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursarebani, Naser; Seidensticker, Tina; Koppolu, Ravi; Trautewig, Corinna; Gawroński, Piotr; Bini, Federica; Govind, Geetha; Rutten, Twan; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Youssef, Helmy M; Battal, Abdulhamit; Ciannamea, Stefano; Fusca, Tiziana; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Pozzi, Carlo; Börner, Andreas; Lundqvist, Udda; Komatsuda, Takao; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Uauy, Cristobal; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Rossini, Laura; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Inflorescences of the tribe Triticeae, which includes wheat (Triticum sp. L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are characterized by sessile spikelets directly borne on the main axis, thus forming a branchless spike. 'Compositum-Barley' and tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat' (T. turgidum convar. compositum (L.f.) Filat.) display noncanonical spike-branching in which spikelets are replaced by lateral branch-like structures resembling small-sized secondary spikes. As a result of this branch formation 'Miracle-Wheat' produces significantly more grains per spike, leading to higher spike yield. In this study, we first isolated the gene underlying spike-branching in 'Compositum-Barley,' i.e., compositum 2 (com2). Moreover, we found that COM2 is orthologous to the branched head(t) (bh(t)) locus regulating spike branching in tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat.' Both genes possess orthologs with similar functions in maize BRANCHED SILKLESS 1 (BD1) and rice FRIZZY PANICLE/BRANCHED FLORETLESS 1 (FZP/BFL1) encoding AP2/ERF transcription factors. Sequence analysis of the bh(t) locus in a collection of mutant and wild-type tetraploid wheat accessions revealed that a single amino acid substitution in the DNA-binding domain gave rise to the domestication of 'Miracle-Wheat.' mRNA in situ hybridization, microarray experiments, and independent qRT-PCR validation analyses revealed that the branch repression pathway in barley is governed through the spike architecture gene Six-rowed spike 4 regulating COM2 expression, while HvIDS1 (barley ortholog of maize INDETERMINATE SPIKELET 1) is a putative downstream target of COM2. These findings presented here provide new insights into the genetic basis of spike architecture in Triticeae, and have disclosed new targets for genetic manipulations aiming at boosting wheat's yield potential. PMID:26156223

  3. Computer simulation of grain growth of intermediate--and final-stage sintering and Ostwald ripening of BaTiO3-based PTCR ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented a novel modified Q-states Potts Monte-Carlo computer simulation procedure applied to simulate the grain growth of intermediate and final stages of sintering and Ostwald ripening process of BaTiO3 Positive Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (PTCR) ceramics, and the effects of liquid-phases on the grain growth of BaTiO3-based PTCR ceramics. The computer simulating models of the grain growth of the sintering process were established by the theory of the grain growth. The simulating results indicated that (1) the liquid-phase would hinder the motion of the grain-boundary, and the ratio of the grain growth was limited so that the size of the grains was smaller than those of the single-phase system; (2) the shrinkage of a BaTiO3 PTCR ceramics almost ceased at the temperature of 1513 K or so in the two-phase system, and the soaking stage involved the densification and grain growth of ceramics controlled by liquid-phases

  4. Grain legume-cereal intercropping: The practical application of diversity, competition and facilitation in arable and organic cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jørnsgaard, B.; Kinane, J.;

    2008-01-01

    in Denmark over three consecutive cropping seasons including dual grain legume (pea, faba bean and lupin)-barley intercropping as compared to the respective sole crops (SC). Yield stability of intercrops (IC) was not greater than that of grain legume SC, with the exception of the IC containing faba bean....... Faba bean and lupin had lower yield stability than pea and fertilized barley. However, the different IC used environmental resources for plant growth up to 50% (LER=0.91-1.51) more effectively as compared to the respective SC, but with considerable variation over location, years and crops. The SC...... was comparable; however, it tended to be the highest in sole cropped faba bean, lupin and unfertilized barley, where the application of urea to barley reduced the weed infestation by around 50%. Reduction in disease was observed in all IC systems compared to the corresponding SC, with a general disease reduction...

  5. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica Rosset Ferreira; Jorge Fernando Pereira; Caroline Turchetto; Euclydes Minella; Luciano Consoli; Carla Andréa Delatorre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag1...

  6. Cloning and overexpression of antifungal barley chitinase gene in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, S Isaac; Sakthivel, N

    2007-03-01

    Plant chitinases are pathogenesis-related proteins, which are believed to be involved in plant defense responses to pathogen infection. In this study, chitinase gene from barley was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Chitinase (35 kDa) was isolated and purified. Since the protein was produced as insoluble inclusion bodies, the protein was solubilized and refolded. Purified chitinase exerted broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea (blight of tobacco), Pestalotia theae (leaf spot of tea), Bipolaris oryzae (brown spot of rice), Alternaria sp. (grain discoloration of rice), Curvularia lunata (leaf spot of clover) and Rhizoctonia solani (sheath blight of rice). Due to the potential of broad-spectrum antifungal activity barley chitinase gene can be used to enhance fungal-resistance in crop plants such as rice, tobacco, tea and clover. PMID:17029984

  7. Utilization of two sewage sludges on cropland: yield, nitrogen, and metal uptake in winter barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two municipal sludges, one from a highly industrialized city, Chicago, and another from a lesser industrialized, highly agricultural area, Tucson, are compared for barley production of Pima c 1 (Typic torrifluvent). Both sludges were responsible for highly significant additions of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and P to the soil each year at the rates of 100mt/ha single and 20mt/ha for 2 years. Nitrogen responses for barley straw and grain were observed from both sludges. Tucson sludge appears to be attractive as a potential fertilizer, not only as an NPK source, but also for its minimal amounts of heavy metals. The Chicago sludge with high levels of heavy metals, particularly Cd, appears unsuited as a fertilizer because of the plant's tendency to take up toxic levels of heavy metals

  8. Electro-Discharge Fine Truing of Metal-Bonded Fine-Grain Diamond Wheel Based on Real-Time Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Weidong; REN Chengzu; HUA Jinhai; WANG Taiyong

    2005-01-01

    A data acquisition system based on LabVIEW is designed and implemented, and electro-discharge(ED) fine truing of metal-bonded fine-grain diamond wheel based on real-time monitoring is researched. Real-time monitoring not only makes efficient impulse specification of ED truing easily obtained, but also is good for timely identifying no-load, avoiding short circuit and arc discharge phenomena and then for obtaining normal machining state. ED fine truing of the fine-grain wheel includes two steps: rough truing for high efficiency and fine truing for high precision. Final ED truing precision and efficiency not only depend on electric process specification, but also is concerned with electrode shape, insulated performance of operating fluid and vertical feed quantity value and frequency. Experiments indicate that ED fine truing based on real-time monitoring can improve the truing precision and efficiency. Average machining efficiency of W10 wheel is about 0.95 μm/min; the final run-out by ED truing is less than 2 μm.

  9. Web-based computational chemistry education with CHARMMing II: Coarse-grained protein folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Pickard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A lesson utilizing a coarse-grained (CG Gō-like model has been implemented into the CHARMM INterface and Graphics (CHARMMing web portal (www.charmming.org to the Chemistry at HARvard Macromolecular Mechanics (CHARMM molecular simulation package. While widely used to model various biophysical processes, such as protein folding and aggregation, CG models can also serve as an educational tool because they can provide qualitative descriptions of complex biophysical phenomena for a relatively cheap computational cost. As a proof of concept, this lesson demonstrates the construction of a CG model of a small globular protein, its simulation via Langevin dynamics, and the analysis of the resulting data. This lesson makes connections between modern molecular simulation techniques and topics commonly presented in an advanced undergraduate lecture on physical chemistry. It culminates in a straightforward analysis of a short dynamics trajectory of a small fast folding globular protein; we briefly describe the thermodynamic properties that can be calculated from this analysis. The assumptions inherent in the model and the data analysis are laid out in a clear, concise manner, and the techniques used are consistent with those employed by specialists in the field of CG modeling. One of the major tasks in building the Gō-like model is determining the relative strength of the nonbonded interactions between coarse-grained sites. New functionality has been added to CHARMMing to facilitate this process. The implementation of these features into CHARMMing helps automate many of the tedious aspects of constructing a CG Gō model. The CG model builder and its accompanying lesson should be a valuable tool to chemistry students, teachers, and modelers in the field.

  10. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  11. Catalytic thermal treatment (catalytic thermolysis) of a rice grain-based biodigester effluent of an alcohol distillery plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Abhinesh Kumar; Chaudhari, Parmesh Kumar; Mazumdar, Bidyut; Choudhary, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic thermolysis (CT) process is an effective and novel approach to treat rice grain-based biodigester effluent (BDE) of the distillery plant. CT treatment of rice grain-based distillery wastewater was carried out in a 0.5 dm(3) thermolytic batch reactor using different catalysts such as CuO, copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate. With the CuO catalyst, a temperature of 95°C, catalyst loading of 4 g/dm(3) and pH 5 were found to be optimal, obtaining a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal of 80.4% and 72%, respectively. The initial pH (pHi) was an important parameter to remove COD and colour from BDE. At higher pHi (pH 9.5), less COD and colour reduction were observed. The settling characteristics of CT-treated sludge were also analysed at different temperatures. It was noted that the treated slurry at a temperature of 80°C gave best settling characteristics. Characteristics of residues are also analysed at different pH. PMID:25833556

  12. Catalytic thermal treatment (catalytic thermolysis) of a rice grain-based biodigester effluent of an alcohol distillery plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Abhinesh Kumar; Chaudhari, Parmesh Kumar; Mazumdar, Bidyut; Choudhary, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic thermolysis (CT) process is an effective and novel approach to treat rice grain-based biodigester effluent (BDE) of the distillery plant. CT treatment of rice grain-based distillery wastewater was carried out in a 0.5 dm(3) thermolytic batch reactor using different catalysts such as CuO, copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate. With the CuO catalyst, a temperature of 95°C, catalyst loading of 4 g/dm(3) and pH 5 were found to be optimal, obtaining a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal of 80.4% and 72%, respectively. The initial pH (pHi) was an important parameter to remove COD and colour from BDE. At higher pHi (pH 9.5), less COD and colour reduction were observed. The settling characteristics of CT-treated sludge were also analysed at different temperatures. It was noted that the treated slurry at a temperature of 80°C gave best settling characteristics. Characteristics of residues are also analysed at different pH.

  13. Analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in wild barley from the Fertile Crescent: associations with ecology, geography and flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivandic, Victor; Hackett, Christine A; Nevo, Eviatar; Keith, Richard; Thomas, William T B; Forster, Brian P

    2002-01-01

    Wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch, is the progenitor of cultivated barley, Hordeum vulgare. The centre of diversity is in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, where wild barley grows in a wide range of conditions (temperature, water availability, day length, etc.). The genetic diversity of 39 wild barley genotypes collected from Israel, Turkey and Iran was studied with 33 SSRs of known map location. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was performed to partition the genetic variation present within from the variation between the three countries of origin. Using classification tree analysis, two (or three) specific SSRs were identified which could correctly classify most of the wild barley genotypes according to country of origin. Associations of SSR variation with flowering time and adaptation to site-of-origin ecology and geography were investigated by two contrasting statistical approaches, linear regression based on SSR length variation and linear regression based on SSR allele class differences. A number of SSRs were significantly associated with flowering time under four different growing regimes (short days, long days, unvernalised and vernalised). Most of the associations observed could be accounted for by close linkage of the SSR loci to earliness per se genes. No associations were found with photoperiodic and vernalisation response genes known to control flowering in cultivated barley suggesting that different genetic factors may be active in wild barley. Novel genomic regions controlling flowering time in wild barley were detected on chromosomes 1HS, 2HL, 3HS and 4HS. Associations of SSRs with site-of-origin ecological and geographic data were found primarily in genomic regions determining plant development. This study shows that the analyses of SSR variation by allele class and repeat length are complementary, and that some SSRs are not necessarily selectively neutral. PMID:11999832

  14. Maize, Sunflower and Barley Sensitivity to the Residual Activity of Clomazone in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Gajić Umiljendić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of maize, sunflower and barley to clomazone residues in loamy soil wasassessed in the study using bioassay. Clomazone was applied at a series of concentrationsfrom 0.12 to 12 mg a.i./kg of soil. After 14 days, morphological (shoot height, fresh and dryweight and physiological (content of carotenoids, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b parameterswere measured. The results showed that morphological parameters are not valid indicatorsof clomazone sensitivity. Based on the results showing inhibition of the physiologicalparameters, I50 values were calculated and used to estimate the difference in sensitivitybetween the species tested. Sunflower was the most sensitive species, while the differencein sensitivity between maize and barley was not significant.Nomenclature: clomazone (2-(2-chlorbenzyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, maize(Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

  15. Development of a microwave-assisted-extraction-based method for the determination of aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2 in grains and grain products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Zhang, Hong

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the use of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) as a pretreatment technique for the determination of aflatoxins B(1), G(1), B(2), and G(2) in grains and grain products. The optimal operation parameters, including extraction solvent, temperature, and time, were identified to be acetonitrile as the extraction solvent at 80 °C with 15 min of MAE. The extracts were cleaned up using solid-phase extraction followed by derivatization with trifluoroacetic acid and were determined by liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. A Sep-Pak cartridge was chosen over Oasis HLB and Bond Elut cartridges. By the use of aflatoxin M(1) as an internal standard, relative recoveries of the aflatoxins ranged from 90.7 to 105.7 % for corn and from 88.1 to 103.4 % for wheat, with relative standard deviations between 2.5 and 8.7 %. A total of 36 samples from local markets were analyzed, and aflatoxin B(1) was found to be the predominant toxin, with concentrations ranging from 0.42 to 3.41 μg/kg. PMID:23314480

  16. Long-term reticuloruminal pH dynamics and markers of liver health in early-lactating cows of various parities fed diets differing in grain processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, E; Khol-Parisini, A; Gruber, L; Gasteiner, J; Abdel-Raheem, Sh M; Zebeli, Q

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the long-term effect of feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (La) with or without thermal treatment on reticuloruminal pH dynamics and metabolic activity of the liver in 12 primiparous and 18 multiparous early-lactating dairy cows. All cows were included on d 21 postpartum and sampled until d 90 postpartum. Cows were fed a diet based on differently processed ground barley grain: untreated grain (control diet, CON), or grain treated with 1% La alone for 24 h before feeding (La), or with an additional oven-heating at 55°C for 12 h (LaH). The reticuloruminal pH and temperature were measured via indwelling sensors that allowed for continuous (every 10min) and long-term measurement from d 21 to 80 postpartum. Blood samples were taken on d 21, 40, and 90 of lactation and analyzed for liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase, as well as bilirubin, bile acids, and serum amyloid A. Dry matter intake was higher in multiparous cows (20.7±0.27 kg/d) compared with primiparous cows (18.2±0.33 kg/d), but was not affected by dietary treatment. Overall, the relatively short duration (51±5min/d) of reticuloruminal pH pH pH pH readings and shorter periods in which the ruminal pH dropped below the threshold of pH 5.8. The reticuloruminal temperature was not affected by dietary treatment, whereas parity affected the time duration of reticuloruminal temperature >39.5°C, being 60±19min/d shorter in primiparous cows. The measured activities of the liver enzymes AST, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase, as well as bilirubin, bile acids, and the acute phase protein serum amyloid A, were not affected by grain feeding. Additionally, only one small effect of parity on investigated serum variables was noticed, showing slightly but significantly higher values of AST in multiparous (80.5±1.4 U/L) compared with primiparous cows (76.0±1.7 U/L). In conclusion, our

  17. Long-term reticuloruminal pH dynamics and markers of liver health in early-lactating cows of various parities fed diets differing in grain processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, E; Khol-Parisini, A; Gruber, L; Gasteiner, J; Abdel-Raheem, Sh M; Zebeli, Q

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the long-term effect of feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (La) with or without thermal treatment on reticuloruminal pH dynamics and metabolic activity of the liver in 12 primiparous and 18 multiparous early-lactating dairy cows. All cows were included on d 21 postpartum and sampled until d 90 postpartum. Cows were fed a diet based on differently processed ground barley grain: untreated grain (control diet, CON), or grain treated with 1% La alone for 24 h before feeding (La), or with an additional oven-heating at 55°C for 12 h (LaH). The reticuloruminal pH and temperature were measured via indwelling sensors that allowed for continuous (every 10min) and long-term measurement from d 21 to 80 postpartum. Blood samples were taken on d 21, 40, and 90 of lactation and analyzed for liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase, as well as bilirubin, bile acids, and serum amyloid A. Dry matter intake was higher in multiparous cows (20.7±0.27 kg/d) compared with primiparous cows (18.2±0.33 kg/d), but was not affected by dietary treatment. Overall, the relatively short duration (51±5min/d) of reticuloruminal pH 39.5°C, being 60±19min/d shorter in primiparous cows. The measured activities of the liver enzymes AST, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase, as well as bilirubin, bile acids, and the acute phase protein serum amyloid A, were not affected by grain feeding. Additionally, only one small effect of parity on investigated serum variables was noticed, showing slightly but significantly higher values of AST in multiparous (80.5±1.4 U/L) compared with primiparous cows (76.0±1.7 U/L). In conclusion, our results indicate greater risk for primiparous cows to develop subacute ruminal acidosis-like conditions during early lactation than multiparous cows. The study also suggests limited benefits of feeding processed barley grain with La with or without

  18. Factors determining accumulation of mycotoxin producers in cereal grain during harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugauskas, Albinas; Raila, Algirdas; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Railiene, Marija; Novosinskas, Henrikas

    2007-01-01

    During the meteorologically contrasting period of 2003-2005, the contamination of winter wheat, malt barley and fodder barley grain with micromycetes during grain harvesting and preparation for storage was investigated. Micromycetes of over 70 species ascribed to 16 genera were isolated and identified, the density of their populations in grain was determined. Micromycetes with a population density of >50% were attributed to dominant species. Short biological characteristic, ecological peculiarities of the dominating micromycetes are provided; factors determining intensity of their development and abilities to synthesise and excrete toxic metabolites are indicated. The importance of grain drying for stabilisation of its contamination with micromycete propagules is highlighted. It is noted that in grain dried in shaft dryer using air at 90 degrees C the number of cfu (colony forming units) was reduced from 2.2 to 8.2 times. When active ventilation is applied, conditions favourable for the development of micromycetes remain longest in the upper layers of the mound. The airflow passing through the layer of damp grain inhibits the development of micromycetes, but an increase of comparative air flow for more than 500 m3x(txh)(-1) did not reduce the abundance of micromycete cfu. After drying Alternaria alternata, Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, Penicillum verrucosum dominated in wheat grain; Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. culmorum, F. tricinctum in malts barley grain; Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. tricinctum, Alternaria alternata in fodder barley grain. It has been determined that all micromycetes recorded on grain after drying are potential producers of toxic metabolites, i.e. are hazardous to human health.

  19. Microdochium nivale and Microdochium majus in seed samples of Danish small grain cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. K.; Justesen, A. F.; Jensen, J. D.;

    2013-01-01

    Microdochium nivale and Microdochium majus are two of fungal species found in the Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) complex infecting small grain cereals. Quantitative real-time PCR assays were designed to separate the two Microdochium species based on the translation elongation factor 1a gene (TEF-1a) ...... in barley for the first time. The presence of strobilurin resistance should be considered in future fungicide control strategies....... prevalent Microdochium species in Danish cereals for at least 50 years. PCA analysis of the two quantified Microdochium species in wheat, barley and triticale samples generally showed co-existence of M. majus and M. nivale in all three cereal species. Strobilurin resistance in M. nivale/majus was analysed...... in selected wheat samples from 2003 to 2007, selected barley samples from 2007 as well as in historical samples from 1957 to 2000 using CAPS analysis to detect the G143A substitution. The results confirm strobilurin resistance from 2003 in the Microdochium populations of wheat and also confirmed resistance...

  20. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through the cisgenic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kichey, Thomas; Holme, Inger; Møller, Inge Skrumsager;

    2009-01-01

    Barley is one of the major crops cultivated worldwide and constitutes an important basis for animal feed. However, the production is facing a number of challenges that will be accentuated in the years to come, in particular restrictions on the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. In order to improve...... the N use efficiency in barley, we are developing a new generation of genetically modified plants based on the concept of cisgenesis. In this approach, plants are transformed only with their own genetic material. The genes encoding the cytosolic isoform of the glutamine synthetase (GS1...

  1. The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L K; Cook, D J; Edwards, S G; Ray, R V

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium

  2. Control of fusarium moulds and fumonisin B1 in grains by gamma Irradiation * Key words: Irradiated grains, Mycotoxins, Fusarium moulds, Fumonisins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of naturally occurring Fusarium moulds producing fumonisin B1 in seeds was determined. Fusarium infection of grain samples ranged from 10 to 60% and F.moniliforme was the predominant species. Fusarium counts in wheat grains were 8.1 x 104 cfu/g, 6.3 x 106 cfu/g in maize and 4.8 x 103 cfu/g in barley. Wheat, maize and barley grains naturally contaminated with varying levels of fumonisin B1 (1.4 - 5.8, 8.0 - 13.8 and 0.1 - 0.5 μg/g, respectively). Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum were the major Fusarium contaminants producing fumonisin B1 . The effect of gamma irradiation on Fusarium moulds and levels of fumonisin B1 were also determined. The viable counts of Fusarium in grains was decreased by increasing the radiation dose levels, and the growth of Fusarium spp was inhibited at 4.0 KGy for barley and 6.0 KGy for wheat and maize. Application of gamma radiation dose at 5 KGy inactivated fumonisin B1 by 96.6, 87.1 and 100% for wheat, maize and barley, respectively, and a dose of 7 KGy was sufficient for complete destruction of fumonisin B1 in wheat and maize

  3. DECK: Distance and environment-dependent, coarse-grained, knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakser Ilya A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational approaches to protein-protein docking typically include scoring aimed at improving the rank of the near-native structure relative to the false-positive matches. Knowledge-based potentials improve modeling of protein complexes by taking advantage of the rapidly increasing amount of experimentally derived information on protein-protein association. An essential element of knowledge-based potentials is defining the reference state for an optimal description of the residue-residue (or atom-atom pairs in the non-interaction state. Results The study presents a new Distance- and Environment-dependent, Coarse-grained, Knowledge-based (DECK potential for scoring of protein-protein docking predictions. Training sets of protein-protein matches were generated based on bound and unbound forms of proteins taken from the DOCKGROUND resource. Each residue was represented by a pseudo-atom in the geometric center of the side chain. To capture the long-range and the multi-body interactions, residues in different secondary structure elements at protein-protein interfaces were considered as different residue types. Five reference states for the potentials were defined and tested. The optimal reference state was selected and the cutoff effect on the distance-dependent potentials investigated. The potentials were validated on the docking decoys sets, showing better performance than the existing potentials used in scoring of protein-protein docking results. Conclusions A novel residue-based statistical potential for protein-protein docking was developed and validated on docking decoy sets. The results show that the scoring function DECK can successfully identify near-native protein-protein matches and thus is useful in protein docking. In addition to the practical application of the potentials, the study provides insights into the relative utility of the reference states, the scope of the distance dependence, and the coarse-graining of

  4. Grain Boundary Induced Bias Instability in Soluble Acene-Based Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ky V.; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John E.; Lee, Jung Hun; Song, Eunjoo; Kang, Boseok; Cho, Kilwon; Lee, Wi Hyoung

    2016-09-01

    Since the grain boundaries (GBs) within the semiconductor layer of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have a strong influence on device performance, a substantial number of studies have been devoted to controlling the crystallization characteristics of organic semiconductors. We studied the intrinsic effects of GBs within 5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl) anthradithiophene (TES-ADT) thin films on the electrical properties of OFETs. The GB density was easily changed by controlling nulceation event in TES-ADT thin films. When the mixing time was increased, the number of aggregates in as-spun TES-ADT thin films were increased and subsequent exposure of the films to 1,2-dichloroethane vapor led to a significant increase in the number of nuleation sites, thereby increasing the GB density of TES-ADT spherulites. The density of GBs strongly influences the angular spread and crystallographic orientation of TES-ADT spherulites. Accordingly, the FETs with higher GB densities showed much poorer electrical characteristics than devices with lower GB density. Especially, GBs provide charge trapping sites which are responsible for bias-stress driven electrical instability. Dielectric surface treatment with a polystyrene brush layer clarified the GB-induced charge trapping by reducing charge trapping at the semiconductor-dielectric interface. Our study provides an understanding on GB induced bias instability for the development of high performance OFETs.

  5. Cementation of sand grains based on carbonate precipitation induced by microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Microbes can produce 2 3 CO32-in an environment conductive to precipitation,so the incompact sands will be consolidated.This technology is environmentally friendly not only because it gives strength to the sand body,but also it allows water to penetrate into the sand body,which is unlike silicate cement that will destroy the ecosystem of the earth.After comparing the activity of three kinds of bacteria,the most suitable one was chosen for the study.However,the activity of this bacterium was still not high enough for the purpose,so it was purified.A suitable program for the consolidation and cementation of sands was also found in the experiment.The compressive strength and the porosity of the cemented sand body were tested to characterize the cementation effectiveness.XRD analysis showed that a new phase of calcite was produced between sand grains.The content of calcite was detected by TG.The study showed that the precipitation program was quite important to obtain a sound cemented sand body in addition to the activity of the bacteria.

  6. Fast neutron mutagenesis in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to conduct a deletion mutant analysis of the barley genome, seeds of cultivar 'Steptoe' were irradiated in 1992 with two doses of fast neutrons, 3.5 Gy and 4.0 Gy at the FAO/IAEA Seibersdorf SNIF facility by Dr. H. Brunner. M1 seeds were grown at Pullman, Washington, USA in the field. Approximately 500 M2 spikes were picked from each treatment and the remainder harvested in bulk. Mutation rates were determined on 1000 bulk M2 seedlings (chlorophyll deficient) and 500 M2 head rows (chlorophyll deficient and morphological) per treatment. Chlorophyll-deficient mutations were observed at a frequency of 8.1% and 9.4% on M1 spike basis and 2.2% and 2.6% on M2 seedling basis for the 3.5 and 4.0 Gy treatments, respectively. Total mutations observed in the field were 19.0% and 20.8% on M1 spike basis for the two treatments. Approximately 2,500 M2 seedlings were assayed for nitrate reductasedeficient mutants and 12,000 M2 seeds screened for waxy mutants. Although several putative mutants were identified, none have been confirmed to date. The mutation frequencies observed are similar for both treatments and appear to be approximately the same as what we have previously observed with γ-radiation treatments. The absence of nitrate reductase-deficient and waxy mutants is most likely due to the small population size screened. The morphological mutants recovered include dwarfs, sterile, necrotic, glossy, elongated outer glume, winter type and some very interesting floral mutants such as multi-ovary and branched inflorescence. Mutants affecting functions of genes for which cloned DNA segments are available will be sought in order to identify specific molecular changes that have been induced by fast neutron radiation. (author)

  7. Analysis of molecular diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in a worldwide survey of cultivated barley germplasm (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganal Martin W

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our study was a systematic survey of the molecular diversity in barley genetic resources. To this end 953 cultivated barley accessions originating from all inhabited continents except Australia were genotyped with 48 SSR markers. Molecular diversity was evaluated with routine statistics (allelic richness, gene diversity, allele frequency, heterozygosity and unique alleles, Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA, and analysis of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium. Results A genotyping database for 953 cultivated barley accessions profiled with 48 SSR markers was established. The PCoA revealed structuring of the barley population with regard to (i geographical regions and (ii agronomic traits. Geographic origin contributed most to the observed molecular diversity. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD was estimated as squared correlation of allele frequencies (r2. The values of LD for barley were comparable to other plant species (conifers, poplar, maize. The pattern of intrachromosomal LD with distances between the genomic loci ranging from 1 to 150 cM revealed that in barley LD extended up to distances as long as 50 cM with r2 > 0.05, or up to 10 cM with r2 > 0.2. Few loci mapping to different chromosomes showed significant LD with r2 > 0.05. The number of loci in significant LD as well as the pattern of LD were clearly dependent on the population structure. The LD in the homogenous group of 207 European 2-rowed spring barleys compared to the highly structured worldwide barley population was increased in the number of loci pairs with r2 > 0.05 and had higher values of r2, although the percentage of intrachromosomal loci pairs in significant LD based on P 0.80 provided higher LD values as compared to 19 low polymorphic loci (PIC Conclusion A global population of cultivated barley accessions was highly structured. Clustering highlighted the accessions with the same geographic origin, as well as accessions possessing

  8. Non-Markovian coarse-grained modeling of polymeric fluids based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Li, Xiantao; Karniadakis, George

    The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) models and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we incorporate memory effects into CG modeling by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons on both static and dynamic properties between the CG models with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations will be presented. Supported by the DOE Center on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4) and an INCITE grant.

  9. Effect of milling process on the core-shell structures and dielectric properties of fine-grained BaTiO3-based X7R ceramic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Wang; Xiao-hui Wang; Hai Wen; Long-tu Li

    2009-01-01

    Fine-grained BaTiO3-based X7R ceramic materials were prepared and the effects of milling process on the core-shell structures and dielectric properties were investigated using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and en-ergy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). As the milling time extends, the dielectric constant of the ceramics increases, whereas the tem-perature coefficient of capacitance at 125℃ drops quickly. The changes in dielectric properties are considered relevant to the micro-structure evolution caused by the milling process. Defects on the surface of BaTiO3 particles increase because of the effects of mill-ing process, which will make it easier for additives to diffuse into the interior grains. As the milling time increases, the shell region gets thicker and the core region gets smaller; however, EDS results show that the chemical inhomogeneity between grain core and grain shell becomes weaker.

  10. Analysis of the twin spacing and grain size effects on mechanical properties in hierarchically nanotwinned face-centered cubic metals based on a mechanism-based plasticity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linli; Qu, Shaoxing; Guo, Xiang; Lu, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Hierarchical twin lamellae in polycrystalline face-centered cubic (fcc) metals possess a possibility to achieve higher strength with keeping an acceptable elongation. The present work is concerned with the analysis of twin spacing and grain size-dependent plastic performance in hierarchically nanotwinned fcc metals using a generalized strain-gradient plasticity model. The dislocation density-based physical model for constitutive description of nanotwinned fcc metals is expanded for the hierarchical structures of nanotwins. The strengthening mechanism and the failure behavior in these hierarchical nanostructures are studied to evaluate the strength and ductility. Moreover, the transition twin spacing between the strengthening and softening is obtained in different order of twin lamellae. A dislocation-based model on nucleating deformation twins is presented to predict the critical twin spacing in the lowest twin lamellae for generating the subordinate twin lamellae. Our simulation results demonstrate that the existence of the hierarchical nanotwins gives rise to a significant enhancement in the strength, and the resulting global flow stresses are sensitive to the twin spacings of the hierarchical twin lamellae and the grain size. Two softening stages are observed with variation of twin spacing, and the relevant transition twin spacing depends on the microstructural size in hierarchically nanotwinned metals. We further find that the predicted failure strain decreases with decreasing the twin spacing, which is quite different from the case of the individually nanotwinned fcc metals. The critical twin spacing for generating subordinate twins also depends on the twin spacing of superordinate twin lamellae and the grain size. These findings suggest that the high yield strength and good ductility can be achieved by optimizing the grain size and the twin spacings in the hierarchical twins.

  11. Transgenic Production of an Anti HIV Antibody in the Barley Endosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz Hensel

    Full Text Available Barley is an attractive vehicle for producing recombinant protein, since it is a readily transformable diploid crop species in which doubled haploids can be routinely generated. High amounts of protein are naturally accumulated in the grain, but optimal endosperm-specific promoters have yet to be perfected. Here, the oat GLOBULIN1 promoter was combined with the legumin B4 (LeB4 signal peptide and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER retention signal (SEKDEL. Transgenic barley grain accumulated up to 1.2 g/kg dry weight of recombinant protein (GFP, deposited in small roundish compartments assumed to be ER-derived protein bodies. The molecular farming potential of the system was tested by generating doubled haploid transgenic lines engineered to synthesize the anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibody 2G12 with up to 160 μg recombinant protein per g grain. The recombinant protein was deposited at the periphery of protein bodies in the form of a mixture of various N-glycans (notably those lacking terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues, consistent with their vacuolar localization. Inspection of protein-A purified antibodies using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy showed that their equilibrium and kinetic rate constants were comparable to those associated with recombinant 2G12 synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  12. An integrated resource for barley linkage map and malting quality QTL alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) is an economically important model plant for genetics research that is currently served by a comprehensive set of tools for genetic analysis. High density genetic linkage maps constructed from the inheritance of robust gene-based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism...

  13. Risk assessment by sowing date for barley (Hordeum vulgare) in northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, A.A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Habtu, S.; Keesstra, S.D.; Berhe, M.; Hadgu Meles, K.

    2012-01-01

    Risks of dry and wet sowing methods of rainfed barley were evaluated in northern Ethiopia. The evaluation was based on yield simulation using a validated AquaCrop model. Risks of failure (false start) were assessed by taking biomass threshold levels (

  14. A high density barley microsatellite consensus map with 775 SSR loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varshney, R.K.; Marcel, T.C.; Ramsay, L.; Russell, J.; Roder, M.S.; Stein, N.; Waugh, R.; Langridge, P.; Niks, R.E.; Graner, A.

    2007-01-01

    A microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) consensus map of barley was constructed by joining six independent genetic maps based on the mapping populations 'Igri x Franka', 'Steptoe x Morex', 'OWBRec x OWBDom', 'Lina x Canada Park', 'L94 x Vada' and 'SusPtrit x Vada'. Segregation data for micr

  15. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  16. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  17. Triticale dried distillers' grain increases alpha-linolenic acid in subcutaneous fat of beef cattle fed oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M L; Sultana, H; Oba, M; Kastelic, J P; Dugan, M E R; McKinnon, J J; McAllister, T A

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of triticale dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS), flax (FS) and sunflower (SS) seed on growth and the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous (SQ) fat in individually housed steers (n = 15 per diet) fed ad libitum (DM basis); (1) control (CON) 90% barley grain + 10% barley silage; or substitution of barley grain for: (2) 30% DDGS; (3) 10% FS; (4) 30% DDGS + 8.5% FS; (5) 10% SS and (6) 30% DDGS + 8.5% SS. Oilseeds in the combination diets were reduced to maintain diet lipid levels below 9% DM and to determine if favorable changes in the fatty acid profile could be maintained or enhanced at reduced levels of oilseed. Plasma and SQ fat biopsies were collected at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. Inclusion of DDGS decreased (P benefits to the practical cost of favorably manipulating fatty acid profiles in beef. PMID:23054550

  18. Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulations for Phospholipid Membranes Based on a Four-To-One Coarse-Grained Mapping Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxu; Gao, Lianghui; Fang, Weihai

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a new set of parameters compatible with the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) force field is developed for phospholipids. The coarse-grained (CG) models of these molecules are constructed by mapping four heavy atoms and their attached hydrogen atoms to one bead. The beads are divided into types distinguished by charge type, polarizability, and hydrogen-bonding capacity. First, we derive the relationship between the DPD repulsive force and Flory-Huggins χ-parameters based on this four-to-one CG mapping scheme. Then, we optimize the DPD force parameters for phospholipids. The feasibility of this model is demonstrated by simulating the structural and thermodynamic properties of lipid bilayer membranes, including the membrane thickness, the area per lipid, the lipid tail orientation, the bending rigidity, the rupture behavior, and the potential of mean force for lipid flip-flop. PMID:27137463

  19. Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulations for Phospholipid Membranes Based on a Four-To-One Coarse-Grained Mapping Scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxu Li

    Full Text Available In this article, a new set of parameters compatible with the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD force field is developed for phospholipids. The coarse-grained (CG models of these molecules are constructed by mapping four heavy atoms and their attached hydrogen atoms to one bead. The beads are divided into types distinguished by charge type, polarizability, and hydrogen-bonding capacity. First, we derive the relationship between the DPD repulsive force and Flory-Huggins χ-parameters based on this four-to-one CG mapping scheme. Then, we optimize the DPD force parameters for phospholipids. The feasibility of this model is demonstrated by simulating the structural and thermodynamic properties of lipid bilayer membranes, including the membrane thickness, the area per lipid, the lipid tail orientation, the bending rigidity, the rupture behavior, and the potential of mean force for lipid flip-flop.

  20. Incorporation of Whole, Ancient Grains into a Modern Asian Indian Diet: Practical Strategies to Reduce the Burden of Chronic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Anjali A.; Azar, Kristen M.J.; Gardner, Christopher D.; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2011-01-01

    Refined carbohydrates, such as white rice and white flour, are the mainstay of the modern Asian Indian diet, and may contribute to the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. Prior to the 1950s, whole grains such as amaranth, barley, brown rice, millet, and sorghum were more commonly used in Asian Indian cooking. These grains and other non-Indian grains such as couscous, quinoa, and spelt are nutritionally advantageous and may be culturally acceptabl...

  1. Performance of spring barley varieties and variety mixtures as affected by manure application and their order in an organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Berntsen, Jørgen;

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a high and stable yield of organic spring barley, production should be optimized according to the specific environment. To test the performance of spring barley varieties under varying cropping conditions, a field experiment was carried out in 2003 and 2004 in a six-field mixed...... organic crop rotation. We investigated the choice of variety, the order in a rotation, and the application of manure (slurry and farmyard manure; 0 to 120 total-N ha−1) on grain yields of six selected varieties with different characteristics grown in either pure stands or in two spring barley mixtures......, each consisting of three varieties. Average grain yield of the barley varieties varied between 3.3 t DM ha−1 and 4.1 t DM ha−1. Grain yields of the two mixtures were 4.0 and 3.6 t DM ha−1, respectively. The varieties/mixtures interacted with crop order and year. Foliar diseases were more severe in the...

  2. Liquid digestate from anaerobic treatment of source-separated household waste as fertilizer to barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Andersen, Uno; Krogstad, Tore; Sørheim, Roald

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the efficiency of different organic waste materials as NPK fertilizer, in addition to the risk for leaching losses related to shower precipitation in the first part of the growing season. The experiment was tested in a pot trial on a sandy soil in a greenhouse. Six organic fertilizers were evaluated: liquid anaerobic digestate (LAD) sourced from separated household waste, nitrified liquid anaerobic digestate (NLAD) of the same origin as LAD, meat and bone meal (MBM), hydrolysed salmon protein (HSP), reactor-composted catering waste (CW) and cattle manure (CM). An unfertilized control, calcium nitrate (CN) and Fullgjødsel® 21-4-10 were used as reference fertilizers. At equal amounts of mineral nitrogen both LAD and Fullgjødsel® gave equal yield of barley in addition to equal uptake of N, P, and K in barley grain. NLAD gave significantly lower barley yield than the original LAD due to leaching of nitrate-N after a simulated surplus of precipitation (28 mm) at Zadoks 14. There was significantly increased leaching of nitrate N from the treatments receiving 160 kg N ha(-1) of CN and NLAD in comparison with all the other organic fertilizers. In this study LAD performed to the same degree as Fullgjødsel® NPK fertilizer and it was concluded that LAD can be recommended as fertilizer for cereals. Nitrification of the ammonium N in the digestate caused significantly increased nitrate leaching, and cannot be recommended.

  3. Effect of a Transverse Magnetic Field on Stray Grain Formation of Ni-Based Single Crystal Superalloy During Directional Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Weidong; Liu, Huan; Lan, Jian; Li, Chuanjun; Zhong, Yunbo; Li, Xi; Cao, Guanghui; Ren, Zhongming

    2016-08-01

    The effect of a transverse magnetic field on stray grain formation during directional solidification of superalloy was investigated. Experimental results indicated that the transverse magnetic field effectively suppressed the stray grain formation on the side the primary dendrite diverges from the mold wall. Moreover, the quenched experimental results indicated that the solid/liquid interface shape was obviously changed in a transverse magnetic field. The effect of a transverse magnetic field on stray grain formation was discussed.

  4. Fingerprints for two grain amaranthus varieties KBGA1 and Suvarna using RAPD and legume based SSR markers

    OpenAIRE

    Meera N., Lohithaswa HC, Niranjana Murthy and Shailaja Hittalmani

    2014-01-01

    Genotype specific fingerprints were detected in two grain amaranthus varieties KBGA1 and Suvarna using SSR and RAPD markers. In this study 41 Pigeon Pea SSR markers and 6 RAPD markers were used to generate DNA fingerprints for the two varieties of grain amaranthus. Analysis of polymorphic fragments generated from SSR and RAPD markers revealed the genetic variation between grain amaranthus varieties KBGA1 and Suvarna. The results indicate that DNA markers are appropriate tools for assessing ge...

  5. Knowledge-based instantiation of full atomic detail into coarse-grain RNA 3D structural models

    OpenAIRE

    Jonikas, Magdalena A; RADMER, RANDALL J.; Altman, Russ B

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: The recent development of methods for modeling RNA 3D structures using coarse-grain approaches creates a need to bridge low- and high-resolution modeling methods. Although they contain topological information, coarse-grain models lack atomic detail, which limits their utility for some applications. Results: We have developed a method for adding full atomic detail to coarse-grain models of RNA 3D structures. Our method [Coarse to Atomic (C2A)] uses geometries observed in known RNA ...

  6. Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.;

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...

  7. Peculiarities of mineral nutrition of grain crops during the presowing treatment of seeds by plasma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of experimental studies of influence of the presowing treatment with plasma irradiation on content of ions in grain of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) realized in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus were presented. The influence of the applied method on the peculiar features of mineral nutrition and toxicological characteristics of grain quality was studied. Research results showed that grain seeds presowing treatment with plasma medium of different exposition made it possible to improve yield quality, lowered the concentration of toxic substances (chloride and strontium), nitrates, increased the accumulation of phosphorous and potassium. Concentration of magnesium and ammonium varied unissentially, but concentration of natrium lowered both in grains of spring wheat and barley. Application of the presowing treatment also improved the ecological environment by means of lowering of chemical loads of the arable lands, and also made it possible to obtain high yields in the conditions of application of the minimal doses of inorganic fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides

  8. How barley growing conditions and its output change in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Erdélyi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that climate change has started. It is very important to make effort in developing impact analyses and adaptation strategies. First we were investigated how theproduction risk of winter barley is changing with time using the E,V efficiency criterion. Based on the regional yearly production data of the crop, we can conclude that beside other non-climatic effects, the changing climate has considerable impact on crops yield; its variability is increasing with the variability of meteorological parameters. We have used production data from 1951 to nowadays. Next, using comparison analyses for climate scenarios, we predict what we can expect in the future. For detecting the reasons of risk increase in the past, and forecasting the potential main points of future risk we have analysed statistically whether the climate needs of winter barley will be satisfied ornot in its important periods of growing. Frequency calculations were made based on the daily meteorological data. The situation doesn’t show big change, but It is no doubt that the anomalies of the indicators have been becoming more and more frequent. The morefrequent the extreme weather events are, the more we can be convinced of uncertainty.

  9. Designing coarse grained-and atom based-potentials for protein-protein docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobi Dror

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein docking is a challenging computational problem in functional genomics, particularly when one or both proteins undergo conformational change(s upon binding. The major challenge is to define a scoring function soft enough to tolerate these changes and specific enough to distinguish between near-native and "misdocked" conformations. Results Using a linear programming (LP technique, we developed two types of potentials: (i Side chain-based and (ii Heavy atom-based. To achieve this we considered a set of 161 transient complexes and generated a large set of putative docked structures (decoys, based on a shape complementarity criterion, for each complex. The demand on the potentials was to yield, for the native (correctly docked structure, a potential energy lower than those of any of the non-native (misdocked structures. We show that the heavy atom-based potentials were able to comply with this requirement but not the side chain-based one. Thus, despite the smaller number of parameters, the capability of heavy atom-based potentials to discriminate between native and "misdocked" conformations is improved relative to those of the side chain-based potentials. The performance of the atom-based potentials was evaluated by a jackknife test on a set of 50 complexes taken from the Zdock2.3 decoys set. Conclusions Our results show that, using the LP approach, we were able to train our potentials using a dataset of transient complexes only the newly developed potentials outperform three other known potentials in this test.

  10. Lysine-Rich Proteins in High-Lysine Hordeum Vulgare Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    The salt-soluble proteins in barley grain selected for high-lysine content (Hiproly, CI 7115 and the mutants 29 and 86) and of a control (Carlsberg II) with normal lysine content, contain identical major proteins as determined by MW and electrophoretic mobility. The concentration of a protein gro...

  11. Genetic Engineering of Cereal Grains with Starch Consisting of More Than 99% Amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Numerous textbooks tell us that plant starches are a mix of two starch types: amylopectin and amylose. We recently succeeded in engineering a cereal crop – a barley line – producing grain starch consisting of more than 99% amylose1. This amylose-only starch contains a high residual fraction that ...

  12. Potential for Optical Sensor-Based Nitrogen Fertilization in Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Rodriguez, Kamil

    Ground-based active-optical (GBAO) crop sensors have become an effective tool to improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to predict yield early in the growing season, particularly for grass crops. Commercially available canopy sensors calculate the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) by emitting light in the red and near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The NDVI is used to evaluate vigor status and to estimate yield potential. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the performance of commercially available sensors. Therefore, a study was conducted using the most common crop canopy sensors: i) N-Tech's GreenSeeker(TM) (GS), ii) Holland Scientific's Crop Circle(TM) (CC), and iii) Minolta's SPAD-502 chlorophyll content meter (CCM). The objective of this study was to find the optimum time for sensing and compare the relative performance of the sensors in estimating the yield potential of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Treatments included six levels of N fertilization (0, 37, 74, 111, 148, and 185 kg N/ ha), applied in a single split 20 days after planting (DAP). Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replications, in four locations in Arkansas, during 2012 and 2013. Sensors readings at vegetative growth stages V3, 4, 5 and 6. Results from simple regression analysis showed that the V3-V4 growth stage correlated better with grain yield than readings collected and any other time. In season estimated yield (INSEY) obtained at V3 captured 41, 57, 78, and 61% of the variation in grain sorghum yield when red NDVI of GS, red NDVI of CC, red edge for CC and CCM, respectively, were used. Results from these studies suggest that the CC sensor has a better potential for in-season site-specific N application in Arkansas than the GS sensor. The GS reflectance values appear to saturate after the V3 stage, in contrast with CC values that allow for discrimination past the V3 Stage. Therefore, the red

  13. Three Dimension Monte Carlo Simulation of Austenite Grain Growth in CGHAZ of an Ultrafine Grain Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong CHEN; Yongping LEI; Xiaoyan LI; Yaowu SHI; Zhiling TIAN

    2003-01-01

    In the present research Monte Carlo technique was used to simulate the grain growth in heat-affected zone(HAZ) of an ultrafine grain steel. An experimental data based (EBD) model proposed by Gao was used to establish the relation between tMCS and real time temperature kinetics in our simulation. The simulations give out the evolution of grain structure and grain size distribution in HAZ of the ultrafine grain steel. A Microsoft Window based on computer program for the simulation of grain growth in the HAZ of weldment in three dimensions has been developed using Monte Carlo technique. For the system, inputting the temperature field data and material properties, the evolution of grain structure, both image of simulated grain structure and numerical datum reflecting grain size distribution can be produced by the program. The system was applied to the ultrafine grain steel welding, and the simulated results show that the ultrafine grain steel has large tendency of grain growth.

  14. 功能型大麦——糯性裸大麦开发前景探讨%Development Prospects of Functional Barley, Waxy Huiless Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓静; 陈和; 陈健; 沈会权; 周汝琴; 陶红; 乔海龙; 臧慧

    2011-01-01

    Barley grain has very good health care function and medicinal value. By virtue of its special structure and chemical composition, waxy hulless barley has more advantages on nutritional value and food processing. In recent years, it attracts great attention both home and abroad, and turns out to be the focus of edible barley research. Referring to its nutritional value and food processing development, functional advantages of waxy hulless barley were introduced, and its exploiting value were confirmed. Processing technology of functional barley was put forward, which could help to increase food diversity, to add baley's economic benefit, as well as to speed up the agricultural industrial structure adjustment and to increase farmers' income.%大麦籽粒具有很好的保健与药用价值,糯性裸大麦基于其特殊的结构与化学成分,近年来受到了国内外科学家的关注,日渐成为食用大麦的研究重点。从营养价值和食品加工2个方面分析了糯性裸大麦的功能优势,介绍了国内外科学家在糯性裸大麦的利用及加工工艺方面的研究进展,对糯性裸大麦作为功能型大麦的开发利用价值与前景作出了肯定。提出进一步开展功能型大麦利用潜力和相关加工技术研究,对增加食品的多样性、提高大麦的附加值及经济效益、加快农业产业结构调整升级、增加农民收入都具有长远和非常重要的意义。

  15. Chemical genetics and cereal starch metabolism: structural basis of the non-covalent and covalent inhibition of barley β-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejzek, Martin; Stevenson, Clare E; Southard, Andrew M; Stanley, Duncan; Denyer, Kay; Smith, Alison M; Naldrett, Mike J; Lawson, David M; Field, Robert A

    2011-03-01

    There are major issues regarding the proposed pathway for starch degradation in germinating cereal grain. Given the commercial importance but genetic intractability of the problem, we have embarked on a program of chemical genetics studies to identify and dissect the pathway and regulation of starch degradation in germinating barley grains. As a precursor to in vivo studies, here we report systematic analysis of the reversible and irreversible inhibition of the major β-amylase of the grain endosperm (BMY1). The molecular basis of inhibitor action was defined through high resolution X-ray crystallography studies of unliganded barley β-amylase, as well as its complexes with glycone site binder disaccharide iminosugar G1M, irreversible inhibitors α-epoxypropyl and α-epoxybutyl glucosides, which target the enzyme's catalytic residues, and the aglycone site binders acarbose and α-cyclodextrin.

  16. Economic efficiency of the maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mariana Dincu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, was calculated and the level of profitability for several levels of production for grain maize cultivation. We chose corn because it is one of the most important forage crops, we could say even the largest, occupying third place among cultivated plants worldwide. Along with wheat and barley, the food is the biggest part of the population in the world, directly or converted to animal products. Maize can be used in animal feed in various forms. The most used is corn grain, which is characterized by a very high nutritional value, this product is properly regarded as a feed concentrate. Culture of maize have been designed two levels of production: 4000 kg / ha and 6000 kg / ha.

  17. Preparation of ZrB{sub 2}-based nanocomposites with limited grain growth by means of low-temperature hot-pressing using Cu additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Rujie; Zhang, Xinghong; Hu, Ping; Han, Wenbo [Harbin Institute of Technology (China). National Key Lab. of Science and Technology on Advanced Composites in Special Environments

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of the present study is to prepare ZrB{sub 2}-based nanocomposites with limited or no obvious grain growth. For ZrB{sub 2} nanoparticles, the densification on-set temperature was about 1300 C, whereas the obvious grain growth on-set temperature for ZrB{sub 2} nanoparticles was found to be about 1500 C. Therefore, there was a temperature 'window' 1300-1500 C where ZrB{sub 2} nanoparticles could be densified with limited or no grain growth. In this study, densification of ZrB{sub 2}-based nanocomposite was finally realized by means of low-temperature hot-pressing at 1450 C for 60 min under a uniaxial pressure of 30 MPa using Cu as a sintering additive. After hot-pressing, the grain growth of ZrB{sub 2} nanoparticles was greatly suppressed, and the average grain size for ZrB{sub 2} was only 310 nm. The microstructure and mechanical properties were examined, and the flexural strength and fracture toughness were 472.8 {+-} 36.4 MPa and 12.4 {+-} 0.5M Pa . m{sup 1/2}, respectively. We believe this paper can lay the foundation for the preparation of ZrB{sub 2}-based nanocomposites. (orig.)

  18. Effect of dried distillers grains plus solubles on enteric methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünerberg, M; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Okine, E K; Harstad, O M; McAllister, T A

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the impact of corn- or wheat-based dried distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS or WDDGS) on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from growing beef cattle and determine if the oil in CDDGS was responsible for any response observed. Effects of CDDGS or WDDGS on total N excretion and partitioning between urine and fecal N were also examined in this replicated 4 × 4 Latin square using 16 ruminally cannulated crossbreed heifers (388.5 ± 34.9 kg of initial BW). The control diet contained (DM basis) 55% whole crop barley silage, 35% barley grain, 5% canola meal, and 5% vitamin and mineral supplement. Three dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) diets were formulated by replacing barley grain and canola meal (40% of dietary DM) with CDDGS, WDDGS, or WDDGS plus corn oil (WDDGS+oil). For WDDGS+oil, corn oil was added to WDDGS (4.11% fat DM basis) to achieve the same fat level as in CDDGS (9.95% fat DM basis). All total mixed diets were fed once daily ad libitum. Total collection of urine and feces was conducted between d 11 and 14. Enteric CH4 was measured between d 18 and 21 using 4 environmental chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber). Methane emissions per kilogram of DM intake (DMI) and as percent of GE intake (GEI) among heifers fed WDDGS (23.9 g/kg DMI and 7.3% of GEI) and the control (25.3 g/kg DMI and 7.8% of GEI) were similar (P = 0.21 and P = 0.19) whereas heifers fed CDDGS (21.5 g/kg DMI and 6.6% of GEI) and WDDGS+oil (21.1 g/kg DMI and 6.3% of GEI) produced less (P beef cattle. However, to completely assess the impact of DDGS on greenhouse gas emissions of growing feedlot cattle, the potential contribution of increased N excretion to heightened NH3 and nitrous oxide emissions requires consideration. PMID:23508022

  19. A genetic base of utilisation of maize grain as a valuable renewable raw material for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenčenko Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is one of the most important cereal crops, and as such, one of the most significant naturally renewable carbohydrate raw materials for the production of energy and multitude of different products. Many studies have shown that the kernel composition and starch structure of maize are highly influenced by genetic background of the maize. Maize grain consists of approximately 70% of starch, which makes it a very suitable feedstock for the bioethanol production. This study was conducted with aim to understand how different genetic background affects bioethanol yield and other fermentation properties of the selected maize genotypes in the process of maize grain- based bioethanol production. Twenty seven maize hybrids, including genotypes of standard chemical composition as well as specialty maize hybrids such as popping, waxy, white kernel and red kernel hybrids, developed at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, were investigated in this study. The lowest bioethanol yield of 7.25% w/w obtained for hybrid ZP 611k after 48 h of fermentation and the highest by genotype ZP 434 (8.96% w/w. A very significant positive correlation was determined between kernel starch content and the bioethanol yield after 48h of fermentation, as well as volumetric productivity (48h (r=0.67. Between bioethanol yield after 48h of fermentation and soft endosperm content in kernel of the investigated ZP maize hybrids a very significant positive correlation was assessed (r=0.66. Higher overall bioethanol yields have been obtained from genotypes containing higher starch and lower protein and lipid contents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31068

  20. Overexpression of cytokinin dehydrogenase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise fundamentally affects morphology and fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Mrízová

    Full Text Available Barley is one of the most important cereal crops grown worldwide. It has numerous applications, but its utility could potentially be extended by genetically manipulating its hormonal balances. To explore some of this potential we identified gene families of cytokinin dehydrogenases (CKX and isopentenyl transferases, enzymes that respectively irreversibly degrade and synthesize cytokinin (CK plant hormones, in the raw sequenced barley genome. We then examined their spatial and temporal expression patterns by immunostaining and qPCR. Two CKX-specific antibodies, anti-HvCKX1 and anti-HvCKX9, predominantly detect proteins in the aleurone layer of maturing grains and leaf vasculature, respectively. In addition, two selected CKX genes were used for stable, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the barley cultivar Golden Promise. The results show that constitutive overexpression of CKX causes morphological changes in barley plants and prevents their transition to flowering. In all independent transgenic lines roots proliferated more rapidly and root-to-shoot ratios were higher than in wild-type plants. Only one transgenic line, overexpressing CKX under the control of a promoter from a phosphate transporter gene, which is expressed more strongly in root tissue than in aerial parts, yielded progeny. Analysis of several T1-generation plants indicates that plants tend to compensate for effects of the transgene and restore CK homeostasis later during development. Depleted CK levels during early phases of development are restored by down-regulation of endogenous CKX genes and reinforced de novo biosynthesis of CKs.

  1. A study on the role of grain boundary engineering in promoting high-cycle fatigue resistance and improving reliability in nickel base superalloys for propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong

    High-cycle fatigue, involving the premature initiation and/or rapid propagation of small cracks to failure due to high-frequency (vibratory) loading, remains the principal cause of failures in military gas-turbine propulsion systems. The objective of this study is to examine whether the resistance to high-cycle fatigue failures can be enhanced by grain-boundary engineering, i.e., through the modification of the spatial distribution and topology of the grain boundaries in the microstructure. While grain boundary engineering has been used to obtain significant improvements in intergranular corrosion and cracking, creep and cavitation behavior, toughness and plasticity, cold-work embrittlement, and weldability, only very limited, but positive, results exist for fatigue. Accordingly, using a commercial polycrystalline nickel base gamma/gamma' superalloy, ME3, as a typical engine disk material, sequential thermomechanical processing, involving alternate cycles of strain and annealing, is used to (i) modify the proportion of special grain boundaries, and (ii) interrupt the connectivity of the random boundaries in the grain boundary network. The processed microstructures are then subjected to fracture-mechanics based high cycle fatigue testing to evaluate how the crack initiation and small- and large-crack growth properties are affected and to examine how the altered grain boundary population and connectivity can influence growth rates and overall lifetimes. The effect of such grain-boundary engineering on the fatigue-crack-propagation behavior of large (˜8 to 20 mm), through-thickness cracks at 25, 700, and 800°C was examined. Although there was little influence of an increased special boundary fraction at ambient temperatures, the resistance to near-threshold crack growth was definitively improved at elevated temperatures, with fatigue threshold-stress intensities some 10 to 20% higher than at 25°C, concomitant with a lower proportion (˜20%) of intergranular

  2. Modeling of dynamic hysteresis for grain-oriented laminations using a viscosity-based modified dynamic Jiles–Atherton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain-oriented (GO) materials exhibit arbitrary frequency-loss behaviors and anomalies in dynamic hysteresis loop shapes. Significant attempts have been made in the literature to approximate dynamic hysteresis loops using the dynamic Jiles–Atherton (JA) model based Bertotti's approach. Such a model is inefficient in accurate loss computation over a wide range of frequencies and in predictions of correct loop shapes. Moreover, the original static JA model also needs to be improved for accurate prediction of highly steep, gooseneck, and narrow-waist static loops of GO materials. An alternative approach based on magnetic viscosity provides flexibilities to handle indefinite frequency dependence of the losses and to control the anomalous loop shapes. This paper proposes a viscosity-based dynamic JA model which gives accurate prediction of dynamic loops of GO materials. A modified static JA model which considers crystalline and textured structures of GO materials is used to predict static hysteresis loops. The dynamic losses are included in the modified model using the field separation approach. The proposed model is validated using experimental measurements. The computed and measured dynamic loops are in close agreement in the frequency range of 1–200 Hz

  3. Mixed-starter Fermentation of New-type Highland Barley Liquor%新型青稞酒混曲发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉蛟; 易欣; 吴正云; 张文学

    2015-01-01

    In this study, highland barley from Qinghai was used as raw materials, mixed-starter fermentation (new-type highland barley Daqu and Rhizopus Xiaoqu) was adopted to produce soft-taste highland barley liquor, and the technology of steaming and distilling one time respec-tively was applied. The experimental results suggested that, as the mixed ratio of highland barley Daqu and Rhizopus Xiaoqu was 10∶1, the yield and the quality of soft-taste highland barley liquor were better than that by traditional production methods. This study provided theoretical and technical base for efficient utilization of highland barley resources and the expansion of highland barley liquor market.%以青海青稞为主要酿酒原料,探讨了新型青稞大曲与根霉小曲混曲发酵酿造绵柔青稞酒的“清蒸一次清”工艺。研究发现,青稞大曲∶根霉小曲为10∶1混曲发酵时,绵柔青稞酒酒精产率及成品酒品质均优于传统青稞酒。该项研究结果为高原青稞资源的有效利用以及青稞酒市场的进一步拓展奠定了理论和技术基础。

  4. Comprehensive and Comparative Metabolomic Profiling of Wheat, Barley, Oat and Rye Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Advanced Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekzod Khakimov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the main bulk components of cereals such as the polysaccharides and proteins, lower concentration secondary metabolites largely contribute to the nutritional value. This paper outlines a comprehensive protocol for GC-MS metabolomic profiling of phenolics and organic acids in grains, the performance of which is demonstrated through a comparison of the metabolite profiles of the main northern European cereal crops: wheat, barley, oat and rye. Phenolics and organic acids were extracted using acidic hydrolysis, trimethylsilylated using a new method based on trimethylsilyl cyanide and analyzed by GC-MS. In order to extract pure metabolite peaks, the raw chromatographic data were processed by a multi-way decomposition method, Parallel Factor Analysis 2. This approach lead to the semi-quantitative detection of a total of 247 analytes, out of which 89 were identified based on RI and EI-MS library match. The cereal metabolome included 32 phenolics, 30 organic acids, 10 fatty acids, 11 carbohydrates and 6 sterols. The metabolome of the four cereals were compared in detail, including low concentration phenolics and organic acids. Rye and oat displayed higher total concentration of phenolic acids, but ferulic, caffeic and sinapinic acids and their esters were found to be the main phenolics in all four cereals. Compared to the previously reported methods, the outlined protocol provided an efficient and high throughput analysis of the cereal metabolome and the acidic hydrolysis improved the detection of conjugated phenolics.

  5. [Microsatellite markers and applications in the barley genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zong-yun; Zhang, Yi-zheng; Ling, Hong-qing

    2002-11-01

    Microsatellites, also called simple sequence repeats (SSR), are simple, tandemly repeated DNA sequences with a repeat length of a few base pairs,and are very ideally used as molecular markers because of their abundance, high level of polymorphism, co-dominance and ease of assay with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by selecting primers as the conserved DNA sequences flanking the SSRs,as well as better stability. The experiments showed that SSRs are randomly distributed throughout the barley genome,and there are 3-18 alleles at a single SSR locus,up to 37 alleles/locus. SSR markers have being widely applied in the construction of molecular genetic map, the study of genetic diversity,the identification of germplasm, gene mapping for important traits and molecular marker-assisted selection. Meanwhile,most of markers are strongly clustered around the centromeric regions of all seven linkage groups. As a result of the clustering,genome coverage with SSRs remains incomplete with an obvious lack of markers on the long arms of chromosomes 1H and 5H and short arm of chromosome 6H. Therefore,it is very potential and necessary to further develop SSR markers in barley. PMID:15979979

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in barley using autoSNPdb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Chris; Appleby, Nikki; Vardy, Megan; Imelfort, Michael; Edwards, David; Batley, Jacqueline

    2009-05-01

    Molecular markers are used to provide the link between genotype and phenotype, for the production of molecular genetic maps and to assess genetic diversity within and between related species. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant molecular genetic marker. SNPs can be identified in silico, but care must be taken to ensure that the identified SNPs reflect true genetic variation and are not a result of errors associated with DNA sequencing. The SNP detection method autoSNP has been developed to identify SNPs from sequence data for any species. Confidence in the predicted SNPs is based on sequence redundancy, and haplotype co-segregation scores are calculated for a further independent measure of confidence. We have extended the autoSNP method to produce autoSNPdb, which integrates SNP and gene annotation information with a graphical viewer. We have applied this software to public barley expressed sequences, and the resulting database is available over the Internet. SNPs can be viewed and searched by sequence, functional annotation or predicted synteny with a reference genome, in this case rice. The correlation between SNPs and barley cultivar, expressed tissue type and development stage has been collated for ease of exploration. An average of one SNP per 240 bp was identified, with SNPs more prevalent in the 5' regions and simple sequence repeat (SSR) flanking sequences. Overall, autoSNPdb can provide a wealth of genetic polymorphism information for any species for which sequence data are available. PMID:19386041

  7. Feeding behavior and productive performance of steers fed pearl millet grain-based diets containing proportions of babassu mesocarp bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Martins Alencar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior and feedlot productive performance of dairy-origin steers fed for 84 days ground pearl millet grain-based diets with 0, 120, 240, 360, and 480 g kg-1 of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB and a standard diet based on ground corn. Thirty Holstein-Zebu steers with average initial body weight of 371.02±27 kg were used. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five replications. Dry matter intake showed better fit with the quadratic regression equation with the inclusion of BMB, reaching a maximum value in diets with 360 g of this by-product. There was no difference for dry matter intake between pearl millet- and corn-based diets. There was no difference in total digestible nutrients intake between diets. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter decreased linearly with the increase in the dietary level of BMB. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter was not different between corn and millet diets. There was no difference in feeding time between diets. Total requirement of metabolizable energy increased linearly with inclusion of BMB. However, total requirements of metabolizable energy did not differ between the corn- and pearl millet-based diets. Average daily gain decreased linearly with the increase in BMB, with adjustment forced by the sharp decline of this variable in diets with 480 g of BMB. There was no difference in average daily gain between corn- and pearl millet-based diets. The inclusion of levels above 360 g of babassu mesocarp bran in pearl millet-based diets reduces the supply of metabolizable energy and the productive performance of feedlot dairy steers.

  8. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  9. The effect of grain refinement on the room-temperature ductility of as-cast Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, S.; Andleigh, V.K.; McKamey, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys exhibit poor room-temperature ductility in the as-cast condition. In this study, the effect of grain refinement of the as-cast alloy on room-temperature ductility was investigated. Small melts of Fe-28 at. % Al-5 at. % Cr were inoculated with various alloying additions and cast into a 50- x 30- x 30-mm graphite mold. The resulting ingots were examined metallographically for evidence of grain refinement, and three-point bend tests were conducted on samples to assess the effect on room-temperature ductility. Ductility was assumed to correlate with the strain corresponding to the maximum stress obtained in the bend test. The results showed that titanium was extremely effective in grain refinement, although it severely embrittled the alloy in contents exceeding 1%. Boron additions strengthened the alloy significantly, while carbon additions reduced both the strength and ductility. The best ductility was found in an alloy containing titanium, boron, and carbon. In order to verify the results of the grain refinement study, vacuum-induction melts of selected compositions were prepared and cast into a larger 25- x 150- x 100-mm graphite mold. Tensile specimens were machined from the ingots, and specimens were tested at room temperature. The results of the tensile tests agreed with the results of the grain refinement study; in addition, the addition of molybdenum was found to significantly increase room-temperature tensile ductility over that of the base alloy.

  10. Performance Evaluation of TPA-HE Based Fine Grained Data Access for Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar Parmar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the software technology evolves the focus of users are shifting form devices for data or information. This transformation requires reliable and scalable computing paradigms which satisfy the users processing and storage requirements. Service based, distributed, grid and web 2.0 are some of the most famous computing technologies. Conversions are occurring towards less managements and maintenance issues and despite of that the usage experience should be increased. But there are some security concerns like security, access control, privacy & isolation based trusted service delivery raises due to the data in an outsourced environment. Thus, several policies are created to define its boundaries. Also the type of user accessing the data and the service provided by the cloud needs to be verified. Thus the uses trust over the system can go down if the interoperability and security of services are satisfactory. To providing confidentiality to users data encryption is the traditional options which require decryption for reading or retrieving the data. But in outsourced environment the user is frequently accessing its data which may increase the overhead of performing such frequent encryption and then decryptions. Also for performing any operations the data need to be decrypted. It is something treating as a complex usage boundary. Thus, Homomorphic encryption is used to deal with such situations. This paper proposes a novel Third Party and Homomorphic Encryption (TPA-HE based mechanism for secure computing. In this third party auditor and service provider is used for authentication and authorization of services & user profiles. It has three basic entities TPA, Cloud Service Provider, Encryption & Monitoring service to regularly analyze the security breaches in access & data transfer mechanism. To prove the effectiveness of suggested approach some of the results are taken which are better than the existing mechanism.

  11. Genetic Diversity in A Core Subset of Wild Barley Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Horbach, Carolee

    2012-01-01

    Wild barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell.] is a part of the primary gene pool with valuable sources of beneficial genes for barley improvement. This study attempted to develop a core subset of 269 accessions representing 16 countries from the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) collection of 3,782 accessions, and to characterize them using barley simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Twenty-five informative primer pairs were applied to screen all samples and 359 alleles ...

  12. Genetic Diversity in A Core Subset of Wild Barley Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Bi Fu; Carolee Horbach

    2012-01-01

    Wild barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell.] is a part of the primary gene pool with valuable sources of beneficial genes for barley improvement. This study attempted to develop a core subset of 269 accessions representing 16 countries from the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) collection of 3,782 accessions, and to characterize them using barley simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Twenty-five informative p...

  13. Dissection of Barley Landraces Originated From Twelve Different

    OpenAIRE

    Sipahi, Hülya; Yumurtacı, Ayşen

    2015-01-01

    Landraces, as an important source of genetic diversity, are important for improvement of crop species. Investigating of genetic diversity among landraces is necessary to conserve genetic resources and develop future strategies on barley breeding. In this study, genetic diversity in barley landraces originating from twelve countries was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Sixteen SSR markers belong to the seven barley linkage groups revealed high genetic diversity. A total of 9...

  14. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismagul, Ainur; Mazonka, Iryna; Callegari, Corinne; Eliby, Serik

    2014-01-01

    Barley biotechnology requires efficient genetic engineering tools for producing transgenic plants necessary for conducting reverse genetics analyses in breeding and functional genomics research. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is an important technique for producing barley transgenics with simple low-copy number transgenes. This chapter reports a refined protocol for the systematic high-throughput transformation of the advanced Australian spring barley breeding line WI4330.

  15. Quantitative Assessment of the Impact of China’s Direct Grain Subsidies on Grain Yield--Based on the Empirical Analysis of Panel Data Pertaining to 29 Provinces in the Period 2004-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We build the influence function empirical model of China’s grain production at the present stage in view of the factors influencing direct grain subsidies,using Cobb-Douglas production function model.And we estimate the elasticity coefficient of impact of China’s direct grain subsidies on grain yield,using the panel data pertaining to 29 provinces in the period 2004-2007;comparatively analyze the validity and limitation of policy factors of direct grain subsidies on China’s grain yield.The results show that at the present stage,the elasticity coefficient of impact of China’s direct grain subsidies on grain yield is 0.002 3,and under the existing subsidy system and level,direct grain subsidies play a positive role in increasing grain yield,but the role is limited;the elasticity coefficient of impact of the food price on grain yield is much larger than that of impact of direct grain subsidies on grain yield.Therefore,the government should strengthen and improve direct grain subsidy policies;in the mean time,pay full attention to the use of market mechanism to consolidate the basic role of the food price in promoting food security to a great extent.

  16. Automated Analysis of Barley Organs Using 3D Laser Scanning: An Approach for High Throughput Phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Paulus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rise of laser scanning the 3D geometry of plant architecture is easy to acquire. Nevertheless, an automated interpretation and, finally, the segmentation into functional groups are still difficult to achieve. Two barley plants were scanned in a time course, and the organs were separated by applying a histogram-based classification algorithm. The leaf organs were represented by meshing algorithms, while the stem organs were parameterized by a least-squares cylinder approximation. We introduced surface feature histograms with an accuracy of 96% for the separation of the barley organs, leaf and stem. This enables growth monitoring in a time course for barley plants. Its reliability was demonstrated by a comparison with manually fitted parameters with a correlation R2 = 0:99 for the leaf area and R2 = 0:98 for the cumulated stem height. A proof of concept has been given for its applicability for the detection of water stress in barley, where the extension growth of an irrigated and a non-irrigated plant has been monitored.

  17. Automated analysis of barley organs using 3D laser scanning: an approach for high throughput phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Stefan; Dupuis, Jan; Riedel, Sebastian; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rise of laser scanning the 3D geometry of plant architecture is easy to acquire. Nevertheless, an automated interpretation and, finally, the segmentation into functional groups are still difficult to achieve. Two barley plants were scanned in a time course, and the organs were separated by applying a histogram-based classification algorithm. The leaf organs were represented by meshing algorithms, while the stem organs were parameterized by a least-squares cylinder approximation. We introduced surface feature histograms with an accuracy of 96% for the separation of the barley organs, leaf and stem. This enables growth monitoring in a time course for barley plants. Its reliability was demonstrated by a comparison with manually fitted parameters with a correlation R(2) = 0:99 for the leaf area and R(2) = 0:98 for the cumulated stem height. A proof of concept has been given for its applicability for the detection of water stress in barley, where the extension growth of an irrigated and a non-irrigated plant has been monitored. PMID:25029283

  18. Phytoremediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils around Isfahan Oil Refinery (Iran by Sorghum and Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Irajy Asiabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum compounds are one of the most frequently encountered pollutants in soils adjacent to oil refineries. Phytoremediation,where feasible, has become a cost-effective alternative to physicochemical methods of soil remediation. In this study, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and barley (Hordeum vulgare were selected for phytoremediationand the diminution in the concentration of oil-based contaminants was measured during a 90-day period. Contaminated and control treatments were compared in terms of root and shoot dry weight. Comparisons revealed reductions of about 22% and 30% in root dry matter and 51% and 42% in shoot dry matter of sorghum and barley in contaminated soil, respectively. The control and planted soils were significantly different in total and oil-degrading bacterial counts. Moreover, the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons decreased by 52%-64% in 90 days. Since planting the contaminated soil with sorghum and barley resulted in an improvement of 30% compared to unplanted contaminated soil, the two plants were highly efficient in removing petroleum from oil-contaminated soils. Therefore, despite the necessity of further studies to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation by assessing the appropriateness of various plant species, some genotypes like sorghum and barley were found suitable choices for phytoremediation of the investigated petroleum-contaminated soil.

  19. Grain-size based sea-level reconstruction in the south Bohai Sea during the past 135 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liang; Chen, Yanping

    2013-04-01

    Future anthropogenic sea-level rise and its impact on coastal regions is an important issue facing human civilizations. Due to the short nature of the instrumental record of sea-level change, development of proxies for sea-level change prior to the advent of instrumental records is essential to reconstruct long-term background sea-level changes on local, regional and global scales. Two of the most widely used approaches for past sea-level changes are: (1) exploitation of dated geomorphologic features such as coastal sands (e.g. Mauz and Hassler, 2000), salt marsh (e.g. Madsen et al., 2007), terraces (e.g. Chappell et al., 1996), and other coastal sediments (e.g. Zong et al., 2003); and (2) sea-level transfer functions based on faunal assemblages such as testate amoebae (e.g. Charman et al., 2002), foraminifera (e.g. Chappell and Shackleton, 1986; Horton, 1997), and diatoms (e.g. Horton et al., 2006). While a variety of methods has been developed to reconstruct palaeo-changes in sea level, many regions, including the Bohai Sea, China, still lack detailed relative sea-level curves extending back to the Pleistocene (Yi et al., 2012). For example, coral terraces are absent in the Bohai Sea, and the poor preservation of faunal assemblages makes development of a transfer function for a relative sea-level reconstruction unfeasible. In contrast, frequent alternations between transgression and regression has presumably imprinted sea-level change on the grain size distribution of Bohai Sea sediments, which varies from medium silt to coarse sand during the late Quaternary (IOCAS, 1985). Advantages of grainsize-based relative sea-level transfer function approaches are that they require smaller sample sizes, allowing for replication, faster measurement and higher spatial or temporal resolution at a fraction of the cost of detail micro-palaeontological analysis (Yi et al., 2012). Here, we employ numerical methods to partition sediment grain size using a combined database of

  20. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA re...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development.......The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...