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Sample records for barley differential genotypes

  1. Differential Antioxidative Responses to Water Deficit Among four Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Genotypes

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    Z Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Future climate changes are expected to increase risks of drought, which already represent the most common stress factor for stable barley (Hordeum vulgare L. production in Iran. Up to now, extensive research projects have been done to study effects of drought stress on the antioxidant enzyme activity. While there is a few works of such studies on the field condition. In order to study of water deficit effects on the antioxidant enzymes activities as a secondary stress, we evaluate the effects of mild and severe drought stress on activities of antioxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and peroxidase, among four barley genotypes, differing in the capacity to maintain the grain yield under drought condition during beginning on anthesis, kernel watery ripe and late milk stages under field condition. Results showed that drought increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in all genotypes. At beginning of anthesis, POX activity of Q22 was higher than it in other genotypes ( P

  2. Differentially expressed genes between drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive barley genotypes in response to drought stress during the reproductive stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peiguo; Baum, Michael; Grando, Stefania; Ceccarelli, Salvatore; Bai, Guihua; Li, Ronghua; von Korff, Maria; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Graner, Andreas; Valkoun, Jan

    2009-01-01

    -like protein (PP2C), and several chaperones, were differentially expressed in all genotypes under drought; thus they were more likely to be general drought-responsive genes in barley. These results could provide new insights into further understanding of drought-tolerance mechanisms in barley. PMID:19561048

  3. Differentially expressed genes between drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive barley genotypes in response to drought stress during the reproductive stage

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, P; Baum, M.; Grando, S.; Ceccarelli, S.; Bai, G.; Li, R; Von Korff, M.; Varshney, R.,; Graner, A.; Valkoun, V.

    2007-01-01

    Drought tolerance is a key trait for increasing and stabilizing barley productivity in dry areas worldwide. Identification of the genes responsible for drought tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) will facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance, and also facilitate the genetic improvement of barley through marker-assisted selection or gene transformation. To monitor the changes in gene expression at the transcriptional level in barley leaves during the repro...

  4. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of barley fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, H K; Mosenthin, R; Rosenfelder, Pia

    2016-01-01

    To determine chemical composition, physical characteristics and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and amino acids (AA) in eight current hulled barley genotypes, an experiment with growing pigs has been conducted. These genotypes included Yool, Campanile, Lomerit, Travira, Anisette...

  5. Analysis on Interaction between Genotype of Four Main Flavonoids of Barley Grain and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YANG; Chengli DUAN; Yawen ZENG; Juan DU; Shuming YANG; Xiaoying PU; Shengchao YANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to analyze the interaction between genotype of flavonoids of barley grain and environment, to increase the flavonoid content of barley grain in cultivation and breeding. [Method] In this study, the content of cate- chin, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol of barley grain planted in Kunming, Qujing and Baoshan were determined by HPLC, and the genotype, environment, genotype- environment interaction of the flavonoid content of barley grain were analyzed. [Result] According to the experimental results, the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction variance of catechin and kaempferol contents show the same trend: genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance, envi- ronmental variance and G × E interaction variance of quercetin and total flavonoid contents show the same trend: genetype variation 〉 G × E interaction variation 〉 environmental variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance and environmental variance of myricetin content both reach a extremely sig- nificant level, while the G × E interaction variance reaches a significant level, showing an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation; the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction vari- ance of total flavonoid content show an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation. Among different barley varieties, Ziguang- mangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai in Qujing, Kunming and Baoshan have relatively high content of quercetin, while other barley varieties barely contain any quercetin. The grains of Ziguangmangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai are purple, while the grains of other barley varieties are yellow. [Conclusion] Four main flavonoids and the total flavonoids of barley grain are mainly under genetic control and

  6. Comparative transcriptome profiling of two Tibetan wild barley genotypes in responses to low potassium.

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    Jianbin Zeng

    Full Text Available Potassium (K deficiency is one of the major factors affecting crop growth and productivity. Development of low-K tolerant crops is an effective approach to solve the nutritional deficiency in agricultural production. Tibetan annual wild barley is rich in genetic diversity and can grow normally under poor soils, including low-K supply. However, the molecular mechanism about low K tolerance is still poorly understood. In this study, Illumina RNA-Sequencing was performed using two Tibetan wild barley genotypes differing in low K tolerance (XZ153, tolerant and XZ141, sensitive, to determine the genotypic difference in transcriptome profiling. We identified a total of 692 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in two genotypes at 6 h and 48 h after low-K treatment, including transcription factors, transporters and kinases, oxidative stress and hormone signaling related genes. Meanwhile, 294 low-K tolerant associated DEGs were assigned to transporter and antioxidant activities, stimulus response, and other gene ontology (GO, which were mainly involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, lipid metabolism and ethylene biosynthesis. Finally, a hypothetical model of low-K tolerance mechanism in XZ153 was presented. It may be concluded that wild barley accession XZ153 has a higher capability of K absorption and use efficiency than XZ141 under low K stress. A rapid response to low K stress in XZ153 is attributed to its more K uptake and accumulation in plants, resulting in higher low K tolerance. The ethylene response pathway may account for the genotypic difference in low-K tolerance.

  7. Assessment of the Seedling Reactions of Some Hulless Barley Genotypes to Drechslera teres f. maculata

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlegiz, Emine Tuba; KARAKAYA, Aziz; Celik Oguz, Arzu; MERT, Zafer; Sayim, İsmail; Ergun, Namuk; Aydogan, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The seedling reactions of three barley cultivars, one hulless barley cultivar, two candidate hulless barley lines and nine hulless barley genotypes were determined under greenhouse conditions to ten isolates of Drechslera teres f. maculata, the causal agent of spot form of net blotch. Isolates were obtained from Ankara, Çankırı, Eskişehir, Kayseri, Konya and Şanlıurfa provinces. The reactions of the cultivars and hulless cultivar ranged between suscepible-resistant. The reactions of the hulle...

  8. Products based on a high fiber barley genotype, but not on common barley or oats, lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeberg, H G; Granfeldt, Y E; Björck, I M

    1996-02-01

    Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to cereal products made from common barley, oats or a barley genotype containing elevated levels of beta-glucans were evaluated in nine healthy subjects. Porridges were made from commercial Swedish whole-meal barley or oat flours, and a mixed whole-meal porridge using the high fiber barley genotype and commercial Swedish common barley (50:50). Also studied were two types of flour-based bread products composed of high fiber barley and common barley in ratios of 50:50 or 80:20, respectively. The common oat and barley porridges produced postprandial glucose and insulin responses similar to the white wheat bread reference, suggesting that the naturally occurring dietary fiber in these whole-meal flours has no impact on the glucose tolerance. In contrast, all high fiber barley products induced significantly lower responses than did the reference product, with the glycemic and insulin indices ranging from 57 to 72 or 42 to 72%, respectively. It is concluded that "lente" products of high sensory quality can be prepared from a barley genotype with an elevated content of soluble dietary fiber. The glycemic index of these products compares favorably with that of products made from common cereals, suggesting their use as a potential component of diets for patients with diabetes and hyperlipidemia, and for individuals predisposed to metabolic disease.

  9. Histochemical characterization of early response to Cochliobolus sativus infection in selected barley genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Decuadro, Susana; Silva, Paula; Bentancur, Oscar; Gamba, Fernanda; Pritsch, Clara

    2014-07-01

    Much effort is being made to breed barley with durable resistance to leaf spot blotch incited by Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph: Cochliobolus sativus). We hypothesized that susceptibility and resistance traits in 11 diverse barley genotypes inoculated with a single C. sativus isolate might specify a range of distinct host cell responses. Quantitative descriptions of interaction microphenotypes exhibited by different barley genotype seedlings after infection with C. sativus are provided. Early oxidative responses occurring in epidermis and mesophyll leaf tissue were monitored by histochemical analysis of H2O2 accumulation at 8, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Cell wall apposition (CWA) in epidermal cells and hypersensitive reaction (HR) of epidermal or mesophyll tissue were early defenses in both resistant and susceptible genotypes. There were differences in level, duration, and frequency of occurrence for CWA and HR for the different barley genotypes. Occurrence of HR in epidermal cells at post-penetration stages was indicative of compatibility. Patterns of cell responses were microphenotypically diverse between different resistant and susceptible genotypes. This suggests that timing and level of response are key features of microphenotypic diversity that distinguish different functional mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility present in barley.

  10. Variation in activity of root extracellular phytase between genotypes of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Mohammad Farouq

    1997-01-01

    Barley genotypes grown in nutrient solution under P nutrient stress and sterile conditions were compared in activity of root-associated and root-released extracellular phytase. The activity of root-associated phytase of all genotypes was about 10 times higher than that of root-released phytase...... and the genotypes performed differently with regard to the activity of the enzymes. The winter barley genotype, Marinka had the highest activity of root-associated extracellular phytase which differed significantly from Alexis and Senate, but not from Regatta. Alexis showed the lowest activity of root......-released extracellular phytase which differed significantly from those of Marinka and Regatta, but not from Senate. Generally, there was a significant correlation between the activity of root-associated and released extracellular phytase....

  11. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Barley Genotypes under Salinity Stress during the Seedling Stage

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    Runhong Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop productivity. Identification of the potential novel genes responsible for salt tolerance in barley will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of barley responses to salt stress. We compared changes in transcriptome between Hua 11 (a salt-tolerant genotype and Hua 30 (a salt sensitive genotype in response to salt stress at the seedling stage using barley cDNA microarrays. In total, 557 and 247 salt-responsive genes were expressed exclusively in the shoot and root tissue of the salt-tolerant genotype, respectively. Among these genes, a number of signal-related genes, transcription factors and compatible solutes were identified and some of these genes were carefully discussed. Notably, a LysM RLK was firstly found involved in salt stress response. Moreover, key enzymes in the pathways of jasmonic acid biosynthesis, lipid metabolism and indole-3-acetic acid homeostasis were specifically affected by salt stress in salt tolerance genotype. These salt-responsive genes and biochemical pathways identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of salt tolerance in barley.

  12. Metabolic analysis of two contrasting wild barley genotypes grown hydroponically reveals adaptive strategies in response to low nitrogen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xiaoyan; Qian, Qiufeng; Ye, Zhilan; Zeng, Jianbin; Han, Zhigang; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for plants. The increasingly severe environmental problems caused by N fertilizer application urge alleviation of N fertilizer dependence in crop production. In previous studies, we identified the Tibetan wild barley accessions with high tolerance to low nitrogen (LN). In this study, metabolic analysis was done on two wild genotypes (XZ149, tolerant and XZ56, sensitive) to understand the mechanism of LN tolerance, using a hydroponic experiment. Leaf and root samples were taken at seven time points within 18 d after LN treatment, respectively. XZ149 was much less affected by low N stress than XZ56 in plant biomass. A total of 51 differentially accumulated metabolites were identified between LN and normal N treated plants. LN stress induced tissue-specific changes in carbon and nitrogen partitioning, and XZ149 had a pattern of energy-saving amino acids accumulation and carbon distribution in favor of root growth that contribute to its higher LN tolerance. Moreover, XZ149 is highly capable of producing energy and maintaining the redox homeostasis under LN stress. The current results revealed the mechanisms underlying the wild barley in high LN tolerance and provided the valuable references for developing barley cultivars with LN tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

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    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  14. Growth, Nitrogen Uptake and Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Barley Genotypes Grown under Saline Conditions

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    Kurdali Fawaz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different salinity levels of irrigation water (ECw range 1-12 dS/m on dry matter yield, nitrogen uptake, fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency (%NUE, stomatal conductance and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C‰ in three barley genotypes originating from different geographic areas (Arabi.Abiad, Syria; Pk-30-136, Pakistan and WI-2291, Australia was investigated in a pot experiment. An increase in salinity resulted in a decrease in Δ13C in all the genotypes. Increasing salinity reduced leaf stomatal conductance which was less pronounced in WI-2291 comparing to other genotypes. At high salinity level, the reduction in Δ13C corresponded to a considerable decrease in the ratio (Ci/Ca of intercellular (Ci and atmospheric (Ca partial pressures of CO2 in all the genotypes indicating that such a decrease was mainly due to the stomatal closure. Moreover, since the reduction in dry matter yield in all the genotypes grown at 12 dS/m did not exceed 50% in comparison with their controls, the photosynthetic apparatus of all studied genotypes seemed to be quit tolerant to salinity. At the moderate salinity level (8 dS/m, the enhancement of leaf dry matter yield in the WI2291 genotype might have been due to positive nutritional effects of the salt as indicated by a significant increase in nitrogen uptake and NUE. Thus, the lower Ci/Ca ratio could result mainly from higher rates of photosynthetic capacity rather than stomatal closure. On the other hand, relationships between dry matter yield or NUE and Δ13C seemed to be depending on plant genotype, plant organ and salinity level. Based on growth, nutritional and Δ13C data, selection of barley genotypes for saline environments was affected by salinity level. Therefore, such a selection must be achieved for each salinity level under which the plants have been grown.

  15. Genotype by environment interaction of quantitative traits: a case study in barley.

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    Zhao, Fuping; Xu, Shizhong

    2012-07-01

    Genotype by environment interaction is a phenomenon that a better genotype in one environment may perform poorly in another environment. When the genotype refers to a quantitative trait locus (QTL), this phenomenon is called QTL by environment interaction, denoted by Q×E. Using a recently developed new Bayesian method and genome-wide marker information, we estimated and tested QTL main effects and Q×E interactions for a well-known barley dataset produced by the North American Barley Genome Mapping Project. This dataset contained seven quantitative traits collected from 145 doubled-haploid (DH) lines evaluated in multiple environments, which derived from a cross between two Canadian two-row barley lines, Harrington and TR306. Numerous main effects and Q×E interaction effects have been detected for all seven quantitative traits. However, main effects seem to be more important than the Q×E interaction effects for all seven traits examined. The number of main effects detected varied from 26 for the maturity trait to 75 for the heading trait, with an average of 61.86. The heading trait has the most detected effects, with a total of 98 (75 main, 29 Q×E). Among the 98 effects, 6 loci had both the main and Q×E effects. Among the total number of detected loci, on average, 78.5% of the loci show the main effects whereas 34.9% of the loci show Q×E interactions. Overall, we detected many loci with either the main or the Q×E effects, and the main effects appear to be more important than the Q×E interaction effects for all the seven traits. This means that most detected loci have a constant effect across environments. Another discovery from this analysis is that Q×E interaction occurs independently, regardless whether the locus has main effects.

  16. Alleviating effects of calcium on cobalt toxicity in two barley genotypes differing in cobalt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwalaba, Jonas Lwalaba Wa; Zvobgo, Gerald; Fu, Liangbo; Zhang, Xuelei; Mwamba, Theodore Mulembo; Muhammad, Noor; Mundende, Robert Prince Mukobo; Zhang, Guoping

    2017-05-01

    Cobalt (Co) contamination in soils is becoming a severe issue in environment safety and crop production. Calcium (Ca)(,) as a macro-nutrient element, shows the antagonism with many divalent heavy metals and the capacity of alleviating oxidative stress in plants. In this study, the protective role of Ca in alleviating Co stress was hydroponically investigated using two barley genotypes differing in Co toxicity tolerance. Barley seedlings exposed to 100µM Co showed the significant reduction in growth and photosynthetic rate, and the dramatic increase in the contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, with Ea52 (Co-sensitive) being much more affected than Yan66 (Co-tolerant). Addition of Ca in growth medium alleviated Co toxicity by reducing Co uptake and enhancing the antioxidant capacity. The effect of Ca in alleviating Co toxicity was much greater in Yan66 than in Ea52. The results indicate that the alleviation of Co toxicity in barley plants by Ca is attributed to the reduced Co uptake and enhanced antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Global Scale Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Barley Genotypes Exposed to Moderate Drought Conditions: Contribution of Leaves and Crowns to Water Shortage Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Pavel; Janská, Anna; Spiwok, Vojtěch; Prášil, Ilja T; Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Ovesná, Jaroslava

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a serious threat for sustainable agriculture. Barley represents a species well adapted to environmental stresses including drought. To elucidate the adaptive mechanism of barley on transcriptional level we evaluated transcriptomic changes of two contrasting barley cultivars upon drought using the microarray technique on the level of leaves and crowns. Using bioinformatic tools, differentially expressed genes in treated vs. non-treated plants were identified. Both genotypes revealed tissue dehydration under drought conditions as shown at water saturation deficit and osmotic potential data; however, dehydration was more severe in Amulet than in drought-resistant Tadmor under the same ambient conditions. Performed analysis showed that Amulet enhanced expression of genes related to active plant growth and development, while Tadmor regarding the stimulated genes revealed conservative, water saving strategy. Common reactions of both genotypes and tissues included an induction of genes encoding several stress-responsive signaling proteins, transcription factors as well as effector genes encoding proteins directly involved in stress acclimation. In leaf, tolerant cultivar effectively stimulated mainly the expression of genes encoding proteins and enzymes involved in protein folding, sulfur metabolism, ROS detoxification or lipid biosynthesis and transport. The crown specific reaction of tolerant cultivar was an enhanced expression of genes encoding proteins and enzymes involved in cell wall lignification, ABRE-dependent abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, nucleosome remodeling, along with genes for numerous jasmonate induced proteins.

  18. The effect of water deficit on the activity of hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzymes in two barley genotypes

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    Hanna Bandurska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two barley (Hordeum vulgare L. genotypes, the cv. Aramir and line R567, were subjected to water deficit by immersing their root systems in polyethylene glycol solution of osmotic potential -1.0 MPa. The stress caused a decline in the leaf-relative-water content (RWC and affected membrane damage in both the genotypes. A higher decline in RWC and a higher membrane injury index was observed in R567 in comparison to 'Aramir'. Water deficit induced an increase in the activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPO and catalse (CAT. A higher increase of CAT than GPO peroxidase activity has been noted in both the genotypes. The results. together with our earlier reports (Bandurska et al. 1997 show that detoxification of hydrogen peroxide under water stress conditions in those two barley genotypes was associated with the action of GPO and CAT, and that the latter was more involved in that process.

  19. Measuring Meiotic Crossovers via Multi-Locus Genotyping of Single Pollen Grains in Barley.

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    Steven Dreissig

    Full Text Available The detection of meiotic crossovers in crop plants currently relies on scoring DNA markers in a segregating population or cytological visualization. We investigated the feasibility of using flow-sorted haploid nuclei, Phi29 DNA polymerase-based whole-genome-amplification (WGA and multi-locus KASP-genotyping to measure meiotic crossovers in individual barley pollen grains. To demonstrate the proof of concept, we used 24 gene-based physically mapped single nucleotide polymorphisms to genotype the WGA products of 50 single pollen nuclei. The number of crossovers per chromosome, recombination frequencies along chromosome 3H and segregation distortion were analysed and compared to a doubled haploid (DH population of the same genotype. The number of crossovers and chromosome wide recombination frequencies show that this approach is able to produce results that resemble those obtained from other methods in a biologically meaningful way. Only the segregation distortion was found to be lower in the pollen population than in DH plants.

  20. Effects of Waterlogging on Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Six Barley Genotypes with Different Waterlogging Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yu-ping; WEI Kang; CHEN Jin-xin; ZHOU Mei-xue; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study genotypic difference in the effect of waterlogging on photosynthesis, chlorophyll content and antioxidative enzyme activities in barley. Waterlogging caused a rapid decline in net photosynthetic rate (Ph) and stomatal conductance (gs), and little change in chlorophyll content during early days of the treatment. A dramatic increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in waterlogged plants in the early days of the experiment was found, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress in barley plants exposed to waterlogging. There was a highly significant difference in the changed extent of all these parameters among genotypes.Franklin and Yongjiahong Liuleng Damai, which were relatively sensitive to waterlogging in terms of growth, photosynthesis and chlorophyll content, accumulated much more MDA than the other two relatively tolerant genotypes (93-3143 and QS).After removal of waterlogging, the genotypic difference became much greater in recovering of these examined parameters.Yongjiahong Liuleng Damai showed higher recovery, while Franklin only recovered to 50% of the control at the 14 day after waterlogging removal. It may be concluded that it is the difference in anti-oxidative stress caused by waterlogging that account for the major difference in photosynthesis among barley genotypes.

  1. Barley genotypic β-glucan variation combined with enzymatic modifications direct its potential as a natural ingredient in a high fiber extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette S.; Meier, Sebastian; Jensen, Morten G.

    2017-01-01

    β-Glucan was extracted from eight different barley genotypes varying in β-glucan content and molecular structure using Termamyl® SC (T), Attenuzyme® (A) and Attenuzyme® Flex (AF) amylolytic enzymes in combinations. Extracts from barley lines Lys5f, KVL408, KVL1104 and CDC Fibar exceeded 4 g β-glu...

  2. Genotypic and environmental variation in barley limit dextrinase activity and its relation to malt quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu-dong; YANG Juan; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2006-01-01

    Variation in the limit dextrinase activity of barley malt, and the relationships between limit dextrinase activity and malt quality parameters were investigated using eight cultivars grown at seven diverse locations in China for two successive years.Limit dextrinase activity varied with genotype and location, with the levels ranging from 0.245 U/g to 0.980 U/g. The results showed that the variation in limit dextrinase activity was more attributable to the environment (location and year) than to the genotype. The response of limit dextrinase activity to the environment differed markedly among cultivars, and was reflected by large difference in coefficient of variation of cultivars across diverse locations. Regression analysis showed that limit dextrinase activity was negatively correlated with malt viscosity (r=-0.52, P<0.01), positively correlated with Kolbach index (r=0.38,P<0.01) and malt extract (r=0.30, P<0.05), but had no significant correlation with malt protein content and diastatic power.

  3. Metabolite Profiling of Barley Grains Subjected to Water Stress: To Explain the Genotypic Difference in Drought-Induced Impacts on Malting Quality

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    Xiaojian Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Grain weight and protein content will be reduced and increased, respectively, when barley is subjected to water stress after anthesis, consequently deteriorating the malt quality. However, such adverse impact of water stress differs greatly among barley genotypes. In this study, two Tibetan wild barley accessions and two cultivated varieties differing in water stress tolerance were used to investigate the genotypic difference in metabolic profiles during grain-filling stage under drought condition. Totally, 71 differently accumulated metabolites were identified, including organic acids, amino acids/amines, and sugars/sugar alcohols. Their relative contents were significantly affected by water stress for all genotypes and differed distinctly between the wild and cultivated barleys. The principal component analysis of metabolites indicated that the Tibetan wild barley XZ147 possessed a unique response to water stress. When subjected to water stress, the wild barley XZ147 showed the most increase of β-amylase activity among the four genotypes, as a result of its higher lysine content, less indole-3-acetic acid (IAA biosynthesis, more stable H2O2 homeostasis, and more up-regulation of BMY1 gene. On the other hand, XZ147 had the most reduction of β-glucan content under water stress than the other genotypes, which could be explained by the faster grain filling process and the less expression of β-glucan synthase gene GSL7. All these results indicated a great potential for XZ147 in barley breeding for improving water stress tolerance.

  4. Construction of the Seed-Coat cDNA Microarray and Screening of Differentially Expressed Genes in Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Song PANG; Meng-Yuan HE; Bao LIU

    2004-01-01

    Some barley mutants can synthesize neither anthocyanins nor proanthocyanidins in the seed coat, which is related to several genes in locus Ant13, but the exact model of action remains unknown. We used the cDNA microarray technology with barley transcription-deficient mutant (ant13-152) that does not synthesize proanthocyanidins as the tester, and its wild type genotype (Triumph) as the driver, to study this question. Six-thousand and forty-eight clones from the wild type Morex testa+pericarp cDNA library were amplified using PCR, and the DNA fragments were spotted on commercial amino-modified glass slide as microarray. The mRNAs from the developing seed coat (8-15 days) of both the mutant and the wild-type barley plants were isolated, and labeled respectively with Cy3-dUTP and Cy5-dUTP when reversely transcribed to cDNAs. The labeled cDNAs were used as probes, mixed at the same molar concentration, and hybridized with the DNA fragments on the slide. Seventy clones exhibiting marked differential expression (ratio>4) were identified from the microarray. All the 25 cDNA clones that showed an over-expression in wild type in comparison to the mutant ant13-152 were sequenced. It was found that most of these overexpressing clones were transcription/translation and hordein-associated genes. These results have laid a solid material basis for further elucidation of the metabolic pathway in proanthocyanidin synthesis in barley and likely other plants.

  5. Microgeographic Edaphic Differentiation in Hordein Polymorphisms of Wild Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevo, E.; Beiles, A.; Storch, N.

    1983-01-01

    and topography. Likewise, significant correlations were found between hordein phenotypes and allozyme types detected in a previous study. Our results suggest that at least part of the hordein polymorphisms in wild barley is adaptive and selected by soil and topographic differences over very short distances....

  6. Interaction of salinity and cadmium stresses on mineral nutrients, sodium, and cadmium accumulation in four barley genotypes*

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, You-zong; Wei, Kang; Yang, Juan; Dai, Fei; Zhang, Guo-ping

    2007-01-01

    Interaction of salinity (NaCl) and cadmium (Cd) on growth, mineral nutrients, Na and Cd accumulation in four barley genotypes differing in salt tolerance was studied in a hydroponic experiment. Cd, NaCl and their combined stresses reduced Ca and Mg concentrations in roots and shoots, K concentration in shoots, increased K and Cu concentrations in roots relative to control, but had non-significant effect on micronutrients Cu, Fe and Mn concentrations in shoot. The three stresses reduced accumu...

  7. Dwarf alleles differentially affect barley root traits influencing nitrogen acquisition under low nutrient supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karley, A J; Valentine, T A; Squire, G R

    2011-07-01

    Sustainable food production depends critically on the development of crop genotypes that exhibit high yield under reduced nutrient inputs. Rooting traits have been widely advocated as being able to influence optimal plant performance, while breeding-based improvements in yield of spring barley suggest that this species is a good model crop. To date, however, molecular genetics knowledge has not delivered realistic plant ideotypes, while agronomic trials have been unable to identify superior traits. This study explores an intermediate experimental system in which root traits and their effect on plant performance can be quantified. As a test case, four modern semi-dwarf barley varieties, which possess either the ari-e.GP or the sdw1 dwarf allele, were compared with the long-stemmed old variety Kenia under two levels of nutrient supply. The two semi-dwarf types differed from Kenia, exhibiting smaller stem mass and total plant nitrogen (N), and improved partitioning of mass and N to grain. Amongst the semi-dwarfs, the two ari-e.GP genotypes performed better than the two sdw1 genotypes under standard and reduced nutrient supply, particularly in root mass, root investment efficiency, N acquisition, and remobilization of N and mass to grain. However, lack of between-genotype variation in yield and N use efficiency indicated limited potential for exploiting genetic variation in existing varieties to improve barley performance under reduced nutrient inputs. Experimental approaches to test the expression of desirable root and shoot traits are scrutinized, and the potential evaluated for developing a spring barley ideotype for low nutrient conditions.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of the Early Powdery Mildew Infection Stages on Resistant Barley Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. B.; Torp, J.

    1986-01-01

    A classification system was developed, that allowed quantification of the leaf surface development of the barley powdery mildew fungus on barley. An experiment with Manchuria and Pallas as susceptible controls and 4 resistance gene each represented by three lines with different gene backgrounds s...

  9. Towards systems genetic analyses in barley: Integration of phenotypic, expression and genotype data into GeneNetwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druka Arnis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A typical genetical genomics experiment results in four separate data sets; genotype, gene expression, higher-order phenotypic data and metadata that describe the protocols, processing and the array platform. Used in concert, these data sets provide the opportunity to perform genetic analysis at a systems level. Their predictive power is largely determined by the gene expression dataset where tens of millions of data points can be generated using currently available mRNA profiling technologies. Such large, multidimensional data sets often have value beyond that extracted during their initial analysis and interpretation, particularly if conducted on widely distributed reference genetic materials. Besides quality and scale, access to the data is of primary importance as accessibility potentially allows the extraction of considerable added value from the same primary dataset by the wider research community. Although the number of genetical genomics experiments in different plant species is rapidly increasing, none to date has been presented in a form that allows quick and efficient on-line testing for possible associations between genes, loci and traits of interest by an entire research community. Description Using a reference population of 150 recombinant doubled haploid barley lines we generated novel phenotypic, mRNA abundance and SNP-based genotyping data sets, added them to a considerable volume of legacy trait data and entered them into the GeneNetwork http://www.genenetwork.org. GeneNetwork is a unified on-line analytical environment that enables the user to test genetic hypotheses about how component traits, such as mRNA abundance, may interact to condition more complex biological phenotypes (higher-order traits. Here we describe these barley data sets and demonstrate some of the functionalities GeneNetwork provides as an easily accessible and integrated analytical environment for exploring them. Conclusion By

  10. Differences in grain ultrastructure, phytochemical and proteomic profiles between the two contrasting grain Cd-accumulation barley genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Sun

    Full Text Available To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low-grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars.

  11. Interaction of salinity and cadmium stresses on mineral nutrients, sodium, and cadmium accumulation in four barley genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG You-zong; WEI Kang; YANG Juan; DAI Fei; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2007-01-01

    Interaction of salinity (NaCl) and cadmium (Cd) on growth, mineral nutrients, Na and Cd accumulation in four barley genotypes differing in salt tolerance was studied in a hydroponic experiment. Cd, NaCl and their combined stresses reduced Ca and Mg concentrations in roots and shoots, K concentration in shoots, increased K and Cu concentrations in roots relative to control, but had non-significant effect on micronutrients Cu, Fe and Mn concentrations in shoot. The three stresses reduced accumulation of most tested nutrients in both roots and shoots, except NaCl and NaCl+Cd stresses for root K and shoot Cu accumulation in salt tolerant genotypes. The salt tolerant genotypes did not have higher nutrient concentration and accumulation than the sensitive ones when exposed to Cd and NaCl stresses. In conclusion, the affecting mechanism of Cd stress on nutrients was to some extent different from salinity stress, and the NaCl+Cd stress was not equal to additional Cd and NaCl stresses, probably due to the different valence and competitive site of Na+ and Cd2+. NaCl addition in the Cd-containing medium caused remarkable reductions in both Cd concentration and accumulation, with the extent of reduction being also dependent on genotypes. The salt-tolerant genotypes had lower Na concentration than sensitive ones.

  12. Interaction of salinity and cadmium stresses on mineral nutrients, sodium, and cadmium accumulation in four barley genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, You-zong; Wei, Kang; Yang, Juan; Dai, Fei; Zhang, Guo-ping

    2007-07-01

    Interaction of salinity (NaCl) and cadmium (Cd) on growth, mineral nutrients, Na and Cd accumulation in four barley genotypes differing in salt tolerance was studied in a hydroponic experiment. Cd, NaCl and their combined stresses reduced Ca and Mg concentrations in roots and shoots, K concentration in shoots, increased K and Cu concentrations in roots relative to control, but had non-significant effect on micronutrients Cu, Fe and Mn concentrations in shoot. The three stresses reduced accumulation of most tested nutrients in both roots and shoots, except NaCl and NaCl+Cd stresses for root K and shoot Cu accumulation in salt tolerant genotypes. The salt tolerant genotypes did not have higher nutrient concentration and accumulation than the sensitive ones when exposed to Cd and NaCl stresses. In conclusion, the affecting mechanism of Cd stress on nutrients was to some extent different from salinity stress, and the NaCl+Cd stress was not equal to additional Cd and NaCl stresses, probably due to the different valence and competitive site of Na(+) and Cd(2+). NaCl addition in the Cd-containing medium caused remarkable reductions in both Cd concentration and accumulation, with the extent of reduction being also dependent on genotypes. The salt-tolerant genotypes had lower Na concentration than sensitive ones.

  13. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8 kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80 °C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04 µg/ml and 25.62 µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95 × 10(-3 )µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus.

  14. Differential Synthesis in Vitro of Barley Aleurone and Starchy Endosperm Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundy, John; Hejgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Annette

    1986-01-01

    To widen the selection of proteins for gene expression studies in barley seeds, experiments were performed to identify proteins whose synthesis is differentially regulated in developing and germinating seed tissues. The in vitro synthesis of nine distinct barley proteins was compared using m......), the alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (ASI) and the inhibitor of animal cell-free protein synthesis systems (PSI) were synthesized with mRNA from developing starchy endosperm tissue. Of these proteins, beta-amylase, protein Z, and CI- 1 and 2 were also synthesized with mRNA from developing aleurone cells......, but ASI, PSI, and protein C were not. CI-1 and also a probable amylase/protease inhibitor (PAPI) were synthesized at high levels with mRNAs from late developing and mature aleurone. These results show that mRNAs encoding PAPI and CI-1 survive seed dessication and are long-lived in aleurone cells. Thus...

  15. Differential Synthesis in Vitro of Barley Aleurone and Starchy Endosperm Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundy, John; Hejgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Annette

    1986-01-01

    RNAs from isolated endosperm and aleurone tissues (developing and mature grain) and from cultured (germinating) aleurone layers treated with abscisic acid (ABA) and GA(3). B and C hordein polypeptides and the salt-soluble proteins beta-amylase, protein Z, protein C, the chymotrypsin inhibitors (CI-1 and 2......To widen the selection of proteins for gene expression studies in barley seeds, experiments were performed to identify proteins whose synthesis is differentially regulated in developing and germinating seed tissues. The in vitro synthesis of nine distinct barley proteins was compared using m......, expression of genes encoding ASI, PSI, protein C, and PAPI is tissue and stage-specific during seed development. Only ASI, CI-1, and PAPI were synthesized in significant amounts with mRNA from cultured aleurone layers. The levels of synthesis of PAPI and CI-1 were independent of hormone treatment...

  16. Prediction of barley progeny performance in the presence of genotype-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, J.W.; Dourleijn, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of European two-row spring barley and their parents were tested in six environments in the Netherlands to investigate the prediction of progeny yield level, yield variance, stability level and stability variance, based on parent information. Progeny y

  17. Analysis of oligomer proanthocyanidins in different barley genotypes using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection-mass spectrometry and near-infrared methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, Vito; Cevoli, Chiara; Pasini, Federica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Marconi, Emanuele; Fabbri, Angelo; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2015-04-29

    Proanthocyanidins are a class of polyphenols present in many foodstuffs (i.e., tea, cocoa, berries, etc.) that may reduce the risk of several chronic diseases. Barley, with sorghum, rice, and wheat, are the only cereals that contain these compounds. Because of that, two barley genotypes, named waxy and non-waxy, were analyzed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection-mass spectrometry (NP-HPLC-FLD-MS). Total proanthocyanidin content ranged between 293.2 and 652.6 μg/g of flour. Waxy samples reported the highest content (p determination coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.92 to 0.97, in test set validation. Because of that, this study highlights that NIR spectroscopy technology with multivariate calibration analysis could be successfully applied as a rapid method to determine proanthocyanidin content in barley.

  18. Zinc absorption from low phytic acid genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and Rice (Oryza sativa L.) assessed in a suckling rat pup model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Mendoza, Concepcion; Brown, Kenneth H; Rutger, J Neil; Raboy, Victor

    2011-05-11

    Dietary phytic acid is a major causative factor for low Zn bioavailability in many cereal- and legume-based diets. The bioavailability of Zn in seed of low phytic acid (lpa) variants of maize ( Zea mays L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) was evaluated using a suckling rat pup model. Suckling rat pups (14 days old, n = 6-8/treatment) were fasted for 6 h and intubated with (65)Zn-radiolabeled suspensions prepared using seed produced by either wild-type (normal phytic acid) or lpa genotypes of each cereal. Test solutions were radiolabeled overnight (all genotypes) or immediately prior to intubation (barley genotypes). Pups were killed 6 h postintubation and tissues removed and counted in a gamma counter. Zn absorption was low from wild-type genotypes of maize (21, 33%) and rice (26%), and phytic acid reduction resulted in significantly higher Zn absorption, 47-52 and 35-52%, respectively. Zn absorption from wild-type barley incubated overnight was high (86-91%), and phytate reduction did not improve Zn absorption (84-90%), which is likely due to endogenous phytase activity. When the wild-type barley solutions were prepared immediately before intubation, Zn absorption was significantly lower (63, 78%) than from the lpa cultivars (92, 96%). Variation in seed or flour phenolic acid levels did not affect Zn absorption. Differences in seed Zn levels did not substantially affect Zn absorption. Thus, when phytic acid is abundant in a diet, it has a larger effect on Zn absorption than the level of Zn. Therefore, reducing the phytic acid content of staple cereal grains may contribute to enhancing Zn nutrition of populations consuming these staple foods.

  19. Genotype-Dependent Effect of Exogenous Nitric Oxide on Cd-induced Changes in Antioxidative Metabolism, Ultrastructure, and Photosynthetic Performance in Barley Seedlings (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wang, Fang; Sun, Hongyan

    2010-01-01

    10- and 15-day treatments. Furthermore, NO significantly increased stromal APX and Mn-SOD activities in both genotypes and upregulated Cd-induced decrease in cAPX activity and gene expression of root/leaf cAPX and leaf CAT1 in the Cd-sensitive genotype. These data suggest that under Cd stress, NO......A greenhouse hydroponic experiment was performed using Cd-sensitive (cv. Dong 17) and Cd-tolerant (Weisuobuzhi) barley seedlings to evaluate how different genotypes responded to cadmium (Cd) toxicity in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Results showed that 5 μ......M Cd increased the accumulation of O2•-, H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced plant height, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (P n), and biomass, with a much more severe response in the Cd-sensitive genotype. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly under Cd stress...

  20. Application of genotyping-by-sequencing on semiconductor sequencing platforms: a comparison of genetic and reference-based marker ordering in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mascher

    Full Text Available The rapid development of next-generation sequencing platforms has enabled the use of sequencing for routine genotyping across a range of genetics studies and breeding applications. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, a low-cost, reduced representation sequencing method, is becoming a common approach for whole-genome marker profiling in many species. With quickly developing sequencing technologies, adapting current GBS methodologies to new platforms will leverage these advancements for future studies. To test new semiconductor sequencing platforms for GBS, we genotyped a barley recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Based on a previous GBS approach, we designed bar code and adapter sets for the Ion Torrent platforms. Four sets of 24-plex libraries were constructed consisting of 94 RILs and the two parents and sequenced on two Ion platforms. In parallel, a 96-plex library of the same RILs was sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000. We applied two different computational pipelines to analyze sequencing data; the reference-independent TASSEL pipeline and a reference-based pipeline using SAMtools. Sequence contigs positioned on the integrated physical and genetic map were used for read mapping and variant calling. We found high agreement in genotype calls between the different platforms and high concordance between genetic and reference-based marker order. There was, however, paucity in the number of SNP that were jointly discovered by the different pipelines indicating a strong effect of alignment and filtering parameters on SNP discovery. We show the utility of the current barley genome assembly as a framework for developing very low-cost genetic maps, facilitating high resolution genetic mapping and negating the need for developing de novo genetic maps for future studies in barley. Through demonstration of GBS on semiconductor sequencing platforms, we conclude that the GBS approach is amenable to a range of platforms and can easily be modified as new

  1. Application of genotyping-by-sequencing on semiconductor sequencing platforms: a comparison of genetic and reference-based marker ordering in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Martin; Wu, Shuangye; Amand, Paul St; Stein, Nils; Poland, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of next-generation sequencing platforms has enabled the use of sequencing for routine genotyping across a range of genetics studies and breeding applications. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a low-cost, reduced representation sequencing method, is becoming a common approach for whole-genome marker profiling in many species. With quickly developing sequencing technologies, adapting current GBS methodologies to new platforms will leverage these advancements for future studies. To test new semiconductor sequencing platforms for GBS, we genotyped a barley recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Based on a previous GBS approach, we designed bar code and adapter sets for the Ion Torrent platforms. Four sets of 24-plex libraries were constructed consisting of 94 RILs and the two parents and sequenced on two Ion platforms. In parallel, a 96-plex library of the same RILs was sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000. We applied two different computational pipelines to analyze sequencing data; the reference-independent TASSEL pipeline and a reference-based pipeline using SAMtools. Sequence contigs positioned on the integrated physical and genetic map were used for read mapping and variant calling. We found high agreement in genotype calls between the different platforms and high concordance between genetic and reference-based marker order. There was, however, paucity in the number of SNP that were jointly discovered by the different pipelines indicating a strong effect of alignment and filtering parameters on SNP discovery. We show the utility of the current barley genome assembly as a framework for developing very low-cost genetic maps, facilitating high resolution genetic mapping and negating the need for developing de novo genetic maps for future studies in barley. Through demonstration of GBS on semiconductor sequencing platforms, we conclude that the GBS approach is amenable to a range of platforms and can easily be modified as new sequencing

  2. Differential activation of dendritic cells by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Martínez, Juana Elizabeth; Nieto-Patlán, Erik; Nieto-Patlán, Alejandro; Gonzaga-Bernachi, Job; Santos-Mendoza, Teresa; Serafín-López, Jeanet; Chávez-Blanco, Alma; Sandoval-Montes, Claudia; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Estrada-García, Iris; Chacón-Salinas, Rommel

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) inhibits dendritric cells (DC) function in order to delay T cell response. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that genetic diversity of Mtb strains can affect their interaction with the immune system. Beijing genotype has attracted attention because of its high prevalence and multi-drug resistance. Although it is known that this genotype is hypervirulent and differentially activates macrophages when compared to other genotypes, little is known about its interaction with DC. In order to address this issue, murine bone marrow derived DC (BMDC) were stimulated with soluble extracts (SE) from BCG, H37Rv, Canetti and Beijing genotypes. We observed that unlike other mycobacteria strains, SE-Beijing was unable to induce maturation of DC as assessed by cell surface MHC-II expression. DC stimulated with SE-Beijing failed to produce IL-12 and TNF-α, but did secrete IL-10. Interestingly, SE-Beijing induced CCR7 and PDL-1 on BMDC, but did not induce the expression of CD86. When BMDC stimulated with SE-Beijing were used to activate CD4+ cells they were unable to induce a Th1 response when compared with less virulent genotypes. These results indicate that Beijing is able to modulate DC activation and function, which may be related to the pathogenesis induced by this genotype.

  3. Differential levels of mite infestation of wheat and barley in Czech grain stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Hubert; Zuzana Kucerova; Radek Aulicky; Marta Nesvoma; Vaclav Stejskal

    2009-01-01

    While mites are able to utilize numerous food sources, the suitability of the food strongly influences population growth. The different suitabilities of various stored agricultural products will thus affect the level of infestation. In this study, we compared field mite infestation rates in two stored cereals: wheat and barley. We analyzed mite abundance, frequency and species composition in samples of grain obtained from 79 selected Czech grain stores. Stored barley seemed to be more vulnerable to mite attack than wheat, as we consistently found more infested samples, more species and higher mean and median mite abundance per sample in barley as compared to wheat. The mean mite abundance per sample were 55 and 506 individuals for wheat and barley, respectively. In barley, 10% of samples exceeded allergen risk threshold (i.e., 1 000 individuals per kg of grain). Altogether, 25 species were identified from approximately 35 000 individuals. The most frequently identified species were the same in wheat and barley, that is, Tydeus interruptus Sig Thor, Acarus siro L., Tarsonemus granarius Lindquist, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and 1),rophagusputrescentiae (Schrank). Based on principal components analysis, we found a closer association of T. interruptus, T. putrescentiae, L. destructor and Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) with barley samples, corresponding to the high frequency and abundance values of these mites. The probable reasons for the higher infestation, especially mite abundance in barley, are discussed in relation to the higher proportion of crushed parts, which may release favorable nutrient sources and amplify the abundance values.

  4. Differentiation in quinolone resistance by virulence genotype in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Agnello

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading pathogen that has become increasingly resistant to the fluoroquinolone antibiotics due to widespread prescribing. Adverse outcomes have been shown for patients infected with fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. The type III secretion system (TTSS is a major virulence determinant during acute infections through the injection of effector toxins into host cells. Most strains exhibit a unique TTSS virulence genotype defined by the presence of either exoS or exoU gene encoding two of the effector toxins, ExoS and ExoU, respectively. Specific TTSS effector genotype has been shown previously to differentially impact virulence in pneumonia. In this study, we examined the relationship between TTSS effector genotype and fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in a collection of 270 respiratory isolates. We found that a higher proportion of exoU+ strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant compared to exoS+ strains (63% vs 49%, p = 0.03 despite its lower overall prevalence (38% exoU+ vs 56% exoS+. Results from sequencing the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs of the 4 target genes (gyrA, gyrB, parC, parE indicated that strains containing the exoU gene were more likely to acquire ≥ 2 mutations than exoS+ strains at MICs ≤ 8 µg/ml (13% vs none and twice as likely to have mutations in both gyrA and parC than exoS+ strains (48% vs 24% p = 0.0439. Our findings indicate that P. aeruginosa strains differentially develop resistance-conferring mutations that correlate with TTSS effector genotype and the more virulent exoU+ subpopulation. Differences in mutational processes by virulence genotype that were observed suggest co-evolution of resistance and virulence traits favoring a more virulent genotype in the quinolone-rich clinical environment.

  5. Differentially Expressed Genes between Two Barley Cultivars Contrasting in Drought Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.G. Guo; M. Baum; R.H. Li; S. Grando; R.K. Varshney; J. Valkoun; S. Ceccarelli; A. Grane

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drought tolerance is a key trait for increasing and stabilizing barley productivity in dry areas. A number of genes have been described that respond to drought at the transcriptional level (Seki et al., 2002; Cheong et al.,2003).

  6. Differential appearance of isoforms and cultivar variation in protein temporal profiles revealed in the maturing barley grain proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    identified in spots with individual appearance profiles, indicating differential expression of isoforms. Three isoforms of beta-1,3 endoglucanase, including one not previously observed, each had a different temporal appearance pattern probably reflecting involvement in diverse processes such as cell wall......-grown barley. Appearance profiles are described for 105 proteins identified in 185 2D-gel spots in the overlapping pI ranges 4-7 and 6-11. Grouping of proteins according to appearance across functional categories revealed instances of differential regulation of protein forms. Thus, a single 1-cys...

  7. Development of high-density genetic maps for barley and wheat using a novel two-enzyme genotyping-by-sequencing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse A Poland

    Full Text Available Advancements in next-generation sequencing technology have enabled whole genome re-sequencing in many species providing unprecedented discovery and characterization of molecular polymorphisms. There are limitations, however, to next-generation sequencing approaches for species with large complex genomes such as barley and wheat. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS has been developed as a tool for association studies and genomics-assisted breeding in a range of species including those with complex genomes. GBS uses restriction enzymes for targeted complexity reduction followed by multiplex sequencing to produce high-quality polymorphism data at a relatively low per sample cost. Here we present a GBS approach for species that currently lack a reference genome sequence. We developed a novel two-enzyme GBS protocol and genotyped bi-parental barley and wheat populations to develop a genetically anchored reference map of identified SNPs and tags. We were able to map over 34,000 SNPs and 240,000 tags onto the Oregon Wolfe Barley reference map, and 20,000 SNPs and 367,000 tags on the Synthetic W9784 × Opata85 (SynOpDH wheat reference map. To further evaluate GBS in wheat, we also constructed a de novo genetic map using only SNP markers from the GBS data. The GBS approach presented here provides a powerful method of developing high-density markers in species without a sequenced genome while providing valuable tools for anchoring and ordering physical maps and whole-genome shotgun sequence. Development of the sequenced reference genome(s will in turn increase the utility of GBS data enabling physical mapping of genes and haplotype imputation of missing data. Finally, as a result of low per-sample costs, GBS will have broad application in genomics-assisted plant breeding programs.

  8. Transcriptomics analysis of hulless barley during grain development with a focus on starch biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yawei; Zeng, Xingquan; Wang, Yulin; Bai, Lijun; Xu, Qijun; Wei, Zexiu; Yuan, Hongjun; Nyima, Tashi

    2017-01-01

    Hulless barley, with its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits, has increasingly attracted attentions in recent years. However, the transcription dynamics during hulless barley grain development is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome changes during barley grain development using Illumina paired-end RNA-sequencing. Two datasets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two barley landraces with the differential seed starch synthesis traits were generated, and comparative transcriptome approach in both genotypes was performed. The results showed that 38 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found co-modulated in both genotypes during the barley grain development. Of those, the proteins encoded by most of those DGEs were found, such as alpha-amylase-related proteins, lipid-transfer protein, homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip), NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y, subunit B (NF-YBs), as well as MYB transcription factors. More interestingly, two genes Hvulgare_GLEAN_10012370 and Hvulgare_GLEAN_10021199 encoding SuSy, AGPase (Hvulgare_GLEAN_10033640 and Hvulgare_GLEAN_10056301), as well as SBE2b (Hvulgare_GLEAN_10018352) were found to significantly contribute to the regulatory mechanism during grain development in both genotypes. Moreover, six co-expression modules associated with specific biological processes or pathways (M1 to M6) were identified by consensus co-expression network. Significantly enriched pathways of those module genes showed difference in both genotypes. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanism of starch synthesis during barley grain development.

  9. Genetic differentiation and geographical Relationship of Asian barley landraces using SSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Naeem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in 403 morphologically distinct landraces of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare originating from seven geographical zones of Asia was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from regions of medium to high recombination in the barley genome. The seven polymorphic SSR markers representing each of the chromosomes chosen for the study revealed a high level of allelic diversity among the landraces. Genetic richness was highest in those from India, followed by Pakistan while it was lowest for Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Out of the 50 alleles detected, 15 were unique to a geographic region. Genetic diversity was highest for landraces from Pakistan (0.70 ± 0.06 and lowest for those from Uzbekistan (0.18 ± 0.17. Likewise, polymorphic information content (PIC was highest for Pakistan (0.67 ± 0.06 and lowest for Uzbekistan (0.15 ± 0.17. Diversity among groups was 40% compared to 60% within groups. Principal component analysis clustered the barley landraces into three groups to predict their domestication patterns. In total 51.58% of the variation was explained by the first two principal components of the barley germplasm. Pakistan landraces were clustered separately from those of India, Iran, Nepal and Iraq, whereas those from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan were clustered together into a separate group.

  10. Differential gene expression in individual papilla-resistant and powdery mildew-infected barley epidermal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjetting, T.; Carver, Timothy L. W.; Skøt, Leif

    2004-01-01

    Resistance and susceptibility in barley to the powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) is determined at the single-cell level. Even in genetically compatible interactions, attacked plant epidermal cells defend themselves against attempted fungal penetration by localized responses...... leading to papilla deposition and reinforcement of their cell wall. This conveys a race-nonspecific form of resistance. However, this defense is not complete, and a proportion of penetration attempts succeed in infection. The resultant mixture of infected and uninfected leaf cells makes it impossible...... to relate powdery mildew-induced gene expression in whole leaves or even dissected epidermal tissues to resistance or susceptibility. A method for generating transcript profiles from individual barley epidermal cells was established and proven useful for analyzing resistant and successfully infected cells...

  11. Differential disease resistance response in the barley necrotic mutant nec1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunga Laura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ion fluxes are considered to be an integral part of signal transduction during responses to pathogens, only a few ion channels are known to participate in the plant response to infection. CNGC4 is a disease resistance-related cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel. Arabidopsis thaliana CNGC4 mutants hlm1 and dnd2 display an impaired hypersensitive response (HR, retarded growth, a constitutively active salicylic acid (SA-mediated pathogenesis-related response and elevated resistance against bacterial pathogens. Barley CNGC4 shares 67% aa identity with AtCNGC4. The barley mutant nec1 comprising of a frame-shift mutation of CNGC4 displays a necrotic phenotype and constitutively over-expresses PR-1, yet it is not known what effect the nec1 mutation has on barley resistance against different types of pathogens. Results nec1 mutant accumulated high amount of SA and hydrogen peroxide compared to parental cv. Parkland. Experiments investigating nec1 disease resistance demonstrated positive effect of nec1 mutation on non-host resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst at high inoculum density, whereas at normal Pst inoculum concentration nec1 resistance did not differ from wt. In contrast to augmented P. syringae resistance, penetration resistance against biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh, the causal agent of powdery mildew, was not altered in nec1. The nec1 mutant significantly over-expressed race non-specific Bgh resistance-related genes BI-1 and MLO. Induction of BI-1 and MLO suggested putative involvement of nec1 in race non-specific Bgh resistance, therefore the effect of nec1on mlo-5-mediated Bgh resistance was assessed. The nec1/mlo-5 double mutant was as resistant to Bgh as Nec1/mlo-5 plants, suggesting that nec1 did not impair mlo-5 race non-specific Bgh resistance. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that nec1 mutation alters activation of systemic acquired resistance

  12. Salinity Stress in Roots of Contrasting BarleyGenotypes Reveals Time-Distinct and Genotype-Specific Patterns for Defined Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most severe abiotic stress factors threatening agriculture worldwide. Hence,particular interest exists in unraveling mechanisms leading to salt tolerance and improved crop plant performance onsaline soils. Barley is considered to be one of the most salinity-tolerant crops, but varying levels of tolerance are wellcharacterized. A proteomic analysis of the roots of two contrasting cultivars (cv. Steptoe and cv. Morex) is presented.Young plants were exposed to a period of 1, 4, 7, or 10 d at 0, 100, or 150mM NaCI. The root proteome was analyzedbased on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A number of cultivar-specific and salinity stress-responsive proteins wereidentified. Mass spectrometry-based identification was successful for 74 proteins, and a hierarchical clustering analysisgrouped these into five clusters based on similarity of expression profile. The rank product method was applied to sta-tistically access the early and late responses, and this delivered a number of new candidate proteins underlying salinitytolerance in barley. Among these were some germin-like proteins, some pathogenesis-related proteins, and numerousas-yet uncharacterized proteins. Notably, proteins involved in detoxification pathways and terpenoid biosynthesis weredetected as early responsive to salinity and may function as a means of modulating growth-regulating mechanisms andmembrane stability via fine tuning of phytohormone and secondary metabolism in the root.

  13. The genetic basis of adaptive population differentiation: A quantitative trait locus analysis of fitness traits in two wild barley populations from contrasting habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Vanhala, T.K.; Biere, A.; Nevo, E.; Damme, van J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    We used a quantitative trait locus (QTL) approach to study the genetic basis of population differentiation in wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum. Several ecotypes are recognized in this model species, and population genetic studies and reciprocal transplant experiments have indicated the role of local

  14. 454 Transcriptome sequencing suggests a role for two-component signalling in cellularization and differentiation of barley endosperm transfer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Thiel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell specification and differentiation in the endosperm of cereals starts at the maternal-filial boundary and generates the endosperm transfer cells (ETCs. Besides the importance in assimilate transfer, ETCs are proposed to play an essential role in the regulation of endosperm differentiation by affecting development of proximate endosperm tissues. We attempted to identify signalling elements involved in early endosperm differentiation by using a combination of laser-assisted microdissection and 454 transcriptome sequencing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 454 sequencing of the differentiating ETC region from the syncytial state until functionality in transfer processes captured a high proportion of novel transcripts which are not available in existing barley EST databases. Intriguingly, the ETC-transcriptome showed a high abundance of elements of the two-component signalling (TCS system suggesting an outstanding role in ETC differentiation. All components and subfamilies of the TCS, including distinct kinds of membrane-bound receptors, have been identified to be expressed in ETCs. The TCS system represents an ancient signal transduction system firstly discovered in bacteria and has previously been shown to be co-opted by eukaryotes, like fungi and plants, whereas in animals and humans this signalling route does not exist. Transcript profiling of TCS elements by qRT-PCR suggested pivotal roles for specific phosphorelays activated in a coordinated time flow during ETC cellularization and differentiation. ETC-specificity of transcriptionally activated TCS phosphorelays was assessed for early differentiation and cellularization contrasting to an extension of expression to other grain tissues at the beginning of ETC maturation. Features of candidate genes of distinct phosphorelays and transcriptional activation of genes putatively implicated in hormone signalling pathways hint at a crosstalk of hormonal influences, putatively ABA and ethylene, and

  15. Assessing the impact of differential genotyping errors on rare variant tests of association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Jochimsen, Morgan; Fast, Shannon; Tintle, Nathan L

    2013-01-01

    Genotyping errors are well-known to impact the power and type I error rate in single marker tests of association. Genotyping errors that happen according to the same process in cases and controls are known as non-differential genotyping errors, whereas genotyping errors that occur with different processes in the cases and controls are known as differential genotype errors. For single marker tests, non-differential genotyping errors reduce power, while differential genotyping errors increase the type I error rate. However, little is known about the behavior of the new generation of rare variant tests of association in the presence of genotyping errors. In this manuscript we use a comprehensive simulation study to explore the effects of numerous factors on the type I error rate of rare variant tests of association in the presence of differential genotyping error. We find that increased sample size, decreased minor allele frequency, and an increased number of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) included in the test all increase the type I error rate in the presence of differential genotyping errors. We also find that the greater the relative difference in case-control genotyping error rates the larger the type I error rate. Lastly, as is the case for single marker tests, genotyping errors classifying the common homozygote as the heterozygote inflate the type I error rate significantly more than errors classifying the heterozygote as the common homozygote. In general, our findings are in line with results from single marker tests. To ensure that type I error inflation does not occur when analyzing next-generation sequencing data careful consideration of study design (e.g. use of randomization), caution in meta-analysis and using publicly available controls, and the use of standard quality control metrics is critical.

  16. Density Stress has Minimal Impacts on the Barley or Maize Seedling Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer St. Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High planting density affects the morphology and productivity of many crop species. Our objectives were to examine the phenotypic and transcriptomic changes that occur during plant density stress in barley ( L. and maize ( L. seedlings. In maize and barley seedlings, density stress impacted several morphological traits. Gene expression profiles were examined in four barley and five maize genotypes grown at low and high plant densities. Only 221 barley and 35 maize genes exhibited differential expression in response to plant density stress. The majority of the gene expression changes were observed in a subset of the genotypes and reflected minor changes in the level of expression, indicating that the plant density stress imposed in this study did not result in major changes in gene expression. Also, little overlap was observed within barley or maize genotypes in gene expression during density stress, indicating that genotypic differences play a major role in the response to density stress. While it is clear that gene expression differences are involved in morphological changes induced by high plant densities, it is likely that many of these gene expression differences are subtle and restricted to particular tissues and developmental time.

  17. Carotenoids of aleurone, germ, and endosperm fractions of barley, corn and wheat differentially inhibit oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masisi, Kabo; Diehl-Jones, William L; Gordon, Joseph; Chapman, Donald; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Beta, Trust

    2015-03-18

    The antioxidant potential of carotenoids from aleurone, germ, and endosperm fractions of barley, corn, and wheat has been evaluated. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids (nd-15139 μg/kg) in extracts of cereal grain fractions. The antioxidant properties using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays revealed significantly higher (Paleurone and endosperm fractions. Using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 2,2'azobis (2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced cell loss was effectively reduced by preincubating Caco-2, HT-29, and FHs 74 Int cells with carotenoid extracts. Moreover, carotenoid extracts reduced (Paleurone, and endosperm fractions improved antioxidant capacity and thus have the potential to mitigate oxidative stress.

  18. Evaluation of a barley core collection for spot form net blotch reaction reveals distinct genotype specific pathogen virulence and host susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spot form net blotch (SFNB) caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. maculata Smedeg., (anamorph Drechslera teres [Sacc.] Shoem.) is a major foliar disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) worldwide. SFNB epidemics have recently been observed in major barley producing countries, suggesting that the loca...

  19. Identification of thioredoxin h-reducible disulphides in proteornes by differential labelling of cysteines: Insight into recognition and regulation of proteins in barley seeds by thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2005-01-01

    or production of recombinant proteins. Mass shifts of 15 peptides, induced by treatment with thioredoxin h and differential alkylation, identified specific reduction of nine disulphides in BASI, four alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors and a protein of unknown function. Two specific disulphides, located...... alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) by barley thioredoxin h isoform 1 was analysed. Furthermore, the method was coupled with two-dimensional electrophoresis for convenient thioredoxin h-reducible disulphide identification in barley seed extracts without the need for protein purification...... structurally close to the alpha-amylase binding surfaces of BASI and alpha-amylase inhibitor BMAI-1 were demonstrated to be reduced to a particularly high extent. For the first time, specificity of thioredoxin h for particular disulphide bonds is demonstrated, providing a basis to study structural aspects...

  20. Identification of thioredoxin h-reducible disulphides in proteomes by differential labelling of cysteines: insight into recognition and regulation of proteins in barley seeds by thioredoxin h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kenji; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2005-04-01

    Using thiol-specific fluorescence labelling, over 30 putative target proteins of thioredoxin h with diverse structures and functions have been identified in seeds of barley and other plants. To gain insight at the structural level into the specificity of target protein reduction by thioredoxin h, thioredoxin h-reducible disulphide bonds in individual target proteins are identified using a novel strategy based on differential alkylation of cysteine thiol groups by iodoacetamide and 4-vinylpyridine. This method enables the accessible cysteine side chains in the thiol form (carbamidomethylated) to be distinguished from those inaccessible or disulphide bound form (pyridylethylated) according to the mass difference in the peptide mass maps obtained by matrix-assistend laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry. Using this approach, in vitro reduction of disulphides in recombinant barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) by barley thioredoxin h isoform 1 was analysed. Furthermore, the method was coupled with two-dimensional electrophoresis for convenient thioredoxin h-reducible disulphide identification in barley seed extracts without the need for protein purification or production of recombinant proteins. Mass shifts of 15 peptides, induced by treatment with thioredoxin h and differential alkylation, identified specific reduction of nine disulphides in BASI, four alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors and a protein of unknown function. Two specific disulphides, located structurally close to the alpha-amylase binding surfaces of BASI and alpha-amylase inhibitor BMAI-1 were demonstrated to be reduced to a particularly high extent. For the first time, specificity of thioredoxin h for particular disulphide bonds is demonstrated, providing a basis to study structural aspects of the recognition mechanism and regulation of target proteins.

  1. High levels of genetic and genotypic diversity in field populations of the barley pathogen Ramularia collo-cygni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund; Ravnshøj, A.R.; Nyman, M.

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete pathogen Ramularia collo-cygni causes Ramularia leaf spot (RLS) on barley. Although R. collo-cygni is considerd an emerging disease of barley, little is known about genetic diversity or population genetic structure of this pathogen. We applied a set of polymorphic AFLP (Amplified F...... result from considerable levels of gene flow between populations most likely mediated by seed borne dispersal of inoculum....

  2. Kinetics of xylem loading, membrane potential maintenance, and sensitivity of K(+) -permeable channels to reactive oxygen species: physiological traits that differentiate salinity tolerance between pea and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Pottosin, Igor; Zeng, Fanrong; Velarde-Buendía, Ana-Maria; Massart, Amandine; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Hariadi, Yuda; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    Salt sensitive (pea) and salt tolerant (barley) species were used to understand the physiological basis of differential salinity tolerance in crops. Pea plants were much more efficient in restoring otherwise depolarized membrane potential thereby effectively decreasing K(+) efflux through depolarization-activated outward rectifying potassium channels. At the same time, pea root apex was 10-fold more sensitive to physiologically relevant H2 O2 concentration and accumulated larger amounts of H2 O2 under saline conditions. This resulted in a rapid loss of cell viability in the pea root apex. Barley plants rapidly loaded Na(+) into the xylem; this increase was only transient, and xylem and leaf Na(+) concentration remained at a steady level for weeks. On the contrary, pea plants restricted xylem Na(+) loading during the first few days of treatment but failed to prevent shoot Na(+) elevation in the long term. It is concluded that superior salinity tolerance of barley plants compared with pea is conferred by at least three different mechanisms: (1) efficient control of xylem Na(+) loading; (2) efficient control of H2 O2 accumulation and reduced sensitivity of non-selective cation channels to H2 O2 in the root apex; and (3) higher energy saving efficiency, with less ATP spent to maintain membrane potential under saline conditions.

  3. Identification of a novel gene (Hsdr4) involved in water-stress tolerance in wild barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprunova, Tatiana; Krugman, Tamar; Distelfeld, Assaf; Fahima, Tzion; Nevo, Eviatar; Korol, Abraham

    2007-05-01

    Drought is one of the most severe stresses limiting plant growth and yield. Genes involved in water stress tolerance of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneoum), the progenitor of cultivated barley, were investigated using genotypes contrasting in their response to water stress. Gene expression profiles of water-stress tolerant vs. water-stress sensitive wild barley genotypes, under severe dehydration stress applied at the seedling stage, were compared using cDNA-AFLP analysis. Of the 1100 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) amplified about 70 displayed differential expression between control and stress conditions. Eleven of them showed clear difference (up- or down-regulation) between tolerant and susceptible genotypes. These TDFs were isolated, sequenced and tested by RT-PCR. The differential expression of seven TDFs was confirmed by RT-PCR, and TDF-4 was selected as a promising candidate gene for water-stress tolerance. The corresponding gene, designated Hsdr4 (Hordeum spontaneum dehydration-responsive), was sequenced and the transcribed and flanking regions were determined. The deduced amino acid sequence has similarity to the rice Rho-GTPase-activating protein-like with a Sec14 p-like lipid-binding domain. Analysis of Hsdr4 promoter region that was isolated by screening a barley BAC library, revealed a new putative miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE), and several potential stress-related binding sites for transcription factors (MYC, MYB, LTRE, and GT-1), suggesting a role of the Hsdr4 gene in plant tolerance to dehydration stress. Furthermore, the Hsdr4 gene was mapped using wild barley mapping population to the long arm of chromosome 3H between markers EBmac541 and EBmag705, within a region that previously was shown to affect osmotic adaptation in barley.

  4. Rapid genotyping assays for the identification and differentiation of Yersinia ruckeri biotype 2 strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel assays for the identification and differentiation of biotype 2 phenotype-causing alleles among emerging strains of Yersinia ruckeri are presented. Assays were validated against isolates previously genotyped by DNA sequencing. The methods employed are simple to perform and interpret and thus co...

  5. Integrating statistical and ecophysiological analysis of genotype by environment interaction for grain filling of barley in Mediterranean areas. I. Individual grain weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voltas, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Sombrero, A.; Lafarga, A.; Igartua, E.; Romagosa, I.

    1999-01-01

    In Mediterranean-type environments, grain weight of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is influenced by the presence of terminal abiotic stresses such as drought or elevated temperature. The relative importance of these climatic constraints acting together prior to and after anthesis, as well as the specif

  6. Detection and differentiation of Japanese encephalitis virus genotype I and genotype III by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Cao, Sanjie; Wu, Rui; Zhu, Shuquan; Liu, Hanyang; Yuan, Lei; Shi, Shuangyan; Zhang, Dan; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Xintian; Wen, Yiping; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Ma, Xiaoping

    2015-04-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE), which is a mosquito-borne arboviral infection, is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asian countries. The causative agent of JE is Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), in which the predominant genotype has changed from genotype III (G III) to genotype I (G I). However, a method for the rapid differentiation between JEV G I and G III remains unavailable. This study aimed to establish a rapid JEV genotyping method using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). An Spe I site, which was located in the target sequence (C gene) of JEV G III strains but not in JEV G I strains, was selected as the RT-LAMP target. After testing 64 specimens, results showed that RT-LAMP can detect and differentiate JEV G I and G III specifically. Thus, a novel RT-LAMP system for the rapid detection and differentiation of JEV G I and G III was developed successfully.

  7. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D

    2015-01-01

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from Illumina...

  8. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    conditions continue to be key to discovering the roles of individual protein forms and posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation. Activity-based proteomics, particularly in combination with new gene editing technologies, has great potential to elucidate the network of enzymes in barley...

  9. HvPap-1 C1A Protease Participates Differentially in the Barley Response to a Pathogen and an Herbivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Diaz-Mendoza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-evolutionary processes in plant–pathogen/herbivore systems indicate that protease inhibitors have a particular value in biotic interactions. However, little is known about the defensive role of their targets, the plant proteases. C1A cysteine proteases are the most abundant enzymes responsible for the proteolytic activity during different processes like germination, development and senescence in plants. To identify and characterize C1A cysteine proteases of barley with a potential role in defense, mRNA and protein expression patterns were analyzed in response to biotics stresses. A barley cysteine protease, HvPap-1, previously related to abiotic stresses and grain germination, was particularly induced by flagellin or chitosan elicitation, and biotic stresses such as the phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae or the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae. To elucidate the in vivo participation of this enzyme in defense, transformed barley plants overexpressing or silencing HvPap-1 encoding gene were subjected to M. oryzae infection or T. urticae infestation. Whereas overexpressing plants were less susceptible to the fungus than silencing plants, the opposite behavior occurred to the mite. This unexpected result highlights the complexity of the regulatory events leading to the response to a particular biotic stress.

  10. The Utilization of Phytate Organic Phosphorus in P-Efficient Wild Barley Genotypes at Jointing Stage%磷高效野生大麦拔节期对植酸态有机磷的利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡秋燕; 张锡洲; 李廷轩; 陈光登; 吴德勇

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]The objective of this study is to explore the ability to uptake phytate-Po in P-efficient wild barley genotypes, analyze the variance in plant growth, P absorption and characteristics in rhizosphere soil, and to provide a theoretical basis for revealing the mechanism of Po utilization on P-efficient genotypes wild barley under low available P stress.[Method]P-efficient genotypes (IS-22-30 and IS-22-25) and the P-inefficient genotypes (IS-07-07) were identified by screening the genetic stocks of wild barley. They were grown in low P soil supplied Na-phytate in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of three different Po fertilizer application treatments, including no Po (CK), 15 mg·kg-1 (Po15) and 30 mg·kg-1 (Po30) in soil. The biomass production, P accumulation, acid phosphatase and phytase activities at root and rhizosphere, and organic phosphorus fractions in rhizosphere of different P efficiencies wild barley at jointing stage under different phytate-Po levels were measured. [Result]The biomass production and P accumulation of different P efficiencies wild barley were significantly increased, while root/shoot ratio had a decreasing tendency by supplying phytate-Po. The biomass, P accumulation and root/shoot ratio of P-efficient genotypes were higher than those of P-inefficient genotype. In addition, the rate of increase in biomass and P accumulation of P-efficient genotypes was higher than that of P-inefficient genotype by supplying phytate-Po. Acid phosphatase and phytase activities in root were promoted in wild barley with decreasing of phytate-Po concentration. Acid phosphatase and phytase activities in root of P-efficient genotypes were observably higher by 1.15-1.24 times and 1.18-1.34 times than those of P-inefficient genotype, respectively. Acid phosphatase and phytase activities in the rhizosphere soil were higher than that of non-rhizosphere soils, and the enzyme activities increased significantly with the increasing concentration of

  11. Developing a Molecular Identification Assay of Old Landraces for the Genetic Authentication of Typical Agro-Food Products: The Case Study of the Barley 'Agordino'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Fabio; Galla, Giulio; Barcaccia, Gianni

    2017-03-01

    The orzo Agordino is a very old local variety of domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. distichum L.) that is native to the Agordo District, Province of Belluno, and is widespread in the Veneto Region, Italy. Seeds of this landrace are widely used for the preparation of very famous dishes of the dolomitic culinary tradition such as barley soup, bakery products and local beer. Understanding the genetic diversity and identity of the Agordino barley landrace is a key step to establish conservation and valorisation strategies of this local variety and also to provide molecular traceability tools useful to ascertain the authenticity of its derivatives. The gene pool of the Agordino barley landrace was reconstructed using 60 phenotypically representative individual plants and its genotypic relationships with commercial varieties were investigated using 21 pure lines widely cultivated in the Veneto Region. For genomic DNA analysis, following an initial screening of 14 mapped microsatellite (SSR) loci, seven discriminant markers were selected on the basis of their genomic position across linkage groups and polymorphic marker alleles per locus. The genetic identity of the local barley landrace was determined by analysing all SSR markers in a single multi-locus PCR assay. Extent of genotypic variation within the Agordino barley landrace and the genotypic differentiation between the landrace individuals and the commercial varieties was determined. Then, as few as four highly informative SSR loci were selected and used to develop a molecular traceability system exploitable to verify the genetic authenticity of food products deriving from the Agordino landrace. This genetic authentication assay was validated using both DNA pools from individual Agordino barley plants and DNA samples from Agordino barley food products. On the whole, our data support the usefulness and robustness of this DNA-based diagnostic tool for the orzo Agordino identification, which could be rapidly and

  12. Genotyping common FSHR polymorphisms based on competitive amplification of differentially melting amplicons (CADMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, Tanni; Sommer Kristensen, Lasse; Lindgren, Ida

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To provide an improved platform for simple, reliable, and cost-effective genotyping. BACKGROUND: Modern fertility treatments are becoming increasingly individualized in an attempt to optimise the follicular response and reproductive outcome, following controlled ovarian stimulation....... As the field of pharmacogenetics evolve, genetic biomarkers such as polymorphisms of the follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) may be included as a predictive tool for individualized fertility treatment. However, the currently available genotyping methods are expensive, time-consuming or have a limited...... analytical sensitivity. Here, we present a novel version of "competitive amplification of differentially melting amplicons" (CADMA), providing an improved platform for simple, reliable, and cost-effective genotyping. METHODS: Two CADMA based assays were designed for the two common polymorphisms of the FSHR...

  13. Issues surrounding health claims for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Nancy P; Rhymer, Camille R

    2008-06-01

    Government-approved health claims support dietary intervention as a safe and practical approach to improving consumer health and provide industry with regulatory guidelines for food product labels. Claims already allowed in the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden, and The Netherlands for reducing cholesterol through consumption of oat or barley soluble fiber provide a basis for review, but each country may have different criteria for assessing clinical evidence for a physiological effect. For example, the FDA-approved barley health claim was based on a petition that included 39 animal model studies and 11 human clinical trials. Since then, more studies have been published, but with few exceptions, clinical data continue to demonstrate that the consumption of barley products is effective for lowering total and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to fully understand the mechanism of cholesterol reduction and the role of beta-glucan molecular weight, viscosity, and solubility. In an assessment of the physiological efficacy of a dietary intervention, consideration should also be given to the potential impact of physical and thermal food-processing treatments and genotypic variation in the barley source. New barley cultivars have been generated specifically for food use, possessing increased beta-glucan, desirable starch composition profiles, and improved milling/processing traits. These advances in barley production, coupled with the establishment of a government-regulated health claim for barley beta-glucan, will stimulate new processing opportunities for barley foods and provide consumers with reliable, healthy food choices.

  14. Identification of thioredoxin h-reducible disulphides in proteornes by differential labelling of cysteines: Insight into recognition and regulation of proteins in barley seeds by thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2005-01-01

    ) to be distinguished from those inaccessible or disulphide bound form (pyridylethylated) according to the mass difference in the peptide mass maps obtained by matrix-assistend laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry. Using this approach, in vitro reduction of disulphides in recombinant barley...... or production of recombinant proteins. Mass shifts of 15 peptides, induced by treatment with thioredoxin h and differential alkylation, identified specific reduction of nine disulphides in BASI, four alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors and a protein of unknown function. Two specific disulphides, located...... structurally close to the alpha-amylase binding surfaces of BASI and alpha-amylase inhibitor BMAI-1 were demonstrated to be reduced to a particularly high extent. For the first time, specificity of thioredoxin h for particular disulphide bonds is demonstrated, providing a basis to study structural aspects...

  15. Identification of Mild Freezing Shock Response Pathways in Barley Based on Transcriptome Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Wu, Dezhi; Yang, Qian; Zeng, Jianbin; Jin, Gulei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Zhang, Guoping; Dai, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress affecting crop growth and productivity. A better understanding of low temperature tolerance mechanisms is imperative for developing the crop cultivars with improved tolerance. We herein performed an Illumina RNA-sequencing experiment using two barley genotypes differing in freezing tolerance (Nure, tolerant and Tremois, sensitive), to determine the transcriptome profiling and genotypic difference under mild freezing shock treatment after a very short acclimation for gene induction. A total of 6474 differentially expressed genes, almost evenly distributed on the seven chromosomes, were identified. The key DEGs could be classified into six signaling pathways, i.e., Ca(2+) signaling, PtdOH signaling, CBFs pathway, ABA pathway, jasmonate pathway, and amylohydrolysis pathway. Expression values of DEGs in multiple signaling pathways were analyzed and a hypothetical model of mild freezing shock tolerance mechanism was proposed. Expression and sequence profile of HvCBFs cluster within Frost resistance-H2, a major quantitative trait locus on 5H being closely related to low temperature tolerance in barley, were further illustrated, considering the crucial role of HvCBFs on freezing tolerance. It may be concluded that multiple signaling pathways are activated in concert when barley is exposed to mild freezing shock. The pathway network we presented may provide a platform for further exploring the functions of genes involved in low temperature tolerance in barley.

  16. Differential Compartmentation of Gibberellin A1 and Its Metabolites in Vacuoles of Cowpea and Barley Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jose L.; Ohlrogge, John B.; Rappaport, Lawrence

    1981-01-01

    The metabolism and efflux of gibberellin A1 (GA1) taken up by leaves of cowpea (Vigna sinensis cv. Blackeye pea No. 5), as well as the distribution of GA1 metabolites in the protoplasts and vacuoles of cowpea and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Numar), were studied. GA1 is metabolized rapidly in cowpea leaf discs to products tentatively identified as gibberellin A8 (GA8) and gibberellin A8 glucoside (GA8-glu). After labeling leaf discs with [3H]GA1 for 1 hour, the release of radioactivity from the leaf was followed. Over a 12-hour period, the level of radioisotope in the tissue declined to about 35% of the original, after which no further release was observed. At this time, almost all of the radioactivity remaining in the leaf was GA8-glu, while most of the radioactivity which had been released was unmetabolized GA1. Mesophyll protoplasts and vacuoles were isolated from cowpea and barley leaves previously fed [3H]GA1. These protoplasts retain the ability to metabolize GA1, indicating that neither the leaf structure nor the cell wall is necessary for this metabolism. A higher proportion of GA8-glu was found in the vacuoles relative to the entire protoplasts. The results obtained suggest that GA1 metabolites are preferentially compartmentalized in the vacuoles relative to GA1. PMID:16662014

  17. Application of genotyping-by-sequencing on semiconductor sequencing platforms: A comparison of genetic and reference-based marker ordering in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid development of next generation sequencing platforms has enabled the use of sequencing for routine genotyping across a range of genetics studies and breeding applications. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a low-cost, reduced representation sequencing method, is becoming a common approach fo...

  18. Integrating statistical and ecophysiological analysis of genotype by environment interaction for grain filling of barley in Mediterranean areas. II. Grain growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voltas, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Araus, J.L.; Romagosa, I.

    1999-01-01

    In Mediterranean areas, grain growth of temperate cereals often progresses under the harmful influence of drought and high temperature. Genotypic responses are mediated by the specific occurrence of these constraints, thus causing genotype by environment (G × E) interaction. Field experiments were c

  19. Effect of Water Stress on Germination of Tiebtan Spring Barley with Different Genotypes%水分胁迫对西藏不同基因型春大麦发芽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    次仁央金; 田和平; 多吉平措

    2011-01-01

    Germination process of 4 different spring barley varieties were tested under different levels of water stress. Results indicated that: (1) Seed germinations of all varieties were suppressed to some degrees under water stress. Germination suppression rate of all 4 varieties were 16%-52% and 4%-50% under severe and light water stress respectively, among which 'Shekatze 17' variety was the most severely suppressed. (2) Germination rate, germination index and vitality index of all varieties were decreased under water stress. Effect of water stress on germination was highest for ' Zangqing 320' variety and followed by 'Maqu 132', 'Shekatze17' and 'Zangqing 148' in order. As the water stress was increased, germination speed was decreased obviously and sprouting strength was also obviously week. (3) Water stress was also suppressed the growth of sprouts and roots. As the water stress increased, sensitivity to the suppression was higher for sprouts than for roots. 'Shekatze 17' was the most sensitive to suppression for roots, while 'Zangqing 320' was the most sensitive to suppression for sprouts. Different genotypes of spring barley responded differently to water stress.This indicated that draught tolerance traits of spring barley were different for different genotypes. Among the 4 varieties of spring barley, according to the overall performance of seed germination periods, Zangqing 148 was the best for draught tolerance followed by 'Maqu 132', 'Zangqing 320' and 'Shekatze 17'.%此文通过不同的水分胁迫处理对4个西藏春大麦品种进行发芽研究.结果表明:(1)水分胁迫下,所有品种的种子萌发均受到不同程度的抑制作用,四个品种在重度胁迫时萌发抑制率为16%~52%,轻度胁迫时萌发抑制率为4%~50%,其中对‘日喀则17号'抑制作用最大;(2)水分胁迫下,所有品种的种子发芽率、发芽指数及活力指数均下降,对‘藏青320'的发芽影响最大,随着水分胁迫加

  20. Barley metallothioneins: MT3 and MT4 are localized in the grain aleurone layer and show differential zinc binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2012-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and protein abundance during grain development. MT3 was present in tissues of both maternal and filial origin throughout grain filling. In contrast, MT4 was confined to the embryo and aleurone layer, where it appeared during tissue specialization and remained until maturity. Using state-of-the-art speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on recombinant MT3 and MT4, their specificity and capacity for metal ion binding were quantified, showing a strong preferential Zn binding relative to Cu and cadmium (Cd) in MT4, which was not the case for MT3. When complementary DNAs from barley MTs were expressed in Cu- or Cd-sensitive yeast mutants, MT3 provided a much stronger complementation than did MT4. We conclude that MT3 may play a housekeeping role in metal homeostasis, while MT4 may function in Zn storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations.

  1. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    in well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring...

  2. Brewing with fractionated barley

    OpenAIRE

    Donkelaar, van, CC René

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw barley, however, contains less endogenous enzymes and more undesired components for the use of beer brewing, compared to malted barley.  The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how ba...

  3. Structure and function of the bacterial root microbiota in wild and domesticated barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, Davide; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Münch, Philipp C; Weiman, Aaron; Dröge, Johannes; Pan, Yao; McHardy, Alice C; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-03-11

    The microbial communities inhabiting the root interior of healthy plants, as well as the rhizosphere, which consists of soil particles firmly attached to roots, engage in symbiotic associations with their host. To investigate the structural and functional diversification among these communities, we employed a combination of 16S rRNA gene profiling and shotgun metagenome analysis of the microbiota associated with wild and domesticated accessions of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Bacterial families Comamonadaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, and Rhizobiaceae dominate the barley root-enriched microbiota. Host genotype has a small, but significant, effect on the diversity of root-associated bacterial communities, possibly representing a footprint of barley domestication. Traits related to pathogenesis, secretion, phage interactions, and nutrient mobilization are enriched in the barley root-associated microbiota. Strikingly, protein families assigned to these same traits showed evidence of positive selection. Our results indicate that the combined action of microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions drives microbiota differentiation at the root-soil interface.

  4. Structure and Function of the Bacterial Root Microbiota in Wild and Domesticated Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, Davide; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Münch, Philipp C.; Weiman, Aaron; Dröge, Johannes; Pan, Yao; McHardy, Alice C.; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary The microbial communities inhabiting the root interior of healthy plants, as well as the rhizosphere, which consists of soil particles firmly attached to roots, engage in symbiotic associations with their host. To investigate the structural and functional diversification among these communities, we employed a combination of 16S rRNA gene profiling and shotgun metagenome analysis of the microbiota associated with wild and domesticated accessions of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Bacterial families Comamonadaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, and Rhizobiaceae dominate the barley root-enriched microbiota. Host genotype has a small, but significant, effect on the diversity of root-associated bacterial communities, possibly representing a footprint of barley domestication. Traits related to pathogenesis, secretion, phage interactions, and nutrient mobilization are enriched in the barley root-associated microbiota. Strikingly, protein families assigned to these same traits showed evidence of positive selection. Our results indicate that the combined action of microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions drives microbiota differentiation at the root-soil interface. PMID:25732064

  5. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  6. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  7. Bioactive phytochemicals in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Idehen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of whole grain barley reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases. The presence of barley fiber, especially β-glucan in whole grain barley, has been largely credited for these health benefits. However, it is now widely believed that the actions of the fiber component alone do not explain the observed health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain barley. Whole grain barley also contains phytochemicals including phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, tocols, phytosterols, and folate. These phytochemicals exhibit strong antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cholesterol lowering abilities, which are potentially useful in lowering the risk of certain diseases. Therefore, the high concentration of phytochemicals in barley may be largely responsible for its health benefits. This paper reviews available information regarding barley phytochemicals and their potential to combat common nutrition-related diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity.

  8. Differential expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes in two contrasting tomato genotypes for lycopene content

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shilpa Pandurangaiah; Kundapura V Ravishankar; Kodthalu S Shivashankar; Avverahally T Sadashiva; Kavitha Pillakenchappa; Sunil Kumar Narayanan

    2016-06-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the model plants to study the carotenoid biosynthesis. In the present study, the fruit carotenoid content were quantified at different developmental stages for two contrasting genotypes viz. IIHR-249-1and IIHR-2866 by UPLC. Lycopene content was high in IIHR-249-1(19.45 mg/100g fresh weight) compared to IIHR-2866 ((1.88 mg/100g fresh weight) at the ripe stage. qPCR was performed for genes that are involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway to study the difference in lycopene content in fruits of both the genotypes. The expression of Phytoene Synthase (PSY) increased by 36 fold and Phytoene desaturase (PDS) increased by 14fold from immature green stage to ripe stage in IIHR-249-1. The expression of Chloroplast lycopene β cyclase (LCY-B) and Chromoplast lycopene β cyclase (CYC-B) decreased gradually from the initial stage to the ripe stage in IIHR-249-1. IIHR 249-1 showed 3 and 1.8 fold decrease in gene expression for Chloroplast lycopene β cyclase ((LCY-B) and Chromoplast lycopene β cyclase (CYC-B) .The F2 hybrids derived from IIHR-249-1 and IIHR-2866 were analyzed at the ripe stage for lycopene content. The gene expression of Chloroplast lycopene β cyclase (LCY-B) and Chromoplast lycopene β cyclase (CYC-B) in high and low lycopene lines from F2 progenies also showed the decrease in transcript levels of both the genes in high lycopene F2 lines. We wish to suggest that the differential expression of Lycopene β -cyclases can be used in marker assisted breeding.

  9. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of three genotypes of Brassica yellows virus by multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Peng, Yanmei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Zongying; Li, Dawei; Yu, Jialin; Han, Chenggui

    2016-11-22

    Brassica yellows virus (BrYV), proposed to be a new polerovirus species, three distinct genotypes (BrYV-A, BrYV-B and BrYV-C) have been described. This study was to develop a simple, rapid, sensitive, cost-effective method for simultaneous detection and differentiation of three genotypes of BrYV. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of the three genotypes of BrYV. The three genotypes of BrYV and Tunip yellows virus (TuYV) could be differentiated simultaneously using six optimized specific oligonucleotide primers, including one universal primer for detecting BrYV, three BrYV genotype-specific primers, and a pair of primers for specific detection of TuYV. Primers were designed from conserved regions of each virus and their specificity was confirmed by sequencing PCR products. The mRT-PCR products were 278 bp for BrYV-A, 674 bp for BrYV-B, 505 bp for BrYV-C, and 205 bp for TuYV. Amplification of three target genotypes was optimized by increasing the PCR annealing temperatures to 62 °C. One to three fragments specific for the virus genotypes were simultaneously amplified from infected samples and identified by their specific molecular sizes in agarose gel electrophoresis. No specific products could be amplified from cDNAs of other viruses which could infect crucifer crops. Detection limits of the plasmids for multiplex PCR were 100 fg for BrYV-A and BrYV-B, 10 pg for BrYV-C, and 1 pg for TuYV, respectively. The mRT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three BrYV genotypes from field samples collected in China. The simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective mRT-PCR was developed successfully for detection and differentiation of the three genotypes of BrYV.

  10. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat an...

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSP17.8 and their association with agronomic traits in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanshi Xia

    Full Text Available Small heat shock protein 17.8 (HSP17.8 is produced abundantly in plant cells under heat and other stress conditions and may play an important role in plant tolerance to stress environments. However, HSP17.8 may be differentially expressed in different accessions of a crop species exposed to identical stress conditions. The ability of different genotypes to adapt to various stress conditions resides in their genetic diversity. Allelic variations are the most common forms of genetic variation in natural populations. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the HSP17.8 gene were investigated across 210 barley accessions collected from 30 countries using EcoTILLING technology. Eleven SNPs including 10 from the coding region of HSP17.8 were detected, which form nine distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. Among the 10 SNPs in the coding region, six are missense mutations and four are synonymous nucleotide changes. Five of the six missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to HSP17.8 function. The accessions from Middle East Asia showed the higher nucleotide diversity of HSP17.8 than those from other regions and wild barley (H. spontaneum accessions exhibited greater diversity than the cultivated barley (H. vulgare accessions. Four SNPs in HSP17.8 were found associated with at least one of the agronomic traits evaluated except for spike length, namely number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, plant height, flag leaf area and leaf color. The association between SNP and these agronomic traits may provide new insight for study of the gene's potential contribution to drought tolerance of barley.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSP17.8 and their association with agronomic traits in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yanshi; Li, Ronghua; Ning, Zhengxiang; Bai, Guihua; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Yan, Guijun; Baum, Michael; Varshney, Rajeev K; Guo, Peiguo

    2013-01-01

    Small heat shock protein 17.8 (HSP17.8) is produced abundantly in plant cells under heat and other stress conditions and may play an important role in plant tolerance to stress environments. However, HSP17.8 may be differentially expressed in different accessions of a crop species exposed to identical stress conditions. The ability of different genotypes to adapt to various stress conditions resides in their genetic diversity. Allelic variations are the most common forms of genetic variation in natural populations. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the HSP17.8 gene were investigated across 210 barley accessions collected from 30 countries using EcoTILLING technology. Eleven SNPs including 10 from the coding region of HSP17.8 were detected, which form nine distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. Among the 10 SNPs in the coding region, six are missense mutations and four are synonymous nucleotide changes. Five of the six missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to HSP17.8 function. The accessions from Middle East Asia showed the higher nucleotide diversity of HSP17.8 than those from other regions and wild barley (H. spontaneum) accessions exhibited greater diversity than the cultivated barley (H. vulgare) accessions. Four SNPs in HSP17.8 were found associated with at least one of the agronomic traits evaluated except for spike length, namely number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, plant height, flag leaf area and leaf color. The association between SNP and these agronomic traits may provide new insight for study of the gene's potential contribution to drought tolerance of barley.

  13. Inter- and Intra-subtype genotypic differences that differentiate Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biet Franck

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map is the aetiological agent of Johne’s disease or paratuberculosis and is included within the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC. Map strains are of two major types often referred to as ‘Sheep’ or ‘S-type’ and ‘Cattle’ or ‘C-type’. With the advent of more discriminatory typing techniques it has been possible to further classify the S-type strains into two groups referred to as Type I and Type III. This study was undertaken to genotype a large panel of S-type small ruminant isolates from different hosts and geographical origins and to compare them with a large panel of well documented C-type isolates to assess the genetic diversity of these strain types. Methods used included Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units - Variable-Number Tandem Repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR, analysis of Large Sequence Polymorphisms by PCR (LSP analysis, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP analysis of gyr genes, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis coupled with hybridization to IS900 (IS900-RFLP analysis. Results The presence of LSPA4 and absence of LSPA20 was confirmed in all 24 Map S-type strains analysed. SNPs within the gyr genes divided the S-type strains into types I and III. Twenty four PFGE multiplex profiles and eleven different IS900-RFLP profiles were identified among the S-type isolates, some of them not previously published. Both PFGE and IS900-RFLP segregated the S-type strains into types I and III and the results concurred with those of the gyr SNP analysis. Nine MIRU-VNTR genotypes were identified in these isolates. MIRU-VNTR analysis differentiated Map strains from other members of Mycobacterium avium Complex, and Map S-type from C-type but not type I from III. Pigmented Map isolates were found of type I or III. Conclusion This is the largest panel of S-type strains investigated to date. The S-type strains

  14. 大麦雄性不育的遗传研究%Genetic Study on Barley Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤英; 刘志萍; 包海柱

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research the genetic mechanism of barley male sterility, and provide the theoretical reference for breeding strong heterosis hybrid of barley. [Method] Fertility segregation phenomenon, morphological characteristics and main agronomic characters of male sterility character of 4 kinds of barley male sterility materials 2001-17, 2001-37, 2001-84 and 2001-116 and their derived lines were observed and researched. [Result] Barley male sterility existed genetic phenomenon of single dominant nuclear gene caused by environmental stimulation, its sterility controlled by MS, the sterile genotype was MSms. There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility which was controlled by cytoplasmic male sterile gene S and nuclear gene rr, and its genotype was S(rr), this male sterility belonged to CMS type sterility. Temperature had no effect on fertility. [Conclusion] There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility, this result played a positively promoting role in barley practical production.

  15. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis) Ciferri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Satyabrata; Chand, Subodh Kumar; Mandal, Purander; Tripathy, Pradyumna; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession ‘CBT-Ac77’ and cultivar ‘Arka Kalyan’ were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A. porri, revealed that 7 days after inoculation was suitable to observe the disease severity. In vitro screening of 43 genotypes for resistance to A. porri revealed two resistant lines. An additional 14 genotypes showed consistent moderate resistance in the field as well as in vitro evaluations. Among the related Allium species, A. schoenoprasum and A. roylei showed the least disease index and can be used for interspecific hybridization with cultivated onion. Differential reaction analysis of three A. porri isolates (Apo-Chiplima, Apn-Nasik, Apg-Guntur) in 43 genotypes revealed significant variation among the evaluated Allium species (P = 0.001). All together, the present study suggest that, the newly identified resistance sources can be used as potential donors for ongoing purple blotch resistance breeding program in India. PMID:27904458

  16. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis Ciferri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyabrata Nanda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession ‘CBT-Ac77’ and cultivar ‘Arka Kalyan’ were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A. porri, revealed that 7 days after inoculation was suitable to observe the disease severity. In vitro screening of 43 genotypes for resistance to A. porri revealed two resistant lines. An additional 14 genotypes showed consistent moderate resistance in the field as well as in vitro evaluations. Among the related Allium species, A. schoenoprasum and A. roylei showed the least disease index and can be used for interspecific hybridization with cultivated onion. Differential reaction analysis of three A. porri isolates (Apo-Chiplima, Apn-Nasik, Apg-Guntur in 43 genotypes revealed significant variation among the evaluated Allium species (P = 0.001. All together, the present study suggest that, the newly identified resistance sources can be used as potential donors for ongoing purple blotch resistance breeding program in India.

  17. Abscisic acid flux alterations result in differential abscisic acid signaling responses and impact assimilation efficiency in barley under terminal drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Christiane; Harshavardhan, Vokkaliga T; Reddy, Palakolanu S; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Rajesh, Kalladan; Korzun, Viktor; Wobus, Ulrich; Lee, Justin; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Sreenivasulu, Nese

    2014-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a central player in plant responses to drought stress. How variable levels of ABA under short-term versus long-term drought stress impact assimilation and growth in crops is unclear. We addressed this through comparative analysis, using two elite breeding lines of barley (Hordeum vulgare) that show senescence or stay-green phenotype under terminal drought stress and by making use of transgenic barley lines that express Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (AtNCED6) coding sequence or an RNA interference (RNAi) sequence of ABA 8'-hydroxylase under the control of a drought-inducible barley promoter. The high levels of ABA and its catabolites in the senescing breeding line under long-term stress were detrimental for assimilate productivity, whereas these levels were not perturbed in the stay-green type that performed better. In transgenic barley, drought-inducible AtNCED expression afforded temporal control in ABA levels such that the ABA levels rose sooner than in wild-type plants but also subsided, unlike as in the wild type , to near-basal levels upon prolonged stress treatment due to down-regulation of endogenous HvNCED genes. Suppressing of ABA catabolism with the RNA interference approach of ABA 8'-hydroxylase caused ABA flux during the entire period of stress. These transgenic plants performed better than the wild type under stress to maintain a favorable instantaneous water use efficiency and better assimilation. Gene expression analysis, protein structural modeling, and protein-protein interaction analyses of the members of the PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE1/PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE1-LIKE/REGULATORY COMPONENT OF ABA RECEPTORS, TYPE 2C PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE Sucrose non-fermenting1-related protein kinase2, and ABA-INSENSITIVE5/ABA-responsive element binding factor family identified specific members that could potentially impact ABA metabolism and stress adaptation in barley.

  18. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  19. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  20. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  1. The USDA barley core collection: genetic diversity, population structure, and potential for genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Muñoz-Amatriaín

    Full Text Available New sources of genetic diversity must be incorporated into plant breeding programs if they are to continue increasing grain yield and quality, and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Germplasm collections provide a source of genetic and phenotypic diversity, but characterization of these resources is required to increase their utility for breeding programs. We used a barley SNP iSelect platform with 7,842 SNPs to genotype 2,417 barley accessions sampled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection of 33,176 accessions. Most of the accessions in this core collection are categorized as landraces or cultivars/breeding lines and were obtained from more than 100 countries. Both STRUCTURE and principal component analysis identified five major subpopulations within the core collection, mainly differentiated by geographical origin and spike row number (an inflorescence architecture trait. Different patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD were found across the barley genome and many regions of high LD contained traits involved in domestication and breeding selection. The genotype data were used to define 'mini-core' sets of accessions capturing the majority of the allelic diversity present in the core collection. These 'mini-core' sets can be used for evaluating traits that are difficult or expensive to score. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS of 'hull cover', 'spike row number', and 'heading date' demonstrate the utility of the core collection for locating genetic factors determining important phenotypes. The GWAS results were referenced to a new barley consensus map containing 5,665 SNPs. Our results demonstrate that GWAS and high-density SNP genotyping are effective tools for plant breeders interested in accessing genetic diversity in large germplasm collections.

  2. The white barley mutant albostrians shows enhanced resistance to the biotroph Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Langen, Gregor; Hess, Wolfgang; Börner, Thomas; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2004-04-01

    We performed cytological and molecular analyses of the interaction between the biotrophic barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei and white and green leaves of the barley albostrians mutant. The leaves have the same nuclear genotype but differ from each other in respect to plastid differentiation. White leaves showed enhanced penetration resistance to B. graminis f. sp. hordei, associated with higher epidermal H2O2 accumulation beneath the appressorial germ tubes and protein cross-linking in papillae. Very low basal salicylic acid content was found in white leaves, which further confirmed that H2O2 accumulation and penetration resistance in barley are independent of salicylic acid. Expression analysis of stress and defense-related genes, including such being involved in reactive oxygen species production and cell death regulation, revealed stronger constitutive or pathogen-induced transcript accumulation in white leaves. We discuss the data on the basis of the finding that white albostrians leaves exhibit a supersusceptible interaction phenotype with the hemibiotrophic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana.

  3. Cultivar and Environmental Variation of β-glucan Content in Chinese Barleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; Zhang Guo-ping; QIANG Xiao-lin; WANG Jun-mei; DING Shou-ren

    2002-01-01

    β-glucan is a polysaccharide compound closely related to the quality of barley used as malting,feed and food. Low β-glucan content is expected for brewing and feed barley, while high β-glucan content is desirable for food barley. The β-glucan content of barley genotypes collected from various areas of China as well as from Canada and Australia were assayed. Meanwhile a multi-locations trial was conducted to determineβ-glucan content of 10 barley cultivars in 8 locations for two successive planting years. The results showed that barley genotypes from Tibet and Xinjiang had higher β-glucan content and the genotypes with higher than 8%of β-glucan content were detected in Tibet barleys, being valuable for use in the development of healthy food.Barley cultivars being planted now in winter-sowing areas of China had basically the same β-glucan content as those from Canada and Australia. Barley seeds produced in Hangzhou had lower β-glucan content than seeds from the original areas. There was a highly significant difference in β-glucan content among 10 barleys, 8locations and between years. On an average of two years, Xiumei 3 and Kongpei 1 had the highest and lowestβ-glucan content, respectively, and Taian and Hangzhou produced the highest and lowest β-glucan content barley seeds, respectively. Analysis of AMMI model showed that interaction effect between cultivar and environment was highly significant in both experimental years, and was dependent on cuitivar, suggesting that it is important to plant the suitable cultivars in a particular area in order to obtain barley seeds with reasonableβ-glucan content.

  4. DIFFERENTIATION OF CROATIAN BARLEY VARIETIES BY GRADIENT GEL SDS-PAGE AND ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING OF DRY GRAINS AND GREEN MALT HORDEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Strelec

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Applicability of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing of hordeins for discrimination of six two-rowed winter barley varieties (Angora, Sladoran, Rodnik, Rex, Martin and Barun has been investigated. Hordeins extracted from dry grains and green malt of barley varieties were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in gradient gel of 8-18% T, and by isoelectric focusing in pH gradient of 3.5-9.5 and 5.5-8.5, respectively. In all separation experiments better resolution of proteins was achieved with dry grain extracts, than with malt extracts. Angora, Sladoran and Martin variety could be distinguished from other varieties by differences in hordein patterns obtained by gradient gel SDS-PAGE (8-18% T, and Angora, Sladoran, Martin and Rodnik by isoelectric focusing in pH gradient 5.5-8.5.

  5. Members of the barley NAC transcription factor gene family show differential co-regulation with senescence-associated genes during senescence of flag leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael W; Gregersen, Per L.

    2014-01-01

    The senescence process of plants is important for the completion of their life cycle, particularly for crop plants, it is essential for efficient nutrient remobilization during seed filling. It is a highly regulated process, and in order to address the regulatory aspect, the role of genes...... in the NAC transcription factor family during senescence of barley flag leaves was studied. Several members of the NAC transcription factor gene family were up-regulated during senescence in a microarray experiment, together with a large range of senescence-associated genes, reflecting the coordinated...... activation of degradation processes in senescing barley leaf tissues. This picture was confirmed in a detailed quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (qRT–PCR) experiment, which also showed distinct gene expression patterns for different members of the NAC gene family, suggesting a group of ~15 out of the 47...

  6. Differential response of root morphology to potassium deficient stress among rice genotypes varying in potassium efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-bo JIA; Xiao-e YANG; Ying FENG; Ghulam JILANI

    2008-01-01

    Disparity in the root morphology of six rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes varying in potassium (K) efficiency was studied with three K levels: 5 mg/L (low),10 mg/L (moderate) and 40 mg/L (adequate) in hydroponic culture.Morphological parameters included root length,surface area,volume and count of lateral roots,as well as fine (diameter0.2 mm) roots.The results indicate that the root growth of all genotypes was reduced under low K,but moderate K deficiency increased the root length of the efficient genotypes.At deficient and moderate K levels,all the efficient rice genotypes developed more fine roots (diameter<0.2 mm) than the inefficient ones.Both fine root count and root surface area were found to be the best parameters to portray K stress in rice.In accordance with the root morphology,higher K concentrations were noted in shoots of the efficient genotypes when grown at moderate and deficient K levels,indicating that root morphology parameters are involved in root uptake for K and in the translocation of K up to shoots.K deficiency affected not only the root morphology,but also the root ultra-structure.The roots of high-efficient genotypes had stronger tolerance to K deficient stress for root membrane damage,and could maintain the developed root architecture to adapt to the low K growth medium.

  7. Genetic Diversity and Association Analysis for Salinity Tolerance,Heading Date and Plant Height of Barley Germplasm Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lilia Eleuch; Abderrazek Jilal; Stefania Grando; Salvatore Ceccarelli; Maria von Korff Schmising; Hisashi Tsujimoto; Amara Hajer; Abderrazek Daaloul; Michael Baum

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of barley accessions.Additionally,association trait analysis was conducted for grain yield under salinity,heading date and plant height.For this purpose,48 barley genotypes were analyzed with 22 microsatellite simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers.Four of the 22 markers (Bmac316,scssr03907,HVM67 and Bmag770) were able to differentiate all barley genotypes.Cluster and principal coordinate analysis allowed a clear grouping between countries from the same region.The genotypes used in this study have been evaluated for agronomic performance in different environments.Conducting association analysis for grain yield under salinity conditions using TASSEL software revealed a close association of the marker Bmag749 (2H,bin 13) in two different environments with common significant alleles (175,177),whereas the HVHOTR1 marker (2H,bin 3) was only significant in Sakhar_Egypt with alleles size being 158 and 161.Heading date also showed an association with scssr03907 through the common significant specific allele 111 and EBmacO415 markers in three different agro climatic locations,whereas HVCMA,scssr00103 and HVM67 were linked to heading date in the Egyptian environment only.The plant height association analysis revealed significant markers Bmag770 via the significant allele 152 and scssr09398.

  8. Nitrogen-Deficiency Stress Induces Protein Expression Differentially in Low-N Tolerant and Low-N Sensitive Maize Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Muslima; Pandey, Renu; Siddiqi, Tariq O.; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; Qureshi, Mohammad I.; Abraham, Gerard; Vengavasi, Krishnapriya; Ahmad, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is essential for proper plant growth and its application has proven to be critical for agricultural produce. However, for unavoidable economic and environmental problems associated with excessive use of N-fertilizers, it is an urgent demand to manage application of fertilizers. Improving the N-use efficiency (NUE) of crop plants to sustain productivity even at low N levels is the possible solution. In the present investigation, contrasting low-N sensitive (HM-4) and low-N tolerant (PEHM-2) genotypes were identified and used for comparative proteome-profiling of leaves under optimum and low N as well as restoration of low N on 3rd (NR3) and 5th (NR5) days after re-supplying N. The analysis of differential expression pattern of proteins was performed by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Significant variations in the expression of proteins were observed under low N, which were genotype specific. In the leaf proteome, 25 spots were influenced by N treatment and four spots were different between the two genotypes. Most of the proteins that were differentially accumulated in response to N level and were involved in photosynthesis and metabolism, affirming the relationship between N and carbon metabolism. In addition to this, greater intensity of some defense proteins in the low N tolerant genotype was found that may have a possible role in imparting it tolerance under N starvation conditions. The new insights generated on maize proteome in response to N-starvation and restoration would be useful toward improvement of NUE in maize. PMID:27047497

  9. Differential resistance reaction of maize genotypes to maize stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe at Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Bhandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize stem borer (MSB, Chilo partellus Swinhoe, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is one of the most important insect pest of maize in Nepal. Host plant resistance is the cost-effective, ecologically sound and stable approach to reduce damage by stem borers. Forty four maize genotypes were screened for resistance to maize stem borer at the research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur during spring seasons (March to June of two consecutive years 2013 and 2014. The maize genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications and data were collected on foliar damage rating, tunnel length and number of exit holes made by the borer. The foliar damage and tunnel length damage were significant for genotypes for both the years. The exit holes were not significant in 2013 but significant in 2014 ranging from 2-6 scale. The foliar rating ranged from 2 to 5.5 in 2013 and 1.1 to 4.5 in 2014 on a 1-9 rating scale. The highly resistant genotypes (10 cm scale. The least susceptible genotypes (<5 cm were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18. The genotypes having least exit holes (2.0 in 2014 were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02, RampurS10F18. Thus less damage parameters were observed in R-POP-2, RML-5/RML-8, RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18 and therefore they can be used as parents or as sources of resistance in breeding program.

  10. Stress Sensitivity Is Associated with Differential Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Maize Genotypes with Contrasting Levels of Drought Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Fountain, Jake C; Wang, Hui; Ni, Xinzhi; Ji, Pingsheng; Lee, Robert D; Kemerait, Robert C; Scully, Brian T; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-10-19

    Drought stress decreases crop growth, yield, and can further exacerbate pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Tolerance and adaptation to drought stress is an important trait of agricultural crops like maize. However, maize genotypes with contrasting drought tolerances have been shown to possess both common and genotype-specific adaptations to cope with drought stress. In this research, the physiological and metabolic response patterns in the leaves of maize seedlings subjected to drought stress were investigated using six maize genotypes including: A638, B73, Grace-E5, Lo964, Lo1016, and Va35. During drought treatments, drought-sensitive maize seedlings displayed more severe symptoms such as chlorosis and wilting, exhibited significant decreases in photosynthetic parameters, and accumulated significantly more reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) than tolerant genotypes. Sensitive genotypes also showed rapid increases in enzyme activities involved in ROS and RNS metabolism. However, the measured antioxidant enzyme activities were higher in the tolerant genotypes than in the sensitive genotypes in which increased rapidly following drought stress. The results suggest that drought stress causes differential responses to oxidative and nitrosative stress in maize genotypes with tolerant genotypes with slower reaction and less ROS and RNS production than sensitive ones. These differential patterns may be utilized as potential biological markers for use in marker assisted breeding.

  11. Biological impacts of "hot-spot" mutations of hepatitis B virus X proteins are genotype B and C differentiated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lin; Xiao Xu; Qing-Ling Huang; Yu-Qing Liu; Da-Li Zheng; Wan-Nan Chen; Jian-Yin Lin

    2005-01-01

    the biological impacts of most "hot-spot" mutations on HBx are genotype B and C differentiated.

  12. Differential effects of the ApoE4 genotype on brain structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matura, S.; Prvulovic, D.; Jurcoane, A.; Hartmann, D.; Miller, J.; Scheibe, M.; O'Dwyer, L.G.; Oertel-Knochel, V.; Knochel, C.; Reinke, B.; Karakaya, T.; Fusser, F.; Pantel, J.

    2014-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele is a well established genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. It is associated with structural and functional brain changes in healthy young, middle-aged and elderly subjects. In the current study, we assessed the impact of the ApoE genotype on

  13. Changes in disease gene frequency over time with differential genotype fitness and various control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, P.N.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    A spreadsheet model was constructed to describe the change in allelic frequency over time for a lethal recessive mutation in an animal population. The model allowed relative fitness to differ between genotypes, between sexes, and over time. Whereas a lethal recessive allele is naturally eliminated v

  14. Differential effects of the ApoE4 genotype on brain structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matura, S.; Prvulovic, D.; Jurcoane, A.; Hartmann, D.; Miller, J.; Scheibe, M.; O'Dwyer, L.G.; Oertel-Knochel, V.; Knochel, C.; Reinke, B.; Karakaya, T.; Fusser, F.; Pantel, J.

    2014-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele is a well established genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. It is associated with structural and functional brain changes in healthy young, middle-aged and elderly subjects. In the current study, we assessed the impact of the ApoE genotype on brai

  15. Changes in disease gene frequency over time with differential genotypic fitness and various control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, P.N.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Arendonk, J.A.M. van

    2006-01-01

    A spreadsheet model was constructed to describe the change in allelic frequency over time for a lethal recessive mutation in an animal population. The model allowed relative fitness to differ between genotypes, between sexes, and over time. Whereas a lethal recessive allele is naturally eliminated v

  16. Differential expression of jasmonate biosynthesis genes in cacao genotypes contrasting for resistance against Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litholdo, Celso G; Leal, Gildemberg A; Albuquerque, Paulo S B; Figueira, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The resistance mechanism of cacao against M. perniciosa is likely to be mediated by JA/ET-signaling pathways due to the preferential TcAOS and TcSAM induction in a resistant genotype. The basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa causes a serious disease in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), and the use of resistant varieties is the only sustainable long-term solution. Cacao resistance against M. perniciosa is characterized by pathogen growth inhibition with reduced colonization and an attenuation of disease symptoms, suggesting a regulation by jasmonate (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling pathways. The hypothesis that genes involved in JA biosynthesis would be active in the interaction of T. cacao and M. perniciosa was tested here. The cacao JA-related genes were evaluated for their relative quantitative expression in susceptible and resistant genotypes upon the exogenous application of ET, methyl-jasmonate (MJ), and salicylic acid (SA), or after M. perniciosa inoculation. MJ treatment triggered changes in the expression of genes involved in JA biosynthesis, indicating that the mechanism of positive regulation by exogenous MJ application occurs in cacao. However, a higher induction of these genes was observed in the susceptible genotype. Further, a contrast in JA-related transcriptional expression was detected between susceptible and resistant plants under M. perniciosa infection, with the induction of the allene oxide synthase gene (TcAOS), which encodes a key enzyme in the JA biosynthesis pathway in the resistant genotype. Altogether, this work provides additional evidences that the JA-dependent signaling pathway is modulating the defense response against M. perniciosa in a cacao-resistant genotype.

  17. Metabolomics differentiation of canola genotypes: toward an understanding of canola allelochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Pratley, James E.; An, Min; Luckett, David J.; Lemerle, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Allelopathy is one crop attribute that could be incorporated in an integrated weed management system as a supplement to synthetic herbicides. However, the underlying principles of crop allelopathy and secondary metabolite production are still poorly understood including in canola. In this study, an allelopathic bioassay and a metabolomic analysis were conducted to compare three non-allelopathic and three allelopathic canola genotypes. Results from the laboratory bioassay showed that there were significant differences among canola genotypes in their ability to inhibit root and shoot growth of the receiver annual ryegrass; impacts ranged from 14% (cv. Atr-409) to 76% (cv. Pak85388-502) and 0% (cv. Atr-409) to 45% (cv. Pak85388-502) inhibition respectively. The root length of canola also differed significantly between genotypes, there being a non-significant negative interaction (r = -0.71; y = 0.303x + 21.33) between the root length of donor canola and of receiver annual ryegrass. Variation in chemical composition was detected between organs (root extracts, shoot extracts) and root exudates and also between canola genotypes. Root extracts contained more secondary metabolites than shoot extracts while fewer compounds were recorded in the root exudates. Individual compound assessments identified a total of 14 secondary metabolites which were identified from the six tested genotypes. However, only Pak85388-502 and Av-opal exuded sinapyl alcohol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 3,5,6,7,8-pentahydroxy flavones in agar growth medium, suggesting that the synergistic effect of these compounds playing a role for canola allelopathy against annual ryegrass in vitro. PMID:25620971

  18. Children's genotypes interact with maternal responsive care in predicting children's competence: diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Barry, Robin A; Philibert, Robert A

    2011-05-01

    We examined Genotype × Environment (G × E) interactions between children's genotypes (the serotonin transporter linked promoter region [5-HTTLPR] gene) and maternal responsive care observed at 15, 25, 38, and 52 months on three aspects of children's competence at 67 months: academic skills and school engagement, social functioning with peers, and moral internalization that encompassed prosocial moral cognition and the moral self. Academic and social competence outcomes were reported by both parents, and moral internalization was observed in children's narratives elicited by hypothetical stories and in a puppet interview. Analyses revealed robust G × E interactions, such that children's genotype moderated the effects of maternal responsive care on all aspects of children's competence. Among children with a short 5-HTTLPR allele (ss/sl), those whose mothers were more responsive were significantly more competent than those whose mothers were less responsive. Responsiveness had no effect for children with two long alleles (ll). For academic and social competence, the G × E interactions resembled the diathesis-stress model: ss/sl children of unresponsive mothers had particularly unfavorable outcomes, but ss/sl children of responsive mothers had no worse outcomes than ll children. For moral internalization, the G × E interaction reflected the differential susceptibility model: whereas ss/sl children of unresponsive mothers again had particularly unfavorable outcomes, ss/sl children of responsive mothers had significantly better outcomes than ll children.

  19. Differentiating Wheat Genotypes by Bayesian Hierarchical Nonlinear Mixed Modeling of Wheat Root Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Anton P; Chiu, Grace S; Zwart, Alexander B; Binns, Timothy R

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring future food security for a growing population while climate change and urban sprawl put pressure on agricultural land will require sustainable intensification of current farming practices. For the crop breeder this means producing higher crop yields with less resources due to greater environmental stresses. While easy gains in crop yield have been made mostly "above ground," little progress has been made "below ground"; and yet it is these root system traits that can improve productivity and resistance to drought stress. Wheat pre-breeders use soil coring and core-break counts to phenotype root architecture traits, with data collected on rooting density for hundreds of genotypes in small increments of depth. The measured densities are both large datasets and highly variable even within the same genotype, hence, any rigorous, comprehensive statistical analysis of such complex field data would be technically challenging. Traditionally, most attributes of the field data are therefore discarded in favor of simple numerical summary descriptors which retain much of the high variability exhibited by the raw data. This poses practical challenges: although plant scientists have established that root traits do drive resource capture in crops, traits that are more randomly (rather than genetically) determined are difficult to breed for. In this paper we develop a hierarchical nonlinear mixed modeling approach that utilizes the complete field data for wheat genotypes to fit, under the Bayesian paradigm, an "idealized" relative intensity function for the root distribution over depth. Our approach was used to determine heritability: how much of the variation between field samples was purely random vs. being mechanistically driven by the plant genetics? Based on the genotypic intensity functions, the overall heritability estimate was 0.62 (95% Bayesian confidence interval was 0.52 to 0.71). Despite root count profiles that were statistically very noisy, our approach led

  20. Differentiating Wheat Genotypes by Bayesian Hierarchical Nonlinear Mixed Modeling of Wheat Root Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Anton P.; Chiu, Grace S.; Zwart, Alexander B.; Binns, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring future food security for a growing population while climate change and urban sprawl put pressure on agricultural land will require sustainable intensification of current farming practices. For the crop breeder this means producing higher crop yields with less resources due to greater environmental stresses. While easy gains in crop yield have been made mostly “above ground,” little progress has been made “below ground”; and yet it is these root system traits that can improve productivity and resistance to drought stress. Wheat pre-breeders use soil coring and core-break counts to phenotype root architecture traits, with data collected on rooting density for hundreds of genotypes in small increments of depth. The measured densities are both large datasets and highly variable even within the same genotype, hence, any rigorous, comprehensive statistical analysis of such complex field data would be technically challenging. Traditionally, most attributes of the field data are therefore discarded in favor of simple numerical summary descriptors which retain much of the high variability exhibited by the raw data. This poses practical challenges: although plant scientists have established that root traits do drive resource capture in crops, traits that are more randomly (rather than genetically) determined are difficult to breed for. In this paper we develop a hierarchical nonlinear mixed modeling approach that utilizes the complete field data for wheat genotypes to fit, under the Bayesian paradigm, an “idealized” relative intensity function for the root distribution over depth. Our approach was used to determine heritability: how much of the variation between field samples was purely random vs. being mechanistically driven by the plant genetics? Based on the genotypic intensity functions, the overall heritability estimate was 0.62 (95% Bayesian confidence interval was 0.52 to 0.71). Despite root count profiles that were statistically very noisy, our

  1. Differential response of kabuli and desi chickpea genotypes toward inoculation with PGPR in different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Asma; Mirza, Muhammad S.; Shah, Tariq M.; Malik, Kauser A.; Hafeez, Fauzia Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan is among top three chickpea producing countries but the crop is usually grown on marginal lands without irrigation and fertilizer application which significantly hampers its yield. Soil fertility and inoculation with beneficial rhizobacteria play a key role in nodulation and yield of legumes. Four kabuli and six desi chickpea genotypes were, therefore, evaluated for inoculation response with IAA-producing Ochrobactrum ciceri Ca-34T and nitrogen fixing Mesorhizobium ciceri TAL-1148 in single and co-inoculation in two soils. The soil type 1 was previously unplanted marginal soil having low organic matter, P and N contents compared to soil type 2 which was a fertile routinely legume-cultivated soil. The effect of soil fertility status was pronounced and fertile soil on average, produced 31% more nodules, 62% more biomass and 111% grain yield than marginal soil. Inoculation either with O. ciceri alone or its co-inoculation with M. ciceri produced on average higher nodules (42%), biomass (31%), grains yield (64%) and harvest index (72%) in both chickpea genotypes over non-inoculated controls in both soils. Soil 1 showed maximum relative effectiveness of Ca-34T inoculation for kabuli genotypes while soil 2 showed for desi genotypes except B8/02. Desi genotype B8/02 in soil type 1 and Pb-2008 in soil type 2 showed significant yield increase as compared to respective un-inoculated controls. Across bacterial inoculation treatments, grain yield was positively correlated to growth and yield contributing parameters (r = 0.294* to 0.838*** for desi and r = 0.388* to 0.857** for kabuli). PCA and CAT-PCA analyses clearly showed a site-specific response of genotype x bacterial inoculation. Furthermore, the inoculated bacterial strains were able to persist in the rhizosphere showing colonization on root and within nodules. Present study shows that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation should be integrated with national chickpea breading program in

  2. Differential labelling of cysteines for simultaneous identification of thioredoxin h-reducible disulphides in native protein extracts: insight into recognition and regulation of proteins in barley seeds by thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2005-01-01

    ) to be distinguished from those inaccessible or disulphide bound form (pyridylethylated) according to the mass difference in the peptide mass maps obtained by matrixassistend laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry. Using this approach, in vitro reduction of disulphides in recombinant barley a....... Mass shifts of 15 peptides, induced by treatment with thioredoxin h and differential alkylation, identified specific reduction of nine disulphides in BASI, four a-amylase/trypsin inhibitors and a protein of unknown function. Two specific disulphides, located structurally close to the alpha......-amylase binding surfaces of BASI and alpha-amylase inhibitor BMAI-1 were demonstrated to be reduced to a particularly high extent. For the first time, specificity of thioredoxin h for particular disulphide bonds is demonstrated, providing a basis to study structural aspects of the recognition mechanism...

  3. Rapid molecular differentiation and genotypic heterogeneity among Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis strains isolated from clinical specimens in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmad, Suhail; Al-Sweih, Noura; Khan, Zia U

    2009-06-01

    Recent molecular studies have led to the recognition of three distinct species within the Candida parapsilosis complex, namely Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. As currently available yeast identification systems fail to differentiate these species, there is a paucity of information on their occurrence in different geographical regions. This study describes a simple PCR-based protocol for rapid discrimination among C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis strains by using primers derived from unique sequences within the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8 rRNA-ITS2 region. Retrospective analysis of 114 C. parapsilosis-complex isolates recovered from clinical specimens in Kuwait identified 109 as C. parapsilosis, five as C. orthopsilosis and none as C. metapsilosis. The results were further validated by PCR-RFLP patterns of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase gene fragment. DNA sequencing of the ITS region and the D1/D2 regions of the 28S rRNA gene confirmed the species-specific identification of all five C. orthopsilosis strains. The amplicon length of the intergenic spacer between the 28S and 5S rRNA genes (IGS1) was also species-specific, and PCR-RFLP analyses of the IGS1 region identified two distinct genotypes among the five C. orthopsilosis strains, which corresponded with the ITS region sequence data. The three bloodstream C. orthopsilosis strains were confined to a single genotype. Among 81 randomly selected C. parapsilosis strains, two genotypes were detected by IGS1 region analyses, indicating limited genotypic heterogeneity among C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains. As far as is known, this is the first report on the identification of C. orthopsilosis from a bloodstream infection in the Arabian Gulf region.

  4. Differential survival of mosquitofish exposed to radionuclides is dependent on RAPD genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, C.W. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States); Shugart, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In previous studies, it was found that certain RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers were present at higher frequencies in radionuclide-contaminated mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations than in reference populations. These markers will be referred to as contaminant specific markers. In the present study, fish with and without these markers were collected from non-contaminated populations and exposed in situ to radionuclides by caging them in one of the contaminated sites. Forty fish were exposed for 1--6 weeks, after which the survivors were collected and DNA was extracted for genotypic analysis. In one experiment, the frequencies of contaminant specific markers in the survivors were compared to the frequencies of these markers in the native contaminated and uncontaminated (the source of the caged fish) populations. It was found that the genotypic distributions were more similar to the native contaminated population. In another experiment, samples of caudal fin tissue were collected for DNA extraction before and after placing fish in the cages, in order to compare survival rates of different genotypes. It was found that fish with the contaminant indicative bands had higher percent survival than the other fish. Experiments are underway or are being planned in order to determine the molecular identity of these bands and the ecological significance of altered band frequencies in hopes of developing population-level biomarkers of contaminant exposure and ecological affects.

  5. Genotyping of the CCR5 chemokine receptor by isothermal NASBA amplification and differential probe hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, J W; Tetali, S; Lee, E M; Shurtliff, R N; Wang, X P; Pahwa, S; Kaplan, M H; Ginocchio, C C

    1999-11-01

    The human CCR5 chemokine receptor functions as a coreceptor with CD4 for infection by macrophage-tropic isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). A mutated CCR5 allele which encodes a protein that does not function as a coreceptor for HIV-1 has been identified. Thus, expression of the wild-type and/or mutation allele is relevant to determining the infectability of patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and affects disease progression in vivo. We developed a qualitative CCR5 genotyping assay using NASBA, an isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology. The method involves three enzymes and two oligonucleotides and targets the CCR5 mRNA, which is expressed in PBMC at a copy number higher than 2, the number of copies of DNA present encoding the gene. The single oligonucleotide set amplifies both alleles, and genotyping is achieved by separate hybridizations of wild-type- and mutation-specific probes directly to the single-stranded RNA amplification product. Assay sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated with RNAs produced in vitro from plasmid clones bearing the DNA encoding each allele. No detectable cross-reactivity between wild-type and mutation probes was found, and 50 copies of each allele were readily detectable. Analysis of patient samples found that 20% were heterozygous and 1% were homozygous for the CCR5 mutation. Thus, NASBA is a sensitive and specific means of rapidly determining CCR5 genotype and provides several technical advantages over alternative assay systems.

  6. Barley peroxidase isozymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per; Henriksen, Anette; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Thirteen peroxidase spots on two-dimensional gels were identified by comprehensive proteome analysis of the barley seed. Mass spectrometry tracked multiple forms of three different peroxidase isozymes: barley seed peroxidase 1, barley seed-specific peroxidase BP1 and a not previously identified putative barley peroxidase. The presence of multiple spots for each of the isozymes reflected variations in post-translational glycosylation and protein truncation. Complete sequence coverage was achieved by using a series of proteases and chromatographic resins for sample preparation prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination. In summary, a subset of three peroxidase isozymes was found to occur in the seed, whereas products of four other barley peroxidase genes were not detected. The present analysis documents the selective expression profiles and post-translational modifications of isozymes from a large plant gene family.

  7. Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in different brewing barley cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Hou, Yingmin; Li, Feng; Piao, Yongzhe; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Changxin

    2015-03-30

    Beer is a popular alcoholic malt beverage resulting from fermentation of the aqueous extract of malted barley with hops. The aroma of brewing barley impacts the flavor of beer indirectly, because some flavor compounds or their precursors in beer come from the barley. The objectives of this research were to study volatile profiles and to characterize odor-active compounds of brewing barley in order to determine the variability of the aroma composition among different brewing barley cultivars. Forty-one volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds and furans were identified using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, among which aldehydes, alcohols and ketones were quantitatively in greatest abundance. Quantitative measurements performed by means of solvent extraction and calculation of odor activity values revealed that acetaldehyde, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, cyclopentanol, 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, 2-pentylfuran and benzeneacetaldehyde, whose concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds, could be considered as odor-active compounds of brewing barley. Principal component analysis was employed to evaluate the differences among cultivars. The results demonstrated that the volatile profile based on the concentrations of aroma compounds enabled good differentiation of most barley cultivars. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Analysis on Genotypic Differentiation of Phytophthora infestans by Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A total of 104 isolates including two Korean isolates and three Japanese isolates of Phytophthora infestans collected from Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces from 2006 to 2008 were used to determine their mating types,metalaxyl resistance,and RAPD genotypes.All the isolates of P.infestans collected from Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces belonged to A 1 mating type,and no A 2 mating type was detected.Frequencies of metalaxyl resistant isolates were 94.4%,47.8% and 75.0% in 2006,2007 and 2008,respectively.Accord...

  9. Genotypic and phenotypic applications for the differentiation and species-level identification of achromobacter for clinical diagnoses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gomila

    Full Text Available The Achromobacter is a genus in the family Alcaligenaceae, comprising fifteen species isolated from different sources, including clinical samples. The ability to detect and correctly identify Achromobacter species, particularly A. xylosoxidans, and differentiate them from other phenotypically similar and genotypically related Gram-negative, aerobic, non-fermenting species is important for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, as well as for nosocomial and other opportunistic infections. Traditional phenotypic profile-based analyses have been demonstrated to be inadequate for reliable identifications of isolates of Achromobacter species and genotypic-based assays, relying upon comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses are not able to insure definitive identifications of Achromobacter species, due to the inherently conserved nature of the gene. The uses of alternative methodologies to enable high-resolution differentiation between the species in the genus are needed. A comparative multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA of four selected 'house-keeping' genes (atpD, gyrB, recA, and rpoB assessed the individual gene sequences for their potential in developing a reliable, rapid and cost-effective diagnostic protocol for Achromobacter species identifications. The analysis of the type strains of the species of the genus and 46 strains of Achromobacter species showed congruence between the cluster analyses derived from the individual genes. The MLSA gene sequences exhibited different levels of resolution in delineating the validly published Achromobacter species and elucidated strains that represent new genotypes and probable new species of the genus. Our results also suggested that the recently described A. spritinus is a later heterotypic synonym of A. marplatensis. Strains were analyzed, using whole-cell Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, as an alternative phenotypic profile-based method with the

  10. Accumulation of mixed linkage (1¿3) (1¿4)-ß-D-glucan during grain filling in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Jespersen, Birthe P Møller

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of mixed linkage barley (1 → 3) (1 → 4)-β-d-glucan (BG) during grain filling at eight stages was studied using standard reference methods and infrared spectroscopy. Two mutant barley genotypes having higher (starch mutant lys5f) and lower (high lysine mutant lys3a) BG content tha...

  11. Isolate specificity and polygenic inheritance of resistance in barley to the heterologous rust pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dracatos, P.M.; Nansamba, M.; Berlin, A.; Park, R.F.; Niks, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    Barley is a near-nonhost to numerous heterologous (nonadapted) rust pathogens because a small proportion of genotypes are somewhat susceptible. We assessed 66 barley accessions and three mapping populations (Vada x SusPtrit, Cebada Capa x SusPtrit, and SusPtrit x Golden Promise) for response to t

  12. Differential Infectivities among Different Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotypes in Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Hettenbach, Susan M; Park, So Lee; Higgs, Stephen; Barrett, Alan D T; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Harbin, Julie N; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2016-10-01

    During the last 20 years, the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has changed significantly in its endemic regions due to the gradual displacement of the previously dominant genotype III (GIII) with clade b of GI (GI-b). Whilst there is only limited genetic difference distinguishing the two GI clades (GI-a and GI-b), GI-b has shown a significantly wider and more rapid dispersal pattern in several regions in Asia than the GI-a clade, which remains restricted in its geographic distribution since its emergence. Although previously published molecular epidemiological evidence has shown distinct phylodynamic patterns, characterization of the two GI clades has only been limited to in vitro studies. In this study, Culex quinquefasciatus, a known competent JEV mosquito vector species, was orally challenged with three JEV strains each representing GI-a, GI-b, and GIII, respectively. Infection and dissemination were determined based on the detection of infectious viruses in homogenized mosquitoes. Detection of JEV RNA in mosquito saliva at 14 days post infection indicated that Cx. quinquefasciatus can be a competent vector species for both GI and GIII strains. Significantly higher infection rates in mosquitoes exposed to the GI-b and GIII strains than the GI-a strain suggest infectivity in arthropod vectors may lead to the selective advantage of previously and currently dominant genotypes. It could thus play a role in enzootic transmission cycles for the maintenance of JEV if this virus were ever to be introduced into North America.

  13. Differential Infectivities among Different Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotypes in Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Park, So Lee; Higgs, Stephen; Barrett, Alan D. T.; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Harbin, Julie N.; Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    During the last 20 years, the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has changed significantly in its endemic regions due to the gradual displacement of the previously dominant genotype III (GIII) with clade b of GI (GI-b). Whilst there is only limited genetic difference distinguishing the two GI clades (GI-a and GI-b), GI-b has shown a significantly wider and more rapid dispersal pattern in several regions in Asia than the GI-a clade, which remains restricted in its geographic distribution since its emergence. Although previously published molecular epidemiological evidence has shown distinct phylodynamic patterns, characterization of the two GI clades has only been limited to in vitro studies. In this study, Culex quinquefasciatus, a known competent JEV mosquito vector species, was orally challenged with three JEV strains each representing GI-a, GI-b, and GIII, respectively. Infection and dissemination were determined based on the detection of infectious viruses in homogenized mosquitoes. Detection of JEV RNA in mosquito saliva at 14 days post infection indicated that Cx. quinquefasciatus can be a competent vector species for both GI and GIII strains. Significantly higher infection rates in mosquitoes exposed to the GI-b and GIII strains than the GI-a strain suggest infectivity in arthropod vectors may lead to the selective advantage of previously and currently dominant genotypes. It could thus play a role in enzootic transmission cycles for the maintenance of JEV if this virus were ever to be introduced into North America. PMID:27706157

  14. Further molecular evidence for the Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in Tibet as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    106 accessions of Tibetan wild barley, including 50 accessions of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum(HS), 27 accessions of the six-rowed bottle-shaped wild barley H. lagunculiforme(HL) and 29 accessions of the six-rowed wild barley H. agriocrithon(HA) that separately represent different agrigeographical regions of Tibet, were used to study the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation using SSR markers selected from seven barley linkage groups. 229 allelic variants were identified with an average of 7.6 alleles/locus. The average of total number of alleles per locus in HA(6.4) is much higher than that in HS(3.9) and HL(3.4). The genetic diversity and its standard deviation among the three subspecies were in the order of HS>HL>HA. Very significant genetic differentiation was observed among the three subspecies of wild barley. Comparisons of the results from this and previous studies showed a strong Oriental-Occidental differentiation of barley, and that Shannan region of Tibet might be the center of origin of the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley, thus supporting not only the hypothesis of a mono-phyletic origin of cultivated barley but also the proposition that the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley.

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity among barley cultivars and breeding lines adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and its implications in breeding barley for imidazolinone-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Rustgi

    Full Text Available Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the 'Bob' barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, since it comprises ∼23% (335,000 ha of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the 'Bob' AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29-53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358-471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158-2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%-90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed.

  16. Observed and predicted changes over eight years in frequency of barley powdery mildew avirulent to spring barley in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousset, L.; Hovmøller, M.S.; Caffier, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aerial populations of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei were studied in two French and two Danish regions from 1991 to 1999, at a time of year when only winter barley was present. A high frequency of genotypes not able to grow on the spring-sown crop of the previous growing season (denoted 'spring-a...... be predicted from the proportion of the barley area sown with winter barley, the use of resistance genes in the cultivars, the initial composition of the pathogen population, and hitch-hiking due to gametic disequilibria....

  17. Identifying differentially expressed genes in trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba T4 genotype: Implications for developing new treatments for Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedkhojasteh, Hoda; Niyyati, Maryam; Rezaei, Sasan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Farnia, Shohreh; Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Roozafzoon, Reza; Sianati, Hamed; Rezaeian, Mostafa; Heidari, Mansour

    2015-02-01

    Acanthamoeba T4 genotype is the most prevalent genotype associated with amoebic keratitis. Acanthamoeba keratitis therapy is difficult due to transformation of trophozoite to cyst stage, which hinders the treatment of the disease. Although encystation assists the organism to survive against the chemotherapeutic compounds, the precise mechanism of encystation remains poorly understood. The purpose of this work was to identify differentially expressed genes in Acanthamoeba T4 genotype which might be useful for understanding of the encystment process and may thus help develop more efficient treatment. The mRNA profile of trophozoite and cyst of Acanthamoeba T4 genotype isolated from a soft contact lens wearer were analyzed using a cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique. Subsequently, a real time reverse transcriptase-PCR was performed to validate the cDNA-AFLP results. Three genes, heat shock protein70 (hsp70), actin-I and elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1α) were differentially expressed during Acanthamoeba differentiation. An in silico result predicted that transformation of trophozoite to cyst could be mediated through their cooperation with the protein partners interaction. Taken together, our experimental and bioinformatics findings suggested potential functions of hsp70, EF-1α and actin-I in differentiation of Acanthamoeba T4 genotype which may be useful in the design of an efficient therapeutic strategy in AK.

  18. Differential Infectivities among Different Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotypes in Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jang S Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years, the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV has changed significantly in its endemic regions due to the gradual displacement of the previously dominant genotype III (GIII with clade b of GI (GI-b. Whilst there is only limited genetic difference distinguishing the two GI clades (GI-a and GI-b, GI-b has shown a significantly wider and more rapid dispersal pattern in several regions in Asia than the GI-a clade, which remains restricted in its geographic distribution since its emergence. Although previously published molecular epidemiological evidence has shown distinct phylodynamic patterns, characterization of the two GI clades has only been limited to in vitro studies. In this study, Culex quinquefasciatus, a known competent JEV mosquito vector species, was orally challenged with three JEV strains each representing GI-a, GI-b, and GIII, respectively. Infection and dissemination were determined based on the detection of infectious viruses in homogenized mosquitoes. Detection of JEV RNA in mosquito saliva at 14 days post infection indicated that Cx. quinquefasciatus can be a competent vector species for both GI and GIII strains. Significantly higher infection rates in mosquitoes exposed to the GI-b and GIII strains than the GI-a strain suggest infectivity in arthropod vectors may lead to the selective advantage of previously and currently dominant genotypes. It could thus play a role in enzootic transmission cycles for the maintenance of JEV if this virus were ever to be introduced into North America.

  19. Differential response to sulfur nutrition of two common bean genotypes differing in storage protein composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar ePandurangan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that the relatively low concentration of sulfur amino acids in legume seeds might be an ecological adaptation to nutrient poor, marginal soils. SARC1 and SMARC1N-PN1 are genetically related lines of common bean (dry bean, Phaseolus vulgaris differing in seed storage protein composition. In SMARC1N-PN1, the lack of phaseolin and major lectins is compensated by increased levels of sulfur-rich proteins, resulting in an enhanced concentration of cysteine and methionine, mostly at the expense of the abundant non-protein amino acid, S-methylcysteine. To identify potential effects associated with an increased concentration of sulfur amino acids in the protein pool, the response of the two genotypes to low and high sulfur nutrition was evaluated under controlled conditions. Seed yield was increased by the high sulfate treatment in SMARC1N-PN1. The seed concentrations of sulfur, sulfate and S-methylcysteine were altered by the sulfur treatment in both genotypes. The concentration of total cysteine and extractible globulins was increased specifically in SMARC1N-PN1. Proteomic analysis identified arcelin-like protein 4, lipoxygenase-3, albumin-2 and alpha amylase inhibitor beta chain as having increased levels under high sulfur conditions. Lipoxygenase-3 accumulation was sensitive to sulfur nutrition only in SMARC1N-PN1. Under field conditions, both SARC1 and SMARC1N-PN1 exhibited a slight increase in yield in response to sulfur treatment, typical for common bean.

  20. Malting barley BRS Borema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclydes Minella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Borema is an early maturing, two-rowed spring barley registered in 2003 for commercial production inSouthern Brazil, bred by Embrapa Trigo. It combines good yield potential with superior malting quality and a reasonable levelof disease (net blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rust resistance. It is well-adapted to all major production regions of maltingbarley in Brazil.

  1. Association mapping of partitioning loci in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackay Ian J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping, initially developed in human disease genetics, is now being applied to plant species. The model species Arabidopsis provided some of the first examples of association mapping in plants, identifying previously cloned flowering time genes, despite high population sub-structure. More recently, association genetics has been applied to barley, where breeding activity has resulted in a high degree of population sub-structure. A major genotypic division within barley is that between winter- and spring-sown varieties, which differ in their requirement for vernalization to promote subsequent flowering. To date, all attempts to validate association genetics in barley by identifying major flowering time loci that control vernalization requirement (VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 have failed. Here, we validate the use of association genetics in barley by identifying VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, despite their prominent role in determining population sub-structure. Results By taking barley as a typical inbreeding crop, and seasonal growth habit as a major partitioning phenotype, we develop an association mapping approach which successfully identifies VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, the underlying loci largely responsible for this agronomic division. We find a combination of Structured Association followed by Genomic Control to correct for population structure and inflation of the test statistic, resolved significant associations only with VRN-H1 and the VRN-H2 candidate genes, as well as two genes closely linked to VRN-H1 (HvCSFs1 and HvPHYC. Conclusion We show that, after employing appropriate statistical methods to correct for population sub-structure, the genome-wide partitioning effect of allelic status at VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 does not result in the high levels of spurious association expected to occur in highly structured samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both VRN-H1 and the candidate VRN-H2 genes can be identified using association mapping

  2. Application of fluorescence-based semi-automated AFLP analysis in barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, G.; Herz, M.; Huang, X.Q.

    2000-01-01

    Genetic mapping and the selection of closely linked molecular markers for important agronomic traits require efficient, large-scale genotyping methods. A semi-automated multifluorophore technique was applied for genotyping AFLP marker loci in barley and wheat. In comparison to conventional P-33...

  3. Evaluation of genotypic and phenotypic methods for differentiation of the members of the Anginosus group streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summanen, P H; Rowlinson, M-C; Wooton, J; Finegold, S M

    2009-09-01

    The terminology and classification of the Anginosus group streptococci has been inconsistent. We tested the utility of 16S rRNA gene and tuf gene sequencing and conventional biochemical tests for the reliable differentiation of the Anginosus group streptococci. Biochemical testing included Rapid ID 32 Strep, API Strep, Fluo-Card Milleri, Wee-tabs, and Lancefield antigen typing. Altogether, 61 Anginosus group isolates from skin and soft tissue infections and four reference strains were included. Our results showed a good agreement between 16S rRNA gene and tuf gene sequencing. Using the full sequence was less discriminatory than using the first part of the 16S rRNA gene. The three species could not be separated with the API 20 Strep test. Streptococcus intermedius could be differentiated from the other two species by beta-galactosidase (ONPG) and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase reactions. Rapid ID 32 Strep beta-glucosidase reaction was useful in separating S. anginosus strains from S. constellatus. In conclusion, both 16S rRNA gene and tuf gene sequencing can be used for the reliable identification of the Anginosus group streptococci. S. intermedius can be readily differentiated from the other two species by phenotypic tests; however, 16S rRNA gene or tuf gene sequencing may be needed for separating some strains of S. constellatus from S. anginosus.

  4. Differential response of oxidative stress and thiol metabolism in contrasting rice genotypes for arsenic tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Preeti; Mishra, Aradhana; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh K; Singh, Rana Pratap; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-05-01

    The mechanism of arsenic (As) tolerance was investigated on two contrasting rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes, selected for As tolerance and accumulation. One tolerant (Triguna) and one sensitive (IET-4786) variety were exposed to various arsenate (0-50 μM) levels for 7 d for biochemical analyses. Arsenic induced oxidative stress was more pronounced in IET-4786 than Triguna especially in terms of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, EC and pro-oxidant enzymes (NADPH oxidase and ascorbate oxidase). However, Triguna tolerated As stress through the enhanced enzymes activities particularly pertaining to thiol metabolism such as serine acetyl transferase (SAT), cysteine synthase (CS), γ-glutamyl cysteine synthase (γ-ECS), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as arsenate reductase (AR). Besides maintaining the ratio of redox couples GSH/GSSG and ASC/DHA, the level of phytochelatins (PCs) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS) activity were more pronounced in Triguna, in which harmonized responses of thiol metabolism was responsible for As tolerance in contrast to IET-4786 showing its susceptible nature towards As exposure.

  5. Differentially Methylated Epiloci Generated from Numerous Genotypes of Contrasting Tolerances Are Associated with Osmotic-Tolerance in Rice Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Huang, Weixia; Xiong, Jie; Yan, Shuaigang; Tao, Tao; Li, Jiajia; Wu, Jinhong; Luo, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    influence gene regulation in the rice seedling in response to the osmotic stress. All these results indicate that DME generated from a number of genotypes could have higher probabilityies for association with stress-tolerance, rather than DME generated from two genotypes of contrasting tolerance. The DME found in this study are suspected to be good epigenetic markers for the application in drought-tolerant rice breeding. They could also be a valuable tool to study the epigenetic differentiation in the drought-tolerance between upland and lowland rice ecotypes. PMID:28154573

  6. Are infants differentially sensitive to parenting? Early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and externalizing behavior during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitopoulos, Jörg; Zohsel, Katrin; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Schmid, Brigitte; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Becker, Katja; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Insensitive and unresponsive caregiving during infancy has been linked to externalizing behavior problems during childhood and adolescence. The 7-repeat (7r) allele of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has meta-analytically been associated with a heightened susceptibility to adverse as well as supportive environments. In the present study, we examined long-term effects of early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and the interaction thereof on externalizing and internalizing psychopathology during adolescence. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, early maternal care was assessed at child's age 3 months during a nursing and playing situation. In a sample of 296 offspring, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a psychiatric interview conducted at age 15 years. Parents additionally filled out a questionnaire on their children's psychopathic behaviors. Results indicated that adolescents with the DRD4 7r allele who experienced less responsive and stimulating early maternal care exhibited more symptoms of ADHD and CD/ODD as well as higher levels of psychopathic behavior. In accordance with the hypothesis of differential susceptibility, 7r allele carriers showed fewer ADHD symptoms and lower levels of psychopathic behavior when exposed to especially beneficial early caregiving. In contrast, individuals without the DRD4 7r allele proved to be insensitive to the effects of early maternal care. This study replicates earlier findings with regard to an interaction between DRD4 genotype and early caregiving on externalizing behavior problems in preschoolers. It is the first one to imply continuity of this effect until adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Root Hair Mutations Displace the Barley Rhizosphere Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson-Albertyn Senga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rhizosphere, the thin layer of soil surrounding and influenced by plant roots, defines a distinct and selective microbial habitat compared to unplanted soil. The microbial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere, the rhizosphere microbiota, engage in interactions with their host plants which span from parasitism to mutualism. Therefore, the rhizosphere microbiota emerges as one of the determinants of yield potential in crops. Studies conducted with different plant species have unequivocally pointed to the host plant as a driver of the microbiota thriving at the root–soil interface. Thus far, the host genetic traits shaping the rhizosphere microbiota are not completely understood. As root hairs play a critical role in resource exchanges between plants and the rhizosphere, we hypothesized that they can act as a determinant of the microbiota thriving at the root–soil interface. To test this hypothesis, we took advantage of barley (Hordeum vulgare mutant lines contrasting for their root hair characteristics. Plants were grown in two agricultural soils, differentiating in their organic matter contents, under controlled environmental conditions. At early stem elongation rhizosphere specimens were collected and subjected to high-resolution 16S rRNA gene profiling. Our data revealed that the barley rhizosphere microbiota is largely dominated by members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, regardless of the soil type and the root hair characteristics of the host plant. Conversely, ecological indices calculated using operational taxonomic units (OTUs presence, abundance, and phylogeny revealed a significant impact of root hair mutations on the composition of the rhizosphere microbiota. In particular, our data indicate that mutant plants host a reduced-complexity community compared to wild-type genotypes and unplanted soil controls. Congruently, the host genotype explained up to 18% of the variation in ecological distances computed for the

  8. Root Hair Mutations Displace the Barley Rhizosphere Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senga, Robertson-Albertyn; Alegria Terrazas, Senga; Balbirnie, Katharin; Blank, Manuel; Janiak, Agnieszka; Szarejko, Iwona; Chmielewska, Beata; Karcz, Jagna; Morris, Jenny; Hedley, Pete E; George, Timothy S; Bulgarelli, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The rhizosphere, the thin layer of soil surrounding and influenced by plant roots, defines a distinct and selective microbial habitat compared to unplanted soil. The microbial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere, the rhizosphere microbiota, engage in interactions with their host plants which span from parasitism to mutualism. Therefore, the rhizosphere microbiota emerges as one of the determinants of yield potential in crops. Studies conducted with different plant species have unequivocally pointed to the host plant as a driver of the microbiota thriving at the root-soil interface. Thus far, the host genetic traits shaping the rhizosphere microbiota are not completely understood. As root hairs play a critical role in resource exchanges between plants and the rhizosphere, we hypothesized that they can act as a determinant of the microbiota thriving at the root-soil interface. To test this hypothesis, we took advantage of barley (Hordeum vulgare) mutant lines contrasting for their root hair characteristics. Plants were grown in two agricultural soils, differentiating in their organic matter contents, under controlled environmental conditions. At early stem elongation rhizosphere specimens were collected and subjected to high-resolution 16S rRNA gene profiling. Our data revealed that the barley rhizosphere microbiota is largely dominated by members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, regardless of the soil type and the root hair characteristics of the host plant. Conversely, ecological indices calculated using operational taxonomic units (OTUs) presence, abundance, and phylogeny revealed a significant impact of root hair mutations on the composition of the rhizosphere microbiota. In particular, our data indicate that mutant plants host a reduced-complexity community compared to wild-type genotypes and unplanted soil controls. Congruently, the host genotype explained up to 18% of the variation in ecological distances computed for the rhizosphere samples

  9. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Seminested PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Babesia gibsoni (Asian Genotype) and B. canis DNA in Canine Blood Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Birkenheuer, Adam J.; Levy, Michael G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2003-01-01

    Canine babesiosis has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease of dogs in North America. We sought to develop a seminested PCR to detect and differentiate Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. canis, and B. canis subsp. rossi DNA in canine blood samples. An outer primer pair was designed to amplify an ∼340-bp fragment of the 18S rRNA genes from B. gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. rossi, and B. canis subsp. ...

  11. Genotypic distribution of a specialist model microorganism, Methanosaeta, along an estuarine gradient: does metabolic restriction limit niche differentiation potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonero, Franck; Oakley, Brian B; Hawkins, Robert J; Purdy, Kevin J

    2012-05-01

    A reductionist ecological approach of using a model genus was adopted in order to understand how microbial community structure is driven by metabolic properties. The distribution along an estuarine gradient of the highly specialised genus Methanosaeta was investigated and compared to the previously determined distribution of the more metabolically flexible Desulfobulbus. Methanosaeta genotypic distribution along the Colne estuary (Essex, UK) was determined by DNA- and RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Methanosaeta distribution was monotonic, with a consistently diverse community and no apparent niche partitioning either in DNA or RNA analyses. This distribution pattern contrasts markedly with the previously described niche partitioning and sympatric differentiation of the model generalist, Desulfobulbus. To explain this difference, it is hypothesised that Methanosaeta's strict metabolic needs limit its adaptation potential, thus populations do not partition into spatially distinct groups and so do not appear to be constrained by gross environmental factors such as salinity. Thus, at least for these two model genera, it appears that metabolic flexibility may be an important factor in spatial distribution and this may be applicable to other microbes.

  12. Molecular characterization and combined genotype association study of bovine cluster of differentiation 14 gene with clinical mastitis in crossbred dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvan, A Sakthivel; Gupta, I D; Verma, A; Chaudhari, M V; Magotra, A

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objectives to characterize and to analyze combined genotypes of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) gene to explore its association with clinical mastitis in Karan Fries (KF) cows maintained in the National Dairy Research Institute herd, Karnal. Genomic DNA was extracted using blood of randomly selected 94 KF lactating cattle by phenol-chloroform method. After checking its quality and quantity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using six sets of reported gene-specific primers to amplify complete KF CD14 gene. The forward and reverse sequences for each PCR fragments were assembled to form complete sequence for the respective region of KF CD14 gene. The multiple sequence alignments of the edited sequence with the corresponding reference with reported Bos taurus sequence (EU148610.1) were performed with ClustalW software to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis was performed to compare the sequence identity of KF CD14 gene with other species. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was carried out in all KF cows using Helicobacter pylori 188I (Hpy188I) (contig 2) and Haemophilus influenzae I (HinfI) (contig 4) restriction enzyme (RE). Cows were assigned genotypes obtained by PCR-RFLP analysis, and association study was done using Chi-square (χ (2)) test. The genotypes of both contigs (loci) number 2 and 4 were combined with respect to each animal to construct combined genotype patterns. Two types of sequences of KF were obtained: One with 2630 bp having one insertion at 616 nucleotide (nt) position and one deletion at 1117 nt position, and the another sequence was of 2629 bp having only one deletion at 615 nt position. ClustalW, multiple alignments of KF CD14 gene sequence with B. taurus cattle sequence (EU148610.1), revealed 24 nt changes (SNPs). Cows were also screened using PCR-RFLP with Hpy188I (contig 2) and HinfI (contig 4) RE

  13. Molecular characterization and combined genotype association study of bovine cluster of differentiation 14 gene with clinical mastitis in crossbred dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sakthivel Selvan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to characterize and to analyze combined genotypes of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14 gene to explore its association with clinical mastitis in Karan Fries (KF cows maintained in the National Dairy Research Institute herd, Karnal. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted using blood of randomly selected 94 KF lactating cattle by phenolchloroform method. After checking its quality and quantity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was carried out using six sets of reported gene-specific primers to amplify complete KF CD14 gene. The forward and reverse sequences for each PCR fragments were assembled to form complete sequence for the respective region of KF CD14 gene. The multiple sequence alignments of the edited sequence with the corresponding reference with reported Bos taurus sequence (EU148610.1 were performed with ClustalW software to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis was performed to compare the sequence identity of KF CD14 gene with other species. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis was carried out in all KF cows using Helicobacter pylori 188I (Hpy188I (contig 2 and Haemophilus influenzae I (HinfI (contig 4 restriction enzyme (RE. Cows were assigned genotypes obtained by PCRRFLP analysis, and association study was done using Chi-square (χ2 test. The genotypes of both contigs (loci number 2 and 4 were combined with respect to each animal to construct combined genotype patterns. Results: Two types of sequences of KF were obtained: One with 2630 bp having one insertion at 616 nucleotide (nt position and one deletion at 1117 nt position, and the another sequence was of 2629 bp having only one deletion at 615 nt position. ClustalW, multiple alignments of KF CD14 gene sequence with B. taurus cattle sequence (EU148610.1, revealed 24 nt changes (SNPs. Cows were also screened using PCR-RFLP with Hpy188I

  14. Genetic analysis of aluminum tolerance in Brazilian barleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minella Euclydes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major factor limiting barley growth in acid soils, and genotypes with adequate level of tolerance are needed for improving barley adaptation in Brazil. To study the inheritance of Al tolerance in Brazilian barleys, cultivars Antarctica 1, BR 1 and FM 404 were crossed to sensitive Kearney and PFC 8026, and intercrossed. Parental, F1, F2 and F6 generations were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM of Al and classified for tolerance by the root tip hematoxylin staining assay. Tolerant by sensitive F2 progenies segregated three tolerant to one sensitive, fitting the 3:1 ratio expected for a single gene. The F6 populations segregated one tolerant to one sensitive also fitting a monogenic ratio. The F2 seedlings from crosses among tolerant genotypes scored the same as the parents. Since the population size used would allow detection of recombination as low as 7%, the complete absence of Al sensitive recombinants suggests that tolerance in these cultivars is most probably, controlled by the same gene. Thus, the potential for improving Al tolerance through recombination of these genotypes is very low and different gene sources should be evaluated.

  15. Transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) expressing the wheat aluminium resistance gene (TaALMT1) shows enhanced phosphorus nutrition and grain production when grown on an acid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Taylor, Phillip; Hocking, Peter J; Simpson, Richard J; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E

    2009-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), genetically modified with the Al(3+) resistance gene of wheat (TaALMT1), was compared with a non-transformed sibling line when grown on an acidic and highly phosphate-fixing ferrosol supplied with a range of phosphorus concentrations. In short-term pot trials (26 days), transgenic barley expressing TaALMT1 (GP-ALMT1) was more efficient than a non-transformed sibling line (GP) at taking up phosphorus on acid soil, but the genotypes did not differ when the soil was limed. Differences in phosphorus uptake efficiency on acid soil could be attributed not only to the differential effects of aluminium toxicity on root growth between the genotypes, but also to differences in phosphorus uptake per unit root length. Although GP-ALMT1 out-performed GP on acid soil, it was still not as efficient at taking up phosphorus as plants grown on limed soil. GP-ALMT1 plants grown in acid soil possessed substantially smaller rhizosheaths than those grown in limed soil, suggesting that root hairs were shorter. This is a probable reason for the lower phosphorus uptake efficiency. When grown to maturity in large pots, GP-ALMT1 plants produced more than twice the grain as GP plants grown on acid soil and 80% of the grain produced by limed controls. Expression of TaALMT1 in barley was not associated with a penalty in either total shoot or grain production in the absence of Al(3+), with both genotypes showing equivalent yields in limed soil. These findings demonstrate that an important crop species can be genetically engineered to successfully increase grain production on an acid soil.

  16. Genomic Prediction of Barley Hybrid Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid breeding in barley ( L. offers great opportunities to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement and to boost yield stability. A crucial requirement consists of the efficient selection of superior hybrid combinations. We used comprehensive phenotypic and genomic data from a commercial breeding program with the goal of examining the potential to predict the hybrid performances. The phenotypic data were comprised of replicated grain yield trials for 385 two-way and 408 three-way hybrids evaluated in up to 47 environments. The parental lines were genotyped using a 3k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array based on an Illumina Infinium assay. We implemented ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction modeling for additive and dominance effects and evaluated the prediction ability using five-fold cross validations. The prediction ability of hybrid performances based on general combining ability (GCA effects was moderate, amounting to 0.56 and 0.48 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. The potential of GCA-based hybrid prediction requires that both parental components have been evaluated in a hybrid background. This is not necessary for genomic prediction for which we also observed moderate cross-validated prediction abilities of 0.51 and 0.58 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. This exemplifies the potential of genomic prediction in hybrid barley. Interestingly, prediction ability using the two-way hybrids as training population and the three-way hybrids as test population or vice versa was low, presumably, because of the different genetic makeup of the parental source populations. Consequently, further research is needed to optimize genomic prediction approaches combining different source populations in barley.

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype induces differential cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy BCG vaccinated individuals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera-Ordaz, A.; Gonzaga-Bernachi, J.; Serafin-Lopez, J.; Hernandez-Pando, R.; Soolingen, D. van; Estrada-Parra, S.; Estrada-Garcia, I.; Chacon-Salinas, R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Beijing genotype are a major concern due to their high prevalence in tuberculosis patients and their high rate of multi-drug resistance. Although it has been shown that Beijing modifies macrophage behavior, little is known about how this genotype could

  18. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D gels, it is used as a tool for studying the barley- Fusarium graminearum interaction form three different....... The functional characterization of two proteins is undergoing. In Chapter 6, microarray data of F. graminearum during interaction with barley and wheat was analysed. The expression patterns of 11fungal genes in microarray analysis were different from qRT-PCR results in Chapter 4. Overall, our results will give...... some insights into the cellular activities during the interaction between barley and Fusarium graminearum for designing new efficient strategies for the control of FHB disease....

  19. Detection and differentiation of genotype I and III Japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y Y; Lin, J W; Fan, Y C; Chiou, S S

    2014-02-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a disease that threatens both human and animal populations in Asian countries, and the causative agent of JE, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), has recently changed from genotype III (GIII) to genotype I (GI). However, a test for the rapid differentiation of GI and GIII JEV is still unavailable, especially one that can be used for mosquito-based surveillance. We have designed GI- and GIII-specific primer sets for the rapid detection and differentiation of GI and GIII JEV by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (multiplex RT-PCR). The GI-specific and GIII-specific primer sets were able to specifically amplify the target gene from GI and GIII JEV, respectively. The limitations of detection were 0.00225 and 0.225 pfu for the GI-specific and GIII-specific primers, respectively. Using a mixture of GI-specific and GIII-specific primers, the multiplex RT-PCR was able to specifically detect and differentiate GI and GIII JEV. The multiplex RT-PCR was able to successfully differentiate GI and GIII virus in JEV-infected mosquitoes. Thus, a sensitive and specific multiplex RT-PCR system for the rapid detection and differentiation of GI and GIII JEV has been developed, and this test is likely to be valuable when carrying out mosquito-based JEV surveillance. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Genomic Regions Influencing Seminal Root Traits in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water availability is a major limiting factor for crop production, making drought adaptation and its many component traits a desirable attribute of plant cultivars. Previous studies in cereal crops indicate that root traits expressed at early plant developmental stages, such as seminal root angle and root number, are associated with water extraction at different depths. Here, we conducted the first study to map seminal root traits in barley ( L.. Using a recently developed high-throughput phenotyping method, a panel of 30 barley genotypes and a doubled-haploid (DH population (ND24260 × ‘Flagship’ comprising 330 lines genotyped with diversity array technology (DArT markers were evaluated for seminal root angle (deviation from vertical and root number under controlled environmental conditions. A high degree of phenotypic variation was observed in the panel of 30 genotypes: 13.5 to 82.2 and 3.6 to 6.9° for root angle and root number, respectively. A similar range was observed in the DH population: 16.4 to 70.5 and 3.6 to 6.5° for root angle and number, respectively. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL for seminal root traits (root angle, two QTL; root number, five QTL were detected in the DH population. A major QTL influencing both root angle and root number (/ was positioned on chromosome 5HL. Across-species analysis identified 10 common genes underlying root trait QTL in barley, wheat ( L., and sorghum [ (L. Moench]. Here, we provide insight into seminal root phenotypes and provide a first look at the genetics controlling these traits in barley.

  1. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  2. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  3. Development of endosperm transfer cells in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eThiel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Endosperm transfer cells (ETCs are positioned at the intersection of maternal and filial tissues in seeds of cereals and represent a bottleneck for apoplasmic transport of assimilates into the endosperm. Endosperm cellularization starts at the maternal-filial boundary and generates the highly specialized ETCs. During differentiation barley ETCs develop characteristic flange-like wall ingrowths to facilitate effective nutrient transfer. A comprehensive morphological analysis depicted distinct developmental time points in establishment of transfer cell morphology and revealed intracellular changes possibly associated with cell wall metabolism. Embedded inside the grain, ETCs are barely accessible by manual preparation. To get tissue-specific information about ETC specification and differentiation, laser microdissection(LM-based methods were used for transcript and metabolite profiling. Transcriptome analysis of ETCs at different developmental stages by microarrays indicated activated gene expression programs related to control of cell proliferation and cell shape, cell wall and carbohydrate metabolism reflecting the morphological changes during early ETC development. Transporter genes reveal distinct expression patterns suggesting a switch from active to passive modes of nutrient uptake with the onset of grain filling. Tissue-specific RNA-seq of the differentiating ETC region from the syncytial stage until functionality in nutrient transfer identified a high number of novel transcripts putatively involved in ETC differentiation. An essential role for two-component signaling (TCS pathways in transfer cell development of barley emerged from this analysis. Correlative data provide evidence for ABA and ethylene influences on ETC differentiation and hint at a crosstalk between hormone signal transduction and TCS phosphorelays. Collectively, the data expose a comprehensive view on ETC development, associated pathways and identified candidate genes for

  4. Structural basis of differential neutralization of DENV-1 genotypes by an antibody that recognizes a cryptic epitope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kyle Austin

    Full Text Available We previously developed a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against Dengue virus (DENV-1, of which few exhibited inhibitory activity against all DENV-1 genotypes. This finding is consistent with reports observing variable neutralization of different DENV strains and genotypes using serum from individuals that experienced natural infection or immunization. Herein, we describe the crystal structures of DENV1-E111 bound to a novel CC' loop epitope on domain III (DIII of the E protein from two different DENV-1 genotypes. Docking of our structure onto the available cryo-electron microscopy models of DENV virions revealed that the DENV1-E111 epitope was inaccessible, suggesting that this antibody recognizes an uncharacterized virus conformation. While the affinity of binding between DENV1-E111 and DIII varied by genotype, we observed limited correlation with inhibitory activity. Instead, our results support the conclusion that potent neutralization depends on genotype-dependent exposure of the CC' loop epitope. These findings establish new structural complexity of the DENV virion, which may be relevant for the choice of DENV strain for induction or analysis of neutralizing antibodies in the context of vaccine development.

  5. Cold-induced responses in annual bluegrass genotypes with differential resistance to pink snow mold (Microdochium nivale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Annick; Castonguay, Yves; Azaiez, Aïda; Hsiang, Tom; Dionne, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Greens-type annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is susceptible to winter stresses including subfreezing temperatures and pink snow mold (SM). To better understand the mechanisms of SM resistance in annual bluegrass, four SM-resistant and four SM-sensitive genotypes were incubated at low temperature with Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett, the causal agent of pink snow mold. We assessed the impact of a 6-week incubation period with SM at 2 °C under high humidity (≥ 98%) on the accumulation of cold-induced metabolites and on freezing tolerance. Incubation of annual bluegrass inoculated with SM lead to a major decrease in concentration of cryoprotective sugars such as sucrose and HDP (high degree of polymerization) fructans. Conversely, major amino acids linked to stress resistance such as glutamine and arginine increased in crowns of annual bluegrass in response to SM inoculation. One of the major differences between resistant and sensitive genotypes was found in the concentration of HDP fructans, which remained higher in SM-resistant genotypes throughout the incubation period. HDP fructans were also more abundant in freeze-tolerant genotypes, reinforcing their positive impact on winter survival of annual bluegrass. The identification of genotypes that are resistant to both SM and freezing shows the possibility of being able to improve both traits concomitantly.

  6. Same ammo, different weapons: enzymatic extracts from two apple genotypes with contrasted susceptibilities to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) differentially convert phloridzin and phloretin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Matthieu; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Guyot, Sylvain; Dat, James F; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-01

    The necrogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora responsible for the fire blight disease causes cell death in apple tissues to enrich intercellular spaces with nutrients. Apple leaves contain large amounts of dihydrochalcones (DHCs), including phloridzin and its aglycone phloretin. Previous work showed an important decrease in the constitutive DHCs stock in infected leaves, probably caused by transformation reactions during the infection process. At least two flavonoid transformation pathways have been described so far: deglucosylation and oxidation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether DHCs are differentially converted in two apple genotypes displaying contrasted susceptibilities to the disease. Different analyses were performed: i) enzymatic activity assays in infected leaves, ii) identification/quantification of end-products obtained after in vitro enzymatic reactions with DHCs, iii) evaluation of the bactericidal activity of end-products. The results of the enzymatic assays showed that deglucosylation was dominant over oxidation in the susceptible genotype MM106 while the opposite was observed in the resistant genotype Evereste. These data were confirmed by LC-UV/Vis-MS analysis of in vitro reaction mixtures, especially because higher levels of o-quinoid oxidation products of phloretin were measured by using the enzymatic extracts of Evereste infected leaves. Their presence correlated well with a strong bactericidal activity of the reaction mixtures. Thus, our results suggest that a differential transformation of DHCs occur in apple genotypes with a potential involvement in the establishment of the susceptibility or the resistance to fire blight, through the release of glucose or of highly bactericidal compounds respectively.

  7. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...... strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research....

  8. Expression patterns of Doppel in differential ovine PRNP genotypes: quantification using real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Zhao, C-L; Liu, L; Wu, R; Zhang, X-L

    2015-10-09

    Doppel is a homologue of cellular prion protein (PrP)-like protein (PrPC). Different tissue samples were collected from the central nervous system plus four regions of lymphoid system, eleven regions of digestive tract and two reproductive organs from four ARR/ARQ and four ARH/ARQ sheep, genotypes of the PrP gene. Total RNA was isolated from these samples, and Doppel mRNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR using SYBR Green. Doppel mRNA expression was higher in the ovary, hypothalamus and brain than in other tissues, and it significantly differed between the two genotypes in brain, ileum, cecum, rectum, colon, and uterus. This study demonstrated that Doppel mRNA expression in sheep with ARR/ARQ or ARH/ARQ genotypes was very different. These findings could be helpful in future studies of the relationship between PrP and Doppel.

  9. Development and evaluation of a seminested PCR for detection and differentiation of Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype) and B. canis DNA in canine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenheuer, Adam J; Levy, Michael G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2003-09-01

    Canine babesiosis has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease of dogs in North America. We sought to develop a seminested PCR to detect and differentiate Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. canis, and B. canis subsp. rossi DNA in canine blood samples. An outer primer pair was designed to amplify an approximately 340-bp fragment of the 18S rRNA genes from B. gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. rossi, and B. canis subsp. canis but not mammalian DNA. Forward primers were designed that would specifically amplify a smaller fragment from each organism in a seminested PCR. The practical limit of detection was 50 organisms/ml of mock-infected EDTA anticoagulated whole blood. The primer pair also amplified an approximately 370-bp fragment of the B. gibsoni (USA/California genotype) 18S rRNA gene from the blood of an experimentally infected dog with a high percentage of parasitemia. Amplicons were not detected when DNA extracted from the blood of a dog that was naturally infected with Theileria annae at a low percentage of parasitemia was amplified. Due to limited sensitivity, this test is not recommended for the routine diagnosis of B. gibsoni (USA/California genotype) or T. annae. The PCR test did not amplify Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania infantum, Cryptosporidium parvum, or canine DNA under any of the conditions tested. The seminested PCR test was able to detect and discriminate B. gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. canis, and B. canis subsp. rossi DNA in blood samples from infected dogs.

  10. Comparative transcriptome combined with morpho-physiological analyses revealed key factors for differential cadmium accumulation in two contrasting sweet sorghum genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Jia, Weitao; Lv, Sulian; Bao, Hexigeduleng; Miao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Jinhui; Li, Jihong; Li, Dongsheng; Zhu, Cheng; Li, Shizhong; Li, Yinxin

    2017-07-13

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread soil contaminant threatening human health. As an ideal energy plant, sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has great potential in phytoremediation of Cd-polluted soils, although the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, key factors responsible for differential Cd accumulation between two contrasting sweet sorghum genotypes (high-Cd accumulation one H18, and low-Cd accumulation one L69) were investigated. H18 exhibited a much higher ability of Cd uptake and translocation than L69. Furthermore, Cd uptake through symplasmic pathway and Cd concentrations in xylem sap were both higher in H18 than those in L69. Root anatomy observation found the endodermal apoplasmic barriers were much stronger in L69, which may restrict the Cd loading into xylem. The molecular mechanisms underlying these morpho-physiological traits were further dissected by comparative transcriptome analysis. Many genes involved in cell wall modification and heavy metal transport were found to be Cd-responsive DEGs and/or DEGs between these two genotypes. KEGG pathway analysis found phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway was over-represented, indicating this pathway may play important roles in differential Cd accumulation between two genotypes. Based on these results, a schematic representation of main processes involved in differential Cd uptake and translocation in H18 and L69 is proposed, which suggests that higher Cd accumulation in H18 depends on a multilevel coordination of efficient Cd uptake and transport, including efficient root uptake and xylem loading, less root cell wall binding, and weaker endodermal apoplasmic barriers. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Grain yield, net blotch and scald of barley in Finnish official variety trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ROBINSON

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on grain yield, and terminal severity of net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres and scald (Rhynchosporium secalis from Finnish official barley (Hordeum vulgare variety trials were analysed to indicate the pattern of disease incidence over six years and five sites for nineteen barley genotypes, and the effect of the diseases on yield and the genotype by environment interaction for yield. The effect of climatic factors on net blotch severity were also investigated. The genotype by site interaction for net blotch severity was not statistically significant, but that for yield was. Net blotch severity differed between years, but was similar across sites and there were statistically significant first order interactions between year, site and genotype. 'Saana' and 'Thule' had relatively low mean terminal net blotch scores and their reaction to the disease was less sensitive to the environment than was that of 'Tyra' for example. Analysis of yield data adjusted for net blotch severity indicated that the magnitude of the genotype by environment interaction terms were not accounted for to any significant degree by differences in relative net blotch resistances among the barley genotypes. Overall, mean scores for scald severity were lower than those for net blotch. Terminal net blotch severity was correlated with May rainfall and growing degree days.;

  12. Impact of Pre-Anthesis Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Plants Grown under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria I. Al-Ajlouni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought at pre-anthesis stages can influence barley growth and results in yield losses. Therefore, it is important to understand how drought at pre-anthesis can affect different traits associated with yield reduction in barley. The objective of this study was to understand the relevance of the genetic background of major flowering time genes in barley plants subjected to pre-anthesis drought and its impact on yield and yield components. A glasshouse experiment using a Randomized Complete Block Design was conducted to investigate the effect of drought and its timing on yield and yield components on eleven barley genotypes, which were selected to represent genetic diversity of major flowering time genes (PPDH1, PPDH2, HvVrn1, HvVrn2 and HvVrn3. Barley plants were exposed to three water regimes, non-stressed and stressed, which was applied at two pre-anthesis growth stages, tillering (SS and stem elongation (SE. Results identified differences among genotypes in all measured traits. Grain yield, grain number and "thousand kernel weight" were reduced in all genotypes due to drought, irrespective of the growth stage. Early flowering genotypes had better performance as reflected in higher yield compared with late flowering genotypes. Results verified the fundamental importance of early flowering to improve productivity in response to pre-anthesis drought. The results of this study can help in selecting barley lines for future breeding purposes with improved resilience to drought conditions in Mediterranean environments.

  13. CO-FERMENTATION OF KOCHO WITH BARLEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    improved protein content in which kocho and barley flour were fermented for 96 hrs with barley flour. ... involving co-fermentation of kocho and barley flour for the production of nutritionally improved ..... chickpeas. J. Food Sci. 44:234-236.

  14. Genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in landrace populations of barley in Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Monica; Rau, Domenico; O'Sullivan, Donal; Brown, Anthony H D; Papa, Roberto; Attene, Giovanna

    2012-06-01

    Multilocus digenic linkage disequilibria (LD) and their population structure were investigated in eleven landrace populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.) in Sardinia, using 134 dominant simple-sequence amplified polymorphism markers. The analysis of molecular variance for these markers indicated that the populations were partially differentiated (F(ST) = 0.18), and clustered into three geographic areas. Consistent with this population pattern, STRUCTURE analysis allocated individuals from a bulk of all populations into four genetic groups, and these groups also showed geographic patterns. In agreement with other molecular studies in barley, the general level of LD was low (13% of locus pairs, with P landrace populations, but that epistatic homogenising or diversifying selection was also present. Notably, the variance of the disequilibrium component was relatively high, which implies caution in the pooling of barley lines for association studies. Finally, we compared the analyses of multilocus structure in barley landrace populations with parallel analyses in both composite crosses of barley on the one hand and in natural populations of wild barley on the other. Neither of these serves as suitable mimics of landraces in barley, which require their own study. Overall, the results suggest that these populations can be exploited for LD mapping if population structure is controlled.

  15. Development of a novel genus-specific real-time PCR assay for detection and differentiation of Bartonella species and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Maureen H; Bai, Ying; Malania, Lile; Winchell, Jonas M; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2012-05-01

    The genus Bartonella includes numerous species with varied host associations, including several that infect humans. Development of a molecular diagnostic method capable of detecting the diverse repertoire of Bartonella species while maintaining genus specificity has been a challenge. We developed a novel real-time PCR assay targeting a 301-bp region of the ssrA gene of Bartonella and demonstrated specific amplification in over 30 Bartonella species, subspecies, and strains. Subsequent analysis of ssrA sequences was sufficient to discriminate Bartonella species and provided phylogenetic data consistent with that of gltA, a commonly used gene for differentiating Bartonella genotypes. Using this assay, we identified Bartonella DNA in 29% and 47% of blood specimens from elk in Wyoming and cattle in the Republic of Georgia, respectively. Sequence analysis of a subset of genotypes from elk specimens revealed a cluster most closely related to Bartonella capreoli, and genotypes from cattle were identified as Bartonella bovis, both Bartonella species commonly found in wild and domestic ruminants. Considering the widespread geographic distribution and infectivity potential to a variety of hosts, this assay may be an effective diagnostic method for identification of Bartonella infections in humans and have utility in Bartonella surveillance studies.

  16. Evaluation of Chlorophyll Content and Fluorescence Parameters as Indicators of Drought Tolerance in Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rong-hua; GUO Pei-guo; Michael Baum; Stefania Grando; Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2006-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic stress that severely affects food production worldwide. Agronomic and physiological traits associated with drought tolerance are suitable indicators for selection of drought tolerance genotypes to reduce the impact of water deficit on crop yield in breeding program. The objective of this study was to identify indicators related to drought tolerance through analysis of photosynthetic traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). These traits included chlorophyll content, initial fluorescence (Fo), maximum primary yield of photochemistry of pho tosystem Ⅱ (Fv / Fo) and maximum quantum yield of photosystem Ⅱ (Fv/Fm). Four genotypes (Tadmor, Arta, Morocco9-75 and WI2291) variable in drought tolerance were used to investigate the correlation between these traits and drought tolerance. The results reflected that all of these traits were affected negatively in the four genotypes at different levels of post-anthesis drought stress, but the decrease in drought tolerant genotypes was much less than that of drought sensitive genotypes. The results further revealed that the components of the photosynthetic apparatus could be damaged significantly in drought sensitive genotypes, while drought tolerant genotypes were relatively less affected. On the other hand, the values of chlorophyll content, Fo, Fv/Fo and Fv/Fm in drought tolerance genotypes were significantly higher than those in drought sensitive genotypes under drought stress. It was concluded that chlorophyll content, Fo, Fv / Fo and Fv / Fm could be considered as reliable indicators in screening barley germplasm for drought tolerance.

  17. Differential influence of the 5-HTTLPR genotype, neuroticism and real-life acute stress exposure on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Aimée E M; Markus, C Rob

    2014-06-01

    Stress or negative mood often promotes energy intake and overeating. Since the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is found to mediate stress vulnerability as well as to influence energy intake, this gene may also influence the negative effects of stress exposure on overeating. Moreover, since stress proneness also reflects cognitive stress vulnerability - as often defined by trait neuroticism - this may additionally predispose for stress-induced overeating. In the present study it was investigated whether the 5-HTTLPR genotype interacted with neuroticism on changes in mood, appetite and energy intake following exposure to a real-life academic examination stressor. In a balanced-experimental design, homozygous S-allele and L-allele carriers (N = 94) with the lowest and highest neuroticism scores were selected from a large database of 5-HTTLPR genotyped students. Mood, appetite and energy intake were measured before and after a 2-hour academic examination and compared with a control day. Examination influenced appetite for particular sweet snacks differently depending on 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism. S/S compared with L/L subjects reported greater examination stress, and this was accompanied by a more profound post-stress increase in appetite for sweet snacks. Data also revealed a 5-HTTLPR genotype by trait neuroticism interaction on energy intake, regardless of examination. These results consolidate previous assumptions of 5-HTTLPR involvement in stress vulnerability and suggest 5-HTTLPR and neuroticism may influence stress-induced overeating depending on the type of food available. These findings furthermore link previous findings of increased risk for weight gain in S/S-allele carriers, particularly with high scores on trait neuroticism, to increased energy intake.

  18. ADRA2B genotype differentially modulates stress-induced neural activity in the amygdala and hippocampus during emotional memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijia; Weerda, Riklef; Milde, Christopher; Wolf, Oliver T; Thiel, Christiane M

    2015-02-01

    Noradrenaline interacts with stress hormones in the amygdala and hippocampus to enhance emotional memory consolidation, but the noradrenergic-glucocorticoid interaction at retrieval, where stress impairs memory, is less understood. We used a genetic neuroimaging approach to investigate whether a genetic variation of the noradrenergic system impacts stress-induced neural activity in amygdala and hippocampus during recognition of emotional memory. This study is based on genotype-dependent reanalysis of data from our previous publication (Li et al. Brain Imaging Behav 2014). Twenty-two healthy male volunteers were genotyped for the ADRA2B gene encoding the α2B-adrenergic receptor. Ten deletion carriers and 12 noncarriers performed an emotional face recognition task, while their brain activity was measured with fMRI. During encoding, 50 fearful and 50 neutral faces were presented. One hour later, they underwent either an acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control procedure which was followed immediately by the retrieval session, where participants had to discriminate between 100 old and 50 new faces. A genotype-dependent modulation of neural activity at retrieval was found in the bilateral amygdala and right hippocampus. Deletion carriers showed decreased neural activity in the amygdala when recognizing emotional faces in control condition and increased amygdala activity under stress. Noncarriers showed no differences in emotional modulated amygdala activation under stress or control. Instead, stress-induced increases during recognition of emotional faces were present in the right hippocampus. The genotype-dependent effects of acute stress on neural activity in amygdala and hippocampus provide evidence for noradrenergic-glucocorticoid interaction in emotional memory retrieval.

  19. Α-Thalassemia: Genotypic Profile Associated with Ethnicity and Hematological Differentiation of Iron Deficiency Anemia in the Region of Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Renata A Volpe; Carlos, Aline Menezes; de Souza, Bruna M Bereta; Rodrigues, Cibele Velloso; Pereira, Gilberto de Araujo; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2015-01-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is a hereditary hemoglobinopathy characterized by microcytic anemia due to impaired production of α chains of human globin. Brazilian studies show that the most common genotype is an -α(3.7) deletion with the loss of one or two α genes. As the production of α chains is not as accentuated in these cases, the correct diagnosis can only be achieved through molecular analysis that is not usually routinely performed by laboratories. We investigated the occurrence of α-thal babies born between September 2011 to January 2013 at the hospital of the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, Brazil, and blood donors of the Uberaba Regional Blood Center, Hemominas Foundation, Uberaba, Brazil, correlating it with ethnicity and differences between hematological parameters of donors, α-thal and iron deficiency patients. α-Thalassemia was investigated for the most common deleted alleles (-α(3.7), -α(4.2), - -(SEA), - -(FIL), - -(THAI), -(α)(20.5) and - -(MED)). The incidence in newborns was 13.16% with a predominance of heterozygosity for the -α(3.7) genotype (12.35%), followed by the -α(3.7)/-α(3.7) (0.46%) and αα/-α(4.2) genotypes (0.35%). In blood donors, the prevalence of α-thal was 14.89%, with all cases being heterozygous for the -α(3.7) deletion. There was an association of the α-thal genotype with African ancestors for both groups, thereby confirming published data and showing the strong influence of Blacks on the composition of the population of Brazil's southeastern region. Minor changes were found between hematological parameters of blood donors with iron deficiency and α-thal that did not contribute to the differential diagnosis between the two types of anemia.

  20. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qisen; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Wang, Songbo; Tan, Cong; Zhou, Gaofeng; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS) regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling). Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%), intron retention (32%-34%) and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21%) were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  1. Genotype differentiation of Agamid Adenovirus 1 in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) in the USA by hexon gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Derek B; Archer, Linda L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2009-07-01

    Bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) are popular pets in the United States. Agamid Adenovirus 1 (AgAdV1) is an important infectious agent of bearded dragons. The only AgAdV1 sequences available to date are from a highly conserved region of the DNA polymerase gene. Degenerate primers were designed to amplify a variable region of the AgAdV1 hexon gene for sequencing. Genetic differences were identified within the hexon gene of 17 bearded dragons from 4 collections. Much less diversity was present in the polymerase gene. Bayesian analysis of the hexon nucleotide alignment identified two larger groups and two isolates that did not tightly cluster with these two groups. Multiple genotypes were identified within collections, and individual genotypes were seen in different collections. Three bearded dragons appeared to be infected by multiple strains. These findings show that this hexon region is useful for AgAdV1 genotyping, which can be used epidemiologically as well as in future investigations of AgAdV1 evolution and clinical implications of strain differences.

  2. Bulk carbohydrate grain filling of barley ß-glucan mutants studied by 1H HR MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Viereck, Nanna;

    2008-01-01

    ) during grain filling. For the first time, 1H HR MAS NMR spectra of flour from immature barley seeds are analyzed. Spectral assignments are made using two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Both α- and β-glucan biosynthesis were characterized by inspection of the spectra as well as by calibration......Temporal and genotypic differences in bulk carbohydrate accumulation in three barley genotypes differing in the content of mixed linkage β-(1→3),(1→4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) and starch were investigated using proton high-resolution, magic angle spinning, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR MAS NMR...

  3. Grain protein concentration and harvestable protein under future climate conditions. A study of 108 spring barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein concentra......In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein...

  4. Regeneration of the Barley Zygote in In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger B; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2010-01-01

    culture ability in immature embryo culture i.e. Femina, Salome and Corniche. Barley spikes were emasculated and hand pollinated 3 days after emasculation. In barley, fertilization takes place one hour after pollination and ovules with fertilized egg cells could therefore be isolated one hour after...... pollination. Ovules were grown for 3 weeks on a culture medium where after embryos could be isolated and transferred to regeneration medium. An average of 1.2 green plantlets per ovule could be regenerated from 50 % of the isolated ovules. No genotypic differences were found on embryo induction...

  5. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  6. The application of AMMI model for barley cultivars evaluation in multi-year trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosavljević Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of new varieties performance is disturbed under the influence of genotype-by-environment interaction. Among several methods used for understanding this effect, one of the most frequently used methods is Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI analysis. In this study we used AMMI method with the aim to estimate the genotype - environment interaction of 14 barley genotypes, and to identify barley genotypes that have high and stable performance in different environments. The trials were conducted during 11 growing seasons (1995/96 - 2005/06, arranged in a randomized complete block (RCB design with four replications in location Rimski Šančevi. The results showed that the influence of environment (seasons, genotypes and their interaction on barley grain yield were significant (p < 0.01. Based on AMMI method, two-rowed variety Novosadski 317 and the six-rowed variety Novosadski 331 can be distinguished due their high and stable yields. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31066

  7. Unique and Conserved Features of the Barley Root Meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn K. Kirschner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant root growth is enabled by root meristems that harbor the stem cell niches as a source of progenitors for the different root tissues. Understanding the root development of diverse plant species is important to be able to control root growth in order to gain better performances of crop plants. In this study, we analyzed the root meristem of the fourth most abundant crop plant, barley (Hordeum vulgare. Cell division studies revealed that the barley stem cell niche comprises a Quiescent Center (QC of around 30 cells with low mitotic activity. The surrounding stem cells contribute to root growth through the production of new cells that are displaced from the meristem, elongate and differentiate into specialized root tissues. The distal stem cells produce the root cap and lateral root cap cells, while cells lateral to the QC generate the epidermis, as it is typical for monocots. Endodermis and inner cortex are derived from one common initial lateral to the QC, while the outer cortex cell layers are derived from a distinct stem cell. In rice and Arabidopsis, meristem homeostasis is achieved through feedback signaling from differentiated cells involving peptides of the CLE family. Application of synthetic CLE40 orthologous peptide from barley promotes meristem cell differentiation, similar to rice and Arabidopsis. However, in contrast to Arabidopsis, the columella stem cells do not respond to the CLE40 peptide, indicating that distinct mechanisms control columella cell fate in monocot and dicot plants.

  8. Unique and Conserved Features of the Barley Root Meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Gwendolyn K; Stahl, Yvonne; Von Korff, Maria; Simon, Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    Plant root growth is enabled by root meristems that harbor the stem cell niches as a source of progenitors for the different root tissues. Understanding the root development of diverse plant species is important to be able to control root growth in order to gain better performances of crop plants. In this study, we analyzed the root meristem of the fourth most abundant crop plant, barley (Hordeum vulgare). Cell division studies revealed that the barley stem cell niche comprises a Quiescent Center (QC) of around 30 cells with low mitotic activity. The surrounding stem cells contribute to root growth through the production of new cells that are displaced from the meristem, elongate and differentiate into specialized root tissues. The distal stem cells produce the root cap and lateral root cap cells, while cells lateral to the QC generate the epidermis, as it is typical for monocots. Endodermis and inner cortex are derived from one common initial lateral to the QC, while the outer cortex cell layers are derived from a distinct stem cell. In rice and Arabidopsis, meristem homeostasis is achieved through feedback signaling from differentiated cells involving peptides of the CLE family. Application of synthetic CLE40 orthologous peptide from barley promotes meristem cell differentiation, similar to rice and Arabidopsis. However, in contrast to Arabidopsis, the columella stem cells do not respond to the CLE40 peptide, indicating that distinct mechanisms control columella cell fate in monocot and dicot plants.

  9. Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance in quinoa is determined by differential control of xylem Na(+) loading and stomatal density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Sergey; Hariadi, Yuda; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2013-07-01

    Quinoa is regarded as a highly salt tolerant halophyte crop, of great potential for cultivation on saline areas around the world. Fourteen quinoa genotypes of different geographical origin, differing in salinity tolerance, were grown under greenhouse conditions. Salinity treatment started on 10 day old seedlings. Six weeks after the treatment commenced, leaf sap Na and K content and osmolality, stomatal density, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and xylem sap Na and K composition were measured. Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties. All cultivars had substantially increased K(+) concentrations in the leaf sap, but the most tolerant cultivars had lower xylem Na(+) content at the time of sampling. Most tolerant cultivars had lowest leaf sap osmolality. All varieties reduced stomata density when grown under saline conditions. All varieties clustered into two groups (includers and excluders) depending on their strategy of handling Na(+) under saline conditions. Under control (non-saline) conditions, a strong positive correlation was observed between salinity tolerance and plants ability to accumulate Na(+) in the shoot. Increased leaf sap K(+), controlled Na(+) loading to the xylem, and reduced stomata density are important physiological traits contributing to genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa, a halophyte species from Chenopodium family.

  10. Accelerated rates of protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes might be legacy of domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Dimitrov, Ivan; Zhang, Yinling; Tax, Frans E; Yi, Jing; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Jia

    2015-10-01

    Traits related to grain and reproductive organs in grass crops have been under continuous directional selection during domestication. Barley is one of the oldest domesticated crops in human history. Thus genes associated with the grain and reproductive organs in barley may show evidence of dramatic evolutionary change. To understand how artificial selection contributes to protein evolution of biased genes in different barley organs, we used Digital Gene Expression analysis of six barley organs (grain, pistil, anther, leaf, stem and root) to identify genes with biased expression in specific organs. Pairwise comparisons of orthologs between barley and Brachypodium distachyon, as well as between highland and lowland barley cultivars mutually indicated that grain and pistil biased genes show relatively higher protein evolutionary rates compared with the median of all orthologs and other organ biased genes. Lineage-specific protein evolutionary rates estimation showed similar patterns with elevated protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes, yet protein sequences generally evolve much faster in the lowland barley cultivar. Further functional annotations revealed that some of these grain and pistil biased genes with rapid protein evolution are related to nutrient biosynthesis and cell cycle/division. Our analyses provide insights into how domestication differentially shaped the evolution of genes specific to different organs of a crop species, and implications for future functional studies of domestication genes.

  11. Screening for disease resistance in barley cultivars against Bipolaris sorokiniana using callus culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Ramesh; Sen, Devyani; Prasad, K D; Singh, A K; Bashyal, B M; Prasad, L C; Joshi, A K

    2008-04-01

    Screening for resistant barley genotypes in response to fungal toxin of Bipolaris sorokiniana was assessed on standing barley plants as well as in selected callus lines of the same. For the standing lines tested, those manifesting chlorosis in response to toxin infiltration showed a significantly slower disease progress as compared to the necrotic lines. Also, necrosis in the callus tissues of the susceptible cultivar in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of the crude toxin was significantly higher than in the callus tissues of the chlorotic lines studied. Similar host response to the toxin in in vitro and field situations open up the possibility of screening barley cultivars for resistance to spot blotch using callus culture as against classical methods of screening in order to increase accuracy and save time and space.

  12. Important Quality Attributes of Malt Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ): Effect of Genetics, Environments and Agronomic Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Virender Sardana; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2003-01-01

    Barley has been in use as food and fodder for thousands of years, and also used currently as themost important raw material in malting and brewing. The quality of malt barley is not much satisfied with therequirement by malting and brewing industry worldwide, although the great effort has been devoted to its im-provement through breeding and agronomy. The quality of malt barley is involved in many physical and chemi-cal traits, including hydrolytic enzymes. Of them, kernel protein content, beta-amylase activity, beta-glucancontent and kernel plumpness have dramatic influence on malting or brewing quality. The expression of thesequality parameters varies greatly in genotypes and is easily changed by diverse environments and agronomicpractices. This paper reviewed the important role of various parameters influencing the quality of malt barleyand the effect of different factors on them.

  13. Differential Space-Time Expression of StLTPb1 Gene Between Resistant and Susceptible Potato Genotypes in Response to Ralstonia solanacearum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Gang; JIN Li-ping; XIE Kai-yun; QU Dong-yu

    2008-01-01

    This study is to investigate the role of lipid transfer protein (LTP1) gene of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) resistance. A novel cDNA clone encoding nsLTP was isolated from cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) infected with R. solanacearum by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The temporal and spatial expression of StLTPb1 was studied during the early stages of potato-R. solanacearum interaction by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and Northern blotting. The sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA, named StLTPb1, showed 691 bp which encoded a type 1 nsLTP of 91 amino acids. Construction of a phylogenic tree showed that StLTPb1 is well conserved in the coding region with high identity at the amino acid level with other Solanaceae nsLTPs. The temporal and spatial expression of StLTPb1 was studied during the early stages of potato-R, solanacearum interaction. StLTPb1 transcription is induced faster and transcripts accumulate to higher concentrations in resistant compared with susceptible genotypes by the pathogen. Dominant differences in the pathogen-induced gene expression pattern between the upper and lower leaves and stems were observed within the same genotypes. In situ hybridization results showed that the StLTPb1 mRNA was localized in phloem cells of vascular tissues in potato leaf and stem tissues after pathogen infection. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate and abscisic acid could induce StLTPb1 gene expression without significant difference between the upper and lower tissues. These abiotic elicitors could produce a long-lasting effect on the StLTPb1 during early stages of potato-R. solanacearum interaction. Differential expression of StLTPb1 gene between resistance and susceptible potato genotypes in response to R. solanacearum suggests that this gene plays a key role in plant defense mechanisms.

  14. Analysis of Genetic diversity and reltionships in local Tunisian barley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    Key words: Barley, RAPD markers, SSR markers, genetic diversity. INTRODUCTION. Barley ... surveyed by each kind of marker, their distribution ..... that belong to the Center. ..... tagged-site facilitated PCR for barley genome mapping. Theor.

  15. Differential effect of whole-ear shading after heading on the physiology, biochemistry and yield index of stay-green and non-stay-green wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zhong, Shengfu; Sun, Sifan; Fatima, Syeda Akash; Zhang, Min; Chen, Wanquan; Huang, Qianglan; Tang, Shengwen; Luo, Peigao

    2017-01-01

    Two winter wheat cultivars (the functional stay-green CN12 and non-stay-green CN19) were used to investigate the effects of ear-shading on grain yield and to elucidate the differential mechanisms of different cultivars. The photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant enzyme activities, and chlorophyll contents were measured 0, 15 and 30 days after heading (DAH) under both shaded and non-shaded conditions. The final grain-yield index was also measured. Shading had a smaller effect on the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs), maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and coefficient of non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (qN) but a greater effect on both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in CN12 than it did in CN19. Shading slightly altered the timeframe of leaf senescence in CN12 and may have accelerated leaf senescence in CN19. Moreover, shading had only a small effect on the weight of grains per spike (WGS) in CN12 compared with CN19, mainly resulting from the number of grains per spike (NGS) rather than the 1000-grain weight (SGW). In conclusion, the flag leaves of functional stay-green wheat could serve as potential "buffers" and/or "compensators" for ear photosynthesis, which is actively regulated by the antioxidant enzyme system and prevents yield loss. Thus, a functional stay-green genotype could be more tolerant to environmental stress than a non-stay-green genotype.

  16. Using Genome-Wide SNP Discovery and Genotyping to Reveal the Main Source of Population Differentiation in Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jorge; Fuentes, Glenda; Alarcón, Diego; Ruiz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Within a woody plant species, environmental heterogeneity has the potential to influence the distribution of genetic variation among populations through several evolutionary processes. In some species, a relationship between environmental characteristics and the distribution of genotypes can be detected, showing the importance of natural selection as the main source of differentiation. Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Nothofagaceae) is an endemic tree species occurring both in Chile and in Argentina temperate forests. Postglacial history has been studied with chloroplast DNA and evolutionary forces shaping genetic variation patterns have been analysed with isozymes but fine-scale genetic diversity studies are needed. The study of demographic and selection histories in Nothofagus dombeyi requires more informative markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genotyping-by-Sequencing tools now allow studying thousands of SNP markers at reasonable prices in nonmodel species. We investigated more than 10 K SNP loci for signatures of local adaptation and showed that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this nonmodel woody species. PMID:27446942

  17. Regeneration of the Barley Zygote in In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger B; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    In vitro cultures of zygotes and small embryos carry a lot of potential for studying plant embryogenesis and are also highly relevant for plant biotechnology. Several years ago we established an in vitro ovule culture technique for barley that allows the regeneration of plants from zygotes (Holm et...... al., 1995, Sex. Plant. Reprod. 8:49-59). This culture system proved to be highly effective and indications for genotype independency was obtained. To further sustain this we recently investigated the ovule culture response in the cultivar Golden Promise and three cultivars known for low tissue...... pollination. Ovules were grown for 3 weeks on a culture medium where after embryos could be isolated and transferred to regeneration medium. An average of 1.2 green plantlets per ovule could be regenerated from 50 % of the isolated ovules. No genotypic differences were found on embryo induction...

  18. Identification of SNPs in barley(Hordeum vulgare L.)by deep sequencing of six reduced representation libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganggang; Guo; Dawa; Dondup; Lisha; Zhang; Sha; Hu; Xingmiao; Yuan; Jing; Zhang

    2014-01-01

    High-density genetic markers are required for genotyping and linkage mapping in identifying genes from crops with complex genomes, such as barley. As the most common variation, single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) are suitable for accurate genotyping by using the next-generation sequencing(NGS) technology. Reduced representation libraries(RRLs) of five barley accessions and one mutant were sequenced using NGS technology for SNP discovery. Twenty million short reads were generated and the proportion of repetitive sequences was reduced by more than 56%. A total of 6061 SNPs were identified, and 451 were mapped to the draft sequence of the barley genome with pairing reads. Eleven SNPs were validated using length polymorphic allele-specific PCR markers.

  19. Enzymatic fingerprinting of arabinoxylan and β-glucan in triticale, barley and tritordeum grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, A; Saulnier, L; Aman, P; Andersson, R

    2012-10-15

    Enzymatic fingerprinting of arabinoxylan (AX) and β-glucan using endo-xylanase and lichenase, respectively, helps determine the structural heterogeneity between different cereals and within genotypes of the same cereal. This study characterised the structural features of AX and β-glucan in whole grains of eight triticale cultivars grown at two locations, 20 barley cultivars/lines with wide variation in composition and morphology and five tritordeum breeding lines. Principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in clear clustering of these cereals. In general, barley and tritordeum had a higher relative proportion of highly branched arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) than triticale. Subsequent analysis of triticale revealed two clusters based on growing region along principal component (PC) 1, while PC2 explained the genetic variability and was based on mono-substitution and di-substitution in AX fragments. PCA of β-glucan features separated the three cereals based on β-glucan content. The molar ratio of trisaccharide to tetrasaccharide was 2.5-3.4 in triticale, 2.3-3.3 in barley and 2.8-3.4 in tritordeum. Barley showed a strong positive correlation (r=0.86) between β-glucan content and relative proportion of trisaccharide. The results show that structural features of AX and β-glucan vary between and within triticale, barley and tritordeum grains which might be important determinants of end-use quality of grains.

  20. Cloning and characterization of a novel barley gene,HvORG4,induced by Fusarium graminearum infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theo; Van-Der; Lee

    2007-01-01

    Barley Fusarium head blight(FHB),caused by species of the Fusarium fungus,is a devastating disease that is reemerging worldwide in recent years.In this study,a novel gene,HvORG4,was cloned from barley by using cDNA library and suppression subtractive hybridization(SSH) library strategies.The SSH library and cDNA library were constructed from the Chinese barley cultivar Jing02-461(resistance to FHB) infected by Fusarium graminearum isolate Huanggang-1.For the SSH analysis,more than 120 differentially express...

  1. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  2. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    , the defense capability of these compounds requires the activity of a specific β-glucosidase, and this β-glucosidase is not found in barley leaf tissue. Therefore, the role of hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley leaves is unclear. In contrast to acting as defense compounds, it has been suggested......) has been reported in the literature. In this thesis, the role of hydroxynitrile glucosides in the interaction between barley and Bgh is investigated. It is shown that the hydroxynitrile glucoside levels increase over time in barley leaves upon Bgh infection. In addition, isolation of fungal hyphae...

  3. Additive effects of Na+ and Cl- ions on barley growth under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Coventry, Stewart; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2011-03-01

    Soil salinity affects large areas of the world's cultivated land, causing significant reductions in crop yield. Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions in high concentrations in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na(+) accumulation. It has previously been suggested that Cl(-) toxicity may also be an important cause of growth reduction in barley plants. Here, the extent to which specific ion toxicities of Na(+) and Cl(-) reduce the growth of barley grown in saline soils is shown under varying salinity treatments using four barley genotypes differing in their salt tolerance in solution and soil-based systems. High Na(+), Cl(-), and NaCl separately reduced the growth of barley, however, the reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greatest under NaCl stress and were mainly additive of the effects of Na(+) and Cl(-) stress. The results demonstrated that Na(+) and Cl(-) exclusion among barley genotypes are independent mechanisms and different genotypes expressed different combinations of the two mechanisms. High concentrations of Na(+) reduced K(+) and Ca(2+) uptake and reduced photosynthesis mainly by reducing stomatal conductance. By comparison, high Cl(-) concentration reduced photosynthetic capacity due to non-stomatal effects: there was chlorophyll degradation, and a reduction in the actual quantum yield of PSII electron transport which was associated with both photochemical quenching and the efficiency of excitation energy capture. The results also showed that there are fundamental differences in salinity responses between soil and solution culture, and that the importance of the different mechanisms of salt damage varies according to the system under which the plants were grown.

  4. Expression patterns of prion protein gene in differential genotypes sheep: quantification using molecular beacon real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Wu, Run; Li, Fa-Di; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Chun-Lin; Diao, Xiao-Long; Guan, Hong-Wei

    2011-06-01

    Determination of the transcription level of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is essential for understanding its role in organisms and revealing mechanism of susceptibility and resistance to scrapie. However, the expression of prion protein (PrP) mRNA in sheep has not been quantified in great detail in digestive tract which is important during scrapie spread through oral route. Herein, we report on measurement of sheep PrP mRNA using absolute quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Total RNA was isolated from five different regions of the central nervous system (CNS), four regions of lymphoid system, eleven regions of digestive tract, and two reproductive organ tissues of eight sheep of two different genotypes (ARR/ARQ and ARH/ARQ) and PrP mRNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR using molecular beacon. The results showed that highest levels of PrP mRNA were expressed in thalamus and cerebrum (P mRNA expression in sheep for further studies of pathogenesis of prion diseases.

  5. Enumeration of fungi in barley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rabie, CJ

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available et al., 1975), and affect the resultant beer by causing off-flavours and colours and, in some instances, gushing (Haikara, 1983; Vaag, 1985). Under cer- tain circumstances some fungal species and/or their products may... samples Dominant spccics Kernels inl?cctcd,? (?j6) Table I Fungi isolated from baa-ley kernels As high levels of infection in barley are detri- mental to good quality malt and beer. it is impor- tant to quantify fungal...

  6. TRPM2 SNP genotype previously associated with susceptibility to Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in Quarter Horse foals displays differential gene expression identified using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Cole M; Whitfield-Cargile, Canaan M; Konganti, Kranti; Blodgett, Glenn P; Dindot, Scott V; Cohen, Noah D

    2016-12-05

    Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) is an intracellular bacterium that affects young foals and immuno-compromised individuals causing severe pneumonia. Currently, the genetic mechanisms that confer susceptibility and/or resistance to R. equi are not fully understood. Previously, using a SNP-based genome-wide association study, we identified a region on equine chromosome 26 associated with culture-confirmed clinical pneumonia. To better characterize this region and understand the function of the SNP located within TRPM2 that was associated with R. equi pneumonia, we performed RNA-Seq on 12 horses representing the 3 genotypic forms of this SNP. We identified differentially expressed genes in the innate immune response pathway when comparing homozygous A allele horses with the AB and BB horses. Isoform analyses of the RNA-Seq data predicted the existence of multiple transcripts and provided evidence of differential expression at the TRPM2 locus. This finding is consistent with previously demonstrated work in human cell lines in which isoform-specific expression of TRPM2 was critical for cell viability. This work demonstrates that SNPs in TRPM2 are associated with differences in gene expression, suggesting that modulation of expression of this innate immune gene contributes to susceptibility to R. equi pneumonia.

  7. DNA microarray revealed and RNAi plants confirmed key genes conferring low Cd accumulation in barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    accumulation and tolerance between the two contrasting barley genotypes: W6nk2 (a low-grain-Cd-accumulating and Cd-sensitive genotype) and Zhenong8 (a high-grain-Cd-accumulating and tolerant genotype). A DNA microarray analysis detected large-scale changes of gene expression in response to Cd stress...... with a substantial difference between the two genotypes. Cd stress led to higher expression of genes involved in transport, carbohydrate metabolism and signal transduction in the low-grain-Cd-accumulating genotype. Novel transporter genes such as zinc transporter genes were identified as being associated with low Cd......Background Understanding the mechanism of low Cd accumulation in crops is crucial for sustainable safe food production in Cd-contaminated soils. Results Confocal microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence analyses revealed a distinct difference in Cd...

  8. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Acer palmatum and comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed genes under salt stress in two contrasting genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Liping; Li, Qianzhong; Li, Shushun; Tang, Ling; Wen, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Maple (Acer palmatum) is an important species for landscape planting worldwide. Salt stress affects the normal growth of the Maple leaf directly, leading to loss of esthetic value. However, the limited availability of Maple genomic information has hindered research on the mechanisms underlying this tolerance. In this study, we performed comprehensive analyses of the salt tolerance in two genotypes of Maple using RNA-seq. Approximately 146.4 million paired-end reads, representing 181,769 unigenes, were obtained. The N50 length of the unigenes was 738 bp, and their total length over 102.66 Mb. 14,090 simple sequence repeats and over 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, which represent useful resources for marker development. Importantly, 181,769 genes were detected in at least one library, and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant genotypes. Among these DEGs, 125 were upregulated and 178 were downregulated genes. Two MYB-related proteins and one LEA protein were detected among the first 10 most downregulated genes. Moreover, a methyltransferase-related gene was detected among the first 10 most upregulated genes. The three most significantly enriched pathways were plant hormone signal transduction, arginine and proline metabolism, and photosynthesis. The transcriptome analysis provided a rich genetic resource for gene discovery related to salt tolerance in Maple, and in closely related species. The data will serve as an important public information platform to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in salt tolerance in Maple.

  9. Differential effect of whole-ear shading after heading on the physiology, biochemistry and yield index of stay-green and non-stay-green wheat genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sifan; Fatima, Syeda Akash; Zhang, Min; Chen, Wanquan; Huang, Qianglan; Tang, Shengwen; Luo, Peigao

    2017-01-01

    Two winter wheat cultivars (the functional stay-green CN12 and non-stay-green CN19) were used to investigate the effects of ear-shading on grain yield and to elucidate the differential mechanisms of different cultivars. The photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant enzyme activities, and chlorophyll contents were measured 0, 15 and 30 days after heading (DAH) under both shaded and non-shaded conditions. The final grain-yield index was also measured. Shading had a smaller effect on the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs), maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and coefficient of non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (qN) but a greater effect on both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in CN12 than it did in CN19. Shading slightly altered the timeframe of leaf senescence in CN12 and may have accelerated leaf senescence in CN19. Moreover, shading had only a small effect on the weight of grains per spike (WGS) in CN12 compared with CN19, mainly resulting from the number of grains per spike (NGS) rather than the 1000-grain weight (SGW). In conclusion, the flag leaves of functional stay-green wheat could serve as potential “buffers” and/or “compensators” for ear photosynthesis, which is actively regulated by the antioxidant enzyme system and prevents yield loss. Thus, a functional stay-green genotype could be more tolerant to environmental stress than a non-stay-green genotype. PMID:28158297

  10. Differential efficacy of protease inhibitors against HCV genotypes 2a, 3a, 5a, and 6a NS3/4A protease recombinant viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith M; Scheel, Troels K H; Jensen, Tanja B;

    2011-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype influences efficacy of interferon (IFN)-based therapy. HCV protease inhibitors are being licensed for treatment of genotype 1 infection. Because there are limited or no data on efficacy against HCV genotypes 2-7, we aimed at developing recombinant infectious c...

  11. Proximal Sensing of Plant-Pathogen Interactions in Spring Barley with Three Fluorescence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Leufen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years fluorescence spectroscopy has come to be viewed as an essential approach in key research fields of applied plant sciences. However, the quantity and particularly the quality of information produced by different equipment might vary considerably. In this study we investigate the potential of three optical devices for the proximal sensing of plant-pathogen interactions in four genotypes of spring barley. For this purpose, the fluorescence lifetime, the image-resolved multispectral fluorescence and selected indices of a portable multiparametric fluorescence device were recorded at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation (dai from healthy leaves as well as from leaves inoculated with powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis or leaf rust (Puccinia hordei. Genotype-specific responses to pathogen infections were revealed already at 3 dai by higher fluorescence mean lifetimes in the spectral range from 410 to 560 nm in the less susceptible varieties. Noticeable pathogen-induced modifications were also revealed by the ‘Blue-to-Far-Red Fluorescence Ratio’ and the ‘Simple Fluorescence Ratio’. Particularly in the susceptible varieties the differences became more evident in the time-course of the experiment i.e., following the pathogen development. The relevance of the blue and green fluorescence to exploit the plant-pathogen interaction was demonstrated by the multispectral fluorescence imaging system. As shown, mildewed leaves were characterized by exceptionally high blue fluorescence, contrasting the values observed in rust inoculated leaves. Further, we confirm that the intensity of green fluorescence depends on the pathogen infection and the stage of disease development; this information might allow a differentiation of both diseases. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the detection area might influence the quality of the information, although it had a minor impact only in the current study. Finally, we highlight the relevance of

  12. Molecular characterization of two lipoxygenases from barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechelen, J.R. van; Schuurink, R.C.; Smits, M.; Graner, A.; Douma, A.C.; Sedee, N.J.A.; Schmitt, N.F.; Valk, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two full-length lipoxygenase cDNA sequences (LoxB and LoxC) from barley (Hordeum distichum cv. L. Triumph) are described. The cDNAs share high homology with the barley LoxA cDNA. Southern blotting experiments indicate single copy numbers of the three lipoxygenase genes. RFLP mapping revealed the pre

  13. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms based on RNA sequencing data of diverse bio-geographical accessions in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahagi, Kotaro; Uehara-Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Mochida, Keiichi; Saisho, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Barley is one of the founder crops of Old world agriculture and has become the fourth most important cereal worldwide. Information on genome-scale DNA polymorphisms allows elucidating the evolutionary history behind domestication, as well as discovering and isolating useful genes for molecular breeding. Deep transcriptome sequencing enables the exploration of sequence variations in transcribed sequences; such analysis is particularly useful for species with large and complex genomes, such as barley. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of 20 barley accessions, comprising representatives of several biogeographic regions and a wild ancestor. We identified 38,729 to 79,949 SNPs in the 19 domesticated accessions and 55,403 SNPs in the wild barley and revealed their genome-wide distribution using a reference genome. Genome-scale comparisons among accessions showed a clear differentiation between oriental and occidental barley populations. The results based on population structure analyses provide genome-scale properties of sub-populations grouped to oriental, occidental and marginal groups in barley. Our findings suggest that the oriental population of domesticated barley has genomic variations distinct from those in occidental groups, which might have contributed to barley’s domestication. PMID:27616653

  14. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  15. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altinkut

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive, which were established using selected F2 individuals resulting from a cross between water-stress-tolerant and sensitive barley parental genotypes, based on their paraquat (PQ tolerance, leaf size, and relative water content (RWC. All these three traits were previously shown to be associated with water-stress tolerance in segregating F2 progeny of the barley cross used in a previous study. AFLP analysis was then performed on these DNA pools, using 40 primer pairs to detect AFLP fragments that are present/absent, respectively, in the two pools and their parental lines. One separate AFLP fragment, which was present in the tolerant parent and in the tolerant bulk, but absent in the sensitive parent and in the sensitive bulk, was identified. Polymorphism of the AFLP marker was tested among tolerant and sensitive F2 individuals. The presence of this marker that is associated with water-stress tolerance will greatly enhance selection for paraquat and water-stress tolerant genotypes in future breeding programs.

  16. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  17. Assessment and introduction of quantitative resistance to Fusarium head blight in elite spring barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkmeyer, A; Götz, M; Hu, L; Asam, S; Rychlik, M; Hausladen, H; Hess, M; Hückelhoven, R

    2013-12-01

    Breeding for resistance is a key task to control Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of small cereals leading to economic losses and grain contamination with mycotoxins harmful for humans and animals. In the present work, FHB resistance of the six-rowed spring barley 'Chevron' to FHB in Germany was compared with those of adapted German spring barley cultivars. Both under natural infection conditions and after spray inoculation with conidia of Fusarium culmorum, F. sporotrichioides, and F. avenaceum under field conditions, Chevron showed a high level of quantitative resistance to the infection and contamination of grain with diverse mycotoxins. This indicates that Chevron is not only a little susceptible to deoxynivalenol-producing Fusarium spp. but also to Fusarium spp. producing type A trichothecenes and enniatins. Monitoring the initial infection course of F. culmorum on barley lemma tissue by confocal laser-scanning microscopy provided evidence that FHB resistance of Chevron is partially mediated by a preformed penetration resistance, because direct penetration of floral tissue by F. culmorum was observed rarely on Chevron but was common on susceptible genotypes. Alternatively, F. culmorum penetrated Chevron lemma tissue via stomata, which was unusual for susceptible genotypes. We generated double-haploid barley populations segregating for the major FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) Qrgz-2H-8 of Chevron. Subsequently, we characterized these populations by spray inoculation with conidia of F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides. This suggested that Qrgz-2H-8 was functional in the genetic background of European elite barley cultivars. However, the degree of achieved resistance was very low when compared with quantitative resistance of the QTL donor Chevron, and the introgression of Qrgz-2H-8 was not sufficient to mediate the cellular resistance phenotype of Chevron in the European backgrounds.

  18. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Aquaporin Gene Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runyararo M Hove

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare. The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

  19. Cisgenic barley for animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    for Cisgenesis. Recently, Dionisio et al. (2011) have cloned and characterized phytases belonging to the purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) in barley. We have isolated the genomic PAP-clone of the isoform expressed during grain filling including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region...... using a genomic barley lambda library. The clone has been inserted into a Cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. T0-plants show...... increases in the phytase activity of mature seeds from 1350 in wild type to 7500 FTU/kg in T0-plants. We have identified two Cisgenic T1-lines without selection gene and vector backbone but with one additional genomic clone of the phytase gene. Lines homozygous for the additional cisgene show 2-3 fold...

  20. The Hv NAC6 transcription factor: a positive regulator of penetration resistance in barley and Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Krogh; Rung, Jesper Henrik; Gregersen, Per Langkjaer

    2007-01-01

    Pathogens induce the expression of many genes encoding plant transcription factors, though specific knowledge of the biological function of individual transcription factors remains scarce. NAC transcription factors are encoded in plants by a gene family with proposed functions in both abiotic...... and biotic stress adaptation, as well as in developmental processes. In this paper, we provide convincing evidence that a barley NAC transcription factor has a direct role in regulating basal defence. The gene transcript was isolated by differential display from barley leaves infected with the biotrophic...... powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh). The full-length cDNA clone was obtained using 5'-RACE and termed HvNAC6, due to its high similarity to the rice homologue, OsNAC6. Gene silencing of HvNAC6 during Bgh inoculation compromises penetration resistance in barley epidermal cells...

  1. Transcriptome sequencing in a Tibetan barley landrace with high resistance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xing-Quan; Luo, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Yu-Lin; Xu, Qi-Jun; Bai, Li-Jun; Yuan, Hong-Jun; Tashi, Nyima

    2014-01-01

    Hulless barley is an important cereal crop worldwide, especially in Tibet of China. However, this crop is usually susceptible to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. In this study, we aimed to understand the functions and pathways of genes involved in the disease resistance by transcriptome sequencing of a Tibetan barley landrace with high resistance to powdery mildew. A total of 831 significant differentially expressed genes were found in the infected seedlings, covering 19 functions. Either "cell," "cell part," and "extracellular region" in the cellular component category or "binding" and "catalytic" in the category of molecular function as well as "metabolic process" and "cellular process" in the biological process category together demonstrated that these functions may be involved in the resistance to powdery mildew of the hulless barley. In addition, 330 KEGG pathways were found using BLASTx with an E-value cut-off of powdery mildew infection.

  2. Secretomics identifies Fusarium graminearum proteins involved in the interaction with barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, Jens D.; Svensson, Birte;

    2012-01-01

    of cell walls, starch and proteins. Of these proteins, 35% had not been identified in previous in planta or in vitro studies, 70% were predicted to contain signal peptides and a further 16% may be secreted in a nonclassical manner. Proteins identified in the 72 spots showing differential appearance...... between wheat and barley flour medium were mainly involved in fungal cell wall remodelling and the degradation of plant cell walls, starch and proteins. The in planta expression of corresponding F. graminearum genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction in barley...... and wheat spikelets harvested at 2−6 days after inoculation. In addition, a clear difference in the accumulation of fungal biomass and the extent of fungal‐induced proteolysis of plant β‐amylase was observed in barley and wheat. The present study considerably expands the current database of F. graminearum...

  3. Effect of cultivar and year on phyllochron in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and growth of leaves in cereals significantly affects grain yield since dry matter accumulation depends on the leaf area that intercepts light. Phyllochron (PHY is defined as time interval between the emergences of successive leaves on the main stem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of year and cultivar on phyllochron in winter barley. Twelve cultivars of winter barley differing in origin and time of anthesis were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. The highest PHY across GSs was determined in the two-rowed cultivar Cordoba (81.6°Cd and the lowest in the two-rowed cultivar Novosadski 581 (71.0°Cd. The early cultivars had fast leaf development, the medium cultivars medium and the late cultivars slow development, 72.5°Cd, 75.6°Cd and 78.9°Cd, respectively. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in the PHY, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  4. Study of the Behavior of Some Spring Barley Lines with Two Rows Created at A.R.D.S Turda Regarding Production Capacity and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana PORUMB

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The spring barley is a variety of a superior quality for brewing compared with the feed barley due to several reasons. Research was conducted in the field of breeding of spring barley with two rows, within ARDS Turda, during 2013-2015. The trials were comparatively developed, and included 25 variants. The biological material was represented by four  autochthonous genotypes: Turdeana, Daciana Romaniţa (A.R.D.S. Turda, and Adina (A.R.D.S. Suceava. The spring barley lines created by the S.C.D.A. Turda, meet the requirements of the beer industry in terms of protein content, starch, M.M.B. and germination energy.

  5. Wild Barley,Hordeum spontaneum,a Genetic Resource for Crop Improvement in Cold and Arid Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eviatar; Nevo

    2008-01-01

    Food security in cold and arid regions in the world is threatened by stressful and unpredictable environments.The sus-tainable and economically viable solution for increasing stability of food productivity in cold and arid regions is genetic improvement of crops towards high resistance to abiotic stresses,mainly cold and drought resistance.It is often empha-sized that crop genetic improvement lies in exploiting the gene pools of the wild relatives of the crop plant.Wild barley,H.spontaneum,the progenitor of cultivated barley,is a selfing annual grass of predominantly Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian distribution that penetrates into desert environments where it maintains stable populations.Wild barley is also found in cold regions,such as in Tibet.The adaptation of wild barley to the arid region in Israel and Jordan,and the cold region in Tibet has accumulated rich genetic diversities for drought,salt,and cold resistances in wild barley,which is the genetic resource for barley and other crop improvement in arid and cold regions.These genetic diversities are revealed by allozymes,DNA-based molecular markers,and morphological and physiological traits of wild barley plants.Quantita-tive trait loci(QTLs) related to drought resistance were identified in wild barley via the QTL mapping approach.Drought resistance genes such as dehydrins,hsdr4,and eibi1 were identified in wild barley based on the candidate gene approach,gene differential expression approach,and molecular genetic approach,respectively.Genetics and genomics of wild bar-ley cold resistance have not been exploited yet,remaining a huge treasure for future crop improvement of cold resistance.Advanced backcross QTL analysis,the introgression libraries based on wild barley as donors,a QTL approach based on wide crosses using wild barley,and positional cloning of natural QTLs will play prevailing roles to help us understand the molecular control of cold and drought tolerance.Integration of QTL information into a

  6. Differential control of xanthophylls and light-induced stress proteins, as opposed to light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b proteins, during photosynthetic acclimation of barley leaves to light irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montane; Tardy; Kloppstech; Havaux

    1998-09-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants were grown at different photon flux densities ranging from 100 to 1800 &mgr;mol m-2 s-1 in air and/or in atmospheres with reduced levels of O2 and CO2. Low O2 and CO2 partial pressures allowed plants to grow under high photosystem II (PSII) excitation pressure, estimated in vivo by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, at moderate photon flux densities. The xanthophyll-cycle pigments, the early light-inducible proteins, and their mRNA accumulated with increasing PSII excitation pressure irrespective of the way high excitation pressure was obtained (high-light irradiance or decreased CO2 and O2 availability). These findings indicate that the reduction state of electron transport chain components could be involved in light sensing for the regulation of nuclear-encoded chloroplast gene expression. In contrast, no correlation was found between the reduction state of PSII and various indicators of the PSII light-harvesting system, such as the chlorophyll a-to-b ratio, the abundance of the major pigment-protein complex of PSII (LHCII), the mRNA level of LHCII, the light-saturation curve of O2 evolution, and the induced chlorophyll-fluorescence rise. We conclude that the chlorophyll antenna size of PSII is not governed by the redox state of PSII in higher plants and, consequently, regulation of early light-inducible protein synthesis is different from that of LHCII.

  7. Proteomic analysis of differences in barley (Hordeum vulgare) malts with distinct filterability by DIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhao; Li, Xiao-Min; Gao, Fei; Sun, Jun-Yong; Mu, Yu-Wen; Lu, Jian

    2013-11-20

    Filterability is an essential quality parameter of barley malt and significantly impacts productive efficiency and quality of beer. In the study, differences of metabolic capability, rather than of initial contents of macromolecules in barleys, were found to be the main reason for malt filterability gap between the widely used cultivars Dan'er and Metcalfe in China. Comparative proteomics based on fluorescent difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) was employed to quantitatively analyze proteins of four commercial malts belonging to the two cultivars, and 51 cultivar-differential spots were identified to 40 metabolic proteins by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, mainly including hydrolases and pathogen-related proteins. According to their function analysis and abundance comparison between cultivars, filterability-beneficial and -adverse proteins were putatively proposed. Two most remarkable differential proteins, β-amylase and serpin Z7, were further investigated to verify their effects on Dan'er malt filterability. These results provide biological markers for barley breeders and maltsters to improve malt filterability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of comprehensive investigation of metabolic proteins related to wort filterability of barley malts, and sheds light on clues for filterability improvement. Visible differences in the expression level of metabolic proteins between Dan'er and Metcalfe malts using 2D-DIGE signify a valuable tool for cultivar comparison, illustration of key proteins responsible for filterability and even other qualities of barley malts. And with these explorations on biomarkers of malt filterability and other aspects, there will be higher efficiency and quality of beer brewing, less application of exogenous hydrolases and more expending market for Chinese malting barleys. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phytoremediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils around Isfahan Oil Refinery (Iran by Sorghum and Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Irajy Asiabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum compounds are one of the most frequently encountered pollutants in soils adjacent to oil refineries. Phytoremediation,where feasible, has become a cost-effective alternative to physicochemical methods of soil remediation. In this study, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and barley (Hordeum vulgare were selected for phytoremediationand the diminution in the concentration of oil-based contaminants was measured during a 90-day period. Contaminated and control treatments were compared in terms of root and shoot dry weight. Comparisons revealed reductions of about 22% and 30% in root dry matter and 51% and 42% in shoot dry matter of sorghum and barley in contaminated soil, respectively. The control and planted soils were significantly different in total and oil-degrading bacterial counts. Moreover, the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons decreased by 52%-64% in 90 days. Since planting the contaminated soil with sorghum and barley resulted in an improvement of 30% compared to unplanted contaminated soil, the two plants were highly efficient in removing petroleum from oil-contaminated soils. Therefore, despite the necessity of further studies to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation by assessing the appropriateness of various plant species, some genotypes like sorghum and barley were found suitable choices for phytoremediation of the investigated petroleum-contaminated soil.

  9. Transcriptional Responses to Gibberellin and Abscisic Acid in Barley Aleurone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kegui Chen; Yong-Qiang Charles An

    2006-01-01

    Cereal aleurone has been established as a model system to investigate giberrellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Using Barley 1 GeneChip, we examined the mRNA accumulation of over 22 000 genes in de-embryonated barley aleurone treated with GA and ABA. We observed that 1328 genes had more than a threefold change in response to GA treatment, whereas 206 genes had a more than threefold change in response to ABA treatment. Interestingly, approximately 2.5-fold more genes were up-regulated than downregulated by ABA. Eighty-three genes were differentially regulated by both GA and ABA. Most of the genes were subject to antagonistic regulation by ABA and GA, particularly for genes related to seed maturation and germination, such as genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and storage mobilization enzymes. This supports the antagonistic roles of GA and ABA in seed maturation and seed germination.Interestingly, we observed that a significant percentage of the genes were coordinately regulated by both GA and ABA. Some GA-responsive genes encoded proteins involved in ethylene, jasmonate, brassinosteroid and auxin metabolic and signaling transduction pathways, suggesting their potential interaction with the GA response. We also identified a group of transcription factor genes, such as MYB and Homeobox genes, that were differentially regulated by GA. In addition, a number of GA- and/or ABA-responsive genes encoded components potentially involved in GA and ABA signal transduction pathway. Overall, the present study provides a comprehensive and global view of transcript expression accompanying the GA and ABA response in barley aleurone and identifies a group of genes with potential regulatory functions in GA- and ABA-signaling pathways for future functional validation.

  10. Differentially Expressed Genes in Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfeng Xue

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f.sp. phaseoli (Fop, is one of the most important diseases of common beans worldwide. Few natural sources of resistance to Fop exist and provide only moderate or partial levels of protection. Despite the economic importance of the disease across multiple crops, only a few of Fop induced genes have been analyzed in legumes. Therefore, our goal was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during an incompatible interaction between common bean and the Fop pathogen using the cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP technique. We generated a total of 8,730 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs with 768 primer pairs based on the comparison of a moderately resistant and a susceptible genotype. In total, 423 TDFs (4.9% displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation with Fop inoculum. We obtained full amplicon sequences for 122 selected TDFs, of which 98 were identified as annotated known genes in different functional categories based on their putative functions, 10 were predicted but non-annotated genes and 14 were not homologous to any known genes. The 98 TDFs encoding genes of known putative function were classified as related to metabolism (22, signal transduction (21, protein synthesis and processing (20, development and cytoskeletal organization (12, transport of proteins (7, gene expression and RNA metabolism (4, redox reactions (4, defense and stress responses (3, energy metabolism (3, and hormone responses (2. Based on the analyses of homology, 19 TDFs from different functional categories were chosen for expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR. The genes found to be important here were implicated at various steps of pathogen infection and will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of defense and resistance to Fop and similar pathogens. The differential response genes discovered here could also be used as

  11. Differentially Expressed Genes in Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Renfeng; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Lanfen; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Shumin; Blair, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f.sp. phaseoli (Fop), is one of the most important diseases of common beans worldwide. Few natural sources of resistance to Fop exist and provide only moderate or partial levels of protection. Despite the economic importance of the disease across multiple crops, only a few of Fop induced genes have been analyzed in legumes. Therefore, our goal was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during an incompatible interaction between common bean and the Fop pathogen using the cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique. We generated a total of 8,730 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) with 768 primer pairs based on the comparison of a moderately resistant and a susceptible genotype. In total, 423 TDFs (4.9%) displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation with Fop inoculum. We obtained full amplicon sequences for 122 selected TDFs, of which 98 were identified as annotated known genes in different functional categories based on their putative functions, 10 were predicted but non-annotated genes and 14 were not homologous to any known genes. The 98 TDFs encoding genes of known putative function were classified as related to metabolism (22), signal transduction (21), protein synthesis and processing (20), development and cytoskeletal organization (12), transport of proteins (7), gene expression and RNA metabolism (4), redox reactions (4), defense and stress responses (3), energy metabolism (3), and hormone responses (2). Based on the analyses of homology, 19 TDFs from different functional categories were chosen for expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR. The genes found to be important here were implicated at various steps of pathogen infection and will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of defense and resistance to Fop and similar pathogens. The differential response genes discovered here could also be used as molecular

  12. Genetic evaluation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. germplasm for resistance components of spot blotch disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejveer Singh, V. K. Mishra*, L. C. Prasad, Ankitand R. Chand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is an important fungal disease of Barley in warm humid areas of the world. In present study, 124 genotypes that includes 122 un-adapted germplasm accessions and 2 cultivars of barley were evaluated for three years, to select resistant and susceptible accessions based on five components of spot blotch resistance viz., disease severity, latent period, spore load, number of spots and incubation period. Significant differences were observed among the evaluated accessions for all of the components of resistance. A significant positive correlation was recorded between disease severity, number of spots, and spore load while a significant negative correlation of disease severity was recorded with latent period and incubation period. Multiple regression analysis revealed that number of spots contributed maximum followed by latent period, spore load and incubation period towards the variation in disease severity. Clustering of accessions based on different components identified three groups. Based on the studied components, accessions BCU422, BCU1204 and BCU5092 demonstrated good performance, while BCU711, K603 and RD2506 were the most susceptible to spot blotch pathogen. Identified accessions BCU422, BCU1204 and BCU5092 can be recommended for use in breeding programs that aim to generate barley genotypes resistant to Bipolaris sorokiniana.

  13. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in elite barley breeding germplasm from the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao ZHOU; Gary MUEHLBAUER; Brian STEFFENSON

    2012-01-01

    Cultivated barley is known to have a complex population structure and extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD).To conduct robust association mapping (AM) studies of economically important traits in US barley breeding germplasm,population structure and LD decay were examined in a complete panel of US barley breeding germplasm (3840 lines) genotyped with 3072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).Nine subpopulations (sp1-sp9) were identified by the program STRUCTURE and subsequently confirmed by principle component analysis (PCA).Out of the nine subpopulations,seven were very similar to the respective subpopulations identified by Hamblin et al.(2010)which were based on half of the germplasm and half of the SN P markers,but two subpopulations were found to be new.One subpopulation was dominated by six-rowed spring lines from Utah State University (UT) and the other was composed of six-rowed spring lines from multiple breeding programs (USDA-ARS Aberdeen (AB),Busch Agricultural Resources Inc.(BA),UT,and Washington State University (WA)).LD was found to decay across a range from 4.0 to 19.8 cM.This result indicates that the germplasm genotyped with 3072 SNPs would be robust for mapping and possibly identifying the causal polymorphisms contributing to disease resistance and perhaps other traits.

  14. Accumulation of Transcripts Abundance after Barley Inoculation with Cochliobolus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imad Eddin Arabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spot blotch caused by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Cochliobolus sativus has been the major yield-reducing factor for barley production during the last decade. Monitoring transcriptional reorganization triggered in response to this fungus is an essential first step for the functional analysis of genes involved in the process. To characterize the defense responses initiated by barley resistant and susceptible cultivars, a survey of transcript abundance at early time points of C. sativus inoculation was conducted. A notable number of transcripts exhibiting significant differential accumulations in the resistant and susceptible cultivars were detected compared to the non-inoculated controls. At the p-value of 0.0001, transcripts were divided into three general categories; defense, regulatory and unknown function, and the resistant cultivar had the greatest number of common transcripts at different time points. Quantities of differentially accumulated gene transcripts in both cultivars were identified at 24 h post infection, the approximate time when the pathogen changes trophic lifestyles. The unique and common accumulated transcripts might be of considerable interest for enhancing effective resistance to C. sativus.

  15. TRI12 based quantitative real-time PCR assays reveal the distribution of trichothecene genotype of F. graminearum and F. culmorum isolates in Danish small grain cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. K.; Jensen, J. D.; Rodríguez, A.;

    2012-01-01

    species complex, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium cerealis and Fusarium pseudograminearum. These assays were applied on a total of 378 field samples of cereal grain of wheat, barley, triticale, rye and oats collected from 2003 to 2007 to study the trichothecene genotype composition in Danish cereals. The three...... in wheat. The NIV genotype was found at low levels in most samples. Study of genotype composition within the Danish F. graminearum and F. culmorum population was based on principal component analysis (PCA). PCA revealed that the dominating genotype of F. graminearum in wheat is 15ADON. For barley, the PCA...... analysis indicated that the F. graminearum population consisted of all three genotypes, and in triticale, the F. graminearum population consisted mainly of 15ADON genotype. F. culmorum/F. cerealis showed correlation to the NIV genotype in wheat and triticale but not in barley. F. culmorum/F. cerealis also...

  16. Molecular analysis of cultivated naked barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China using SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifen PAN; Guangbing DENG; Xuguang ZHAI; Hai LONG; Yawei TANG; Xiaolin QIANG; Maoqun YU

    2008-01-01

    Naked barley is widely planted in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China and is essential for the daily life of Tibetans in those regions. In this study, the genetic diversity of 64 cultivated naked barley accessions from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China was analyzed using 30 mapped SSRs linked with the important traits of barley improvement. A total of 132 alleles were identified at 22 polymorphic SSR loci, with the number of each locus ranging from 2 to 15, the polymorphism information con-tent (PIC) values ranging from 0.16 to 0.91, and with an average of 0.65. Of the selected SSRs, 13 SSR markers with high PIC value were highly efficient for the genetic analysis of Chinese barley. The accessions were divided into five main groups by cluster analysis and could be differentiated from each other. The genetic diversity in the Tibet accessions was slightly higher than in the Sichuan accessions. It is found that there were specific genes linked with the collecting sites. These results indi-cate the cultivated naked barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China are highly polymorphic and could be considered as an important resource bank for cultivated naked barley breeding in the future.

  17. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...

  18. 2015 nationwide survey revealed Barley stripe mosaic virus in Korean barley fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    A seed-transmitted virus has consistently caused significant economic damage to barley crops in Korea in recent years, and may be increasing because many farmers save seed for replanting. Because some barley seed is imported, there is the potential for introduction of new seed-transmitted viruses, c...

  19. Genotype-Associated Differential NKG2D Expression on CD56+CD3+ Lymphocytes Predicts Response to Pegylated-Interferon/Ribavirin Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-sung Chu

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype 1 infections are significantly more difficult to eradicate with PEG-IFN/ribavirin therapy, compared to HCV genotype 2. The aim of this work is to investigate the difference of immunological impairments underlying this phenomenon. Pre-treatment NKG2D expression on peripheral CD56+CD3+ lymphocytes and CD56+CD3- NK cells from cases of chronic hepatitis C were analyzed and assessed by treatment effect. Two strains of HCV were used to co-incubate with immune cells in vitro. NKG2D expression on peripheral CD56+CD3+ lymphocytes, but not NK cells, was significantly impaired in genotype 1 infection, compared to genotype 2. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors were co-incubated with TNS2J1, a genotype 1b/2a chimera strain, or with JFH1, a genotype 2a strain, genotype-specific decrease of NKG2D on CD56+CD3+ lymphocytes, but not NK cells, was observed. Pre-treatment NKG2D expression on peripheral CD56+CD3+ lymphocytes significantly correlated with reduction in serum HCV RNA levels from week 0 to week 4, and predicted treatment response. Ex vivo stimulation of peripheral CD56+CD3+ lymphocytes showed NKG2D expression-correlated IFN-γ production. In conclusion, Decreased NKG2D expression on CD56+CD3+ lymphocytes in chronic HCV genotype 1 infection predicts inferior treatment response to PEG-IFN/ribavirin therapy compared to genotype 2.

  20. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid 1-1: an endosperm-specific, filial determinant of seed total phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboy, Victor; Cichy, Karen; Peterson, Kevin; Reichman, Sarah; Sompong, Utumporn; Srinives, Peerasak; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (Ins P6 or "phytic acid") typically accounts for 75 (± 10%) of seed total phosphorus (P). In some cases, genetic blocks in seed Ins P6 accumulation can also alter the distribution or total amount of seed P. In nonmutant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) caryopses, ~80% of Ins P6 and total P accumulate in the aleurone layer, the outer layer of the endosperm, with the remainder in the germ. In barley low phytic acid 1-1 (Hvlpa1-1) seed, both endosperm Ins P6 and total P are reduced (~45% and ~25%, respectively), but germs are phenotypically wild type. This translates into a net reduction in whole-seed total P of ~15%. Nutrient culture studies demonstrate that the reduction in endosperm total P is not due to a reduction in the uptake of P into the maternal plant. Genetic tests (analyses of testcross and F2 seed) reveal that the Hvlpa1-1 genotype of the filial seed conditions the seed total P reduction; sibling seed in the same head of barley that differ in their Hvlpa1-1 genotype (heterozygous vs. homozygous recessive) differ in their total P (normal vs. reduced, respectively). Therefore, Hvlpa1 functions as a seed-specific or filial determinant of barley endosperm total P.

  1. A high-density consensus map of barley to compare the distribution of QTLs for partial resistance to Puccinia hordei and of defence gene homologues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcel, T.C.; Varshney, R.K.; Barbieri, M.; Jafary, H.; Kock, de M.J.D.; Graner, A.; Niks, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    A consensus map of barley was constructed based on three reference doubled haploid (DH) populations and three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. Several sets of microsatellites were used as bridge markers in the integration of those populations previously genotyped with RFLP or with AFLP mar

  2. Root plasma membrane transporters controlling K+/Na+ homeostasis in salt-stressed bBarley1[C][W]

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhonghua; Pottosin, Igor I.; Cuin, Tracey A.;

    2007-01-01

    Plant salinity tolerance is a polygenic trait with contributions from genetic, developmental, and physiological interactions, in addition to interactions between the plant and its environment. In this study, we show that in salt-tolerant genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), multiple mechanisms ...

  3. Evolutionary history of barley cultivation in Europe revealed by genetic analysis of extant landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Huw

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the evolution of cultivated barley is important for two reasons. First, the evolutionary relationships between different landraces might provide information on the spread and subsequent development of barley cultivation, including the adaptation of the crop to new environments and its response to human selection. Second, evolutionary information would enable landraces with similar traits but different genetic backgrounds to be identified, providing alternative strategies for the introduction of these traits into modern germplasm. Results The evolutionary relationships between 651 barley landraces were inferred from the genotypes for 24 microsatellites. The landraces could be divided into nine populations, each with a different geographical distribution. Comparisons with ear row number, caryopsis structure, seasonal growth habit and flowering time revealed a degree of association between population structure and phenotype, and analysis of climate variables indicated that the landraces are adapted, at least to some extent, to their environment. Human selection and/or environmental adaptation may therefore have played a role in the origin and/or maintenance of one or more of the barley landrace populations. There was also evidence that at least some of the population structure derived from geographical partitioning set up during the initial spread of barley cultivation into Europe, or reflected the later introduction of novel varieties. In particular, three closely-related populations were made up almost entirely of plants with the daylength nonresponsive version of the photoperiod response gene PPD-H1, conferring adaptation to the long annual growth season of northern Europe. These three populations probably originated in the eastern Fertile Crescent and entered Europe after the initial spread of agriculture. Conclusions The discovery of population structure, combined with knowledge of associated phenotypes and

  4. Viability and Biological Properties of Barley Seeds Expose to Outside of International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi; Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Novikova, Nataliya; Grigoriev, Anatoly

    Plants play an important role in supplying nutrients and oxygen to human under material recycle system in space as well as on earth, therefore, seed storage in space should be necessary to self-supply foods when number of astronauts would stay and investigate for a long-term habitation of orbit and the bases of the Moon and Mars. In order to understand the effect of real space environment on the preservation of seeds, the seeds of malting barley, Haruna Nijo, were exposed to outside of the Pier docking station of International Space Station in the framework of the Biorisk-MSN program. After exposure to outside of International Space Station for 13 months, the seeds (SP) were transported to Earth, soaked in water, and germinated on the filter paper filled with water. The germination ratio of SP was 82%, while that of the ground control was 96%, showing that the barley seeds survived cosmic radiation, vacuum, and temperature excursion in space. The germinated seeds of SP and ground control were transplanted to the Wagner pots filled with soil and grown for 5 months in the greenhouse. The agronomic character, such as number of main stem leaf and ear, straw weight, culm length, ear length, thousand kernel weight, and percentage of ripening, were not different significantly between SP and ground control. The germination ratio of the harvested SP was 96% as same as that of the harvested ground control. Genomic DNA and protein were extracted from leaves of the barleys and analyzed by AFLP and 2-DE, respectively. The results demonstrated no significant difference in genetic polymorphism and protein production in these barleys. From our results, barley seeds could survive real space environment for the long-term habitation without phenotypic and genotypic damages.

  5. Susceptibility of biallelic haplotype and genotype frequencies to genotyping error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, Valentina; Schmidt, Karl Michael

    2006-12-01

    With the availability of fast genotyping methods and genomic databases, the search for statistical association of single nucleotide polymorphisms with a complex trait has become an important methodology in medical genetics. However, even fairly rare errors occurring during the genotyping process can lead to spurious association results and decrease in statistical power. We develop a systematic approach to study how genotyping errors change the genotype distribution in a sample. The general M-marker case is reduced to that of a single-marker locus by recognizing the underlying tensor-product structure of the error matrix. Both method and general conclusions apply to the general error model; we give detailed results for allele-based errors of size depending both on the marker locus and the allele present. Multiple errors are treated in terms of the associated diffusion process on the space of genotype distributions. We find that certain genotype and haplotype distributions remain unchanged under genotyping errors, and that genotyping errors generally render the distribution more similar to the stable one. In case-control association studies, this will lead to loss of statistical power for nondifferential genotyping errors and increase in type I error for differential genotyping errors. Moreover, we show that allele-based genotyping errors do not disturb Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the genotype distribution. In this setting we also identify maximally affected distributions. As they correspond to situations with rare alleles and marker loci in high linkage disequilibrium, careful checking for genotyping errors is advisable when significant association based on such alleles/haplotypes is observed in association studies.

  6. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.;

    1989-01-01

    represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise...

  7. Effects of n-butanol on barley microspore embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Ana Maria; Nielsen, Nanna; Jensen, Anni

    2014-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) production is an efficient tool in barley breeding, but efficiency of DH methods is not consistent. Hence, the aim of this study was to study the effect of n-butanol application on DH barley plant production efficiency. Five elite cultivars of barley and thirteen breeding cro...

  8. Characterization of the microchemical structure of seed endosperm within a cellular dimension among six barley varieties with distinct degradation kinetics, using ultraspatially resolved synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yu, Peiqiang

    2010-07-14

    Barley varieties have similar chemical composition but exhibit different rumen degradation kinetics and nutrient availability. These biological differences may be related to molecular, structural, and chemical makeup among the seed endosperm tissue. No detailed study was carried out. The objectives of this study were: (1) to use a molecular spectroscopy technique, synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM), to determine the microchemical-structural features in seed endosperm tissue of six developed barley varieties; (2) to study the relationship among molecular-structural characteristics, degradation kinetics, and nutrient availability in six genotypes of barley. The results showed that inherent microchemical-structural differences in the endosperm among the six barley varieties were detected by the synchrotron-based analytical technique, SFTIRM, with the univariate molecular spectral analysis. The SFTIRM spectral profiles differed (P degradation). Weak correlations may indicate that limited variations of these six barley varieties might not be sufficient to interpret the relationship between spectroscopic information and the nutrient value of barley grain, although significant differences in biodegradation kinetics were observed. In conclusion, the studies demonstrated the potential of ultraspatially resolved synchrotron based technology (SFTIRM) to reveal the structural and chemical makeup within cellular and subcellular dimensions without destruction of the inherent structure of cereal grain tissue.

  9. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  10. Evaluation of Barley as Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Köten

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley, as animal feed, raw material for malting and human food, constitute an important part among cereal sources in the world. Majority of barley that produced both in Turkey and other countries of the world, is being used as animal feed. Poor baking quality, taste and appearance of barley restricted its use in human nutrition. However, recently high protein, fiber, especially β-glucan and high starch content appeal to food industry. Many scientific researches established that β-glucan, a soluble fiber, has an effect in healing coronary-hearth diseases, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level, preventing obesity. Being a healthy cereal that can be used in various purposes, and an additive in many food products, barley is considered a very promising cereal, and research to increase possibilities of its use in human nutrition is being increased. In the literature, there has been researches on making noodles, bulgur, kavut (roasted cereal, breakfast cereals. In this study the researches relating to evaluation of barley, importance of which is increased every day, as human food was reviewed.

  11. Enhancing the aluminium tolerance of barley by expressing the citrate transporter genes SbMATE and FRD3

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Pereira, Jorge F.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Zhou, Meixue; Magalhaes, Jurandir V.; Ryan, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Malate and citrate efflux from root apices is a mechanism of Al3+ tolerance in many plant species. Citrate efflux is facilitated by members of the MATE (multidrug and toxic compound exudation) family localized to the plasma membrane of root cells. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is among the most Al3+-sensitive cereal species but the small genotypic variation in tolerance that is present is correlated with citrate efflux via a MATE transporter named HvAACT1. This study used a biotechnological approa...

  12. Improving the efficiency of isolated microspore culture in six-row spring barley: I-optimization of key physical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Patricio; Belzile, François

    2014-06-01

    An improved isolated microspore culture protocol alleviating the recalcitrance typically observed in six-row spring barley was developed by optimizing four key physical factors to increase embryogenesis and reduce albinism. Doubled haploid (DH) plants are completely homozygous individuals that can be generated in just a few months via androgenesis in vitro. DHs are useful tools in genetic research and in plant breeding. Isolated microspore culture (IMC) is the most efficient way to produce DHs, but a strong genotype dependency imposes limitations to its wide application. Six-row, spring barley genotypes are considered as particularly recalcitrant due to a low frequency of embryogenesis and a high rate of albinism. Seeking to develop an efficient IMC protocol for this type of barley, we explored four important factors: (1) the harvest stage of immature spikes, (2) the type of pretreatment applied, (3) the osmotic potential in the induction medium, and (4) the plating density of microspores. This work was first performed using four barley genotypes: two typical six-row spring cultivars (ACCA and Léger), a two-row spring (Gobernadora) and a two-row winter (Igri) cultivar. First, by optimizing the harvest stage for each genotype we obtained a twofold to fourfold increase in the yield of embryogenic microspores. Second, two pretreatments (0.3 M mannitol for 2 days, or a combination of cold and heat over 15 days) both performed significantly better than the commonly used cold pretreatment (28 days at 4 °C). Third, an induction medium-containing mannitol (32 g/l) doubled green plant regeneration. Fourth, a plating density of 10(6) microspores/ml yielded the highest number of green regenerated plants. Our most important findings were then confirmed using sets of F1s from a six-row, spring-type breeding program.

  13. A Compromised Mlo Pathway Affects the Response of Barley to the Necrotrophic Fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (Teleomorph: Cochliobolus sativus) and Its Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J; Hückelhoven, R; Beckhove, U; Nagarajan, S; Kogel, K H

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT In search of new durable disease resistance traits in barley to control leaf spot blotch disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph: Cochliobolus sativus), we developed macroscopic and microscopic scales to judge spot blotch disease development on barley. Infection of barley was associated with cell wall penetration and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. The latter appeared to take place in cell wall swellings under fungal penetration attempts as well as during cell death provoked by the necrotrophic pathogen. Additionally, we tested the influence of a compromised Mlo pathway that confers broad resistance against powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei). Powdery mildew-resistant genotypes with mutations at the Mlo locus (mlo genotypes) showed a higher sensitivity to infiltration of toxic culture filtrate of Bipolaris sorokiniana as compared with wild-type barley. Mutants defective in Ror, a gene required for mlo-specified powdery mildew resistance, were also more sensitive to Bipolaris sorokiniana toxins than wild-type barley but showed less symptoms than mlo5 parents. Fungal culture filtrates induced an H2O2 burst in all mutants, whereas wild-type (Mlo) barley was less sensitive. The results support the hypothesis that the barley Mlo gene product functions as a suppresser of cell death. Therefore, a compromised Mlo pathway is effective for control of biotrophic powdery mildew fungus but not for necrotrophic Bipolaris sorokiniana. We discuss the problem of finding resistance traits that are effective against both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens with emphasis on the role of the anti-oxidative system of plant cells.

  14. Genetic Variation of Functional Components in Grains of Improved Barley Lines from Four Continents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawen ZENG; Xiaoying PU; Jing ZHANG; Juan DU; Ganggang GUO; Tao YANG; ChunyanZHAO; Shuming YANG; Dawei ZHAO; Junjie TANG; Ping JIA

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to analyze functional components in improved barley grains. [Method] Genetic variations of functional components in grains among 629 barley improved lines from four continents were determined with DU640-type ul- traviolet spectrophotometry (BECKMAN). [Result] The contents (mg/100 g) of total flavones and GABA in grains of Asian barley lines (123.09_+29.56, 9.49_+4.34) were significantly higher than that of American barley lines (103.85_22.33, 7.38_+3.59), while no significant difference was observed between Asia/Americas and Europe (115.47_+11.41, 9.66-+3.98) and Australia (104.20-+4.76, 8.83-+3.41); furthermore, there was no significant difference of resistant starch content (%) in barley grains among four continents [Asia (1.63_+1.44), America (1.54_+1.13), Europe (1.20+0.85) and Aus- tralia (0.27_+0.26)]. The contents (%) of resistant starch in grains of two-rowed barley (ssp. Hordeurn distichon Koern., 1.45_+1.20) was significantly lower than that of poly- rowed barley (ssp. Hordeum vulgare Orlov., 1.95_+1.24). On the contrary, the content of total flavones in two-rowed lines (111.43_+27.79 mg/100 g) wa, s significantly higher than that of poly-rowed lines (102.15_+14.95 mg/100 g), and the content of GABA in two-rowed lines (8.55+_3.73 mg/100 g) was also significantly higher than that of poly-rowed lines (5.96_+3.95 mg/100 g). There was the most significant correlation between GABA content and resistant starch (-0.21)/total flavones content (0.12 , P〈0.01, n=-629). There were great genotype differences among the functional compo- nents in barley grains. The coefficient of variation (78.60%) and range (0-9.29%) of resistant starch (1.56_+1.22%) were relatively large, including 11 high-resistant starch lines above 5%; the coefficient of variation (49.00%) and range (0-30.67 mg/100g) of GABA (8.00-

  15. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  16. Differential effects of viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotypes IVa and IVb on gill epithelial and spleen macrophage cell lines from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, P H; Lumsden, J S; Tafalla, C; Dixon, B; Bols, N C

    2013-02-01

    The two most prominent genotypes of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) are -I in the Northeastern Atlantic region and -IV in North America, but much more is known about the cellular pathogenesis of genotype -I than -IV. VHSV genotype -IV is divided into -IVa from the Northeast Pacific Ocean and -IVb from the Great Lakes and both of which are less virulent to rainbow trout than genotype -I. In this work, infections of VHSV-IVa and -IVb have been studied in two rainbow trout cell lines, RTgill-W1 from the gill epithelium, and RTS11 from spleen macrophages. RTgill-W1 produced infectious progeny of both VHSV-IVa and -IVb. However, VHSV-IVa was more infectious than -IVb toward RTgill-W1: -IVa caused cytopathic effect (CPE) at a lower viral titre, elicited CPE earlier, and yielded higher titres. By contrast, no CPE and no increase in viral titre were observed in RTS11 cultures infected with either genotype. Yet in RTS11 all six VHSV genes were expressed and antiviral genes, Mx2 and Mx3, were up regulated by VHSV-IVb and -IVa. However, replication appeared to terminate at the translational stage as viral N protein, presumably the most abundant of the VSHV proteins, was not detected in either infected RTS11 cultures. In RTgill-W1, Mx2 and Mx3 were up regulated to similar levels by both viral genotypes, while VHSV-IVa induced higher levels of IFN1, IFN2 and LGP2A than VHSV-IVb. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The barley Frost resistance-H2 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquariello, Marianna; Barabaschi, Delfina; Himmelbach, Axel; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stein, Nils; Gandolfi, Francesco; Tenedini, Elena; Bernardis, Isabella; Tagliafico, Enrico; Pecchioni, Nicola; Francia, Enrico

    2014-03-01

    Frost resistance-H2 (Fr-H2) is a major QTL affecting freezing tolerance in barley, yet its molecular basis is still not clearly understood. To gain a better insight into the structural characterization of the locus, a high-resolution linkage map developed from the Nure × Tremois cross was initially implemented to map 13 loci which divided the 0.602 cM total genetic distance into ten recombination segments. A PCR-based screening was then applied to identify positive bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from two genomic libraries of the reference genotype Morex. Twenty-six overlapping BACs from the integrated physical-genetic map were 454 sequenced. Reads assembled in contigs were subsequently ordered, aligned and manually curated in 42 scaffolds. In a total of 1.47 Mbp, 58 protein-coding sequences were identified, 33 of which classified according to similarity with sequences in public databases. As three complete barley C-repeat Binding Factors (HvCBF) genes were newly identified, the locus contained13 full-length HvCBFs, four Related to AP2 Triticeae (RAPT) genes, and at least five CBF pseudogenes. The final overall assembly of Fr-H2 includes more than 90 % of target region: all genes were identified along the locus, and a general survey of Repetitive Elements obtained. We believe that this gold-standard sequence for the Morex Fr-H2 will be a useful genomic tool for structural and evolutionary comparisons with Fr-H2 in winter-hardy cultivars along with Fr-2 of other Triticeae crops.

  18. Identification of Pyrenophora teres f. maculata, Causal Agent of Spot Type Net Blotch of Barley in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Net blotch of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), caused by the fungus Pyrenophora teres (anamorph: Drechslera teres) can be differentiated into two forms, net form net blotch (NFNB) and spot form net blotch (SFNB). The pathogen forms causing the two different symptoms are P. teres f. teres and P. teres f....

  19. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...... forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...

  20. Desmanthus GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ HENRIQUE DE ALBUQUERQUE RANGEL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmanthus is a genus of forage legumes with potential to improve pastures and livestock produc-tion on clay soils of dry tropical and subtropical regions such as the existing in Brazil and Australia. Despite this patterns of natural or enforced after-ripening of Desmanthus seeds have not been well established. Four year old seed banks of nine Desmanthus genotypes at James Cook University were accessed for their patterns of seed softe-ning in response to a range of temperatures. Persistent seed banks were found to exist under all of the studied ge-notypes. The largest seeds banks were found in the genotypes CPI 78373 and CPI 78382 and the smallest in the genotypes CPI’s 37143, 67643, and 83563. An increase in the percentage of softened seeds was correlated with higher temperatures, in two patterns of response: in some accessions seeds were not significantly affected by tempe-ratures below 80º C; and in others, seeds become soft when temperature rose to as little as 60 ºC. At 80 °C the heat started to depress germination. High seed production of Desmanthus associated with dependence of seeds on eleva-ted temperatures to softening can be a very important strategy for plants to survive in dry tropical regions.

  1. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) family in barley: identification of members, enzyme activity, and gene expression pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad Kazem; Shobbar, Zahra-Sadat; Shahbazi, Maryam; Abedini, Raha; Zare, Sajjad

    2013-09-15

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one of the most important cereals in many developing countries where drought stress considerably diminishes agricultural production. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs EC 2.5.1.18) are multifunctional enzymes which play a crucial role in cellular detoxification and oxidative stress tolerance. In this study, 84 GST genes were identified in barley by a comprehensive in silico approach. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis grouped these HvGST proteins in eight classes. The largest numbers of the HvGST genes (50) were included in the Tau class followed by 21 genes in Phi, five in Zeta, two in DHAR, two in EF1G, two in Lambda, and one each in TCHQD and Theta classes. Phylogenetic analysis of the putative GSTs from Arabidopsis, rice, and barley indicated that major functional diversification within the GST family predated the monocot/dicot divergence. However, intra-specious duplication seems to be common. Expression patterns of five GST genes from Phi and Tau classes were investigated in three barley genotypes (Yusof [drought-tolerant], Moroc9-75 [drought-sensitive], and HS1 [wild ecotype]) under control and drought-stressed conditions, during the vegetative stage. All investigated genes were up-regulated significantly under drought stress and/or showed a higher level of transcripts in the tolerant cultivar. Additionally, GST enzyme activity was superior in Yusof and induced in the extreme-drought-treated leaves, while it was not changed in Moroc9-75 under drought conditions. Moreover, the lowest and highest levels of lipid peroxidation were observed in the Yusof and Moroc9-75 cultivars, respectively. Based on the achieved results, detoxification and antioxidant activity of GSTs might be considered an important factor in the drought tolerance of barley genotypes for further investigations.

  2. Differential sensitivity of 5'UTR-NS5A recombinants of hepatitis C virus genotypes 1-6 to protease and NS5A inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Humes, Daryl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy will benefit from the preclinical evaluation of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents in infectious culture systems that test the effects on different virus genotypes. We developed HCV recombinants comprising the 5' untranslated region-NS5A (5-5A)...

  3. Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 infecting common bean Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes show differential infection patterns between gene pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the occurrence of two plant endornaviruses, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 (PvEV-2), in breeding-lines, cultivars, landraces, and wild genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as well as other Phaseolus species collected from two...

  4. Jekyll Encodes a Novel Protein Involved in the Sexual Reproduction of Barley[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchuk, Volodymyr; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Radchuk, Ruslana; Steinbiss, Hans-Henning; Rolletschek, Hardy; Broeders, Sylvia; Wobus, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Cereal seed development depends on the intimate interaction of filial and maternal tissues, ensuring nourishment of the new generation. The gene jekyll, which was identified in barley (Hordeum vulgare), is preferentially expressed in the nurse tissues. JEKYLL shares partial similarity with the scorpion Cn4 toxin and is toxic when ectopically expressed in Escherichia coli and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). In barley, jekyll is upregulated in cells destined for autolysis. The gene generates a gradient of expression in the nucellar projection, which mediates the maternal–filial interaction during seed filling. Downregulation of jekyll by the RNA interference technique in barley decelerates autolysis and cell differentiation within the nurse tissues. Flower development and seed filling are thereby extended, and the nucellar projection no longer functions as the main transport route for assimilates. A slowing down in the proliferation of endosperm nuclei and a severely impaired ability to accumulate starch in the endosperm leads to the formation of irregular and small-sized seeds at maturity. Overall, JEKYLL plays a decisive role in the differentiation of the nucellar projection and drives the programmed cell death necessary for its proper function. We further suggest that cell autolysis during the differentiation of the nucellar projection allows the optimal provision of basic nutrients for biosynthesis in endosperm and embryo. PMID:16766690

  5. Jekyll encodes a novel protein involved in the sexual reproduction of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchuk, Volodymyr; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Radchuk, Ruslana; Steinbiss, Hans-Henning; Rolletschek, Hardy; Broeders, Sylvia; Wobus, Ulrich

    2006-07-01

    Cereal seed development depends on the intimate interaction of filial and maternal tissues, ensuring nourishment of the new generation. The gene jekyll, which was identified in barley (Hordeum vulgare), is preferentially expressed in the nurse tissues. JEKYLL shares partial similarity with the scorpion Cn4 toxin and is toxic when ectopically expressed in Escherichia coli and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). In barley, jekyll is upregulated in cells destined for autolysis. The gene generates a gradient of expression in the nucellar projection, which mediates the maternal-filial interaction during seed filling. Downregulation of jekyll by the RNA interference technique in barley decelerates autolysis and cell differentiation within the nurse tissues. Flower development and seed filling are thereby extended, and the nucellar projection no longer functions as the main transport route for assimilates. A slowing down in the proliferation of endosperm nuclei and a severely impaired ability to accumulate starch in the endosperm leads to the formation of irregular and small-sized seeds at maturity. Overall, JEKYLL plays a decisive role in the differentiation of the nucellar projection and drives the programmed cell death necessary for its proper function. We further suggest that cell autolysis during the differentiation of the nucellar projection allows the optimal provision of basic nutrients for biosynthesis in endosperm and embryo.

  6. Viability of barley seeds after long-term exposure to outer side of international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi C.; Elena, Shagimardanova; Gusev, Oleg A.; Kihara, Makoto; Hoki, Takehiro; Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2011-09-01

    Barley seeds were exposed to outer space for 13 months in a vented metal container without a climate control system to assess the risk of physiological and genetic mutation during long-term storage in space. The space-stored seeds (S0 generation), with an 82% germination rate in 50 seeds, lost about 20% of their weight after the exposure. The germinated seeds showed normal growth, heading, and ripening. The harvested seeds (S1 generation) also germinated and reproduced (S2 generation) as did the ground-stored seeds. The culm length, ear length, number of seed, grain weight, and fertility of the plants from the space-stored seeds were not significantly different from those of the ground-stored seeds in each of the S0 and S1 generation. Furthermore, the S1 and S2 space-stored seeds respectively showed similar β-glucan content to those of the ground-stored seeds. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis with 16 primer combinations showed no specific fragment that appears or disappears significantly in the DNA isolated from the barley grown from the space-stored seeds. Though these data are derived from nine S0 space-stored seeds in a single exposure experiment, the results demonstrate the preservation of barley seeds in outer space for 13 months without phenotypic or genotypic changes and with healthy and vigorous growth in space.

  7. Effects of cultivar and year on leaf number in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf appearance in small cereals is the result of leaf primordium initiation and leaf primordium extension. Final leaf number (FLN on main stem is determined by the number of primordia initiated up to the beginning of floral transition. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of growing season and cultivar on FLN in winter barley. Twelve cultivars differing in origin and time of anthesis (early, medium and late were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. FLN across cultivars and GSs was 13.5. The highest FLN across GSs was in the late, six-rowed barley cultivar Kredit (14.7 and the lowest in the early, two-rowed barley cultivar Novosadski 581 (11.3. In regard to earliness, the lowest FLN was in the early groups of cultivars (12.9 and the highest in the late ones (13.9. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in FLN, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  8. Differential Effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Genotype on the Cognitive Function of Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Japanese Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Kaneda, Ayako; Kaneko, Sunao

    2013-01-01

    Background The functional polymorphism Val158Met in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been associated with differences in prefrontal cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Several studies have indicated that the Met allele is associated with better performance on measures of cognitive function. We investigated whether the COMT Val158Met genotype was associated with cognitive function in 149 healthy controls and 118 patients with schizophrenia. Methods Cognitive function, including verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, attention, executive function and verbal fluency, was assessed by the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS-J). We employed a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a multiple regression analysis to determine the associations between the COMT Val158Met genotype and the BACS-J measurements. Results The one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in the scores on the Tower of London, a measure of executive function, between the different Val158Met genotypes in the healthy controls (p = 0.023), and a post-hoc analysis showed significant differences between the scores on the Tower of London in the val/val genotype group (18.6 ± 2.4) compared to the other two groups (17.6 ± 2.7 for val/met and 17.1 ± 3.2 for met/met; p = 0.027 and p = 0.024, respectively). Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function was significantly correlated with the Val158Met genotype (p = 0.003). However, no evidence was found for an effect of the COMT on any cognitive domains of the BACS-J in the patients with schizophrenia. Conclusion These data support the hypothesis that the COMT Val158Met genotype maintains an optimal level of dopamine activity. Further studies should be performed that include a larger sample size and include patients on and off medication, as these patients would help to confirm our findings. PMID:24282499

  9. Differential effects of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype on the cognitive function of schizophrenia patients and healthy Japanese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Tsuchimine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The functional polymorphism Val158Met in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene has been associated with differences in prefrontal cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Several studies have indicated that the Met allele is associated with better performance on measures of cognitive function. We investigated whether the COMT Val158Met genotype was associated with cognitive function in 149 healthy controls and 118 patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Cognitive function, including verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, attention, executive function and verbal fluency, was assessed by the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS-J. We employed a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and a multiple regression analysis to determine the associations between the COMT Val158Met genotype and the BACS-J measurements. RESULTS: The one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in the scores on the Tower of London, a measure of executive function, between the different Val158Met genotypes in the healthy controls (p = 0.023, and a post-hoc analysis showed significant differences between the scores on the Tower of London in the val/val genotype group (18.6 ± 2.4 compared to the other two groups (17.6 ± 2.7 for val/met and 17.1 ± 3.2 for met/met; p = 0.027 and p = 0.024, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function was significantly correlated with the Val158Met genotype (p = 0.003. However, no evidence was found for an effect of the COMT on any cognitive domains of the BACS-J in the patients with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: These data support the hypothesis that the COMT Val158Met genotype maintains an optimal level of dopamine activity. Further studies should be performed that include a larger sample size and include patients on and off medication, as these patients would help to confirm our findings.

  10. Effect of β-glucan-rich barley flour fraction on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Abdelmagid; Ragaee, Sanaa; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2014-12-01

    Research has shown that prolonged frozen storage of bread dough reduces the quality of the end product. In this study, the effect of air-classified barley flour fraction rich in β-glucan (approximately 25%) on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted bread dough was investigated. Wheat flour (W) was replaced by air-classified barley flour fraction (B) at 10% without or with 1.4% vital gluten to produce β-glucan enriched barley dough (WB) or barley dough plus gluten (WB + G). Dough products were stored at -18 ºC for 8 wk and their rheological properties were investigated weekly. During frozen storage dough extensibility increased, while elastic and viscous moduli decreased. Differential scanning calorimeter and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicated that WB and WB + G dough products contained approximately 10% less freezable water and 9% more bound water compared to the control dough (W). β-Glucan enriched dough also exhibited less changes in gluten network as shown by SEM photographs. The addition of air-classified barley flour fraction at 10% in frozen dough reduced deterioration effects caused by frozen storage via minimizing water redistribution and maintaining rheological properties of frozen dough. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  12. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...

  13. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  14. Adaptation of barley to harsh Mediterranean environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, van E.

    1993-01-01

    Research ObjectivesBarley is in Syria the dominant crop in areas receiving less than 300 mm annual precipitation. Grain yield is often below 1 ton ha -1, and is reduced by low temperatures in winter and terminal drought stress in spring. Variation i

  15. Cloning and characterization of purple acid phosphatase phytases from wheat, barley, maize, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus K; Holm, Preben B; Welinder, Karen G; Jørgensen, Malene; Stoger, Eva; Arcalis, Elsa; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-07-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here, it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PAPhys possess four conserved domains unique to the PAPhys. In barley and wheat, the PAPhy genes can be grouped as PAPhy_a or PAPhy_b isogenes (barley, HvPAPhy_a, HvPAPhy_b1, and HvPAPhy_b2; wheat, TaPAPhy_a1, TaPAPhy_a2, TaPAPhy_b1, and TaPAPhy_b2). In rice and maize, only the b type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. despite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during grain development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed that the PAPhy_a isogene set present in wheat/barley but not in rice/maize is the origin of high phytase activity in mature grains.

  16. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype in healthy and personality disorder individuals: Preliminary results from an examination of cognitive tests hypothetically differentially sensitive to dopamine functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie W Leung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Winnie W Leung1, Margaret M McClure1, Larry J Siever1,2, Deanna M Barch3, Philip D Harvey1,21Department of Veterans Affairs, VISN 3 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 3Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USAAbstract: A functional polymorphism of the gene coding for Catechol-O-methyltrasferase (COMT, an enzyme responsible for the degradation of the catecholamine dopamine (DA, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, is associated with cognitive deficits. However, previous studies have not examined the effects of COMT on context processing, as measured by the AX-CPT, a task hypothesized to be maximally relevant to DA function. 32 individuals who were either healthy, with schizotypal personality disorder, or non-cluster A, personality disorder (OPD were genotyped at the COMT Val158Met locus. Met/Met (n = 6, Val/Met (n = 10, Val/Val (n = 16 individuals were administered a neuropsychological battery, including the AX-CPT and the N-back working memory test. For the AX-CPT, Met/Met demonstrated more AY errors (reflecting good maintenance of context than the other genotypes, who showed equivalent error rates. Val/Val demonstrated disproportionately greater deterioration with increased task difficulty from 0-back to 1-back working memory demands as compared to Met/Met, while Val/Met did not differ from either genotypes. No differences were found on processing speed or verbal working memory. Both context processing and working memory appear related to COMT genotype and the AX-CPT and N-back may be most sensitive to the effects of COMT variation.Keywords: COMT, dopamine, context processing, working memory, schizotypal personality disorder

  17. Usefulness of real time PCR for the differentiation and quantification of 652 and JP2 Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans genotypes in dental plaque and saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piras Vincenzo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study is to describe a fast molecular method, able to distinguish and quantize the two different genotypes (652 and JP2 of an important periodontal pathogen: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. The two genotypes show differences in the expression of an important pathogenic factor: the leukotoxin (ltx. In order to evidence this, we performed a real time PCR procedure on the ltx operon, able to recognize Aa clinical isolates with different leukotoxic potentials. Methods The specificity of the method was confirmed in subgingival plaque and saliva specimens collected from eighty-one Italian (Sardinian subjects with a mean age of 43.9, fifty five (68 % of whom had various clinical forms of periodontal disease. Results This procedure showed a good sensitivity and a high linear dynamic range of quantization (107-102 cells/ml for all genotypes and a good correlation factor (R2 = 0.97–0.98. Compared with traditional cultural methods, this real time PCR procedure is more sensitive; in fact in two subgingival plaque and two positive saliva specimens Aa was only detected with the molecular method. Conclusion A low number of Sardinian patients was found positive for Aa infections in the oral cavity, (just 10 positive periodontal cases out of 81 and two of these were also saliva positive. The highly leukotoxic JP2 strain was the most representative (60 % of the positive specimens; the samples from periodontal pockets and from saliva showed some ltx genotype for the same patient. Our experience suggests that this approach is suitable for a rapid and complete laboratory diagnosis for Aa infection.

  18. T3SS-dependent differential modulations of the jasmonic acid pathway in susceptible and resistant genotypes of Malus spp. challenged with Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugé De Bernonville, Thomas; Gaucher, Matthieu; Flors, Victor; Gaillard, Sylvain; Paulin, Jean-Pierre; Dat, James F; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2012-06-01

    Fire blight is a bacterial disease of Maloideae caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea). This necrogenic enterobacterium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject type III effectors into the plant cells to cause disease on its susceptible hosts, including economically important crops like apple and pear. The expressions of marker genes of the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense regulation pathways were monitored by RT-qPCR in leaves of two apple genotypes, one susceptible and one resistant, challenged with a wild type strain, a T3SS-deficient strain or water. The transcriptional data taken together with hormone level measurements indicated that the SA pathway was similarly induced in both apple genotypes during infection by Ea. On the contrary, the data clearly showed a strong T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway in leaves of the susceptible genotype but not in those of the resistant one. Accordingly, methyl-jasmonate treated susceptible plants displayed an increased resistance to Ea. Bacterial mutant analysis indicated that JA manipulation by Ea mainly relies on the type III effector DspA/E. Taken together, our data suggest that the T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway is a critical step in the infection process of Malus spp. by Ea.

  19. Enhancing the aluminium tolerance of barley by expressing the citrate transporter genes SbMATE and FRD3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Pereira, Jorge F; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Zhou, Meixue; Magalhaes, Jurandir V; Ryan, Peter R

    2014-06-01

    Malate and citrate efflux from root apices is a mechanism of Al(3+) tolerance in many plant species. Citrate efflux is facilitated by members of the MATE (multidrug and toxic compound exudation) family localized to the plasma membrane of root cells. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is among the most Al(3+)-sensitive cereal species but the small genotypic variation in tolerance that is present is correlated with citrate efflux via a MATE transporter named HvAACT1. This study used a biotechnological approach to increase the Al(3+) tolerance of barley by transforming it with two MATE genes that encode citrate transporters: SbMATE is the major Al(3+)-tolerance gene from sorghum whereas FRD3 is involved with Fe nutrition in Arabidopsis. Independent transgenic and null T3 lines were generated for both transgenes. Lines expressing SbMATE showed Al(3+)-activated citrate efflux from root apices and greater tolerance to Al(3+) toxicity than nulls in hydroponic and short-term soil trials. Transgenic lines expressing FRD3 exhibited similar phenotypes except citrate release from roots occurred constitutively. The Al(3+) tolerance of these lines was compared with previously generated transgenic barley lines overexpressing the endogenous HvAACT1 gene and the TaALMT1 gene from wheat. Barley lines expressing TaALMT1 showed significantly greater Al(3+) tolerance than all lines expressing MATE genes. This study highlights the relative efficacy of different organic anion transport proteins for increasing the Al(3+) tolerance of an important crop species.

  20. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.

  1. A chemometric approach to determine the phenolic compounds in different barley samples by two different stationary phases: a comparison between C18 and pentafluorophenyl core shell columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Berardinelli, Annachiara; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2014-08-15

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a cereal crop that has been cultivated since ancient times. However, its interest as nutritional food and as food ingredient is relatively new. Thus, in this study, the phenolic compounds of eighteen different varieties of barley (4 waxy and 14 non-waxy) grown under the same agronomic conditions in the same experimental field have been determined by HPLC-DAD-MS. Two new methodologies were developed using new generation superficially porous HPLC columns with different stationary phases: C18 and pentafluorophenyl (PFP). Twelve free phenolic compounds and eight bound phenolic compounds could be identified in barley samples in less than 22min. The study of different method parameters showed that C18 column was more suitable for the analysis of phenolic compounds of barley. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was conducted in order to assess the different ability of the two different core shell HPLC columns in the discrimination between "waxy" and "non-waxy" varieties, and only HCA of C18 column could separate waxy and non-waxy genotypes. Significant differences in the content of phenolic compounds between waxy and non-waxy samples were found, being waxy barley samples the ones which presented higher content of free and bound phenolic compounds. Once the best discriminant HPLC column was established, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied and it was able to discriminate between "waxy" and "non-waxy" varieties; however it discriminated the barley samples based only in free phenolic compounds. Because of that, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were carried out. PLS-DA and ANN permitted the classification of waxy and non-waxy genotypes from both free and bound phenolic compounds.

  2. Phenotypic characterization by high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging evidences differential effects of embryo genotype on intrauterine growth retardation in NOS3-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallares, Pilar; Perez-Solana, Maria L; Torres-Rovira, Laura; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    The Nos3-knockout mouse, deficient for endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), is affected by a reduction in the number and weight of the embryos and constitutes a good model for some features of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Deficiencies in conceptus growth and survival may result from factors inherent in the embryo itself or from deficiencies in uterine function. In the current study, we aimed to determine the effects of embryonic genotype independently of maternal genotype, which can affect uterine environment. Therefore, by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we characterized the phenotypes of NOS3-defective (Nos3(-/-); n = 6), normal wild-type (Nos3(+/+); n = 5), and heterozygous (Nos3(+/-); n = 16) mouse fetuses. All of them were littermates obtained by breeding heterozygous mice (Nos3(+/-)); therefore, the maternal genotype was the same for all the fetuses. At Day 13.5 (i.e., Theiler stage TS 21-22), females were anesthetized and scanned with three-dimensional MRI. Analysis of the different measurements of the embryos and the gestational annexes showed no significant differences between Nos3(+/+) and Nos3(+/-); however, there was a trend toward larger sizes in Nos3(+/+), and values in Nos3(-/-) were significantly smaller than in Nos3(+/+) and Nos3(+/-). The reduction in the crown-rump length of Nos3(-/-) reached 12% when compared to Nos3(+/+) (P Nos3(-/-) to wild-type Nos3(+/+). Finally, Nos3(-/-) showed a reduction of 29% in the maximum thickness of the placenta, which may be related to the appearance of IUGR due to compromised nutritional delivery to the fetus.

  3. Mapping regulatory genes as candidates for cold and drought stress tolerance in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondelli, A; Francia, E; Barabaschi, D; Aprile, A; Skinner, J S; Stockinger, E J; Stanca, A M; Pecchioni, N

    2006-02-01

    Cereal crop yield is greatly affected in many growing areas by abiotic stresses, mainly low temperature and drought. In order to find candidates for the tolerance genes for these stresses, 13 genes encoding for transcription factors and upstream regulators were screened by amplification and SSCP on six parental genotypes of three barley mapping populations ('Nure' x 'Tremois', 'Proctor' x 'Nudinka', and 'Steptoe' x 'Morex'), and mapped as newly developed STS, SNP, and SSCP markers. A new consensus function map was then drawn using the three maps above, including 16 regulatory candidate genes (CGs). The positions of barley cold and drought tolerance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) presently described in the literature were added to the consensus map to find positional candidates from among the mapped genes. A cluster of six HvCBF genes co-mapped with the Fr-H2 cold tolerance QTL, while no QTLs for the same trait were positioned on chromosome 7H, where two putative barley regulators of CBF expression, ICE1 and FRY1, found by homology search, were mapped in this work. These observations suggest that CBF gene(s) themselves, rather than their two regulators, are at present the best candidates for cold tolerance. Four out of 12 drought tolerance QTLs of the consensus map are associated with regulatory CGs, on chromosomes 2H, 5H, and 7H, and two QTLs with effector genes, on chromosomes 5H and 6H. The results obtained could be used to guide MAS applications, allowing introduction into an ideal genotype of favourable alleles of tolerance QTLs.

  4. Thermal properties of barley starch and its relation to starch characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källman, Anna; Vamadevan, Varatharajan; Bertoft, Eric; Koch, Kristine; Seetharaman, Koushik; Åman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2015-11-01

    Amylopectin fine structure and starch gelatinization and retrogradation were studied in 10 different barley cultivars/breeding lines. Clusters and building blocks were isolated from the amylopectin by α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and their structure was characterized. Gelatinization was studied at a starch:water ratio of 1:3, and retrogradation was studied on gelatinized starch at starch:water ratio of 1:2, by differential scanning calorimetry. Three barley cultivars/breeding lines possessed the amo1 mutation, and they all had a lower molar proportion of chains of DP ≥38 and more of large building blocks. The amo1 mutation also resulted in a higher gelatinization temperature and a broader temperature interval during gelatinization. Overall, small clusters with a dense structure resulted in a higher gelatinization temperature while retrogradation was promoted by short chains in the amylopectin and many large building blocks.

  5. Mutation analysis of barley malt protein Z4 and protein Z7 on beer foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimure, Takashi; Kimura, Tatsuji; Araki, Shigeki; Kihara, Makoto; Sato, Masahide; Yamada, Shinji; Shigyou, Tatsuro; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2012-02-15

    Beer foam stability is an important characteristic. It has been suggested that isoforms of protein Z, that is, protein Z4 and protein Z7, contribute to beer foam stability. We investigated the relationship between beer foam stability and protein Z4 and protein Z7 using their deficient mutants. As a protein Z4-deficient mutant, cv. Pirkka was used. Protein Z7 deficiency was screened in 1564 barley accessions in the world collection of Okayama University, Japan. The barley samples from normal, protein Z4-deficient, protein Z7-deficient, and double-deficient were genotyped in F(2) populations and then pooled based on the DNA marker genotypes of protein Z4 and protein Z7. For a brewing trial, F(5) pooled subpopulations were used. After malting and brewing, the foam stability was determined, and the results showed that the levels of foam stability in the four samples were comparable. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the proteome in these beer samples. The results showed that low molecular weight proteins, including lipid transfer protein (LTP2), in the deficient mutants were higher than those in the normal sample. Our results suggest that the contribution of protein Z4 and protein Z7 to beer foam stability was not greater than that of other beer proteins.

  6. Genevestigator Transcriptome Meta-Analysis and Biomarker Search Using Rice and Barley Gene Expression Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip Zimmermann; Oliver Laule; Josy Schmitz; Tomas Hruz; Stefan Bleuler; Wilhelm Gruissem

    2008-01-01

    The wide-spread use of microarray technologies to study plant transcriptomes has Ied to important discoveries and to an accumulation of profiling data covering a wide range of different tissues,developmental stages,perturbations,and genotypes.Querying a large number of microarray experiments can provide insights that cannot be gained by analyzing single experiments.However,such a meta-analysis poses.significant challenges with respect to data comparability and normalization,systematic sample annotation,and analysis tools.Genevestigator addresses these issues using a large curated expression database and a set of specifically developed analysis tools that are accessible over the internet.This combination has already proven to be usefuIin the area of plant research based on a Iarge set of Arabidopsis data (Grennan,2006).Here,we present the release of the Genevestigator rice and barley gene expression databases that contain quailty-controlled and welI annotated microarray experiments using ontologies.The databases currently comprise experiments from pathology,plant nutrition.abiotic stress,hormone treatment,genotype,and spatial or temporal analysis,but are expected to cover a broad variety of research areas as more experimentaI data become available.The transcriptome meta-analysis of the modeI species rice and barley iS expected to deliver results that can be used for functional genomics and biotechnoIogical applications in cereals.

  7. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismagul, Ainur; Mazonka, Iryna; Callegari, Corinne; Eliby, Serik

    2014-01-01

    Barley biotechnology requires efficient genetic engineering tools for producing transgenic plants necessary for conducting reverse genetics analyses in breeding and functional genomics research. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is an important technique for producing barley transgenics with simple low-copy number transgenes. This chapter reports a refined protocol for the systematic high-throughput transformation of the advanced Australian spring barley breeding line WI4330.

  9. Differential Activity of Plasma and Vacuolar Membrane Transporters Contributes to Genotypic Differences in Salinity Tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Bonales-Alatorre

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow (SV and fast (FV tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013 Plant Physiology. This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa. These include: (i a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v the ability to reduce the activity of SV and FV channels under saline conditions. These mechanisms appear to be highly orchestrated, thus enabling the remarkable overall salinity tolerance of quinoa species.

  10. Differential activity of plasma and vacuolar membrane transporters contributes to genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Lana; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Zeng, Fanrong; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-04-29

    Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow (SV) and fast (FV) tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013) Plant Physiology). This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa. These include: (i) a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii) maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii) better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv) a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v) the ability to reduce the activity of SV and FV channels under saline conditions. These mechanisms appear to be highly orchestrated, thus enabling the remarkable overall salinity tolerance of quinoa species.

  11. Plastome Mutations and Recombination Events in Barley Chloroplast Mutator Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Alejandra; Lencina, Franco; Pacheco, María G; Prina, Alberto R

    2016-05-01

    The barley chloroplast mutator (cpm) is an allele of a nuclear gene that when homozygous induces several types of cytoplasmically inherited chlorophyll deficiencies. In this work, a plastome Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING) strategy based on mismatch digestion was used on families that carried the cpm genotype through many generations. Extensive scanning of 33 plastome genes and a few intergenic regions was conducted. Numerous polymorphisms were detected on both genic and intergenic regions. The detected polymorphisms can be accounted for by at least 61 independent mutational events. The vast majority of the polymorphisms originated in substitutions and small indels (insertions/deletions) in microsatellites. The rpl23 and the rps16 genes were the most polymorphic. Interestingly, the variation observed in the rpl23 gene consisted of several combinations of 5 different one nucleotide polymorphisms. Besides, 4 large indels that have direct repeats at both ends were also observed, which appear to be originated from recombinational events. The cpm mutation spectrum suggests that the CPM gene product is probably involved in plastome mismatch repair. The numerous subtle molecular changes that were localized in a wide range of plastome sites show the cpm as a valuable source of plastome variability for plant research and/or plant breeding. Moreover, the cpm mutant appears to be an interesting experimental material for investigating the mechanisms responsible for maintaining the stability of plant organelle DNA.

  12. Changes of Limiting Dextrinase in Germinating Process of Malting Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiu-mei; LI Fen; WANG Hong-zhen; WANG Xing-zhi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five different species of barley, the foot layer analytic method was used to examine the activity and heat-resistance of the limiting dextrinase. The study was conducted on the dynamic changes of several types of the dextrinase in barley germinating process, the effect of temperature on the dextrinase and the divergence of dextrinase in different barley variety. The probability of the dextrinase that as reference index is used for screening and evaluating beer barley was discussed. The importance of dextrinase in brewing and its significant function was also discussed.

  13. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: barley [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available barley Hordeum vulgare Hordeum_vulgare_L.png Hordeum_vulgare_NL.png Hordeum_vulgare_S.png Hordeum_vu...lgare_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=L http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vu...lgare&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=NS ...

  15. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  16. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    about the function of many CSEPs in virulence and the identities of their host targets. In this PhD study, we investigated the function of nine CSEPs and found that CSEP0081, CSEP0105, CSEP0162 and CSEP0254 act as effectors by promoting the Bgh infection success. Independent silencing of these CSEPs...... to the cytosol and the nucleus of barley epidermal cells. Furthermore, CSEP0162 and CSEP0254 accumulated in the extrahaustorial matrix in Bgh-infected cells. This implies that their virulence targets may localize in the same cellular compartments. Using yeast two-hybrid screens, two barley small heat shock...... misfolding and aggregation. Through their chaperone activity, some sHsps contribute to pathogen defence by stabilizing intracellular proteins, including resistance and defence signalling proteins. In this study, we validated the chaperone activity of the barley Hsp16.9, which prevented the aggregation...

  17. Stability of Barley stripe mosaic virus induced gene silencing in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, Marianne; Madsen, Christian Toft; Jessing, Stine

    2007-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vector...... for barley and wheat; however, silencing using this vector is generally transient, with efficient silencing often being confined to the first two or three systemically infected leaves. To investigate this further, part of the barley Phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene was inserted into BSMV and the resulting...... inoculation, although large parts of the insert had been lost from the virus vector. The instability of the insert, observed consistently throughout our experiments, offers an explanation for the transient nature of silencing when using BSMV as a VIGS vector....

  18. Phosphate utilization efficiency correlates with expression of low-affinity phosphate transporters and noncoding RNA, IPS1, in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun Y; Shirley, Neil; Genc, Yusuf; Shi, Bujun; Langridge, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Genetic variation in phosphorus (P) efficiency exists among wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes, but the underlying mechanisms for the variation remain elusive. High- and low-affinity phosphate (Pi) PHT1 transporters play an indispensable role in P acquisition and remobilization. However, little is known about genetic variation in PHT1 gene expression and association with P acquisition efficiency (PAE) and P utilization efficiency (PUE). Here, we present quantitative analyses of transcript levels of high- and low-affinity PHT1 Pi transporters in four barley genotypes differing in PAE. The results showed that there was no clear pattern in the expression of four paralogs of the high-affinity Pi transporter HvPHT1;1 among the four barley genotypes, but the expression of a low-affinity Pi transporter, HvPHT1;6, and its close homolog HvHPT1;3 was correlated with the genotypes differing in PUE. Interestingly, the expression of HvPHT1;6 and HvPHT1;3 was correlated with the expression of HvIPS1 (for P starvation inducible; noncoding RNA) but not with HvIPS2, suggesting that HvIPS1 plays a distinct role in the regulation of the low-affinity Pi transporters. In addition, high PUE was found to be associated with high root-shoot ratios in low-P conditions, indicating that high carbohydrate partitioning into roots occurs simultaneously with high PUE. However, high PUE accompanying high carbon partitioning into roots could result in low PAE. Therefore, the optimization of PUE through the modification of low-affinity Pi transporter expression may assist further improvement of PAE for low-input agriculture systems.

  19. Genome-wide association study of production and stability traits in barley cultivated under future climate scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Backes, Gunter; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2015-01-01

    Future barley cultivars will have to produce under the constraints of higher temperature in combination with increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone as a consequence of climate change. A diverse set of 167 spring barley genotypes was cultivated under elevated levels...... to identify markers for increased primary production under climate change conditions and reveal possible genes of interest. Phenotyped traits included grain yield, number of grains, number of ears per plant, aboveground vegetative biomass, harvest index and stability of the production parameters over the five...... applied treatments. The GWAS encompassed 7864 SNP markers (Illumina iselect), a compressed mixed linear model with the GAPIT package, and conservative validation of markers. A total of 60 marker-trait associations [−log10(P value) 2.97–5.58] were identified, e.g. grain yield under elevated temperature...

  20. Transcriptome analysis of the barley-deoxynivalenol interaction: evidence for a role of glutathione in deoxynivalenol detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Stephanie A; Boddu, Jayanand; Berthiller, Franz; Hametner, Christian; Stupar, Robert M; Adam, Gerhard; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2010-07-01

    Trichothecenes are a major group of toxins produced by phytopathogenic fungi, including Fusarium graminearum. Trichothecenes inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells and are toxicologically relevant mycotoxins for humans and animals. Because they promote plant disease, the role of host responses to trichothecene accumulation is considered to be an important aspect of plant defense and resistance to fungal infection. Our overall objective was to examine the barley response to application of the type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON). We found that DON is diluted by movement from the application site to acropetal and basipetal florets. A susceptible barley genotype converted DON to DON-3-O-glucoside, indicating that UDP-glucosyltransferases capable of detoxifying DON must exist in barley. RNA profiling of DON-treated barley spikes revealed strong upregulation of gene transcripts encoding ABC transporters, UDP-glucosyltransferases, cytochrome P450s, and glutathione-S-transferases. We noted that transcripts encoding cysteine synthases were dramatically induced by DON, and that toxin-sensitive yeast on glutathione- or cysteine-supplemented media or carrying a gene that encodes a cysteine biosynthetic enzyme exhibit DON resistance, suggesting that preventing glutathione depletion by increasing cysteine supply could play a role in ameliorating the impact of DON. Evidence for nonenzymatic formation of DON-glutathione adducts in vitro was found using both liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, indicating that the formation of DON-glutathione conjugates in vivo may reduce the impact of trichothecenes. Our results indicate that barley exhibits multiple defense mechanisms against trichothecenes.

  1. The NAC transcription factors of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael; Holm, Preben Bach; Gregersen, Per L.

    2011-01-01

    ). From these data we have identified not only putative regulators of leaf senescence (HvNAC005, HvNAC027 and HvNAC029), but also possible regulators of secondary wall synthesis (HvNAC033, HvNAC034 and HvNAC039), lateral root formation (HvNAC022) and seed development (HvNAC017, HvNAC018, HvNAC019 and Hv...... genes characterized so far have regulatory functions in a broad range of plant developmental processes and tolerances to both biotic and abiotic stresses. This makes the NAC family highly interesting target genes for plant researchers and breeders. As part of a larger project on the identification...... of Hordeum vulgare (barley) leaf senescence regulators, we have attempted to characterize for the first time all presently available barley NAC genes (HvNACs). By searching the NCBI barley EST database using the tBLASTn function, with all known NAC genes from Brachypodium and rice as input, in combination...

  2. Transformation of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of in vitro cultured ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    Most cultivars of higher plants display poor regeneration capacity of explants due to yet unknown genotypic determined mechanisms. This implies that technologies such as transformation often are restricted to model cultivars with good tissue characteristics. In the present paper, we add further...... evidence to our previous hypothesis that regeneration from young barley embryos derived from in vitro-cultured ovules is genotype independent. We investigated the ovule culture ability of four cultivars Femina, Salome, Corniche and Alexis, known to have poor response in other types of tissue culture...... vector pVec8-GFP harboring a hygromycin resistance gene and the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene, was used for transformation. The results strongly indicate that the tissue culture response level in ovule culture is genotype independent. However, we did observe differences between cultivars...

  3. Fertility in barley flowers depends on Jekyll functions in male and female sporophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchuk, Volodymyr; Kumlehn, Jochen; Rutten, Twan; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Radchuk, Ruslana; Rolletschek, Hardy; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

    2012-04-01

    • Owing to its evolutional plasticity and adaptability, barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one of the most widespread crops in the world. Despite this evolutionary success, sexual reproduction of small grain cereals is poorly investigated, making discovery of novel genes and functions a challenging priority. Barley gene Jekyll appears to be a key player in grain development; however, its role in flowers has remained unknown. • Here, we studied RNAi lines of barley, where Jekyll expression was repressed to different extents. The impact of Jekyll on flower development was evaluated based on differential gene expression analysis applied to anthers and gynoecia of wildtype and transgenic plants, as well as using isotope labeling experiments, hormone analysis, immunogold- and TUNEL-assays and in situ hybridization. • Jekyll is expressed in nurse tissues mediating gametophyte-sporophyte interaction in anthers and gynoecia, where JEKYLL was found within the intracellular membranes. The repression of Jekyll impaired pollen maturation, anther dehiscence and induced a significant loss of fertility. The presence of JEKYLL on the pollen surface also hints at possible involvement in the fertilization process. • We conclude that the role of Jekyll in cereal sexual reproduction is clearly much broader than has been hitherto realized. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Barley Price and Quality Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement. Refer to section 2 of the Common... all quality criteria contained herein or grades U.S. No. 4 or lower in accordance with the grades and... coverage for malting barley production and quality losses at a price per bushel greater than that offered...

  5. Barley metallothioneins differ in ontogenetic pattern and response to metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Pedas, Pai

    2014-01-01

    The barley genome encodes a family of 10 metallothioneins (MTs) that have not previously been subject to extensive gene expression profiling. We show here that expression of MT1a, MT2b1, MT2b2 and MT3 in barley leaves increased more than 50-fold during the first 10 d after germination. Concurrent...

  6. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate ...

  7. Progressive hull removal from barley using the Fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to explore an alternative use of the Fitzpatrick Comminuting Machine: to use it to remove the hull from hulled barley while keeping the barley kernel intact. Traditionally, this mill is used to grind material, but we have recently discovered that it also has the abili...

  8. Combining unmalted barley and pearling gives good quality brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Hageman, Jos A.; Oguz, Serhat; Noordman, Tom R.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with unmalted barley can reduce the use of raw materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the brewing process. However, unmalted barley contains several undesired components for brewing and has a low enzymatic activity. Pearling, an abrasive milling method, has been proposed as a pre

  9. Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...

  10. Integrated physiological, biochemical and molecular analysis identifies important traits and mechanisms associated with differential response of rice genotypes to elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghireddy eSailaja

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In changing climate, heat stress caused by high temperature poses a serious threat to rice cultivation. A multiple organizational analysis at physiological, biochemical and molecular level is required to fully understand the impact of elevated temperature in rice. This study was aimed at deciphering the elevated temperature response in eleven popular and mega rice cultivars widely grown in India. Physiological and biochemical traits specifically membrane thermostability (MTS, antioxidants, and photosynthesis were studied at vegetative and reproductive phases which were used to establish a correlation with grain yield under stress. Several useful traits in different genotypes were identified which will be important resource to develop high temperature tolerant rice cultivars. Interestingly, Nagina22 emerged as best performer in terms of yield as well as expression of physiological and biochemical traits at elevated temperature. It showed lesser relative injury, lesser reduction in chlorophyll content, increased super oxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity, lesser reduction in net photosynthetic rate (PN, high transpiration rate (E and other photosynthetic/ fluorescence parameters contributing to least reduction in spikelet fertility and grain yield at elevated temperature. Further, expression of 14 genes including heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins was analyzed in Nagina22 (tolerant and Vandana (susceptible at flowering phase, strengthening the fact that N22 performs better at molecular level also during elevated temperature. This study shows that elevated temperature response is complex and involves multiple biological processes which are needed to be characterized to address the challenges of future climate extreme conditions.

  11. Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus and the Frequency of Triploids and Aneuploids in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfær, J.

    1973-01-01

    BSMV infection caused a pronounced increase in the frequency of triploid and aneuploid seeds in eleven barley varieties, but with considerable variation in frequency among varieties. In some of the varieties triploids exceeded three per cent. In virus-free material a few triploids were found in m...

  12. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four hom...

  13. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment and drought stress modify root exudation of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Olga C; Franzaring, Jürgen; Schmid, Iris; Müller, Matthias; Brohon, Nolwenn; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Rising CO2 concentrations associated with drought stress is likely to influence not only aboveground growth, but also belowground plant processes. Little is known about root exudation being influenced by elements of climate change. Therefore, this study wanted to clarify whether barley root exudation responds to drought and CO2 enrichment and whether this reaction differs between an old and a recently released malting barley cultivar. Barley plants were grown in pots filled with sand in controlled climate chambers at ambient (380 ppm) or elevated (550 ppm) atmospheric [CO2 ] and a normal or reduced water supply. Root exudation patterns were examined at the stem elongation growth stage and when the inflorescences emerged. At both dates, root exudates were analyzed for different compounds such as total free amino acids, proline, potassium, and some phytohormones. Elevated [CO2 ] decreased the concentrations in root exudates of some compounds such as total free amino acids, proline, and abscisic acid. Moreover, reduced water supply increased proline, potassium, electric conductivity, and hormone concentrations. In general, the modern cultivar showed higher concentrations of proline and abscisic acid than the old one, but the cultivars responded differentially under elevated CO2 . Plant developmental stage had also an impact on the root exudation patterns of barley. Generally, we observed significant effects of CO2 enrichment, watering levels, and, to a lesser extent, cultivar on root exudation. However, we did not find any mitigation of the adverse effects of drought by elevated CO2 . Understanding the multitude of relationships within the rhizosphere is an important aspect that has to be taken into consideration in the context of crop performance and carbon balance under conditions of climate change.

  14. A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K.

    2012-01-01

    Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of methods to evaluate genotypes accurately under field conditions. Although many screening criteria have been suggested to distinguish between genotypes for their salt tolerance under controlled environmental conditions, there is a need to test these criteria in the field. In this study, the salt tolerance, ion concentrations, and accumulation of compatible solutes of genotypes of barley with a range of putative salt tolerance were investigated using three growing conditions (hydroponics, soil in pots, and natural saline field). Initially, 60 genotypes of barley were screened for their salt tolerance and uptake of Na+, Cl–, and K+ at 150 mM NaCl and, based on this, a subset of 15 genotypes was selected for testing in pots and in the field. Expression of salt tolerance in saline solution culture was not a reliable indicator of the differences in salt tolerance between barley plants that were evident in saline soil-based comparisons. Significant correlations were observed in the rankings of genotypes on the basis of their grain yield production at a moderately saline field site and their relative shoot growth in pots at ECe 7.2 [Spearman’s rank correlation (rs)=0.79] and ECe 15.3 (rs=0.82) and the crucial parameter of leaf Na+ (rs=0.72) and Cl– (rs=0.82) concentrations at ECe 7.2 dS m−1. This work has established screening procedures that correlated well with grain yield at sites with moderate levels of soil salinity. This study also showed that both salt exclusion and osmotic tolerance are involved in salt tolerance and that the relative importance of these traits may differ with the severity of the salt stress. In soil, ion exclusion tended to be more important at low to moderate levels of stress but osmotic stress became more important at higher stress levels. Salt exclusion coupled with a synthesis of organic solutes were shown to be important components of salt

  15. A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2012-06-01

    Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of methods to evaluate genotypes accurately under field conditions. Although many screening criteria have been suggested to distinguish between genotypes for their salt tolerance under controlled environmental conditions, there is a need to test these criteria in the field. In this study, the salt tolerance, ion concentrations, and accumulation of compatible solutes of genotypes of barley with a range of putative salt tolerance were investigated using three growing conditions (hydroponics, soil in pots, and natural saline field). Initially, 60 genotypes of barley were screened for their salt tolerance and uptake of Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) at 150 mM NaCl and, based on this, a subset of 15 genotypes was selected for testing in pots and in the field. Expression of salt tolerance in saline solution culture was not a reliable indicator of the differences in salt tolerance between barley plants that were evident in saline soil-based comparisons. Significant correlations were observed in the rankings of genotypes on the basis of their grain yield production at a moderately saline field site and their relative shoot growth in pots at EC(e) 7.2 [Spearman's rank correlation (rs)=0.79] and EC(e) 15.3 (rs=0.82) and the crucial parameter of leaf Na(+) (rs=0.72) and Cl(-) (rs=0.82) concentrations at EC(e) 7.2 dS m(-1). This work has established screening procedures that correlated well with grain yield at sites with moderate levels of soil salinity. This study also showed that both salt exclusion and osmotic tolerance are involved in salt tolerance and that the relative importance of these traits may differ with the severity of the salt stress. In soil, ion exclusion tended to be more important at low to moderate levels of stress but osmotic stress became more important at higher stress levels. Salt exclusion coupled with a synthesis of organic solutes were shown to be important components of

  16. A novel major gene on chromosome 6H for resistance of barley against the barley yellow dwarf virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, R.E.; Habekuss, A.; Bekele, B.; Ordon, F.

    2004-01-01

    In a mapping population derived from the Ethiopian barley line L94 x Vada, natural infection by barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) occurred. While line L94 hardly showed symptoms, Vada was severely affected. The 103 recombinant inbred lines segregated bimodally. The major gene responsible for this res

  17. Reconstitution of cyanogenesis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and its implications for resistance against the barley powdery mildew fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kirsten A; Hrmova, Maria; Nielsen, Janni Nyvang; Forslund, Karin; Ebert, Stefan; Olsen, Carl E; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2006-04-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) produces a leucine-derived cyanogenic beta-D-glucoside, epiheterodendrin that accumulates specifically in leaf epidermis. Barley leaves are not cyanogenic, i.e. they do not possess the ability to release hydrogen cyanide, because they lack a cyanide releasing beta-D-glucosidase. Cyanogenesis was reconstituted in barley leaf epidermal cells through single cell expression of a cDNA encoding dhurrinase-2, a cyanogenic beta-D-glucosidase from sorghum. This resulted in a 35-60% reduction in colonization rate by an obligate parasite Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, the causal agent of barley powdery mildew. A database search for barley homologues of dhurrinase-2 identified a (1,4)-beta-D-glucan exohydrolase isozyme betaII that is located in the starchy endosperm of barley grain. The purified barley (1,4)-beta-D-glucan exohydrolase isozyme betaII was found to hydrolyze the cyanogenic beta-D-glucosides, epiheterodendrin and dhurrin. Molecular modelling of its active site based on the crystal structure of linamarase from white clover, demonstrated that the disposition of the catalytic active amino acid residues was structurally conserved. Epiheterodendrin stimulated appressoria and appressorial hook formation of B. graminis in vitro, suggesting that loss of cyanogenesis in barley leaves has enabled the fungus to utilize the presence of epiheterodendrin to facilitate host recognition and to establish infection.

  18. Metabolo-transcriptome profiling of barley reveals induction of chitin elicitor receptor kinase gene (HvCERK1) conferring resistance against Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Shailesh; Kumar, Arun; Dhokane, Dhananjay; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C

    2017-02-01

    We report plausible disease resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI89831 against Fusarium head blight (FHB) based on metabolo-transcriptomics approach. We identified HvCERK1 as a candidate gene for FHB resistance, which is functional in resistant genotype CI9831 but non-functional in susceptible cultivars H106-371 and Zhedar-2. For the first time, we were able to show a hierarchy of regulatory genes that regulated downstream biosynthetic genes that eventually produced resistance related metabolites that reinforce the cell walls to contain the pathogen progress in plant. The HvCERK1 can be used for replacing in susceptible commercial cultivars, if non-functional, based on genome editing. Fusarium head blight (FHB) management is a great challenge in barley and wheat production worldwide. Though barley genome sequence and advanced omics technologies are available, till date none of the resistance mechanisms has been clearly deciphered. Hence, this study was aimed at identifying candidate gene(s) and elucidating resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI9831 based on integrated metabolomics and transcriptomics approach. Following Fusarium graminearum infection, we identified accumulation of specific set of induced secondary metabolites, belonging to phenylpropanoid, hydroxycinnamic acid (HCAA) and jasmonic acid pathways, and their biosynthetic genes. In association with these, receptor kinases such as chitin elicitor receptor kinase (HvCERK1) and protein kinases such as MAP kinase 3 (HvMPK3) and MAPK substrate 1 (HvMKS1), and transcription factors such as HvERF1/5, HvNAC42, HvWRKY23 and HvWRKY70 were also found upregulated with high fold change. Polymorphism studies across three barley genotypes confirmed the presence of mutations in HvCERK1 gene in two susceptible genotypes, isolating this gene as a potential candidate for FHB resistance. Further, the silencing of functional HvCERK1 gene in the resistant genotype CI9831

  19. Influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, structure, and thermal properties of normal and waxy barley starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Avi; Annor, George; Vamadevan, Varatharajan; Tetlow, Ian; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Mortensen, Kell; Blennow, Andreas; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Bertoft, Eric

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, molecular composition, crystallinity, and gelatinization properties of normal barley starch (NBS) and waxy barley starch (WBS) granules from plants cultivated in a greenhouse under normal diurnal (16h light) or constant light photosynthetic conditions. Growth rings were observed in all starch samples regardless of lighting conditions. The size distribution of whole and debranched WBS analyzed by gel-permeation chromatography did not appear to be influenced by the different lighting regimes, however, a greater relative crystallinity measured by wide-angle X-ray scattering and greater crystalline quality as judged by differential scanning calorimetry was observed under the diurnal lighting regime. NBS cultivated under the diurnal photosynthetic lighting regime displayed lower amylose content (18.7%), and shorter amylose chains than its counterpart grown under constant light. Although the relative crystallinity of NBS was not influenced by lighting conditions, lower onset, peak, and completion gelatinization temperatures were observed in diurnally grown NBS compared to constant light conditions. It is concluded that normal barley starch is less influenced by the diurnal photosynthetic lighting regime than amylose-free barley starch suggesting a role of amylose to prevent structural disorder and increase starch granule robustness against environmental cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. "PolyMin": software for identification of the minimum number of polymorphisms required for haplotype and genotype differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Ursala K; Wollenweber, Bernd; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    . To date, software for identification of the minimum number of required markers has been optimized for human genetics and is only partly matching the needs of plant scientists and breeders. In addition, different software packages with insufficient interoperability need to be combined to extract...... this information from available allele sequence data, resulting in an errorprone multi-step process of data handling. Results: PolyMin, a computer program combining the detection of a minimum set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and/or insertions/deletions (INDELs) necessary for allele differentiation...

  1. LcMYB1 is a key determinant of differential anthocyanin accumulation among genotypes, tissues, developmental phases and ABA and light stimuli in Litchi chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Biao; Li, Xiao-Jing; Hu, Bing; Qin, Yong-Hua; Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong; Hu, Gui-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The red coloration of litchi fruit depends on the accumulation of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins level in litchi fruit varies widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies on various plant species demonstrate that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the transcriptional level. Here, we describe a litchi R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, LcMYB1, which demonstrates a similar sequence as other known anthocyanin regulators. The transcription levels of the LcMYB1 and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were investigated in samples with different anthocyanin levels. The expression of LcMYB1 was strongly associated with tissue anthocyanin content. LcMYB1 transcripts were only detected in anthocyanin-accumulating tissues and were positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarps of 12 genotypes. ABA and sunlight exposure promoted, whereas CPPU and bagging inhibited the expression of LcMYB1 and anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp. Cis-elements associated with light responsiveness and abscisic acid responsiveness were identified in the promoter region of LcMYB1. Among the 6 structural genes tested, only LcUFGT was highly correlated with LcMYB1. These results suggest that LcMYB1 controls anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi and LcUFGT might be the structural gene that is targeted and regulated by LcMYB1. Furthermore, the overexpression of LcMYB1 induced anthocyanin accumulation in all tissues in tobacco, confirming the function of LcMYB1 in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The upregulation of NtAn1b in response to LcMYB1 overexpression seems to be essential for anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and pedicel. In the reproductive tissues of transgenic tobacco, however, increased anthocyanin accumulation is independent of tobacco's endogenous MYB and bHLH transcriptional factors, but associated with the upregulation of specific structural genes.

  2. Kþ retention in leaf mesophyll, an overlooked component of salinity tolerance mechanism:A case study for barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergey Shabala

    2015-01-01

    Plant salinity tolerance is a physiological y complex trait, with numerous mechanisms contributing to it. In this work, we show that the ability of leaf mesophyl to retain Kþ represents an important and essential y overlooked component of a salinity tolerance mechanism. The strong positive correlation between mesophyl Kþ retention ability under saline conditions (quantified by the magnitude of NaCl‐induced Kþ efflux from mesophyl ) and the overal salinity tolerance (relative fresh weight and/or survival or damage under salinity stress) was found while screening 46 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. Genotypes with intrinsical y higher leaf Kþ content under control conditions were found to possess better Kþ retention ability under salinity and, hence, overal higher tolerance. Contrary to previous reports for barley roots, Kþ retention in mesophyl was not associated with an increased Hþ‐pumping in tolerant varieties but instead correlated negatively with this trait. These findings are explained by the fact that increased Hþ extrusion may be needed to charge balance the activity and provide the driving force for the high affinity HAK/KUP Kþ transporters required to restore cytosolic Kþ homeostasis in salt‐sensitive genotypes.

  3. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th–10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter–gatherer economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergusheva, Elena A.; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N.; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W.; Tarasov, Pavel E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440–890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter–gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early–Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the “Satsumon type” barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the “Okhotsk type” spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley

  4. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, Christian; Sergusheva, Elena A; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W; Tarasov, Pavel E

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley domains possibly

  5. Shoot apex development date of anthesis and grain yield of autumn-sown spring and winter barley hordeum-vulgare after different sowing times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, E.

    1985-01-01

    One spring and eight winter barley cultivars were sown at intervals from the middle of September (normal) until the end of October (late). The apical meristem of the spring cultivar had developed furthest until the onset of winter. It had started ear differentiation after normal sowing. Among...

  6. Shoot apex development date of anthesis and grain yield of autumn-sown spring and winter barley hordeum-vulgare after different sowing times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, E.

    1985-01-01

    One spring and eight winter barley cultivars were sown at intervals from the middle of September (normal) until the end of October (late). The apical meristem of the spring cultivar had developed furthest until the onset of winter. It had started ear differentiation after normal sowing. Among the...

  7. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development....

  8. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  9. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acid...... DP 2, DP 3 and DP 5 were successfully applied to detect activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic α-amylase, human salivary α-amylase and Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, respectively in a fast and simple fluorometric assay....

  10. Quantitative analysis of proteome extracted from barley crowns grown under different drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan O; Škodáček, Zbynek; Kosová, Klára; Pitelková, Iva; Vítámvás, Jan; Renaut, Jenny; Prášil, Ilja T

    2015-01-01

    Barley cultivar Amulet was used to study the quantitative proteome changes through different drought conditions utilizing two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Plants were cultivated for 10 days under different drought conditions. To obtain control and differentially drought-treated plants, the soil water content was kept at 65, 35, and 30% of soil water capacity (SWC), respectively. Osmotic potential, water saturation deficit, (13)C discrimination, and dehydrin accumulation were monitored during sampling of the crowns for proteome analysis. Analysis of the 2D-DIGE gels revealed 105 differentially abundant spots; most were differentially abundant between the controls and drought-treated plants, and 25 spots displayed changes between both drought conditions. Seventy-six protein spots were successfully identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The most frequent functional categories of the identified proteins can be put into the groups of: stress-associated proteins, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as DNA and RNA regulation and processing. Their possible role in the response of barley to drought stress is discussed. Our study has shown that under drought conditions barley cv. Amulet decreased its growth and developmental rates, displayed a shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, and exhibited increased levels of several protective proteins. Comparison of the two drought treatments revealed plant acclimation to milder drought (35% SWC); but plant damage under more severe drought treatment (30% SWC). The results obtained revealed that cv. Amulet is sensitive to drought stress. Additionally, four spots revealing a continuous and significant increase with decreasing SWC (UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, and two non-identified) could be good candidates for testing of their protein phenotyping capacity together with proteins that were significantly distinguished in both drought treatments.

  11. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROTEOME EXTRACTED FROM BARLEY CROWNS GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT DROUGHT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel eVítámvás

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Barley cv. Amulet was used to study the quantitative proteome changes through different drought conditions utilizing two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE. Plants were cultivated for ten days under different drought conditions. To obtain control and differentially drought-treated plants, the soil water content was kept at 65%, 35%, and 30% of soil water capacity (SWC, respectively. Osmotic potential, water saturation deficit, 13C discrimination, and dehydrin accumulation were monitored during sampling of the crowns for proteome analysis. Analysis of the 2D-DIGE gels revealed 105 differentially abundant spots; most were differentially abundant between the controls and drought-treated plants, and 25 spots displayed changes between both drought conditions. Seventy-six protein spots were successfully identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The most frequent functional categories of the identified proteins can be put into the groups of: stress-associated proteins, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as DNA & RNA regulation and processing. Their possible role in the response of barley to drought stress is discussed. Our study has shown that under drought conditions barley cultivar Amulet decreased its growth and developmental rates, displayed a shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, and exhibited increased levels of several protective proteins. Comparison of the two drought treatments revealed plant acclimation to milder drought (35% SWC; but plant damage under more severe drought treatment (30% SWC. The results obtained revealed that cv. Amulet is sensitive to drought stress. Additionally, four spots revealing a continuous and significant increase with decreasing SWC (UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, and two non-identified could be good candidates for testing of their protein phenotyping capacity together with proteins that were significantly distinguished in both drought treatments.

  12. New algorithm improves fine structure of the barley consensus SNP map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endelman Jeffrey B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to integrate information from multiple linkage maps is a long-standing problem in genetics. One way to visualize the complex ordinal relationships is with a directed graph, where each vertex in the graph is a bin of markers. When there are no ordering conflicts between the linkage maps, the result is a directed acyclic graph, or DAG, which can then be linearized to produce a consensus map. Results New algorithms for the simplification and linearization of consensus graphs have been implemented as a package for the R computing environment called DAGGER. The simplified consensus graphs produced by DAGGER exactly capture the ordinal relationships present in a series of linkage maps. Using either linear or quadratic programming, DAGGER generates a consensus map with minimum error relative to the linkage maps while remaining ordinally consistent with them. Both linearization methods produce consensus maps that are compressed relative to the mean of the linkage maps. After rescaling, however, the consensus maps had higher accuracy (and higher marker density than the individual linkage maps in genetic simulations. When applied to four barley linkage maps genotyped at nearly 3000 SNP markers, DAGGER produced a consensus map with improved fine structure compared to the existing barley consensus SNP map. The root-mean-squared error between the linkage maps and the DAGGER map was 0.82 cM per marker interval compared to 2.28 cM for the existing consensus map. Examination of the barley hardness locus at the 5HS telomere, for which there is a physical map, confirmed that the DAGGER output was more accurate for fine structure analysis. Conclusions The R package DAGGER is an effective, freely available resource for integrating the information from a set of consistent linkage maps.

  13. High-throughput phenotyping to detect drought tolerance QTL in wild barley introgression lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Honsdorf

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most severe stresses, endangering crop yields worldwide. In order to select drought tolerant genotypes, access to exotic germplasm and efficient phenotyping protocols are needed. In this study the high-throughput phenotyping platform "The Plant Accelerator", Adelaide, Australia, was used to screen a set of 47 juvenile (six week old wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs for drought stress responses. The kinetics of growth development was evaluated under early drought stress and well watered treatments. High correlation (r=0.98 between image based biomass estimates and actual biomass was demonstrated, and the suitability of the system to accurately and non-destructively estimate biomass was validated. Subsequently, quantitative trait loci (QTL were located, which contributed to the genetic control of growth under drought stress. In total, 44 QTL for eleven out of 14 investigated traits were mapped, which for example controlled growth rate and water use efficiency. The correspondence of those QTL with QTL previously identified in field trials is shown. For instance, six out of eight QTL controlling plant height were also found in previous field and glasshouse studies with the same introgression lines. This indicates that phenotyping juvenile plants may assist in predicting adult plant performance. In addition, favorable wild barley alleles for growth and biomass parameters were detected, for instance, a QTL that increased biomass by approximately 36%. In particular, introgression line S42IL-121 revealed improved growth under drought stress compared to the control Scarlett. The introgression line showed a similar behavior in previous field experiments, indicating that S42IL-121 may be an attractive donor for breeding of drought tolerant barley cultivars.

  14. High-throughput phenotyping to detect drought tolerance QTL in wild barley introgression lines

    KAUST Repository

    Honsdorf, Nora

    2014-05-13

    Drought is one of the most severe stresses, endangering crop yields worldwide. In order to select drought tolerant genotypes, access to exotic germplasm and efficient phenotyping protocols are needed. In this study the high-throughput phenotyping platform "The Plant Accelerator", Adelaide, Australia, was used to screen a set of 47 juvenile (six week old) wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs) for drought stress responses. The kinetics of growth development was evaluated under early drought stress and well watered treatments. High correlation (r = 0.98) between image based biomass estimates and actual biomass was demonstrated, and the suitability of the system to accurately and non-destructively estimate biomass was validated. Subsequently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located, which contributed to the genetic control of growth under drought stress. In total, 44 QTL for eleven out of 14 investigated traits were mapped, which for example controlled growth rate and water use efficiency. The correspondence of those QTL with QTL previously identified in field trials is shown. For instance, six out of eight QTL controlling plant height were also found in previous field and glasshouse studies with the same introgression lines. This indicates that phenotyping juvenile plants may assist in predicting adult plant performance. In addition, favorable wild barley alleles for growth and biomass parameters were detected, for instance, a QTL that increased biomass by approximately 36%. In particular, introgression line S42IL-121 revealed improved growth under drought stress compared to the control Scarlett. The introgression line showed a similar behavior in previous field experiments, indicating that S42IL-121 may be an attractive donor for breeding of drought tolerant barley cultivars. © 2014 Honsdorf et al.

  15. Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayhan Azadmanesh

    2005-09-01

    of a de novo infection. The NS5b region contains a subtype-specific motif which makes it suitable for epidemiological applications(44.It is difficult to assess the actual prevalence of mixed-genotype infections by currently available assays, including direct DNA sequencing, since they are designed to identify only the HCV genotype dominant in the population(45, 46.Serologic GenotypingMore recently, investigators identified genotypespecific antibodies that could be used as indirect markers for the HCV genotype(47-49. Serological typing uses enzyme immunoassays to detect the antigenic properties of several specific epitopes encoded by the NS-4 or the core regions of the HCV genome(50-52. Serologic genotyping has several advantages that make it suitable for large epidemiologic studies. These advantages include the low risk of contamination and the simplicity of the assay. However, serologic typing seems to lack specificity and sensitivity, which limits its usefulness.Clinical Relevance of HCV GenotypesGenotype, viral load, and liver histology are important parameters used in selecting an antiviral therapy with the greatest chance of success. Genotyping and subtyping of HCV is relevant to the epidemiology of HCV, vaccine development, clinical management, and assessment of the riskbenefit ratio of therapeutic measures against chronic HCV infection(53,54. It has been postulated that differences in nucleotide sequence could result in differential activity of HCV proteins that could alter the rate of HCV replication, sensitivity to the antiviral activity of interferon, or pathogenicity of the virus(55. In recent years, substantial evidence has emerged indicating that typing and subtyping for HCV is important clinically; genotype 1 in particular cannot be treated efficiently with IFN-alfa, while genotypes 2 and 3 respond favorably(65, 57. The causes of variation in treatment response are not well understood. Studies of Japanese patients infected with subtype 1b indicated that

  16. Field assessment of partial resistance to powdery mildew in spring barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. Chr.; Dalsgaard, H. H.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1986-01-01

    Partial resistance to powdery mildew in spring barley was evaluated in three plot types: large isolation plots, in 1.4 m2 plots in chessboard design with guard plots of spring wheat and in single rows. Percentage leaf area covered by powdery mildew was scored four to six times during the season....... The relationship between single scores of amount of powdery mildew on the upper four leaves and the area under the disease progress curve was high in all plot designs during the first two to three weeks after heading, allowing selection for the trait by one or two scorings. Differential ranking of varieties...

  17. Genome-wide SNPs and re-sequencing of growth habit and inflorescence genes in barley: implications for association mapping in germplasm arrays varying in size and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muehlbauer Gary J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerations in applying association mapping (AM to plant breeding are population structure and size: not accounting for structure and/or using small populations can lead to elevated false-positive rates. The principal determinants of population structure in cultivated barley are growth habit and inflorescence type. Both are under complex genetic control: growth habit is controlled by the epistatic interactions of several genes. For inflorescence type, multiple loss-of-function alleles in one gene lead to the same phenotype. We used these two traits as models for assessing the effectiveness of AM. This research was initiated using the CAP Core germplasm array (n = 102 assembled at the start of the Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP. This array was genotyped with 4,608 SNPs and we re-sequenced genes involved in morphology, growth and development. Larger arrays of breeding germplasm were subsequently genotyped and phenotyped under the auspices of the CAP project. This provided sets of 247 accessions phenotyped for growth habit and 2,473 accessions phenotyped for inflorescence type. Each of the larger populations was genotyped with 3,072 SNPs derived from the original set of 4,608. Results Significant associations with SNPs located in the vicinity of the loci involved in growth habit and inflorescence type were found in the CAP Core. Differentiation of true and spurious associations was not possible without a priori knowledge of the candidate genes, based on re-sequencing. The re-sequencing data were used to define allele types of the determinant genes based on functional polymorphisms. In a second round of association mapping, these synthetic markers based on allele types gave the most significant associations. When the synthetic markers were used as anchor points for analysis of interactions, we detected other known-function genes and candidate loci involved in the control of growth habit and inflorescence type. We

  18. Influence of Temperature on the Extractibility of Polysaccharides in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barley contains substantial amounts of both soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. The main watersoluble NSP in barley are highly viscous β-glucans. Monogastric animals, including humans and birds, cannotsynthesize β-glucanase, and the amount of β-glucanase derived from barley grain and bacteria in the gastrointestinaltract is insufficient to completely hydrolyze β-glucans. In the present investigation, we have studied the influence oftemperature and heating time on the extractibility of soluble polysaccharides in barley. Heating the barley samples at60°C and 80°C before extraction has the effect of lowering the soluble fraction of the polysaccharides. The dynamicviscosity values of water extracts from barley decreased up to 21.68% when heating at 60ºC for 15 minutes, and upto 25.30% when heating at 80ºC for 15 minutes, when the determinations were made immediately after extractseparation. Heating the barley samples for 15 minutes at 80°C deactivates the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes.

  19. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Interactions among catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype, parenting, and sex predict children’s internalizing symptoms and inhibitory control: Evidence for differential susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    SULIK, MICHAEL J.; EISENBERG, NANCY; SPINRAD, TRACY L.; LEMERY-CHALFANT, KATHRYN; SWANN, GREGORY; SILVA, KASSONDRA M.; REISER, MARK; STOVER, DARYN A.; VERRELLI, BRIAN C.

    2015-01-01

    We used sex, observed parenting quality at 18 months, and three variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (Val158Met [rs4680], intron1 [rs737865], and 3′-untranslated region [rs165599]) to predict mothers’ reports of inhibitory and attentional control (assessed at 42, 54, 72, and 84 months) and internalizing symptoms (assessed at 24, 30, 42, 48, and 54 months) in a sample of 146 children (79 male). Although the pattern for all three variants was very similar, Val158Met explained more variance in both outcomes than did intron1, the 3′-untranslated region, or a haplotype that combined all three catechol-O-methyltransferase variants. In separate models, there were significant three-way interactions among each of the variants, parenting, and sex, predicting the intercepts of inhibitory control and internalizing symptoms. Results suggested that Val158Met indexes plasticity, although this effect was moderated by sex. Parenting was positively associated with inhibitory control for methionine–methionine boys and for valine–valine/valine–methionine girls, and was negatively associated with internalizing symptoms for methionine–methionine boys. Using the “regions of significance” technique, genetic differences in inhibitory control were found for children exposed to high-quality parenting, whereas genetic differences in internalizing were found for children exposed to low-quality parenting. These findings provide evidence in support of testing for differential susceptibility across multiple outcomes. PMID:25159270

  1. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  2. STUDIES ON SYNBIOTIC BARLEY GRAIN EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated that effect of prebiotic food containing oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains. Barley grains probioticated using different strains of probiotics are Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefir,and saccharomyces boluradii. To select a suitable prebiotics like inulin for the development of Synbiotic barley and tested for antibacterial activity against diarrhoea causing pathogen such as Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae. Analysis of identified compound from synbiotic barley grain using GC-MS.

  3. Proteome analysis of grain filling and seed maturation in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnie, Christine; Melchior, Sabrina; Roepstorff, Peter; Svensson, Birte

    2002-07-01

    In monocotyledonous plants, the process of seed development involves the deposition of reserves in the starchy endosperm and development of the embryo and aleurone layer. The final stages of seed development are accompanied by an increase in desiccation tolerance and drying out of the mature seed. We have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for a time-resolved study of the changes in proteins that occur during seed development in barley (Hordeum vulgare). About 1,000 low-salt extractable protein spots could be resolved on the two-dimensional gels. Protein spots were divided into six categories according to the timing of appearance or disappearance during the 5-week period of comparison. Nineteen different proteins or protein fragments in 36 selected spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MS) or nano-electrospray tandem MS/MS. Some proteins were present throughout development (for example, cytosolic malate dehydrogenase), whereas others were associated with the early grain filling (ascorbate peroxidase) or desiccation (Cor14b) stages. Most noticeably, the development process is characterized by an accumulation of low-M(r) alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, serine protease inhibitors, and enzymes involved in protection against oxidative stress. We present examples of proteins not previously experimentally observed, differential extractability of thiol-bound proteins, and possible allele-specific spot variation. Our results both confirm and expand on knowledge gained from previous analyses of individual proteins involved in grain filling and maturation.

  4. Structural lability of Barley stripe mosaic virus virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin V Makarov

    Full Text Available Virions of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV were neglected for more than thirty years after their basic properties were determined. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics of BSMV virions and virion-derived viral capsid protein (CP were analyzed, namely, the absorption and intrinsic fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and size distributions by dynamic laser light scattering. The structural properties of BSMV virions proved to be intermediate between those of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, a well-characterized virus with rigid rod-shaped virions, and flexuous filamentous plant viruses. The BSMV virions were found to be considerably more labile than expected from their rod-like morphology and a distant sequence relation of the BSMV and TMV CPs. The circular dichroism spectra of BSMV CP subunits incorporated into the virions, but not subunits of free CP, demonstrated a significant proportion of beta-structure elements, which were proposed to be localized mostly in the protein regions exposed on the virion outer surface. These beta-structure elements likely formed during virion assembly can comprise the N- and C-terminal protein regions unstructured in the non-virion CP and can mediate inter-subunit interactions. Based on computer-assisted structure modeling, a model for BSMV CP subunit structural fold compliant with the available experimental data was proposed.

  5. Comparison of beer quality attributes between beers brewed with 100% barley malt and 100% barley raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Elisabeth; Auer, Andrea; Becker, Thomas; Gastl, Martina

    2012-03-15

    Brewing with 100% barley using the Ondea® Pro exogenous brewing enzyme product was compared to brewing with 100% barley. The use of barley, rather than malt, in the brewing process and the consequences for selected beer quality attributes (foam formation, colloidal stability and filterability, sensory differences, protein content and composition) was considered. The quality attributes of barley, malt, kettle-full-wort, cold wort, unfiltered beer and filtered beer were assessed. A particular focus was given to monitoring changes in the barley protein composition during the brewing process and how the exogenous OndeaPro® enzymes influenced wort protein composition. All analyses were based on standard brewing methods described in ASBC, EBC or MEBAK. To monitor the protein changes two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used. It was shown that by brewing beer with 100% barley and an appropriate addition of exogenous Ondea® Pro enzymes it was possible to efficiently brew beer of a satisfactory quality. The production of beers brewed with 100% barley resulted in good process efficiency (lautering and filtration) and to a final product whose sensory quality was described as light, with little body and mouthfeel, very good foam stability and similar organoleptic qualities compared to conventional malt beer. In spite of the sensory evaluation differences could still be seen in protein content and composition. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Allelic diversity of a beer haze active protein gene in cultivated and Tibetan wild barley and development of allelic specific markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingzhen; Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Sun, Dongfa; Zhang, Guoping

    2011-07-13

    The formation of haze is a serious quality problem in beer production. It has been shown that the use of silica elute (SE)-ve malt (absence of molecular weight (MW) ∼14000 Da) for brewing can improve haze stability in the resultant beer, and the protein was identified as a barley trypsin inhibitor of the chloroform/methanol type (BTI-CMe). The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the allelic diversity of the gene controlling BTI-CMe in cultivated and Tibetan wild barley and (2) allele-specific (AS) markers for screening SE protein type. A survey of 172 Tibetan annual wild barley accessions and 71 cultivated barley genotypes was conducted, and 104 wild accessions and 35 cultivated genotypes were identified as SE+ve and 68 wild accessions and 36 cultivated genotypes as SE-ve. The allelic diversity of the gene controlling BTI-CMe was investigated by cloning, alignment, and association analysis. It was found that there were significant differences between the SE+ve and SE-ve types in single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 234 (SNP(234)), SNP(313), and SNP(385.) Furthermore, two sets of AS markers were developed to screen SE protein type based on SNP(313). AS-PCR had results very similar to those obtained by immunoblot method. Mapping analysis showed that the gene controlling the MW∼14 kDa band was located on the short arm of chromosome 3H, at the position of marker BPB-0527 (33.302 cM) in the Franklin/Yerong DH population.

  7. Simultaneous estimation of QTL effects and positions when using genotype data with errors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liang Tong; Weijun Ma; Haidong Liu; Chaofeng Yuan; Ying Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Accurate genetic data are important prerequisite of performing genetic linkage test or association test. Currently, most analytical methods assume that the observed genotypes are correct. However, due to the constraint at the technical level, most of the genetic data that people used so far contain errors. In this paper, we considered the problem of QTL mapping based on biological data with genotyping errors. By analysing all possible genotypes of each individual in framework of multiple-interval mapping, we proposed an algorithm of inferring all model parameters through the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm and discussed the hypothesis testing of the existence of QTL. We carried out extensive simulation studies to assess the proposed method. Simulation results showed that the new method outperforms the method that does not take the genotyping errors into account, and therefore it can decrease the impact of genotyping errors on QTL mapping. The proposed method was also applied to analyse a real barley dataset.

  8. Variation in chemical composition and physical characteristics of cereal grains from different genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodehutscord, Markus; Rückert, Christine; Maurer, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    to as GrainUp. Genotypes of one grain species were grown on the same site, except maize. In general, concentrations of proximate nutrients were not largely different from feed tables. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the ether extract concentration of maize was high because the data pool comprised...... speciality maize bred for its high oil content. A subset of 8 barley, 20 rye, 20 triticale and 20 wheat samples was analysed to differ significantly in several carbohydrate fractions. Gross energy concentration of cereal grains could be predicted from proximate nutrient concentration with good accuracy......Genotypes of cereal grains, including winter barley (n = 21), maize (n = 27), oats (n = 14), winter rye (n = 22), winter triticale (n = 21) and winter wheat (n = 29), were assayed for their chemical composition and physical characteristics as part of the collaborative research project referred...

  9. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Chen, Guang; Veljanoski, Filip; Wang, Gang; Shabala, Sergey; Zhou, Meixue; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis), and molecular techniques (RT-PCR and qPCR) to investigate stomatal behavior and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterization of stomatal behavior of a large number of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant cultivar CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture under 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive cultivar Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield under salt treatment. Phenotypic characterization and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to higher barley grain yield in the field.

  10. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 2 HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological and molecular techniques (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis, and gene expression to investigate stomatal behaviour and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterisation of stomatal behaviour of large numbers of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we have found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture in 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield in salt treatment. Phenotypic characterisation and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to high barley grain yield in the field.

  11. A barley SKP1-like protein controls abundance of the susceptibility factor RACB and influences the interaction of barley with the barley powdery mildew fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Tina; Hoefle, Caroline; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2016-02-01

    In an increasing number of plant-microbe interactions, it has become evident that the abundance of immunity-related proteins is controlled by the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system. In the interaction of barley with the biotrophic barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh), the RAC/ROP [RAT SARCOMA-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate/RAT SARCOMA HOMOLOGUE (RHO) of plants] guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) HvRACB supports the fungus in a compatible interaction. By contrast, barley HvRBK1, a ROP-binding receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase that interacts with and can be activated by constitutively activated HvRACB, limits fungal infection success. We have identified a barley type II S-phase kinase 1-associated (SKP1)-like protein (HvSKP1-like) as a molecular interactor of HvRBK1. SKP1 proteins are subunits of the SKP1-cullin 1-F-box (SCF)-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that acts in the specific recognition and ubiquitination of protein substrates for subsequent proteasomal degradation. Transient induced gene silencing of either HvSKP1-like or HvRBK1 increased protein abundance of constitutively activated HvRACB in barley epidermal cells, whereas abundance of dominant negative RACB only weakly increased. In addition, silencing of HvSKP1-like enhanced the susceptibility of barley to haustorium establishment by Bgh. In summary, our results suggest that HvSKP1-like, together with HvRBK1, controls the abundance of HvRACB and, at the same time, modulates the outcome of the barley-Bgh interaction. A possible feedback mechanism from RAC/ROP-activated HvRBK1 on the susceptibility factor HvRACB is discussed.

  12. Drought stress effects on the grain yield among different barley cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshadi Aram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined commercial barley cultivars in two sequential growing season by including irrigation and rainfed conditions under a randomized complete block experimental design. There were positive and significant correlations between the yeild and either of the indices including Mean productivity (MP, Stress Tolerance Index (STI, Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP, Harmonic Mean Productivity (HMP, and Mean Relative Performance (MRP in both irrigated and drought conditions. The PC1 and PC2 justified 94.86 and 94.44% of total variation in the first year and second year, respectively. According to 3-dimensional diagram and based on STI, genotypes 2, 3, and 8 in the first year and gentypes 4, 3, 8, and 2 in the second year were clustered together in group A, and therefore, called the most tolerant cultivars to drought stress.

  13. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  14. Differences in phytase activity and phytic acid content between cultivated and Tibetan annual wild barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Xu, Yang; Cai, Shengguan; Qiu, Boyin; Zhang, Guoping

    2010-11-24

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China is considered to be one of the original centers of cultivated barley. At present, little is known about the phytase activity (Phy) or phytic acid content (PA) in grains of Tibetan annual wild barley. Phy and PA were determined in grains of 135 wild and 72 cultivated barleys. Phy ranged from 171.3 to 1299.2 U kg(-1) and from 219.9 to 998.2 U kg(-1) for wild and cultivated barleys, respectively. PA and protein contents were much higher in wild barley than in cultivated barley. Tibetan annual wild barley showed a larger genetic diversity in phytase activity and phytic acid and protein contents and is of value for barley breeding. There is no significant correlation between phytase activity and phytic acid or protein content in barley grains, indicating that endogenous phytase activity had little effect on the accumulation of phytic acid.

  15. Amylolytic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from barley

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-01-28

    Jan 28, 2015 ... Key words: Lactobacillus plantarum, starch hydrolysis, barley, malting. ... especially in environments rich in glucose or disac- charides such as sucrose ..... numbers produce less lactic acid, which in turn is less stringent on ...

  16. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...... for variations in storage protein and AA composition. These cultivars were selected based on their higher protein contents (11.8–17.6%). The results obtained indicated that substantial variation not only in the distribution of the hordein polypeptides but also in the relative proportions of the storage proteins...

  17. Evaluation of fermented whole crop wheat and barley feeding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    이창희

    2017-07-11

    Jul 11, 2017 ... After maize, wheat and barley are produced in large quantities and account ... Through fermentation, beneficial bacteria are increased and harmful .... LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, cortisol, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).

  18. Rapid typing of Mannheimia haemolytica major genotypes 1 and 2 using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, John Dustin; Clawson, Michael L

    2017-05-01

    Genotype 2M. haemolytica predominantly associate over genotype 1 with the lungs of cattle with respiratory disease and ICEs containing antimicrobial resistance genes. Distinct protein masses were detected by MALDI-TOF MS between genotype 1 and 2 strains. MALDI-TOF MS could rapidly differentiate genotype 2 strains in veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

  19. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...... a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase....

  20. Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Asakavičiūtė, Rita; Pašakinskienė, Izolda

    2006-01-01

    The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled haploids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko’s method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda’s method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in four Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (‘Aura’, ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’ and ‘Auksiniai’) ...

  1. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    Three years of experiments with spring barley showed significant differences in weed suppression ability among varieties. Weed dry matter in the most suppressive variety, Ida, was 48% lower than the mean weed dry matter of all varieties, whereas it was 31% higher in the least suppressive variety......, Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... interception model was developed to describe the light interception profiles of the varieties. A study of the estimated parameters showed significant correlation between weed dry matter, rate of canopy height development and the light interception profile. However, when estimates were standardized to eliminate...

  2. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  3. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...... for estimating a linkage map; it involves (1) transformation by the Kosambi mapping function of the available recombination percentages to additive map distances, (2) calculations of a set of map distances from the transformed recombination percentages by a maximum likelihood method in which all the available...... data are utilized jointly, and (3) omission of inconsistent data and determination of the most likely order of the loci. This procedure was applied to the 42 recombination percentages available for the 13 “mapped” loci. Due to inconsistencies 14 of the recombination percentages and, therefore, two...

  4. The effect of added enzymes on process potentials derived from different qualities of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Zhuang, Shiwen; Hansen, Preben Bøje;

    Barley sorting is an important step for picking up grain of desired quality. Whilst brewing with 100% sorted barley (picked high quality) has become realistic with the addition of exogenous enzymes, the effect of added enzymes on process potentials derived from un-sorted barley (mixed) and sorted...... filterability, the Ondea® Pro treatment resulted in significantly lower turbidity and smaller particle size compared to Cellic® CTec2; however, this effect was observed in sorted and un-sorted barley but not in sorted-out barley. Consequently the un-sorted barley demonstrated great potential in brewing process...

  5. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    of reconstitution compared to dry stored barley on phosphorus (P) digestibility in pigs. Materials and Methods: Dry barley (13% moisture; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions. After 49......: Reconstituted barley had higher soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and lower phytate P (0.93 g/ kg DM) compared with dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM, respectively). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed increased P absorption (52%) and decreased P excretion in feces (21%) (P

  6. Constructing the barley model for genetic transformation in Triticeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Bo; WU Jia-jie; FU Dao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest domesticated crops, showing dramatic adaptation to various climate and environmental conditions. As a major cereal crop, barley ranks the 4th after wheat, maize and rice in terms of planting area and production al over the world. Due to its diploid nature, the cultivated barley is considered as an ideal model to study the polyploid wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, we reviewed the development, optimization, and application of transgenic approaches in barley. The most efifcient and robust genetic transformation has been built on the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer in conjunction with the immature embryo-based regeneration. We then discussed future considerations of using more practical technologies in barley transformation, such as the T-DNA/transposon tagging and the genome editing. As a cereal crop amenable to genetic transformation, barley wil serve as the most valuable carrier for global functional genomics in Triticeae and is becoming the most practical model for generating value-added products.

  7. Glycaemic response to barley porridge varying in dietary fibre content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondre, Pariyarath S; Wang, Ke; Rosenthal, Andrew J; Henry, Christiani J K

    2012-03-01

    The interest in barley as a food is increasing worldwide because of its high dietary fibre (DF) content and low glycaemic index (GI). DF in cereals may prove beneficial in improving blood glucose response in the long term. However, a dose-dependent effect of insoluble fibre on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels is yet to be proven. The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic response to two barley porridges prepared from whole barley grains varying in fibre content. In two separate non-blind randomised crossover trials, ten human subjects consumed barley porridge with 16 g/100 g and 10 g/100 g fibre content provided in different serving sizes (equivalent to 25 and 50 g available carbohydrate). The glycaemic response to both barley porridges was significantly lower than the reference glucose (P porridges. We concluded that irrespective of the difference in total fibre content or serving size of barley porridges, their GI values did not differ significantly.

  8. DISTRIBUTION OF ALLELES OF HvITR1 GENE ENCODING CMe (BTI-CMe TRYPSIN INHIBITOR WHICH RELATED WITH COLLOIDAL STABILITY OF BEER AMONG BARLEY VARIETIES REGISTERED IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. I. Stepanenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The biotechnological analysis of modern barley varieties of national and foreign origin for the presence of valuable SE-ve genotypes was done. Identification of the allelic status of the gene was performed among 109 barley samples using the developed multiplex PCR system for SNAP molecular markers. Among the studied varieties SE+ve allele was identified in 75 barley samples and the other contained SE-ve allele. 6 samples which revealed both alleles SE+ve and SE-ve were heterogeneous (+/-. The obtained results were compared with the data of the State register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine and showed that 8 samples referred to as forage, contained SE+ve allele and none of them were SE-ve allele. Of 38 varieties, which quality was identified as suitable for brewing, 19 contained SE+ve allele, the rest — allele SE-ve. The results of performed analysis of the spring barley collection for allelic composition of HvITR1 gene are of great practical importance as for the correct selection of mating pairs for malting breeding, for the selection of elite plants in breeding populations, or evaluation of barley seeds for beverage brewing purposes.

  9. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2004-01-01

    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  10. Competition and Facilitation in Hairy Vetch-Barley Intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Tosti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercrops between legumes and non-legumes are widely used for fodder production and as cover crops, but little quantitative data are available on competition between species in the mixture. The objective of the present study was to assess the interaction between hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown as pure crops or intercrops with different proportions of seed rates at sowing. A 4-year field study was conducted using hairy vetch and barley as pure stands at full sowing density and as intercrops at different proportions of their own full seed rate according to the replacement principle. Interaction between species was evaluated on the basis of Land Equivalent Ratio (LER, Relative Neighbour Effect (RNE and Aggressivity (A calculated on biomass and nitrogen (N accumulation. The N accumulation of the mixed crops increased linearly with the legume proportion in the mixture. The mixtures were more efficient than the pure crops in terms of N use (LER > 1. Partial LER values indicated that the barley component benefited from the presence of the legume, while the hairy vetch partial LER decreased with increasing barley proportion in the mixture. The competitive response in terms of biomass accumulation was high for both species when their density in the mixture was high. Concerning N accumulation, barley benefited from an asymmetric interspecific facilitation while the vetch behaviour was similar to that observed for biomass accumulation. Barley dominance progressively increased reaching a maximum just before the last sampling date. At the last sampling date the competitive ability of hairy vetch showed a considerable increase in all mixtures (A ≈ 0. These findings indicate that the use of mixtures between hairy vetch and barley allows an increase in the use efficiency of N resource with respect to pure crops. Barley is the dominant component of the mixture and the hairy vetch is able to cope with the cereal

  11. Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Maize (Zea mays L.) for Improving Manganese Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Lizhi

    and the interaction between latent Mn deficiency and light stress in maize plants. The obtained results showed that latent Mn deficiency decreased the utilization of photosynthetically active light, inhibited the ability to perform photosynthetic state transitions and the response of net photosynthetic CO2......Manganese (Mn) deficiency is a nutritional problem, causing significant reductions in crop yields and in severe cases resulting in complete loss of crops during winter time. Different plant species and genotypes within the same species vary in their tolerance with respect to growth in soils...... with low Mn availability, a phenomenon referred to as Mn efficiency. Iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1), known to be correlated with Mn uptake capacity and Mn efficiency in barley, was characterized using barley RNAi lines. The obtained results showed that HvIRT1 was involved in uptake and root...

  12. Analysis of linear and nonlinear genotype × environment interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Cai eYang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The usual analysis of genotype × environment interaction (GxE is based on the linear regression of genotypic performance on environmental changes (e.g., classic stability analysis. This linear model may often lead to lumping together of the nonlinear responses to the whole range of environmental changes from suboptimal and superoptimal conditions, thereby lowering the power of detecting GxE variation. On the other hand, the GxE is present when the magnitude of the genetic effect differs across the range of environmental conditions regardless of whether the response to environmental changes is linear or nonlinear. The objectives of this study are: (i explore the use of four commonly used nonlinear functions (logistic, parabola, normal and Cauchy functions for modeling nonlinear genotypic responses to environmental changes and (ii to investigate the difference in the magnitude of estimated genetic effects under different environmental conditions. The use of nonlinear functions was illustrated through the analysis of one data set taken from barley cultivar trials in Alberta, Canada (Data A and the examination of change in effect sizes is through the analysis another data set taken from the North America Barley Genome Mapping Project (Data B. The analysis of Data A showed that the Cauchy function captured an average of >40% of total GxE variation whereas the logistic function captured less GxE variation than the linear function. The analysis of Data B showed that genotypic responses were largely linear and that strong QTL × environment interaction existed as the positions, sizes and directions of QTL detected differed in poor vs. good environments. We conclude that (i the nonlinear functions should be considered when analyzing multi-environmental trials with a wide range of environmental variation and (ii QTL × environment interaction can arise from the difference in effect sizes across environments.

  13. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Sourour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours, on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours. Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germination was completely inhibited in Martin, while a reduction of 20% and 30% for germination percentage compared to control was recorded in varieties Manel and Rihane, respectively at 0.1% colchicine concentration. Ploidy evaluation showed no tetraploidy in all the three tested varieties by colchicine application of 0.05% for 48 hours on seeds and 0.1% for 2 hours on pre-germinated seeds. However, tetraploid plants were produced only by treatment with 0.1% for 16 hours of seedlings. The percentages of plants were 40%, 44% and 100% for Rihane, Manel and Martin, respectively. Cytological analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=14 to 2n=4x=28. The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some morphological traits. In fact, the induced tetraploids in barley was accompanied by significant (P<0.01 decrease in plant height, tiller height, leaf number and leaf length compared to diploid control plants. colchicine treatment induce successfully the production of tetraploid barley plants and could be used in breeding programs.

  14. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  15. Genotype adaptability and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns in breeding programs is a small genotype reaction to environmental factor variation for better usage of yield genetic potential. Particularly if one takes in consideration that yield could van greatly because of more and more variable meteorological conditions. Studies conducted to observe genotype and environmental relations relay on numerous mathematical models, but genotype behavior in various ecological conditions is not, still, precisely defined Major sources of variation influencing genotype behavior in different environments are genotype/environment interaction, genetic background and environmental conditions. These factors could play an important role in establishing growth regions for maximal realization of genotype genetic potential, as well as in selection of genotypes having better response to complex requirements of particular growth region. Stability, the genotype ability to perform high, uniform yield no meter of different environmental conditions, and adaptability, genotype ability to give uniform yield in a different environmental conditions, are two common terms used to define genotype reaction in a consequence of environmental changes. Most of the models dealing with stability and adaptability are based on variation sources appearing under the influence of treatment, multivariate effects and residue. No meter which statistical model is used for GE interaction estimation, there is an opinion that no solid proof for the existence of stable genotypes obtained in breeding programs, which make some space for further investigations. There are still questions to answer dealing with definitions, sources of variation, usage value of existent models and interpretation of the results. .

  16. Differential Clomazone, Herbicide Tolerance among Sweetpotato Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone (Command 3ME) is a broad spectrum preemergence herbicide that is registered for use in sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam.)]. It controls several important annual weeds that are not controlled by the other sweetpotato herbicides. Following clomazone application for weed control in the ...

  17. Lanthanum Affects Bell Pepper Seedling Quality Depending on the Genotype and Time of Exposure by Differentially Modifying Plant Height, Stem Diameter and Concentrations of Chlorophylls, Sugars, Amino Acids, and Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, Atonaltzin; Gómez-Merino, Fernando C; Tejeda-Sartorius, Olga; Trejo-Téllez, Libia I

    2017-01-01

    Lanthanum (La) is considered a beneficial element, capable of inducing hormesis. Hormesis is a dose-response relationship phenomenon characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Herein we tested the effect of 0 and 10 μM La on growth and biomolecule concentrations of seedlings of four sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) varieties, namely Sven, Sympathy, Yolo Wonder, and Zidenka. Seedling evaluations were performed 15 and 30 days after treatment applications (dat) under hydroponic greenhouse conditions. Seedling height was significantly increased by La, growing 20% taller in Yolo Wonder plants, in comparison to the control. Similarly, La significantly enhanced shoot diameter, with increases of 9 and 9.8% in measurements performed 15 and 30 dat, respectively, as compared to the control. Likewise, La-treated seedlings had a higher number of flower buds than the control. An increase in the number of leaves because of La application was observed in Yolo Wonder seedlings, both 15 and 30 dat, while leaf area was augmented in this variety only 30 dat. Nevertheless, La did not affect dry biomass accumulation. La effects on biomolecule concentration were differential over time. In all varieties, La stimulated the biosynthesis of chlorophyll a, b and total 15 dat, though 30 dat only the varieties Sympathy and Yolo Wonder showed enhanced concentrations of these molecules because of La. Total soluble sugars increased in La-treated seedlings 30 dat. Interestingly, while most varieties exposed to La showed a reduction in amino acid concentration 15 dat, the opposite trend was observed 30 dat. Importantly, in all varieties evaluated, La stimulated soluble protein concentration 30 dat. It is important to note that while chlorophyll concentrations increased in all varieties exposed to La, both 15 and 30 dat, those of soluble sugars and proteins consistently increased only 30 dat, but not 15 dat. Our results confirm that La may improve seedling quality by

  18. Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.; Noordman, T.R.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown

  19. Interaction between powdery mildew and barley with ¤mlo5¤ mildew resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.F.; Østergård, Hanne

    1998-01-01

    Powdery mildew infection of barley with the mlo5 barley powdery mildew resistance gene was examined, using near-isogenic barley lines, with and without mlo5 resistance, and two near-isogenic powdery mildew isolates, HL3/5 and GE3 with high (virulent) or low (avirulent) penetration efficiency...

  20. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  1. Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

  2. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  3. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  4. Mutagenesis of barley malting quality QTLs with Ds transposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surinder; Tan, Han Qi; Singh, Jaswinder

    2012-03-01

    Various functional genomic tools are being used to identify and characterize genes in plants. The Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposon-based approach offers great potential, especially in barley, due to its limited success of genetic transformation and its large genome size. The bias of the Ac/Ds system towards genic regions and its tendency toward localized transpositions can greatly enhance the discovery and tagging of genes linked to Ds. Barley is a key ingredient in malting and brewing industry; therefore, gene discovery in relation to malting has an industrial perspective. Malting quality in barley is a complex and quantitatively inherited trait. Two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting malting quality traits have been located on chromosome 4H. In this study, Ds was reactivated from parent transposants (TNP) lines, TNP-29 and TNP-79, where Ds was mapped in the vicinity of important malting QTLs. Reactivation of Ds was carried out both by conventional breeding and in vitro approaches. A threefold increase in reactivation frequency through the in vitro approach enabled the development of a new genomic resource for the dissection of malting QTL and gene discovery in barley. Identification of unique flanking sequences, using high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR and inverse PCR from these populations, has further emphasized the new location of Ds in the barley genome and provided new transposon mutants especially in β-GAL1, β-amylase-like gene and ABC transporter for functional genomic studies.

  5. Flavonoid profile of green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Alventosa, J M; Jaramillo, S; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, G; Cermeño, P; Espejo, J A; Jiménez-Araujo, A; Guillén-Bejarano, R; Fernández-Bolaños, J; Rodríguez-Arcos, R

    2008-08-27

    The determination of flavonoid profiles from different genotypes of triguero asparagus and their comparison to those from green asparagus commercial hybrids was the main goal of this study. The samples consisted of 32 commercial hybrids and 65 genotypes from the Huetor-Tajar population variety (triguero). The analysis of individual flavonoids by HPLC-DAD-MS has allowed the determination of eight naturally occurring flavonol derivatives in several genotypes of triguero asparagus. Those compounds included mono-, di-, and triglycosides of three flavonols, that is, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and kaempferol. The detailed analysis of the flavonoid profiles revealed significant differences among the distinct genotypes. These have been classified in three distinct groups as the result of a k-means clustering analysis, two of them containing both commercial hybrids and triguero asparagus and another cluster constituted by 21 genotypes of triguero asparagus, which contain several key flavonol derivatives able to differentiate them. Hence, the triglycosides tentatively identified as quercetin-3-rhamnosyl-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-rhamnosyl-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside have been detected only in the genotypes grouped in the above-mentioned cluster. On the other hand, the compound tentatively identified as isorhamnetin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside was present in most genotypes of triguero asparagus, whereas it has not been detected in any of the commercial hybrids.

  6. Barley Brassinosteroid Mutants Provide an Insight into Phytohormonal Homeostasis in Plant Reaction to Drought Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszka, Damian; Janeczko, Anna; Dziurka, Michal; Pociecha, Ewa; Oklestkova, Jana; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of steroid phytohormones, which regulate various processes of morphogenesis and physiology—from seed development to regulation of flowering and senescence. An accumulating body of evidence indicates that BRs take part in regulation of physiological reactions to various stress conditions, including drought. Many of the physiological functions of BRs are regulated by a complicated, and not fully elucidated network of interactions with metabolic pathways of other phytohormones. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize phytohormonal homeostasis in barley (Hordeum vulgare) in reaction to drought and validate role of BRs in regulation of this process. Material of this study included the barley cultivar “Bowman” and five Near-Isogenic Lines (NILs) representing characterized semi-dwarf mutants of several genes encoding enzymes participating in BR biosynthesis and signaling. Analysis of endogenous BRs concentrations in these NILs confirmed that their phenotypes result from abnormalities in BR metabolism. In general, concentrations of 18 compounds, representing various classes of phytohormones, including brassinosteroids, auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid were analyzed under control and drought conditions in the “Bowman” cultivar and the BR-deficient NILs. Drought induced a significant increase in accumulation of the biologically active form of BRs—castasterone in all analyzed genotypes. Another biologically active form of BRs—24-epi-brassinolide—was identified in one, BR-insensitive NIL under normal condition, but its accumulation was drought-induced in all analyzed genotypes. Analysis of concentration profiles of several compounds representing gibberellins allowed an insight into the BR-dependent regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis. The concentration of the gibberellic acid GA7 was significantly lower in all NILs when compared with the “Bowman” cultivar

  7. megasat: automated inference of microsatellite genotypes from sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Luyao; Paterson, Ian G; Fraser, Bonnie A; Watson, Beth; Bradbury, Ian R; Nadukkalam Ravindran, Praveen; Reznick, David; Beiko, Robert G; Bentzen, Paul

    2017-03-01

    megasat is software that enables genotyping of microsatellite loci using next-generation sequencing data. Microsatellites are amplified in large multiplexes, and then sequenced in pooled amplicons. megasat reads sequence files and automatically scores microsatellite genotypes. It uses fuzzy matches to allow for sequencing errors and applies decision rules to account for amplification artefacts, including nontarget amplification products, replication slippage during PCR (amplification stutter) and differential amplification of alleles. An important feature of megasat is the generation of histograms of the length-frequency distributions of amplification products for each locus and each individual. These histograms, analogous to electropherograms traditionally used to score microsatellite genotypes, enable rapid evaluation and editing of automatically scored genotypes. megasat is written in Perl, runs on Windows, Mac OS X and Linux systems, and includes a simple graphical user interface. We demonstrate megasat using data from guppy, Poecilia reticulata. We genotype 1024 guppies at 43 microsatellites per run on an Illumina MiSeq sequencer. We evaluated the accuracy of automatically called genotypes using two methods, based on pedigree and repeat genotyping data, and obtained estimates of mean genotyping error rates of 0.021 and 0.012. In both estimates, three loci accounted for a disproportionate fraction of genotyping errors; conversely, 26 loci were scored with 0-1 detected error (error rate ≤0.007). Our results show that with appropriate selection of loci, automated genotyping of microsatellite loci can be achieved with very high throughput, low genotyping error and very low genotyping costs.

  8. Soil fertility, nutrition and yield of maize and barley with gypsum application on soil surface in no-till

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Michalovicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Annual crop yield and nutrition have shown differentiated responses to modifications in soil chemical properties brought about by gypsum application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gypsum application rates on the chemical properties of a Latossolo Bruno (Clayey Oxisol, as well as on the nutrition and yield of a maize-barley succession under no-till. The experiment was set up in November 2009 in Guarapuava, Parana, Brazil, applying gypsum rates of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 Mg ha-1 to the soil surface upon sowing maize, with crop succession of barley. Gypsum application decreased the levels of Al3+ and Mg2+ in the 0.0-0.1 m layer and increased soil pH in the layers from 0.2-0.6 m depth. Gypsum application has increased the levels of Ca2+ in all soil layers up to 0.6 m, and the levels of S-SO4(2- up to 0.8 m. In both crops, the leaf concentrations of Ca and S were increased while Mg concentrations have decreased as a function of gypsum rates. There was also an effect of gypsum rates on grain yield, with a quadratic response of maize and a linear increase for barley. Yield increases were up to 11 and 12 % in relation to control for the maximum technical efficiency (MTE rates of 3.8 and 6.0 Mg ha-1 of gypsum, respectively. Gypsum application improved soil fertility in the profile, especially in the subsurface, as well as plant nutrition, increasing the yields of maize and barley.

  9. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A

    2015-01-01

    ) and five antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines. Considering the amounts of soluble and protein-bound aspartate-derived amino acids together with the analysis of key enzymes of aspartate metabolic pathway, we suggest that the C-hordein suppression did not only alter the metabolism of at least one......The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition......, with increased lysine, methionine and threonine contents. The objective of the study was to investigate the possible changes in the regulation of key enzymes of the aspartate metabolic pathway and the contents of aspartate-derived amino acids in the nontransgenic line (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Golden Promise...

  10. Factors underlying restricted crossover localization in barley meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, James D; Osman, Kim; Jones, Gareth H; Franklin, F Chris H

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic recombination results in the formation of cytological structures known as chiasmata at the sites of genetic crossovers (COs). The formation of at least one chiasma/CO between homologous chromosome pairs is essential for accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division as well as for generating genetic variation. Although DNA double-strand breaks, which initiate recombination, are widely distributed along the chromosomes, this is not necessarily reflected in the chiasma distribution. In many species there is a tendency for chiasmata to be distributed in favored regions along the chromosomes, whereas in others, such as barley and some other grasses, chiasma localization is extremely pronounced. Localization of chiasma to the distal regions of barley chromosomes restricts the genetic variation available to breeders. Studies reviewed herein are beginning to provide an explanation for chiasma localization in barley. Moreover, they suggest a potential route to manipulating chiasma distribution that could be of value to plant breeders.

  11. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.;

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... insight into the substrate binding by describing residues defining 9 subsites, namely -7 through +2. These structures support that the pseudotetrasaccharide inhibitor acarbose is hydrolyzed by the active enzymes. Moreover, sugar binding was observed to the starch granule-binding site previously determined...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  12. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin, evolution and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-GPC (grain protein content. Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73% to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44% than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7 caused by a base mutations (at position 544 in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. SNPs and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding

  13. Structural and regulatory differences in amylase isoenzymes in germinating Brazilian barley cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg-Kraemer J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amylase electrophoretic patterns of 10 Brazilian brewing-barley varieties with different malting grades and diastatic power were analyzed during the 7-day germination which occurs during the malting process. Intra and inter-variety genetic variability was observed at both the structural and regulatory level. In the first few days after germination all varieties showed a few active loci, all of them with low activity. In subsequent days, new loci became active and those already detected since early germination showed increased activity. All varieties showed a continuous increase in amylase synthesis until the 3rd and/or 4th day after germination. Some varieties maintained high amylase activity until the last day of germination, while others showed a decrease in activity on the 5th or 6th day. No specific band increased or decreased its intensity independently of the others. A total of 14 loci were detected, out of which only one locus was polymorphic, indicating very low structural genetic variability, with only 2.8% polymorphic loci, an average of 1.04 alleles per loci, and an average expected heterozygosity of only 0.7%. The mean intra-variety Jaccard similarity coefficient complement (1 - S J was 0.009. The mean intra-variety difference based on regulatory differences was higher (1 - S J = 0.17 than that obtained based on structural differences, suggesting differential gene activation. Inter-variety differentiation also showed low structural variability, with 1 - S J = 0.026 and a Nei genetic distance (D value of 0.0076, and a remarkable increase in divergence caused by differential gene activation (1 - S J = 0.34. These results indicate that regulatory polymorphism is the principal agent responsible for amylase variability in the barley varieties analyzed.

  14. PTK1, a mitogen-activated-protein kinase gene, is required for conidiation, appressorium formation, and pathogenicity of Pyrenophora teres on barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Roldán, M C; Maier, F J; Schäfer, W

    2001-02-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a group of protein kinases that execute a wide variety of roles in cellular signal transduction pathways such as osmoregulation, cell wall biosynthesis, growth, and differentiation. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with degenerate primers based on conserved regions of known MAPKs was used to clone the MAPK gene PTK1 from the leaf pathogen Pyrenophora teres (anamorph Drechslera teres), the causal agent of net blotch of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The predicted amino acid sequence shows high homology with MAPKs from other phytopathogenic fungi. The gene is present in the genome as a single copy. PTK1 is expressed during in vitro growth on complete medium, under conidiation-inducing conditions and during infection of barley leaves, as shown by reverse transcription-PCR studies. In order to assess the role of PTK1 in the life cycle of P. teres, targeted gene disruption was conducted. Mutants carrying an interrupted copy of the gene were deficient in conidiation, did not form appressoria on glass surfaces or on barley leaves, lost their ability to infect barley leaves, and could not colonize host tissues following artificial wounding.

  15. Gene Targeting Without DSB Induction Is Inefficient in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Mihaly; Steinbiss, Hans-Henning; Reiss, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Double strand-break (DSB) induction allowed efficient gene targeting in barley (Hordeum vulgare), but little is known about efficiencies in its absence. To obtain such data, an assay system based on the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene was established, a target gene which had been used previously in rice and Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of recombinases RAD51 and RAD54 had been shown to improve gene targeting in A. thaliana and positive-negative (P-N) selection allows the routine production of targeted mutants without DSB induction in rice. We implemented these approaches in barley and analysed gene targeting with the ALS gene in wild type and RAD51 and RAD54 transgenic lines. In addition, P-N selection was tested. In contrast to the high gene targeting efficiencies obtained in the absence of DSB induction in A. thaliana or rice, not one single gene targeting event was obtained in barley. These data suggest that gene targeting efficiencies are very low in barley and can substantially differ between different plants, even at the same target locus. They also suggest that the amount of labour and time would become unreasonably high to use these methods as a tool in routine applications. This is particularly true since DSB induction offers efficient alternatives. Barley, unlike rice and A. thaliana has a large, complex genome, suggesting that genome size or complexity could be the reason for the low efficiencies. We discuss to what extent transformation methods, genome size or genome complexity could contribute to the striking differences in the gene targeting efficiencies between barley, rice and A. thaliana.

  16. Analysis of variability, heritability, and interrelationships among grain yield and related characters in barley advanced lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to improve pure lines for low input agricultural areas of the semi-arid region of Iran and similar environmental conditions. Forty barley pure lines provided from ICARDA along with three check cultivars were evaluated under rain-fed conditions in a semi-arid region of Iran during two years (2011-2013. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications to estimate genetic variation and heritability for agro-morphological traits. The highest values of phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were observed for the number of grains per spike followed by peduncle length, early vigor and grain yield. The broad heritability estimates ranged from 24% for grain yield to 96% for the number of grains per spike. The highest and lowest expected genetic advance, observed for days to physiological maturity and the number of grains per spike, respectively. Results of stepwise regression and path analysis showed that hectoliter grain weight and thousand grain weight exhibited the highest direct effects on grain yield, respectively. Comparisons between the pure lines and check cultivars indicated that out of 40 pure lines, 27 lines had a higher grain yield. Also, the pure lines No. 29, 13, 9 and 33 were identified as the superior lines for semi-arid environmental conditions. Our results indicate that check cultivars could be improved by selecting for pure lines with taller peduncle and the number of grains per spike, but with heavier grains. Therefore, these lines can be used as genetic material to broaden the genetic basis of barley breeding programs all over the world.

  17. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  18. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  19. Occurrence of barley leaf disease and control strategies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Ørum, Jens Erik; Heick, Thies Marten

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one of the major crops in Denmark and of special importance for malting and for pig feed. In 2016, the crop was grown covering a total area of 700,000 ha; approximately 25% of arable area in Denmark. To ensure high yield of around 60 dt ha-1, disease-tolerant cultivars......), mildew of barley (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) and Ramularia (Ramularia collo-cygni). In recent years, brown rust and net blotch have been the most important disease in terms of yield losses. As most cultivars have mlo resistance, powdery mildew is today seen as a minor problem. Significant attack...

  20. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by solubil......Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained...

  1. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2011-01-01

    of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...... irregular and showed no distinct melting enthalpy and very weak X-ray scattering. Hyperphosphorylated barley starch was achieved by endosperm specific overexpression of the potato glucan water dikinase1 (StGWD1). The content of phosphate esters in this starch was tenfold higher than the control lines...

  2. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore...... the opportunity to give a forecast of the taste of the bread, as the AA composition is known to control certain aspects of the taste. We uses a MSE approach on a time of flight instrument coupled to a UPLC and in gel digestion to identify and characterize the different D-hordeins responsible for baking quality...

  3. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Modelling the influence of changing climate in present and future marine eutrophication impacts from spring barley production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Niero, Monia

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate concentration and runoff are site-specific and driven by climatic factors and crop management. As such, nitrate emissions may increase in the future due to climate change, affecting the marine eutrophication mechanism. In this context, and considering the case of spring barley production...... of different normalisation references when comparing future Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) scenarios with current production systems. A parameterised characterisation model was developed to gauge the influence of future climatic-driven pressures on the marine eutrophication impact pathway. Spatial differentiation...

  5. Intercalation of psoralen into DNA of plastid chromosomes decreases late during barley chloroplast development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J P; Thompson, R J; Mosig, G

    1991-01-01

    We have used a DNA crosslinking assay to measure intercalation of the psoralen derivative HMT (4'-hydroxymethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen) into barley (Hordeum vulgare) plastid chromosomal DNA during chloroplast and etioplast development. Intercalation into DNA in intact plastids in vivo and in plastid lysates in vitro shows that chromosomal DNA in the most mature chloroplasts intercalates HMT less efficiently than DNA in younger chloroplasts. In contrast, there is no change in HMT intercalation during etioplast differentiation in the dark. Our results also show that DNA in higher plant plastid chromosomes is under superhelical tension in vivo. The lower susceptibility to HMT intercalation of DNA in the most mature chloroplasts indicates that late during chloroplast development the superhelical tension or the binding of proteins to the DNA or both change. Images PMID:1923805

  6. High resolution mapping of Dense spike-ar (dsp.ar) to the genetic centromere of barley chromosome 7H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Druka, Arnis; Franckowiak, Jerome; Morgante, Michele; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

    2012-02-01

    Spike density in barley is under the control of several major genes, as documented previously by genetic analysis of a number of morphological mutants. One such class of mutants affects the rachis internode length leading to dense or compact spikes and the underlying genes were designated dense spike (dsp). We previously delimited two introgressed genomic segments on chromosome 3H (21 SNP loci, 35.5 cM) and 7H (17 SNP loci, 20.34 cM) in BW265, a BC(7)F(3) nearly isogenic line (NIL) of cv. Bowman as potentially containing the dense spike mutant locus dsp.ar, by genotyping 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in both BW265 and its recurrent parent. Here, the gene was allocated by high-resolution bi-parental mapping to a 0.37 cM interval between markers SC57808 (Hv_SPL14)-CAPSK06413 residing on the short and long arm at the genetic centromere of chromosome 7H, respectively. This region putatively contains more than 800 genes as deduced by comparison with the collinear regions of barley, rice, sorghum and Brachypodium, Classical map-based isolation of the gene dsp.ar thus will be complicated due to the infavorable relationship of genetic to physical distances at the target locus.

  7. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  8. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  9. Durum wheat and barley productivity in saline-drought environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Mastrorilli, M.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Lahmer, F.Z.; Hamdy, A.; Oweis, T.

    2009-01-01

    In two Successive years, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum Desf.) and barley (Hodeum vulgare L.) were tested in a factorial salinity-drought experiment, combining three levels of salinity and two levels of drought. The two drought treatments were obtained by applying irrigation water when the pre-dawn

  10. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  11. Isolating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene Promoter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... region of B1 hordein gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of Walfajre and Alger barley by ... plasmid DNA extraction kits were provided from Bioneer ... The E. coli competent cells were used for transformation by 5 µL of.

  12. Characterization of Gibberellin Receptor Mutants of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter M.Chandler; Carol A.Harding; Anthony R.Ashton; Mark D.Mulcair; Nicholas E.Dixon; Lewis N.Mander

    2008-01-01

    The sequence of Gidl (a gene for a gibberellin (GA) receptor from rice) was used to identify a putative orthoIogue from barley.This was expressed in E.coil,and produced a protein that was able to bind GA in vitro with both structural specificity and saturability.Its potential role in GA responses was investigated using barley mutants with reduced GA sensitivity (gsel mutants).Sixteen different gsel mutants each carried a unique nucleotide substitution in this sequence.In all but one case,these changes resulted in single amino acid substitutions,and,for the remaining mutant,a substitution in the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA is proposed to interfere with translation initiation.There was perfect linkage in segregating populations between new mutant alleles and the gsel phenotype,leading to the conclusion that the putative GID1 GA receptor sequence in barley corresponds to the Gsel locus.Determination of endogenous GA contents in one of the mutants revealed enhanced accumulation of bioactive GA1,and a deficit of C20 GA precursors.All of the gsel mutants had reduced sensitivity to exogenous GA3,and to AC94377 (a GA analogue) at concentrations that are normally 'saturating',but,at much higher concentrations,there was often a considerable response.The comparison between barley and rice mutants reveals interesting differences between these two cereal species in GA hormonal physiology.

  13. Evaluation of a malting barley quality assessment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonkhuijsen, H.J. van; Douma, A.C.; Angelino, S.A.G.F.

    1998-01-01

    New malting barley varieties are annually tested for their malting and brewing potential according to a field trial set-up combined with quality evaluation on pilot scale. To assess the effects of trial year and location on quality evaluation data, a data base consisting of quality data from Dutch

  14. Evaluation of a malting barley quality assessment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonkhuijsen, H.J. van; Douma, A.C.; Angelino, S.A.G.F.

    1998-01-01

    New malting barley varieties are annually tested for their malting and brewing potential according to a field trial set-up combined with quality evaluation on pilot scale. To assess the effects of trial year and location on quality evaluation data, a data base consisting of quality data from Dutch m

  15. Spatial aggregation of pathotypes of barley powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Aggregation in the distribution of pathotypes of Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei, the barley powdery mildew pathogen, was investigated in field plots of 'Golden Promise', 'Proctor' and 'Tyra'. 'Golden Promise' and 'Proctor' have no effective mildew resistance alleles, whereas 'Tyra' has Mla1, which...

  16. Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbern, Christopher Alan; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Ladegaard, Anne Hald

    2009-01-01

    To investigate if latent manganese (Mn) deficiency leads to increased transpiration, barley plants were grown for 10 weeks in hydroponics with daily additions of Mn in the low nM range. The Mn-starved plants did not exhibit visual leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency, but Chl a fluorescence measurements...

  17. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  18. Reclamation of Sodic-Saline Soils. Barley Crop Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at assessing the salinity and sodicity effects of two soil types submitted to correction on barley crop. The two soils, contained in cylindrical pots (0.40 m in size and 0.60 m h supplied with a bottom valve for the collection of drainage water and located under shed to prevent the leaching action of rainfall, were clay-textured and saline and sodic-saline at barley seeding, as they had been cultivated for 4 consecutive years with different herbaceous species irrigated with 9 types of brackish water. In 2002-2003 the 2 salinized and sodium-affected soils (ECe and ESP ranging respectively from 5.84-20.27 dSm-1 to 2.83-11.19%, submitted to correction, were cultivated with barley cv Micuccio, and irrigated with fresh water (ECw = 0.5 dS m-1 and SAR = 0.45 whenever 30% of the maximum soil available moisture was lost by evapotranspiration. Barley was shown to be a salt-tolerant species and did not experience any salt stress when grown in soils with an initial ECe up to 11 dS m-1. When it was grown in more saline soils (initial ECe of about 20 dS m-1, despite the correction, it showed a reduction in shoot biomass and kernel yield by 26% and 36% respectively, as compared to less saline soils.

  19. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase poly...

  20. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  1. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  2. Genetic diversity of some Saudi barley (Hordeum Vulgare L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... These results could be used for barley germplasm management in terms of biodiversity ... animal feed, malt manufactures and human food. Its importance ... indigenous crop genetic resources of KSA are potentially threatened and ... and Hayes, 2002; Turpeinen et al., 2003; Nevo et al.,. 2005; Chaabane et ...

  3. Evaluation of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Tolerance to Metribuzine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi Darbandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of barely and wheat cultivars tolerance to metribuzin, a factorial experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with three replications in Greenhouse of Agricultural Research at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included wheat cultivars (Backcross roshan, Cross Arvand, Bahar, Sepahan, Gascosion, Sayonez, Bam garmsiry, Garmsiri, Ghods, Pishtaz, Chamran and Shoori 6, barely cultivars (Macouyi, Karoon and Bahman and metribuzin application rates ( 0, 175, 350, 700, 1050, 1400 and 2100 gr. ai.ha-1. Metribuzine was applied at 3-4 leaf stage and 3 weeks after herbicide spraying, plants survival and their biomass were determined. Results showed that metribuzin application had a significant effect (p≤0.01 on barley and wheat dry weight. Based on results, mertibuzin application did not affect on barley cultivars up to 30 g.a.i.ha-1 but in wheat varieties lead to significant reduction in their biomass and survival. Increasing of metribuzin rates reduced wheat and barley cultivars biomass (p≤0.01. Barely varieties were less sensitive than wheat cultivars to metribuzine. The highest and the lowest ED50 in wheat cultivars were observed in cross arvand (940 and shoori (25 varieties, respectively. In barley cultivars the highest and lowest ED50 were observed in Macouyi (614 and Karoon (396, respectively.

  4. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2011-01-01

    of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...

  5. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1979-01-01

    Sixty-five homozygous barley lines, i.e. coming from chromosome-doubled monoploids derived from female gametes of F1 plants by the bulbosum method, segregated as expected in accordance with a 1:1-ratio for C-bands at two locations on chromosome 3 and at one location on chromosome 6. C-bands at one...

  6. The Mutation Frequency in Different Spike Categories in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenberg, O.; Doll, Hans; Sandfær, J.

    1964-01-01

    After gamma irradiation of barley seeds, a comparison has been made between the chlorophyll-mutant frequencies in X1 spikes that had multicellular bud meristems in the seeds at the time of treatment (denoted as pre-formed spikes) and X1 spikes having no recognizable meristems at the time...

  7. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Andersen, B.; Doll, Hans

    1983-01-01

    A liquid culture system for culturing detached spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at different nutritional levels was established. The synthesis of hordein polypeptides was studied by pulse-labeling with [14C]sucrose at different stages of development and nitrogen (N) nutrition. All polypeptid...

  8. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  9. Enzyme superoxide dismutase in grain of barley and malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natálie Belcrediová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was modification of superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1 activity analysis in barley grain and identical malts with using of the Ransod set. This set from company Randox were used for enzyme determination in blood samples. This method employs xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate superoxide radicals, which react with tetrazolium chloride to form a red formazan dye. SOD is classified as natural antioxidants and enzyme plays a significant role at detoxication of products of molecular oxygen degradation. The largest rate of SOD occurs in embryo of barley grain. Its presence in barley grain and malt thus inhibits rancidity of grain during storage and undesirable beer flavour. The line Wabet x Washonubet (in grain-104,93 and malt 152,42 U/g dry matter and the variety Annabell (104,65 a 147,21 U/g dry matter had the highest activity of SOD in grain and malt of barley while the lowest activity was measured in the line KM 1910 (73,15 a 88,16 U/g dry matter and variety Tolar (74,34 a 96,44 U/g dry matter.

  10. Registration of Harriman low-phytate, hulled spring barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), has released 'Harriman', (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Reg. No. xxxxxx, P.I. xxxxxx). Harriman is a hulled, low-phytate barley, the second to be developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Compared to the previously released hulled, l...

  11. Biotic stress in barley: disease problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated over a wider geographic range than almost any other major crop species. It can be found growing from the tropics to the high latitudes and from the seacoast to the highest arable mountaintops. On marginal lands where alkaline soils, drought, or cold summer t...

  12. Radiation hybrid map of barley chromosome 3H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assembly of the barley genome is complicated by its large size (5.1 Gb) and proportion of repetitive elements (84%). This process is facilitated by high resolution maps for aligning BAC contigs along chromosomes. Available genetic maps; however, do not provide accurate information on the physical po...

  13. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.;

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  14. Dormant barley aleurone shows heterogeneity and a specific cytodifferentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurink, R.C.; Bakhuizen, R.; Libbenga, K.R.; Boulanger, F.; Sinjorgo, K.M.C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to gibberellic acid, aleurone layers isolated from dormant barley (Hordeum distichum L. cv. Triumph) kernels produced significantly less alpha-amylase than aleurones from non-dormant kernels. Light microscopical investigations using the dye acridine orange as well as electron microscopic

  15. Expression of lipoxygenase isoenzymes in developing barley grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, N.F.; Mechelen, J.R. van

    1997-01-01

    Expression of lipoxygenase was studied in whole developing barley grains from 5 days after flowering (DAF) to full maturity. Lipoxygenase showed two distinct peaks of activity. The first peak of activity occurred in the early stages of grain development from 5 until 20 DAF, whereas the second peak o

  16. The role of a cytosolic superoxide dismutase in barley-pathogen interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Lightfoot, Damien J.

    2016-03-19

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide (O2-HO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are differentially produced during resistance responses to biotrophic pathogens and during susceptible responses to necrotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is responsible for the catalysis of the dismutation of O2-HO2 to H2O2, regulating the redox status of plant cells. Increased SOD activity has been correlated previously with resistance in barley to the hemi-biotrophic pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt, the causal agent of the net form of net blotch disease), but the role of individual isoforms of SOD has not been studied. A cytosolic CuZnSOD, HvCSD1, was isolated from barley and characterized as being expressed in tissue from different developmental stages. HvCSD1 was up-regulated during the interaction with Ptt and to a greater extent during the resistance response. Net blotch disease symptoms and fungal growth were not as pronounced in transgenic HvCSD1 knockdown lines in a susceptible background (cv. Golden Promise), when compared with wild-type plants, suggesting that cytosolic O2-HO2 contributes to the signalling required to induce a defence response to Ptt. There was no effect of HvCSD1 knockdown on infection by the hemi-biotrophic rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae or the biotrophic powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, but HvCSD1 also played a role in the regulation of lesion development by methyl viologen. Together, these results suggest that HvCSD1 could be important in the maintenance of the cytosolic redox status and in the differential regulation of responses to pathogens with different lifestyles.

  17. Expression conservation within the circadian clock of a monocot: natural variation at barley Ppd-H1 affects circadian expression of flowering time genes, but not clock orthologs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campoli Chiara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The circadian clock is an endogenous mechanism that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the environment. In plants, circadian rhythms contribute to both agricultural productivity and evolutionary fitness. In barley, the photoperiod response regulator and flowering-time gene Ppd-H1 is orthologous to the Arabidopsis core-clock gene PRR7. However, relatively little is known about the role of Ppd-H1 and other components of the circadian clock in temperate crop species. In this study, we identified barley clock orthologs and tested the effects of natural genetic variation at Ppd-H1 on diurnal and circadian expression of clock and output genes from the photoperiod-response pathway. Results Barley clock orthologs HvCCA1, HvGI, HvPRR1, HvPRR37 (Ppd-H1, HvPRR73, HvPRR59 and HvPRR95 showed a high level of sequence similarity and conservation of diurnal and circadian expression patterns, when compared to Arabidopsis. The natural mutation at Ppd-H1 did not affect diurnal or circadian cycling of barley clock genes. However, the Ppd-H1 mutant was found to be arrhythmic under free-running conditions for the photoperiod-response genes HvCO1, HvCO2, and the MADS-box transcription factor and vernalization responsive gene Vrn-H1. Conclusion We suggest that the described eudicot clock is largely conserved in the monocot barley. However, genetic differentiation within gene families and differences in the function of Ppd-H1 suggest evolutionary modification in the angiosperm clock. Our data indicates that natural variation at Ppd-H1 does not affect the expression level of clock genes, but controls photoperiodic output genes. Circadian control of Vrn-H1 in barley suggests that this vernalization responsive gene is also controlled by the photoperiod-response pathway. Structural and functional characterization of the barley circadian clock will set the basis for future studies of the adaptive significance of the circadian clock in

  18. Expression conservation within the circadian clock of a monocot: natural variation at barley Ppd-H1 affects circadian expression of flowering time genes, but not clock orthologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoli, Chiara; Shtaya, Munqez; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria

    2012-06-21

    The circadian clock is an endogenous mechanism that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the environment. In plants, circadian rhythms contribute to both agricultural productivity and evolutionary fitness. In barley, the photoperiod response regulator and flowering-time gene Ppd-H1 is orthologous to the Arabidopsis core-clock gene PRR7. However, relatively little is known about the role of Ppd-H1 and other components of the circadian clock in temperate crop species. In this study, we identified barley clock orthologs and tested the effects of natural genetic variation at Ppd-H1 on diurnal and circadian expression of clock and output genes from the photoperiod-response pathway. Barley clock orthologs HvCCA1, HvGI, HvPRR1, HvPRR37 (Ppd-H1), HvPRR73, HvPRR59 and HvPRR95 showed a high level of sequence similarity and conservation of diurnal and circadian expression patterns, when compared to Arabidopsis. The natural mutation at Ppd-H1 did not affect diurnal or circadian cycling of barley clock genes. However, the Ppd-H1 mutant was found to be arrhythmic under free-running conditions for the photoperiod-response genes HvCO1, HvCO2, and the MADS-box transcription factor and vernalization responsive gene Vrn-H1. We suggest that the described eudicot clock is largely conserved in the monocot barley. However, genetic differentiation within gene families and differences in the function of Ppd-H1 suggest evolutionary modification in the angiosperm clock. Our data indicates that natural variation at Ppd-H1 does not affect the expression level of clock genes, but controls photoperiodic output genes. Circadian control of Vrn-H1 in barley suggests that this vernalization responsive gene is also controlled by the photoperiod-response pathway. Structural and functional characterization of the barley circadian clock will set the basis for future studies of the adaptive significance of the circadian clock in Triticeae species.

  19. Rapid typing of Mannheimia haemolytica major genotypes 1 and 2 using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotype 2 M. haemolytica predominantly associate over genotype 1 with the lungs of cattle with respiratory disease and ICEs containing antimicrobial resistance genes. Distinct protein masses were detected by MALDI-TOF MS between genotype 1 and 2 strains. MALDI-TOF MS could rapidly differentiate ge...

  20. Characterization of the Microchemical Structure of Seed Endosperm within a Cellular Dimension among Six Barley Varieties with Distinct Degradation Kinetics, Using Ultraspatially Resolved Synchrotron-Based Infrared Synchrotron-Based Infrared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, N.; Yu, P

    2010-01-01

    Barley varieties have similar chemical composition but exhibit different rumen degradation kinetics and nutrient availability. These biological differences may be related to molecular, structural, and chemical makeup among the seed endosperm tissue. No detailed study was carried out. The objectives of this study were: (1) to use a molecular spectroscopy technique, synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM), to determine the microchemical-structural features in seed endosperm tissue of six developed barley varieties; (2) to study the relationship among molecular-structural characteristics, degradation kinetics, and nutrient availability in six genotypes of barley. The results showed that inherent microchemical-structural differences in the endosperm among the six barley varieties were detected by the synchrotron-based analytical technique, SFTIRM, with the univariate molecular spectral analysis. The SFTIRM spectral profiles differed (P < 0.05) among the barley samples in terms of the peak ratio and peak area and height intensities of amides I (ca. 1650 cm{sup -1}) and II (ca. 1550 cm{sup -1}), cellulosic compounds (ca. 1240 cm{sup -1}), CHO component peaks (the first peak at the region ca. 1184-1132 cm{sup -1}, the second peak at ca. 1132-1066 cm{sup -1}, and the third peak at ca. 1066-950 cm{sup -1}). With the SFTIRM technique, the structural characteristics of the cereal seeds were illuminated among different cultivars at an ultraspatial resolution. The structural differences of barley seeds may be one reason for the various digestive behaviors and nutritive values in ruminants. The results show weak correlations between the functional groups spectral data (peak area, height intensities, and ratios) and rumen biodegradation kinetics (rate and extent of nutrient degradation). Weak correlations may indicate that limited variations of these six barley varieties might not be sufficient to interpret the relationship between spectroscopic

  1. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segregating plants from the Informative & Spectacular Subset (ISS) of the Oregon Wolfe doubled haploid barley (OWB) population are easily grown on a lighted window bench in the classroom. These lines originate from a wide cross and have exceptionally diverse and dramatic phenotypes, making this an i...

  2. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley oil prepared from germ and other fractions from scarification and sieving of hulless barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of the kernels (germ, pericarp, and aleurone). The resulting scarification fines fractions were then separated into four particle size subfractions using sieves. Each of the size subfractions was then extr...

  3. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Inger Baeksted; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter, and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grains, the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T2 -generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19-fold (29 000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains). Moreover, also in green leaves and mature dry straw, phytase activities were increased significantly by 110-fold (52 000 FTU/kg) and 57-fold (51 000 FTU/kg), respectively. The HvPAPhy_a-transformed barley plants with high phytase activities possess triple potential utilities for the improvement of phosphate bioavailability. First of all, the utilization of the mature grains as feed to increase the release of bio-available phosphate and minerals bound to the phytate of the grains; secondly, the utilization of the powdered straw either directly or phytase extracted hereof as a supplement to high phytate feed or food; and finally, the use of the stubble to be ploughed into the soil for mobilizing phytate-bound phosphate for plant growth. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  5. Expression levels of barley Cbf genes at the Frost resistance-H2 locus are dependent upon alleles at Fr-H1 and Fr-H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Eric J; Skinner, Jeffrey S; Gardner, Kip G; Francia, Enrico; Pecchioni, Nicola

    2007-07-01

    Genetic analyses have identified two loci in wheat and barley that mediate the capacity to overwinter in temperate climates. One locus co-segregates with VRN-1, which affects the vernalization requirement. This locus is known as Frost resistance-1 (Fr-1). The second locus, Fr-2, is coincident with a cluster of more than 12 Cbf genes. Cbf homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana play a key regulatory role in cold acclimatization and the acquisition of freezing tolerance. Here we report that the Hordeum vulgare (barley) locus VRN-H1/Fr-H1 affects expression of multiple barley Cbf genes at Fr-H2. RNA blot analyses, conducted on a 'Nure'x'Tremois' barley mapping population segregating for VRN-H1/Fr-H1 and Fr-H2, revealed that transcript levels of all cold-induced Cbf genes at Fr-H2 were significantly higher in recombinants harboring the vrn-H1 winter allele than in recombinants harboring the Vrn-H1 spring allele. Steady-state Cbf2 and Cbf4 levels were also significantly higher in recombinants harboring the Nure allele at Fr-H2. Additional experiments indicated that, in vrn-H1 genotypes requiring vernalization, Cbf expression levels were dampened after plants were vernalized, and dampened Cbf expression was accompanied by robust expression of Vrn-1. Cbf levels were also significantly higher in plants grown under short days than under long days. Experiments in wheat and rye indicated that similar regulatory mechanisms occurred in these plants. These results suggest that VRN-H1/Fr-H1 acts in part to repress or attenuate expression of the Cbf at Fr-H2; and that the greater level of low temperature tolerance attributable to the Nure Fr-H2 allele may be due to the greater accumulation of Cbf2 and Cbf4 transcripts during normal growth and development.

  6. HvEXPB7, a novel β-expansin gene revealed by the root hair transcriptome of Tibetan wild barley, improves root hair growth under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Jianbin; Cao, Fangbin; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Zhang, Guoping; Vincze, Eva; Wu, Feibo

    2015-12-01

    Tibetan wild barley is a treasure trove of useful genes for crop improvement including abiotic stress tolerance, like drought. Root hair of single-celled structures plays an important role in water and nutrition uptake. Polyethylene-glycol-induced drought stress hydroponic/petri-dish experiments were performed, where root hair morphology and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes (drought-tolerant XZ5 and drought-sensitive XZ54) and drought-tolerant cv. Tadmor were compared. Drought-induced root hair growth was only observed in XZ5. Thirty-six drought tolerance-associated genes were identified in XZ5, including 16 genes specifically highly expressed in XZ5 but not Tadmor under drought. The full length cDNA of a novel β-expansin gene (HvEXPB7), being the unique root hair development related gene in the identified genes, was cloned. The sequence comparison indicated that HvEXPB7 carried both DPBB_1 and Pollon_allerg_1 domains. HvEXPB7 is predominantly expressed in roots. Subcellular localization verified that HvEXPB7 is located in the plasma membrane. Barley stripe mosaic virus induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) of HvEXPB7 led to severely suppressed root hairs both under control and drought conditions, and significantly reduced K uptake. These findings highlight and confer the significance of HvEXPB7 in root hair growth under drought stress in XZ5, and provide a novel insight into the genetic basis for drought tolerance in Tibetan wild barley.

  7. HvDep1 Is a Positive Regulator of Culm Elongation and Grain Size in Barley and Impacts Yield in an Environment-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Toni; Holme, Inger; Dockter, Christoph; Preuß, Aileen; Thomas, William; Waugh, Robbie; Braumann, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are intracellular membrane-attached signal transducers involved in various cellular processes in both plants and animals. They consist of three subunits denoted as α, β and γ. The γ-subunits of the so-called AGG3 type, which comprise a transmembrane domain, are exclusively found in plants. In model species, these proteins have been shown to participate in the control of plant height, branching and seed size and could therefore impact the harvestable yield of various crop plants. Whether AGG3-type γ-subunits influence yield in temperate cereals like barley and wheat remains unknown. Using a transgenic complementation approach, we show here that the Scottish malting barley cultivar (cv.) Golden Promise carries a loss-of-function mutation in HvDep1, an AGG3-type subunit encoding gene that positively regulates culm elongation and seed size in barley. Somewhat intriguingly, agronomic field data collected over a 12-year period reveals that the HvDep1 loss-of-function mutation in cv. Golden Promise has the potential to confer either a significant increase or decrease in harvestable yield depending on the environment. Our results confirm the role of AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes in shaping plant architecture, but interestingly also indicate that the impact HvDep1 has on yield in barley is both genotypically and environmentally sensitive. This may explain why widespread exploitation of variation in AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes has not occurred in temperate cereals while in rice the DEP1 locus is widely exploited to improve harvestable yield. PMID:28005988

  8. Identification of reference genes for quantitative expression analysis of microRNAs and mRNAs in barley under various stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Jannatul; Li, Yuan; Reid, Nicolas; Langridge, Peter; Shi, Bu-Jun; Tricker, Penny J

    2015-01-01

    For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR), the selection of appropriate reference genes as an internal control for normalization is crucial. We hypothesized that non-coding, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs)would be stably expressed in different barley varieties and under different experimental treatments,in different tissues and at different developmental stages of plant growth and therefore might prove to be suitable reference genes for expression analysis of both microRNAs (miRNAs)and mRNAs. In this study, we examined the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes in six barley genotypes under five experimental stresses, drought, fungal infection,boron toxicity, nutrient deficiency and salinity. We compared four commonly used housekeeping genes; Actin (ACT), alpha-Tubulin (α-TUB), Glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GAPDH), ADP-ribosylation factor 1-like protein (ADP), four snoRNAs; (U18,U61, snoR14 and snoR23) and two microRNAs (miR168, miR159) as candidate reference genes. We found that ADP, snoR14 and snoR23 were ranked as the best of these candidates across diverse samples. Additionally, we found that miR168 was a suitable reference gene for expression analysis in barley. Finally, we validated the performance of our stable and unstable candidate reference genes for both mRNA and miRNA qPCR data normalization under different stress conditions and demonstrated the superiority of the stable candidates. Our data demonstrate the suitability of barley snoRNAs and miRNAs as potential reference genes form iRNA and mRNA qPCR data normalization under different stress treatments [corrected].

  9. Observed and predicted changes in virulence gene frequencies at 11 loci in a local barley powdery mildew population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmøller, M.S.; Munk, L.; Østergård, H.

    1993-01-01

    a survey comprising 11 virulence loc. Predictions were based on a model where selection forces were estimated through detailed mapping in the local area of host cultivars and their resistance genes, and taking into account the changes in distribution of host cultivars during the year caused by growth......The aim of the present study was to investigate observed and predicted changes in virulence gene frequencies in a local aerial powdery mildew population subject to selection by different host cultivars in a local barley area. Observed changes were based on genotypic frequencies obtained through...... with a constant distribution of host cultivars. Significant changes in gene frequencies were observed for virulence genes subject to strong direct selection as well as for genes subject mainly to indirect selection (hitchhiking). These patterns of changes were generally as predicted from the model. The influence...

  10. How Specific is Non-Hypersensitive Host and Nonhost Resistance of Barley to Rust and Mildew Fungi?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niks R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Full nonhost resistance can be deifned as immunity, displayed by an entire plant species against all genotypes of a plant pathogen. Interesting biological questions are, whether the genes responsible for the nonhost status of a plant species have a general or a specific effectiveness to heterologous (“nonhost”) pathogens? Is the nonhost resistance to pathogens of plant species that are related to the nonhost based onR-genes or on other types of genes?We study this question in barley (Hordeum vulgareL.), which is a near-nonhost to several rusts (Puccinia) of cereals and grasses. By crosses and selection we accumulated susceptibility and developed an experimental line, SusPtrit, with high susceptibility to at least nine different heterologous rust taxa such as the wheat andAgropyron leaf rusts (P. triticina andP. persistens, respectively). At the microscopic level there is also some variation among barley accessions in the degree that the heterologous wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminisf.sp.tritici) is able to form haustoria in epidermal cells. So, also the genetics of the variation in level of nonhost resistance to heterologous mildew fungi can be studied in barley. Our data obtained on mapping populations involving three regular nonhost-immune accessions (Vada, Cebada Capa and Golden Promise) suggest that nonhost resistance is the joined effect of multiple, quantitative genes (QTLs) and very occasionally a major gene (R-gene?) is involved. Most QTLs have effect to only one or two heterologous rusts, but some have a wider spectrum. This was conifrmed in a set of QTL-NILs. Those QTL-NILs are used to ifne-map the effective genes. In some cases, a QTL region with effectiveness to several heterologous rusts might be a cluster of genes with a more narrow spectrum of effectiveness. Our evidence suggests that nonhost resistance in barley to rust and powdery mildew fungi of related Gramineae is not due toR-genes, but to pathogen species-speciifc quantitative

  11. Genome-wide association studies for agronomical traits in a world wide spring barley collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasam Raj K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS based on linkage disequilibrium (LD provide a promising tool for the detection and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL underlying complex agronomic traits. In this study we explored the genetic basis of variation for the traits heading date, plant height, thousand grain weight, starch content and crude protein content in a diverse collection of 224 spring barleys of worldwide origin. The whole panel was genotyped with a customized oligonucleotide pool assay containing 1536 SNPs using Illumina's GoldenGate technology resulting in 957 successful SNPs covering all chromosomes. The morphological trait "row type" (two-rowed spike vs. six-rowed spike was used to confirm the high level of selectivity and sensitivity of the approach. This study describes the detection of QTL for the above mentioned agronomic traits by GWAS. Results Population structure in the panel was investigated by various methods and six subgroups that are mainly based on their spike morphology and region of origin. We explored the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD among the whole panel for all seven barley chromosomes. Average LD was observed to decay below a critical level (r2-value 0.2 within a map distance of 5-10 cM. Phenotypic variation within the panel was reasonably large for all the traits. The heritabilities calculated for each trait over multi-environment experiments ranged between 0.90-0.95. Different statistical models were tested to control spurious LD caused by population structure and to calculate the P-value of marker-trait associations. Using a mixed linear model with kinship for controlling spurious LD effects, we found a total of 171 significant marker trait associations, which delineate into 107 QTL regions. Across all traits these can be grouped into 57 novel QTL and 50 QTL that are congruent with previously mapped QTL positions. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the described

  12. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh

    2017-01-01

    The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter, and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grain...

  13. Effect of pH and Recombinant Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Endoprotease B2 on Degradation of Proteins in Soaked Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    Nonfermented soaking of barley feedstuff has been established as an in vitro procedure prior to the feeding of pigs as it can increase protein digestibility. In the current study, two feed cultivars of barley (Finlissa and Zephyr) were soaked in vitro either nonbuffered or buffered at pH 3.6 and ...

  14. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... of choice to decrease the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) . However, there is a wide variability in ...

  15. The potential of plant viruses to promote genotypic diversity via genotype x environment interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Mölken, Tamara; Stuefer, Josef F.

    2011-01-01

    for WClMV to provoke differential selection on T. repens genotypes, which may lead to negative frequency-dependent selection in host populations. †Conclusions The apparent G × E interaction and evident repercussions for relative fitness reported in this study stress the importance of viruses...

  16. The Effects of Both Recent and Long-Term Selection and Genetic Drift Are Readily Evident in North American Barley Breeding Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Poets

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Barley was introduced to North America ∼400 yr ago but adaptation to modern production environments is more recent. Comparisons of allele frequencies among growth habits and spike (inflorescence types in North America indicate that significant genetic differentiation has accumulated in a relatively short evolutionary time span. Allele frequency differentiation is greatest among barley with two-row vs. six-row spikes, followed by spring vs. winter growth habit. Large changes in allele frequency among breeding programs suggest a major contribution of genetic drift and linked selection on genetic variation. Despite this, comparisons of 3613 modern North American cultivated barley breeding lines that differ for spike-type and growth habit permit the discovery of 142 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP outliers putatively linked to targets of selection. For example, SNPs within the Cbf4, Ppd-H1, and Vrn-H1 loci, which have previously been associated with agronomically adaptive phenotypes, are identified as outliers. Analysis of extended haplotype sharing identifies genomic regions shared within and among breeding populations, suggestive of a number of genomic regions subject to recent selection. Finally, we are able to identify recent bouts of gene flow between breeding populations that could point to the sharing of agronomically adaptive variation. These results are supported by pedigrees and breeders’ understanding of germplasm sharing.

  17. Determination of ergosterol levels in barley and malt varieties in the Czech Republic via HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicková, Lenka; Gadas, David; Havlová, Pavla; Havel, Josef

    2008-06-11

    Ergosterol is considered to be a suitable indicator of mold infestation in barley and malt. In this study ergosterol levels in different varieties of barley and malt produced in the Czech Republic were determined. A modified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was statistically processed, validated (Effivalidation program), and applied to 124 samples of barley and malt. Ergosterol was isolated by extraction and saponification, and the quantification was performed using HPLC with diode array detection. The content of ergosterol ranged between the limit of detection (LOD) and 36.3 mg/kg in barley and between the LOD and 131.1 mg/kg in malt. Ergosterol is presumably connected with metabolites generated when barley grain is attacked by pathogens, and such barley often shows a high overfoaming (gushing) value. However, it was found that the content of ergosterol does not correlate with the degree of beer gushing.

  18. Quantitative trait loci for yield and grain plumpness relative to maturity in three populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown in a low rain-fall environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obsa, Bulti Tesso; Eglinton, Jason; Coventry, Stewart; March, Timothy; Guillaume, Maxime; Le, Thanh Phuoc; Hayden, Matthew; Langridge, Peter; Fleury, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Identifying yield and grain plumpness QTL that are independent of developmental variation or phenology is of paramount importance for developing widely adapted and stable varieties through the application of marker assisted selection. The current study was designed to dissect the genetic basis of yield performance and grain plumpness in southern Australia using three doubled haploid (DH) populations developed from crosses between adapted parents that are similar in maturity and overall plant development. Three interconnected genetic populations, Commander x Fleet (CF), Commander x WI4304 (CW), and Fleet x WI4304 (FW) developed from crossing of Australian elite barley genotypes, were used to map QTL controlling yield and grain plumpness. QTL for grain plumpness and yield were analysed using genetic linkage maps made of genotyping-by-sequencing markers and major phenology genes, and field trials at three drought prone environments for two growing seasons. Seventeen QTL were detected for grain plumpness. Eighteen yield QTL explaining from 1.2% to 25.0% of the phenotypic variation were found across populations and environments. Significant QTL x environment interaction was observed for all grain plumpness and yield QTL, except QPlum.FW-4H.1 and QYld.FW-2H.1. Unlike previous yield QTL studies in barley, none of the major developmental genes, including Ppd-H1, Vrn-H1, Vrn-H2 and Vrn-H3, that drive barley adaption significantly affected grain plumpness and yield here. Twenty-two QTL controlled yield or grain plumpness independently of known maturity QTL or genes. Adjustment for maturity effects through co-variance analysis had no major effect on these yield QTL indicating that they control yield per se.

  19. Retention and growth performance of chicks given low-phytate conventional or hull-less barleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four low-phytate, hulled lines, M2 422 (now referred to as barley lpa1-1), M2 635 (now referred to as barley lpa3-1), M2 955 and M2 1070 (now referred to as barley lpa2-1), and a "hulless" version of M2 422, were evaluated in a chick feeding experiment. The diets were provided in meal form, with the...

  20. Application of Dual Coagulant (Alum + Barley in Removing Colour from Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaylinda Mohd Zin Nur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation/flocculation is one of the treatment method for highly polluted leachate. One of the main affecting factor for this process is the coagulant used. Coagulant is divided into natural and chemical coagulant. In the current study, Alum (chemical coagulant and barley (natural coagulant were used as dual coagulant. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of dual coagulant made from alum and barley in removing colour from the effluent of Simpang Renggam landfill leachate aeration lagoon through coagulation/flocculation method. Coagulation/flocculation process with single alum coagulant, single barley coagulant and dual coagulant (alum+barley were examined by evaluating the optimum values of pH and dose. Optimum dose and pH for alum and barley as single coagulant were; 3 g/L & pH 5; 0.8 g/L & pH 6. Higher removal of colour was recorded for alum compared to barley. Application of alum and barley as dual coagulant had higher colour removal than alum and barley as single coagulant. The optimum pH and dose for dual coagulant were at pH 6, 3.0 g/L of alum and 0.8 g/L of barley respectively. However, at pH 6, 2 g/L alum and 1.6 g/L barley, the removal of colour was similar to alum at 3 g/L. It can be concluded that barley as coagulant aid able to reduce 33 % usage of alum at par removals of colour. Thus, the dual coagulant consist of alum and barley has the potential to be applied as a coagulant for leachate treatment.

  1. Copy number variation at the HvCBF4-HvCBF2 genomic segment is a major component of frost resistance in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Enrico; Morcia, Caterina; Pasquariello, Marianna; Mazzamurro, Valentina; Milc, Justyna Anna; Rizza, Fulvia; Terzi, Valeria; Pecchioni, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    A family of CBF transcription factors plays a major role in reconfiguring the plant transcriptome in response to low-freezing temperature in temperate cereals. In barley, more than 13 HvCBF genes map coincident with the major QTL FR-H2 suggesting them as candidates to explain the function of the locus. Variation in copy number (CNV) of specific HvCBFs was assayed in a panel of 41 barley genotypes using RT-qPCR. Taking advantage of an accurate phenotyping that combined Fv/Fm and field survival, resistance-associated variants within FR-H2 were identified. Genotypes with an increased copy number of HvCBF4 and HvCBF2 (at least ten and eight copies, respectively) showed greater frost resistance. A CAPS marker able to distinguish the CBF2A, CBF2B and CBF2A/B forms was developed and showed that all the higher-ranking genotypes in term of resistance harbour only CBF2A, while other resistant winter genotypes harbour also CBF2B, although at a lower CNV. In addition to the major involvement of the HvCBF4-HvCBF2 genomic segment in the proximal cluster of CBF elements, a negative role of HvCBF3 in the distal cluster was identified. Multiple linear regression models taking into account allelic variation at FR-H1/VRN-H1 explained 0.434 and 0.550 (both at p < 0.001) of the phenotypic variation for Fv/Fm and field survival respectively, while no interaction effect between CNV at the HvCBFs and FR-H1/VRN-H1 was found. Altogether our data suggest a major involvement of the CBF genes located in the proximal cluster, with no apparent involvement of the central cluster contrary to what was reported for wheat.

  2. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hee Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol.

  3. The non-touching method of the malting barley quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raba, B.; Nowakowski, K.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.

    2014-04-01

    The first important stage of the malt production processes is the malting barley quality evaluation. Presented project was focused on the visual features of malting barley grains. The principal aim was to elaborate complete methodology to determine the level of grains contamination. The article describes the mechanisms of choosing parameters which can distinguish useful for the malt production grains from defects and impurities. Original computer system 'Hordeum v 3.1' helped obtain graphical data from images of contaminated barley samples. Research carried out in this area can improve the quality evaluation process of malting barley.

  4. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  5. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  6. In vitro fermentation of ten cultivars of barley silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Infascelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation characteristics of whole-crop barley silages from ten different cultivars were evaluated by the in vitro gas production technique. The organic matter degradability of barley silage (62.9% in average was comparable to those reported in our previous trials for oat (59.7% and sorghum silages (65.5%; while the maximum gas production rate (5.38 ml/h in average was slightly lower respect to oat (6.71 ml/h and sorghum silage (6.74 ml/h. The mean nutritive value (4.00 MJ/kg DM calculated on the basis of both chemical composition and in vitro fermentation data was comparable to that (4.16 MJ/kg DM obtained in our previous research performed on corn silage, from crop sowed in the same area.

  7. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight...... into these aspects four experiments were set up; (1) a mapping experiment aiming at identifying QTL’s controlling disease levels under field conditions was conducted in two winterbarley populations. (2) a toxin assay testing the parental lines used in the mapping populations for response to Rubellin D was developed....... (3) microarray analysis of transcriptional response in barley to inoculation with R. collo-cygni was carried out, and finally the (4) population genetic structure of R. collo-cygni was assessed by AFLP and gene sequencing. Based on these experiments interaction was compared to the interactions of C...

  8. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The importance of alpha-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary...... chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an alpha-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio...... in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition...

  9. Barley grain enrichement with essential elements by agronomic biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević Vesna D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley grain is rich in mineral nutrients, but their bioavailability to humans depends on antinutrients that restrain bioavailability and promoters that promote bioavailability. The aim of this study was to examine composition of barley grain, including phytate and phenolics as antinutrients, carotenoids and glutathione as promoters and mineral elements, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Si, Zn and Mn influenced by various non-standard foliar fertilizers (Zircon, Chitosan, Siliplant, Propikonazole, including some hormonal growth-stimulators (Epin Extra, Benzyladenine, as potential biofortification measure. Chitosan increased glutathione concentration in grain. Unfavorable meteorological conditions were partly mitigated by application of Benzyladenine and Siliplant, reflected through increased potential bioavailability of P, Mg, Ca and Fe. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31037

  10. Pollen grain of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. - pattern of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Charzyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen development in barley follows the general pattern established for other species of Poaceae: 1 microspore division occurs at the vacuolate microspore stage with polarly located nucleus; 2 microspore mitosis is immediately followed by phragmoplast and cell plate formation; 3 in consequence or unequal microspore division, the generative cell, at first attached to the pollen wall, is separated from the vegetative cell by a callosic wall; 4 during the postmitotic two-cell stage of development, the vegetative nucleus migrates to the aperture pole and is followed by the generative cell that is detached and free of callose wall. In this position the generative cell divides into two sperm cells. These data do not confirm the interpretation of pollen grain development in barley given by Cass and Karas in Can. J. Bot. 53: 1051-1062, 1975.

  11. Environmental and transgene expression effects on the barley seed proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Steenholdt, T.; Noguera, O.R.;

    2004-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Golden Promise is no longer widely used for malting, but is amenable to transformation and is therefore a valuable experimental cultivar. Its characteristics include high salt tolerance, however it is also susceptible to several fungal pathogens. Proteome....... Eleven of these were identified by mass spectrometric peptide mass mapping, including an abundant chitinase implicated in defence against fungal pathogens and a small heat-shock protein. To enable a comparison with transgenic seed protein patterns, differences in spot patterns between field...... with extra nitrogen. Finally, the fate of transgene products in barley seeds was followed. Spots containing two green fluorescent protein constructs and the herbicide resistance marker phosphinothricin acetyltransferase were observed in 2D-gel patterns of transgenic seeds and identified by mass spectrometry...

  12. Effect of ozone pretreatment on hydrogen production from barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangning; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Upreti, Simant

    2013-09-01

    Application of ozone technology to lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored with a barley straw. Ozone pretreatment effectively degraded the straw lignin and increased reducing sugar yield. A simultaneous enzyme hydrolysis and dark fermentation experiment was conducted using a mixed anaerobic consortium together with saccharification enzymes. Both untreated and ozonated samples produced hydrogen. Compared to the untreated group, hydrogen produced by the groups ozonated for 15, 30, 45 and 90 min increased 99%, 133%, 166% and 94%, respectively. Some inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed with the samples ozonated for 90 min, and the inhibition was on the fermentative microorganisms, not the saccharification enzymes. These results demonstrate that production of biohydrogen from barley straw, a lignocellulosic biomass, can be significantly enhanced by ozone pretreatment.

  13. Nutritional assessment of barley, talbina and their germinated products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed kamal El-Sayed Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Talbina is a food product with high potential applications as a functional food. Talbina was prepared from two barley varieties namely: Giza126 and Giza130 by adding whole barley flour to water (1:10 w/v and (1:5 w/v for germinated barley then heating at  80° C for 5 minutes with continuous stirring until reaching a porridge like texture. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clearly the nutritional assessment of talbina as a functional food. The study included the determination of gross chemical composition, caloric value, mineral composition, vitamins composition and the amino acids composition. Meanwhile, computation of the chemical scores (CS and A/E ratios were carried out for raw, germinated barley, talbina, germinated talbina and commercial talbina. The data revealed that protein content of the all raw studied and processing treatments ranged from 8.75-18.34g/100g on dry weight basis. Besides, the all treatments recorded rather slight decrease in crude fat content. Likewise, ash and carbohydrates ranged between 2.29-2.86 and 73.40-82.66%, respectively. Whereas crude fiber had an increase after treatments and it ranged from 3.83-4.37%. On the other hand by making talbina iron, manganese, copper and zinc increased especially zinc, which recorded higher value than that recommended daily. Furthermore, germinated talbina130 recorded the highest amounts of vitamins B2, Nicotinic acid, B6 and folic acid. Moreover, the present study indicated that phenylalanine was the highest essential amino acid, followed by leucine.

  14. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  15. Ethylene production and peroxidase activity in aphid-infested barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argandoña, V H; Chaman, M; Cardemil, L; Muñoz, O; Zúñiga, G E; Corcuera, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether ethylene is involved in the oxidative and defensive responses of barley to the aphids Schizaphis graminum (biotype C) and Rhopalophum padi. The effect of aphid infestation on ethylene production was measured in two barley cultivars (Frontera and Aramir) that differ in their susceptibility to aphids. Ethylene evolution was higher in plants infested for 16 hr than in plants infested for 4 hr in both cultivars. Under aphid infestation, the production of ethylene was higher in cv. Frontera than in Aramir, the more aphid susceptible cultivar. Ethylene production also increases with the degree of infestation. Maximum ethylene evolution was detected after 16 hr when plants were infested with 10 or more aphids. Comparing the two species of aphids, Schizaphis graminum induced more ethylene evolution than Rhopalosiphum padi. Infestation with S. graminum increased hydrogen peroxide content and total soluble peroxidase activity in cv. Frontera, with a maximum level of H2O2 observed after 20 min of infestation and the maximum in soluble peroxidase activity after 30 min of infestation. When noninfested barley seedlings from cv. Frontera were exposed to ethylene, an increase in hydrogen peroxide and in total peroxidase activity was detected at levels similar to those of infested plants from cv. Frontera. When noninfested plants were treated with 40 ppm of ethylene, the maximum levels of H2O2 and soluble peroxidase activity were at 10 and 40 min, respectively. Ethylene also increased the activity of both cell-wall-bound peroxidases types (ionically and covalently bound), comparable with infestation. These results suggest that ethylene is involved in the oxidative responses of barley plants induced by infestation.

  16. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedas, Pai; Schiller Stokholm, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Ladegård, Anne Hald; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Husted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2, which encode membrane-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts decreased under the same conditions, indicating non-overlapping functions for the two genes. In barley leaves, the expression of both MTP8 genes declined in response to toxic Mn additions to the roots suggesting a role in ensuring proper delivery of Mn to Golgi. Based on the above we suggest that barley MTP8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi localized Mn2+ transport proteins in a monocot plant species.

  17. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Pedas

    Full Text Available Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2, which encode membrane-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare. Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts decreased under the same conditions, indicating non-overlapping functions for the two genes. In barley leaves, the expression of both MTP8 genes declined in response to toxic Mn additions to the roots suggesting a role in ensuring proper delivery of Mn to Golgi. Based on the above we suggest that barley MTP8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi localized Mn2+ transport proteins in a monocot plant species.

  18. Pysicochemical properties of Tibetan hull-less barley starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Gong, Lingxiao; Zhang, Ying; Jane, Jay-lin

    2016-02-10

    Objectives of this study were to (1) determine the starch physicochemical properties of two commercial Tibetan hull-less barley varieties, Beiqing (BQ) and Kangqing (KQ); and (2) understand the relationship between unique properties of the starches, their structures, and impacts of growing conditions. The BQ barleys were grown at a location with lower temperature and less rainfall compared with the KQ barleys. The BQ starches showed significantly lower onset-gelatinization temperature (54.1-54.9 °C), larger gelatinization-temperature range (9.4-10.6 °C), and higher peak-viscosities (138.9-153.9RVU) than the KQ starches (55.1-56.1 °C, 7.4-8.8 °C, and 63.4-64.7RVU, respectively). After a treatment with 2% sodium-dodecyl-sulphate solution, the KQ starches showed substantially greater increases in peak viscosities than the BQ starches. Annealing of starch and enhanced amylose-lipid complex formation, resulting from higher growing temperature during the development of the KQ starches, likely contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties between the BQ and KQ starches.

  19. The Metabolic Signature of Biomass Formation in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mohammad R; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Usadel, Björn; Junker, Björn; Schreiber, Falk; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2016-09-01

    The network analysis of genome-wide transcriptome responses, metabolic signatures and enzymes' relationship to biomass formation has been studied in a diverse panel of 12 barley accessions during vegetative and reproductive stages. The primary metabolites and enzymes involved in central metabolism that determine the accumulation of shoot biomass at the vegetative stage of barley development are primarily being linked to sucrose accumulation and sucrose synthase activity. Interestingly, the metabolic and enzyme links which are strongly associated with biomass accumulation during reproductive stages are related to starch accumulation and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citrate, malate, trans-aconitate and isocitrate. Additional significant associations were also found for UDP glucose, ATP and the amino acids isoleucine, valine, glutamate and histidine during the reproductive stage. A network analysis resulted in a combined identification of metabolite and enzyme signatures indicative for grain weight accumulation that was correlated with the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), a rate-limiting enzyme involved in starch biosynthesis, and with that of alanine amino transferase involved in the synthesis of storage proteins. We propose that the mechanism related to vegetative and reproductive biomass formation vs. seed biomass formation is being linked to distinct fluxes regulating sucrose, starch, sugars and amino acids as central resources. These distinct biomarkers can be used to engineer biomass production and grain weight in barley.

  20. Effects of ethylene on root elongation in barley and rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, A.; Hall, M.A.; Crossett, R.N.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of rice and barley to growth inhibition by ethylene. The mechanism of growth inhibition was investigated at the cellular level and a detailed comparison was made between the responses of the two species. The following measurements were made on intact plants in short (up to 200 minutes), medium (up to 3 days) or long (up to 10 days) experiments: the rate of extension growth of main root axes; the final cell length and number of elongating cells produced; and the extensibility of the apical growing region. Results indicate that the effects of ethylene on the elongation of roots of rice and barley plants are different. In barley there is a rapid inhibition of root extension which persists with prolonged exposure to the gas but with little effect on the production of growing cells. However, rice roots exhibit no rapid growth inhibition response, but a reduction does occur after prolonged exposure. Low concentrations promote extension rice roots. The inhibition of root growth is reflected in a reduced extensibility of the apical growing region.

  1. Alleviation of Al Toxicity in Barley by Addition of Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Tian-rong; CHEN Ying; ZHANG Yan-hua; JIN Ye-fei

    2006-01-01

    The potential mechanism by which Ca alleviates Al toxicity was investigated in barley seedlings. It was found that 100 μM Al-alone treatment inhibited barley plant growth and thereby reduced shoot height and root length, and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf; promoted Al accumulation but inhibited Ca absorption in plant tissues; and induced an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) and in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) in leaves. Except for the increase in Ca concentration in plant tissues, treatment with 0.5 mM Ca in the absence of Al had less effect on the above-mentioned parameters, compared with the control. Addition of Ca efficiently reduced Al toxicity, which is reflected by the promotion of plant growth, reduction in Al concentration and MDA content,increase in Ca concentration and in SOD, POD, and CAT activities compared with the Al-alone-treatment; with increase in Ca level (3.0 mM), the ameliorative effect became more dominant. This indicated that the alleviation of aluminum toxicity in barley seedlings with Ca supplementation could be associated with less absorption of Al and the enhancement of the protective ability of the cell because of increased activity of the antioxidative enzyme.

  2. Nitrate Uptake into Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane-Drummond, Celia E.; Glass, Anthony D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence is presented that chlorate is an extremely good analog for nitrate during nitrate uptake by intact barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Fergus) roots. The depletion of ClO3− or NO3− from uptake media over 2 to 6 hours by seedlings was found to be dependent on combined NO3− plus ClO3− concentrations, and total anion uptake was equivalent at different NO3−/ClO3− ratios. After loading barley seedlings with 36ClO3− for 6 hours, kinetic parameters were derived from the analysis of efflux of [36Cl] chlorate into unlabeled solution. On the basis of this analysis, the half times for exchange for the cytoplasmic and vacuolar phases were 17 minutes and 20 hours, respectively. Data pooled from a number of different experiments were used to calculate kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for 36ClO3− influx into barley roots at different external ClO3−/NO3− ratios, using short (10 minutes) influx times. There appeared to be no discrimination by the root cells between ClO3− and NO3−. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the interaction between nitrate and chlorate were characteristic of competitive inhibition at low nitrate concentrations (0-0.5 mm). At higher concentrations, in the range of >1 mm, similar interactions between these ions were evident. PMID:16662478

  3. Screening of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsvali, Alireza; Farzaneh, Vahid; Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Zare, Zahra; Karami, Zahra; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Carvalho, Isabel. S.

    2016-10-01

    An understanding of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt is necessary for the appropriate design of equipment for the handling, shipping, dehydration, grading, sorting and warehousing of this strategic crop. Malting is a complex biotechnological process that includes steeping; germination and finally, the dehydration of cereal grains under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In this investigation, the biophysical properties of barley malt were predicted using two models of artificial neural networks as well as response surface methodology. Stepping time and germination time were selected as the independent variables and 1 000 kernel weight, kernel density and terminal velocity were selected as the dependent variables (responses). The obtained outcomes showed that the artificial neural network model, with a logarithmic sigmoid activation function, presents more precise results than the response surface model in the prediction of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of produced barley malt. This model presented the best result with 8 nodes in the hidden layer and significant correlation coefficient values of 0.783, 0.767 and 0.991 were obtained for responses one thousand kernel weight, kernel density, and terminal velocity, respectively. The outcomes indicated that this novel technique could be successfully applied in quantitative and qualitative monitoring within the malting process.

  4. Over-expression of microRNA171 affects phase transitions and floral meristem determinancy in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curaba Julien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transitions from juvenile to adult and adult to reproductive phases of growth are important stages in the life cycle of plants. The regulators of these transitions include miRNAs, in particular miR156 and miR172 which are part of a regulatory module conserved across the angiosperms. In Arabidopsis miR171 represses differentiation of axillary meristems by repressing expression of SCARECROW-LIKE(SCL transcription factors, however the role of miR171 has not been examined in other plants. Results To investigate the roles of mir171 and its target genes in a monocot, the Hvu pri-miR171a was over-expressed in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Golden promise leading to reduced expression of at least one HvSCL gene. The resulting transgenic plants displayed a pleiotropic phenotype which included branching defects, an increased number of short vegetative phytomers and late flowering. These phenotypes appear to be the consequence of changes in the organisation of the shoot meristem. In addition, the data show that miR171 over-expression alters the vegetative to reproductive phase transition by activating the miR156 pathway and repressing the expression of the TRD (THIRD OUTER GLUME and HvPLA1 (Plastochron1 genes. Conclusions Our data suggest that some of the roles of miR171 and its target genes that have been determined in Arabidopsis are conserved in barley and that they have additional functions in barley including activation of the miR156 pathway.

  5. 不同耐铝性的小麦基因型在酸性铝毒土壤的适应性及其与体内养分状况的关系%Adaptation of wheat genotypes with differential aluminum tolerance to acid, aluminum toxic soil in relation to their nutrient composition in shoots.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林咸永; 章永松; 陶勤南

    2000-01-01

    A soil culture test was conducted to evaluate adaptation of four wheat genotypes with differential aluminum tolerance to acid, aluminum toxic soil in relation to their nutrient composition in shoot. It was found that shoot growth of four wheat genotypes was greatly inhibited, while Al-tolerant genotypes exhibited higher shoot length, shoot dry weight and grain yield than those of Al- sensitive genotypes at lower soil pH and higher active Al condition. A significant decrease in the N, K, Ca, P, Zn contents, increase in Al content and no obvious change in Mg, Fe and Mn content in shoot were observed in all the tested wheat genotypes in the treatment of lower pH and higher Al. However, higher N, K, Ca, P contents, lower Al content, and higher ratios of Ca/Al, P/Al and K/Al were found in the shoot of the Al-tolerant genotype than in the shoot of Al-sensitive genotype in the presence of lower soil pH and higher Al. The resuits of the study indicate that adaptation of Al-tolerant genotype to acid, Aluminum toxic soil may be associated with their higher Ca, P contents and lower Al content, and higher Ca/Al , P/Al and K/Al ratiosin shoots.%采用土培试验研究了4个不同耐铝性的小麦基因型在酸性高铝土壤中的适应性及其与体内养分状况的关系.结果表明,酸性高铝条件明显抑制小麦的生长,但耐铝基因型的株高、地上部干重和籽粒产量均显著高于敏感基因型,表现出对酸性铝毒土壤较强的适应性.低pH高铝处理降低了小麦地上部氮、钾、钙、磷和锌的含量,提高了铝含量,对镁、铁和锰含量则无明显的影响,但耐铝基因型植株地上部比铝敏感基因型有较高的氮、钾、钙和磷含量及较低的铝含量.耐铝基因型对酸性铝毒土壤的适应性强可能与其在低pH高铝条件下维持较高的钙、磷含量,较低的铝含量以及较高的Ca/Al,P/Al和K/Al比值有关.

  6. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  7. (Brassica napus L.) genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... The genetic diversity and relationships among rapeseed genotypes were ... dent of environment and plant growth stage, unlimited ..... interactions that lead to the expression of particular traits .... thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad. ... in the U.S. hard red winter wheat cultivars as reveled by.

  8. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  9. The promoter of the barley aleurone-specific gene encoding a putative 7 kDa lipid transfer protein confers aleurone cell-specific expression in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, R; Shimamoto, K; Potter, R; Nielsen, P S; Linnestad, C; Olsen, O A

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes the aleurone-specific gene Ltp2 from barley, which encodes a putative 7 kDa non-specific lipid transfer protein. As shown by Northern and in situ hybridization analyses, the Ltp2 transcript is present in barley aleurone cells shortly after the initiation of aleurone cell differentiation. The expression of Ltp2 increases until grain mid-maturity, but the mRNA is absent from mature grains. The Ltp2 transcript is undetectable in the embryo and vegetative tissues, confirming the aleurone specificity of the Ltp2 gene. The ability of the isolated 801 bp Ltp2 promoter to direct aleurone-specific expression in immature barley grains is demonstrated by particle bombardment experiments. In these experiments, the activity of the Ltp2 promoter is 5% of the activity of the strong constitutive Actin1 promoter from rice, as quantified by GUS activity measurements. In stably transformed rice plants containing the Ltp2 promoter-Gus construct, the specificity of the Ltp2 promoter is confirmed in vivo by the presence of GUS activity exclusively in the aleurone layer. This study demonstrates the conserved nature of the regulatory signals involved in aleurone-specific gene transcription in cereal grains.

  10. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...

  11. A promising low beta-glucan barley mutation of m351 for better bioethanol production use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioethanol is an important liquid fuel complement. Barley is an alternative raw material for ethanol production and its byproduct is a nutritious feed. The barley m351mutant line, which has a mutation for low beta-glucan content, was tested for its ethanol production efficiency and feed fraction qua...

  12. Localization to Chromosomes of Structural Genes for the Major Protease Inhibitors of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Bjørn, S.E.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1984-01-01

    Wheat-barley chromosome addition lines were compared by isoelectric focusing of protein extracts to identify chromosomes carrying loci for the major immunochemically distinct protease inhibitors of barley grains. Structural genes for the following inhibitors were localized: an inhibitor of both...

  13. Determinants of barley grain yield in a wide range of Mediterranean environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia, E.; Tondelli, A.; Rizza, F.; Badeck, F.W.; Li Destri Nicosia, O.; Akar, T.; Grando, S.; Al-Yassin, A.; Benkelkacim, A.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Romagosa, I.; Stanca, A.M.; Pechionni, N.

    2011-01-01

    Barley grain yield in rainfed Mediterranean regions can be largely influenced by terminal drought events. In this study the ecophysiological performance of the ‘Nure’ (winter) × ‘Tremois’ (spring) barley mapping population (118 Doubled Haploids, DHs) was evaluated in a multi-environment trial of eig

  14. Microarray Analysis of Late Response to Boron Toxicity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oz, M.T.; Yilmaz, R.; Eyidogan, F.; Graaff, de L.H.; Yucel, M.; Oktem, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    DNA microarrays, being high-density and high-throughput, allow quantitative analyses of thousands of genes and their expression patterns in parallel. In this study, Barley1 GereChip was used to investigate transcriptome changes associated with boron (B) toxicity in a sensitive barley cultivar (Horde

  15. USE OF BARLEY OZONIZED GRAIN AND PROBIOTICS FOR INCREASING BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF POULTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Temiraev R. B.; Baeva A. A.; Bazaeva L. M.; Vityuk L. A.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents experimental data indicating that for the optimization of biological and food processing meat value at risk of aflatoxicosis in feeding chicken-broilers with barley-wheat and sunflower type one should include hullless barley grain at exposure of ozone of 3.0 hour complex with Bifidumbacterinum probiotics

  16. Transformation of Barley (Hordeum vulgar L.) by Agrobacterium tumefasciens Infection of In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of in vitro cultured barley ovules is an attractive alternative to well-established barley transformation methods of immature embryos. The ovule culture system can be used for transformation with and without selection and has successfully been used to transform...

  17. Integration of weed management and tillage practices in spring barley production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring barley can be used to diversify and intensify winter wheat-based production systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, but the response of barley to conservation tillage systems, which are needed to reduce the risk of soil erosion, is not well documented. The objective of this study was to descri...

  18. Influence of alkali catalyst on product yield and properties via hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Z.; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Barley straw was successfully converted to bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction at temperature of 280 e400 C using an alkali catalyst (K2CO3) in our previous work, and the maximum bio-crude yield was obtained at 300 C. This paper extends previous work on studying liquefaction behavior of barley...

  19. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...

  20. Characterizing the Pyrenophora teres f. maculata – barley interaction using pathogen genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrenophora teres f. maculata is the cause of the foliar disease spot form net blotch (SFNB) on barley. To evaluate pathogen genetics underlying the P. teres f. maculata- barley interaction, we developed a 105-progeny population by crossing two globally diverse isolates, one from North Dakota, USA a...