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Sample records for barje landfill ljubljana

  1. Ecolotree{sup {trademark}} cap at the Barje Landfill, Ljubljana, Slovenia, prototype demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, L.; Schnoor, J. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer uses strategically planted Populus spp. (poplar) trees and forbs to prevent water pollution while growing fiber for biomass fuels, paper pulps, and construction materials. The concept, developed at the University of Iowa, uses root systems that act as a pump to predictable depths greater than 1.5 m (5 ft). The plant uptakes water, nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.), and adsorbable organics (such as herbicides) from soil. When the plant survival, growth rate, rooted soil depth, and water uptake are predictable, the site`s hydrology can be managed, and regulatory agencies are more willing to issue operating permits that include this vegetated barrier. Poplars transpire 600 to 1000 kilograms of water for every kilogram of stem dry matter (DM) growth. Measured poplar growth rates for 4-year old trees was 16,600 kg DM/hectare/yr. Conservatively, the water uptake calculated using the 600:1 water/stem growth ratio is 10,000,000 liters/hectare/yr. When transpiration exceeds rainfall, plants remove stored water from rooted soils. This dehydrating action effectively gives the soil a water storage capacity during winter dormancy. This Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer technology develops the ability to greatly reduce water leakage without the need for membrane or clay layers in landfill cover soils. This concept is now being used to manage water at American and Slovenian landfills. In contrast with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved clay or geomembrane covers designed with slight regard for plant growth, this cover focuses on reestablishing a vigorous ecosystem. While accomplishing the primary goal of protecting groundwater purity, the Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer grows a productive cover that stabilizes soil slopes, produces marketable crops, develops wildlife habitat, and provides a more pleasing ambiance.

  2. Carbonate Chemistry and Isotope Characteristics of Groundwater of Ljubljansko Polje and Ljubljansko Barje Aquifers in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Cerar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko Barje aquifers are the main groundwater resources for the needs of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. Carbonate chemistry and isotope analysis of the groundwater were performed to acquire new hydrogeological data, which should serve as a base for improvement of hydrogeological conceptual models of both aquifers. A total of 138 groundwater samples were collected at 69 sampling locations from both aquifers. Major carbonate ions and the stable isotope of oxygen were used to identify differences in the recharging areas of aquifers. Four groups of groundwater were identified: (1 Ljubljansko polje aquifer, with higher Ca2+ values, as limestone predominates in its recharge area, (2 northern part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, with prevailing dolomite in its recharge area, (3 central part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, which lies below surface cover of impermeable clay and is poor in carbonate, and (4 Brest and Iški vršaj aquifer in the southern part of Ljubljansko Barje with higher Mg2+ in groundwater and dolomite prevailing in its recharge area. The radioactive isotope tritium was also used to estimate the age of groundwater. Sampled groundwater is recent with tritium activity between 4 and 8 TU and residence time of up to 10 years.

  3. Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on landfills, including laws/regulations, and technical guidance on municipal solid waste, hazardous waste, industrial, PCBs, and construction and debris landfills. To provide resources for owners and operators of landfills.

  4. Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data set defines both current and historic landfills/waste disposal storage sites for the State of Vermont. Historic landfills were identified with the...

  5. Pharmaceuticals as indicators of anthropogenic influence on the groundwater of Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko barje aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The attention of numerous researches has been recently focused on the determination of pharmaceuticals and other persistent chemicals in the environment. The substances enter groundwater either thorough direct discharge or indirectly (through surface or waste water. Pharmaceuticals in groundwater can be regarded as artificial tracers that enable the evaluation of general anthropogenic influence on the environment and identification of the most vulnerable areas of aquifers.The article presents the properties of distribution of caffeine, carbamazepine and propyphenazone in the area of Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko barje. Ljubljansko polje and Barje are important drinking water resources. These pollutants are indicators of sewage system efficiency,however,in urban areas without sewage they indicate the aquifer’s ability of natural attenuation.

  6. Perceptual spatial differentiation of Ljubljana

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    Marko Krevs

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Geographical studies of human perception of places at local scale are usually aimed at bet-ter understanding of human spatial perception and knowledge about the places, and of using this knowledge in spatial decision-making or spatial behaviour. Our focus on the first part of these general research aims is presented based on a case study, revealing how residents of the Municipality of Ljubljana perceive and value neighbourhoods of “their” municipality at the beginning of the century1.

  7. Kai Kaljo video-workshopil Ljubljanas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Video-workshop "Crossing Over 4" 9.-23. XII 1999 Ljubljana meedialaboris. Korraldajad videokunsti professor Nina Czegledy Torontost ja bulgaaria kuraator Iliyana Nedkova. Eestit esindanud Kai Kaljo esitas videos "Pathetique" oma versiooni Beethoveni "Pateetilisest sonaadist"

  8. Environmental issues of the Ljubljana urban region

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    Metka Špes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The main environmental problems of Ljubljana urban region which are obstacle of sustain-able development are presented in the paper, especially the main sources of air pollution and water manegment. Actual quality of life in urban environment is seen also in noise pollu-tion, quality and accessibility of green areas and in traffic. On the end the article discusses the attitudes of Ljubljana residents to environmental problems and quality of life in urban region.

  9. Lipids, pots and food processing at Hočevarica, Ljubljansko barje, Slovenia

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    Nives Ogrinc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of lipid analyses of pottery samples from Ho≠evarica (Ljub- ljansko barje, Slovenia. Total lipid extracts were subjected to high temperature gas chromatography (HT-GC, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS. The results show that some vessels were used for prepar- ing ruminant meat and vegetable, but also the remains of aquatic food were identified. The processing of non-ruminant meat was detected in a few samples. A high number of pottery samples yielded the presence of beeswax lipids. The charred residual on pottery was AMS 14C dated.

  10. Ljubljana – phases of urban development

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    Aleksander Jakoš

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the Second World War there were approximately 100.000 people living in the compact part of Ljubljana. A period of rapid population development ensued (urbanisation because of immigration from other parts of Slovenia and later from various regions of the former Yugoslav Republics. This period is marked by numerous new housing estates and early stagnation of the old city core. A period ob sub-urbanisation followed and city expansion along the main roads, interspersed with poor quality building and illegal development. Costly renewal of old buildings, diminished construction of housing estates and high prices of building land triggered the flight of city dwellers (de-urbanisation and caused non-urban development in neighbouring municipalities (secondary urbanisation. By rehabilitation of the old city centre and attempts at revitalisation Ljubljana is trying re-urbanise itself. The flight of the younger population, caused by limited offer of housing, still remains the main problem that furthermore causes increased volumes of daily commuting and congestion in the city centre caused by parked vehicles. The tally of increased population during the last decade to small neighbouring municipalities, caused by flight from Ljubljana, is 20.000, while the population of Ljubljana is decreasing. With its quarter of a million inhabitants, Ljubljana is the third smallest capital city of Europe (without the “pocket” states. The main issue in the neighbouring municipalities is expressively non-urban development, meaning that too much land is used and the utilities infrastructure threshold is not met. The present division of the Ljubljana metropolitan region truly calls for a Strategy of spatial development, at least on the level of the Ljubljana urban region.

  11. Population development in Ljubljana urban region

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    Dejan Rebernik

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main characteristic of population development and urbanisation processes in Ljubljana and Ljubljana urban region. Up to the end of the seventies fast population growth was a consequence of strong immigration from rural parts of Slovenia and the rest of Yugoslavia. In the eighties and nineties deconcentration of population within the region with intense suburbanisation and depopulation of inner city and older residential neighbourhoods were the main urbanisation processes. In the second half of the nineties the highest population growth was recorded in dispersed rural settlements in the periphery of the region. In some parts of the inner city reurbanisation and gentrification occurred.

  12. TRIGA Mark II Ljubljana - spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravnik, M.; Dimic, V.

    2008-01-01

    The most important activity in 1999 was shipment of the spent fuel elements back to the United States for final disposal. This activity started already in 1998 with some governmental support. In July 1999 all spent fuel elements (219 pieces) from the TRIGA research reactor in Ljubljana were shipped back to the United Stated by the ship from the port Koper in Slovenia. At the same time shipment of the spent fuel from the research reactor in Pitesti, Romania, and the research reactor in Rome, Italy, was conducted. During the loading the radiation exposure to the workers was rather low. The loading and shipment of the spent nuclear fuel went very smoothly and according the accepted time table. During the last two years the TRIGA research reactor in Ljubljana has been in operation about 1100 hours per year and without any undesired shut-down. (authors)

  13. Running injuries in the participants of Ljubljana Marathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitez Luka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the self-reported incidence and prevalence of running-related injuries among participants of the 18th Ljubljana Marathon, and to identify risk factors for their occurrence.

  14. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities...... under specific circumstances. Initially a general water balance equation is defined for a typical landfill, and the different parts of the water balance are discussed. A separate section discusses water flow and the hydrogeology of landfilled wastes and considers the impact of water short...

  15. Landfill Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill methane (CH4) accounts for approximately 1.3% (0.6 Gt) of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions relative to total emissions from all sectors of about 49 Gt CO2-eq yr-1. For countries with a history of controlled landfilling, landfills can be one of the larger national sources of ant...

  16. Time and myth: the Argonauts in Ljubljana

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    Ana María Sánchez Tarrío

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This papers gives a breif overview of research in its initial phases, which examines, from the perspective of the construction of national identity, the traditional theme of the enduring and timeless nature of Classical myths and in particular the ancient myth, which is the subject of Borges’s sharp irony in his short-story “The immortal”. The reception of the Argonauts myth in Slovenian culture, initiated by the work of Janez Vajkard or Johann Weichard Freiherr von Valvasor (1641–1693, offers a significant case-study, which also highlights the relevance of Humanist and Baroque culture in the critical history of European nationalism. Writing before the emergence in Europe of the Hegelian conception of “Volkgeist”, the polymath writer applied a humanistic approach to patriotic themes, revealing Slovene culture, hybrid from its origins, to the wider world. A characteristic feature of his approach was the fusion of earlier textual tradition with contemporary oral material. Both in Slovenia and in the rest of Europe the comparison of the nineteenth century treatment of material dealing with national identity with its earlier treatment and transmission by humanist writers highlights the importance of the 16th and 17th centuries in the configuration of the different national faces of Europe as well as the significant role of common Greek and Latin roots. As a result, the myth of the Argonauts in Ljubljana, against the backdrop of idealistic or essentialist nationalist faiths, has the not inconsiderable virtue of underscoring the contaminatio that is characteristic of the construction of national identity.

  17. Spatial variations in nitrogen dioxide concentrations in urban Ljubljana, Slovenia

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    Vintar Mally Katja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations are regularly measured at only two monitoring stations in the city centre of Ljubljana, and such scanty data are inadequate for drawing conclusions about spatial patterns of pollution within the city, or to decide on effective measures to further improve air quality. In order to determine the spatial distribution of NO2 concentrations in different types of urban space in Ljubljana, two measuring campaigns throughout the city were carried out, during the summer of 2013 and during the winter of 2014. The main source of NO2 in Ljubljana is road transport. Accordingly, three types of urban space have been identified (urban background, open space along roads, and street canyon, and their NO2 pollution level was measured using Palmes diffusive samplers at a total of 108 measuring spots. This article analyses the results of both measuring campaigns and compares the pollution levels of different types of urban space.

  18. From Urban Geodiversity to Geoheritage: The Case of Ljubljana (Slovenia

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    Tičar Jure

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The city of Ljubljana lies at the intersection of various geomorphological regions that have strongly influenced its spatial organization. Prehistoric settlements were built on marshland, a Roman town was built on the first river terrace of the Ljubljanica River, and in the Middle Ages a town was built in a strategic position between the Ljubljanica River and Castle Hill. The modern city absorbed all usable space between the nearby hills. This paper reviews some relief features in Ljubljana, their influence on the city’s spatial development, and urban geoheritage. The results indicate new possibilities for urban geoheritage tourism in the Slovenian capital and its surroundings.

  19. Landfill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnell, Gaynor

    2000-01-01

    Following the UK Government's initiative for stimulating renewable energy through the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the UK landfill gas industry has more than trebled in size in just 4 years. As a result, UK companies are now in a strong position to offer their skills and services overseas. Ireland, Greece and Spain also resort heavily to disposal to landfill. Particularly rapid growth of the landfill gas market is expected in the OECD-Pacific and NAFTA areas. The article explains that landfill gas is a methane-rich mixture produced by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes in landfills: under optimum conditions, up to 500 cubic meters of gas can be obtained from 1 tonne of biodegradable waste. Data on the number and capacity of sites in the UK are given. The Landfill Gas Association runs courses to counteract the skills shortage in the UK, and tailored courses for overseas visitors are planned

  20. City of Ljubljana: Its housing, population and housing conditions

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    Maša Filipovič

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of key aspect of housing in Municipality of Ljubljana. The characteristics of households, of housing and their relation influence the housing situation in the city. Characteristic of housing refer mainly to quality of the dwellings, affordability and correspondence to the wishes of the inhabitants. The second important dimensions are households and their characteristics. In Europe and Slovenia increase in number of household can be observed, which in turn are becoming smaller. The housing policy has a role in establishing a balance between households and housing, i.e. ensuring that housing corresponds to the needs of individual households and to their number. For achieving this, knowledge and appropriate data are of vital importance. In the article we present the results of the Housing survey 2005. We observe housing conditions in a comparative perspective (Ljubljana in comparison to Maribor, Slovenia and selected European cities and according to three dimensions: housing fund, households and housing conditions.

  1. Ancient literature in the teaching of the Ljubljana jesuits

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    Nada Grošelj

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Jesuit Order came to Ljubljana in 1597, founding a »gymnasium« and later expanding it with a semi-university. In contrast to certain other orders, they fostered the classics, as is evidenced by their teaching, scholarly research, and literary composition. The scholarly work of the Jesuits active in present-day Slovenia was mostly concentrated on ancient philosophy, as is shown in the second section of this paper. Their teaching, on the other hand, included both classroom lessons and more creative activities, such as the writing and staging of school plays. The Jesuit school system with its six gymnasium classes is described in the first section of the paper, and the school curriculum (based almost exclusively on the teaching of Latin literature and methods in the third. The fourth section presents the documents relating to the final gymnasium examinations in ancient literature which took place in Ljubljana, with a survey of the contents of the questions. The fifth section outlines the characteristics of Jesuit school drama. The plays performed in Ljubljana are lost, but, judging by the preserved titles and synopses, ancient themes appear to have been relatively rare. Nevertheless, the paper succeeds in isolating seventeen works (discussed in the sixth section which must have either utilised plots from ancient literature or drawn inspiration from ancient stock characters and rhetoric.

  2. INPP Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlberg, Jan; Bergstroem, Ulla

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to propose the basic design for final disposal of Very Low Level Radioactive Waste (VLLW) produced at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and at other small waste producers in Lithuania. Considering the safety for the environment, as well as the construction costs, it has been decided that the repository will be of a landfill type based on the same design principles as similar authorised facilities in other countries. It has also been decided that the location of the landfill shall be in the vicinity of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP)

  3. Radio Ljubljana and its music policies 1928-1941

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    Stefanija Leon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main programming issue faced by Radio Ljubljana was connected to its function: was it a new medium basically intended for cultural advancement and democratic information distribution or was it a new medium primarily serving as an entertainment platform for different types of listener? The question had been one of the key topics from the beginnings of Radio Ljubljana’s broadcasting in 1928. This paper discusses the answers to this question through an analysis of the musical programming from 1928 until the Luftwaffe destroyed Radio Ljubljana’s transmitter in Domžale on April 11, 1941.

  4. Air pollution due to road traffic in Ljubljana

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    Matej Ogrin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is due to road traffic an inevitable outcome of internal combustion in engines ofvehicles and some other processes. Air near the roads is more polluted with some pollutants,such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter and some others.Monitoring the air quality is a key issue, when one wants to estimate environmental impactsof the road traffic. The article shows a method of passive samplers for air quality monitoringalong different roads in the area of Ljubljana Municipality.

  5. Reading Slovenian Novels in Selected Branches of Ljubljana City Library

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    Katja Šikonja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article presents a research paper trying to identify the reasons for the assumption, widely accepted by Slovenian library profession that Slovenians do not read novels written by domestic authors.Methodology/approach: The research was conducted in 2014 in the Ljubljana City Library. A small sample of fifty adult users in five branches of Ljubljana City Library was selected. Data were gathered by semi-structured interview (questions were prepared in advance but could be tailored to the needs of the interview. Annual list of the most popular book titles was used.Results: Answers were classified in the following groups: (1 Problems of Slovenian novel (2 Insufficiently known (3 Foreign is better (4 Mandatory school reading lists (5 Other.Originality/practical implications: The research is the first attempt to thoroughly deal with the question of reading modern Slovenian novels in the region of Central Slovenia. Due to insufficient sample size, the results could not be generalized and applied to the entire Slovenian population. However, they could represent a starting point for the planning of future library activities enhancing the reading of Slovenian literature in the region of Central Slovenia.

  6. Unevenly spaced time series analysis: Case study using calcimetry data from BV-1 and BV-2 boreholesin Ljubljansko barje (central Slovenia

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    Mihael Brenčič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistical analyses of calcimetric data from boreholes BV-1 (north of PodpeČ and BV-2 (south of ^rna vas on Ljubljansko barje in central Slovenia are given. The original data are represented as unevenly spaced time series that are translated into evenly spaced time series. To calculate the interpolation weighted influence function,amodel based on the power correlated influence is defined.Parameters electionisper formed basedon the maximum entropy principle. In the reconstructed time series, autocorrelation and Fourier power spectrum analyses are performed. In both time series, a transition from white noise to red noise was detected. Such behaviour can be describedby a Lorentz process. Red noise is the result of a stochastic process with long-term memory. This effect can be seen predominantly in the autocorrelation function of borehole BV-1. In the calcimetric time series of borehole BV-2, periodicity with a period between 10.0 m and 12.5 m was also detected. We suppose that this period reflects climatic fluctuations during the Quaternary Period.

  7. Characterization of the Ljubljana TRIGA thermal column neutron radiographic facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, T.; Rant, J.; Kristof, E.; Glumac, B.

    1995-01-01

    An extensive characterization of the neutron beam of the existing neutron radiographic facility in the thermal column of the Ljubljana Triga Mark II research reactor is in progress. Neutron beam characteristics are needed to determine the effect of various neutron and gamma radiation on the neutron radiographic image. Commercially available medical scintillator converter screens based on Gd dioxy sulphite as well as Gd metal neutron converters are used to record neutron radiographic image. Thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured using Au and In activation detectors and cadmium ratio is determined. Neutron beam flux profiles are measured by film densitometry and by Au activation detector wires. By exposing films shielded by boral or lead plates individual contributions of thermal, epithermal neutrons and gamma radiation are estimated by densitometric measurements. By recording images of neutron image quality indicators BPI (Beam Purity Indicator) and SI (Sensitivity Indicator) produced by Riso, standard neutron radiography image characteristic are established. In gamma dosimetric measurements thermoluminescent detectors (CaF 2 Mn) are used. (author)

  8. Landfill design in Serbia

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    Karanac Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste disposal is an important element of integrated waste management. In order to dispose of waste that is free of environmental risk, the proper design of landfills during their construction and/or closure is necessary. The first section of the paper presents the current state of landfills in Serbia, the second deals with problems in project design of landfills, especially in regard to their: a program of waste disposal; b impermeable layer; c leaching collection and treatment; and d gas collection and treatment. Analysis shows that many modern landfills in Serbia do not meet environmental protection requirements, therefore, they need reconstruction. All existing landfills owned by municipalities, as well as illegal dump sites, should be adequately closed. This paper presents the guidelines for successful landfill design which are to serve to meet the requirements and recommendations of Serbian and European regulations. Sound design of landfill technological elements should insure full sustainability of landfills in Serbia.

  9. Sanitary landfill liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole V.; Stentsøe, Steen; Petersen, Søren

    DS/INF 466 is the revised Danish recommendation for investigations, design and construction of landfill liners.......DS/INF 466 is the revised Danish recommendation for investigations, design and construction of landfill liners....

  10. Twenty years of operation of Ljubljana's TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimic, V.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty years have now passed since the start of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana. The reactor was critical on May 31, 1966. The total energy produced until the end of May 1986 was 14.048 MWh or 585 MWd. For the first 14 years (until 1981) the yearly energy produced was about 600 MWh, since 1981 the yearly energy produced was 1000 MWh when a routine radioactive isotopes production started for medical use as well as other industrial applications, such as doping and irradiation with fast neutrons of silicon monocrystals, production of level indicators (irradiated cobalt wire), production of radioactive iridium for gamma-radiography, leak detection in pipes by sodium, etc. Besides these, applied research around the reactor is being conducted in the following main fields, where- many unique methods have been developed or have found their way into the local industry or hospitals: neutron radiography, neutron induced auto-radiography using solid state nuclear track detectors, nondestructive methods for assessment of nuclear burn-up, neutron dosimetry, calculation of core burn-up for the optimal in-core fuel management strategy. The solvent extraction method was developed for the everyday production of 99m Tc, which is the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The methods were developed for the production of the following isotopes: 18 F, 85m Kr, 24 Na, 82 Br, 64 Zn, 125 I. Neutron activation analysis represents one of the major usages for the TRIGA reactor. Basic research is being conducted in the following main fields: solid state physics (elastic and inelastic scattering of the neutrons), neutron dosimetry, neutron radiography, reactor physics and neutron activation analysis. The reactor is used very extensively as a main instrument in the Reactor Training Centre in Ljubljana where manpower training for our nuclear power plant and other organisations has been performed. Although the reactor was designed very carefully in order to be used for

  11. Running Injuries in the Participants of Ljubljana Marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitez, Luka; Zupet, Petra; Zadnik, Vesna; Drobnič, Matej

    2017-10-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the self-reported incidence and prevalence of running-related injuries among participants of the 18 th Ljubljana Marathon, and to identify risk factors for their occurrence. A customized questionnaire was distributed over registration. Independent samples of t-test and chi-square test were used to calculate the differences in risk factors occurrence in the injured and non-injured group. Factors which appeared significantly more frequently in the injured group were included further into multiple logistic regression analysis. The reported lifetime running injury (absence >2 weeks) incidence was: 46% none, 47% rarely, 4% occasionally, and 2% often. Most commonly injured body regions were: knee (30%), ankle and Achilles' tendon (24%), foot (15%), and calf (12%). Male gender, running history of 1-3 years, and history of previous injuries were risk factors for life-time running injury. In the season preceding the event, 65% of participants had not experienced any running injuries, 19% of them reported minor problems (max 2 weeks absenteeism), but 10% and 7% suffered from moderate (absence 3-4 weeks) or major (more than 4 weeks pause) injuries. BMI was identified as the solely risk factor. This self-reported study revealed a 53% lifetime prevalence of running-related injuries, with the predominate involvement of knee, ankle and Achilles' tendon. One out of three recreational runners experienced at least one minor running injury per season. It seems that male gender, short running experience, previous injury, and BMI do increase the probability for running-related injuries.

  12. Landfill gas: development guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A Guide produced as part of the UK DTI's New and Renewable Energy Programme provides information which forms a framework enabling landfill gas to be exploited fully as a renewable energy resource. The eight chapters cover the resource base of landfill gas in the UK in the wider context, the technology for energy recovery from landfill gas, the utilisation options for landfill gas, the various project development arrangements and their implementation, the assessment of a site's landfill gas resource, the factors which influence the project economies, financing aspects and the management of project liabilities and finally the national waste disposal policy and required consents followed by the overall process for project mobilisation. (UK)

  13. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation...... into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...

  14. The comparison of summer air pollution by nitrogen dioxide in Ljubljana between 2005 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Ogrin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Ljubljana, the air pollution by NO2 is mainly caused by transportation.The article focuses on traffic-related air pollution in three different types of urban space: urban background, open space near the roads, and street canyon.The measurement of concentrations perpendicular to the main city street is also presented. We compare the results of NO2 measuring campaigns in Ljubljana during the summers of 2005 and 2013. We seek to explain the reasons for the differences in the pollution of diverse urban space types and for the significant decrease of concentrations in all types of urban space.

  15. E-books: dilemmas, challenges and reality in libraries of the University of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Eržen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To research the situation in the field of electronic books (e-books offered by the libraries of the University of Ljubljana, and the problems they are facing up to the collection management of these materials.Methodology/approach: An analysis based on data accessible through the web sites of some libraries and the DiKUL portal (Digital Library of the University of Ljubljana,completed by the data provided by some libraries, is presented.Results: The results and above all the findings about dilemmas the librarians at the University of Ljubljana are dealing with confirm similar problems as stated in the foreign professional literature. There are different kinds of business models, problems with the usage statistics, bibliographic record’s quality and access to library materials.Research limitation: A disrupted organizational structure of the University of Ljubljana library network and consequently a disunited approach to the acquisition and management of e-books as well as a large number of administrators aggravate the gathering of research data and represent obstacles to a more comprehensive collection planning and development.Originality/practical implications: The findings enable a better overview of e-books and initialize a more unified system and activities to provide better access to e-books.

  16. Ljubljana as a ‘Green’ and Sustainable city–Comparing and Contrasting Various Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Rudar Neral

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: ‘Greenness’ and sustainability are moving from an abstract concept toward a measurable state, using the triple bottom line approach considering environmental, social, and economic dimensions. How the ‘greenness’ and sustainability of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, are achieved and estimated, is determined by comparing two indices. European Green Capital Award represents its‘greenness’, while its sustainability is analysed by A New Sustainability City Index Based on Intellectual Capital Approach. Originality of the research is the analysis of the potential of Ljubljana city through contrasting these two indices. Method: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Two comparable indices have been chosen as a multidimensional concept which both clearly involve economic, environmental (ecological and social aspects, with available and published results for Ljubljana. Both indices are comparable, the category scores were aggregated according to equal weighting, and the index results were expressed as percentages. Results: The results showed that ranking of Ljubljana as a‘green’ and sustainable city respectively is different. Total index score of 52 % for European Green Capital Award places Ljubljana 22ndamong the ‘green’ cities of Europe and ranks it in the upper half of the 58 European cities in the study. A New Sustainability City Index Based on Intellectual Capital Approach x of 44.92 ranking Ljubljana on the 102nd position in a scale of 158 European cities, places it in the lower half. The results confirm that Ljubljana is more ‘green’ than sustainable, according to these studies. Society: There are many studies, which make a concerted effort toward capturing the ‘greenness’ and the sustainability of cities. Therefore, indices include three independent dimensions and are decisive in positioning the city. These are important tools in making environmental (ecological, social

  17. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  18. Landfill disposal risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mininni, G.; Passino, R.; Spinosa, L.

    1993-01-01

    Landfill disposal is the most used waste disposal system in Italy, due to its low costs and also to the great opposition of populations towards new incineration plants and the adjustment of the existing ones. Nevertheless, landfills may present many environmental problems as far as leachate and biogas are concerned directly influencing water, air and soil. This paper shows the most important aspects to be considered for a correct evaluation of environmental impacts caused by a landfill of urban wastes. Moreover, detection systems for on site control of pollution phenomena are presented and some measures for an optimal operation of a landfill are suggested

  19. Landfilling: Environmental Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    , the extent and quality of the technical environmental protection measures introduced, the daily operation and the timescale. This chapter describes the main potential environmental impacts from landfills. The modern landfill is able to avoid most of these impacts. However, in the planning and design...

  20. Landfilling: Concepts and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.; Hjelmar, O.

    2011-01-01

    Landfilling of waste historically has been the main management route for waste, and in many parts of the world it still is. Landfills have developed from open polluting dumps to modern highly engineered facilities with sophisticated control measures and monitoring routines. However, in spite of all...

  1. Biostabilization of landfill waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D.L. [Landfill Service Corp., Apalachin, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In November 1991, the city of Albany, N.Y., together with the principals of Landfill Service Corp. (Apalachin, N.Y.), proposed to demonstrate the successful practice of biostabilized solid waste placement in the newly constructed, double-composite-lined Interim Landfill located in the city of Albany. The small landfill covers just 12 acres and is immediately adjacent to residential neighbors. The benefits of this biostabilization practice include a dramatic improvement in the orderliness of waste placement, with significant reduction of windblown dust and litter. The process also reduces the presence of typical landfill vectors such as flies, crows, seagulls, and rodents. The physically and biologically uniform character of the stabilized waste mass can result in more uniform future landfill settlement and gas production properties. This can allow for more accurate prediction of post-closure conditions and reduction or elimination of remedial costs attendant to post-closure gross differential settlement.

  2. Empowerment in practice - insights from CITI-SENSE project in Ljubljana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Johanna; Kocman, David; Smolnikar, Miha; Mohorčič, Miha; Horvat, Milena

    2014-05-01

    We present specifics of the citizen empowerment and crowd sourced citizen science conducted in Ljubljana, Slovenia, as one of the case study cities within the ongoing EU-project CITI-SENSE. CITI-SENSE addresses urban air quality and rests on three pillars: technological platforms for distributed monitoring; novel information and communication technologies; and citizen participation. In the project, empowerment initiatives are conducted, enabling citizens to participate in various aspects of urban air quality, both outdoor and indoor at schools affecting everyday life of societal groups. Each participating country runs its own citizen empowerment campaign adapting to local circumstances. In addition to Ljubljana, local campaigns have been initiated in Barcelona, Belgrade, Edinburgh, Haifa, Ljubljana, Oslo, Ostrava, Vienna and in Vitoria. Poor air quality has been recognized as an important factor affecting the quality of life, especially in urban environments. In Ljubljana specifically, the main air pollution sources are traffic-related emissions, individual house heating devices including increased use of coal and biomass in recent years, and to a limit extent industrial point sources and waste disposal sites. Air quality can be occasionally very poor due to specific climatic conditions owing partially to its location in a basin and on the marshes, resulting in a very complex circulation of air masses, temperature inversions and formation of urban heat island. By recognizing this, we established the main stakeholders in the city who are responsible for monitoring the quality of air in Ljubljana. Based on full stakeholder analysis we consider co-operation with local governmental- and non-governmental institutions with already established means of communications with citizens, as a tool for empowerment. Since we spend over 90% of our time indoors, the indoor air quality is of great importance. It is why the CITI-SENSE project empowerment initiatives also cover this

  3. TRANSPORT OF PATIENTS FOR PRIMARY PTCA FROM GENERAL HOSPITAL NOVO MESTO TO LJUBLJANA IN 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Okrajšek

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS with ST-segment elevation with primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA is the best way to treat these patients. Primary PTCA is also practicable with patients who are admitted into institution without catheter laboratory. The transport of patients into the tertiary institution is safe, but it is important to keep the time of ischemia as short as possible and to reach the time interval of door-balloon as recommended by the guidelines. The ACS patients with ST-segment elevation that were directed into General Hospital Novo mesto after examination at the internistic emergency department have been redirected to KC Ljubljana for realization of PTCA since October 2001.Methods. A prospective analysis of patients with ACS with STsegment elevation, who had been transferred from General Hospital Novo mesto to KC Ljubljana in the period from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002 to have a primary PTCA, was performed. The analysis comprised the following: the time interval of handling the patients at Internistic department of General Hospital Novo mesto, the time of transport of patients to Ljubljana and total time interval from the arrival of patients to General Hospital Novo mesto to the first inflation of balloon in Ljubljana. We monitored the complications that occurred during the treatment of the patients.Results. In the above mentioned period 29 patients (24 males and 5 females were transported from the General Hospital Novo mesto to the KC Ljubljana to have a primary PTCA performed. The total time interval measured between the patients’ arrival to General Hospital Novo mesto to the first inflation of balloon in Ljubljana in the year 2002 was 145 minutes, which is 17 minutes better than in the previous period. The time interval recommended by the guidelines was achieved with four patients.Conclusions. By recognizing the problems that had encountered with directing the

  4. Presentation and analysis of work at the emergency department – of the University children’s Hospital Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: Since 2010, the paediatric emergency department of the University Children’s Hospital Ljubljana has functioned in compliance wtih the guidelines used in similar international tertiary centres. However, there is still room for improvement in organization and staffing.

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING IN LJUBLJANA FROM 1990 TO 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carbon monoxide (CO is the most common lethal poisoning. The incidence of sublethal CO poisoning in Slovenia is not known. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology of sublethal acute CO poisoning in Ljubljana region (Slovenia.Methods. A retrospective study involved CO poisoned patients admited to Poison Control Centre and Centre of Intensive Care Medicine of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana, between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 1999.Results. There were annualy approximately 2.4 cases of sublethal CO poisonings per 100.000 population in Ljubljana region. Of these, 25% were suicide attempts and 75% were unintentional poisonings (28% happened in domestic environment as a result of heating, cooking or bathing, 22% were associated with fire, 11% happened in the working site, 10% happened in the workroom at home and only 3% occurred in the moving vehicle. Among the patients there were 72% male and 28% female. The domestic source of CO was a gas water heater or residential heating device in the 63% of the cases, a coal stove in the 32% and an oil heater in the 6%. In the 18% of the suicide attempts we found also acute drug or alcohol intoxication, and 18% of patients poisoned in the fire were intoxicated with alcohol. Collective poisoning happened in the 25% of cases affecting from 2 to 6 persons.Conclusions. The incidence of sublethal CO poisoning in Ljubljana region appers to be seven times lower than in other countries. The main reason is misdiagnosing of CO poisoning. In the future we should consider CO poisoning more often, particularly in all patients with flu-like symptoms, unexplained headache and worsening of pre-existing diseases. We should always exclude the collective poisoning and the presence of alcohol or other drugs.

  6. Promoting creativity in the summer holiday care funded by Municipality of Ljubljana

    OpenAIRE

    Grm, Urša

    2017-01-01

    Encouraging creativity through art is of key importance when creating new and different ideas, expressing imagination, spending quality time, and improving the quality of life (Knoll, 2011). It activates the child's intellectual, emotional, and motivational processes (Kroflič in Gobec, 1995). Municipality of Ljubljana contributes to spending quality time of summer holidays, with co-financing free time and preventive programs for children from the first to the fifth grade of the primary school...

  7. Isotopic composition of precipitation at the station Ljubljana (Reaktor, Slovenia – period 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vreča

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen (δ2H and δ18O and the tritium activity (A were monitored in monthly collected precipitation at Ljubljana (Reaktor during the period 2007–2010. Monthly and yearly isotope variations are discussed and compared with those observed over the period 1981–2006 and with the basic meteorological parameters for Ljubljana (Bežigrad and Ljubljana (Hrastje stations for the period 2007−2010. The mean values for δ2H and δ18O, weighted by precipitation amount at Ljubljana (Reaktor, are –59.4 ‰ and –8.71 ‰. The reduced major axis local meteoric water line (LMWLRMA is δ2H = (8.19 ± 0.22×δ18O + (11.52 ± 1.97, while the precipitation weighted least square regression results in LMWLPWLSR-Re δ2H = (7.94 ± 0.21×δ18O + (9.76 ± 1.93. The lack of significant difference in the LMWL slopes indicates a relatively homogeneous distribution of monthly precipitation as well as the small number of low-amount monthly precipitation events with low deuterium excess. The deuterium excess weighted mean value is 10.3 ‰ which indicates the prevailing influence of the Atlantic air masses. The temperature coefficient of δ18O is 0.30 ‰/°C. Tritium activity in monthly precipitation shows typical seasonal variations, with a weighted mean tritium activity in this period of 8.5 TU. No decrease of mean annual activity is observed.

  8. Environmental protection: private vegetable gardens on water protected areas in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Strajnar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The areas of allotment gardens and private vegetable gardens are two types of ‘small-scale agriculture’ on water protected areas in Ljubljana and surroundings. From the environmental protection point of view, these gardens are important for the intensity of production and large number of gardeners. In author’s graduation thesis the gardening habits have been investigated in detail. We combined data from fi eld work with numerous measurements of phytopharmaceutical products and nutrients in soil and vegetables.

  9. Selected spatial effects of the global financial and economic crisis in Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kušar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the United States witnessed a financial crisis that gradually developed into one of the most serious global financial and economic recessions in the history of (postmodern society. Its effects are numerous. This article studies one of its spatial effects; that is, newly built (after 2005 residential and office buildings that are either unfinished or already built but not fully occupied. In Ljubljana in November 2011, there were ninety-seven locations with unoccupied or partly occupied residential houses and office buildings or groups of houses and office buildings together with abandoned or active construction sites. The majority of the structures studied were predominately represented by several blocks of flats and groups of dwellings. The others are office buildings or buildings and complexes with distinctively mixed residential-business functions. There are more than 1,500 empty flats and almost 75,000 m² of office area in the buildings surveyed. Spatial analysis showed that the structures surveyed are relatively scattered throughout Ljubljana. However, there were some clusters of buildings, especially in areas with the best accessibility. This article analyses the causes of this phenomenon, which is creating a new morphological element in Ljubljana. The article concludes by stating possible directions for future research.

  10. ENHANCED LANDFILL MINING: KONSEP BARU PENGELOLAAN LANDFILL BERKELANJUTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyono, Sri

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced landfill mining (ELFM) adalah konsep baru yang terintegrasi tentang recovery material dan energi pada sebuah landfill yang bermanfaat bagi keberlanjutan pengelolaan material dan pengelolaan landfill. Konsep tersebut mengintegrasikan berbagai teknologi seperti teknologi ekskavasi, teknologi pemilahan, teknologi termal, teknologi transformasi dan daur ulang. Hal tersebut juga terintegrasi dengan aspek non teknis seperti aspek regulasi, market, ekonomi, sosial, dan lingkungan. Konsep EL...

  11. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  12. Field Monitoring of Landfill Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvola, M.; Priha, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Finnish waste legislation requires monitoring of landfill gases. The main goal of this study is to develop instructions for field monitoring of landfill gases to be utilized by consultants and authorities. In the project it was got acquainted with the field analytical methods of landfill gases and instruments of field measurement. It was done various practical field measurements in several landfills. In the studied landfills were observed methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations and gas forming inside waste embankment in different seasons. It was measured methane emissions that discharged through a landfill surface by a chamber technique. In addition to this it was studied volatile organic compounds (VOC:s), which were liberated in a landfill. It was also studied methane oxidization in cover layers of a landfill. (orig.)

  13. Impact of Past Land Use Changes on Drinking Water Quantity and Quality in Ljubljana Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracic Zeleznik, Branka; Cencur Curk, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    Most of the practical problems that we face today with the on-site management of drinking water sources and distribution of healthy drinking water, originate from past actions, interventions and political decisions. In Ljubljana, the capital of the Republic of Slovenia, underlying groundwater is the main drinking water source. The main threat to drinking water sources is constant input of pollutant loads from roads, roofs, sewers, industry and agricultural areas. The main problems are directly and indirectly related to the significant decrease of groundwater level and deterioration of groundwater quality observed in the last decades as an effect of land use practices under varying climate conditions. The Vodovod-Kanalizacija Public Utility is responsible for water supply of the city residents as well as for management of the water supply system, its surveillance and maintenance. In the past, the Ljubljana Municipality was responsible for the protection of water resources and the first delineation of groundwater protection areas was issued in Decree in 1955. In 2004 a Decree on the water protection zones for the aquifer of Ljubljansko polje on the state level was issued and passed the competences of proclamation of the water protection zones to the state. Spatial planning is a domain of The Municipality and land use is limited according to water protection legislation. For several observation wells long-time data sets about groundwater levels and quality are available, which enable us to analyse changes in groundwater quantity and quality parameters. From the data it is obvious that climate variations are affecting groundwater recharge. In addition, changing of land use affects groundwater quality. In spite of the Decree on the water protection there is a heavy pressure of investors to change land use plans and regulations on protection zones, which causes every day problems in managing the drinking water source. Groundwater management in Ljubljana demands strong

  14. rboricultural aspects of snow-damage in the citz of Ljubljana in the winter 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Marion, Leon; Torelli, Niko; Oven, Primož

    2005-01-01

    As a result of heavy snow in February 1999, trees were damaged in the City of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Of the investigated 624 trees, 195 (31%) were damaged by snow. On average, 1.7 branch and top per tree were broken. Snow damaged 17 tree species, affecting particularly Aesculus hippocastanum L. and, to a lesser extent, Betula pendula ROTH. and Salix x sepulcralis SIMONK. Decay was the most frequent defect at the failure location and was often associated withincluded bark and vicinity of old mec...

  15. Restoration of landfill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A K; Chamley, M E

    1986-10-01

    Many excavated quarries are subsequently used for waste disposal operations and frequently imported landfill provides the only means of restoring a former quarry to some beneficial afteruse. Concentrating solely on the final surface cover, this paper sets out some of the principles, which should be considered by those involved in landfill operations to ensure the long term success of restoration schemes. With the emphasis on restoration to agriculture, factors such as availability of cover materials and depths necessary are discussed in terms of requirements to support plant growth, protect clay capping layers and prevent damage to agricultural implements. Soil handling and appropriate after care management are considered. 4 refs.

  16. Landfill lights Liverpool festival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matan, E

    1986-12-01

    Plants which generate power from garbage landfill gas with outputs up to 10 MWe now run into hundreds around the world. Projects to produce combined-heat-and-power from such resources are relatively few. At Liverpool, UK, a 1 MWe CHP plant has been operating successfully at the site of a major international garden festival.

  17. Financing landfill gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, R.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of financing landfill gas projects in the UK in the last few years are discussed. The approach of the author in setting up a company to finance such projects in the power generation field and a separate company to design and supply turnkey packages is reported. (UK)

  18. 14 April 1895, Ljubljana earthquake - A new, cross-border study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Paola; Cecić, Ina; Hammerl, Christa

    2014-05-01

    Though it has been the object of both contemporary and modern investigations, the 14 April 1895, Ljubljana event (Mw ~6, according to the European catalogue SHEEC) is still not fully described in its effects. One manifest reason for this is that being the 1895 earthquake a cross-border event, it affected an area that today pertains to three different countries, Slovenia, Austria, and Italy, as well as accounted for in sources today scattered in different archives and libraries. In addition, the 1895 Ljubljana earthquake was a turning point for many aspects. Imperial Vienna sent help to rebuild the damaged city and its surroundings, and the architects brought modern ideas about urban planning, public hygiene and contemporary design. It was also the beginning of organised seismological observations in Slovenia - macroseismic, right after the earthquake, and instrumental, in 1896. The macroseismic data about this earthquake are plentiful and very well preserved. In this new, cross-border study we intend to re-evaluate the already known as well as the newly collected data sources. Specific attention is devoted to the archival documentation on damage, and to the far-field data, which were not comprehensively taken into account beforehand. As the earthquake was felt in a large part of central and Eastern Europe, a considerable effort is put into collecting and interpreting the coeval sources, written in many different languages.

  19. El teatro Español en Ljubljana entre 1945-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastko Rafael Djordjević

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Una mañana pasada en el archivo del Thatro Nacional de Ljubljana resulta más que suficiente para poder constatar que las obras teatrales españolas han sido estrenadas raramente durante los últimos cuarenta años y esto con mucha irregularidad. Los años cincuenta (el período después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial se mostraron favorables al teatro español; el público de Ljubljana encuentra en las piezas de Lorca y en las del Siglo de Oro algo diferente. Los espectadores viven el destino trágico, la espera vana, el camino irrealizado, Ia muerte con Ia que concluye el anhelo de vivir de los héroes de Lorca; los autores del Siglo de Oro con sus temas caballerescos de honor y de venganza y con su sentido del humor sorprenden y entusiasman. De este modo, se estrenan desde 1949 hasta 1959 tres obras maestras de Lorca:1950 La casa de BemardaAlba,1955 Bodas de sangre y finalmente en 1959 Yerma.

  20. PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS – 4 YEARS’ EXPERIENCE AT THE DEPARTMENT OF GYNECOLOGY, UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTRE LJUBLJANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Writzl

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis offers early investigation of embryos in couples with a high risk for offspring affected by a genetic disease. We report indications and results associated with the PGD program conducted at Gynecology Clinic Ljubljana from June 2004 to December 2008. Methods. The retrospective analysis includes sixty cycles performed in 34 couples enrolled in the PGD programe. Embryos were biopsied on the third day and the genetic analysis was performed using the FISH and PCR methods. Embryo transfers were carried out on the fifth day. Results. The main indications were chromosomal abnormalities (67 %, followed by recurrent miscarriages (16 %, autosomal dominant and recessive diseases (9 %, and X-linked diseases (6 %. Sixty cycles were performed and 48 embryo transfer procedures. There were 15 clinical pregnancies resulting in clinical pregnancy rate 25 % per cycle and 37.5 % per embryo transfer. A total of eight unaffected children were born, and two pregnancies are still ongoing. Conclusions. PGD is technically a very challenging procedure. Superior knowledge and communication between geneticists and reproductive medicine scientists is mandatory for successful PGD procedures. PGD has gained a place among the choices offered at Gynecology Clinic Ljubljana to couples at risk of transmission of genetic disease.

  1. Landfill Gas | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill Gas Landfill Gas For campuses located near an active or recently retired landfill , landfill gas offers an opportunity to derive significant energy from a renewable energy resource. The following links go to sections that describe when and where landfill gas systems may fit into your climate

  2. END 2016: International Conference on Education and New Developments. Conference Proceedings (Ljubljana, Slovenia, June 12-14, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Mafalda, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    We are delighted to welcome you to the International Conference on Education and New Developments 2016--END 2016, taking place in Ljubljana, Slovenia, from 12 to 14 of June. Education, in our contemporary world, is a right since we are born. Every experience has a formative effect on the constitution of the human being, in the way one thinks,…

  3. Archaeological Guidebooks from the Libraries of the Operosi and Their Circle Housed in the Seminary Library in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Vidmar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ljubljana's Academia Operosorum, which helped to regenerate scientific, cultural and artistic activities in the Carniola of the late 17th/early 18th century by introducing the influence of Baroque Italy, was deeply interested in researching and understanding the material and spiritual heritage of Roman antiquity. The Operosi believed that the memory of Emona, the ancient predecessor of Ljubljana, promised a successful development of the modern city, since it symbolically connected Ljubljana with the historical and artistic centre of Europe, the city of Rome. On the one hand, such views on the ancient past were reinforced by Carniolan historians of the previous generation, Janez Ludvik Schönleben and Janez Vajkard Valvasor; on the other, they stemmed from their own observation of Roman monuments, based on their journeys to Italy undertaken immediately after their studies or during their service, and on reading specialised books, bought either on these occasions or in Ljubljana. Many of these books are now housed in the Seminary Library in Ljubljana, as several Operosi donated their private libraries to this new public library, which they helped to establish in 1701. Janez Gregor Dolničar (1655-1719, a Ljubljana lawyer and historian, as well as one of the most prominent members of the Academia Operosorum, owned at least three guidebooks to Rome, written by Pietro Martire Felini and Matteo Mayer and containing detailed descriptions of mainly ancient monuments. His private library also included the architectural treatise by Vitruvius and the hydraulic treatise by Frontinus. Moreover, a few chapters of Dolničar's book on the history of Trieste, written by Father Ireneo della Croce, are devoted to the monuments of ancient Tergeste. Janez Anton Dolničar (1662-1714, the Dean of Ljubljana's Cathedral, owned a guide to Naples, written by Giuseppe Mormile and dealing mostly with ancient ruins in the countryside. Janez Krstnik Preseren (1656-1704, the

  4. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...... from the landfills and size fractionated in order to recover potential resources such as metal and energy and to reduce the amounts of SR left for re-landfilling. Based on the results it is estimated that 60-70% of the SR excavated could be recovered in terms of materials or energy. Only a fraction...... with particle size less than 5 mm needs to be re-landfilled at least until suitable techniques are available for recovery of materials with small particle sizes....

  5. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.L.; Williamson, K.L.; Owen, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250 m 3 ha -1 yr -1 . However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios

  6. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D L; Williamson, K L; Owen, A G

    2006-01-01

    Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250m(3)ha(-1)yr(-1). However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios.

  7. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID's success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories' Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque's and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ''dry'' soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater

  8. Thinking style preferences among librarians in public and special libraries in the Ljubljana region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Senica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Sternberg’s theory of mental self-government that makes an unique contribution to the understanding of human individual differences. In order to investigate individual differences of librarians in public and special libraries in the Ljubljana region, the Thinking Styles Inventory was applied to determine the styles of thinking according to Sternberg’s theory of mental self-government. Building on the acquired data, some differences in styles of thinking in regard to demographic variable are highlighted. The results point out that the profile of thinking styles of librarians shows high levels for the external and liberal thinking styles, and modest levels for internal, conservative, global and local thinking styles. Some comparisons with other studies are drawn, and a few proposals for further research on the individual differences are suggested.

  9. Self-medication among healthcare and non-healthcare students at University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Hladnik, Ziga; Kersnik, Janko

    2010-01-01

    To determine the incidence of self-medication among University of Ljubljana students and the effect of the type of curriculum on the pattern of self-medication. The study included a sample of 1,294 students who freely accessed a self-administered web-based questionnaire in the Slovene language that consisted of a preliminary letter introducing the term 'self-treatment' and 2 sections about self-medication. The preliminary letter asked participants to report the practice of self-treatment during the past year. The main outcome measures were percentages of those reporting self-medication during the past year, which were then used to compare healthcare and non-healthcare students. A majority of students (1,195, 92.3%), both healthcare and non-healthcare, reported the use of some sort of self-medication during the study period. More healthcare students in their senior year (353, 94.1%) than those in their junior year (245, 89.4%) used self-medication (p = 0.04). Healthcare students (p = 0.05) thought that self-medication without improvement of the symptoms should last for 1 week or less. They acquired the drugs for self-medication from pharmacies; thought that previous doctors' advice in a similar situation was a more important reason for self-medication; would seek the advice of a physician or pharmacist for different ways of self-treatment, and quite interestingly thought that self-medication was not very safe. On the other hand, non-healthcare students acquired the drugs from healers and friends. The study showed that self-medication was common among all University of Ljubljana students, but that healthcare-related education in students and young adults led to more responsible use of self-medication. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Punk as a Strategy for Body Politicization in the Ljubljana Alternative Scene of the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Založnik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the notion of punk understood as a political position and as a strategy by the actors of the Ljubljana alternative scene in the 1980s. With exposing the minor, invisible and hidden subjectivities the actors and agents of the scene created a ground for experimentation with subjectivities, but also for shaking the Yugoslav Grand National narrative of ‘brotherhood and unity’. I am emphasizing mainly the notion of the body with and through the code of sex and sexuality, being still a base and the core investment of the government. No matter that the discourse has been radically changed, the procedures and protocols of power investments in their core have not. This is an additional reason and a need to recall the past and tackle the bodies that have appeared as unwanted, as ‘not right and not quiet’ identities in the past in order to evaluate and compare the position of the marginalized and suppressed today. Additionally, I am claiming that only with creating different genealogies can we fight against growing ‘intellectual redundancy’ and the continuous process of erasure of the subjectivities, which we are confronting today.   Article received: June 2, 2017; Article accepted: June 12, 2017; Published online: October 15, 2017; Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Založnik, Jasmina. "Punk as a Strategy for Body Politicization in the Ljubljana Alternative Scene of the 1980s." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 14 (2017: 145-156. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i14.217

  11. Landfill Gas Energy Project Data and Landfill Technical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides data from the LMOP Database for U.S. landfills and LFG energy projects in Excel files, a map of project and candidate landfill counts by state, project profiles for a select group of projects, and information about Project Expo sites.

  12. Landfill gas management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A.

    1997-01-01

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada's commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (10 15 Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring

  13. Landfill gas from environment to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendebien, A.; Pauwels, M.; Constant, M.; Ledrut-Damanet, M.J.; Nyns, E.J.; Fabry, R.; Ferrero, G.L.; Willumsen, H.C.; Butson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Landfill gas is an alternative source of energy which can be commercially exploited wherever municipal solid wastes are disposed of in sanitary landfills. In this context, it was decided to launch a comprehensive study on the subject of energy valorization of landfill gas. The main topics dealt with in the study, which is supported by a comprehensive literature survey and six detailed case-studies, include; (i) the environmental impact of landfill gas, (ii) the process of landfill gas genesis and the technology of landfill gas control by its exploitation, (iii) the monitoring of landfill gas emissions, (iv) the policies and legal aspects of landfill gas in the European Community and in the world, (v) the estimation of landfill gas potentials and economics of landfill gas control and exploitation, (vi) the status of landfill gas exploitation in the European Community and in the world. (authors). refs., figs., tabs

  14. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are

  15. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyer, K.-U., E-mail: heyer@ifas-hamburg.de; Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD

  16. Engineering safety review mission Krsko NPP external events PSA. Ljubljana, Slovenia 19-23 February 1996. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Smith, P.

    1996-01-01

    Within the scope of the TC Project RER/9/035, a review mission visited Ljubljana, Slovenia, 19-23 February 1996. Two outside experts, Messrs. R.J. Budnitz (USA) and Paul Smith (USA), as well as a staff member, A. Guerpinar (ESS-NSNI) took part in the review. The purpose of the mission was to assist the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration to review the external events PSA prepared by Krsko NPP consultants Westinghouse Energy Systems Europe and EQE International. Another seismic safety review was performed concurrently in Ljubljana involving the investigations in relation to the tectonic stability and reassessment of the design basis ground motion characterization for the Krsko NPP site

  17. Zum Anlaß des siebzigjährigen Bestehens der Geographieforschung und des Geographieunterrichts an der Universit von Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Plut

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Geography is a part of the Universily of Ljubljana since established in 1919. The Department is the Siovenian main gcographical institulion educating students and working within different studies and researeh programmes. In thc futurc the synthesis of the geographical work done and outleveling of the special geography branehes might be main goals to reach.

  18. Travel report on a preparatory mission to the Agencija RAO, Ljubljana for a radium conditioning operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, J.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the trip was to establish the current status of radioactive waste management in Slovenia, to discuss their plans for the future management of their radioactive wastes and to prepare for a radium source conditioning operation to make safe and secure their known inventory of radium withdrawn from service. The IAEA are considering placing a contract on the Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf (OeFZS) to carry out the radium conditioning operation on the agency's behalf in a manner used successfully on a number of previous occasions. In Slovenia responsibility for the management of radioactive wastes arising from nuclear applications in medicine research and industry is delegated to 'Agencija Rao'. First a visit was made to the storage building in which such wastes are stored, the building being within the grounds of the Josef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana. The possibility of carrying out the radium conditioning operation in the building and the improvements and modifications necessary was discussed. The inventory of stored waste was reviewed, the packages containing radium were identified and located in the store. Some of these contained radium-beryllium sources. It was agreed that such sources would not be conditioned during the forthcoming operation. Next a visit was made to the chemistry laboratories of the Josef Stefan Institute, these being a possible alternative location for the operation. On returning to the 'Agencija Rao' office in Ljubljana detail discussion of the merits of the alternative locations were discussed. It was realized that the operation could proceed quicker and at less cost if the existing laboratory was chosen, the unknown factor is the time taken to obtain regulatory approval. Next detailed discussion took place of the availability of necessary equipment and consumable items and agreement reached on what should be supplied locally and what should be brought to Slovenia, by the conditioning team. Plans were made to

  19. The Emblems of the Album of the Ljubljana Noble Society of St Dismas: Context, Sources, Originality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Germ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the sources for the iconography of emblems in the Album of the Ljubljana Noble Society of St Dismas (Archive of the Republic of Slovenia, ref. AS 1073, I/1 that has not yet been systematically addressed. The Album is a kind of memorial book of the Ljubljana Noble Society of St Dismas or Academia Unitorum, displaying the coats of arms, emblems and important data of their members. The book with exquisite full page illuminations is the most important illuminated manuscript of the Baroque era that survives in Slovenia. Recent research shows, that the idea of the academic memorial book and its concept are modelled on the Memorie, imprese, e ritratti de’ signori Accademici Gelati de Bologna published in Bologna in 1672. Due to the specific context of the Album as a memorial book of St Dismas Society and a clearly articulated ambition of the patrons to create original individualized emblems, it is not easy to identify the possible sources let alone detect the direct influence. There are several emblem books to be taken into consideration and Alciati’s Emblematum liber appears to be a valuable source of inspiration. However, the research in Renaissance and Baroque books of emblems shows that it is actually Mundus Symbolicus by Filippo Picinelli (first published as Mondo simbolico, Milan 1653 which seems to be of vital importance for the creators of the Album. Since the proud members desired original and personalized emblems, it was only natural to rely upon a popular encyclopaedic work with a huge collection of systematically arranged descriptions of emblems. Picinelli’s book is actually a treasure-trove of ideas instigating new designs both in the sense of symbolic message and visual solutions, while the almost complete absence of illustrations prevents a simple reproduction of emblems. Due to their commitment to originality and the respect of the principles of St Dismas Society the members obviously found the traditional

  20. Hazardous waste landfill research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.

    1983-05-01

    The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical area of landfills, surface impoundments, and underground mines encompasses state-of-the-art documents, laboratory analysis, economic assessment, bench and pilot studies, and full scale field verification studies. Over the next five years the research will be reported as Technical Resource Documents in support of the Permit Writers Guidance Manuals. These manuals will be used to provide guidance for conducting the review and evaluation of land disposal permit applications. This paper will present an overview of this program and will report the current status of work in the various categorical areas.

  1. Exercise Participation Motives and Engaging In Sports Activity among University of Ljubljana Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerar, Katja; Kondrič, Miran; Ochiana, Nicolae; Sindik, Joško

    2017-01-01

    AIM: The main aim of this study was to examine differences in sport participation motives, the frequency of engaging in sports activities according to gender, region and field of study, but also the association between the incidence of engaging in sports activity and the motivation for sports activity of students at the University of Ljubljana. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five thousand two hundred seventy-one students completed The Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2), with additional questions about 12 socio-demographic parameters. RESULTS: The results reveal that most of the students are engaged in unorganized sports activities. Male students engage in sports activity more often than female students do. For male students, dominant participation motives are enjoyment, challenge, social recognition, affiliation, competition and strength but also endurance, for female students these are: stress and weight management, revitalisation, ill-health avoidance, positive health, appearance and nimbleness. Gender differences in participation motives are partly reflected also in differences according to the field of study. The correlations between the frequency of engaging in sports activity and the participation motives are mainly statistically significant. We did not find any significant differences in participation motives by region. CONCLUSION: In spite of these discouraging findings, increasing physical activity among students continues to be a national priority. PMID:29104693

  2. Regeneration of the city: The Tobacco factory in Ljubljana. More elaborate preparation, better order, success assured?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Mladenovič

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The closure of the Tobacco factory, which was for 130 years one of the main city landmarks, offered numerous buildings needing safeguarding as cultural monuments but also vast surfaces in the immediate vicinity of the city centre. Furthermore, an excellent opportunity for expanding the city centre emerged. In July 2006 a competition was tendered for the area’s transformation. The solutions should rely on extant built qualities and provide new ones, which would in conjunction form a new urban quarter. The competition was won by Dekleva Gregorič arhitekti, who delivered a comprehensive vision for the “New Tobacco Factory” complex. They suggested a varied selection of places, from the area of renewed buildings with new, urban programmes, to the new hotel and congress centre tower, named “Square”. By successful further implementation steps in revitalisation Ljubljana could gain a case study of good practise in rehabilitation of derelict industrial buildings and areas, which could be applied to other areas still waiting for intervention.

  3. Measurements of neutron flux distributions in the core of the Ljubljana TRIGA Mark II Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rant, J.; Ravnik, M.; Mele, I.; Dimic, V.

    2008-01-01

    Recently the Ljubljana TRIGA Mark II Reactor has been refurbished and upgraded to pulsed operation. To verify the core design calculations using TRIGAP and PULSTR1 codes and to obtain necessary data for future irradiation and neutron beam experiments, an extensive experimental program of neutron flux mapping and neutron field characterization was carried out. Using the existing neutron measuring thimbles complete axial and radial distributions in two radial directions were determined for two different core configurations. For one core configuration the measurements were also carried out in the pulsed mode. For flux distributions thin Cu (relative measurements) and diluted Au wires (absolute values) were used. For each radial position the cadmium ratio was determined in two axial levels. The core configuration was rather uniform, well defined (fresh fuel of a single type, including fuelled followers) and compact (no irradiation channels or gaps), offering unique opportunity to test the computer codes for TRIGA reactor calculations. The neutron flux measuring procedures and techniques are described and the experimental results are presented. The agreement between the predicted and measured power peaking factors are within the error limits of the measurements (<±5%) and calculations (±10%). Power peaking occurs in the B ring, and in the A ring (centre) there is a significant flux depression. (authors)

  4. The Activities of Nuclear Training Centre Ljubljana in the Area of Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jencic, I.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Training Centre Ljubljana has several activities related to radioactive waste management. These activities include training of professionals in the area of nuclear physics and nuclear technology, radiation protection courses, organization of international courses and workshops in the area of radioactive waste management, and public information on radioactivity and waste management. The paper will describe the specifics and the extent of training related to radioactive waste. Recently we have participated in a European coordination action CETRAD and an overview of the results of this project will also be presented. Very important component of our activity is public information that is based on an information centre and live lectures to organized groups of visitors, mostly schoolchildren. About one half of one school generation of Slovenia visits the Information centre every year. A poll is conducted among visitors every year and its results are a very useful tool to follow the evolution of public opinion on nuclear energy and radioactive waste disposal. The latter is, at least in Slovenia, still considered as the major obstacle against the use of nuclear energy. (authors)

  5. Landfill gas: planning and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealon, T.

    1991-01-01

    There is no legislation in the UK that relates directly to landfill gas. However, various pieces of legislation do exist which control all aspects of landfill and therefore, indirectly, landfill gas. This legislation includes Planning Acts, The Control of Pollution Act, Health and Safety at Work Acts, and Public Health Acts, and affects landfill gas throughout the life of the site - from planning stage to long after the last load has been deposited and restoration has been carried out. Responsibility for ensuring compliance with these various Acts lies with a variety of Authorities, including Plannning Authorities, Waste Disposal Authorities, and Environmental Health Authorities. Responsibility for actual compliance with the Acts lies with the operator, for active sites, and the landowner in the case of closed sites. (author)

  6. Biogeochemistry of landfill leachate plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2001-01-01

    are relatively narrow and do not in terms of width exceed the width of the landfill. The concept of redox zones being present in the plume has been confirmed by the reported composition of the leachate contaminated groundwater at several landfills and constitutes an important framework for understanding...... the behavior of the contaminants in the plume as the leachate migrates away from the landfill. Diverse microbial communities have been identified in leachate plumes and are believed to be responsible for the redox processes. Dissolved organic C in the leachate, although it appears to be only slowly degradable...... to be subject to anaerobic oxidation, but the mechanisms are not yet understood. Heavy metals do not seem to constitute a significant pollution problem at landfills, partly because the heavy metal concentrations in the leachate often are low, and partly because of strong attenuation by sorption...

  7. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  8. Landfill gas management facilities design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    In British Columbia, municipal solid waste landfills generate over 1000 tonnes of methane per year; landfill gas management facilities are required to improve the environmental performance of solid waste landfills. The aim of this document, developed by the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, is to provide guidance for the design, installation, and operation of landfill gas management facilities to address odor and pollutant emissions issues and also address health and safety issues. A review of technical experience and best practices in landfill gas management facilities was carried out, as was as a review of existing regulations related to landfill gas management all over the world. This paper provides useful information to landfill owners, operators, and other professionals for the design of landfill gas management facilities which meet the requirements of landfill gas management regulations.

  9. VISUAL OUTCOME IN PRETERM INFANTS ANALYSIS OF PRETERM INFANTS BORN IN LJUBLJANA 1990–1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Stirn-Kranjc

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Improved perinatal care has increased the survival rate of prematurely born infants. An epidemiological fact that 6–18% and more visually impaired children were prematurely born, emphasises the effect of premature birth on both visual function and development. Despite better knowledge on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP it is stressed not to underestimate refractive errors, strabismus and visual impairment after brain lesions, being more common in preterm babies.Methods. Over 1300 preterm infants with a birth weight of 1500 g or less and gestational age of 30 weeks or less, born in Maternity Hospital of Ljubljana, Slovenia in the period 1990– 1999 were examined according to contemporary paediatricophthalmologic recommendations. At least one year ophthalmologic follow-up (average 3.5 years of 594 prematurely born infants with high neonatal risk factors for ROP and with general health problems, was performed. Sex, gestational age, birth weight, artificial ventilation, exchange blood transfusion, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, respiratory distress syndrome, apnoea, septicaemia, intraventricular haemorrhage, hyperbilirubinemia were analysed for correlation with ROP and visual impairment.Results. The survival rate of the studied preterm infants was 65–87% (mean 77.3%. ROP stage 1, 2 has developed in 33 children with a birth weight under 900 g and in 10 with a birth weight 900–1200 g (altogether in 8%. ROP stage 3–5 has been registered (with or without plus disease in 7 children (below 6%. In 6 children cryo or argon laser photocoagulation has been performed and vitreoretinal surgery in 1 child (without functional results. In the studied group altogether 4 children (below 1% became blind (visual acuity < 0.05, all of them have had septicaemia. Squint has been registered in 6.9% of children, and has correlated with higher refractive error, mostly myopia. Severe optic nerve atrophy has been noticed already in the first year of follow

  10. Landfill to Learning Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-05-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in scientific exploration and discovery is the main goal of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will bring hands-on scientific experiences to the 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Our programs adhere to the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards and are modified for accessibility for the underserved communities that visit us, specifically those individuals that have mobility, sensory, and/or cognitive ability differences. The programs are conducted in a classroom setting and are designed to nourish the individual's inquisitive nature and provide an opportunity to function as a scientist by, making observations, performing experiments and recording data. We have an $850,000, three year NSF grant that targets adults with disabilities and older adults with age related limitations in vision, hearing, cognition and/or mobility. From dip netting in the marsh to astronomical investigation of the cosmos, the MEC/CESE remains committed to reaching the largest audience possible and leaving them with a truly exceptional scientific experience that serves to educate and inspire.

  11. Survival of children with neuroblastoma treated at the Institute of oncology in Ljubljana in two periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Perković

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroblastoma is a malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, representning about 5 % of all childhood malignancies. The aim of our study was to compare the survival of neuroblastoma patients treated in Slovenia in two time periods, 1994–2007 and 1980–1993, and analyze the influence of different factors on survival. The hypothesis was that there has been an improvement in the survival of neuroblastoma patients treated after 1994.Methods: Seventy-eight neuroblastoma patients, treated at the Department of Pediatrics and at the Institute of Oncology in Ljubljana in the period 1980–2007 were included in the retrospective study. The list of patients and their basic data were collected from the Cancer Registry of Slovenia. Furtjer data about the patients, tumor characteristics and treatment were collected from patients’ records.Results: Thirty-nine (50 % out of seventy-eight neuroblastoma patients included in the study are alive; of the 39 (50 % dead, 23 (29.5 % died during primary tumor treatment, 15 (19.2 % died after recurrent disease, and the cause of death in one (1.3 % patient remained unknown. The survival rates according to stage of disease, site of primary tumor and tumor size have improved in children treated after 1994, as compared to those treated before 1994. The most important factors influencing the prognosis in both time periods were stage of disease, patients’ age and tumor size at diagnosis while there was no statistical difference in survival according to age at diagnosis and the extent of surgery.Conclusions: The retrospective study confirmed our hypothesis that the survival of our patients treated after 1994 was better than the survival of those treated before. The most important prognostic factors in both periods were stage of the disease, age at diagnosis and tumor size.

  12. Assessing Independence of Residents Suffering from Dementia in Meeting Basic Living Needs in Ljubljana Nursing Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojka Trkulja Kobentar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Obviously a very high proportion of nursing home residents exhibit the clinical signs of dementia, which affect the independence of the impaired individual. The purpose of the study is to determine the level of independence of the residents in performing basic life activities.Methods:The research examines 233 residents of both sexes, with a clinical diagnosis of dementia that are aged 65 years and over that have resided in one of the four Ljubljana municipality nursing homes for at least one year prior to the begin of the study. The autonomy in carrying out 11 basic live activities was measured on a three-level scale and their cognitive skills with a quick test of cognitive abilities (KPSS. The data was processed with SPSS, ver. 13.0 through methods of descriptive statistics, t-test for two independent samples and the variance analysis (ANOVA.Results:The examined population sample shows a high cognitive decline measured on the KPSS scale, as 50.2% of subjects in mid-stage reached ≤ 24-11 points and 43.4% of those in the late-stage reached ≤ 10-0 points in the scale (out of 30 in total. Those in the early stage reached ≤ 29-25 points in only 6.4 % of the examined population. The significant findings may thus indicate a high overall average depending on the implementation of all 11 life activities (x = 2.57 on the three-level scale (1 being self-sufficient, 2 and 3 standing for partially dependent and entirely dependent, respectively.Conclusions:The examined nursing home residents in the sample, suffering from dementia, show a high degree of dependency in performing basic life activities. The survey results so far present a starting point for the planning of programmes for increasing involvement of residents in psychosocial activities, through practical exercises in self-sufficiency through implementation of fundamental life activities. 

  13. The incidence and location of diastasis rectus abdominis during the childbearing year and puerperium at the maternity hospital Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Šerbec Medjimurec

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the research was to determine the prevalence and location of diastasis recti abdominis muscle (DRA during pregnancy and puerperium in women in the Ljubljana maternity hospital. Methods: The study sample included sixty randomly selected women; forty-five pregnant and postpartum women were recruited from the Ljubljana Maternity Hospital, and fifteen non-pregnant women from the larger Ljubljana area as a control group. All women were examined for the presence or absence of diastasis recti abdominis muscle along with the most and least likely location along the white lines. The measurements were performed by the finger-width method. Results: The findings indicate that the diastasis recti abdominis muscle increases with the progression of pregnancy. In the case of non-pregnant women, the diastasis is not present. The presence of DRA was first observed in the second trimester of pregnancy (9.5 % and was most common in the third trimester (52.4 %. After birth, the incidence decreased (38.1 %. The majority of diastasis recti abdominis cases were observed in the umbilical area (52.6 % in the third trimester. In the puerperium group three days after childbirth the diastasis below the umbilicus was most common (60.0 % and slightly less common above the umbilicus (53.8 %. Conclusion: Diastasis recti abdominis muscle during pregnancy and after childbirth is a common condition. It is therefore recommended that all women should be timely examined for the presence of DRA before and after birth along the linea alba to start timely and adequate physiotherapy treatment. Health professionals as well as sports teachers and coaches who work with pregnant and puerperium women should be educated/trained in the field of testing and treatment of diastasis recti abdominis muscle.

  14. Estimated release from the saltstone landfill effect of landfill caps and landfill-cap/monolith-liner combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of capping the entire saltstone landfill is dependent on the effectiveness of the clay cap in preventing infiltration. A cap that is 99% effective will reduce releases from the saltstone landfill by a factor of 7.7. Several combinations of landfill design alterations will result in meeting ground water standards

  15. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  17. The Musical Image of the Eucharistic Congress in Ljubljana in 1935: Between Liturgical Renewal and External Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Grum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The IInd Eucharistic Congress in Yugoslavia (Ljubljana 1935 can be observed as the culmination of endeavours to revive Eucharistic life as well as to promote the organizers (themselves. Those in charge of the musical programme availed themselves of the event with the aim of carrying into effect practical reforms in church music. In spite of their determination to eliminate secular tendencies from the music performed within and during the religious congressional festivities, the congress programme could not evade the influences of the profane music idiom to the full. 

  18. The transport logistic terminal in Ljubljana. The effect of location criteria on its spatial and functional concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Čok

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia we have a vast legacy of so called industrial zones that were in the late planned economy placed and dimensioned for the needs of local industries. Most of them were spatially under utilised and modestly equipped with basic technical infrastructure. Considering their number and size of available surfaces the question is, whether it is sensible to burden new sites with spatially wasteful contents. The article shows possibilities for using existing capacities for the development of the transport logistic terminal in Ljubljana. It presents the methodology for evaluating potential sites containing new economic and spatial locational criteria

  19. Contribution of Nuclear Training Centre in Ljubljana to Training and Information in the Area of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear Training Centre in Ljubljana ia a part of the Jozef Stefan Institute. The paper presents its main activities, which consist of training for NPP Krsko staff, training in the area of radiation protection, organization of international training courses and public information. NPP Krsko personnel obtains initial technical training at our training centre. We are also offering training courses and licensing for people working with radioactive substances in medicine, industry and science. We are internationally recognized training centre for organization of regional and interregional courses and meeting. Our fourth activity is public information. We are visited by around 7000 students per year and answer to every question about nuclear energy. (author)

  20. Spodbujanje ustvarjalnosti v poletnih počitniških varstvih, sofinanciranih s strani Mestne občine Ljubljana

    OpenAIRE

    Grm, Urša

    2017-01-01

    Spodbujanje ustvarjalnosti skozi umetnost ima ključni pomen pri snovanju novih in različnih idej, izražanju domišljije, kakovostnem preživljanju časa ter izboljšanju kakovosti življenja (Knoll, 2011). Aktivira otrokove intelektualne, čustvene in motivacijske procese (Kroflič in Gobec, 1995). H kakovostnemu preživljanju časa poletnih počitnic prispeva Mestna občina Ljubljana (MOL), ki sofinancira prostočasne in preventivne programe za otroke od 1.–5. razreda osnovne šole s stalnim prebivališče...

  1. Astronomy on a Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  2. Environmental upgrading of a landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinetto, V.; Vendrame, G.

    1999-01-01

    This article refers to an experimental study concerning the vegetative upgrading of a closed-down landfill (once used for industrial waste disposal). The aim was to check the possibility of reconstructing or aiding the natural growth of a vegetation in keeping with the surrounding area, in a tried environment such as that of landfills. The original idea contained in the approved project - which meant to generically upgrade the territory by planting species belonging to the grassy layer, shrubs and trees - has, with time, undergone some changes. On the basis of both the knowledge acquired during management and of a more accurate analysis of the territory, the experiment was preferred to aim at finding out which were the species, both continental and Mediterranean, able to gradually adjust to the surrounding landscape, leaving to natural selection the task to decide which species were more suitable to the upgrading of closed-down landfills, and which planting technique was more effective [it

  3. Survey of landfill gas generation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntlett, W.D.

    1992-09-01

    This project identifies all the landfill sites in each of the 50 states capable of producing 750,000 SCFD of mixed landfill gas for a period of at least 10 years. The study identified 749 landfill sites nationally, with an aggregate gas production rate sufficient to fuel approximately 6000 MW of fuel cell power plants

  4. METHANE PHYTOREMEDIATION BY VEGETATIVE LANDFILL COVER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill gas, consisting of methane and other gases, is produced from organic compounds degrading in landfills, contributes to global climate change, is toxic to various types of vegetation, and may pose a combustion hazard at higher concentrations. New landfills are required to ...

  5. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  6. Is there a future for Krakovo gardens in Ljubljana? Y a-t-il un avenir pour les jardins de Krakovo à Ljubljana ? ¿Existe un Futuro para los Jardines de Krakovo en Liubliana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Vadnal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture is more or less marginalized within the theory, as well as within the conceptualization of sustainable development for Slovene towns. The spatial development plan of Ljubljana reflects the situation: permanent and temporary locations for gardens are to be situated all over the town, but there is no place for them in the inner city centre, in visually exposed sites, or near areas of cultural heritage. Yet, in the very inner centre of Ljubljana, 1.8 ha of allotment gardens are protected as cultural heritage. Therefore the case of these gardens, known as the Krakovo gardens, was used to discuss the perspective of urban agriculture in Ljubljana. The current condition of the gardens is poor – becoming worse. To keep them cultivated and in this way preserve the historic open space benefits a model of multifunctional urban agriculture was developed and studied with the relevant stakeholders: landowners, the Municipality of Ljubljana, providers/users of the on-garden activities, and the general public. Analysis SWOT show that the concept of revitalising the Krakovo gardens based on the model of multifunctional urban agriculture represents a good starting point for their future development. Testing the acceptability of the model revealed that the key stakeholders, Municipality of Ljubljana and landowners, are exercising more restraint than favour toward it. This means that first the institutional conditions for its implementation need to be created by two possible scenarios. The first one relates to creating the conditions for concept implementation by means of public-private partnership, while the second is based on the model of lease and purchase of the land bearing the Krakovo gardens by the Municipality.Dans la théorie et dans les faits, la politique de développement durable mise en place dans les villes slovènes accorde une place mineure à l’agriculture urbaine. Le plan de développement spatial de Ljubljana reflète bien

  7. Reactor physics tests of TRIGA Mark-II Reactor in Ljubljana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravnik, M.; Mele, I.; Trkov, A.; Rant, J.; Glumac, B.; Dimic, V.

    2008-01-01

    TRIGA Mark-II Reactor in Ljubljana was recently reconstructed. The reconstruction consisted mainly of replacing the grid plates, the control rod mechanisms and the control unit. The standard type control rods were replaced by the fuelled follower type, the central grid location (A ring) was adapted for fuel element insertion, the triangular cutouts were introduced in the upper plate design. However, the main novelty in reactor physics and operational features of the reactor was the installation of a pulse rod. Having no previous operational experience in pulsing, a detailed and systematic sequence of tests was defined in order to check the predicted design parameters of the reactor with measurements. The following experiments are treated in this paper: initial criticality, excess reactivity measurements, control rod worth measurement, fuel temperature distribution, fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, pulse parameters measurement (peak power, prompt energy, peak temperature). Flux distributions in steady state and pulse mode were measured as well, however, they are treated only briefly due to the volume of the results. The experiments were performed with completely fresh fuel of 12 w% enriched Standard Stainless Steel type. The core configuration was uniform (one fuel element type, including fuelled followers) and compact (no irradiation channels or gaps), as such being particularly convenient for testing the computer codes for TRIGA reactor calculations. Comparison of analytical predictions, obtained with WIMS, SLXTUS, TRIGAP and PULSTRI codes to measured values showed agreement within the error of the measurement and calculation. The paper has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Steady State Experiments; 2.1. Core loading and critical experiment; 2.2. Flux range determination for tests at zero power; 2.3. Digital reactivity meter checkout; 2.4. Control rod worth measurements; 2.5. Excess reactivity measurement; 2.6. Thermal power calibration; 2

  8. History of the Clinical Institute of Radiology in Ljubljana on its 80th anniversary (1923-2003). Historia Magistra Vitae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevtic, V.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The manuscript presents a short history of the Clinical Radiology Institute in Ljubljana, University Clinical Centre, and the leading radiological institution in Slovenia since its establishment in 1923. Throughout its history the Institute has been faced with numerous obstacles. Its major problems have always included the lack of professional and economical independence, which has made it difficult for the Institute to keep up with the fast technological development of the world's radiology, as well as the shortage of radiologists and radiographers with the consequence of the excessive work load and difficulties in educational and research activities. Despite some serious problems the expertise of the Institute's leadership, together with the enthusiasm of all radiologists and radiographers, has enabled a continuous professional and technological development which is the basis of today's high quality diagnostic and interventional radiology. Many of the remarkable achievements would not have been possible without some extraordinary personalities who laid down the solid foundations of today's Institute. Conclusions. Eighty years of Clinical Radiology Institute in Ljubljana is a history of the successful development of the republic's leading radiological institution, a success based on determination, unity and the professional integrity of all its members and management. (author)

  9. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  10. Landfill gas powers brick production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CADDET UK National Team.

    1997-01-01

    Marshalls plc produce high-quality facing bricks using tunnel kilns at the company's Stairfoot Brickworks site, in the UK. The company extracts clay from the adjacent quarries, which are subsequently filled with domestic waste. In 1981 Marshalls decided to exploit the landfill gas (LFG) resource 'on its doorstep'. (author)

  11. Impermeable layers in landfill design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanac Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfills are complex systems which could potentially contaminate the environment. It should be prevented by providing impermeability during the landfill design. In that aim related regulations should be followed and adequate materials that provide impermeability should be used. The first part of the paper presents review of the current regulations, interpretations, and recommendations from U.S., EU and Republic of Serbia. Knowing that the Serbian regulation should fully follow related European Directive, in analyses some inadequate formulations and terms were observed related to the Directive Annex I, 3.2. Request of the Regulation that deals with the bottom of the landfill leakage is formulated differently than in Directive as well. Mentioned problems enable some design solutions which are not among the best available techniques. In the second part the paper presents comparative analysis of possible alternatives in impermeable layer design, both for the bottom and landfill cover. Some materials like clay, CCL, GCL might not be able to satisfy prescribed requirements. The longest lifetime and the lowest coefficient of permeability, as well as excellent mechanical, chemical and thermal stability, show the mixture of sand, bentonite and polymers (PEBSM. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34009

  12. OCCULT ANAL SPHINCTER INJURIES (OASIS IN DEPARTMENT OF PERINATOLOGY IN LJUBLJANA – INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Jakopič

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginal delivery is the most important risk factors for development of faecal incontinence, which significantly affects quality of life. Foreign studies show OASIS occur at 20 to 40 % of vaginal deliveries. In Slovenia we recognize sphincter injuries at 1.7 % of deliveries, while true incidence of OASIS in our population remains unknown. Caesarean section prevents anal sphincter injuries. Known risk factors in foreign studies include prolonged second stage of labour, fetal weight > 3500 g, malpresentation, forceps delivery, maternal age more than 35 years at the time of first delivery, first delivery. Few women complain about defecatory problems in puerperium unless they are directly asked about them, so true incidence of such injuries is grossly underestimated. Previously compensated anal sphincter dysfunction can clinically manifest as late as in menopause. The most probable cause is atrophy of muscle and fibrous tissue of pelvic floor and anal sphincter due to lack of estrogen support in this period. With anal ultrasound we tried to determine the incidence of occult damage to anal sphincter in primiparas after vaginal delivery and the relation of injury to symptoms 6 weeks after delivery and identify possible risk factors in our population. We also tried to find out how many patients with anal sphincter injury become symptomatic immediately after deliv- ery. Methods: From January to June 2009 we examined 26 primiparas after vaginal delivery in the Ljubljana Maternity Hospital with anal ultrasound and compared various data about the delivery from our national delivery form. We excluded all patients with caesarean section, recognized anal sphincter injury at the time of the delivery or previous anorectal surgery, history of irritable bowel syndrome or pre-existing inflammatory bowel disease. All patients completed a bowel-function questionnaire, which included questions about faecal urgency and involuntary passing of gas, liquid or

  13. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  14. Emissions from the Bena Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, C.; Blake, D. R.; Hughes, S.

    2016-12-01

    In 2013, Americans generated 254 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW). The gas generated from the decomposition of MSW is composed of approximately 50% methane, 50% carbon dioxide, and a small proportion of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs). NMOCs constitute less than 1% of landfill emissions, but they can have a disproportionate environmental impact as they are highly reactive ozone precursors. During the 2016 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP), whole air samples were collected at the Bena landfill outside of Bakersfield, CA and throughout Bakersfield and analyzed using gas chromatography in order to quantify NMOC emissions. This area was determined to have elevated concentrations of benzene, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which are categorized by the EPA as hazardous to human health. Benzene was found to have a concentration of 145 ± 4 pptv, four times higher than the background levels in Bakersfield (36 ± 1 pptv). Trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene had concentrations of 18 ± 1 pptv and 31 ± 1 pptv which were 18 and 10 times greater than background concentrations, respectively. In addition, hydroxyl radical reactivity (ROH) was calculated to determine the potential for tropospheric ozone formation. The total ROH of the landfill was 7.5 ± 0.2 s-1 compared to total background ROH of 1.0 ± 0.1 s-1 . NMOCs only made up 0.6% of total emissions, but accounted for 67% of total ROH.These results can help to shape future landfill emission policies by highlighting the importance of NMOCs in addition to methane. More research is needed to investigate the ozone forming potential of these compounds at landfills across the country.

  15. Simulated evapotranspiration from a landfill irrigated with landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, P.

    1996-01-01

    Evapotranspiration from a landfill area, irrigated with leachate water, was simulated with the SOIL model. Three different types of vegetation (bare soil, grass ley, and willow) were used both with and without irrigation. The highest simulated evapotranspiration (604 mm) during the growing season was found from an irrigated willow stand with a high interception capacity. The lowest evapotranspiration (164 mm) was found from the bare soil. The relatively high evapotranspiration from the willow was probably caused by the high LAI (Leaf Area Index) and the low aerodynamic resistance within the willow stand. The results indicate that it is possible to reduce most of the leakage water from a landfill by irrigation of willow stands. 9 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  16. Imaging and characterization of heterogeneous landfills using geophysical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays many countries use landfilling for the management of their waste or for treating old landfills. Emissions from landfills can be harmful to the environment and to human health, making the stabilization of landfills a priority for the landfill communities. Estimation of the emission potential

  17. Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.Y.; Wu, C.

    2002-01-01

    The use of landfills as an in situ biological treatment system represents an alternative for source area remediation with a significant cost saving. The specific objective of this research is to investigate the intrinsic bioattenuation capacity of the landfill ecosystem for chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). The research was conducted in two complementary systems: simulated landfill bioreactors and batch degradation experiment in serum bottles. Refuse samples excavated from a landfill were tested in laboratory bioreactors designed and operated to facilitate refuse decomposition under landfilling conditions. Each bioreactor was operated with leachate recirculation and gas collection. Target CAHs, tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), were added to selected reactors and maintained at 20 μM each in leachate to simulate the effect of long-term exposure of refuse microorganisms to CAHs on the degradation potential of these chemicals in landfills. At two different stages of refuse decomposition, active refuse decomposition representing young landfills and maturation phase representing aged landfills, anaerobic microbial cultures were derived from selected bioreactors and tested in serum bottles for their abilities to biodegrade target CAHs. Results of this study suggest that landfills have an intrinsic reductive dechlorination capacity for PCE and TCE. The decomposition of refuse, a source of complex organics, enhances reductive dechlorination by the refuse cultures tested in this study. In addition, the test results suggest that it may be possible to develop engineering strategies to promote both CAHs degradation and refuse decomposition in landfills. (author)

  18. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Heijo

    2014-11-01

    Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the continued operation of a 'safety net' in waste management. Regulations have created a financial incentive to pass on the burden of monitoring and controlling the impact of waste to future generations. To prevent this, it is necessary to revise regulations on aftercare and create incentives to actively stabilise landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Future water supply management adaptation measures - case study of Ljubljana field aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čenčur Curk, B.; Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Bogardi, I.

    2012-04-01

    The main drinking water supply problems are related to the significant change of groundwater quantity and quality observed in the last decades as an effect of land use practices and very likely also climate change. The latter may affect the ability of drinking water suppliers to provide enough water of sufficient quality to the consumers. These topics were studied in the frame of SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impact on Water Supply) with the main goal to develop a water supply management system regarding optimisation of water extraction and land use restrictions under climate change scenarios for water suppliers, since existing management practices are mostly inadequate to reduce impacts of CC on water supply reliability. The main goal was a designation of appropriate measures and risk assessment to adapt water supply to changing climate and land use activities considering socio-economic aspects. This was accomplished by using 'Fuzzy Decimaker', which is a tool for selecting and ranking risk reduction measures or management actions for local waterworks or water authorities under the pressure of climate change. Firstly, management options were selected and ranked. For public water supply of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, several management options were selected. For improvement of water supply and preservation of water resource quantities there is a need for engineering interventions, such as reducing water losses on pipelines. For improving drinking water safety and preserving water resource quality farmers are not allowed to use fertilisers in the first safeguarding zone and they get compensations for income reduction because of lower farming production. Compensations for farming restrictions in the second safeguarding zone were applied as additional management option. On the other hand, drinking water treatment is another management option to be considered. Trends in groundwater level are decreasing, above all recharge areas of waterworks

  20. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharff, Heijo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ‘Zero waste’ initiatives never consider risks, side effects or experience of achieved low levels of landfill. • This paper provides insight into what works and what not. • Where strong gradients in regulations and tax occur between countries, waste will find its way to landfills across borders. • Strong landfill reduction can create a fierce competition over the remaining waste to be landfilled resulting in losses. • At some point a public organisation should take responsibility for the operation of a ‘safety net’ in waste management. - Abstract: Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the

  1. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharff, Heijo, E-mail: h.scharff@afvalzorg.nl

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • ‘Zero waste’ initiatives never consider risks, side effects or experience of achieved low levels of landfill. • This paper provides insight into what works and what not. • Where strong gradients in regulations and tax occur between countries, waste will find its way to landfills across borders. • Strong landfill reduction can create a fierce competition over the remaining waste to be landfilled resulting in losses. • At some point a public organisation should take responsibility for the operation of a ‘safety net’ in waste management. - Abstract: Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the

  2. Geosynthetic applications in landfill design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshunnar, I.S.; Afifi, S.S.; Tiseo, B.

    1996-01-01

    Landfills are designed to contain waste and to provide protection against discharges of leachate into the environment. Main components of a landfill include a liner system, a leachate collection system, and a cover system. Traditional designs have typically incorporated clay soils for containment and sands with embedded piping for leachate collection. As a result of recent advances in design, geosynthetic materials are now widely used for components. While these materials present cost and feasibility advantages, they also pose significant challenges in stability evaluations, handing during installation, and quality assurance. This paper presents an overview of applications of geosynthetics in design and construction, including: Advantages, disadvantages, design criteria, possible economic benefits of various systems, and related construction considerations. 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. LANDFILL LEACHATES PRETREATMENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Leszczyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ozonation processes for stabilized landfill leachate treatment was investigated. The leachate came from a municipal sanitary landfill located nearby Bielsk Podlaski. The average values of its main parameters were: pH 8.23; COD 870 mgO2/dm3; BOD 90 mgO2/dm3; NH4+ 136.2 mgN/dm3; UV254 absorbance 0.312 and turbidity 14 NTU. The ozone dosages used were in the range of 115.5 to 808.5 mgO3/dm3 of the leachate. The maximum COD, color and UV254 absorbance removal wa.5 mgO3/dm3. After oxidation, the ratio of BOD/COD was increased from 0.1 up to 0.23.

  4. Quantification of methane emissions from danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Mønster, Jacob; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Whole-landfill methane emission was quantified using a tracer technique that combines controlled tracer gas release from the landfill with time-resolved concentration measurements downwind of the landfill using a mobile high-resolution analytical instrument. Methane emissions from 13 Danish...... landfills varied between 2.6 and 60.8 kg CH4 h–1. The highest methane emission was measured at the largest (in terms of disposed waste amounts) of the 13 landfills, whereas the lowest methane emissions (2.6-6.1 kgCH4 h–1) were measured at the older and smaller landfills. At two of the sites, which had gas...... collection, emission measurements showed that the gas collection systems only collected between 30-50% of the methane produced (assuming that the produced methane equalled the sum of the emitted methane and the collected methane). Significant methane emissions were observed from disposed shredder waste...

  5. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    from entering the groundwater or surface water. The bottom lining system should cover the full footprint area of the landfill, including both the relatively flat bottom and the sideslopes in the case of an excavated configuration. This prevents the lateral migration of leachate from within the landfill...... triple) liners, are extremely effective in preventing leachate from entering into the environment. In addition, the risk of polluting the groundwater at a landfill by any leakage of leachate depends on several factors related to siting of the landfill: distance to the water table, distance to surface...... water bodies, and the properties of the soil beneath the landfill. In addition to the lining and drainage systems described in this chapter, the siting and hydrogeology of the landfill site (Chapter 10.12) and the top cover (Chapter 10.9) are also part of the barrier system, contributing to reducing...

  6. Landfill gas in the Dutch perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheepers, M.J.J.

    1991-01-01

    Until 1986 landfill gas had a considerable value because of the relative high energy prices. It appeared also that landfill gas was formed in large quantities. However after the collapse of the energy prices in 1986 many new landfill gas projects were delayed or stopped. Recently, the gas emissions on landfills have attracted attention again, but now because of various environmental aspects. With respect to landfill management a well controlled gas extraction seems to be necessary. Utilisation of the gas is still favourable for economic reasons and because of energy savings. The Dutch policy for the next ten years will be reduction of the amount of waste by prevention and recycling. The organic fraction of the municipal solid waste (refuse from vegetables, fruit and garden), obtained by separation in households, will be composted. The other part will be burnt in incinerators. Only the remaining inert refuse will be deposited on landfills. (author)

  7. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in landfill leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jan; Ahrens, Lutz; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are widely used in industry and consumer products. These products could end up finally in landfills where their leachates are a potential source for PFCs into the aqueous environment. In this study, samples of untreated and treated leachate from 22 landfill sites in Germany were analysed for 43 PFCs. ΣPFC concentrations ranged from 31 to 12,819 ng/L in untreated leachate and 4-8060 ng/L in treated leachate. The dominating compounds in untreated leachate were perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (mean contribution 27%) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (24%). The discharge of PFCs into the aqueous environment depended on the cleaning treatment systems. Membrane treatments (reverse osmosis and nanofiltrations) and activated carbon released lower concentrations of PFCs into the environment than cleaning systems using wet air oxidation or only biological treatment. The mass flows of ΣPFCs into the aqueous environment ranged between 0.08 and 956 mg/day. - The first comprehensive survey of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in landfill leachates.

  8. Landfill covers for dry environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale landfill cover field test is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is intended to compare and document the performance of alternative landfill cover technologies of various costs and complexities for interim stabilization and/or final closure of landfills in arid and semi-arid environments. Test plots of traditional designs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency for both RCRA Subtitle open-quote C close-quote and open-quote D close-quote regulated facilities have been constructed side-by-side with the alternative covers and will serve as baselines for comparison to these alternative covers. The alternative covers were designed specifically for dry environments. The covers will be tested under both ambient and stressed conditions. All covers have been instrumented to measure water balance variables and soil temperature. An on-site weather station records all pertinent climatological data. A key to acceptance of an alternative environmental technology is seeking regulatory acceptance and eventual permitting. The lack of acceptance by regulatory agencies is a significant barrier to development and implementation of innovative cover technologies. Much of the effort on this demonstration has been toward gaining regulatory and public acceptance

  9. The development of nuclear medicine in Slovenia and Ljubljana; half a century of nuclear medicine in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavec, Zvonka Zupanic; Gaberscek, Simona; Slavec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medicine began to be developed in the USA after 1938 when radionuclides were introduced into medicine and in Europe after radionuclides began to be produced at the Harwell reactor (England, 1947). Slovenia began its first investigations in the 1950s. This article describes the development of nuclear medicine in Slovenia and Ljubljana. The first nuclear medicine interventions were performed in Slovenia at the Internal Clinic in Ljubljana in the period 1954–1959. In 1954, Dr Jože Satler started using radioactive iodine for thyroid investigations. In the same year, Dr Bojan Varl, who is considered the pioneer of nuclear medicine in Slovenia, began systematically introducing nuclear medicine. The first radioisotope laboratories were established in January 1960 at the Institute of Oncology and at the Internal Clinic. Under the direction of Dr. Varl, the laboratory at the Internal Clinic developed gradually and in 1973 became the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine with departments for in vivo and in vitro diagnostics and for the treatment of inpatients and outpatients at the thyroid department. The Clinic for Nuclear Medicine became a teaching unit of the Medical Faculty and developed its own post-graduate programme – the first student enrolled in 1972. In the 1960s, radioisotope laboratories opened in the general hospitals of Slovenj Gradec and Celje, and in the 1970s also in Maribor, Izola and Šempeter pri Novi Gorici. Nowadays, nuclear medicine units are modernly equipped and the staff is trained in morphological, functional and laboratory diagnostics in clinical medicine. They also work on the treatment of cancer, increased thyroid function and other diseases

  10. Theory, Practice and Competences in the Study of Pedagogy – Views of Ljubljana and Belgrade University Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Skubic Ermenc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the previous decade, higher education in Slovenia and Serbia has undergone considerable reforms, influenced by the Bologna process and its agenda of competence and learning outcomes. In the context of these reforms, the aim of this research is to consider the question of the relationship between the theoretical and the practical education of pedagogues at the university level. Eleven university professors from departments of pedagogy and andragogy at the universities of Ljubljana and Belgrade were interviewed. The semi-structured interviews focused on two main research questions: 1 how they understand the relationship between pedagogical theory and practice, and the identity of pedagogy as a science in that context, and 2 their opinion about the competence-based approach in the context of the study of pedagogy. The findings show that the majority of the interviewed university teachers hold an opinion that pedagogy is primarily a theoretical (reflective science and, accordingly, that the mastery of theory is crucial for the development of pedagogues’ competences. Furthermore, most of them are rather reserved and critical of the competence approach as well as of the practical skills development. Although there are some differences in opinions between the professors from Ljubljana and Belgrade, this study shows that similar discourses prevail. The gap between pedagogical theory and practice is one of the major issues that have been current in pedagogical science in the recent decades. The findings of our research indicate that there is dissatisfaction with the relationship between modern pedagogical theory and practice, accompanied by the need for its reconceptualization.

  11. Role of stress in burnout among students of medicine and dentistry--a study in Ljubljana, Slovenia, Faculty of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogoj, Tina Krokter; Cebašek-Travnik, Zdenka; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2014-09-01

    Medical education is challenging, but for some students it can be very stressful. Studies suggest that stress during medical education can have a negative impact on students' mental health and that burnout is frequent among medical school students. The aim of this study was to measure burnout among students of medicine/dentistry (M/D) at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, in relation to their perception of stress, so as to enable planning preventative activities for students at risk. The data were collected in a cross-sectional study, carried out in spring 2008 among the total population of MID students of 1St, 3rd, 4th and 6th year, using a self-administered online questionnaire. Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) instrument was used. Separate burnout scores were calculated for the exhaustion and disengagement dimensions of burnout, and related to students'perception of stress. Multiple linear regression method was carried out to adjust the association estimates for several potential confounders (gender, study program, relationship status, and grade). The overall response rate was 47.2%, and a total of 476 students participated. Students scored higher on exhaustion than on disengagement dimension--the mean value of burnout scores on the exhaustion dimension scale was -1.68, while it was -4.58 on the disengagement dimension scale. The results showed a statistically significant difference between high and low risk-for-stress groups of students in both burnout dimensions (average value of burnout scores on the exhaustion scale: high risk-for-stress group -3.69, low risk-for-stress group 0.19, pburnout scores on the disengagement scale: high risk-for-stress group -5.57, low risk-for-stress group -3.65, pburnout subscales remained almost unchanged. Results confirmed our hypothesis that M/D students of Ljubljana Faculty of Medicine who frequently experience stress (especially those with poor coping mechanisms), exhibit higher degree of burnout.

  12. Comparison Of Four Landfill Gas Models Using Data From Four Danish Landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob G.; Mou, Zishen; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Data about type and quantity of waste disposed in four Danish landfills was collected and used on four different landfill gas generation models. This was done to compare the output data in order to evaluate the performance of the four landfill gas models when used on Danish waste types...

  13. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  14. Evaluating operational vacuum for landfill biogas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbricino, Massimiliano

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript proposes a practical methodology for estimating the operational vacuum for landfill biogas extraction from municipal landfills. The procedure is based on two sub-models which simulate landfill gas production from organic waste decomposition and distribution of gas pressure and gas movement induced by suction at a blower station. The two models are coupled in a single mass balance equation, obtaining a relationship between the operational vacuum and the amount of landfill gas that can be extracted from an assigned system of vertical wells. To better illustrate the procedure, it is applied to a case study, where a good agreement between simulated and measured data, within +/- 30%, is obtained.

  15. Movement of unlined landfill under preloading surcharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yaqout, Anwar F; Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2007-01-01

    As organic solid waste is decomposed in a landfill and mass is lost due to gas and leachate formation, the landfill settles. Settlement of a landfill interferes with the rehabilitation and subsequent use of the landfill site after closure. This study examined the soil/solid waste movement at the Al-Qurain landfill in Kuwait after 15 years of closure as plans are underway for redevelopment of the landfill site that occupies about a km(2) with an average depth of 8-15m. Field experiments were conducted for 6 mo to measure soil/solid waste movement and water behavior within the landfill using two settlement plates with a level survey access, Casagrande-type piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, and magnetic probe extensometers. Previous results obtained indicated that biological decomposition of refuse continued after closure of the landfill site. The subsurface water rise enhanced the biological activities, which resulted in the production of increasing quantities of landfill gas. The refuse fill materials recorded a high movement rate under the imposed preloading as a result of an increase in the stress state. Up to 55% of the total movement was observed during the first 2 weeks of fill placement and increased to 80% within the first month of the 6-mo preloading test. Pneumatic piezometers showed an increase in water head, which is attributed to the developed pressure of gases escaping during the preloading period.

  16. Landfills - LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Boundaries in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains boundaries for open dump sites, approved landfills, and permitted landfills in Indiana, provided...

  17. Effects of Moisture Content in Solid Waste Landfills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eck, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Solid waste landfills are an extremely complex and heterogeneous environment. Modeling the biodegradation processes within a landfill must involve an understanding of how environmental factors affect these processes...

  18. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs

  19. Nitrogen removal in the bioreactor landfill system with intermittent aeration at the top of landfilled waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ruo; Shen Dongsheng

    2006-01-01

    High ammonia concentration of recycled landfill leachate makes it very difficult to treat. In this work, a vertical aerobic/anoxic/anaerobic lab-scale bioreactor landfill system, which was constructed by intermittent aeration at the top of landfilled waste, as a bioreactor for in situ nitrogen removal was investigated during waste stabilization. Intermittent aeration at the top of landfilled waste might stimulate the growth of nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria in the top and middle layers of waste. The nitrifying bacteria population for the landfill bioreactor with intermittent aeration system reached between10 6 and 10 8 cells/dry g waste, although it decreased 2 orders of magnitude on day 30, due to the inhibitory effect of the acid environment and high organic matter in the landfilled waste. The denitrifying bacteria population increased by between 4 and 13 orders of magnitude compared with conventional anaerobic landfilled waste layers. Leachate NO 3 - -N concentration was very low in both two experimental landfill reactors. After 105 days operation, leachate NH 4 + -N and TN concentrations for the landfill reactor with intermittent aeration system dropped to 186 and 289 mg/l, respectively, while they were still kept above 1000 mg/l for the landfill reactor without intermittent aerobic system. In addition, there is an increase in the rate of waste stabilization as well as an increase of 12% in the total waste settlement for the landfill reactor with intermittent aeration system

  20. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m3 were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting...

  1. Analysis of biogas in sanitary landfill Caieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovano Candiani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the biogas in the Sanitary Landfill Caieiras is qualitatively evaluated, emphasizing the influence of the geomembrana and cover system of vertical drains in the vicinity to capture the landfill. It was possible to detect an increase in the percentage of methane and oxygen reduction, aiming at the commercialization of carbon credits and electricity production.

  2. Imaging scatterers in landfills using seismic interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.; Dragnov, D.S.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Ghose, R.

    2013-01-01

    A significant problem with landfills is their aftercare period. A landfill is considered to be safe for the environment only after a relatively long period of time. Until it reaches such a condition, it has to be periodically treated. Not only are treatments very expensive, but they could be

  3. Review of existing landfill leachate production models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water resources is a fundamental consideration in managing landfill operations. Landfill sites should be designed and operated so as to control leachate production and hence minimize the risk of surface and ground water pollution. A further important development is the use of computer models to estimate the production of leachate from landfill sites. It is revealed from the literature that a number of landfill leachate management model lave been development in recent years. These models allow different engineering schemes to be evaluated and are essential tools for design and operation managements of modern landfills. This paper describes a review of such models mainly focused on their theory, practicability, data requirements, suitability to real situation and usefulness. An evaluation of these models identifies. (author)

  4. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat AKBULUT

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste landfills are important engineering structures for protection of wastes, decrease of environmental pollution, and especially prevention of soil and water pollution. Solid wastes should conveniently be maintained in landfill areas to control environmental pollution caused by waste disposals. Until the middle of this century clay liners were used for maintenance of waste disposal, but it was observed that these liner systems were insufficient. Today thinner and less permeable liner systems are constructed by using synthetic materials. In this study, by evaluating the waste landfills, site assessment of landfills and construction of natural and synthetic liner systems were summarized respectively, and especially the design properties of these systems were examined intensively. Also, leachate collection and removal facilities, landfill gas collection unites, and final cover unites were evaluated in a detailed way.

  5. Euridice by Giulio Caccini: Two (? Copies of the Original Score Held in the Cathedral of Ljubljana around 1620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metoda Kokole

    2012-07-01

    tragic loss of Eurydice and on Orpheus’ despair: on his ‘magic’ song that makes the underworld deities return his beloved to life. Omitting Eurydice’s second death, the opera has her and her Orpheus return to the meadow, where it ends with a happy chorus of nymphs and shepherds. Caccini’s Euridice did not have a wide dissemination in the early 17th century, but somehow the score (published in a single volume, as a score for a single voice and instrumental bass with some four- and five-part choruses found its way into the music collection of the Cathedral of Ljubljana, where it was first recorded in 1620 as »Euridice Giulii Cazini in folio«. Another hand added »desunt«, meaning that the second review had found it missing. At the next review, however, a third hand added new information, »L’euridice composta Julii Caccini liber solus«, probably referring to the same copy – now found – rather than to a second copy. Unfortunately neither of the music items listed in the above-mentioned inventory survives, so these two short notes are the only testimony to an early presence of Giulio Caccini’s Euridice in Ljubljana. The article discusses some possible theories on why and how the score might have entered the Ljubljana inventory.

  6. Okoljevarstvena problematika zaseznih zelenjavnih vrtov na vodovarstvenih območjih Ljubljane = Environmental protection: Private vegetable gardens on water protected areas in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Strajnar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas of allotment gardens and private vegetable gardens are two types of ‘small-scaleagriculture’ on water protected areas in Ljubljana and surroundings. From the environmentalprotection point of view, these gardens are important for the intensity of production andlarge number of gardeners. In author’s graduation thesis the gardening habits have beeninvestigated in detail. We combined data from field work with numerous measurements ofphytopharmaceutical products and nutrients in soil and vegetables.

  7. The First Class of Students at the Full Medical Faculty in Ljubljana in 1945: The 65th Anniversary of Their Enrollment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonka Zupanič Slavec

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1945, a class of 302 students enrolled at the newly established full Faculty of Medicine in Ljubljana with ten semesters of courses. Approximately 200 of them graduated five years later notwithstanding the faculty’s deficiencies in staffing and funding. By the end of 2009, the Ljubljana Faculty of Medicine had trained over 8,500 doctors and dentists. The first class of teachers and students faced many problems, but solved them over time. The spatial situation was solved by government decrees that temporarily assigned the Šempeter barracks, the clinics and health centers of the Ljubljana Hospital to the Faculty of Medicine. Staffing difficulties were solved by awarding professorships to experts in various areas. The problem of textbooks was overcome by students taking notes during lectures and copying them. Initial over-enrollment was solved by academic selection with strict criteria. The student youth organization directed cultivation of the body and mind with political overtones, and led compulsory “volunteer” labor campaigns throughout Yugoslavia. With great effort, despite all the postwar deficiencies, and at the same time enthusiasm for success and the zeal of all involved, the school was formed. It was further developed, year after year, producing ever better doctors with increasingly greater knowledge, comparable to global standards.

  8. Evaluation of the Oedometer Tests of Municipal Landfill Waste Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Emőke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the ongoing research is (i to develop a new biodegradation landfill technique so that the landfill gas production could be controlled and the utilisation of the landfill gas could economically be optimized, (ii to plan the energy utilisation of the landfill including individual and combined solutions (solar, wind, geothermal energy, energy storage using methanol etc.. [1, 2, 3

  9. Availability and properties of materials for the Fakse Landfill biocover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Bukh; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Methane produced in landfills can be oxidized in landfill covers made of compost; often called biocovers. Compost materials originating from seven different sources were characterized to determine their methane-oxidizing capacity and suitability for use in a full-scale biocover at Fakse Landfill......-cost and effective method for comparing compost sources for suitability of use in landfill biocovers....

  10. 40 CFR 258.41 - Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project XL Bioreactor Landfill... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.41 Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects. (a) Buncombe County, North Carolina Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Requirements...

  11. The aspects of fire safety at landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleshina Tat'yana Anatol'evna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with 2008 and till 2013 there have been alarm messages about fires occurring at landfill places in Russia. Landfill fires are especially dangerous as they emit dangerous fumes from the combustion of the wide range of materials within the landfill. Subsurface landfill fires, unlike typical fires, cannot be put out with water. The article includes the analysis of the sources and causes of conflagrations at landfills. There maintains the necessity to eliminate the reasons, which cause the fires. There are quantification indices of environmental, social and economic effects of fires at landfills all over Russia. Surface fires generally burn at relatively low temperatures and are characterized by the emission of dense white smoke and the products of incomplete combustion. The smoke includes irritating agents, such as organic acids and other compounds. Higher temperature fires can cause the breakdown of volatile compounds, which emit dense black smoke. Surface fires are classified as either accidental or deliberate. For the ecologic security there is a need in the execution of proper hygienic requirements to the content of the places as well as international recommendations. In addition to the burning and explosion hazards posed by landfill fires, smoke and other by-products of landfill fires also present a health risk to firefighters and others exposed to them. Smoke from landfill fires generally contains particulate matter (the products of incomplete combustion of the fuel source, which can aggravate pre-existing pulmonary conditions or cause respiratory distress and damage ecosystem. The monitoring of conducting preventive inflamings and transition to alternative, environment friendly methods of waste disposal is needed.

  12. Experiencing professional strains of nurses, radiation engineers and physicians working at the Institute of oncology in Ljubljana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skufca Smrdel, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Since 1974 the term burnout is used in psychology. Burnout describes the end result of stress and has been described by Maslach comprising three basic components: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment. In this paper we would like to describe some aspects of burnout experiences of the employees of the Institute of Oncology in Ljubljana. Subjects and methods. We used Questionnaire of professional stress, created by Zunter Nagy and Kocmur. In our research 137 health workers from four professional groups participated: physicians, graduated nurses, nurses and radiation engineers, representing 38% of all employees. Results. We found out that in the experience the professional stressof all four professional groups is relatively equalized. The most prominent feelings are of fatigue, irritability and work overload. There were no signs of depersonalization - as described by Maslach - reported in our group. In nurses and in radiation engineers a distress is significantly more often displayed due to poorer personal income and poorer material status. Nurses reported significantly more often the intention to change work position (51%), institution (57%) or job (47%). Conclusions. Workstress impacts on the experience and on the thought patterns in those participating in the study. We can describe those signs as burnout signs. However, there are more new questions opening in the future as well as the need to a longitudinal approach to the research of this more and more prominent field. (author)

  13. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Slovenia – analysis of patient population at the Ljubljana Institute of Clinical Neurophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Kirbiš

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgorund: Data on epidemiology and disease characteristics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS are geographically limited and no systematically collected data exist for slovenian patients. We performed a retrospective descriptive study on clinical attributes and disease course of patients with ALS treated at the Institute of clinical neurophysiology (ICN, University Medical Centre Ljubljana since the foundation of a specialised ALS group.Methods:  All 271 patients treated at ICN in the 10-year period between 2003 and 2012 were analysed. Data on basic demographic characteristics, phenotype of disease onset, diagnostic delay, survival, family history, use of percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG, of non-invasive ventilation and of riluzole were obtained.Results:  Mean age at symptoms onset was 62.7 ± 11.4 years, median diagnostic delay 11 (IQ range  7–19 months and mean survival from time of enrolment 16.4 ± 15.1 months.  179 (66.1%patients had spinal onset disease and 71 (26.2% bulbar onset disease. Factors associated with longer survival were lower age at enrolment, longer diagnostic delay and use of PEG. The proportion of patients using non-invasive ventilatory support was rising through the analysed years.Conclusions: Disease characteristics and survival in our series are similar to data from other tertiary care centres. The need for non-invasive ventilatory support in ALS patients is increasing.

  14. On the Hierarchy of Saints on Altars. Visitation Records of Otto Friedrich Buchheim, the Bishop of Ljubljana (1641–1664

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrič, Ana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The visitation records of Otto Friedrich Buchheim, the Bishop of Ljubljana from 1641–1664, offer an insight into the rules governing the disposition of saintly figures in altar retables. The central place was accorded to the titular saint, while companion saints are positioned in pairs (separately for each level of the retable in such a way that those of higher rank are placed on the more distinguished gospel side, whereas those of lower rank stand on the subordinate epistle side. The priority of one saint over another was not a matter of a random choice, but of a fixed hierarchical order which was created over the course of centuries in the Litany of All Saints and also in the hymns of the officium for All Saints Day; this hierarchy, as Buchheim remarks, is "in agreement with the general feeling of the Catholic Church". Ecclesiastical art in Slovenia shows that in the Gothic period the hierarchical principle governing the disposition of saintly figures was not yet firmly fixed, but it was fully established in the late Renaissance and Baroque periods, which coincides with the period of unification of the Litany of All Saints for the entire Catholic Church. Later it started to loosen again, yet it remained in force up to the 20th century.

  15. Training courses for the staff of the nuclear power station KRSKO conducted at the TRIGA reactor center in Ljubljana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregl, G.; Najzer, M.

    1976-01-01

    The training program for the Nuclear Power Station Krsko was divided into two modules: fundamentals of nuclear engineering and specialized training according to duties that candidates are supposed to take at the power station. Basic training was organized at the TRIGA Reactor Center in Ljubljana in two different versions. The first version intended for plant operators and all engineers lasted for six months and included about 500 hours of classroom lessons and seminars and 31 laboratory experiments. The educational program was conventional. The following topics were covered: nuclear and atomic physics, reactor theory, reactor dynamics, reactor instrumentation and control, heat transfer in nuclear power plants, nuclear power plant systems, reactor materials, reactor safety, and radiation protection. Until now, two groups, consisting of 37 candidates altogether, have attended this basic course. Plans have been made to conduct two additional courses of about 20 students each for technicians other than operators. The program of this second version will be reduced, with the emphasis on reactor core physics and radiation protection. Classroom lessons will be strongly supported by laboratory experiments. (author)

  16. Emissions and leachate recycling at Seutula landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykaenen, V.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the degradation process and the leachate and gas emissions at Seutula landfill Vantaa The influences on leachate recycling to gas production and on the power production and also the influences on landfill water and the quality of leachate was found out. The situation at the landfill before leachate recirculation was studied. In the literature part of this study the landfill gas generation, different phases of the landfill and factors effecting them were examined. The quality of leachate, leachate recirculation and advantages of recirculation were studied. Different kind of gas collection methods, gas utilization, advantages and disadvantages of gas collection and the future of utilization were studied. Methods for measuring methane emissions through the landfill surface was a central part of the literature section. Also the future of measuring techniques were studied. In the experimental part of this study the quantity and quality of collected gas were measured. Also emitted methane was measured. Water samples were taken from landfill water and leachate during 1998. Samples were analysed in situ and in laboratory. The changes of landfill water height were measured. The degradation phase of the landfill varied, a part of waste filling was in an acidogenic phase and most part of it was in a stable methanogenic phase because the landfill is not homogenous. The concentration of landfill water and leachate are about the same than in Finland average. The most remarkable correlation from analysed results was between BOD/COD-ratio and temperature. When the temperature increased, the BOD/COD-ratio decreased. Emitted gas in the gas collection area was rather low, about 10 kW. The power production of the collected gas was in average 2 800 kW. In areas 1 and 3 where leachate was recirculated, the recovered gas efficiencies increased 55% and 70%, respectively, but in a reference area without recirculation the increase was 12%. Recommendation

  17. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  18. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation.

  19. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  20. The mixed waste landfill integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burford, T.D.; Williams, C.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ''in-situ'' characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in arid environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies and systems. The comparison will include the cost, efficiency, risk, and feasibility of using these innovative technologies at other sites

  1. Natural attenuation of biogas in landfill covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossu, R.; Privato, A.; Raga, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the risk evaluation of uncontrolled biogas emissions from landfills, the process of natural attenuation in landfill covers assumes a very important role. The capacity of biogas oxidation in the cover soils seems to be the most important control to mitigate the biogas emission during the aftercare period when the biogas collection system might fail. In the present paper laboratory experiences on lab columns to study the biogas oxidation are discussed [it

  2. Trees - a tool for landfill managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josseaume, Marine

    2009-01-01

    When landfills are closed, they must be rehabilitated in accordance with the site redevelopment plan. Studies have been conducted for the purpose of planting various tree and shrub species on closed compartments. The purpose of growing this biomass is to produce energy. At Machecoul (Loire-Atlantique), a project was implemented in cooperation with many players, including the Horticultural Training College, Veolia Proprete and the intercommunal supervisory board of the Six-Pieces landfill. (authors)

  3. Modern technology for landfill waste placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D.L. [Landfill Service Corp., Apalachin, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The City of Albany, New York, together with the principals of Landfill Service Corporation, proposed in November 1991 to demonstrate the successful practice of biostabilized solid waste placement in the newly constructed, double composite lined Interim Landfill located at Rapp Road in the City of Albany. This is a small facility, only 12 acres in area, which is immediately adjacent to residential neighbors. Significant advancements have been made for the control of environmental factors (odors, vectors, litter) while successfully achieving waste stabilization and air space conservations goals. Also, the procedure consumes a significant quantity of landfill leachate. The benefits of this practice include a dramatic improvement in the orderlines of waste placement with significant reduction of windblown dust and litter. The biostabilization process also reduces the presence of typical landfill vectors such as flies, crows, seagulls and rodents. All of these factors can pose serious problems for nearby residents to the City of Albany`s Interim landfill site. The physically and biologically uniform character of the stabilized waste mass can result in more uniform future landfill settlement and gas production properties. This can allow for more accurate prediction of postclosure conditions and reduction or elimination of remedial costs attendant to post closure gross differential settlement. Recent research in Europe indicates that aerobic pretreatment of waste also reduces contaminant loading of leachate.

  4. ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM LANDFILL GAS IN TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2018-05-08

    Landfill gas (LFG)-to-energy plants in Turkey were investigated, and the LFG-to-energy plant of a metropolitan municipal landfill was monitored for 3 years. Installed capacities and actual gas engine working hours were determined. An equation was developed to estimate the power capacity for LFG-to-energy plants for a given amount of landfilled waste. Monitoring the actual gas generation rates enabled determination of LFG generation factors for Turkish municipal waste. A significant relationship (R = 0.524, p kitchen waste generation behaviors influenced by the ambient temperature. However, no significant correlation was found between the ambient temperature and the generated LFG. A temperature buffering capacity was inferred to exist within the landfill, which enables the anaerobic reactions to continue functioning even during cold seasons. The average LFG and energy generation rates were 45 m 3 LFG/ton waste landfilled and 0.08 MWh/ton waste landfilled, respectively. The mean specific LFG consumption for electricity generation was 529 ± 28 m 3 /MWh.

  5. Passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas: Australian field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dever, S.A.; Swarbrick, G.E.; Stuetz, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    In Australia a significant number of landfill waste disposal sites do not incorporate measures for the collection and treatment of landfill gas. This includes many old/former landfill sites, rural landfill sites, non-putrescible solid waste and inert waste landfill sites, where landfill gas generation is low and it is not commercially viable to extract and beneficially utilize the landfill gas. Previous research has demonstrated that biofiltration has the potential to degrade methane in landfill gas, however, the microbial processes can be affected by many local conditions and factors including moisture content, temperature, nutrient supply, including the availability of oxygen and methane, and the movement of gas (oxygen and methane) to/from the micro-organisms. A field scale trial is being undertaken at a landfill site in Sydney, Australia, to investigate passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas as a means of managing landfill gas emissions at low to moderate gas generation landfill sites. The design and construction of the trial is described and the experimental results will provide in-depth knowledge on the application of passive gas drainage and landfill gas biofiltration under Sydney (Australian) conditions, including the performance of recycled materials for the management of landfill gas emissions

  6. Case study: An isolated severe storm with giant hail hit Slovenian capital city Ljubljana on May 25th 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosec, M.

    2009-09-01

    Introduction A quite unusual weather pattern for month of May with first and early season heat wave of year 2009 resulted in several days of active severe storms across central Europe and Alpine region. Synoptic situation On May 25th 2009, an omega block pattern with strong upper-level subtropical ridge extending over Mediterranean and Balkan Peninsula brought stable and warm conditions into Southern Europe. Elsewhere, two large-scale troughs were located over Western and Eastern Europe with very unstable environment. On the nose of the Mediterranean ridge a jet streak with moderate shear was placed while over the Southern Alpine region only weak shear was placed over Slovenia. Rich boundary layer moisture and steep lapse rates within an elevated mixed layer favored extreme amounts of CAPE. After strong diurnal heating and surface wind convergence along the local topography a few convective cells were triggered in the mountainous terrain while deep moist convection over the rest of Slovenia was trapped by the strong capping inversion. In late afternoon several cells from the mountainous terrain interfered with each other and explosive convective cell was initiated along their outflow boundaries. Increasing near surface southeasterly wind flow supported enhanced low-level shear and storm relative helicity which caused this cell to very rapidly grown into an organized supercell storm on the flat terrain in northern Slovenia. This supercell then started racing southeastwards towards Ljubljana, a capital city of Slovenia. It caused extensive hail damage with very large to giant hailstones up to 7cm in diameter falling over parts of Ljubljana and areas north and southeast of the city. Presentation of research This case study will go through a research of this very damaging hailstorm, throughout a detailed analysis of the synoptic situation including analysis of satellite, radar and surface observations. At first, forecasting models did not suggest organized convection

  7. Monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eade, G.

    2001-01-01

    Methane is the chief component of natural gas, but also occurs naturally by the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in swamp areas, at landfill sites, in fact at any location where organic deposits are present. Carbon dioxide is also produced by the decomposition of organic material as well as being the primary by-product of combustion. This article focuses on techniques to test a wide variety of combustible and toxic gases, including surface emission testing of landfill sites. Specifically, it describes the Methane Emission Monitoring System (MEMS) developed by Hetek Solutions Inc., whose primary objective is to to effectively locate surface emissions of methane gas from active landfill sites using flame ionization (FI) technology, and to plot the 'hot spots' using a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), which provides sub-metre accuracy for plotting emissions locations at landfill sites. The FI equipment is installed on all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). Several thousand kilometers of pipeline inspections have been performed in Alberta and Saskatchewan using this system in the mid-1990s. The mobile FI/ATV units have been redesigned for landfill gas emission testing, equipped with new DGPS equipment and interface software. They meet the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) drafted in the United States in 1996, which requires all landfill sites to be inspected for methane gas emissions. Using the FI/ATV combination, productivity over conventional walking inspection procedures increased some 400 per cent, while monitoring accuracy is equivalent to or better than those provided by previous conventional methods. The company can also provide the Optical Methane Detector (OMD) system using infrared technology. They are capable of performing 14,000 measurements per second, thus providing immediate response. To date, ATV emissions testing has been proven to be very effective in various types of gas detection. When interfaced with DGPS technology, computer

  8. Municipal solid waste landfills harbor distinct microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  9. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Warren Stamps

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its built environments. Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2 and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of landfill microbiomes and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  10. Hazardous landfill management, control options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, M.H.; Lederman, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    The land disposal of hazardous wastes has been a common practice over the last half century. The industrial and environmental communities, as well as the public, have an immediate challenge to control the contaminants that may be released from waste land disposal facilities. At the same time, land disposal continues to be, in many cases, the only available disposal technique that can be utilized in the next five years. Thus, it is extremely important that environmentally sound landfill management and control techniques be utilized, both for inactive and active sites. There are a number of key steps in developing a sound management and control plan. These include problem definition, personnel safety, characterization, evaluation of control options, cost-effectiveness analysis and development of an integrated control plan. A number of control options, including diversion, regrading, sealing, and leachate treatment are available and more cost effective in most cases than waste removal. These and other options, as well as the methodology to develop an integrated control plan, are discussed, together with examples. (Auth.)

  11. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Nataša Cigoj Krstulović: History, Remembrance, Heritage: The Glasbena matica Ljubljana Music Society up to the End of the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Nagode

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the publication of a new scientific monograph on the activities of the Glasbena matica music society in Ljubljana up to 1945, an inattentive observer of Slovenian musical-historical literature might wonder: why another scientific work on this topic? The central national, Slovenian-declared music society has to this day been the subject of numerous observations. Many of them have touched on specific segments of its diverse activities, while others have focused solely on narrower periods that are most characteristic of its historical role.

  13. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F. L.; Gonçalves, Ana L.; Moreira, Francisca C.; Silva, Tânia F. C. V.; Vilar, Vítor J. P.; Pires, José C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates. PMID:27869676

  14. Washing of waste prior to landfilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana

    2012-05-01

    The main impact produced by landfills is represented by the release of leachate emissions. Waste washing treatment has been investigated to evaluate its efficiency in reducing the waste leaching fraction prior to landfilling. The results of laboratory-scale washing tests applied to several significant residues from integrated management of solid waste are presented in this study, specifically: non-recyclable plastics from source separation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste and a special waste, automotive shredded residues. Results obtained demonstrate that washing treatment contributes towards combating the environmental impacts of raw wastes. Accordingly, a leachate production model was applied, leading to the consideration that the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), parameters of fundamental importance in the characterization of landfill leachate, from a landfill containing washed wastes, are comparable to those that would only be reached between 90 and 220years later in the presence of raw wastes. The findings obtained demonstrated that washing of waste may represent an effective means of reducing the leachable fraction resulting in a consequent decrease in landfill emissions. Further studies on pilot scale are needed to assess the potential for full-scale application of this treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Landfill gas management: View from Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Poli, F.; Pasqualini, S. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute

    1993-03-01

    Landfilling is the most widely used waste disposal system in Italy. More than 85% of the total refuse produced is landfilled, as the other ways still have many problems. People do not easily accept landfilling, and many regions of the country have very difficult problems in identifying new sites. At any rate, landfills are more accepted than other systems, such as incinerators. In accordance with present legislation, all landfill sites must have a biogas extraction system; only the smaller plants are allowed to avoid gas removal. For this reason, many extraction plants were built in the last few years about 10 in 1987, 25 in 1988, more 40 in 1989. A partial census the existing extraction plants showed the existence, in January, 1990, of 45 systems producing over 750,000 cubic meters of biogas (over 400 tep) per day. The plants were mainly built by two firms that have made 91% of the existing systems (93% of the daily gas yield). Anaerobic digestion of garbage in reactors was tried in the Bellaria plant, in which the organic fraction is mixed with sewage sludges in a CSTR reactor; the results were interesting from the technical point of view, but very poor as regards economics. A dry digestion plant is planned for the future.

  16. Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water quality at ring road, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... parameters showed increased concentrations over those from control sites. ... Keywords: Landfill, groundwater, surface-water, pollution.

  17. Methane production, recovery and emission from two Danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi Aghdam, Ehsan

    ) an in-depth investigation of CH4 production from shredder waste (SW) at landfills, 2) the determination of gas recovery efficiency at two adjacent Danish landfills by field measurement, and 3) the influence of meteorological parameters on gas recovery from landfills. This PhD project focused on two......Landfill gas (LFG), mainly consisting of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), is produced by the anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste deposited in landfills. CH4 is a greenhouse gas with global warming potential 28 times that of CO2 over a period of 100 years. The produced CH4 in landfills...... is the driving force for advective gas transport, between inside the landfill and the atmosphere, and thus potentially can impact CH4 recovery. The overall goal of this PhD project was to address specific challenges regarding CH4 production and recovery at landfills. The PhD project focused on three topics: 1...

  18. Greenhouse effect contributions of US landfill methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augenstein, D.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect has recently been receiving a great deal of scientific and popular attention. The term refers to a cause-and-effect relationship in which ''heat blanketing'' of the earth, due to trace gas increases in the atmosphere, is expected to result in global warming. The trace gases are increasing as the result of human activities. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the trace gas contributing most importantly to the ''heat blanketing'' and currently receives the most attention. Less widely recognized has been the high importance of methane (CH 4 ). Methane's contribution to the increased heat blanketing occurring since 1980 is estimated to be over a third as much as that of carbon dioxide. Gas from landfills has in turn been recognized to be a source of methane to the atmospheric buildup. However the magnitude of the landfill methane contribution, and the overall significance of landfill methane to the greenhouse phenomenon has been uncertain and the subject of some debate. (Author)

  19. Landfills in Latin America: Colombian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, Katia M; Olivero, Jesus T.

    2010-01-01

    The management and disposal of domestic solid waste are critical issues in urban areas of Latin America. In Colombia, in general, the final destination of this waste is its deposition in landfills. This review aims to provide basic information on general conditions of these sites in major cities of the country. Although existing landfills have diversity of operational problems, those most frequently include an inadequate treatment of the leachates, the emission of unpleasant odors and poor management of solid waste coverage. Although it is necessary to improve the operation and maintenance of landfills, it is also urgent to increase the commitment of Health and Environmental Agencies on programs that reduce waste production and promote the sustainable use of those wastes with economic value.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark

  1. Redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Downgradient from an old municipal landfill allowing leachate, rich in dissolved organic carbon, to enter a shallow sandy aerobic aquifer, a sequence of redoxe zones is identified from groundwater chemical analysis. Below the landfill, methanogenic conditions prevail, followed by sulfidogenic...... the fate of reactive pollutants leached from the landfill....

  2. Quantifying landfill biogas production potential in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents an overview of the biogas (biomethane) availability in U.S. landfills, calculated from EPA estimates of landfill capacities. This survey concludes that the volume of landfill-derived methane in the U.S. is 466 billion cubic feet per year, of which 66 percent is collected and onl...

  3. Landfill gas: energy and environmental issues in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandeville, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    Lessons learned about landfill gas generation, recovery, and control over the last 10 to 15 years are reviewed. Some major issues that are worthy of discussion include the difficulty of assessing generation rates; the limitations of field testing; the use of modeling; landfill characterization and the expense of landfill gas processing and condensate disposal. (author)

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refuse Vehicles Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse

  5. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  6. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

  7. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  8. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed

  9. Electrocoagulation and decolorization of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Zainab Haider; Othman, Mohamed Rozali; Abdullah, Md Pauzi

    2013-11-01

    In this study, several operating conditions such as electrode material, treatment time, applied voltage, Cl□ concentration and PH of solution were tested on treatability of landfill leachate by using electrocoagulation (EC) method. According to the results, EC method can be used efficiently for the treatment of landfill leachate by using proper operating conditions. The best removal rats were obtained when C (rod) electrode as anode, operating time is 120 min, voltage applied is 10 V, NaCl concentration is 5.85 g/L and the raw PH, for these conditions, 70% color removal was obtained.

  10. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability.

  11. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ren; Hou, Yujing; Zhan, Liangtong; Yao, Yangping

    2016-01-01

    In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability. PMID:26771627

  12. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  13. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, James W.; Van Stempvoort, Dale R.; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources. -- Highlights: • Artificial sweeteners detected at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites. • Concentrations comparable to wastewater even at sites closed for >50 yr. • Saccharin elevated at all sites; potentially diagnostic of landfill impacts. • Potential for age-dating recent (past 2 decades) waste with acesulfame. -- Artificial sweeteners may be useful for tracing landfill leachate contamination and distinguishing it from wastewater impacts

  14. Soil contaminations in landfill: a case study of the landfill in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamcová, D.; Vaverková, M. D.; Bartoň, S.; Havlíček, Z.; Břoušková, E.

    2015-10-01

    Phytotoxicity test was determined to assess ecotoxicity of landfill soil. Sinapis alba L. was used as heavy metals bioindicator. Soil samples 1-8, which were taken from the landfill body, edge of the landfill body and its vicinity meet the limits for heavy metals Co, Cd, Pb, and Zn specified in the applicable legislation. Hg and Mn threshold values are not established in legislation, but values have been determined for the needs of the landfill operator. For heavy metals Cr, Cu, and Ni sample 2 exceeded the threshold values, which attained the highest values of all the samples tested for Cr, Cu and Ni. For Cr and Ni the values were several times higher than values of the other samples. The second highest values for Cr, Cu, and Ni showed sample 6 and 7. Both samples exceeded the set limits. An increase in plant biomass was observed in plants growing on plates with soil samples, but no changes in appearance, slow growth or necrotic lesions appeared. Ecotoxicity tests show that tested soils (concentration of 50 %) collected from the landfill body, edge of the landfill body and its vicinity reach high percentage values of germination capacity of seeds of Sinapis alba L. (101-137 %). At a concentration of 25 %, tested soil samples exhibit lower values of germination capacity; in particular samples 3 to 8, yet the seed germination capacity in all 8 samples of tested soils range between 86 and 137 %.

  15. Soil contamination in landfills: a case study of a landfill in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamcová, D.; Vaverková, M. D.; Bartoň, S.; Havlíček, Z.; Břoušková, E.

    2016-02-01

    A phytotoxicity test was determined to assess ecotoxicity of landfill soil. Sinapis alba L. was used as a bioindicator of heavy metals. Soil samples 1-8, which were taken from the landfill body, edge of the landfill body, and its vicinity meet the limits for heavy metals Co, Cd, Pb, and Zn specified in the applicable legislation. Hg and Mn threshold values are not established in legislation, but values have been determined for the needs of the landfill operator. For heavy metals Cr, Cu, and Ni sample 2 exceeded the threshold values, which attained the highest values of all the samples tested for Cr, Cu, and Ni. For Cr and Ni the values were several times higher than values of the other samples. The second highest values for Cr, Cu, and Ni showed sample 6 and 7. Both samples exceeded the set limits. An increase in plant biomass was observed in plants growing on plates with soil samples, but no changes in appearance, slow growth, or necrotic lesions appeared. Ecotoxicity tests show that tested soils (concentration of 50 %) collected from the landfill body, edge of the landfill body, and its vicinity reach high percentage values of germination capacity of seeds of Sinapis alba L. (101-137 %). At a concentration of 25 %, tested soil samples exhibit lower values of germination capacity - in particular samples 3 to 8 - yet the seed germination capacity in all eight samples of tested soils ranges between 86 and 137 %.

  16. Power generation potential using landfill gas from Ontario municipal solid waste landfills. Appendix B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-six landfill sites have been identified in Ontario with potential gas production rates suitable for recovery and use in power plant applications. If 70% of the gas naturally generated from these sites was collected and utilized, ca 88 MW could be produced in 1991 (declining to 74 MW by 2001) from the gas generated. Assuming the current average generation rate of one tonne per capita, an estimated nine million tonnes of municipal refuse is produced annually in Ontario, and landfilling is expected to continue to play a major role. It is suggested that the level of gas generation identified for the year 1991 will be sustainable given that as old landfills are spent, new ones are built. The accuracy of the prediction depends largely on future government policies regarding incineration, the effects of present waste reduction programs, and approval of new landfill sites. Due to the combined costs of the gas collection system, auxiliary equipment, and gas processing system, installed cost of a landfill-gas fired power plant is high relative to that of conventional natural gas-fired plants. For landfills presently without a gas collection system, the high initial capital investment for gas field test programs and for the installation of a collection system is a barrier that deters municipalities from tapping this energy potential. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...... directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided...

  18. Landfill life expectancy with waste reduction/minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klan, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Although some minimally acceptable practices are presently undertaken at most landfills to protect human health and safety and the environment, a key question remains. How much effort and resources should be expended to slow the fill-rate of a landfill? The answer depends on the performance and costs of the technical options available, the difficulty and cost of acquiring additional landfill space, and the consequences for remaining landfill lifetime of current and future actions. Toward this end, the paper (1) presents a method for projecting the remaining life of a landfill, including the alternative lifetimes associated with life extension measures; (2) presents a case study of the low-level waste landfill at Los Alamos National Lab.; and (3) illustrates a procedure for determining which measures become cost-effective to adopt as a landfill's space declines

  19. Landfill gases and some effects on vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin B. Flower; Ida A. Leone; Edward F. Gilman; John J. Arthur

    1977-01-01

    Gases moving from refuse landfills through soil were studied in New Jersey. The gases, products of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in the refuse, caused injury and death of peach trees, ornamentals, and commercial farm crops, and create possible hazards to life and property because of the entrance of combustible gases into residences. Remedial measures are...

  20. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  1. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate using Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Richard B. Hall; Bart Sexton

    2006-01-01

    Proper genotype selection is required for successful phytoremediation. We selected eight Populus clones (NC13460, NC14018, DM115, NC14104, NC14106, DN5, NM2, NM6) of four genomic groups after three cycles of phyto-recurrent selection for a field trial that began June 2005 at the Oneida County Landfill in Rhinelander, WI, USA.

  2. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP)

  3. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of page replacements for the Y-12 industrial waste landfill. The cover page is to replace the old page, and a new set of text pages are to replace the old ones. A replacement design drawing is also included

  4. Assessing the market opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Achterkamp, M.C.; de Visser, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction.

  5. Assessing the opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Achterkamp, M.C.; Visser, B.J. de

    2003-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction.

  6. Regional landfills methane emission inventory in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri; Basri, Hassan; Ahmed Hussein El-Shafie; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H

    2011-08-01

    The decomposition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in landfills under anaerobic conditions produces landfill gas (LFG) containing approximately 50-60% methane (CH(4)) and 30-40% carbon dioxide (CO(2)) by volume. CH(4) has a global warming potential 21 times greater than CO(2); thus, it poses a serious environmental problem. As landfills are the main method for waste disposal in Malaysia, the major aim of this study was to estimate the total CH(4) emissions from landfills in all Malaysian regions and states for the year 2009 using the IPCC, 1996 first-order decay (FOD) model focusing on clean development mechanism (CDM) project applications to initiate emission reductions. Furthermore, the authors attempted to assess, in quantitative terms, the amount of CH(4) that would be emitted from landfills in the period from 1981-2024 using the IPCC 2006 FOD model. The total CH(4) emission using the IPCC 1996 model was estimated to be 318.8 Gg in 2009. The Northern region had the highest CH(4) emission inventory, with 128.8 Gg, whereas the Borneo region had the lowest, with 24.2 Gg. It was estimated that Pulau Penang state produced the highest CH(4) emission, 77.6 Gg, followed by the remaining states with emission values ranging from 38.5 to 1.5 Gg. Based on the IPCC 1996 FOD model, the total Malaysian CH( 4) emission was forecast to be 397.7 Gg by 2020. The IPCC 2006 FOD model estimated a 201 Gg CH(4) emission in 2009, and estimates ranged from 98 Gg in 1981 to 263 Gg in 2024.

  7. Material flow-based economic assessment of landfill mining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckhäfer, Karsten; Breitenstein, Anna; Spengler, Thomas S

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of alternative processes for landfill mining compared to landfill aftercare with the goal of assisting landfill operators with the decision to choose between the two alternatives. A material flow-based assessment approach is developed and applied to a landfill in Germany. In addition to landfill aftercare, six alternative landfill mining processes are considered. These range from simple approaches where most of the material is incinerated or landfilled again to sophisticated technology combinations that allow for recovering highly differentiated products such as metals, plastics, glass, recycling sand, and gravel. For the alternatives, the net present value of all relevant cash flows associated with plant installation and operation, supply, recycling, and disposal of material flows, recovery of land and landfill airspace, as well as landfill closure and aftercare is computed with an extensive sensitivity analyses. The economic performance of landfill mining processes is found to be significantly influenced by the prices of thermal treatment (waste incineration as well as refuse-derived fuels incineration plant) and recovered land or airspace. The results indicate that the simple process alternatives have the highest economic potential, which contradicts the aim of recovering most of the resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Landfill mining: Development of a cost simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Pinkel, Michael; Polansek, Stephanie; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Pomberger, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Landfill mining permits recovering secondary raw materials from landfills. Whether this purpose is economically feasible, however, is a matter of various aspects. One is the amount of recoverable secondary raw material (like metals) that can be exploited with a profit. Other influences are the costs for excavation, for processing the waste at the landfill site and for paying charges on the secondary disposal of waste. Depending on the objectives of a landfill mining project (like the recovery of a ferrous and/or a calorific fraction) these expenses and revenues are difficult to assess in advance. This situation complicates any previous assessment of the economic feasibility and is the reason why many landfills that might be suitable for landfill mining are continuingly operated as active landfills, generating aftercare costs and leaving potential hazards to later generations. This article presents a newly developed simulation model for landfill mining projects. It permits identifying the quantities and qualities of output flows that can be recovered by mining and by mobile on-site processing of the waste based on treatment equipment selected by the landfill operator. Thus, charges for disposal and expected revenues from secondary raw materials can be assessed. Furthermore, investment, personnel, operation, servicing and insurance costs are assessed and displayed, based on the selected mobile processing procedure and its throughput, among other things. For clarity, the simulation model is described in this article using the example of a real Austrian sanitary landfill. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. E-books in the environment of the University of Ljubljana – useful manuals or a dead end street : experiences of the CTK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Eržen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-books are an essential part of the digitized material, which is available to the users of academic libraries. Compared to e-journals, which have already been embraced by the users, e-books do not meet the publishers’ expected usage level. The article also describes Central Technical Library’s experience with different suppliers and different e-books business models; and highlights the results of the one-year usage of NetLibrary e-books, which are accessible to the users of the University of Ljubljana. The usage results, comparisons and experiences imply some possible reasons and indicate some solutions that may result in a better usage of that material.

  10. Optimization of the monitoring of landfill gas and leachate in closed methanogenic landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Dejan; Vujić, Bogdana; Vujić, Goran

    2018-06-15

    Monitoring of the gas and leachate parameters in a closed landfill is a long-term activity defined by national legislative worldwide. Serbian Waste Disposal Law defines the monitoring of a landfill at least 30 years after its closing, but the definition of the monitoring extent (number and type of parameters) is incomplete. In order to define and clear all the uncertainties, this research focuses on process of monitoring optimization, using the closed landfill in Zrenjanin, Serbia, as the experimental model. The aim of optimization was to find representative parameters which would define the physical, chemical and biological processes in the closed methanogenic landfill and to make this process less expensive. Research included development of the five monitoring models with different number of gas and leachate parameters and each model has been processed in open source software GeoGebra which is often used for solving optimization problems. The results of optimization process identified the most favorable monitoring model which fulfills all the defined criteria not only from the point of view of mathematical analyses, but also from the point of view of environment protection. The final outcome of this research - the minimal required parameters which should be included in the landfill monitoring are precisely defined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Release and attenuation of fluorocarbons in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    Several halocarbons with very high global warming and ozone depleting potentials have been used as blowing agent for insulation foam in refrigerators and freezers. Many appliances are shredded after the end of their useful life. Release experiments carried out in the laboratory on insulation foam...... blown with CFC-11, HCFC-141b, HFC- 134a, and HFC-245fa revealed that most of the blowing agent is not released to the atmosphere during a six-week period following the shredding process. The fraction which is released in the six-week period is highly dependent on how fine the foam is shredded....... The residual blowing agent remaining after the six-week period may be very slowly released if the integrity of the foam particles with respect to diffusional properties is kept after disposal of the foam waste in landfills. Laboratory experiments simulating attenuation processes in the landfilled waste...

  12. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Both nonhazardous and nonradioactive sanitary solid waste are generated at the Hanford Site. This permit application describes the manner in which the Solid Waste Landfill will be operated. A description is provided of the landfill, including applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. The characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of are discussed. The regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill are reviewed. A plan is included of operation, closure, and postclosure. This report addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill is discussed

  13. Detection and quantification of methane leakage from landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Aake; Maartensson, Stig-Goeran (Univ. of Gaevle, Gaevle (Sweden)); Meijer, Jan-Erik; Rosqvist, Haakan (NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this project was to detect gas leakage and to measure and quantify methane emission from landfills using modern remote sensing techniques. In this project, a handheld laser instrument and an IR camera were used. The overall objective was to develop cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying methane emissions from landfills. There are many methods available for measuring the methane concentration in air, both from close-up and from long distances. Combined with the use of a tracer gas, the methane emission from entire landfills can be measured relatively accurately. A number of methods are used to detect leakage from parts of landfill surfaces, but there are few methods for quantifying leakage from sub-zones. Field measurements with the laser instrument and the IR camera were carried out at seven Swedish landfills and two landfills in France. The investigated surfaces at the Swedish landfills were divided into different zones, such as top surface, slope, crest and toe of slope. The field measurements in France were taken over entire landfills. The methane emission varied between the different landfills in the project, and also between the different landfill zones. The results from repeated field measurements indicated that a landfill with a final cap and a successful gas recovery system produces barely measurable emissions. The weak points at a landfill are generally slopes, including crests and toes of slopes. Where the covering of the waste is inadequate, leakage often occurs at lift joints and in areas where waste protrudes through the cover. Other weak points are deficiencies in the gas recovery system. Leachate systems can lead landfill gas and thereby cause methane leakage. Along with wind velocity and variations in atmospheric pressure, moisture content in the ground is an important factor that affects methane emissions from landfill surfaces. Results from field measurements of the same feature/surface at different points in time and

  14. Town of Edinburg landfill reclamation demonstration project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A landfill reclamation demonstration project was hosted at the Town of Edinburg municipal landfill in northwest Saratoga County, with majority funding provided by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. The report examines various separation techniques employed at the site and appropriate uses for reclaimed materials. Specifications regarding engineered work plans, health and safety monitoring, and contingency preparedness are discussed. Major potential applications and benefits of using landfill reclamation technology at existing landfills are identified and discussed. The research and development aspect of the report also examines optimal screening technologies, site selection protocol and the results of a test burn of reclaimed waste at a waste-to-energy facility. Landfill reclamation costs are developed, and economic comparisons are made between reclamation costs and conventional landfill closure costs, with key criteria identified

  15. The industrial waste landfill of Bonfol (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, C.G.; Bentz, R. [Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc., Basel (Switzerland); Fischer, M.; Huerzeler, R.A.; Matter, B.; Munz, C.D.

    2003-07-01

    The landfill for industrial waste in Bonfol (Switzerland) was installed in 1961 in an waterproof clay pit and was run until 1976 by the bci, the Basel chemical industry, to dispose off their industrial waste originating from chemical production. For the first time in Europe chemical wastes were deposited in a special area selected according to geological criteria. Groundwater and surface waters have been continuously supervised since the beginning of the activities in Bonfol in 1961. After the landfill was totally filled up, it was covered by a clay layer. In the years 1980/81 the monitoring program discovered that the cover of the landfill was leaking and that the pit was slowly filled up with water. Some exfiltrations resulted. It was important to overcome the critical situation by the implementation of immediate measures, e.g. pumping and removal of leachate. Different remediation options were studied at that time, among other the excavation and final disposal of the contents of the landfill. On October 17, 2000 a voluntary agreement between the authorities and bci ws signed. On May 15, 2001, bci presented the result of the study of remedial options. Excavation / incineration in European incinerators or in-situ vitrification, with a suboption excavation/on-site vitrification, were seen as the most promising ones. At the end of 2001 the option of the in-situ vitrification was dropped because of the resulting public and political resistance towards this technology. The remaining options are being evaluated thoroughly at the moment to prepare the basis for a decision on the clean-up project. (orig.)

  16. The sea - landfill or sphere of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Koller, U.; Assmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Information Agency held its third seminar for journalists, entitled 'The sea - landfill or sphere of life' in Hamburg on July 18, 1989. Some 40 journalists - radio journalists and journalists from the staff of dailies and the technical press - took the opportunity to listen for a day to short lectures on selected subjects and submit their questions concerning sea pollution to scientists of diverse disciplines. (orig.) [de

  17. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M.; Powell, John S.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g −1 dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than

  18. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: xwang25@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Padgett, Jennifer M. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Powell, John S. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Campus Box 7905, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7905 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup −1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than

  19. Ecotoxicologic diagnosis of a sealed municipal district landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A. J.; Perez-Leblic, M. I.; Bartolome, C.; Pastor, J.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the environmental impact of a soil-topped landfill requires and ecotoxicologic diagnosis. Here we describe a set of protocols for such a diagnosis as well as their application to a real case ( the urban soil waste, USW, landfill of Getafe, Madrid). Since their initial sealing some 20 years ago with soils taken from the surroundings, waste deposition has continued in most USW landfills of the Comunidad de Madrid. (Author)

  20. Landfill is an important atmospheric mercury emission source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xinbin; TANG Shunlin; LI Zhonggen; WANG Shaofeng; LIANG Lian

    2004-01-01

    Since municipal wastes contain refuses with high mercury contents, incineration of municipal wastes becomes the major anthropogenic atmospheric mercury emission source. In China, landfills are however the main way to dispose of municipal wastes. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in landfill gas of Gaoyan sanitary landfill located in suburb of Guiyang City were monitored using a high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer, and mono-methylmercury (MMHg) and dimethylmercury (DMHg) concentrations in landfill gas were also measured using GC coupled with the cold vapor atomic fluorescence (CVAFS) method. Meanwhile, the TGM exchange fluxes between exposed waste and air and the soil surface of the landfill and air, were measured using low Hg blank quartz flux chamber coupled with high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer technique. TGM concentrations in landfill gas from half year filling area averaged out at 665.52±291.25 ng/m3, which is comparable with TGM concentrations from flue gas of a small coal combustion boiler in Guiyang. The average MMHg and DMHg concentrations averaged out at 2.06±1.82 ng/m3 and 9.50±5.18 ng/m3, respectively. It is proven that mercury emission is the predominant process at the surfaces of both exposed wastes and soil of landfill. Landfills are not only TGM emission source, but also methylmercury emission source to the ambient air. There are two ways to emit mercury to the air from landfills, one is with the landfill gas through landfill gas duct, and the other through soil/air exchange. The Hg emission processes from landfills are controlled by meteorological parameters.

  1. Landfills and the waste act implementation - what has changed?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available have been exhausted, including waste minimisation, re- use, reduce, recycling or treatment to reduce the volumes and risk associated with waste going to landfill. Implementation of the waste management hierarchy should therefore translate into smaller... volumes of low hazard, non-recyclable waste being disposed of at landfills. 3. Waste Regulations Section 69 of the Waste Act (RSA, 2008) lists a number of regulations that could have an impact on landfilling in South Africa, if developed...

  2. Environmental and socio-economic impacts of landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Nelen, Dirk; Tielemans,Yves; Van Acker, Karel

    2012-01-01

    A modern landfill is an engineered method for depositing waste in specially constructed and protected cells on the land surface or in excavations into the land surface. Despite the fact that an increasing amount of waste is reused, recycled or energetically valorized, landfills still play an important role in waste management strategies. The degradation of wastes in the landfill results in the production of leachate and gases. These emissions are potentials threats to human health and to the...

  3. Location analysis of the landfill of waste in Loznica

    OpenAIRE

    Božović Dejan

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this paper regards the landfill of municipal and industrial waste in Loznica, actually its location and environmental hazards. The research was carried out in order to show the consequences of careless and incomplete evaluation of the conditions for a locating of a landfill in the example of Loznica. Besides the fact that it is located at the floodplain of the Drina River, the landfill is normally located to the direction of predominant wind, which has a significant influence o...

  4. 78 FR 14773 - U.S. Environmental Solutions Toolkit-Landfill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ...--Landfill Standards AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comment... or services relevant to landfill environmental standards. The Department of Commerce continues to..., Web site address, contact information, and landfill environmental standards category of interest from...

  5. Control and monitoring of landfill gas underground migration at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heroux, M.; Turcotte, L.

    1997-01-01

    The proposed paper covers the various aspects of control and monitoring of potential landfill gas (LFG) migration through soil voids or rock fractures at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site. It depicts the social, geographical and geological context and presents a brief history of the landfill site. It describes the LFG collecting system and LFG migration monitoring equipment and programs. Finally it presents monitoring data taken over last few years. The landfill site is located in a well populated urban area. Since 1968, about 33 million metric tons of domestic and commercial waste have been buried in a former limestone quarry. Because of houses and buildings in the vicinity, 100 m in some locations, LFG underground migration is a major risk. LFG could indeed infiltrate buildings and reach explosive concentrations. So it must be controlled. The City of Montreal acquired the site in 1988 and has progressively built a LFG collecting system, composed of more than 288 vertical wells, to pump out of the landfill 280 million m 3 of gas annually. To verify the efficiency of this system to minimize LFG underground migration, monitoring equipment and programs have also been designed and put into operation. The monitoring network, located all around the landfill area, is composed of 21 well nests automated to monitor presence of gas in the ground in real time. In addition, 55 individual wells, where manual measurements are made, are also available. To complete the monitoring program, some measurements are also taken in buildings, houses and underground utilities in the neighborhood of the site. Monitoring data show that LFG underground migration is well controlled. They also indicate significant decrease of migration over the years corresponding to improvements to the LFG collecting system

  6. Power generation from landfill gas, Middleton Broom, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A power station is fuelled by gas from a landfill site at Middleton Broom, West Yorkshire in the North of England. The plant was commissioned in January 1993 and has a Declared Net Capacity of about 1.2 MW (enough power for about 700 homes). The electricity produced is exported to the National Grid. After various possible uses of the landfill gas were explored, it was decided that a power station fuelled by the gas was the most commercially viable prospect. Because of the proximity of housing to the landfill site, gas is pumped to the power station, located about 1,500 m from the landfill. (UK)

  7. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requirements...... to the ability of the landfill gas management to reduce the emission should be set up, and how criteria are developed for when the monitoring activities can be terminated. Monitoring procedures are suggested centred on a robust method for measuring the total methane emission from the site, and quantitative...

  8. Standard and alternative landfill capping design in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Franz-Georg; Mueller, Werner W.

    2004-01-01

    Engineered capping systems are in most cases an indispensable and often the only efficient component required by the long-term safety concept for landfills, mine tailings tips and contaminated land. In Germany the composite liner is the main component of standard landfill cappings for municipal and hazardous waste landfills and the compacted clay liner (CCL) for landfills for inert or low-contamination waste. The composite liner is a technically highly effective but very expensive system. Research and experience has given rise to concern about the proper long-term performance of a conventional single CCL as a landfill capping. Therefore, alternative capping systems are discussed and applied for landfills and for the containment of contaminated sites. This paper gives an overview on various alternative engineered cappings and suitable systems for capping reflecting the state of the art and the expert view in Germany. According to the European Council Directive on the landfill of waste an impermeable mineral layer is recommended for the surface sealing of non-hazardous landfills and a composition of artificial sealing liner and impermeable mineral layer for hazardous landfills. In both cases a drainage layer thickness of at least 0.5 m is suggested. These recommendations should be interpreted flexibly and to some extent modified in the light of the experience and results presented in this paper

  9. Assesment of opportunities for landfill gas utilisation in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramatikov, S.; Iliev, I.; Andreev, S.; Hristoskov, I.

    2011-01-01

    In Bulgaria, about 14 million tons annually of municipal solid waste (MSW) are collected and disposed of in landfills - about 618 kg/capita annually. The implementation of Landfill Gas (LFG) energy recovery/utilization projects in Bulgaria serves as an essential landfill management strategy, and can also reduce greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to improved local air quality and reduced health risks. Results of assesment landfill tests of several municipalities, made by the team of Encon Services for estimation of the potential of their sites are shown in this paper. (authors)

  10. Major Sources of Worries and Concerns about Landfills in Lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Department of Physical Development, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), Ibadan, Nigeria. ... Keywords: Landfills; Environment; Risk; Perception; Lagos. Introduction ... the popular media frequently contain accounts.

  11. Chromium in soil layers and plants on closed landfill site after landfill leachate application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Marija; Justin, Maja Zupancic; Bukovec, Peter; Selih, Vid Simon

    2009-06-01

    Landfill leachate (LL) usually contains low concentrations of heavy metals due to the anaerobic conditions in the methanogenic landfill body after degradation of easily degradable organic matter and the neutral pH of LL, which prevents mobilization and leaching of metals. Low average concentrations of metals were also confirmed in our extensive study on the rehabilitation of an old landfill site with vegetative landfill cover and LL recirculation after its treatment in constructed wetland. The only exception was chromium (Cr). Its concentrations in LL ranged between 0.10 and 2.75 mg/L, and were higher than the concentrations usually found in the literature. The objectives of the study were: (1) to understand why Cr is high in LL and (2) to understand the fate and transport of Cr in soil and vegetation of landfill cover due to known Cr toxicity to plants. The total concentration of Cr in LL, total and exchangeable concentrations of Cr in landfill soil cover and Cr content in the plant material were extensively monitored from May 2004 to September 2006. By obtained data on Cr concentration in different landfill constituents, supported with the data on the amount of loaded leachate, amount of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (ETP) during the performance of the research, a detailed picture of time distribution and co-dependency of Cr is provided in this research. A highly positive correlation was found between concentrations of Cr and dissolved organic carbon (r=0.875) in LL, which indicates the co-transport of Cr and dissolved organic carbon through the system. Monitoring results showed that the substrate used in the experiment did not contribute to Cr accumulation in the landfill soil cover, resulting in percolation of a high proportion of Cr back into the waste layers and its circulation in the system. No negative effects on plant growth appeared during the monitoring period. Due to low uptake of Cr by plants (0.10-0.15 mg/kg in leaves and 0.05-0.07 mg

  12. Estimation of emissions of nonmethane organic compounds from a closed landfill site using a landfill gas emission model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, A.N. [Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Sciences, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Science, University of Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Diya, A.W. [Health Sciences Research Group, School of Medicine, University of Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC) emissions from landfills often constitute significant risks both to human health and the general environment. To date very little work has been done on tracking the emissions of NMOC from landfills. To this end, a concerted effort was made to investigate the total annual mass emission rate of NMOC from a closed landfill site in South Manchester, United Kingdom. This was done by using field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters into the Landfill Gas Emission Model embedded in ACTS and RISK software. Two results were obtained: (i) a deterministic outcome of 1.7218 x 10-7 kg/year, which was calculated from mean values of the field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters, and (ii) a probabilistic outcome of 1.66 x 10-7 - 1.78 x 10-7 kg/year, which is a range of value obtained after Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertain parameters of the landfill including NMOC concentration. A comparison between these two results suggests that the probabilistic outcome is a more representative and reliable estimate of the total annual mass emission of NMOC especially given the variability of the parameters of the model. Moreover, a comparison of the model result and the safety standard of 5.0 x 10-5 kg/year indicate that the mass emission of NMOC from the studied landfill is significantly less than previously thought. However, given that this can accumulate to a dangerous level over a long period of time (such as the age of this landfill site); it may have started affecting the health of the people living within the vicinity of the landfill. A case is therefore made for more studies to be carried out on the emissions of other gases such as CH4 and CO2 from the studied landfill site, as this would help to understand the synergistic effect of the various gases being emitted from the landfill.

  13. Impact assessment of concentrate recirculation on the landfill gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džolev Nikola M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of concentrate recirculation, as a product of leachate treated by reverse osmosis plant, on the production of landfill gas at the real-scale landfill for municipal solid waste. In an effort to come up with results experimental measurements were carried out at the landfill in Bijeljina. All measurements performed, were divided into 3 groups. The aims of two groups of measurement were to determine landfill gas and methane yield from concentrate and leachate in laboratory conditions (1st group and to find out concentrations of oxidizing matters (COD and BOD5 present in leachate and concentrate at different points of treatment as well as its variability over the time (2nd group which could be used to calculate the potential of landfill gas and methane generation from concentrate by recirculation, theoretically. 3rd group of measurements, carried out in parallel, have goal to determine the quality and quantity of the collected landfill gas at wells throughout the landfill. The results of analysis carried out in this experimental research show the clear evidence of concentrate recirculation impact on methane production by increasing the landfill gas flow, as well as its concentration within the landfill gas composition, at the nearby well. Although results indicated relatively high impact of concentrate recirculation on landfill gas production, comparing to its theoretical potential, the influence on the landfill at whole, is negligible, due to relatively low volumes in recirculation with respect to its size and objectively low potential given by organic matter present in concentrate.

  14. Remediation System Evaluation, Douglas Road Landfill Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Douglas Road Landfill Superfund Site is located in St. Joseph County just north of Mishawaka,Indiana. The site consists of a 16-acre capped landfill located on an approximately 32-acre lot (includingthe land purchased in 1999 for a wetlands...

  15. Environmental Isotope Characteristics of Landfill Leachates and Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Keith C.; Liu, Chao-Li; Coleman, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The isotopic characteristics of municipal landfill leachate and gases (carbon dioxide and methane) are unique relative to the aqueous and gaseous media in most other natural geologic environments. The ??13 C of the CO2 in landfills is significantly enriched in 13C, with values as high as +20??? reported. The ?? 13C and ??D values of the methane fall within a range of values representative of microbial methane produced primarily by the acetate-fermentation process. The ??D of landfill leachate is strongly enriched in deuterium, by approximately 30??? to nearly 60??? relative to local average precipitation values. This deuterium enrichment is undoubtedly due to the extensive production of microbial methane within the limited reservoir of a landfill. The concentration of the radiogenic isotopes, 14C and 3H, are significantly elevated in both landfill leachate and methane. The 14C values range between approximately 120 and 170 pMC and can be explained by the input of organic material that was affected by the increased 14C content of atmospheric CO2 caused by atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. The tritium measured in leachate, however, is often too high to be explained by previous atmospheric levels and must come from material buried within the landfill. The unique isotopic characteristics observed in landfill leachates and gases provide a very useful technique for confirming whether contamination is from a municipal landfill or some other local source.

  16. Composition of leachate from old landfills in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Christophersen, Mette

    2001-01-01

    smaller landfills by a comprehensive review of the investigations carried out by the counties. In total 106 landfills were selected by criteria avoiding dilution effects. A database was constructed using a standard program. Statistical evaluations showed that the leachate concentrations in general...

  17. Martial recycling from renewable landfill and associated risks: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyang, Lou; Luochun, Wang; Nanwen, Zhu; Youcai, Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Landfill is the dominant disposal choice for the non-classified waste, which results in the stockpile of materials after a long term stabilization process. A novel landfill, namely renewable landfill (RL), is developed and applied as a strategy to recycle the residual materials and reuse the land occupation, aim to reduce the inherent problems of large land occupied, materials wasted and long-term pollutants released in the conventional landfill. The principle means of RL is to accelerate the waste biodegradation process in the initial period, recover the various material resources disposal and extend the landfill volume for waste re-landfilling after waste stabilized. The residual material available and risk assessment, the methodology of landfill excavation, the potential utilization routes for different materials, and the reclamation options for the unsanitary landfill are proposed, and the integrated beneficial impacts are identified finally from the economic, social and environmental perspectives. RL could be draw as the future reservoirs for resource extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resident support for a landfill-to-park transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine A. Vogt; David B. Klenosky; Stephanie A. Snyder; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Globally, landfills are being transformed into other uses because land resources scarce, property values are increasing, and governments seek to reduce urban blight and adaptively reuse space. Park planners and city managers are likely to find that gauging public perceptions of a landfill-to-park project transformation and promoting such sites to potential visitors as...

  19. THE EMISSION POTENTIAL FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL IN JORDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study was conducted to monitor the emission potential from solid waste landfilled in Jordan over a period of 292 days using an anaerobic lysimeter. A 30 kg waste sample reflecting the typical municipal solid waste (MSW streams generated in Jordan was used to simulate the influence of climate on the emission potential of landfills located in semi-arid areas. The experimental results demonstrated that a significant amount of leachate and landfill gas was produced. The methane content was found to be more than 45% and the leachate produced reached 15.7 l after 200 days. However, after 260 days the gas and leachate production rate became negligible. A significant amount of heavy metal traces was found in the leachate due to mixed waste disposal. Changes in biogas and leachate quality parameters in the lysimeter revealed typical landfill behaviour trends, the only difference being that they developed much more quickly. In view of current landfill practices in Jordan and the effect of climate change, the results suggest that landfill design and operational modes need to be adjusted in order to achieve sustainability. For this reason, optimized design parameters and operational scenarios for sustainable landfill based on the country’s climatic conditions and financial as well as technical potential are recommended as a primary reference for future landfills in Jordan as well as in similar regions and climates.

  20. Methane emission quantification from landfills using a double tracer approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Samuelsson, J.; Fredenslund, Anders Michael

    2007-01-01

    A tracer method was successfully used for quantification of the whole methane (CH4) emission from Fakse landfill. By using two different tracers the emission from different sections of the landfill could be quantified. Furthermore, is was possible to determine the emissions from local on site...

  1. Sanitation and recultivation of the Endlhausen landfill. Experience and hints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerich, O; Rieger, W

    1986-02-01

    A landfill located in a former gravel pit was covered once 300,000 t of domestic refuse had been dumped. Drain pipes were laid for degassing the landfill. A clay layer was used to prevent surface water inroads. The article explains details and approaches. The cost are some DM 900,000 at an area of 3 ha. Grassing and planting will follow.

  2. Estimating historical landfill quantities to predict methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyons, S.; Murphy, L.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    There are no observations for methane emissions from landfill waste in Ireland. Methane emissions are imputed from waste data. There are intermittent data on waste sent to landfill. We compare two alternative ways to impute the missing waste " data" and evaluate the impact on methane emissions. We

  3. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate

  4. A geophysical toolbox for imaging and characterization of a landfill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.; Ghose, R.; Draganov, D.S.; Heimovaara, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Leachate and gas are a product of biochemical reactions occurring inside the landfill. Treatment technologies (e.g., recirculation of leachate) are developed to reduce the production of leachate. Imaging the location of the wet and gas pockets inside the landfill can help improve the treatment

  5. Characteristics and biological treatment of leachates from a domestic landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste material from urban areas is a major environmental concern and landfill application is a frequent method for waste disposal. The leachate from landfills can, however, negatively affect the surrounding environment. A bioreactor cascade containing submerged biofilms was used to treat newly forme...

  6. Limits and dynamics of methane oxidation in landfill cover soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to understand the limits and dynamics of methane (CH4) oxidation in landfill cover soils, we investigated CH4 oxidation in daily, intermediate, and final cover soils from two California landfills as a function of temperature, soil moisture and CO2 concentration. The results indicate a signi...

  7. Power generation from landfill gas workshop discussion of Session 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loning, A.; Bevan, G.; Moss, H.

    1992-01-01

    The discussion following presentations on the UK Dept. of Energy's involvement with power generation form landfill gas and the UK Government's attitude to pollution prevention from landfill gas power production is presented. The discussion focusses particularly on the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation. (UK)

  8. Geotechniques of landfill design in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleboudy, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The remarkable pollution and the deteriorating environmental conditions in the capital city and other major cities in Egypt have created serious health problems and had great impact on social and economical development. This situation has urged the government to establish a new ministry for environment. The ministry put a national action plan to overcome all the local environmental problems. Among them, the tremendous amounts of solid wastes that are produced daily by the overpopulated cities used to be dumped in open areas causing a terrible unbearable pollution. The ministry has recently initiated several projects for solid and hazardous waste management and disposal to be executed according to the international standards. The Ministry of Environment has appointed a team of multidisciplinary experts to carry out the environmental impact assessment of site selection and the engineering design of landfills. I was fortunate enough to join the team as a geotechnical consulting engineer to review the design of the proposed landfills from the geotechnical point of view. The criteria for landfill design included the physical size, its proximity and access, topography, geotechnical and geological aspects, surface water, ground water hydrology, and future site development and land use. Several sites have been selected to start the project; in Nasr City, 15th of May City, and Assalam City, which are districts of Cairo, Abu-Zaabal in Kalubia Governrate, Shabramont in Giza, Shawa in Dakahlia, Borg El-Arab near Alexandria, two sites in Monofia, and another one in El-Katamia. The paper presents the studies carried out for site selection, geotechnical design, and the possible impact on the environment of the surrounding areas. The studies also included the hydro-geological conditions and the assessment of the ground water conditions in each site and the potential contamination. Socioeconomic measures and public participation in decision making were also taken into consideration

  9. Characterization and treatment of municipal landfill leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welander, Ulrika

    1998-03-01

    The efficiency of different leachate treatment methods for the removal of refractory organic compounds and ammonium-nitrogen was investigated. The methods evaluated were nitrification, denitrification, adsorption onto activated carbon, precipitation by ferric chloride or aluminum sulphate and oxidation by ozone or Fenton`s reagent. Furthermore, analyses were performed on leachates from municipal landfills of different kinds (a biocell deposit, a conventional mixed landfill containing household and industrial waste, and an ash deposit) in order to study the leachate composition in regard to various hydrophobic organic compounds as a function of the type of waste deposited. The results suggested that, in order to achieve a satisfactory removal of both ammonium-nitrogen and organic substances, the treatment of methanogenic leachates should be performed through a process combining biological and physical or chemical stages. When the biological treatment was not combined with a physical or a chemical process a COD removal of only 20-30% was achieved, whereas the toxicity of the leachate was significantly reduced. In contrast, a combination of nitrification and either adsorption onto activated carbon or oxidation using Fenton`s reagent resulted in a COD removal of about 80%, although certain specific organic compounds, such as phthalates, were unaffected by the treatment. A combination of nitrification, precipitation by ferric chloride and adsorption onto activated carbon removed 96% of the TOC. The analyses of leachates from municipal landfills of different types showed the leachate from the ash deposit to contain more C4-substituted phenols than the other leachates and to likewise contain alkanes, which the others did not 154 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  11. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman, E-mail: nilgunayman@comu.edu.tr; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  12. Behavior of radionuclides in sanitary landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K C; Chian, E S; Pohland, F G; Cross, W H; Roland, L; Kahn, B

    1984-01-01

    his study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of disposing low-level radioactive waste in sanitary landfills with leachate containment to prevent environmental releases. To meet this objective, two simulated landfills, each 200 l. in volume and containing 55 kg of municipal refuse, were operated in the laboratory with simulated rainfall additions for a 9-month period to observe the extent to which radio-cobalt, -cesium, -strontium and tritium were leached into the liquid phase. One of the units was operated with leachate recycle, the other as a single pass control. Liquid samples were analyzed weekly for 3H, 58Co, 85Sr and 134Cs tracers. Weekly analyses were also performed for approximately 30 parameters to define the degree of stabilization of the waste. Major parameters included BOD, COD, pH and concentrations of specific organics, metals and gases. Concentrations of stable cobalt, strontium and cesium were also measured periodically. Soluble radioactivity levels in both systems were reduced by factors of 50 for 58Co, 5 for 85Sr and 7 for 134Cs, taking radioactive decay and dilution into account. Some radionuclide removal from the liquid phase was associated with major chemical changes in the landfills that occurred within 80 days for the control system and within 130 days for the recycle unit. Observed acid, sulfide, and CO2 concentrations suggested mechanisms for removing some of the radionuclides from leachate. Detection of 3H in the off-gas indicated that less than 1% of tritiated waste became airborne. The waste in the leachate recycle unit was more completely stabilized than in the control unit.

  13. Landfill gas-fired power plant pays cost of operating landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on recovery of energy from refuse that has become increasingly attractive in the past decade. The continuing urbanization of our society has created major challenges in the disposal of our waste products. Because of public concern over the potential presence of toxins, and for other environmental reasons, management and regulation of active and inactive landfills have become much more stringent and costly. Palos Verdes landfill, owned jointly by the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts and Los Angeles County, is located about three miles from the Pacific Ocean in the city of Rolling Hills Estates, Calif. The landfill was closed in 1980. The garbage was covered with six to eight feet of soil, and the area was landscaped. Part of this area has already been developed as the South Coast Botanical Gardens and Ernie Howlett Park. The remainder is scheduled to become a golf course. As refuse decays within a landfill, the natural anaerobic biological reaction generates a low-Btu methane gas along with carbon dioxide, known as landfill gas (LFG). The gas also contains other less desirable trace components generated by the decomposing garbage. Uncontrolled, these gases migrate to the surface and escape into the atmosphere where they generate environmental problems, including objectionable odors. The Sanitation Districts have installed a matrix of gas wells and a gas collection system to enable incineration of the gas in flares. This approach reduced aesthetic, environmental and safety concerns. However, emissions from the flares were still a problem. The Sanitation Districts then looked at alternatives to flaring the gas, one of which was electrical generation. Since the Sanitation Districts have no on-site use for thermal energy, power generation for use in the utility grid was deemed the most feasible alternative

  14. ASSESSMENT OF EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS ON WASTE LANDFILLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    Earthquake hazards may arise as a result of: (a) transient ground deformation, which is induced due to seismic wave propagation, and (b) permanent ground deformation, which is caused by abrupt fault dislocation. Since the adequate performance of waste landfills after an earthquake is of outmost...... importance, the current study examines the impact of both types of earthquake hazards by performing efficient finite-element analyses. These took also into account the potential slip displacement development along the geosynthetic interfaces of the composite base liner. At first, the development of permanent...

  15. Methane recovery from landfill in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaolai, L.

    1996-12-31

    GEF has approved a special project for a demonstration project for Methane Recovery from the Urban Refuse Land Fill. This paper will introduce the possibility of GHG reduction from the landfill in China, describe the activities of the GEF project, and the priorities for international cooperation in this field. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) approved the project, China Promoting Methane Recovery and Unlization from Mixed Municipal Refuse, at its Council meeting in last April. This project is the first one supported by international organization in this field.

  16. Distribution of Escherichia Coli as Soil Pollutant around Antang Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiningsih, Andi; Zubair, Hazairin; Imran, A. M.; Widodo, Sri

    2018-03-01

    Tamangapa Antang Landfill locates around the residential area and faces an air and water pollution due to an open dumping system in its operation. The system arises a potential pollution in air, water and soil. Sampling was done surround the landfill in two parts, parallel and perpendicular to the ground water flow. This study shows the abundance of E. coli bacteria in soil around the Antang Landfills at depth of 10 to 20 cm (93x105 cfu/gr of soil) in the direction of groundwater flow. While in other locations the E. coli bacteria is not detected. The abundance of E. coli bacteria is a conjunction factor from landfill and human activities surround the area. The absence of E. coli bacteria in other location highly interpreted that the landfill is the major contributor of pollutant.

  17. Planning document for the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Bostick, K.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy and Department of Defense are faced with the closure of thousands of decommissioned radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste landfills as a part of ongoing Environmental Restoration activities. Regulations on the closure of hazardous and radioactive waste landfills require the construction of a ''low-permeability'' cover over the unit to limit the migration of liquids into the underlying waste. These landfills must be maintained and monitored for 30 years to ensure that hazardous materials are not migrating from the landfill. This test plan is intended as an initial road map for planning, designing, constructing, evaluating, and documenting the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration (ALCD). It describes the goals/ objectives, scope, tasks, responsibilities, technical approach, and deliverables for the demonstration

  18. Attenuation of fluorocarbons released from foam insulation in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Dote, Yukata; Fredenslund, Anders Michael

    2007-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have been used as blowing agents (BAs) for foam insulation in home appliances and building materials, which after the end of their useful life are disposed of in landfills. The objective of this project...... was to evaluate the potential for degradation of BAs in landfills, and to develop a landfill model, which could simulate the fate of BAs in landfills. The investigation was performed by use of anaerobic microcosm studies using different types of organic waste and anaerobic digested sludge as inoculum. The BAs...... in any of the experiments within a run time of up to 200 days. The obtained degradation rate coefficients were used as input for an extended version of an existing landfill fate model incorporating a time dependent BA release from co-disposed foam insulation waste. Predictions with the model indicate...

  19. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  20. Optimal sequence of landfills in solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, F.J. [Universidad Pablo de Olavide (Spain); Cerda, E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Given that landfills are depletable and replaceable resources, the right approach, when dealing with landfill management, is that of designing an optimal sequence of landfills rather than designing every single landfill separately. In this paper, we use Optimal Control models, with mixed elements of both continuous-and discrete-time problems, to determine an optimal sequence of landfills, as regarding their capacity and lifetime. The resulting optimization problems involve splitting a time horizon of planning into several subintervals, the length of which has to be decided. In each of the subintervals some costs, the amount of which depends on the value of the decision variables, have to be borne. The obtained results may be applied to other economic problems such as private and public investments, consumption decisions on durable goods, etc. (Author)

  1. Groundwater Pollution Source Characterization of an Old Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Only a few landfill investigations have focused on both the quantity and the quality of leachate as a source of groundwater pollution. The investigation of Vejen Landfill in Denmark included an introductionary historical survey (old maps, aerial photographs, interviews, etc.), leachate quality...... analysis, potential mapping of the groundwater surface below the landfill and leachate flow to surface waters and groundwater. The historical investigation showed that the original soil surface beneath the waste was a relatively heterogeneous mixture of boggy ground and sand soil areas. This indicated...... that the leaching from the landfill could be unevenly distributed. The main specific organic compounds observed in the leachate were aromatic hydrocarbons (mainly xylenes), phenols and the pesticide MCPP. Preliminary investigations of the leach from the landfill indicated, that both a northerly leach to a drainage...

  2. Further studies on the role of protozoa in landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finlay, B.J.; Clarke, K.J.; Cranwell, P.A.; Embley, T.M.; Hindle, R.M.; Simon, B.M.

    1993-11-01

    The specific objectives of this study were: to determine the growth requirements of methanogen-bearing protozoa living in landfill; to measure the rate of methane generation by these `protozoan consortia`; to quantify the role of protozoan grazing in stimulating overall microbial activity; to determine the identity of both symbiotic methanogens and host ciliates in different landfill sites. The results showed that the landfill ciliated protozoon, Metopus palaeformis, showed net growth in the temperature range 7-35{sup o}C, if the landfill material contained at least 40% water by weight. The methanogens living inside one cell of M.palaeformis produced, on average, 0.37 x 10{sup -12}mol CH{sub 4}/hour. In laboratory studies, the initial rate of methane generation from landfill material was twice as great when ciliates were present. There was no experimental evidence that this was due to ciliate grazing activity stimulating the re-cycling of essential nutrients to free-living bacteria. It is theoretically possible that acetate excreted by ciliates was converted to methane by free-living methanogens and that this was the source of ciliate-enhanced methane production. It was shown that the methanogenic bacteria living symbiotically within the ciliates are quite distinct from free-living methanogens previously described from landfill refuse. It is unlikely that the ciliates act as vectors for the transmission of methanogens between landfill sites. In conclusion, protozoon may be an important component of the landfill microbial community because they stimulate the rate of anaerobic decomposition and hence the rate of methane production. But protozoa are important only when the landfill material is wet (> 40% water) and when the temperature of the landfill does not exceed 30{sup o}C. (author)

  3. Analysis of an innovative process for landfill gas quality improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, L.; Carnevale, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Low methane content landfill gas is not suitable for feeding engines and is generally flared. This type of landfill gas may be enriched by removing the inert carbon dioxide. An innovative process, based on the carbon dioxide captured by means of accelerated carbonation of bottom ash was proposed and studied for the above purpose. The process was investigated at a laboratory scale, simulating different landfill gas compositions. The enrichment process is able to decrease the carbon dioxide concentration from 70 to 80% in volume to 60% in volume, requiring about 36 kg of bottom ash per Nm"3 of landfill gas. Using this result it was estimated that an industrial scale plant, processing 100–1000 Nm"3/h of low methane content landfill gas requires about 28,760–2,87,600 t of bottom ash for a one year operation. The specific cost of the studied enrichment process was evaluated as well and ranges from 0.052 to 0.241 Euro per Nm"3 of entering landfill gas. The energy balance showed that about 4–6% of the energy entered with the landfill gas is required for carrying out the enrichment, while the use of the enriched landfill gas in the engine producing electricity allows for negative carbon dioxide emission. - Highlights: • The process uses a waste stream as material to capture CO_2. • The process uses a simple gas/solid fixed bed contact reactor at ambient conditions. • The process captures the CO_2 to enrich low-CH4 landfill gas. • The specific cost ranges from 0.052 to 0.241 Euro per Nm"3 of entering landfill gas. • The process consumes about 4–6% of the entering energy and acts as CO_2 sink.

  4. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE's Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit

  5. Landfills as sinks for (hazardous) substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Heijo

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of waste regulations is to protect human health and the environment. This requires the removal from the material cycle of those materials that cannot be processed without harm. Policies to promote recycling hold a risk that pollutants are dispersed. Materials have an environmental impact during their entire life cycle from extraction through production, consumption and recycling to disposal. Essentially there are only two routes for pollutants that cannot be rendered harmless: storage in sinks or dispersion into the environment. Many sinks do not contain substances absolutely, but result in slow dispersion. Dispersion leads to exposure and impact to human health and the environment. It is therefore important to assess the impact of the release to the environment. Based on various sources this paper discusses important material flows and their potential impact. This is compared with the intentions and achievements of European environmental and resource policy. The polluter pays principle is being implemented in Europe, but lags behind implementation of waste management regulations. As long as producers are allowed to add hazardous substances to their products and don't take their products back, it is in society's best interest to carefully consider whether recycling or storage in a sink is the better solution. This requires further development of life-cycle assessment tools and harmonization of regulations. In many cases the sink is unavoidable. Landfills as sinks will be needed in the future. Fail-safe design and construction as well as sustainable management of landfills must be further developed.

  6. Sustainable Impact of Landfill Siting towards Urban Planning in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin Tey, Jia; Goh, Kai Chen; Ern Ang, Peniel Soon

    2017-10-01

    Landfill is one of the most common, widely used waste management technique in Malaysia. The ever increasing of solid waste has made the role of landfill become prominent despite the negative impacts that caused by the landfill is unavoidable. The public and government regulations are getting more aware with the negative impacts that could be brought by the landfill towards the community. It led to the cultural shift to integrate the concept of sustainability into the planning of siting a landfill in an urban area. However, current urban planning tends to emphasize more on the environmental aspect instead of social and economic aspects. This is due to the existing planning guidelines and stakeholder’s understandings are more on the environmental aspect. This led to the needs of incorporating the concept of sustainability into the urban planning. Thus, this paper focuses on the industry stakeholders view on the negative impacts that will cause by the landfill towards the urban planning. The industry stakeholders are those who are related to the decision-making in the selection of a landfill site in the government department. The scope of the study is within the country of Malaysia. This study was conducted through the semi-structured interviews with a total of fifteen industry stakeholders to obtain their perspective on the issues of impacts of siting a landfill in the urban area. The data obtained was analysed using the software, QSR NVivo version 10. Results indicate that landfill bought significant sustainability-related impacts towards landfill siting in urban planning. The negative impacts stated by the respondents are categorized under all three sustainable aspects such as environmental, social and economic. Among the results are such as the pollution, such as the generation of leachate, the objection in siting a landfill site against by the public, and the negotiating and getting money contribution from local authorities. The results produced can be served

  7. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity less...

  8. 75 FR 6597 - Determination to Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, MT Landfill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... to Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, MT Landfill; Opportunity for Public... for the Lake County landfill, a municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) owned and operated by Lake... operating criteria for MSWLFs, including landfill location restrictions, operating standards, design...

  9. Evaluating fugacity models for trace components in landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafi, Sophie [Integrated Waste Management Centre, Sustainable Systems Department, Building 61, School of Industrial and Manufacturing Science, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Sweetman, Andrew [Department of Environmental Science, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Hough, Rupert L. [Integrated Waste Management Centre, Sustainable Systems Department, Building 61, School of Industrial and Manufacturing Science, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Smith, Richard [Integrated Waste Management Centre, Sustainable Systems Department, Building 61, School of Industrial and Manufacturing Science, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Rosevear, Alan [Science Group - Waste and Remediation, Environment Agency, Reading RG1 8DQ (United Kingdom); Pollard, Simon J.T. [Integrated Waste Management Centre, Sustainable Systems Department, Building 61, School of Industrial and Manufacturing Science, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: s.pollard@cranfield.ac.uk

    2006-12-15

    A fugacity approach was evaluated to reconcile loadings of vinyl chloride (chloroethene), benzene, 1,3-butadiene and trichloroethylene in waste with concentrations observed in landfill gas monitoring studies. An evaluative environment derived from fictitious but realistic properties such as volume, composition, and temperature, constructed with data from the Brogborough landfill (UK) test cells was used to test a fugacity approach to generating the source term for use in landfill gas risk assessment models (e.g. GasSim). SOILVE, a dynamic Level II model adapted here for landfills, showed greatest utility for benzene and 1,3-butadiene, modelled under anaerobic conditions over a 10 year simulation. Modelled concentrations of these components (95 300 {mu}g m{sup -3}; 43 {mu}g m{sup -3}) fell within measured ranges observed in gas from landfills (24 300-180 000 {mu}g m{sup -3}; 20-70 {mu}g m{sup -3}). This study highlights the need (i) for representative and time-referenced biotransformation data; (ii) to evaluate the partitioning characteristics of organic matter within waste systems and (iii) for a better understanding of the role that gas extraction rate (flux) plays in producing trace component concentrations in landfill gas. - Fugacity for trace component in landfill gas.

  10. THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE LANDFILL ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Janas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the environmental impact of a shut down industrial waste landfill. A detailed analysis of the quality of groundwater around the landfill in the years 1995-2016 was conducted. Assessment of the status of groundwater in the landfill area was made based on the results of monitoring tests. It includes the measurement of pH, specific electrical conductivity (SEC and the content of chlorides, sulfates, phosphates, heavy metals: copper (Cu, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr and a number of other pollution indicators. The analysis confirms that the landfill during the operation did not constitute a threat because of a number of employed security measures and sealing layers. Only in recent years, the industrial waste landfill which is already out of operation has become an extremely serious environmental threat. The results of water analyses from the piezometers clearly indicate that there is a problem of groundwater contamination. There was a significant increase in the value of some of the analyzed indicators (such as chlorides and sulfates, mainly in the piezometers located on the flow line of groundwater in the landfill area. The observed situation is probably a result of damage to the sealing layers and leaching of pollutants from waste deposited in the landfill by rain water.

  11. Location analysis of the landfill of waste in Loznica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper regards the landfill of municipal and industrial waste in Loznica, actually its location and environmental hazards. The research was carried out in order to show the consequences of careless and incomplete evaluation of the conditions for a locating of a landfill in the example of Loznica. Besides the fact that it is located at the floodplain of the Drina River, the landfill is normally located to the direction of predominant wind, which has a significant influence on environmental dispersion processes. The landscape where the landfill is located has been impacted by flooded and groundwater and predominant wind, but on the other side, the environment has also been impacted by pollutants which come from the new system landscape-landfill. The results of the laboratory analysis help to target a gradual process of the soil contamination by heavy metals from the landfill, and to detect the general direction of contaminant migration, from southwest to northeast. Therefore, it is necessary to start working on recultivation and rehabilitation of the landfill and to begin with regional waste disposal. .

  12. The effect of landfill age on municipal leachate composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowska, Dorota; Klimiuk, Ewa

    2008-09-01

    The influence of municipal landfill age on temporal changes in municipal leachate quality on the basis of elaboration of 4 years monitoring of leachate from landfill in Wysieka near Bartoszyce (Poland) is presented in this study. In leachate, concentrations of organic compounds (COD, BOD(5)), nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus), mineral compounds, heavy metals and BTEX were investigated. It was shown that the principal pollutants in leachate were organics and ammonia - as landfill age increased, organics concentration (COD) in leachate decreased from 1,800 mg COD/l in the second year of landfill exploitation to 610 mg COD/l in the sixth year of exploitation and increase of ammonia nitrogen concentration from 98 mg N(NH)/l to 364 mg N(NH4) /l was observed. Fluctuation of other indexes (phosphorus, chlorides, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, dissolved solids, heavy metals, BTEX) depended rather on season of the year (seasonal variations) than landfill age. Moreover, the obtained data indicate that despite of short landfill's lifetime some parameters e.g. high pH (on average 7.84), low COD concentration (metal concentration, indicated that the landfill was characterized by methanogenic conditions already at the beginning of the monitoring period.

  13. A primer for trading greenhouse gas reductions from landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    This introductory level primer on domestic greenhouse gas emissions trading addresses the challenge of dealing with landfill gas emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ). It describes the first major emissions trading projects in Canada, the Pilot Emission Reduction Trading (PERT) and the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Trading (GERT) pilot projects which calculate and document the GHG emission reductions that are available from landfill sites. PERT initially focused on nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide. PERT uses the Clean Air Emission Reduction Registry for its emissions trading. Canada completed negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol in December 1997 along with 160 other countries. Upon ratification, Canada will commit to reducing 6 greenhouse gases by 6 per cent below 1990 levels in the period 2008 to 2012. Canada has recognized that it must reduce domestic greenhouse gas emissions to slow global warming which leads to climate change. It has been shown that the capture and destruction of landfill gas can profoundly contribute to meeting the target. One tool that can be used to help meet the objective of reducing GHG emissions is domestic GHG emission trading, or carbon trading, as a result of landfill gas capture and flaring. Landfill gas is generally composed of equal parts of carbon dioxide and methane with some other trace emissions. Accounting for quantities of greenhouse gas emissions is done in equivalent tonnes of carbon dioxide where one tonne of methane reduction is equivalent to 21 tonnes of carbon dioxide in terms of global warming potential. Organics in landfills which lead to the generation of methane are considered to be coming from renewable biomass, therefore, the collection and combustion of landfill gas is also considered to reduce GHG emissions from landfills by 100 per cent on a global basis. Destroying landfill gases can also reduce volatile organic compounds, which

  14. Digestate application in landfill bioreactors to remove nitrogen of old landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Pivato, Alberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Raga, Roberto

    2018-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organics is one of the most used solution to gain renewable energy from waste and the final product, the digestate, still rich in putrescible components and nutrients, is mainly considered for reutilization (in land use) as a bio-fertilizer or a compost after its treatment. Alternative approaches are recommended in situations where conventional digestate management practices are not suitable. Aim of this study was to develop an alternative option to use digestate to enhance nitrified leachate treatment through a digestate layer in a landfill bioreactor. Two identical landfill columns (Ra and Rb) filled with the same solid digestate were set and nitrified leachate was used as influent. Ra ceased after 75 day's operation to get solid samples and calculate the C/N mass balance while Rb was operated for 132 days. Every two or three days, effluent from the columns were discarded and the columns were refilled with nitrified leachate (average N-NO 3 - concentration = 1,438 mg-N/L). N-NO 3 - removal efficiency of 94.7% and N-NO 3 - removal capacity of 19.2 mg N-NO 3 - /gTS-digestate were achieved after 75 days operation in Ra. Prolonging the operation to 132 days in Rb, N-NO 3 - removal efficiency and N-NO 3 - removal capacity were 72.5% and 33.1 mg N-NO 3 - /gTS-digestate, respectively. The experimental analysis of the process suggested that 85.4% of nitrate removal could be attributed to denitrification while the contribution percentage of adsorption was 14.6%. These results suggest that those solid digestates not for agricultural or land use, could be used in landfill bioreactors to remove the nitrogen from old landfill leachate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Landfill cover soil, soil solution, and vegetation responses to municipal landfill leachate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Neil W; Rediske, Richard R; Scull, Brian T; Wierzbicki, David

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfill leachate must be removed and treated to maintain landfill cover integrity and to prevent contamination of surface and ground waters. From 2003 to 2007, we studied an onsite disposal system in Ottawa County, Michigan, where leachate was spray irrigated on the vegetated landfill cover. We established six 20-m-diameter circular experimental plots on the landfill; three were spray irrigated as part of the operational system, and three remained as untreated control plots. We quantified the effects of leachate application on soil properties, soil solution chemistry, vegetative growth, and estimated solute leaching. The leachate had high mean levels of electrical conductivity (0.6-0.7 S m(-1)), Cl (760-900 mg L(-1)), and NH(4)-N (290-390 mg L(-1)) but was low in metals and volatile organic compounds. High rates of leachate application in 2003 (32 cm) increased soil electrical conductivity and NO(3)-N leaching, so a sequential rotation of spray areas was implemented to limit total leachate application to <9.6 cm yr(-1) per spray area. Concentrations of NO(3)-N and leaching losses remained higher on irrigated plots in subsequent years but were substantially reduced by spray area rotation. Leachate irrigation increased plant biomass but did not significantly affect soil metal concentrations, and plant metal concentrations remained within normal ranges. Rotating spray areas and timing irrigation to conform to seasonal capacities for evapotranspiration reduced the localized impacts of leachate application observed in 2003. Careful monitoring of undiluted leachate applications is required to avoid adverse impacts to vegetation or soils and elevated solute leaching losses.

  16. Assessing methods to estimate emissions of non-methane organic compounds from landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saquing, Jovita M.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Yazdani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    The non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emission rate is used to assess compliance with landfill gas emission regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). A recent USEPA Report (EPA/600/R-11/033) employed a ratio method to estimate speciated NMOC emissions (i...... and speciated NMOC concentration and flux data from 2012/2013 field sampling of four landfills, an unpublished landfill study, and literature data from three landfills. The ratio method worked well for landfills with thin covers (...

  17. Co-generation potentials of municipal solid waste landfills in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Bošković Goran B.; Josijević Mladen M.; Jovičić Nebojša M.; Babić Milun J.

    2016-01-01

    Waste management in the Republic of Serbia is based on landfilling. As a result of such year-long practice, a huge number of municipal waste landfills has been created where landfill gas has been generated. Landfill gas, which is essentially methane (50-55%) and carbon dioxide (40-45%) (both GHGs), has a great environmental impact which can be reduced by using landfill gas in cogeneration plants to produce energy. The aim of this paper is to determine econo...

  18. Intelligence Control System for Landfills Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Huang, Chuan; Gong, Jian

    2018-06-01

    This paper put forward an intelligence system for controlling the landfill gas in landfills to make the landfill gas (LFG) exhaust controllably and actively. The system, which is assigned by the wireless sensor network, were developed and supervised by remote applications in workshop instead of manual work. An automatic valve control depending on the sensor units embedded is installed in tube, the air pressure and concentration of LFG are detected to decide the level of the valve switch. The paper also proposed a modified algorithm to solve transmission problem, so that the system can keep a high efficiency and long service life.

  19. Intelligence Control System for Landfills Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper put forward an intelligence system for controlling the landfill gas in landfills to make the landfill gas (LFG exhaust controllably and actively. The system, which is assigned by the wireless sensor network, were developed and supervised by remote applications in workshop instead of manual work. An automatic valve control depending on the sensor units embedded is installed in tube, the air pressure and concentration of LFG are detected to decide the level of the valve switch. The paper also proposed a modified algorithm to solve transmission problem, so that the system can keep a high efficiency and long service life.

  20. Validation of landfill methane measurements from an unmanned aerial system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Grant; Williams, Paul; Ricketts, hugo

    Landfill gas is made up of roughly equal amounts of methane and carbon dioxide. Modern UK landfills capture and use much of the methane gas as a fuel. But some methane escapes and is emitted to the atmosphere. Methane is an important greenhouse gas and controls on methane emissions are a part...... of international and national strategies to limit climate change. Better estimates of methane emissions from landfills and other similar sources would allow the UK to improve the quantification and control of greenhouse gas emissions. This project tested the accuracy of methane measurement using an unmanned aerial...

  1. Landfill gas as vehicle fuel; Deponigas som fordonsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Johansson, Nina; Karlsvaerd, Johan (Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    The landfill gas extraction in Sweden 2008 was 370 GWh. Mainly because of lack of available technologies for landfill gas upgrading and high assessed upgrading costs, landfill gas has so far only been used for heating and cogenerations plants (CHP). In recent years, interest has been brought to upgrade landfill gas and this study highlights the possibility of using landfill gas as fuel for vehicles. A decision in investment in an upgrading installation requires a forecast of future gas production and landfill gas extraction. From 2005, dispose of organic waste is prohibited, reducing the number of active landfills and the landfill gas production will go down. Factors such as moisture content, design of the final coverage and landfill gas collection system have a major impact on the extraction. It is therefore difficult to make appropriate predictions of the future gas production. Today's landfill gas extraction is approximately 35% of the landfill gas production and in the light of this, extraction can be in a level comparable to today's at least ten years ahead, provided that the extraction system is being expanded and that measurements are taken to so that landfills should not dry out. In comparison with biogas from anaerobic digestion in a dedicated digester, landfill gas has a high percentage of nitrogen and a content of many contaminants such as organic silicon compounds (siloxanes) and halogenated hydrocarbons (hydrocarbons containing the halogens chlorine, fluorine and bromine). This often requires more treatment and a further separation step. A common method for purification of landfill gas is regenerative adsorption on a dedicated adsorption material. Carbon dioxide is separated by conventional techniques like PSA, water scrubber and membranes. The main barrier to use landfill gas as vehicle fuel is a cost-effective separation of nitrogen that does not generate high methane losses. Nitrogen is separated by PSA or distillation technique (cryogenic

  2. Impact assessment of intermediate soil cover on landfill stabilization by characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Rui; Shi, Xiaochong; He, Liang; Guo, Jingting; Miao, Haomei; Nie, Yongfeng

    2013-10-15

    Waste samples at different depths of a covered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Beijing, China, were excavated and characterized to investigate the impact of intermediate soil cover on waste stabilization. A comparatively high amount of unstable organic matter with 83.3 g kg(-1) dry weight (dw) total organic carbon was detected in the 6-year-old MSW, where toxic inorganic elements containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of 10.1, 0.98, 85.49, 259.7, 530.4, 30.5, 84.0, and 981.7 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively, largely accumulated because of the barrier effect of intermediate soil cover. This accumulation resulted in decreased microbial activities. The intermediate soil cover also caused significant reduction in moisture in MSW under the soil layer, which was as low as 25.9%, and led to inefficient biodegradation of 8- and 10-year-old MSW. Therefore, intermediate soil cover with low permeability seems to act as a barrier that divides a landfill into two landfill cells with different degradation processes by restraining water flow and hazardous matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover...

  4. Detection and quantification of methane leakage from landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Aake; Maartensson, Stig-Goeran [Univ. of Gaevle, Gaevle (Sweden); Meijer, Jan-Erik; Rosqvist, Haakan [NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this project was to detect gas leakage and to measure and quantify methane emission from landfills using modern remote sensing techniques. In this project, a handheld laser instrument and an IR camera were used. The overall objective was to develop cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying methane emissions from landfills. There are many methods available for measuring the methane concentration in air, both from close-up and from long distances. Combined with the use of a tracer gas, the methane emission from entire landfills can be measured relatively accurately. A number of methods are used to detect leakage from parts of landfill surfaces, but there are few methods for quantifying leakage from sub-zones. Field measurements with the laser instrument and the IR camera were carried out at seven Swedish landfills and two landfills in France. The investigated surfaces at the Swedish landfills were divided into different zones, such as top surface, slope, crest and toe of slope. The field measurements in France were taken over entire landfills. The methane emission varied between the different landfills in the project, and also between the different landfill zones. The results from repeated field measurements indicated that a landfill with a final cap and a successful gas recovery system produces barely measurable emissions. The weak points at a landfill are generally slopes, including crests and toes of slopes. Where the covering of the waste is inadequate, leakage often occurs at lift joints and in areas where waste protrudes through the cover. Other weak points are deficiencies in the gas recovery system. Leachate systems can lead landfill gas and thereby cause methane leakage. Along with wind velocity and variations in atmospheric pressure, moisture content in the ground is an important factor that affects methane emissions from landfill surfaces. Results from field measurements of the same feature/surface at different points in time and

  5. Major Sources of Worries and Concerns about Landfills in Lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Keywords: Landfills; Environment; Risk; Perception; Lagos. Introduction ... largely to the perception of risk to human health and the environment. ..... in turn pass the cost to consumers. Potential ... Environment and Behaviour, Vol. 32 No. 2 pp.

  6. Greenhouse effect reduction and energy recovery from waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Lidia [Dipartimento di Energetica ' Sergio Stecco' , Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: lidia.lombardi@pin.unifi.it; Carnevale, Ennio [Dipartimento di Energetica ' Sergio Stecco' , Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy); Corti, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Waste management systems are a non-negligible source of greenhouse gases. In particular, methane and carbon dioxide emissions occur in landfills due to the breakdown of biodegradable carbon compounds operated on by anaerobic bacteria. The conventional possibilities of reducing the greenhouse effect (GHE) from waste landfilling consists in landfill gas (LFG) flaring or combustion with energy recovery in reciprocating engines. These conventional treatments are compared with three innovative possibilities: the direct LFG feeding to a fuel cell (FC); the production of a hydrogen-rich gas, by means of steam reforming and CO{sub 2} capture, to feed a stationary FC; the production of a hydrogen-rich gas, by means of steam reforming and CO{sub 2} capture, to feed a vehicle FC. The comparison is carried out from an environmental point of view, calculating the specific production of GHE per unit mass of waste disposed in landfill equipped with the different considered technologies.

  7. Fuel Flexibility: Landfill Gas Contaminant Mitigation for Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Lewis, Samuel [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kaul, Brian C [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL; Sepaniak, Michael [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-04-01

    This research project focused on the mitigation of silica damage to engine-based renewable landfill gas energy systems. Characterization of the landfill gas siloxane contamination, combined with characterization of the silica deposits in engines, led to development of two new mitigation strategies. The first involved a novel method for removing the siloxanes and other heavy contaminants from the landfill gas prior to use by the engines. The second strategy sought to interrupt the formation of hard silica deposits in the engine itself, based on inspection of failed landfill gas engine parts. In addition to mitigation, the project had a third task to develop a robust sensor for siloxanes that could be used to control existing and/or future removal processes.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF HOLOCENE FAULTING PROPOSED C-746-U LANDFILL EXPANSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettis, William [William Lettis & Associates, Inc.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a fault hazard investigation for the C-746-U landfill's proposed expansion located at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, Kentucky. The planned expansion is located directly north of the present-day C-746-U landfill. Previous geophysical studies within the PGDP site vicinity interpret possible northeast-striking faults beneath the proposed landfill expansion, although prior to this investigation the existence, locations, and ages of these inferred faults have not been confirmed through independent subsurface exploration. The purpose of this investigation is to assess whether or not Holocene-active fault displacement is present beneath the footprint of the proposed landfill expansion.

  9. REQUIREMENTS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND CLOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication contains edited versions of the material presented at ten Technology Transfer seminars conducted in 1988 on this subject. Sections are included on design of clay and flexible membrane liners, leachate collector systems, and landfill covers. Construction quality a...

  10. Soil bioengineering applied to the environmental rehabilitation of controlled landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luria, P.

    2005-01-01

    Soil bioengineering is a discipline characterised by the capability of associating geo-technical approaches (e.g. soil stabilisation) with naturalistic rehabilitation and creation of biotopes. It is extremely suitable for the environmental rehabilitation of controlled landfills, especially of area and depression landfills, mainly through soil protection and stabilisation measures. Its increasing notoriety is mainly due to the great variety and specificity of its techniques, to the capability of joining technical matters with naturalistic aspects, and to the reduced cost of some interventions. Nevertheless, its application to environmental rehabilitation of controlled landfills is still scarce in Italy. Only 3% of 87 closed landfills analysed, whose rehabilitation projects adopt natural techniques for soil stabilisation and protection, explicitly refers to Soil Bioengineering [it

  11. Use of landfill gas will save money and reduce emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    The City of Glendale, California has commenced on a project to transport landfill gas (LFG) from the Scholl Canyon Landfill to the Grayson Power Plant. At the plant the LFG will be used to produce electricity in existing steam electric generating units and combustion turbines. The LFG will reduce the natural gas consumed at the plant resulting in a substantial cost savings for the City. This project also offers significant environmental improvements. First, the elimination of flaring at the landfill will reduce emissions. Second, the LFG will reduce NO x emissions from the power plant. This paper will describe the existing collection system at the landfill as well as the design of the compression and piping system to transport the LFG to the power plant. It will also outline the in-plant modifications to the fuel delivery system and examine some of the emission implications of how the fuel is utilized

  12. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3–4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate...... and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production...... of electricity and heat.The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost...

  13. Environmental Planning Strategies for Optimum Solid Waste Landfill Siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiani, Y.; Onn, C.C.; Mohd, M.A.D.; Wan, W.Z.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of environmental planning tools for optimum solid waste landfill siting taking into account all environmental implications was carried out by applying Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) to enhance the research information obtained from initial analysis using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The objective of this study is to identify the most eco-friendly landfill site by conducting a LCA analysis upon 5 potential GIS generated sites which incorporated eleven important criteria related to the social, environmental, and economical factors. The LCA analysis utilized the daily distance covered by collection trucks among the 5 selected landfill sites to generate inventory data on total energy usage for each landfill sites. The planning and selection of the potential sites were facilitated after conducting environmental impact analysis upon the inventory data which showed the least environmental impact. (author)

  14. An overview of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.; Betsill, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ''in-situ'' characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in and environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies. Key goals of the MWLID are routine use of these technologies by Environmental Restoration Groups throughout the DOE complex and commercialization of these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID is demonstrating technologies at hazardous waste landfills located at Sandia National Laboratories and on Kirtland Air Force Base. These landfills have been selected because they are representative of many sites throughout the Southwest and in other and climates

  15. Radioactivity and elemental analysis in the Ruseifa municipal landfill, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jundi, J.; Al-Tarazi, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a low background gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Hyper Pure Germanium detector was used to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil samples from various locations within the Ruseifa municipal landfill in Jordan. The chemical composition of the samples was also determined using a Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer. The maximum and minimum annual outdoor effective doses were found to be 103 and 36 μSv a -1 in the old landfill and Abu-Sayaah village, respectively. The annual outdoor effective dose at the recent landfill site was found to be 91 μSv a -1 . The annual effective dose equivalents from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation at the old landfill and the recent landfill were higher than the typical worldwide value of 70 μSv a -1 . Thus, some remediation of the soils on both old and recent landfills should be considered before any development for public activities. This could be achieved by mixing with clean soil from areas which are known to have lower radiation background. The concentration of heavy metals Zn, Cr, and Ba in the three sites included in this study were found to be higher than the background levels in the soil samples of the control area (Abu-Sayaah village). The enrichment factors for the above three elements were calculated and found to be: complex building site: Zn = 2.52 and Ba = 1.33; old landfill site: Cr = 1.88, Zn = 3.64, and Ba = 1.26; and recent landfill site: Cr = 1.57, Zn = 2.19, and Ba = 1.28. There was a strong negative correlation between the concentrations of the metallic elements (Mg, Al, Mn, Fe and Rb) and the concentrations of Zn, Ba, and Cr. Moreover, a strong positive correlation was found between Zn, Ba, and Cr. Thus these elements were enriched in the solid waste

  16. Short-term landfill methane emissions dependency on wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delkash, Madjid; Zhou, Bowen; Han, Byunghyun; Chow, Fotini K; Rella, Chris W; Imhoff, Paul T

    2016-09-01

    Short-term (2-10h) variations of whole-landfill methane emissions have been observed in recent field studies using the tracer dilution method for emissions measurement. To investigate the cause of these variations, the tracer dilution method is applied using 1-min emissions measurements at Sandtown Landfill (Delaware, USA) for a 2-h measurement period. An atmospheric dispersion model is developed for this field test site, which is the first application of such modeling to evaluate atmospheric effects on gas plume transport from landfills. The model is used to examine three possible causes of observed temporal emissions variability: temporal variability of surface wind speed affecting whole landfill emissions, spatial variability of emissions due to local wind speed variations, and misaligned tracer gas release and methane emissions locations. At this site, atmospheric modeling indicates that variation in tracer dilution method emissions measurements may be caused by whole-landfill emissions variation with wind speed. Field data collected over the time period of the atmospheric model simulations corroborate this result: methane emissions are correlated with wind speed on the landfill surface with R(2)=0.51 for data 2.5m above ground, or R(2)=0.55 using data 85m above ground, with emissions increasing by up to a factor of 2 for an approximately 30% increase in wind speed. Although the atmospheric modeling and field test are conducted at a single landfill, the results suggest that wind-induced emissions may affect tracer dilution method emissions measurements at other landfills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends in sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziah, S H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-07-01

    In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia.

  18. Achieving equilibrium status and sustainable landfill - the holy grail?

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, D. H.; Gronow, Jan R.; Smith, Richard; Blakey, N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research contract jointly funded by the Environment Agency and ESART examining the residues of likely post-Landfill Directive waste streams that will need to go to landfill and the time taken to achieve sufficient stabilisation such that management controls can be removed. The first part of the project has identified a number of processes that are likely to be adopted by the waste management industry in order to meet the biodegradable waste ...

  19. Application of environmental isotopes to characterize landfill gases and leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Baker, J.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental isotopes have been used to help characterize landfill gases and leachate for the purpose of identifying leachate and/or gas contamination in surrounding monitoring wells. Carbon isotopes (C-13/C-12 and C-14), hydrogen isotopes (H-3 and H-2/H-1) and oxygen isotopes (O-18/O-16) were used to characterize methane, carbon dioxide and leachate produced from two municipal landfills in northeastern Illinois. The isotopic results from the landfill-derived gases and leachate are compared to isotopic compositions of groundwater and gases from nearby monitoring wells. C-14 activity of landfill CH 4 is high compared to CH 4 normally found in subsurface sediments. For this study C-14 activities of the landfill methane range from 129--140 PMC. The C-14 of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the leachate samples also have relatively high activities, ranging from 126--141 PMC. The δC-13 and δD values for CH 4 from the landfills fall within a range of values representative of microbial methane produced by acetate-fermentation. The δC-13 of the CO 2 and the DIC are very positive, ranging from 8--14 per-thousand for CO 2 and 13--22 per-thousand for DIC. The δO-18 values of the leachates are similar to current meteoric water values, however, two of the leachate samples are significantly enriched in deuterium by approximately 65 per-thousand. Tritium values of the leachate water are generally higher than expected. For one landfill the tritium activity ranges from 227--338 TU, for the second landfill the tritium activity is approximately 1,300 TU. Compared to tritium levels in normal groundwater, these higher tritium values in the leachates indicate that this isotope has the potential to be an effective tracer for detecting leachate migration

  20. Assessment of leachates from uncontrolled landfill: Tangier case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmaghnougi I.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfill site of Tangier City is non-engineered low lying open dump. It has neither bottom liner nor leachate collection and treatment system. Therefore, all the leachate generated finds its paths into the surrounding environment Leachate samples of landfill site were collected and analyzed to estimate its pollution potential. The analyzed samples contained a high concentration of organic and inorganic compounds, beyond the permissible limits.

  1. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material found in the West Lake Landfill. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Assessment of leachates from uncontrolled landfill: Tangier case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaghnougi, I.; Afilal Tribak, A.; Maatouk, M.

    2018-05-01

    Landfill site of Tangier City is non-engineered low lying open dump. It has neither bottom liner nor leachate collection and treatment system. Therefore, all the leachate generated finds its paths into the surrounding environment Leachate samples of landfill site were collected and analyzed to estimate its pollution potential. The analyzed samples contained a high concentration of organic and inorganic compounds, beyond the permissible limits.

  3. Urban green areas as the starting point for planning hydroelectric and urban developments: The case of the Sava River in the City of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mlakar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the landscape and urbanistic layout of the Sava River space and North part of the Bežigrad stretch of Ljubljana. Focus is on methodological and content starting points for the layout preparation and development of urban green areas of the wider Sava River space, which as a connecting link and simultaneously independent spatial and functional entity represents the starting point for planning hydro-energetic and urban arrangements. The necessity of recognising and resolving real spatial planning issues, formulation of clear goals and concepts, confrontation of different spatial systems and interests, as well as the sensibility of devising alternative development scenarios are emphasised. One of the most important starting points of the proposed layout is comprehensive design of public open spaces and green areas. The urbanistic solution relies on a programmatically strong, distinct and structured Dunajska Street, which should transform into the public space of a modern urban artery, with a clear ending that simultaneously gradually adapts to the morphology akin to the surroundings and Sava River space. Because of its natural characteristics, preserved cultural landscape and good accessibility, this area has great potential for development of leisure activities. The proposed solution stems from the fact that the chain of hydro-electric plants shouldn't be seen as buildings with negative environmental effects, but also as development opportunities – the actual execution of a recreation area along the Sava River and a method for rehabilitating the degraded spaces. Comprehensive solutions along the river have been proposed as parts of the hydro-electric developments, with special attention focusing on active design of various riverbank types.

  4. Methodology for assessing thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianye; Kim, Hwidong; Townsend, Timothy

    2014-07-01

    Arsenic leaching and speciation in landfills, especially those with arsenic bearing waste and drywall disposal (such as construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills), may be affected by high levels of sulfide through the formation of thioarsenic anions. A methodology using ion chromatography (IC) with a conductivity detector was developed for the assessment of thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments. Monothioarsenate (H2AsSO3(-)) and dithioarsenate (H2AsS2O2(-)) were confirmed in the IC fractions of thioarsenate synthesis mixture, consistent with previous literature results. However, the observation of AsSx(-) (x=5-8) in the supposed trithioarsenate (H2AsS3O(-)) and tetrathioarsenate (H2AsS4(-)) IC fractions suggested the presence of new arsenic polysulfide complexes. All thioarsenate anions, particularly trithioarsenate and tetrathioarsenate, were unstable upon air exposure. The method developed for thioarsenate analysis was validated and successfully used to analyze several landfill leachate samples. Thioarsenate anions were detected in the leachate of all of the C&D debris landfills tested, which accounted for approximately 8.5% of the total aqueous As in the leachate. Compared to arsenite or arsenate, thioarsenates have been reported in literature to have lower adsorption on iron oxide minerals. The presence of thioarsenates in C&D debris landfill leachate poses new concerns when evaluating the impact of arsenic mobilization in such environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost benefit analysis for remediation of a nuclear industry landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Tom; Hardisty, Paul; Dennis, Frank; Liddiard, Mark; McClelland, Paul

    2006-01-01

    An old landfill site, licensed to receive inert construction waste, is situated on the top of hard rock cliffs adjacent to the sea at the Dounreay nuclear facility in Scotland. During restoration and investigation work at the landfill, radioactively contaminated material and asbestos was identified. UKAEA subsequently investigated the feasibility of remediating the landfill with the aim of removing any remaining radioactive or otherwise-contaminated material. The cost of landfill remediation would be considerable, making Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) an ideal tool for assessing remediation options. The overall conclusion of the CBA, from a remedial decision making point of view, is that the remediation objective for the landfill should be to reduce any impacts to the current receptors through a comprehensive pathway control scheme. This would be considerably less expensive than even a limited source removal approach. Aggressive source removal objectives are not likely to be economic, even under the most conservative assumptions. A natural monitored attenuation approach will not be economic. All remediation options are considered assuming compliance with the existing regulatory requirements to monitor and cap the landfill before and after closure

  6. Sanitary landfill energetic potential analysis: a real case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, Umberto; Di Maria, Francesco; Leonardi, Daniela; Proietti, Stefania

    2003-01-01

    Waste disposal represents an important problem in developed countries. Many different techniques are available to reduce the amount of waste production and its environmental impact. In most cases, sanitary landfills have been and continue to be one of the most common ways to dispose of urban and industrial wastes. It is well known how landfilling produces an important environmental drawback due to gaseous, liquid and solid emissions that are dangerous for the environment. Landfill biogas emissions contain mainly carbon dioxide and methane. In particular, the methane concentration can be higher than 50% by volume. This means that the calorific value of sanitary landfill biogas can be higher than 18,000 kJ/N m 3 . The utilization of such gas as fuel for electrical and thermal energy production can be an important way to reduce the landfill impact on the environment and represent an easy way to use a renewable energy source. In the following, the amount and composition of the biogas produced in a sanitary landfill situated in central Italy have been analysed. Experimental results have been discussed, and an energetic potential evaluation has been performed

  7. A finite element simulation of biological conversion processes in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, M; Ricken, T; Widmann, R

    2011-04-01

    Landfills are the most common way of waste disposal worldwide. Biological processes convert the organic material into an environmentally harmful landfill gas, which has an impact on the greenhouse effect. After the depositing of waste has been stopped, current conversion processes continue and emissions last for several decades and even up to 100years and longer. A good prediction of these processes is of high importance for landfill operators as well as for authorities, but suitable models for a realistic description of landfill processes are rather poor. In order to take the strong coupled conversion processes into account, a constitutive three-dimensional model based on the multiphase Theory of Porous Media (TPM) has been developed at the University of Duisburg-Essen. The theoretical formulations are implemented in the finite element code FEAP. With the presented calculation concept we are able to simulate the coupled processes that occur in an actual landfill. The model's theoretical background and the results of the simulations as well as the meantime successfully performed simulation of a real landfill body will be shown in the following. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A finite element simulation of biological conversion processes in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robeck, M.; Ricken, T.; Widmann, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfills are the most common way of waste disposal worldwide. Biological processes convert the organic material into an environmentally harmful landfill gas, which has an impact on the greenhouse effect. After the depositing of waste has been stopped, current conversion processes continue and emissions last for several decades and even up to 100 years and longer. A good prediction of these processes is of high importance for landfill operators as well as for authorities, but suitable models for a realistic description of landfill processes are rather poor. In order to take the strong coupled conversion processes into account, a constitutive three-dimensional model based on the multiphase Theory of Porous Media (TPM) has been developed at the University of Duisburg-Essen. The theoretical formulations are implemented in the finite element code FEAP. With the presented calculation concept we are able to simulate the coupled processes that occur in an actual landfill. The model's theoretical background and the results of the simulations as well as the meantime successfully performed simulation of a real landfill body will be shown in the following.

  9. Seismic analysis for translational failure of landfills with retaining walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Gao, Li-Ya

    2010-11-01

    In the seismic impact zone, seismic force can be a major triggering mechanism for translational failures of landfills. The scope of this paper is to develop a three-part wedge method for seismic analysis of translational failures of landfills with retaining walls. The approximate solution of the factor of safety can be calculated. Unlike previous conventional limit equilibrium methods, the new method is capable of revealing the effects of both the solid waste shear strength and the retaining wall on the translational failures of landfills during earthquake. Parameter studies of the developed method show that the factor of safety decreases with the increase of the seismic coefficient, while it increases quickly with the increase of the minimum friction angle beneath waste mass for various horizontal seismic coefficients. Increasing the minimum friction angle beneath the waste mass appears to be more effective than any other parameters for increasing the factor of safety under the considered condition. Thus, selecting liner materials with higher friction angle will considerably reduce the potential for translational failures of landfills during earthquake. The factor of safety gradually increases with the increase of the height of retaining wall for various horizontal seismic coefficients. A higher retaining wall is beneficial to the seismic stability of the landfill. Simply ignoring the retaining wall will lead to serious underestimation of the factor of safety. Besides, the approximate solution of the yield acceleration coefficient of the landfill is also presented based on the calculated method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sanitary landfill energetic potential analysis: a real case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desideri, Umberto E-mail: umberto.desideri@unipg.it; Di Maria, Francesco E-mail: fdm@unipg.it; Leonardi, Daniela; Proietti, Stefania

    2003-07-01

    Waste disposal represents an important problem in developed countries. Many different techniques are available to reduce the amount of waste production and its environmental impact. In most cases, sanitary landfills have been and continue to be one of the most common ways to dispose of urban and industrial wastes. It is well known how landfilling produces an important environmental drawback due to gaseous, liquid and solid emissions that are dangerous for the environment. Landfill biogas emissions contain mainly carbon dioxide and methane. In particular, the methane concentration can be higher than 50% by volume. This means that the calorific value of sanitary landfill biogas can be higher than 18,000 kJ/N m{sup 3}. The utilization of such gas as fuel for electrical and thermal energy production can be an important way to reduce the landfill impact on the environment and represent an easy way to use a renewable energy source. In the following, the amount and composition of the biogas produced in a sanitary landfill situated in central Italy have been analysed. Experimental results have been discussed, and an energetic potential evaluation has been performed.

  11. Cost benefit analysis for remediation of a nuclear industry landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Tom; Hardisty, Paul [WorleyParsons Komex, Bristol (United Kingdom); Dennis, Frank; Liddiard, Mark; McClelland, Paul [UKAEA, Dounreay (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    An old landfill site, licensed to receive inert construction waste, is situated on the top of hard rock cliffs adjacent to the sea at the Dounreay nuclear facility in Scotland. During restoration and investigation work at the landfill, radioactively contaminated material and asbestos was identified. UKAEA subsequently investigated the feasibility of remediating the landfill with the aim of removing any remaining radioactive or otherwise-contaminated material. The cost of landfill remediation would be considerable, making Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) an ideal tool for assessing remediation options. The overall conclusion of the CBA, from a remedial decision making point of view, is that the remediation objective for the landfill should be to reduce any impacts to the current receptors through a comprehensive pathway control scheme. This would be considerably less expensive than even a limited source removal approach. Aggressive source removal objectives are not likely to be economic, even under the most conservative assumptions. A natural monitored attenuation approach will not be economic. All remediation options are considered assuming compliance with the existing regulatory requirements to monitor and cap the landfill before and after closure.

  12. Remedial design of the Fultz Landfill Site, Byesville, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, V.; Riesing, R.; Bloom, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Fultz Landfill Superfund (Fultz) site is a 30-acre hazardous waste landfill located near Byesville, Ohio. The site is approximately 75 miles east of Columbus and 3 miles southwest of Cambridge, the largest city in Guernsey County, Ohio. The landfill is situated on the north slope of a ridge that overlies abandoned coal mines in the Upper Freeport Coal seam. The north half of the landfill lies in an unreclaimed strip mine in the Upper Freeport Coal seam, where saturated portions of surface mine spoils and natural soils form the ''shallow aquifer''. The south half of the landfill lies 40 to 50 feet (ft.) above an abandoned, flooded deep mine in the same coal seam. The flooded deep mine forms an aquifer referred to as the ''coal mine aquifer''. This paper presents the results of design studies completed by PRC Environmental Management, Inc. (PRC), during 1993, and the remedial design (RD) of the components specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision (ROD) for the Fultz site (EPA 1991). The remedy specified in the ROD includes a multilayer landfill cap that is compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C guidelines, a leachate collection and groundwater extraction and treatment system, and stabilizing mine voids underlying the southern portion of the site. Vinyl chloride is the only contaminant exceeding a maximum contaminant limit (MCL) in the coal mine aquifer

  13. Reutilization of industrial sedimentation plants as a domestic landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehweg, M.; Duetsch, M.; Wagner, J.; Edelmann, F.

    1995-01-01

    The methods and the investigation results for evaluation of the risk potential emanating from the mixed waste landfill Steinsee in Johanngeorgenstadt are described for the protected commodities of water, soil and air. The peculiarity of this mixed waste landfill is its layered structure (17th to 19th century near-surface mineworkings, granite weathering zone at the base of the landfill, washed-in tailings, and refuse dump). A network of measuring points has been installed in and around the landfill, and selective investigations have been made to ascertain the risk potential from the landfill. Based on the investigation results, it can be estimated that the continued use of the landfill is justifiable from the geological, hydrogeological and hydrological viewpoints, provided that permanent and continuous control is ensured by a monitoring system and that the overall situation can be improved in the short term by suitable technical measures. The waste being deposited now consists of domestic refuse, bulky refuse, sewage sludge, building rubble, excavated earth, broken up road surfacing, waste containing asbestos, industrial waste and power station ash

  14. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling technologies by means of LCA-modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    By using life cycle assessment (LCA) modeling, this paper compares the environmental performance of six landfilling technologies (open dump, conventional landfill with flares, conventional landfill with energy recovery, standard bioreactor landfill, flushing bioreactor landfill and semi......-aerobic landfill) and assesses the influence of the active operations practiced on these performances. The environmental assessments have been performed by means of the LCA-based tool EASEWASTE, whereby the functional unit utilized for the LCA is “landfilling of 1 ton of wet household waste in a 10 m deep landfill...... that it is crucially important to ensure the highest collection efficiency of landfill gas and leachate since a poor capture compromises the overall environmental performance. Once gas and leachate are collected and treated, the potential impacts in the standard environmental categories and on spoiled groundwater...

  15. Albany Interim Landfill gas extraction and mobile power system: Using landfill gas to produce electricity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Albany Interim Landfill Gas Extraction and Mobile Power System project served three research objectives: (1) determination of the general efficiency and radius of influence of horizontally placed landfill gas extraction conduits; (2) determination of cost and effectiveness of a hydrogen sulfide gas scrubber utilizing Enviro-Scrub{trademark} liquid reagent; and (3) construction and evaluation of a dual-fuel (landfill gas/diesel) 100 kW mobile power station. The horizontal gas extraction system was very successful; overall, gas recovery was high and the practical radius of influence of individual extractors was about 50 feet. The hydrogen sulfide scrubber was effective and its use appears feasible at typical hydrogen sulfide concentrations and gas flows. The dual-fuel mobile power station performed dependably and was able to deliver smooth power output under varying load and landfill gas fuel conditions.

  16. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Management of landfill leachate: The legacy of European Union Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Morrison, L; Hynes, S; Norton, D; Clifford, E

    2016-09-01

    Landfill leachate is the product of water that has percolated through waste deposits and contains various pollutants, which necessitate effective treatment before it can be released into the environment. In the last 30years, there have been significant changes in landfill management practices in response to European Union (EU) Directives, which have led to changes in leachate composition, volumes produced and treatability. In this study, historic landfill data, combined with leachate characterisation data, were used to determine the impacts of EU Directives on landfill leachate management, composition and treatability. Inhibitory compounds including ammonium (NH4-N), cyanide, chromium, nickel and zinc, were present in young leachate at levels that may inhibit ammonium oxidising bacteria, while arsenic, copper and silver were present in young and intermediate age leachate at concentrations above inhibitory thresholds. In addition, the results of this study show that while young landfills produce less than 50% of total leachate by volume in the Republic of Ireland, they account for 70% of total annual leachate chemical oxygen demand (COD) load and approximately 80% of total 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH4-N loads. These results show that there has been a decrease in the volume of leachate produced per tonne of waste landfilled since enactment of the Landfill Directive, with a trend towards increased leachate strength (particularly COD and BOD5) during the initial five years of landfill operation. These changes may be attributed to changes in landfill management practices following the implementation of the Landfill Directive. However, this study did not demonstrate the impact of decreasing inputs of biodegradable municipal waste on leachate composition. Increasingly stringent wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) emission limit values represent a significant threat to the sustainability of co-treatment of leachate with municipal wastewater. In addition

  18. Characterization of an old municipal landfill (Grindsted, Denmark) as a groundwater pollution source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Grundtvig, Aase; Winther, Pia

    1998-01-01

    Investigations into the pollution of groundwater from old landfill have, in most cases, focused on delineating the pollution plume rather than on the landfill as a source of groundwater pollution. Landfills often cover large areas and spatial variations in leachate composition within the landfill...... may have great impact on the location of the main pollution plume in the downstream aquifer. The history of the Grindsted Landfill in Denmark was investigated using aerial photographs and interviews. On the basis of the aerial photographs, waste volume and age of the different areas of the landfill...

  19. A practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wu; Xu, Wenjie; Bian, Xuecheng; Chen, Yunmin

    2017-11-01

    The settlement of any position of the municipal solid waste (MSW) body during the landfilling process and after its closure has effects on the integrity of the internal structure and storage capacity of the landfill. This paper proposes a practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process. The MSW body in the landfill was divided into independent column units, and the filling process of each column unit was determined by a simplified complete landfilling process. The settlement of a position in the landfill was calculated with the compression of each MSW layer in every column unit. Then, the simultaneous settlement of all the column units was integrated to obtain the settlement of the landfill and storage capacity of all the column units; this allowed to obtain the storage capacity of the landfill based on the layer-wise summation method. When the compression of each MSW layer was calculated, the effects of the fluctuation of the main leachate level and variation in the unit weight of the MSW on the overburdened effective stress were taken into consideration by introducing the main leachate level's proportion and the unit weight and buried depth curve. This approach is especially significant for MSW with a high kitchen waste content and landfills in developing countries. The stress-biodegradation compression model was used to calculate the compression of each MSW layer. A software program, Settlement and Storage Capacity Calculation System for Landfills, was developed by integrating the space and time discretization of the landfilling process and the settlement and storage capacity algorithms. The landfilling process of the phase IV of Shanghai Laogang Landfill was simulated using this software. The maximum geometric volume of the landfill error between the calculated and measured values is only 2.02%, and the accumulated filling weight error between the

  20. Gampong Jawa Landfill of Banda Aceh: a Case Study of Dumpsite Rehabilitation to a Sustainable Landfill

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzayanto; Yulian Gressando

    2013-01-01

    Gampong Jawa dumpsite was established in 1994 as part of Banda Aceh Municipality (BAM) efforts to participate in Adipura Award for the category of clean and green city. The 12 ha area was a dumpsite for most of wastes from BAM and Aceh Besar District. When earthquake/tsunami hit Banda Aceh in December 2004, it was completely destroyed and all the wastes were swept away. This paper is aimed to present the lessons of how a dumpsite is rehabilitated to a landfill. Some issues and ...

  1. Pathway analysis for a contaminated landfill in Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Merry-Libby, P.; Yang, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The Middlesex Municipal Landfill is located in Middlesex, New Jersey, about 29 km southwest of Newark, New Jersey. It is one of several properties in the Borrough of Middlesex and Township of Piscataway that have been identified as being radioactively contaminated as a result of work that was carried out on various uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores at the Middlesex Sampling Plant. Most of the contaminated properties have been cleaned up and the contaminated materials are being stored in a large interim storage pile at the sampling plant site. In 1948, during some renovations at the sampling plant, about 4,600 m/sup 3/ of excess soil contaminated with uranium ore was apparently transported and disposed in the landfill gully area next to Bound Brook. In 1961, the Atomic Energy Commission removed about 500 m/sup 3/ of near-surface radioactively contaminated material from the landfill and covered the area with 0.6 m of clean soil. From 1961 to 1974 (when the landfill was closed), an additional 2.4 to 3.0 m of fill material was placed in the landfill. Under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the U.S. Department of Energy began excavating contaminated materials from the landfill in 1984. A total of 16,000 m/sup 3/ of landfill materials covering a 0.2-ha area was excavated, of which 11,000 m/sup 3/ was contaminated and has been transported to the nearby sampling plant site for interim storage

  2. The Importance of Landfill Gas Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify and examine global policies, measures, and incentives that appear to be stimulating LFG use. As certain countries have made great advances in LFGE development through effective policies, the intention of this report is to use information from the IEA's Global Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Measures and Policies Databases to identify and discuss policies. By consolidating this information and categorising it according to policy type, the attributes that are most appealing or applicable to the circumstances of a particular country or area -- technology demonstration, financial incentives, awareness campaigns, etc. -- are more easily identified. The report begins with background information on LFG and sanitary landfill practices, including a discussion of regional disparities, followed by a description of LFG mitigation technologies. Barriers to LFGE projects are then outlined. An explanation of the importance and effectiveness of policy measures leads into a discussion of types and examples of measures that are being used to overcome these barriers and encourage LFGE development. The report concludes with lessons learned, recommendations for further study, and resources where more information can be found.

  3. Case study: adams mine landfill proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, L.

    2003-01-01

    I have been asked to comment on 'how to address social concerns' in my capacity as the project manager for the City of Toronto's Toronto Integrated Solid Waste Resource Management (TIRM) Process, which was initiated in 1997 and concluded in the Fall of 2000. Inherent in this request is the goal of learning from a non-nuclear procurement process in order to offer insights for those working in the field on the short- and long-term management of nuclear waste. In particular, I have been asked to comment on the learning experience from the proposed engagement of the Adams Mine Landfill that became the focus of an intense four-day debate before Toronto's City Council and was propelled into international news linked to Toronto's Olympic bid. I would like to extend my thanks to Natural Resources Canada for their support of my participation in the NEA Conference. The opinions in this paper are those of the author and not those of the City of Toronto. (author)

  4. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment.

  5. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment

  6. Quantification of methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills using the mobile tracer dispersion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mønster, Jacob [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej – Building 113, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Samuelsson, Jerker, E-mail: jerker.samuelsson@fluxsense.se [Chalmers University of Technology/FluxSense AB, SE-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Kjeldsen, Peter [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej – Building 113, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chas@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej – Building 113, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Quantification of whole landfill site methane emission at 15 landfills. • Multiple on-site source identification and quantification. • Quantified methane emission from shredder waste and composting. • Large difference between measured and reported methane emissions. - Abstract: Whole-site methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills were assessed using a mobile tracer dispersion method with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), using nitrous oxide as a tracer gas, or cavity ring-down spectrometry (CRDS), using acetylene as a tracer gas. The landfills were chosen to represent the different stages of the lifetime of a landfill, including open, active, and closed covered landfills, as well as those with and without gas extraction for utilisation or flaring. Measurements also included landfills with biocover for oxidizing any fugitive methane. Methane emission rates ranged from 2.6 to 60.8 kg h{sup −1}, corresponding to 0.7–13.2 g m{sup −2} d{sup −1}, with the largest emission rates per area coming from landfills with malfunctioning gas extraction systems installed, and the smallest emission rates from landfills closed decades ago and landfills with an engineered biocover installed. Landfills with gas collection and recovery systems had a recovery efficiency of 41–81%. Landfills where shredder waste was deposited showed significant methane emissions, with the largest emission from newly deposited shredder waste. The average methane emission from the landfills was 154 tons y{sup −1}. This average was obtained from a few measurement campaigns conducted at each of the 15 landfills and extrapolating to annual emissions requires more measurements. Assuming that these landfills are representative of the average Danish landfill, the total emission from Danish landfills were calculated at 20,600 tons y{sup −1}, which is significantly lower than the 33,300 tons y{sup −1} estimated for the national greenhouse gas inventory for

  7. The new Waste Law: Challenging opportunity for future landfill operation in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidiana, Christia; Gamse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Waste Law No. 18/2008 Article 22 and 44 require the local governments to run environmentally sound landfill. Due to the widespread poor quality of waste management in Indonesia, this study aimed to identify the current situation by evaluating three selected landfills based on the ideal conditions of landfill practices, which are used to appraise the capability of local governments to adapt to the law. The results indicated that the local governments have problems of insufficient budget, inadequate equipment, uncollected waste and unplanned future landfill locations. All of the selected landfills were partially controlled landfills with open dumping practices predominating. In such inferior conditions the implementation of sanitary landfill is not necessarily appropriate. The controlled landfill is a more appropriate solution as it offers lower investment and operational costs, makes the selection of a new landfill site unnecessary and can operate with a minimum standard of infrastructure and equipment. The sustainability of future landfill capacity can be maintained by utilizing the old landfill as a profit-oriented landfill by implementing a landfill gas management or a clean development mechanism project. A collection fee system using the pay-as-you-throw principle could increase the waste income thereby financing municipal solid waste management.

  8. Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, a corporate vision on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)1 was approved by the OVAM Board of directors, which resulted in an operational programme over the period 2011-2015. OVAM (Public Waste Agency of Flanders) is the competent authority in charge of waste, Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) and contaminated soil management in Flanders. The introduction of the ELFM concept needs to be related with the concept of SMM and the broader shift to a circular economy. Within the concept of ELFM, landfills are no longer considered to be a final and static situation, but a dynamic part of the materials cycle. The main goal of this research programme is to develop a comprehensive policy on resource management to deal with the issue of former landfills. In order to investigate the opportunities of ELFM, the OVAM is applying a three step approach including mapping, surveying and mining of these former landfills. As a result of the mapping part over 2,000 landfill sites, that will need to be dealt with, were revealed. The valorisation potential of ELFM could be assigned to different goals, according to the R³P-concept : Recycling of Materials, Recovery of Energy, Reclamation of Land and Protection of drinking water supply. . On behalf of the OVAM, ECOREM was assigned to follow-up a pilot case executed on a former landfill, located in Zuienkerke, Flanders. Within this case study some technical tests were carried out on the excavated waste material to investigate the possibilities for a waste to resource conversion. The performance of both on site and off site techniques were evaluated. These testings also contribute to the mapping part of OVAM's research programme on ELFM and reveal more information on the composition of former landfills dating from different era's. In order to recover as many materials as possible, five contractors were assigned to perform separation tests on the bulk material from the Zuienkerke landfill. All used techniques were described

  9. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna; Stensøe, Steen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3-4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production of electricity and heat. The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to -0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE). For the toxic and spoiled groundwater impact categories the trend is not as clear. The reason for this was that the load to the environment shifted as more technologies were used. For the dump landfill the main impacts were impacts for spoiled groundwater due to lack of leachate collection, 2.3 PE down to 0.4 PE when leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007 E to 0

  10. Research of Sustainable Use of Tire Shreds in Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Bazienė

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies are on-going to establish the suitability of tire shreds in the landfill bottom drainage layer, to minimize clogging. Four experimental columns were constructed in which were 500 mm long and 200 mm in diameter. They were filled with different fillers and with a different amount of tire shreds. The most important problem with drainage filler in landfills is clogging. Over long periods of time in landfill operation, the drainage layer clogs (the pores of the layer become smaller and the porosity of the layer becomes smaller. The experiment was carried out for 365 days. Although the landfill for this period represents only one-fiftieth or less of the operation time, the laboratory tests found that the drainage layer bandwidth of reduction in one year can have a negative impact in the long run over time. The main elements that influence the decrease of conductivity are the total suspended solids and calcium and iron compounds. The change of these compounds was observed during the column study, where the concentration of each month in all the columns was decreasing. The results showed that the waste of rubber (tire shreds used for creating fillers in columns provided greater porosity of the layer. It is a beneficial reason to use a rubble and tire shreds waste mix for forming the drainage layer in landfills.

  11. Endogenous mitigation of H2S inside of the landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Zhong, Zhong; Shen, Dongsheng; Du, Yao; Xu, Jing; Long, Yuyang

    2016-02-01

    Vast quantities of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emitted from landfill sites require urgent disposal. The current study focused on source control and examined the migration and conversion behavior of sulfur compounds in two lab-scale simulated landfills with different operation modes. It aimed to explore the possible strategies and mechanisms for H2S endogenous mitigation inside of landfills during decomposition. It was found that the strength of H2S emissions from the landfill sites was dependent on the municipal solid waste (MSW) degradation speed and vertical distribution of sulfide. Leachate recirculation can shorten both the H2S influence period and pollution risk to the surrounding environment. H2S endogenous mitigation may be achieved by chemical oxidation, biological oxidation, adsorption, and/or precipitation in different stages. Migration and conversion mainly affected H2S release behavior during the initial stabilization phase in the landfill. Microbial activities related to sulfur, nitrogen, and iron can further promote H2S endogenous mitigation during the high reducing phase. Thus, H2S endogenous mitigation can be effectively enhanced via control of the aforementioned processes.

  12. Groundwater impact studies at three Ontario Hydro coal ash landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, H.M.; Vorauer, A.G.; Chan, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has produced on the order of 21 million Mg of coal fly ash over the past 40 years, of which, 80% has gone to various landfill sites in the province of Ontario. Hydrogeologic investigations have been performed in the vicinity of three Ontario Hydro coal ash landfill sites to assess the environmental impact of fly ash landfilling on the local groundwater regime. Two of the waste management facilities are associated with thermal generating stations (Lambton TGS and Nanticoke TGS) and are founded on relatively impermeable clay deposits. The third site, Birchwood Park, is a former sand and gravel pit for which the landfill design did not incorporate the use of a liner material. The rates of groundwater flow through the overburden materials a the three sites vary from less than 1 cm/a at the Lambton TGS site, to between 3.45 cm/a and 115 cm/a at contaminant transport at these sites also varies from being controlled by molecular diffusion to advection. This paper discusses the migration rates of contaminants from fly ash leachate at each of the three sites with implications to landfill containment and design

  13. Estimation of landfill emission lifespan using process oriented modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustohalova, Veronika; Ricken, Tim; Widmann, Renatus

    2006-01-01

    Depending on the particular pollutants emitted, landfills may require service activities lasting from hundreds to thousands of years. Flexible tools allowing long-term predictions of emissions are of key importance to determine the nature and expected duration of maintenance and post-closure activities. A highly capable option represents predictions based on models and verified by experiments that are fast, flexible and allow for the comparison of various possible operation scenarios in order to find the most appropriate one. The intention of the presented work was to develop a experimentally verified multi-dimensional predictive model capable of quantifying and estimating processes taking place in landfill sites where coupled process description allows precise time and space resolution. This constitutive 2-dimensional model is based on the macromechanical theory of porous media (TPM) for a saturated thermo-elastic porous body. The model was used to simulate simultaneously occurring processes: organic phase transition, gas emissions, heat transport, and settlement behavior on a long time scale for municipal solid waste deposited in a landfill. The relationships between the properties (composition, pore structure) of a landfill and the conversion and multi-phase transport phenomena inside it were experimentally determined. In this paper, we present both the theoretical background of the model and the results of the simulations at one single point as well as in a vertical landfill cross section

  14. Occurrence and Distribution of Pharmaceutical Organic Compounds in the Groundwater Downgradient of a Landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, John V.; Rügge, Kirsten; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1995-01-01

    Usually landfill leachates contain specific organic compounds as BTEXs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and chlorobenzenes originating from household chemicals and waste from small businesses (I). However, where industrial waste has been landfilled...

  15. Assessment of the Spatial Variability in Leachate Migration from an Old Landfill Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Winther, Pia

    1995-01-01

    Investigations of the pollution of groundwater from old landfills have in most cases focused on delineating the pollution plume and only in very few cases on the landfill as a source to groundwater pollution. Landfills often cover large areas. Spatial variations in leachate composition may have...... great impact on the location of the main pollution plume in the downstream aquifer. Grindsted landfill in Denmark was investigated by sampling leachate beneath the landfill and in groundwater at the borders of the landfill. A pronounced variability in leachate quality and leakage patterns from...... the landfill was observed. Also variations in local groundwater flow directions were found. These observations are very important for delineation of the groundwater pollution and for proper choice of remedial action activities, related both to the plume and to the landfill....

  16. Use of portable in motion weight control technologies at landfill sites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fisher, D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Requirements for landfilling. In-motion weighing technology currently available in South Africa was investigated to assess its suitability as a 'portable landfill weighbridge'. The experience gained through testing the portable weighpad technology has indicated...

  17. Technology Overview Using Case Studies of Alternative Landfill Technologies and Associated Regulatory Topics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ... alternative landfill cover projects. The purpose of the case studies is to present examples of the flexibility used in the regulatory framework for approving alternative landfill cover designs, current research information about the use...

  18. Various Stagings of Cankar’s Works at the Slovenian National Theater in Ljubljana and Other Slovenian Theaters in the Interwar Period (1918–1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kocjančič

    2007-12-01

    were the creations by the director Ferdo Delak at the Ljubljana Workers’ Theater and the works by Fran Žižek at the District Theater in Ptuj.

  19. Microbial methane oxidation processes and technologies for mitigation of landfill gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bogner, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Landfill gas containing methane is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic waste. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and landfills are one of the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric methane. Landfill methane may be oxidized by methanotrophic microorganisms in soils or waste materials...... to predict methane emissions from landfills. Additional research and technology development is needed before methane mitigation technologies utilizing microbial methane oxidation processes can become commercially viable and widely deployed....

  20. The concept of “Loop Cycle” in landfill management (Case study at Piyungan landfill, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnama Putra Hijrah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of waste continues to increase from year to year, one of which is due to the population increase. With the target of 100% service level by 2020, Indonesia must prepare the land that will be used as a landfill location in order to accommodate the waste that continues to be produced. Apparently, the problem is not only limited to the provision of land, but operational challenges become more severe. One of its is experienced by Piyungan Landfill, Bantul, Yogyakarta which has been designed to expire by 2015. The government of Yogyakarta is optimizing for landfill can still operate until 2018. One solution that can be given in operation for the loop cycle or closed cycle concepts is landfill mining method, which is utilizing degraded waste into other designations so that the land can still be used to accommodate other waste. Sampling and analysis results show that the waste contained in 1st zone Piyungan landfill aged 15-20 years, with the highest composition is soil (59% dominate other types of waste. The soil obtained has the potential to be utilized as cover soil and compost, but for compost is necessary to further study the modification of the design of the zoning zone, so that the waste not too long is in the soil so that the nutrient content is still high.

  1. Characteristics of Leachate at Sukawinatan Landfill, Palembang, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusmartini, Eka Sri; Setiabudidaya, Dedi; Ridwan; Marsi; Faizal

    2013-01-01

    Landfill (TPA) Sukawinatan Palembang is an open dumping system which covers an area of 25 hectares. This system may bring an environmental damage to the surrounding area because it does not provide leachate treatment. Leachate is the landfill waste that dissolves many compounds that contain pollutants from both organic substances and heavy metal origin. This paper presents the results of laboratory analysis on samples of leachate as well as shallow groundwater from the surrounding area. The results were compared to established quality standards to evaluate whether the leachate has influenced the quality of the shallow groundwater in the surrounding area. The results show that there are some indications that the quality of groundwater has been polluted by the leachate of both organic substances and heavy metals produced by the Sukawinatan landfill.

  2. An overview of the mixed waste landfill integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prior to May 1992, field demonstrations of characterization technologies were performed at an uncontaminated site near the Chemical Waste Landfill. In mid-1992 through summer 1993, both non-intrusive and intrusive characterization techniques were demonstrated at the Chemical Waste Landfill. Subsurface and dry barrier demonstrations were started in summer 1993 and will continue into 1995. Future plans include demonstrations of innovative drilling, characterization and long-term monitoring, and remediation techniques. Demonstrations were also scheduled in summer 1993 at the Kirtland Air Force HSWA site and will continue in 1994. The first phase of the Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) project occurred in April 1992 when two holes were drilled and vapor extraction wells were installed at the Chemical Waste Landfill. Obtaining the engineering design and environmental permits necessary to implement this field demonstration will take until early 1994. Field demonstration of the vapor extraction system will occur in 1994

  3. Comparison on the forecast model of landfill surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaozhi; Sang Shuxun; Cao Liwen; Ji Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    Using four large-scale simulated landfill equipments, indoor parallel simulation landfill experiment was carried out. By monitoring the cumulative settlement of MSW, comparable researches indicate the actual effects of 'empirical model' and 'biodegradation model' on landfill surface settlement forecast, and the optimization measures are proposed on the basis of model defects analysis. Research leaded to following results: To the short-term prediction of MSW settlement, two types of models all have satisfactory predictive validity. When performing medium and long-term prediction, 'empirical model' predicted a significant deviation from the actual, and the forecasting error of 'biodegradation model' is also gradually enlarge with the extending forecast period. For optimizing these two types of model, long-term surface settlement monitoring is fundamental method, and constantly modify the model parameters is the key according to the dynamic monitoring data. (authors)

  4. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.S.; Hartman, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL), which received nonradioactive hazardous waste between 1975 and 1985, is located in the central Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) in southeastern Washington State. The Solid Waste Landfill, which is regulated and monitored separately, is adjacent to the NRDWL. The NRDWL is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and monitored by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Monitoring is done under interim-status, indicator-evaluation requirements (WAC 173-303 and by reference, 40 CFR 265.92). The well network includes three upgradient wells (one shared with the Solid Waste Landfill) and six downgradient wells. The wells are sampled semiannually for contaminant indicator parameters and site-specific parameters and annually for groundwater quality parameters

  5. Landfill Leachate Treatment by Electrocoagulation and Fiber Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runwei; Wang, Boya; Owete, Owete; Dertien, Joe; Lin, Chen; Ahmad, Hafiz; Chen, Gang

    2017-11-01

    Landfilling is widely adopted as one of the most economical processes for solid waste disposal. At the same time, landfill leachate is also a great environmental concern owing to its complex composition and high concentrations of contaminants. This research investigated electrocoagulation and fiber filtration for the treatment of landfill leachate. Besides electrical current (i.e., current density) and reaction time, pH played a very important role in arsenic and phosphorus removal by electrocoagulation. The combination of electrocoagulation with fiber filtration achieved a 94% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 87% arsenic, 96% iron, and 86% phosphorus removal. During electrocoagulation, the micro-particles that could not be settled by gravity were removed by the first stage of fiber filtration. Organic contaminants in the leachate were further removed by biodegradation in the second stage of fiber biofiltration.

  6. Power from waste. [Power plant at landfill site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1991-01-01

    Base Load Systems Ltd, a company in the United Kingdom, has just commissioned a power plant in Leicestershire which uses waste gases from a landfill site. The gases power two specially modified turbo charged engine and generator packages. The plant will use approximately 100 cu meters of landfill gas per hour and is expected to feed 1.5MW of electrical power into the supply network of East Midlands Electricity. Once the landfill site has been completely filled and capped with clay, it is estimated that the electrical power output will be 4 MW. At present, since their are no customers for heat in the vicinity, 100 KW of the electricity produced are used to run fans to dissipate the 2.5 MW of waste heat. Base load is also involved elsewhere in combined heat and power projects. (UK).

  7. Pathway analysis for a contaminated landfill in Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Merry-Libby, P.; Yang, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the US Department of Energy began excavating contaminated materials from the Middlesex Municipal landfill in 1984. A total of 16,000 m 3 of landfill materials covering a 0.2-ha area was excavated, of which 11,000 m 3 was contaminated and has been transported to the nearby sampling plant site for interim storage. Based on the pathway analysis for the onsite and near-site resident scenarios, the radiation dose rates and radionuclide concentrations in groundwater would be below the regulatory requirements for both the short-term and long-term scenarios. Hence, the potential health risks to maximally exposed individuals due to radioactive releases from the Middlesex landfill would be insignificant

  8. Energy from Landfill Gas as an Example of Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuła, Józef; Gaska, Krzysztof; Generowicz, Agnieszka; Hajduga, Gabriela

    2018-02-01

    Landfill biogas becomes an important factor in elimination of fossil fuels as a result of fast- growing use of renewable energy sources. The article presents an analysis of operation of the plant where landfill biogas was utilized for energy production. The average annually (gross) productions of electric energy and heat at the plant were 1217 MWh and 1,789 MW, respectively. The average calorific value of biogas was 17 MJ/m3, which corresponds to 4,8 kW/m3. According to the measurements and actual readings acquired during operation of a cogeneration unit, it can be stated that the CHP system has been working within its average operation limits and still has some power reserves to utilize. Therefore, the authors concluded that a landfill can be operated both as a producer and a supplier of prosumer energy.

  9. 76 FR 9772 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... Region IX is proposing to approve a modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF... final rule amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for RD&D...

  10. 78 FR 5350 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...] Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA issued final... solid waste landfills by approved states. On December 7, 2012 Massachusetts submitted an application to...

  11. 77 FR 65875 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to allow the State to issue... amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for Research, Development...

  12. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Janus T; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H

    2007-01-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion.

  13. Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recove...

  14. Case study: I-95 Landfill gas recovery project Fairfax County, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuigan, M.J.; Peterson, E.R.; Smithberger, J.M.; Owen, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the landfill gas (LFG) recovery project at the I-95 Landfill in Fairfax County, Virginia. The project originally was conceived more than 10 years ago and has overcome numerous obstacles enroute to its present success. The efforts of the landfill owner (Fairfax County) and the project developer (Michigan Cogeneration Systems, Inc.) to surmount these obstacles are presented

  15. A seismic processing approach dedicated to quantitative characterization of landfill heterogeneities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.; Ghose, R.; Draganov, D.S.; Diaferia, G.; Heimovaara, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to image and quantify the heterogeneity in municipal landfills is crucial for improving the landfill treatment methods, for predicting the behaviour of processes that take place inside the landfills and hence, for estimating the after-care period. Our aim is to image the flow paths

  16. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... landfill emissions. 62.14353 Section 62.14353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a design...

  17. 78 FR 20073 - Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ...] Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA issued final regulations... waste landfills by approved states. On June 14, 2012, Oregon submitted an application to EPA Region 10...

  18. Characterization of a heterogeneous landfill using seismic and electrical resistivity data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.; Ghose, R.; Draganov, D.S.; Diaferia, G.; Heimovaara, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the processes occurring inside a landfill is important for improving the treatment of landfills. Irrigation and recirculation of leachate are widely used in landfill treatments. Increasing the efficiency of such treatments requires a detailed understanding of the flow inside the

  19. 75 FR 53220 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...] Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... approved municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) program. The approved modification allows the State to..., and demonstration (RD&D) permits to be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved...

  20. Wet and gassy zones in a municipal landfill from P- and S-wave velocity fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.; Ghose, R.; Draganov, D.S.; Heimovaara, T.J.

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the distribution of leachate and gas in a municipal landfill is of vital importance to the landfill operators performing improved landfill treatments and for environmental protection and efficient biogas extraction. We have explored the potential of using the velocity fields of

  1. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkeby, Janus T.; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion

  2. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of MSW...

  3. 76 FR 270 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ...] Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The approved modification allows the State..., EPA issued a final rule (69 FR 13242) amending the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) criteria in...

  4. 76 FR 6153 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Regional Landfill Project on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... for the Proposed Campo Regional Landfill Project on the Campo Indian Reservation, San Diego County, CA... proposed Campo Regional Landfill Project (Proposed Action) to be located on the Campo Indian Reservation... Landfill Project (Proposed Action). There is no Federal action of amended lease and amended sublease...

  5. Hydrochemical Characterization of a Tropical, Coastal Aquifer Affected by Landfill Leachate and Seawater Intrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangimbulude, Jubhar C.; Goeltom, Mangihot T.; van Breukelen, B.M.; van Straalen, NM; Roling, WFM

    2016-01-01

    The hydrochemistry of landfill leachate and groundwater is affected by not only waste degradation processes, but also by external factors such as the geography of the landfilling site. Knowledge on the fate of landfill leachate in tropical countries will be beneficial for monitoring and regulatory

  6. 75 FR 53268 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...] Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA issued final... solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 28, 2010 New Hampshire submitted an application to EPA...

  7. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make the...

  8. The Department of Energy's involvement with power generation from landfill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, G.G.; Aitchison, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of the UK Dept. of Energy's involvement with landfill gas since the early days of landfill gas exploitation to the present. Topics covered include resource assessment, abstraction and management technology, and emissions and environmental studies. The future programme is also outlined and the current status of the Non-Fossil Fuels obligation in landfill gas is described. (UK)

  9. Effects of landfill gas on subtropical woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, G. Y. S.; Wong, M. H.; Whitton, B. A.

    1991-05-01

    An account is given of the influence of landfill gas on tree growth in the field at Gin Drinkers' Bay (GDB) landfill, Hong Kong, and in the laboratory. Ten species ( Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, Litsea glutinosa, Machilus breviflora, Pinus elliottii, and Tristania conferta), belonging to eight families, were transplanted to two sites, one with a high concentration of landfill gas in the cover soil (high-gas site, HGS) and the other with a relatively low concentration of gas (low-gas site, LGS). Apart from the gaseous composition, the general soil properties were similar. A strong negative correlation between tree growth and landfill gas concentration was observed. A laboratory study using the simulated landfill gas to fumigate seedlings of the above species showed that the adventitious root growth of Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Machilus breviflora, and Tristania confera was stimulated by the gas, with shallow root systems being induced. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Litsea glutinosa were gas-tolerant, while root growth of Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, and Pinus elliottii was inhibited. In most cases, shoot growth was not affected, exceptions being Bombax malabaricum, Liquidambar formosana, and Tristania conferta, where stunted growth and/or reduced foliation was observed. A very high CO2 concentration in cover soil limits the depth of the root system. Trees with a shallow root system become very susceptible to water stress. The effects of low O2 concentration in soil are less important than the effects of high CO2 concentration. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Tristania conferta are suited for growth on subtropical completed landfills mainly due to their gas tolerance and/or drought tolerance.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, L.D.; Phelan, J.M.; Prindle, N.K.; Purvis, S.T.; Stormont, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. The mission of the MWLID is to assess, implement and transfer technologies and systems that lead to quicker, safer, and more efficient remediation of buried chemical and mixed-waste sites. The MWLID focus is on two landfills at SNL in Albuquerque, New Mexico: The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the Mixed-Waste Landfill (MWL). These landfills received chemical, radioactive and mixed wastes from various SNL nuclear research programs. A characterization system has been designed for the definition of the extent and concentration of contamination. This system includes historical records, directional drilling, and emplacement membrane, sensors, geophysics, sampling strategy, and on site sample analysis. In the remediation task, in-situ remediation systems are being designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and heavy metals from soils. The VOC remediation includes vacuum extraction with electrical and radio-frequency heating. For heavy metal contamination, electrokinetic processes are being considered. The MWLID utilizes a phased, parallel approach. Initial testing is performed at an uncontaminated site adjacent to the CWL. Once characterization is underway at the CWL, lessons learned can be directly transferred to the more challenging problem of radioactive waste in the MWL. The MWL characterization can proceed in parallel with the remediation work at CWL. The technologies and systems demonstrated in the MWLID are to be evaluated based on their performance and cost in the real remediation environment of the landfills

  11. Design document for landfill capping Prototype Decision Support System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.J.; Paige, G.; Hakonson, T.E.; Lane, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of the Prototype Decision Support System for shallow land burial project is to ''Develop a Decision Support System tool which incorporates simulation modeling and multi-objective decision theory for the purpose of designing and evaluating alternative trench cap designs for mixed waste landfill covers. The goal is to improve the quality of technical information used by the risk manager to select landfill cover designs while taking into account technological, economical, and regulatory factors.'' The complexity of the technical and non-technical information, and how the information varies in importance across sites, points to the need for decision analysis tools that provide a common basis for integrating, synthesizing, and valuing the decision input. Because the cost of remediating thousands of contaminated DOE sites is projected to be in the 10's--100's of billions of dollars, methods will be needed to establish cleanup priorities and to help in the selection and evaluation of cost effective remediation alternatives. Even at this early stage in DOE's cleanup program, it is certain that capping technologies will be heavily relied upon to remediate the 3000+ landfills on DOE property. Capping is favored in remediating most DOE landfills because, based on preliminary baseline risk assessments, human and ecological risks are considered to be low at most of these sites and the regulatory requirements for final closure of old landfills can be met using a well designed cap to isolate the buried waste. This report describes a program plan to design, develop, and test a decision support system (DSS) for assisting the DOE risk manager in evaluating capping alternatives for radioactive and hazardous waste landfills. The DOE DSS will incorporate methods for calculating, integrating and valuing technical, regulatory, and economic criteria

  12. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  13. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  14. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  15. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria

  17. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria

  18. Auto generation plant of Artigas landfill (Bilbao, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, N.; Dorronsoro, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The disposition of MSW in the landfill generates a mixture of gases or b iogas , its primary content is methane (50-60%) which has a very important energetic value, that can be very useful. In this sense, the present work point out the characteristics of the auto generation electrical plant of Artigas landfill, just like the results of the analytical study of the past two years. In this project which was partly funded by the UE, have participated Excmo. Ayuntamiento de Bilbao, EVE and CIEMAT. (Author) 6 refs

  19. The electric energy potential of landfill biogas in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mambeli Barros, Regina; Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lúcio; Silva, Tiago Rodrigo da

    2014-01-01

    The increases in a country's energy capacity are related to its gross domestic product (GDP). In Brazil, increases in income and the consumption of goods and services have led to an increase in the generation of solid waste (SW), which is sent to landfills as a method of treatment and final disposal. The purpose of this study was to facilitate an increase in energy generation from renewable resources, specifically from landfills via thermal biogas plants, and the research was divided into two phases. The first phase involved the assessment of the potential population size contributing to the landfill, which could result in the installation of a financially viable enterprise to generate electricity in Brazil. Next, an estimate of the costs associated with the generation and collection of solid waste in Brazil was predicted by GDP prognoses, the latter being in accordance with the National Energy Balance (Balanço Energético Nacional – BEN) plan created by the Mines and Energy Ministry of Brazil (Ministério de Minas e Energia do Brasil – MME). The net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) of each enterprise scenario was used in the first stage to assess the plan's financial viability. In the second stage, estimation curves such as logistics, decreasing rate of growth, and logarithmic curves were used to establish relationships between the generation scenarios and the projected collection of SW and projected GDP. Thus, a range of possible landfill biogas/methane generation values and installed energy capacities were created, considering the extreme maximum and minimum values. These values were related to the energy sources from residual fuels reported by BEN. The results demonstrated that such values still represented a small percentage (0.00020% in 2010 and 0.44496–0.81042% in 2030) of the projected energy generation from residual fuels. Thus, an urgent need was identified to formulate policies that would encourage landfills as a

  20. Chemical behavior of phthalates under abiotic conditions in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip N; Li, Yi; Appiah-Sefah, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The phthalates comprise a family of phthalic acid esters that are used primarily as plasticizers in polymeric materials to impart flexibility during the manufacturing process and to the end product. It is estimated that the annual worldwide production of phthalate esters exceeds five million tons. Plasticizers are one of the most prominent classes of chemicals, but unfortunately, they possess endocrine-disrupting chemical properties. As endocrine-disrupting chemicals, plasticizers have produced adverse developmental and reproductive effects in mammalian animal models.Phthalates are easily transported into the environment during manufacture, disposal,and leaching from plastic materials, because they are not covalently bound to the plastics of which they are a component. Because of their fugitive nature and widespread use, the phthalates are commonly detected in air, water, sediment/soil, and biota, including human tissue. Large amounts of phthalic acid esters are often leached from the plastics that are dumped at municipal landfills.Phthalate esters undergo chemical changes when released into the environment.The primary processes by which they are transformed include hydrolysis, photolysis,and biodegradation. It is noteworthy that all of these degradation processes are greatly influenced by the local physical and chemical conditions. Hence, in the present review, we have sought to ascertain from the literature how the phthalate esters undergo transformation when they are released into lower landfill layers.Within the upper landfill layers, biodegradation prevails as the major degradation mechanism by which the phthalates are dissipated. Generally, biodegradation pathways for the phthalates consist of primary biodegradation from phthalate diesters to phthalate monoesters, then to phthalic acid, and ultimately biodegradation of phthalic acid to form C02 and/or CH4• We have noted that the phthalate esters are also degraded through abiotic means,which proceeds via

  1. Study on the Environmental Tritium in Surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah - Bandung Landfill Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satrio; Syafalni; Evarista Ristin

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of environmental tritium distribution in surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah landfill areas has been carried out. The aim of this investigation was to know tritium concentration in surrounding of both landfill areas. Normally, tritium concentration in the nature is around 0-5 TU. The results of this investigation showed that the tritium concentration in both shallow groundwater of both landfill areas were still in the range of its normal limit, whereas tritium concentration in stream along both landfill areas and leached water showed higher value. Tritium concentration in deep groundwater of Bantar Gebang landfill showed about the zero value, it means is the normal condition. (author)

  2. Modelling biogas production of solid waste: application of the BGP model to a synthetic landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Production of biogas as a result of the decomposition of organic matter included on solid waste landfills is still an issue to be understood. Reports on this matter are rarely included on the engineering construction projects of solid waste landfills despite it can be an issue of critical importance while operating the landfill and after its closure. This paper presents an application of BGP (Bio-Gas-Production) model to a synthetic landfill. The evolution in time of the concentrations of the different chemical compounds of biogas is studied. Results obtained show the impact on the air quality of different management alternatives which are usually performed in real landfills.

  3. Landfill leachate effects on sorption of organic micropollutants onto aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Pfeffer, Fred M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of dissolved organic carbon as present in landfill leachate, on the sorption of organic micropollutants in aquifer materials was studied by laboratory batch and column experiments involving 15 non-polar organic chemicals, 5 landfill leachates and 4 aquifer materials of low organic carbon......, the effect of landfill leachate on retardation of organic micropollutants in aquifer material seems limited....... content. The experiments showed that hydrophobic organic micropollutants do partition into dissolved organic carbon found in landfill leachate potentially increasing their mobility. However, landfill leachate interacted with aquifer materials apparently increases the sorbent affinity for the hydrophobic...

  4. Landfill methane emission mitigation – How to construct and document a full‐scale biocover system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Landfills receiving organic wastes produce biogas (landfill gas – LFG) containing methane (CH4). Landfills are significant sources of methane, which contributes to climate change. As an alternative to gas utilization systems or as a follow‐on technology when a gas utilization system gets non...... rate can be obtained in soils, compost and other materials, high enough to significant reduce the methane emission from landfills. The process has been scaled up by DTU Environment to a full‐scale implemented technology at two Danish landfills. Now the Danish government has decided to establish bio...

  5. Pilot investigations of surface parts of three closed landfills and factors affecting them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jouko

    2003-05-01

    Aftercare of closed sanitary landfills in a major environmental problem. Rehabilitation of the landfill with vegetation and reducing leachate production are two issues that must be dealt. For this reason, Finnish Environment Institute has conducted several projects on closed landfills. This research aims at determining the physical and chemical properties of the soils at three closed landfills in Helsinki, Finland. Research was conducted to understand the impact by studying the following properties: Chemical, nutrient metal, gamma and radon analysis of surface soils of three closed landfills in Helsinki area.

  6. Toxicity of organic chemical pollution in groundwater downgradient of a landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Jensen, S. D.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the occurrence and distribution of toxicity related to organic chemical contaminants in the leachate plume downgradient of the Grindsted Landfill (Denmark). A total of 27 groundwater samples were preconcentrated by solidphase extraction (SPE) using XAD-2...... bioassays, it was concluded that SPE extracts of groundwater collected close to the landfill were toxic. The toxicity decreased with the distance from the landfill. At distances greater than 80 m from the border of the landfill, the groundwater toxicity was not significantly different from the background...... characterization and hazard ranking of groundwater polluted with complex chemical mixtures, such as landfill leachates....

  7. Effects of a temporary HDPE cover on landfill gas emissions: multiyear evaluation with the static chamber approach at an Italian landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccioni, Bruno; Caramiello, Cristina; Tatàno, Fabio; Viscione, Alessandro

    2011-05-01

    According to the European Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC and the related Italian Legislation ("D. Lgs. No. 36/2003"), monitoring and control procedures of landfill gas emissions, migration and external dispersions are clearly requested. These procedures could be particularly interesting in the operational circumstance of implementing a temporary cover, as for instance permitted by the Italian legislation over worked-out landfill sections, awaiting the evaluation of expected waste settlements. A possible quantitative approach for field measurement and consequential evaluation of landfill CO(2), CH(4) emission rates in pairs consists of the static, non-stationary accumulation chamber technique. At the Italian level, a significant and recent situation of periodical landfill gas emission monitoring is represented by the sanitary landfill for non-hazardous waste of the "Fano" town district, where monitoring campaigns with the static chamber have been annually conducted during the last 5 years (2005-2009). For the entire multiyear monitoring period, the resulting CO(2), CH(4) emission rates varied on the whole up to about 13,100g CO(2) m(-2)d(-1) and 3800 g CH(4) m(-2)d(-1), respectively. The elaboration of these landfill gas emission data collected at the "Fano" case-study site during the monitoring campaigns, presented and discussed in the paper, gives rise to a certain scientific evidence of the possible negative effects derivable from the implementation of a temporary HDPE cover over a worked-out landfill section, notably: the lateral migration and concentration of landfill gas emissions through adjacent, active landfill sections when hydraulically connected; and consequently, the increase of landfill gas flux velocities throughout the reduced overall soil cover surface, giving rise to a flowing through of CH(4) emissions without a significant oxidation. Thus, these circumstances are expected to cause a certain increase of the overall GHG emissions from the given

  8. An overview of municipal solid waste management and landfill leachate treatment: Malaysia and Asian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Rui, Lo Ming; Isa, Awatif Md; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Alrozi, Rasyidah

    2017-12-01

    Currently, generation of solid waste per capita in Malaysia is about 1.1 kg/day. Over 26,500 t of solid waste is disposed almost solely through 166 operating landfills in the country every day. Despite the availability of other disposal methods, landfill is the most widely accepted and prevalent method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal in developing countries, including Malaysia. This is mainly ascribed to its inherent forte in terms cost saving and simpler operational mechanism. However, there is a downside. Environmental pollution caused by the landfill leachate has been one of the typical dilemmas of landfilling method. Leachate is the liquid produced when water percolates through solid waste and contains dissolved or suspended materials from various disposed materials and biodecomposition processes. It is often a high-strength wastewater with extreme pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), inorganic salts and toxicity. Its composition differs over the time and space within a particular landfill, influenced by a broad spectrum of factors, namely waste composition, landfilling practice (solid waste contouring and compacting), local climatic conditions, landfill's physico-chemical conditions, biogeochemistry and landfill age. This paper summarises an overview of landfill operation and leachate treatment availability reported in literature: a broad spectrum of landfill management opportunity, leachate parameter discussions and the way forward of landfill leachate treatment applicability.

  9. Landfill operation and waste management procedures in the reduction of methane and leachate pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, J.

    2002-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to find ways of minimising emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills by means of laboratory experiments. During anaerobic incubation for 237 days, the grey waste components produced between 120 and 320 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} tTS{sup -1} and between 0.32 and 3.5 kg NH{sub 4}-N tTS{sup -1} and the first-order rate constant of degradation ranged from 0.021 and 0.058 d{sup -1}. High amounts of COD and NH{sub 4}-N were observed in the leachate of grey waste in all the procedures tested during lysimeter experiments lasting 573 days. In the 10- year-old landfilled MSW, a high rate of methanisation was achieved with rainwater addition and leachate recirculation over 538 days, whereas initially pre-wetted grey waste and landfilled MSW were rapidly acidified, thus releasing a high amount of COD into the leachate. In batch assays, the grey waste produced a methane potential amounting to 70-85 % of the total methane potential of the grey waste plus putrescibles. In low moisture conditions, i.e. below 55%, methane production was delayed in the old landfill waste and prevented in the grey waste. In the emission potential study with five waste types, putrescibles produced 410 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} tTS{sup -1} and 3.6 kgNH{sub 4}-N tTS{sup -1}, whereas composted putrescibles produced 41 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} tVS{sup -1}, and 2.0 kgNH{sub 4}-N tTS{sup -1}. The remains of putrescibles probably caused the leaching potential of 2.1 kgNH{sub 4}-N tTS{sup -1} in the grey waste. Aeration for 51 days in lysimeters reduced the CH{sub 4} potential of putrescibles by more than 68 % and of the lysimeter landfilled grey waste by 50 %, indicating the potential of aeration for CH4 emission reduction. Nitrogen removal of landfill leachate was studied in the laboratory as well as on-site. Over 90 % nitrification of leachate was obtained with loading rates between 100 and 130 mgNH{sub 4}-N l{sup -1} d-1 at 25 deg C. Nitrified leachate was denitrified with a

  10. Forecasting the settlement of a bioreactor landfill based on gas pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Gang; Li, Liang; Sun, Hongjun

    2013-10-01

    In order to study the influence of settlement under gas pressure in bioreactor landfill, the landfill is simplified as a one-way gas seepage field, combining Darcy's Law, the gas equation of state, and the principle of effective stress and fluid dynamics of porous media theory. First assume that the bioreactor landfill leachate is fully recharged on the basis of gas mass conservation, then according to the changes in gas pressure (inside the landfill and surrounding atmosphere) during the gas leakage time and settlement in the landfill, establish a numerical model of bioreactor landfill settlement under the action of the gas pressure, and use the finite difference method to solve it. Through a case study, the model's improved prediction of the settlement of bioreactor landfill is demonstrated.

  11. VEGETATION OF TWO MUNICIPAL WASTE LANDFILLS OF MAZOVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz H. Dyguś

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research has been carried out on two municipal waste landfills: Lipiny Stare – for the city of Wołomin and Radiowo – for Warsaw. The results contain mainly the detailed floristic and phytosociological data as well as the succession trends of the vegetation cover of two examined landfills. The vegetative structure of both sites has been described. Ecological habitat adaptations of plants and their spatial structure have been evaluated. The inventoried flora has been subjected to taxonomic, syntaxonomic and ecological classification. On the area of both landfills 215 species of vascular plants, mainly from the following families: aster, grasses, cabbage, bean have been found. The prevailing life forms are hemicryptophytes and therophytes. The landfills have been dominated by communities of synantrophic segetal weed, by a nitrophyte community of ruderal habitats as well as by the vegetation of anthropogenic meadows. With the use of phytoindication method by Ellenberg typical features of fresh habitats, humus-mineral with moderate acid and neutral pH and the abundance of microelements in the soil have been shown. The valorization of flora along with the evaluation of succession trends and ecological state of habitats in these environments may in future help determine proper measures aimed at retarding the loss of biodiversity or seeking ecosystem services.

  12. Characterization of landfill leachates and studies on heavy metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceçen, F; Gürsoy, G

    2000-10-01

    This study covers a thorough characterisation of landfill leachates emerging from a sanitary landfill area. The landfill leachates were obtained in the acidic stage of landfill stabilisation. Their organic content was high as reflected by the high BOD5 (5 day biological oxygen demand) and COD (chemical oxygen demand) values. They were also highly polluted in terms of the parameters TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen), NH4-N, alkalinity, hardness and heavy metals. Nickel was present in these wastewaters at a significant concentration. With regard to the high heavy metal content of these wastewaters, several physicochemical removal alternatives for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Mn and Fe were tested using coagulation, flocculation, precipitation, base addition and aeration. Additionally, COD removal and ammonia stripping were examined. Co-precipitation with either alum or iron salts did not usually lead to significantly higher heavy metal removal than lime alone. The major methods leading to an effective heavy metal removal were aeration and lime addition. Nickel and cadmium seemed to be strongly complexed and were not removed by any method. Also lead removal proved to be difficult. The results are also discussed in terms of compliance with standards.

  13. Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, R.J.; Gronow, J.R.; Voulvoulis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Household hazardous waste (HHW) includes waste from a number of household products such as paint, garden pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, certain detergents, personal care products, fluorescent tubes, waste oil, heavy metal-containing batteries, wood treated with dangerous substances, waste electronic and electrical equipment and discarded CFC-containing equipment. Data on the amounts of HHW discarded are very limited and are hampered by insufficient definitions of what constitutes HHW. Consequently, the risks associated with the disposal of HHW to landfill have not been fully elucidated. This work has focused on the assessment of data concerning the presence of hazardous chemicals in leachates as evidence of the disposal of HHW in municipal landfills. Evidence is sought from a number of sources on the occurrence in landfill leachates of hazardous components (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds [XOC]) from household products and the possible disposal-to-emissions pathways occurring within landfills. This review demonstrates that a broad range of xenobiotic compounds occurring in leachate can be linked to HHW but further work is required to assess whether such compounds pose a risk to the environment and human health as a result of leakage/seepage or through treatment and discharge

  14. Do landfills affect the environmental quality of nearby streams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Schlemmer Brasil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When inappropriately disposed, solid waste may contaminate the soil, water and air, leading to severe negative impacts on biodiversity. The Brazilian National Policy for Solid Waste (PNRS requires municipalities to ensure the environmental quality of landfills. Accordingly, our objective was to evaluate the community of aquatic insects in a stream with stretches downstream and upstream of a sanitary landfill. Our hypothesis was that there will be no differences in insect community between the stretches (downstream and upstream on the basis of the premise that landfills abiding by the PNRS do not cause environmental damage to nearby areas. There was no change in any aspect of the composition of the macroinvertebrate community as a result of the landfill. The only changes observed in the macroinvertebrate communities occurred between the dry and rainy seasons, which were related to the seasonality and consequent changes in the environmental conditions of the water over the year. Our study, although limited, showed primary and pioneering evidence that the PNRS can contribute positively to the conservation of the biotic quality of aquatic environments, further reinforcing the need for immediate implementation of the PNRS throughout the country.

  15. Growth and biomass of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; David R. Coyle; Richard B. Hall

    2007-01-01

    Resource managers are challenged with waste disposal and leachate produced from its degradation. Poplar (Populus spp.) trees offer an opportunity for ecological leachate disposal as an irrigation source for managed tree systems. Our objective was to irrigate Populus trees with municipal solid waste landfill leachate or fertilized well water (control...

  16. Treatment of landfill leachate: Removal of ammonia by struvite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... Treatment of landfill leachate: Removal of ammonia by struvite formation. CC Camargo1, JR Guimarães1 and AL Tonetti1*. 1School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urbanism, FEC/UNICAMP, Avenida Albert Einstein, 951, Cidade Universitária 'Zeferino Vaz',. PO Box 6021, 13083-852, Campinas, SP, ...

  17. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... than 1×10−7; (iii) Percent soil passing No. 200 Sieve, >30; (iv) Liquid Limit, >30; and (v) Plasticity... volume of liquid initially contained in the well before obtaining a sample for analysis. The discharge... waste landfill. (iii) Water analysis. As a minimum, all samples shall be analyzed for the following...

  18. Economic aspects of the rehabilitation of the Hiriya landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayalon, O.; Becker, N.; Shani, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Hiriya landfill, Israel's largest, operated from 1952 to 1998. The landfill, located in the heart of the Dan Region, developed over the years into a major landscape nuisance and environmental hazard. In 1998, the Israeli government decided to close the landfill, and in 2001 rehabilitation activities began at the site, including site investigations, engineering and scientific evaluations, and end-use planning. The purpose of the present research is to perform a cost-benefit analysis of engineering and architectural-landscape rehabilitation projects considered for the site. An engineering rehabilitation project is required for the reduction of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, slope instability and leachate formation. An architectural-landscape rehabilitation project would consider improvements to the site to make it suitable for future end uses such as a public park. The findings reveal that reclamation is worthwhile only in the case of architectural-landscape rehabilitation of the landfill, converting it into a public park. Engineering rehabilitation alone was found to be unjustified, but is essential to enable the development of a public park

  19. Economic aspects of the rehabilitation of the Hiriya landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, O; Becker, N; Shani, E

    2006-01-01

    The Hiriya landfill, Israel's largest, operated from 1952 to 1998. The landfill, located in the heart of the Dan Region, developed over the years into a major landscape nuisance and environmental hazard. In 1998, the Israeli government decided to close the landfill, and in 2001 rehabilitation activities began at the site, including site investigations, engineering and scientific evaluations, and end-use planning. The purpose of the present research is to perform a cost-benefit analysis of engineering and architectural-landscape rehabilitation projects considered for the site. An engineering rehabilitation project is required for the reduction of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, slope instability and leachate formation. An architectural-landscape rehabilitation project would consider improvements to the site to make it suitable for future end uses such as a public park. The findings reveal that reclamation is worthwhile only in the case of architectural-landscape rehabilitation of the landfill, converting it into a public park. Engineering rehabilitation alone was found to be unjustified, but is essential to enable the development of a public park.

  20. Constraint map for landfill site selection in Akure Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An integration of remote sensing, soil type, geological, geoelectrical, hydrogeological and geotechnical data was carried out in a GIS environment with a view to developing a constraint map for the location of landfill (waste disposal) site(s) in Akure, Metropolis.. Geomorphological features identified from satellite images ...

  1. Removal of trace elements from landfill leachate by calcite precipitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Zelená, O.; Mihaljevič, M.; Šebek, O.; Strnad, L.; Coufal, P.; Bezdička, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 88, 1-3 (2006), s. 28-31 ISSN 0375-6742 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB3111402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : landfill leachate * calcite * scavenging Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.922, year: 2006

  2. Adsorption of heavy metal from landfill leachate by wasted biosolids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the concentration of Cd, Cu and Zn was not detected in the leachate but Fe was found to be in high concentration (184 mg/L) in raw leachate collected from a municipal landfill site. Therefore, the effects of biomass dosage, contact time, pH and agitation speed were observed for optimal adsorption of iron from ...

  3. Engineering Geological Evaluation Of A Proposed Landfill Site At ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of a location at Aba-Kulodi adjacent to kilometre 8 along the Ibadan / Ile-Ife expressway, Southwestern Nigeria was carried out to determine its suitability or otherwise as a landfill site. Two Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) 30.00m apart were executed to obtain subsurface information on depth to bedrock and ...

  4. Treatment of landfill leachate using Solar UV facilitated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation for the treatment of landfill leachate was investigated in this study. The photocatalytic degradation studies were carried out using Zinc oxide (ZnO) as photocatalyst and the process was facilitated by ultra violet radiation (UV) from sunlight. Characterisation of the raw ...

  5. MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT A BIOREACTOR LANDFILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report focuses on three field campaigns performed in 2002 and 2003 to measure fugitive emissions at a bioreactor landfill in Louisville, KY, using an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The study uses optical remote sensing-radial plume mapping. The horizontal...

  6. Observations on the methane oxidation capacity of landfill soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field data and two independent models indicate that landfill cover methane (CH4) oxidation should not be considered as a constant 10% or any other single value. Percent oxidation is a decreasing exponential function of the total methane flux rate into the cover and is also dependent on climate and c...

  7. Characterization of Leachate at Simpang Renggam Landfill Site, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zailani, L. W. M.; Amdan, N. S. M.; Zin, N. S. M.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, the world facing a major problem in managed solid waste due to the increasing of solid waste. Malaysia, one of the country also involves in this matter which is 296 landfills are open to overcome this problem. Currently, the best alternative option to manage solid waste is by using landfilling method because it has low costing advantages. The disadvantage of landfill method, it might cause a pollution by producing leachate that will give an effect to the ground and surface water resources. This study focuses on analysing the leachate composition at Simpang Renggam Landfill(SRL) site for seven parameters such as COD, BOD, SS, turbidity, pH, BOD5/COD, and ammonia (NH3-N). All the data obtained were compared with previous researcher and Malaysia Environmental Quality Act 1974. From the result, SRL site was categorized as partially stabilized leachate with the parameter of BOD5/COD > 0.1. The SRL site is recommended to use a physical-chemical method for a better treatment because the leachate composition is classified as old leachate and aerated lagoon method are not satisfied to be used in treating the aging leachate at SRL site.

  8. MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT REGION I LANDFILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report discusses a new measurement technology for characterizing emissions from large area sources. This work was funded by EPA's Monitoring and Measurement for the 21st Century Initiative, or 21M2. The site selected for demonstrating this technology is a superfund landfil...

  9. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, B; Singh, M K; Inkratas, C; Fleming, I R; McBean, E

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use "generic" published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability

  10. Migration behavior of landfill leachate contaminants through alternative composite liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varank, Gamze, E-mail: gvarank@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Top, Selin, E-mail: stop@yildiz.edu.tr; Sekman, Elif, E-mail: esekman@yildiz.edu.tr; Akkaya, Ebru, E-mail: ekoca@yildiz.edu.tr; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan, E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Bilgili, M. Sinan, E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-08-01

    Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors with different alternative composite liners were simultaneously operated for a period of about 540 days to investigate and to simulate the migration behaviors of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) from landfill leachate to the groundwater. Alternative landfill liners of four reactors consist of R1: Compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R2: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R3: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + bentonite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), and R4: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + zeolite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn). Wastes representing Istanbul municipal solid wastes were disposed in the reactors. To represent bioreactor landfills, reactors were operated by leachate recirculation. To monitor and control anaerobic degradation in the reactors, variations of conventional parameters (pH, alkalinity, chloride, conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, ammonia and alcaly metals) were also investigated in landfill leachate samples. The results of this study showed that about 35-50% of migration of organic contaminants (phenolic compounds) and 55-100% of migration of inorganic contaminants (heavy metals) to the model groundwater could be effectively reduced with the use of bentonite and zeolite materials in landfill liner systems. Although leachate contaminants can reach to the groundwater in trace concentrations, findings of this study concluded that the release of these compounds from landfill leachate to the groundwater may potentially be of an important environmental concern based on the experimental findings. - Research highlights: {yields} Migration of

  11. Livingston Parish Landfill Methane Recovery Project (Feasibility Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Steven

    2012-11-15

    The Woodside Landfill is owned by Livingston Parish, Louisiana and is operated under contract by Waste Management of Louisiana LLC. This public owner/private operator partnership is commonplace in the solid waste industry today. The landfill has been in operation since approximately 1988 and has a permitted capacity of approximately 41 million cubic yards. Based on an assumed in-place waste density of 0.94 ton per cubic yard, the landfill could have an expected design capacity of 39.3 million tons. The landfill does have an active landfill gas collection and control system (LFGCCS) in place because it meets the minimum thresholds for the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). The initial LFGCS was installed prior to 2006 and subsequent phases were installed in 2007 and 2010. The Parish received a grant from the United States Department of Energy in 2009 to evaluate the potential for landfill gas recovery and utilization at the Woodside Landfill. This includes a technical and economic feasibility study of a project to install a landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) plant and to compare alternative technologies. The LFGTE plant can take the form of on-site electrical generation, a direct use/medium Btu option, or a high-Btu upgrade technology. The technical evaluation in Section 2 of this report concludes that landfill gas from the Woodside landfill is suitable for recovery and utilization. The financial evaluations in sections 3, 4, and 5 of this report provide financial estimates of the returns for various utilization technologies. The report concludes that the most economically viable project is the Electricity Generation option, subject to the Parish’s ability and willingness to allocate adequate cash for initial capital and/or to obtain debt financing. However, even this option does not present a solid return: by our estimates, there is a 19 year simple payback on the electricity generation option. All of the energy recovery options discussed in this report

  12. State-of-the-art synthetic membrane for capping landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriofske, K.P.; Gagle, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Very Low Density Polyethylene (VLDPE) has emerged as a superior capping material for landfill closures. Landfills must be capped by a material which will undergo substantial deformation in areas of localized settlement prior to rupture. Methane and hydrogen sulfide gases must be contained and directed to collection points without permeating the landfill cap. Vegetative growth in the cover sods will be protected by the gas impermeability of the geosynthetic membrane. VLDPE compounded with carbon black is minimally affected by radiation and is inert to ultraviolet rays. This property sustains VLDPE's ability to retard gas permeation at levels superior to other geosynthetics. Cover soil stability on long cap slopes in all weather conditions is crucial. It has been demonstrated in the laboratory and in full-scale, on-site test conditions that VLDPE exhibits friction characteristics equaling or exceeding other synthetics used for this purpose without diminishing physical and chemical properties. Large-scale, multiaxial stress tests have demonstrated the ability of VLDPE to deflect substantially in all directions of a potential settlement area. Only PVC can equal the elastic deformation properties of VLDPE, but PVC is more gas-permeable susceptible to degradation due to natural soil radiation or ultraviolet light and heat. Test results are presented to illustrate these points. The geosynthetic cap membrane must prevent water percolation into the landfill to prevent the formation of hazardous leachates. The use of a VLDPE cap reduces the depth of cap soils, thus increasing landfill volume. The economics and reduction in long-term liabilities of closure costs are enhanced by the use of VLDPE in the cap system. Since the expected half-life of polyethylene exceeds hundreds of years, the inclusion of VLDPE in the cap system will provide pollution security for many generations

  13. Phthalate release in leachate from municipal landfills of central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wowkonowicz, Paweł; Kijeńska, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Phthalate diesters (PAEs) are used as plasticizer additives to polymer chains to make the material more flexible and malleable. PAEs are bonded physically, not chemically, to the polymeric matrix and can migrate to and leach from the product surface, posing a serious danger to the environment and human health. There have been a number of studies on PAE concentrations in landfill leachate conducted in the EU and around the world, though few in Poland. In the present study, the leachate of five municipal landfills was analyzed for the presence of PAEs. Raw leachate was sampled four times over the period of one year in 2015/16. It was the first large study on this subject in Poland. PAEs were detected in the leachate samples on all of the landfills, thereby indicating that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The following PAEs were detected in at least one sample: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Di-isobutylphthalate (DIBP). Out of all ten PAEs, DEHP was the most predominant, with concentrations up to 73.9 μg/L. DEHP was present in 65% of analyzed samples (in 100% of samples in spring, 80% in winter, and 40% in summer and autumn). In only 25% of all samples DEHP was below the acceptable UE limit for surface water (1.3 μg/L), while 75% was from 1.7 to 56 times higher than that value. On the two largest landfills DEHP concentrations were observed during samples from all four seasons, including on a landfill which has been remediated and closed for the last 5 years.

  14. Tritium distribution in leachates from domestic solid waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soon Dal; Kim, Jung Suk; Joe, Kih Soo; Kim, Jong Gu; Kim, Won Ho

    2004-01-01

    It is for the purpose of investigating the tritium distribution in the leachates, the raw and treated leachates and the condensates of the methane gas, which have occurred from domestic solid waste landfills. Also it aims to measure the tritium distribution level on the colloid size of the leachates, the raw and treated leachates. It was found that the major inorganic contaminants of the leachates were Na, K, Ca, Mg, NH 4 + -N and Cl - . The mean tritium level of the raw leachates of the investigated 13 landfill sites for 6 months was 17∼1196 TU. It corresponded to a several scores or hundreds of magnitude higher value than that of the normal environmental sample level except for two landfill sites. Also such a high concentration of the tritium was found in the treated leachates and methane gas condensates as well. Nevertheless it is important to emphasize that the tritium level which was found in this research is about 100 times lower than the tritium limit for the drinking water quality. And most of the tritium existed in the dissolved colloid of the leachate of which the colloid size is below 0.45 μm. Also, according to the tritium analysis results of the leachates after filtration with 0.45μm membrane filter for some landfills, it is likely that some tritium of the leachate would be distributed in a colloid size over 0.45μm. In general the relationship between the tritium and other contaminants in the raw leachate was low, but it was relatively high between the tritium and TOC. However, the tritium content in the leachate had no meaningful relationship with the scale, hydrological characteristics and age of the landfill

  15. Evaluation of alternative landfill cover soils for attenuating hydrogen sulfide from construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Cristine; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy; Bitton, Gabriel; Booth, Matthew

    2007-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) generated from C&D debris landfills has emerged as a major environmental concern due to odor problems and possible health impacts to landfill employees and surrounding residents. Research was performed to evaluate the performance of various cover materials as control measures for H(2)S emissions from C&D debris landfills. Twelve laboratory-scale simulated landfill columns containing gypsum drywall were operated under anaerobic conditions to promote H(2)S production. Five different cover materials were placed on top of the waste inside duplicate columns: (1) sandy soil, (2) sandy soil amended with lime, (3) clayey soil, (4) fine concrete (particle size less than 2.5 cm), and (5) coarse concrete (particle size greater than 2.5 cm). No cover was placed on two of the columns, which were used as controls. H(2)S concentrations measured from the middle of the waste layer ranged from 50,000 to 150,000 ppm. The different cover materials demonstrated varying H(2)S removal efficiencies. The sandy soil amended with lime and the fine concrete were the most effective for the control of H(2)S emissions. Both materials exhibited reduction efficiencies greater than 99%. The clayey and sandy soils exhibited lower reduction efficiencies, with average removal efficiencies of 65% and 30%, respectively. The coarse concrete was found to be the least efficient material as a result of its large particle size.

  16. Does Disposing of Construction and Demolition Debris in Unlined Landfills Impact Groundwater Quality? Evidence from 91 Landfill Sites in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jon T; Jain, Pradeep; Smith, Justin; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2015-08-04

    More than 1,500 construction and demolition debris (CDD) landfills operate in the United States (U.S.), and U.S. federal regulations do not require containment features such as low-permeability liners and leachate collection systems for these facilities. Here we evaluate groundwater quality from samples collected in groundwater monitoring networks at 91 unlined, permitted CDD landfills in Florida, U.S. A total of 460,504 groundwater sample results were analyzed, with a median of 10 years of quarterly or semiannual monitoring data per site including more than 400 different chemical constituents. Downgradient concentrations of total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, iron, ammonia-nitrogen, and aluminum were greater than upgradient concentrations (p < 0.05). At downgradient wells where sulfate concentrations were greater than 150 mg/L (approximately 10% of the maximum dissolved sulfate concentration in water, which suggests the presence of leachate from the landfill), iron and arsenic were detected in 91% and 43% of samples, with median concentrations of 1,900 μg/L and 11 μg/L, respectively. These results show that although health-based standards can be exceeded at unlined CDD landfills, the magnitude of detected chemical concentrations is generally small and reflective of leached minerals from components (wood, concrete, and gypsum drywall) that comprise the bulk of discarded CDD by mass.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from landfill leachate treatment plants: A comparison of young and aged landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun, E-mail: xjwang@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Jia, Mingsheng, E-mail: msjia@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Chen, Xiaohai, E-mail: cxiaoh_xm@126.com [Xiamen City Environmental Sanitation Management Department, Xiamen 361000 (China); Xu, Ying, E-mail: yxu@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Lin, Xiangyu, E-mail: xylin@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Kao, Chih Ming, E-mail: jkao@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shaohua, E-mail: shchen@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Young and aged leachate works accounted for 89.1% and 10.9% of 33.35 Gg CO{sub 2} yr{sup −1}. • Fresh leachate owned extremely low ORP and high organic matter content. • Strong CH{sub 4} emissions occurred in the fresh leachate ponds, but small in the aged. • N{sub 2}O emissions became dominant in the treatment units of both systems. • 8.45–11.9% of nitrogen was removed as the form of N{sub 2}O under steady-state. - Abstract: With limited assessment, leachate treatment of a specified landfill is considered to be a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In our study, the cumulative GHG emitted from the storage ponds and process configurations that manage fresh or aged landfill leachate were investigated. Our results showed that strong CH{sub 4} emissions were observed from the fresh leachate storage pond, with the fluxes values (2219–26,489 mg C m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) extremely higher than those of N{sub 2}O (0.028–0.41 mg N m{sup −2} h{sup −1}). In contrast, the emission values for both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O were low for the aged leachate tank. N{sub 2}O emissions became dominant once the leachate entered the treatment plants of both systems, accounting for 8–12% of the removal of N-species gases. Per capita, the N{sub 2}O emission based on both leachate treatment systems was estimated to be 7.99 g N{sub 2}O–N capita{sup −1} yr{sup −1}. An increase of 80% in N{sub 2}O emissions was observed when the bioreactor pH decreased by approximately 1 pH unit. The vast majority of carbon was removed in the form of CO{sub 2}, with a small portion as CH{sub 4} (<0.3%) during both treatment processes. The cumulative GHG emissions for fresh leachate storage ponds, fresh leachate treatment system and aged leachate treatment system were 19.10, 10.62 and 3.63 Gg CO{sub 2} eq yr{sup −1}, respectively, for a total that could be transformed to 9.09 kg CO{sub 2} eq capita{sup −1} yr{sup −1}.

  18. Energy crops on landfills: functional, environmental, and costs analysis of different landfill configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivato, Alberto; Garbo, Francesco; Moretto, Marco; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina

    2018-02-09

    The cultivation of energy crops on landfills represents an important challenge for the near future, as the possibility to use devalued sites for energy production is very attractive. In this study, four scenarios have been assessed and compared with respect to a reference case defined for northern Italy. The scenarios were defined taking into consideration current energy crops issues. In particular, the first three scenarios were based on energy maximisation, phytotreatment ability, and environmental impact, respectively. The fourth scenario was a combination of these characteristics emphasised by the previous scenarios. A multi-criteria analysis, based on economic, energetic, and environmental aspects, was performed. From the analysis, the best scenario resulted to be the fourth, with its ability to pursue several objectives simultaneously and obtain the best score relatively to both environmental and energetic criteria. On the contrary, the economic criterion emerges as weak, as all the considered scenarios showed some limits from this point of view. Important indications for future designs can be derived. The decrease of leachate production due to the presence of energy crops on the top cover, which enhances evapotranspiration, represents a favourable but critical aspect in the definition of the results.

  19. Hydrologic studies of multilayered landfill covers for closure of waste landfills at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Langhorst, G.J.; Martin, C.E.; Martinez, J.L.; Schofield, T.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory examined water balance relationships for four different landfill cover designs containing engineered barriers. These field experiments were performed at Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, in 1.0- by 10.0-m plots with downhill slopes of 5, 10, 15 and 25%. Field measurements of seepage, precipitation, interflow, runoff, and soil water content were collected in each of the 16 plots representing four slopes each with four cover designs: Conventional, EPA, Loam Capillary Barrier and Clay Loam Capillary Barrier. A seepage collection system was installed beneath each cover design to evaluate the influence of slope length on seepage using a series of four metal pans filled with medium gravel that were placed end-to-end in the bottom of each field plot. An automated waterflow datalogging system was used to collect hourly seepage, interflow and runoff data and consisted of 100 100-liter tanks, each of which was equipped with an ultrasonic liquid-level sensor and a motor-operated ball valve used to drain the tank. Soil water content was routinely monitored every six hours at each of 212 locations throughout the 16 plots with time domain reflectrometry (TDR) techniques using an automated and multiplexed measurement system

  20. Challenges and issues in moving towards sustainable landfilling in a transitory country - Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Fauziah, S H

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia disposes of 28,500 tonnes of municipal solid waste directly into landfills daily. This fact alone necessitates sustainable landfills to avoid adverse impacts on the population and the environment. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the issues and challenges faced by waste managers in moving towards sustainable landfilling in Malaysia. Various factors influence the management of a landfill. Among them is the human factor, which includes attitude and public participation. Although Malaysia's economy is developing rapidly, public concern and awareness are not evolving in parallel and therefore participation towards sustainable waste management through the 'reduce, reuse and recycle' approach (3Rs) is severely lacking. Consequently, landfill space is exhausted earlier than scheduled and this is no longer sustainable in terms of security of disposal. Challenges also arise from the lack of funding and the increase in the price of land. Thus, most waste managers normally aim for 'just enough' to comply with the regulations. Investment for the establishment of landfills generally is minimized since landfilling operations are considered uneconomical after closure. Institutional factors also hamper the practice of sustainable landfilling in the country where 3Rs is not mandatory and waste separation is totally absent. Although there are huge obstacles to be dealt with in moving towards sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, recent developments in waste management policy and regulations have indicated that positive changes are possible in the near future. Consequently, with the issues solved and challenges tackled, landfills in Malaysia can then be managed effectively in a more sustainable manner.

  1. Metagenomics profiling for assessing microbial diversity in both active and closed landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainun, Mohamad Yusof; Simarani, Khanom

    2018-03-01

    The municipal landfill is an example of human-made environment that harbours some complex diversity of microorganism communities. To evaluate this complexity, the structures of bacterial communities in active (operational) and closed (non-operational) landfills in Malaysia were analysed with culture independent metagenomics approaches. Several points of soil samples were collected from 0 to 20cm depth and were subjected to physicochemical test, such as temperature, pH, and moisture content. In addition, the heavy metal contamination was determined by using ICPMS. The bacterial enumeration was examined on nutrient agar (NA) plates aerobically at 30°C. The soil DNA was extracted, purified and amplified prior to sequence the 16S rRNA gene for statistical and bioinformatics analyses. As a result, the average of bacteria for the closed landfill was higher compared to that for the active landfill at 9.16×10 7 and 1.50×10 7 , respectively. The higher bacterial OTUs sequenced was also recorded in closed landfills compared to active landfill i.e. 6625 and 4552 OTUs respectively. The data from both landfills showed that the predominant phyla belonged to Proteobacteria (55.7%). On average, Bacteroidetes was the second highest phylum followed by Firmicutes for the active landfill. While the phyla for communities in closed landfill were dominated by phyla from Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria. There was also Euryarchaeota (Archaea) which became a minor phylum that was detected in active landfill, but almost completely absent in closed landfill. As such, the composition of bacterial communities suggests some variances between the bacterial communities found in active and closed landfills. Thus, this study offers new clues pertaining to bacterial diversity pattern between the varied types of landfills studied. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Model calculations of the quantities of landfill gas, emitted from the landfill for solid domestic waste in Blagoevgrad (village of Buchino)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzekova, Stefka; Ganev, Ivailo; Dimitrov, Boyan

    2009-01-01

    The biogas released from the landfills has got a noxious effect. It also creates the most serious environmental problems after the landfills closing. The gas releases actively for more than 25 years. That is why extremely high requirements for its utilization have been set today. The first step in this direction is the determination of its amounts. A prognosis for the quantities of gas released from the landfill at the village of Buchino has been made in the present report. The used mathematical model of prognosis has been adapted for the conditions in Bulgaria on the basis of the authors’ experience gained during their observations and research of a number of landfills in the country Keywords: landfill gas, biogas, RES

  3. Modelling of landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash for utilization of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Chen

    2011-10-06

    Energy crisis, environment pollution and climate change are the serious challenges to people worldwide. In the 21st century, human being is trend to research new technology of renewable energy, so as to slow down global warming and develop society in an environmentally sustainable method. Landfill gas, produced by biodegradable municipal solid waste in landfill, is a renewable energy source. In this work, landfill gas utilization for energy generation is introduced. Landfill gas is able to produce hydrogen by steam reforming reactions. There is a steam reformer equipment in the fuel cells system. A sewage plant of Cologne in Germany has run the Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells power station with biogas for more than 50,000 hours successfully. Landfill gas thus may be used as fuel for electricity generation via fuel cells system. For the purpose of explaining the possibility of landfill gas utilization via fuel cells, the thermodynamics of landfill gas steam reforming are discussed by simulations. In practice, the methane-riched gas can be obtained by landfill gas purification and upgrading. This work investigate a new method for upgrading-landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash experimentally. Bottom ash is a by-product of municipal solid waste incineration, some of its physical and chemical properties are analysed in this work. The landfill gas adsorption experimental data show bottom ash can be used as a potential adsorbent for landfill gas adsorption to remove CO{sub 2}. In addition, the alkalinity of bottom ash eluate can be reduced in these adsorption processes. Therefore, the interactions between landfill gas and bottom ash can be explained by series reactions accordingly. Furthermore, a conceptual model involving landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash is developed. In this thesis, the parameters of landfill gas adsorption equilibrium equations can be obtained by fitting experimental data. On the other hand, these functions can be deduced with theoretical approach

  4. Electricity generation from landfill gas: a commercial view revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbrick, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Wapsey's Wood power station has been generating electricity from landfill gas since 1987. Despite a good technical track record, the project did not secure a fair price for the electricity it sold until it was included in the 1991 Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO). The NFFO has served to bring forward approximately 560 MW of renewable energy generating capacity, of which 15 per cent is fuelled by landfill gas. However, case histories such as that of Wapsey's Wood highlight the weaknesses of the current arrangements. To secure the continued steady growth of commercially robust renewable energy projects, there is a need to boost the business confidence of potential developers. The paper proposes two ways to remove the present uncertainty: simplify the application procedures, and remove the December 1998 expiry date that currently applies to power purchase agreements under the NFFO. (author)

  5. Geophysical study in waste landfill localized above fractured rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariveltom Cosme da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical survey is an important method for investigation of contaminated areas used in the characterization of contrasting physical properties in the presence of pollutants. This work applied the geophysical methods of Electrical Resistivity and Self Potential in waste landfill, located in Caçapava do Sul city, RS. The landfill is located over fractured metamorphic rocks. Eight lines of electrical profiling with 288 measures of self potential were done. In addition, 83 measurements of direction and dip of fractures were taken. The application of spontaneous potential method permitted to detect the direction of groundwater flow. The electrical resistivity measurements allowed the identification of low-intensity anomalies associated with the presence of leachate. There is a relationship between anomalous zones and the directions of fractures.

  6. Remote real-time monitoring of subsurface landfill gas migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O'Connor, Noel E; Smeaton, Alan F; Diamond, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months.

  7. Y-12 Industrial Landfill V. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the modifications in operations and design to meet the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conversation (TDEC) July 10, 1993, amendments to the regulations for Class 2 landfills. These modifications, though extensive in design and construction cost, are considered minor revisions and should not require a processing fee. Area 1 of ILF V, comprising approximately 20% of the ILF V footprint, was designed and submitted to TDEC prior to the implementation of current regulations. This initial area was constructed with a compacted clay liner and leachate collection system, and became operational in April 1994. The current regulations require landfills to have a composite liner with leachate collection system and closure cap. Modifications to upgrade Areas 2 and 3 of ILF V to meet the current TDEC requirements are included.

  8. The effect of landfill biogas on vegetal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Yañez Juan Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The plants carry out the gaseous exchange during the photosynthesis and the respiration, however the stomal opening of the leaves or the flow through lenticels in the root are not selective, the anthropogenic biogas emissions enter to vegetable tissues altering its normal physiology. In landfill sites roots plants are exposed to a flow of a variable concentration of biogas, mainly composed by methane (CH4 50-60% and carbon dioxide (CO2 40-55%, product of the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW. Biogas, according to its concentration and exposure time is likely to exert a negative effect on plant root growth; however, the mechanism is largely unknown. The aim of this revision was to revise the state of the art of the negative effect of biogas on plants that are close to landfill sites.

  9. LABORATORY TESTING OF BENTONITE CLAYS FOR LANDFILL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević Zelić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Top and bottom liners are one of the key construction elements in every landfill. They are usually made as compacted clay liners (CCLs composed of several layers of compacted clay with strictly defined properties or by the use of alternative materials such as: GCL – geosynthetic clay liner, BES – bentonite enhanced soils or bentonite/polymer mixtures. Following the state of the art experiences in the world, GCLs are used in Croatian landfills for several years, as well. Depending upon the location and the obeying function, GCLs have to fulfill certain conditions. A legislated compatibility criterion has to be proven by various laboratory tests. In the paper are presented the results of direct shear and chemical compatibility tests of GCLs as well as the results of permeability measurement of kaolin clay (the paper is published in Croatian .

  10. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...... in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components) and output data (e.g. estimated emissions to atmosphere and water) are given for a fictive waste product made of representative types of components (toluene, cellulose, polyvinylchloride...... (PVC), copper and chloride). Since waste products from different processes in the product system may be disposed at different landfills where they are mixed with waste originating outside the product system, the estimated emissions from specific waste products cannot be compared with measured emissions...

  11. Y-12 Industrial Landfill V. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the modifications in operations and design to meet the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conversation (TDEC) July 10, 1993, amendments to the regulations for Class 2 landfills. These modifications, though extensive in design and construction cost, are considered minor revisions and should not require a processing fee. Area 1 of ILF V, comprising approximately 20% of the ILF V footprint, was designed and submitted to TDEC prior to the implementation of current regulations. This initial area was constructed with a compacted clay liner and leachate collection system, and became operational in April 1994. The current regulations require landfills to have a composite liner with leachate collection system and closure cap. Modifications to upgrade Areas 2 and 3 of ILF V to meet the current TDEC requirements are included

  12. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  13. Environmental characterization foundry sands used in sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, L.G.F.; Ferreira, G.C.S.; Pires, M.S.G.; Teixeira, I.; Carnin, R.; Sarro, W.S.

    2016-01-01

    The national solid waste policy recommends reducing solid waste generation and reusing them in different applications. Preliminary studies show that the foundry sand generated from cast metal parts undercut, has excellent applicability in grain size stabilization of soils for geotechnical functions, and therefore, should not be discarded as waste. This study aimed at environmental characterization of two lots of waste foundry sand (WFS), from different industries, to the particle size stabilization of a clayey soil for use in coverage of solid waste in landfills. The methodology included physicochemical characterization tests (grain size, permeability, XRF and heavy metals) and environmental (NBR 10004: 2004, NBR 10005: 2004, NBR 10006: 20004 and acute toxicity with Vibrio fischeri). The results prove the environmental viability of using these lots of WFS as functional material in the composition of landfills. (author)

  14. Design and construction of hazardous waste landfill components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frano, A.J.; Numes, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses design and construction of two sections of a hazardous waste landfill at Peoria Disposal Company's hazardous waste management facilities in central Illinois. One section, an existing disposal facility, was retrofitted with leachate control and containment features for additional security. The second section, a new facility which had been previously permitted for development with a single clay liner, was modified to include a double liner and revised leachate collection system for additional security, and an all-weather construction and operation access ramp. The two sections of the landfill were granted a development permit allowing construction. An operating permit was granted after construction and certification by the designer allowing waste disposal operations. The sections will be accepting waste material at publication. Design and construction included: planning studies, design analyses, permitting, preparation of construction contract documents, construction assistance, monitoring construction, and certification

  15. Landfill gas from solid urban waste - an opportunity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramatikov, Plamen; Kovachev, Vassil; Gramatikova, Marija

    2004-01-01

    The problems (technical, economic, social etc.) which have to be solved by municipal waste treatment, especially in Central/East European towns, are discussed in this work. Percentages of products and calorific values of the main solid organic wastes are estimated. Different urban waste utilisation methods - Landfills Anaerobic digestion, Incineration, Refuse-derived fuels, Pyrolysis and Gasification are comment in this paper. These methods are compared using the town of Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria) as an example. It is round that a well established landfill gas production technology offers simplicity of collection (such as is practised in most of low and moderately developed countries like Bulgaria), relatively simple operation and maintenance, improvement of the environmental protection and of the energy production (based on the local disposal and renewable energy sources) and is more feasible for the East European urban concentrations. (Author)

  16. Environment impact of a very low level waste specific landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun-Yaba, C.; Peres, J.M.; Besnus, F.

    1996-01-01

    Operating enrichment plants, nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities will give rise to large volumes of waste material (concrete, steel and others metals, technological wastes heat insulators...) and most of them, in term of quantities, will be categorized as very low level wastes. This paper deals with the environmental impact of a specific landfill as a final destination for the very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) with the aim of providing technical elements for safer workers practices during the operational and the monitoring phases and for a public occupation after closure of the site. This study has been made on the basis of inventories in terms of estimated quantities and spectra of the French VLLW for a set of scenarios which are representative of practices in a landfill. (author)

  17. A method of environmental management for landfill evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata Munoz, Andres Felipe; Zapata Sanchez, Carmen Elena

    2013-01-01

    From the description of the activities of the operation of the landfill and environmental farm Los Saltos and the physicochemical characterization of its leachate, a method of environmental assessment was proposed. It includes an analysis of interactions as a diagnostic tool for the development of a cause-effect matrix to identify the impacts on associated environmental components. With this information, it was developed a matrix of importance where impacts were classified as critical, severe, moderate and irrelevant. A qualitative assessment of environmental impact was then carried out to help identify the most impacting activities as well as the most affected parameters. As a result of this method, it was determined that the operation of a landfill has a greater impact on the physical and biotic components of the environment, producing effects such as impaired air quality, loss of aquatic species and terrestrial flora, alteration of the hydrological cycle, and deterioration of surface and groundwater quality.

  18. Management of Conventional Wastes (Non Radioactive) in Spanish Landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, N.; Pena, J. M.; Ramos, J. L.; Millan, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report is the result of a collaboration agreement between CIEMAT and ENRESA. The goal of the report is to analyze the existing legislation on solid conventional waste, according to the European Community, the Spanish State and its Autonomous Communities, focusing on the latest regulation applicable to the final management in controlled landfills. In addition, information about the legal frame, production, composition and characteristics of conventional waste (i.e. urban, inert, dangerous industrial and non dangerous industrial) is given. Also, the final management that is carried out nowadays in Spain for each of the waste is analyzed and evaluated. Finally, the fulfilment of the in force regulation by the different types of Spanish controlled landfills is evaluated. (Author) 52 refs.

  19. [Research advances in control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chuan-Yu; Li, Bo; Lü, Hao-Hao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Landfill is one of the main approaches for municipal solid waste treatment, and landfill site is a main emission source of greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). As a high-efficient trace greenhouse gas, N2O has a very high warming potential, with a warming capacity 296 times of CO2, and has a long-term stability in atmosphere, giving greater damage to the ozone layer. Aiming at the researches in the control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites, this paper summarized the characteristics and related affecting factors of the N2O emission from the landfill sites, and put forward a series of the measures adaptable to the N2O emission control of present municipal solid waste landfill sites in China. Some further research focuses on the control of N2O emission from the landfill sites were also presented.

  20. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  1. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed

  2. Mitigation of methane emission from Fakse landfill using a biowindow system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Chanton, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Landfills are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH4) that contributes to climate change, and therefore there is a need to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills. A promising cost efficient technology is to integrate compost into landfill covers (so-called “biocovers”) to enhance biological...... of biocover systems. The study also revealed that there still exist several challenges to better optimize the functionality. The most important challenges are to control gas flow and evenly distribute the gas into the biocovers.......Landfills are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH4) that contributes to climate change, and therefore there is a need to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills. A promising cost efficient technology is to integrate compost into landfill covers (so-called “biocovers”) to enhance biological...

  3. Sources for increased DOC-concentrations in the groundwater downstream of the landfill Hohne (DEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlmann, E.; Seifert, R.; Eschenbach, A.; Kleinschmidt, V.

    2017-08-01

    Construction waste together with drilling mud and oil-contaminated soil had been deposited in the landfill Hohne from 1971. Four groundwater monitoring sites had been installed: one monitoring site upstream and three sites downstream of the landfill in three different directions. Downstream of the landfill increased concentrations of chloride, sulphate, sodium and DOC (dissolved organic carbon) had been measured over a period of years. Particularly the source of the DOC has remained unclear. Assumptions were (i) leaking of contaminants from the landfill and degradation under the landfill by microbes or plants or (ii) leaching of DOC from the soil under the landfill caused by a change in the redox potential. The determination of the DOC source was the major subject of this study.

  4. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  5. Contamination of Ground Water Due To Landfill Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. S. Raju

    2012-01-01

    The present site under investigation at Ajitsingh Nagar in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh is initially a low lying area and used for disposing the urban solid waste for the last few years, through open dumping with out taking any measures to protect the Ground water against pollution. The present study has been taken up to measure the degree of pollution of ground water due to leachate produced in the landfill site. Bore holes were made at eight random locations ...

  6. Remote sensing investigations at a hazardous-waste landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohr, C.; Su, W.-J.; DuMontelle, P.B.; Griffin, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    In 1976 state licensed landfilling of industrial chemicals was begun above an abandoned, underground coal mine in Illinois. Five years later organic chemical pollutants were discovered in a monitoring well, suggesting migration 100 to 1000 times faster than predicted by laboratory tests. Remote sensing contributed to the determination of the causes of faster-than-predicted pollutant migration at the hazardous-waste landfill. Aerial and satellite imagery were employed to supplement field studies of local surface and groundwater hydrology, and to chronicle site history. Drainage impediments and depressions in the trench covers collected runoff, allowing rapid recharge of surface waters to some burial trenches. These features can be more effectively identified by photointerpretation than by conventional field reconnaissance. A ground-based, post-sunset survey of the trench covers that showed that a distinction between depressions which hold moisture at the surface from freely-draining depressions which permit rapid recharge to the burial trenches could be made using thermal infrared imagery.In 1976 state licensed landfilling of industrial chemicals was begun above an abandoned, underground coal mine in Illinois. Five years later organic chemical pollutants were discovered in a monitoring well, suggesting migration 100 to 1000 times faster than predicted by laboratory tests. Remote sensing contributed to the determination of the causes of faster-than-predicted pollutant migration at the hazardous-waste landfill. Aerial and satellite imagery were employed to supplement field studies of local surface and groundwater hydrology, and to chronicle site history. Drainage impediments and depressions in the trench covers collected runoff, allowing rapid recharge of surface waters to some burial trenches.

  7. Radiological risk assessment for radioactive contamination at landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A limited-scope preliminary assessment of radiological risk has been conducted for a landfill site where radioactive residues resulting from past uranium ore processing operations are present. Potential radiation doses to an individual under different scenarios have been predicted using the RESRAD computer code. The assessment provides useful input to the remedial action planning for the site that is currently underway. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Generation of leachate and the flow regime in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, D.

    1998-06-01

    In this thesis the generation of leachate and the presence and movement of water in landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) is investigated. The precipitation-leachate discharge relationship for landfills was found to be dominated by evaporation, accumulation in the soil cover, accumulation in the solid waste and fast gravitational flow in a network of channels. The flow regime is governed by the heterogeneity of the internal geometry of the landfill, which is characterized by a discrete structure, significant horizontal stratification, structural voids, impermeable surfaces, and low capillarity. Also the boundary conditions, that is the water input pattern, has shown to be important for the flow process. Based on this, landfilled waste can be conceptualized as a dual domain medium, consisting of a channel domain and a matrix domain. The matrix flow is slow and diffusive, whereas the channel flow is assumed to be driven solely by gravity and to take place as a thin viscous film on solid surfaces. A kinematic wave model for unsaturated infiltration and internal drainage in the channel domain is presented. The model employs a two-parameter power expression as macroscopic flux law. Solutions were derived for the cases when water enters the channel domain laterally and when water enters from the upper end. The model parameters were determined and interpreted in terms of the internal geometry of the waste medium by fitting the model to one set of infiltration and drainage data derived from a large scale laboratory experiment under transient conditions. The model was validated using another set of data from a sequence of water input events and was shown to perform accurately. A solute transport model was developed by coupling a simple piston flux expression and a mobile-immobile conceptualization of the transport domains with the water flow model. Breakthrough curves derived from steady and transient tracer experiments where interpreted with the model. The transport

  9. Assessing Emissions of Volatile Organic Componds from Landfills Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Khademi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biogas is obtained by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes buried materials used to produce electricity, heat and biofuels. Biogas is at the second place for power generation after hydropower and in 2000 about 6% of the world power generation was allocated to biogas. Biogas is composed of 40–45 vol% CO2, 55–65 vol% CH4, and about 1% non-methaneVOCs, and non-methane volatile organic compounds. Emission rates are used to evaluate the compliance with landfill gas emission regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. BTEX comounds affect the air quality and may be harmful to human health. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers that are generally called BTEX compounds are the most abundant VOCs in biogas. Methods: Sampling of VOCs in biogas vents was operated passively or with Tedlar bags. 20 samples were collected from 40 wells of old and new biogas sites of Shiraz’ landfill. Immediately after sampling, the samples were transferred to the laboratory. Analysis of the samples was performed with GC-MS. Results: The results showed that in the collection of the old and new biogas sites, the highest concentration of VOCs was observed in toluene (0.85ppm followed by benzene (0.81ppm, ethylbenzene (0.13ppm and xylene (0.08ppm. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that in all samples, most available compounds in biogas vents were aromatic hydrocarbon compounds.These compounds’ constituents originate from household hazardous waste materials deposited in the landfill or from biological/chemical decomposition processes within the landfill.

  10. Ozonation of a pretreated landfill leachate: evaluation of recalcitrance removal

    OpenAIRE

    Van Aken, Pieter; Lambert, Nico; Luyten, Jan; Degrève, Jan; Liers, Sven

    2010-01-01

    The sanitary landfill method for the ultimate disposal of solid waste material continues to be widely accepted and used due to its economic advantages. However, water infiltrates through the solid waste and a variety of organic and inorganic pollutants will be dissolved and transported. These leachates may contain large amounts of organic matter, as well as ammonia-nitrogen, heavy metals, chlorinated organic and inorganic salts. The removal of organic material is usual the prerequisite before...

  11. Inferred performance of surface hydraulic barriers from landfill operational data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, B.A.; Bonaparte, R.; Othman, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    There are few published data on the field performance of surface hydraulic barriers (SHBs) used in waste containment or remediation applications. In contrast, operational data for liner systems used beneath landfills are widely available. These data are frequently collected and reported as a facility permit condition. This paper uses leachate collection system (LCS) and leak detection system (LDS) liquid flow rate and chemical quality data collected from modem landfill double-liner systems to infer the likely hydraulic performance of SHBs. Operational data for over 200 waste management unit liner systems are currently being collected and evaluated by the authors as part of an ongoing research investigation for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The top liner of the double-liner system for the units is either a geomembrane (GMB) alone, geomembrane overlying a geosynthetic clay liner (GMB/GCL), or geomembrane overlying a compacted clay liner (GMB/CCL). In this paper, select data from the USEPA study are used to: (i) infer the likely efficiencies of SHBs incorporating GMBs and overlain by drainage layers; and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of SHBs in reducing water infiltration into, and drainage from, the underlying waste (i.e., source control). SHB efficiencies are inferred from calculated landfill liner efficiencies and then used to estimate average water percolation rates through SHBs as a function of site average annual rainfall. The effectiveness of SHBs for source control is investigated by comparing LCS liquid flow rates for open and closed landfill cells. The LCS flow rates for closed cells are also compared to the estimated average water percolation rates through SHBs presented in the paper

  12. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  13. Contaminants in landfill soils - Reliability of prefeasibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzle, Ingo

    2017-05-01

    Recent landfill mining studies have researched the potential for resource recovery using samples from core drilling or grab cranes. However, most studies used small sample numbers, which may not represent the heterogeneous landfill composition. As a consequence, there exists a high risk of an incorrect economic and/or ecological evaluation. The main objective of this work is to investigate the possibilities and limitations of preliminary investigations concerning the crucial soil composition. The preliminary samples of landfill investigations were compared to the excavation samples from three completely excavated landfills in Germany. In addition, the research compared the reliability of prediction of the two investigation methods, core drilling and grab crane. Sampling using a grab crane led to better results, even for smaller investigations of 10 samples. Analyses of both methods showed sufficiently accurate results to make predictions (standard error 5%, level of confidence 95%) for most heavy metals, cyanide and PAH in the dry substance and for sulphate, barium, Benzo[a]pyrene, pH and the electrical conductivity in leachate analyses of soil type waste. While chrome and nickel showed less accurate results, the concentrations of hydrocarbons, TOC, DOC, PCB and fluorine (leachate) were not predictable even for sample numbers of up to 59. Overestimations of pollutant concentrations were more frequently apparent in drilling, and underestimations when using a grab crane. The dispersion of the element and elemental composition had no direct impact on the reliability of prediction. Thus, an individual consideration of the particular element or elemental composition for dry substance and leachate analyses is recommended to adapt the sample strategy and calculate an optimum sample number. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Earth Construction and Landfill Disposal Options for Slaker Grits

    OpenAIRE

    Risto Pöykiö; G. Watkins; H. Nurmesniemi and O. Dahl

    2010-01-01

    Slaker grits, an industrial residue originating from the chemical recovery process at sulfate (kraft) pulp mills, are typically disposed of to landfill in Finland. However, due to the relatively low total heavy metal and low leachable heavy metal, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, Dissolved O rganic Carbon (DOC) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) concentrations, the residue is a potential earth construction material. This paper gives an overview of the relevant Finnish legislation on the use of indu...

  15. Composition and Value of waste in landfills in SA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available in landfills in SA German Chamber of Business From Mining to Urban Mining 16 September 2015 IFAT Environmental Technology Forum Africa 2015 by Prof Suzan Oelofse Research Group Leader: Waste for Development Competency Area: Solutions for a Green... in collection infrastructure is required • Creation of entrepreneurial opportunities • Design for recycling • Creation of markets for recycled materials – Replacing virgin materials with recyclate – Develop new innovative high quality recycled products...

  16. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1997 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria. Wells LFW6R, LFW8R, LFW10A, LFW18, LFW21, and LFW23R were not sampled due to their proximity to the Sanitary Landfill Closure Cap activities. Wells LFW61D and LFW62D are Purge Water Containment Wells and contain mercury. These wells were not sampled since the purge water cannot be treated at the M-1 Air Stripper until the NPDES permit for the stripper is modified.

  17. Application of photochemical technologies for treatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeroff, Daniel E; Bloetscher, Frederick; Reddy, D V; Gasnier, François; Jain, Swapnil; McBarnette, André; Hamaguchi, Hatsuko

    2012-03-30

    Because of widely varying practices in solid waste management, an all-inclusive solution to long-term management of landfill leachate is currently not available. There is a major technological need for sustainable, economical options for safe discharge of leachate to the environment. Two potential on-site pretreatment technologies, photochemical iron-mediated aeration (PIMA) and TiO(2) photocatalysis were compared for treatment of landfill leachate at laboratory scale. Results of bench scale testing of real landfill leachate with PIMA and TiO(2) photocatalysis showed up to 86% conversion of refractory COD to complete mineralization, up to 91% removal of lead, up to 71% removal of ammonia without pH adjustment, and up to 90% effective color removal with detention times between 4 and 6h, in field samples. The estimated contact times for 90% removal of COD, ammonia, lead, and color were found to be on the order of 10-200 h for PIMA and 3-37 h for TiO(2) photocatalysis. Testing with actual leachate samples showed 85% TiO(2) photocatalyst recovery efficiency with no loss in performance after multiple (n>4 uses). Pre-filtration was not found to be necessary for effective treatment using either process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Culturable psychrotolerant methanotrophic bacteria in landfill cover soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallistova, A Iu; Montonen, L; Jurgens, G; Munster, U; Kevbrina, M V; Nozhevnikova, A N

    2014-01-01

    Methanotrophs closely related to psychrotolerant members of the genera Methylobacter and Methylocella were identified in cultures enriched at 10@C from landfill cover soil samples collected in the period from April to November. Mesophilic methanotrophs of the genera Methylobacter and Methylosinus were found in cultures enriched at 20 degrees C from the same cover soil samples. A thermotolerant methanotroph related to Methylocaldum gracile was identified in the culture enriched at 40 degrees C from a sample collected in May (the temperature of the cover soil was 11.5-12.5 degrees C). In addition to methanotrophs, methylobacteria of the genera Methylotenera and Methylovorus and members of the genera Verrucomicrobium, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Dokdonella, Candidatus Protochlamydia, and Thiorhodospira were also identified in the enrichment cultures. A methanotroph closely related to the psychrotolerant species Methylobacter tundripaludum (98% sequence identity of 16S r-RNA genes with the type strain SV96(T)) was isolated in pure culture. The introduction of a mixture of the methanotrophic enrichments, grown at 15 degrees C, into the landfill cover soil resulted in a decrease in methane emission from the landfill surface in autumn (October, November). The inoculum used was demonstrated to contain methanotrophs closely related to Methylobacter tundripaludum SV96.

  19. Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

    2014-08-01

    The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

  20. Landfill gas for energy utilisation. A market strategy for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The Biogas and Landfill Gas Marketing Strategy Group was set up with the objective to advise EU-DG 17 (THERMIE/OPET) on the dissemination strategies for biogas and landfill gas (LFG), a subsector of the Renewable Energy Sector (RES). The Marketing Strategy Group has identified market barriers and users' needs in the biogas and LFG subsector. Subsequently, the group evaluated successful instruments/methods to overcome these market barriers and to satisfy the users' needs. The group investigated the feasibility of transposing these instruments/success stories to other countries. The work of the Marketing Strategy Group resulted in proposals for future dissemination of biogas and LFG technology. After a short introduction into LFG technology and the LFG market, this document describes barriers to landfill gas technology dissemination and gives some examples about how to overcome them. This results in recommendations on a strategy for dissemination of LFG technology and expanding LFG markets. The document is mainly based on experience gained in the United Kingdom, Italy and the Netherlands

  1. Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill expedited response action proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill. The Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Site was used in 1945 for disposal of crushed barrels. The site location is the sole waste site within the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. The Waste Information Data System (WIDS 1992) assumes that the crushed barrels contained 1% residual sodium dichromate at burial time and that only buried crushed barrels are at the site. Burial depth is shallow since visual inspection finds numerous barrel debris on the surface. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the ERA will present a final remediation of the 100-IU-4 operable unit

  2. Dynamics of emerging organic pollutants from a municipal landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guern, Cécile; Béchet, Béatrice; Lépinay, Alexandra; Conil, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    In large cities, municipal landfills may have received waste coming from hospitals, but also green waste. The corresponding anthroposol might thus be a source of organic emerging substances such as pharmaceutical or phytosanitary substances. The occurrence and fate of organic emerging substances from such a former landfill in urban areas has been studied as part of a research program dealing with the observation and the monitoring of the environment. Of the 261 substances sought (30 pharmaceutical molecules, 223 phytosanitary products and 8 other emerging substances), 11 pharmaceutical molecules in particular have been quantified in the leachates, 2 endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A and triclosan) and 10 phytosanitary substances. Most of these substances are found also in groundwater immediately downstream of the site (including carbamazepine) at concentrations ranging between 0.1 µg/l and 10 µg/l. The number of detected substances appears much smaller a few hundred meters far from the landfill (bisphenol A and diclofenac in particularly, with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1 µg/l and about 0.1 µg/l respectively). Natural attenuation occurs during transfer in the plume, as observed for PAHs or metals. Several mechanisms may explain the natural attenuation of the substances.

  3. Hybrid process, electrocoagulation-biofiltration for landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Oumar; Drogui, Patrick; Buelna, Gerardo; Dubé, Rino

    2018-05-01

    Landfill leachates are known for their high and complex composition of organic, inorganic and microbial pollutants. As a result, it is quite challenging to treat these effluents by using only one treatment process. A combining approach is generally required to treat efficiently these wastewaters and comply with the discharge standards. In this present study, electrocoagulation (EC) and biofiltration (BF) processes were sequentially used to treat landfill leachate. EC process has been able to remove 37 ± 2% of the initial total COD. A fractionation of organic compounds showed that EC was particularly efficient to remove insoluble COD and humic acids. In addition, other pollutants such as turbidity, true color, Zn and phosphorus were significantly reduced by EC with 82 ± 2.7%, 60 ± 13%, 95 ± 2.6% and 82 ± 5.5% of removal respectively. The subsequent treatment by BF process led to completely removal of ammonia pollution (>99% of NH 4 removal) and a partial removal of dissolved organic compounds (42 ± 7% of COD removal). The hybrid process EC/BF could form the basis of a process capable of removing organic and inorganic pollutants from many refractory wastewaters (mature landfill leachates, industrial and municipal wastewaters). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. International landfill gas conference: best practice and future opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This International Landfill Gas Conference, the third to be organised by ETSU on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and the former Department of Energy has been jointly sponsored by the DTI, the International Energy Agency, the Altener Programme of the European Union (EU), the Environment Agency and the Institution of Diesel and Gas Turbine Engineers. The Conference coincides with the publication of the new Government guidance document, Landfill Gas Development Guidelines, prepared by ETSU for the DTI with co-sponsorship from the EU ALTENER Programme. The aim of the new Guidelines is to promote more widespread use of landfill gas (LFG) as an energy source by helping to reduce remaining perceived barriers to project development. The document is intended for a broad readership and is designed to allow easy access to a wide range of information. Essentially it is a ''hub'' document providing links to a variety of more specialised or detailed materials. For this reason, the emphasis is placed on breadth rather than on detail. The new Guidelines are certain to become the standard reference for all those with an interest in LFG technology. (Author)

  5. Methane Emission Estimates from Landfills Obtained with Dynamic Plume Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensen, A.; Scharff, H.

    2001-01-01

    Methane emissions from 3 different landfills in the Netherlands were estimated using a mobile Tuneable Diode Laser system (TDL). The methane concentration in the cross section of the plume is measured downwind of the source on a transect perpendicular to the wind direction. A gaussian plume model was used to simulate the concentration levels at the transect. The emission from the source is calculated from the measured and modelled concentration levels.Calibration of the plume dispersion model is done using a tracer (N 2 O) that is released from the landfill and measured simultaneously with the TDL system. The emission estimates for the different locations ranged from 3.6 to 16 m 3 ha -1 hr -1 for the different sites. The emission levels were compared to emission estimates based on the landfill gas production models. This comparison suggests oxidation rates that are up to 50% in spring and negligible in November. At one of the three sites measurements were performed in campaigns in 3 consecutive years. Comparison of the emission levels in the first and second year showed a reduction of the methane emission of about 50% due to implementation of a gas extraction system. From the second to the third year emissions increased by a factor of 4 due to new land filling. Furthermore measurements were performed in winter when oxidation efficiency was reduced. This paper describes the measurement technique used, and discusses the results of the experimental sessions that were performed

  6. Forest products decomposition in municipal solid waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlaz, Morton A.

    2006-01-01

    Cellulose and hemicellulose are present in paper and wood products and are the dominant biodegradable polymers in municipal waste. While their conversion to methane in landfills is well documented, there is little information on the rate and extent of decomposition of individual waste components, particularly under field conditions. Such information is important for the landfill carbon balance as methane is a greenhouse gas that may be recovered and converted to a CO 2 -neutral source of energy, while non-degraded cellulose and hemicellulose are sequestered. This paper presents a critical review of research on the decomposition of cellulosic wastes in landfills and identifies additional work that is needed to quantify the ultimate extent of decomposition of individual waste components. Cellulose to lignin ratios as low as 0.01-0.02 have been measured for well decomposed refuse, with corresponding lignin concentrations of over 80% due to the depletion of cellulose and resulting enrichment of lignin. Only a few studies have even tried to address the decomposition of specific waste components at field-scale. Long-term controlled field experiments with supporting laboratory work will be required to measure the ultimate extent of decomposition of individual waste components

  7. MUNICIPAL LANDFILL SITE SELECTION FOR ISFAHAN CITY BY USE OF FUZZY LOGIC AND ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Afzali; J. M. V. Samani; M. Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the most suitable site for landfill can avoid any ecological and socio-economical effects. The increase in industrial and economical development along with the increase of population growth in Isfahan city generates tremendous amount of solid waste within the region. Factors such as the scarcity of land, life span of landfill, and environmental considerations warrant that the scientific and fundamental studies are carried in selecting the suitability of a landfill site. The analysis...

  8. Biogas recuperation in sanitary landfills; Recuperacao de biogas em aterros sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Luiz Mario Queiroz [Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz (CPFL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This work shoes a retrospective about recovering biogas activity in sanitary landfill, where in the genesis of methane is emphasized. Also, a conceptual review was made and discussed focusing the technological aspects of the landfill methods. Further, two important aspects of the genesis of methane were discussed: the enhancement mechanisms for acceleration of the formation of methane and the production of biological input from leachate in landfill. (author) 36 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Permeability test and slope stability analysis of municipal solid waste in Jiangcungou Landfill, Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Xu, Zengguang; Chai, Junrui; Qin, Yuan; Li, Yanlong

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid increase of city waste, landfills have become a major method to deals with municipal solid waste. Thus, the safety of landfills has become a valuable research topic. In this paper, Jiangcungou Landfill, located in Shaanxi, China, was investigated and its slope stability was analyzed. Laboratory tests were used to obtain permeability coefficients of municipal solid waste. Based on the results, the distribution of leachate and stability in the landfill was computed and analyzed. These results showed: the range of permeability coefficient was from 1.0 × 10(-7) cm sec(-1) to 6.0 × 10(-3) cm sec(-1) on basis of laboratory test and some parameters of similar landfills. Owing to the existence of intermediate cover layers in the landfill, the perched water level appeared in the landfill with heavy rain. Moreover, the waste was filled with leachate in the top layer, and the range of leachate level was from 2 m to 5 m in depth under the waste surface in other layers. The closer it gets to the surface of landfill, the higher the perched water level of leachate. It is indicated that the minimum safety factors were 1.516 and 0.958 for winter and summer, respectively. Additionally, the slope failure may occur in summer. The research of seepage and stability in landfills may provide a less costly way to reduce accidents. Landslides often occur in the Jiangcungou Landfill because of the high leachate level. Some measures should be implemented to reduce the leachate level. This paper investigated seepage and slope stability of landfills by numerical methods. These results may provide the basis for increasing stability of landfills.

  10. GIS and Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Landfill Site Selection in AL-HashimyahQadaa

    OpenAIRE

    Alanbari, Mohammad Ali; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Jasim, Hadeel Kareem

    2014-01-01

    Waste management system is not well regulated in Iraq. Despite the fact that there are various techniques used for solid waste disposal, landfill is the most common mode for the disposal of solid waste in Iraq, landfill site selection criteria is quite complex process and it depends on several regulation and factors. In this study landfill site selection is performed by using Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and Geographic Information System (GIS) for the Al-Hashimyahqadaa. Existing lan...

  11. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  12. Indicative quantities of recyclable materials disposed of at municipal landfills in 2011

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available of recyclable materials disposed of at municipal landfi lls in 2011 SHH OELOFSE CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 Email: soelofse@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za BACKGROUND Only a few landfills in Gauteng, where about 45..., 2011). The best resolve for the increasing pressure on available landfill airspace is a reduction in waste through waste minimisation and recycling, especially of those waste streams consuming most airspace. Reducing waste disposal at landfill...

  13. From California dreaming to California data: Challenging historic models for landfill CH4 emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Spokas, Kurt; Bogner, Jean; Corcoran, Meg; Walker, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Improved quantification of diverse CH4 sources at the urban scale is needed to guide local GHG mitigation strategies in the Anthropocene. Herein, we focus on landfill CH4 emissions in California, challenging the current IPCC methodology which focuses on a climate dependency for landfill CH4 generation (methanogenesis), but does not explicitly consider climate or soil dependencies for emissions. Relying on a comprehensive California landfill database, a field-validated process-based m...

  14. Evaluation and modeling of biochemical methane potential (BMP) of landfilled solid waste: a pilot scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgili, M Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Varank, Gamze

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to present a comparison of landfill performance with respect to solids decomposition. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to determine the initial and the remaining CH(4) potentials of solid wastes during 27 months of landfilling operation in two pilot...... scale landfill reactors. The initial methane potential of solid wastes filled to the reactors was around 0.347 L/CH(4)/g dry waste, which decreased with operational time of landfill reactors to values of 0.117 and 0.154 L/CH(4)/g dry waste for leachate recirculated (R1) and non-recirculated (R2...

  15. The successful demonstration of aerobic landfilling. The potential for a more sustainable solid waste management approach?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, A.D. [School of Earth Science and Geography, Center for Environmental and Earth Science Research, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Surrey, KT1 2EE Kingston upon Thames (United Kingdom); Hudgins, M. [Environmental Control Systems Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Harper, S. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV, Atlanta, GA (United States); Phillips, P. [School of Environmental Science, University College Northampton, Northampton (United Kingdom); Morris, J. [School of Law and Accountancy, University College Northampton, Northampton (United Kingdom)

    2001-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills worldwide are experiencing the consequences of conventional landfilling techniques, whereby anaerobic conditions are created within the landfilled waste. Under anaerobic conditions within a landfill site slow stabilization of the waste mass occurs, producing methane, (an explosive 'green house' gas) and leachate (which can pollute groundwater) over long periods of time. As a potential solution, it was demonstrated that the aerobic degradation of MSW within a landfill can significantly increase the rate of waste decomposition and settlement, decrease the methane production and leachate leaving the system, and potentially increase the operational life of the site. Readily integrated into the existing landfill infrastructure, this approach can safely and cost-effectively convert a MSW landfill from anaerobic to aerobic degradation processes, thereby effectively composting much of the organic portions (one of the potentially polluting elements in a conventional landfill site) of the waste. This paper summarizes the successful results of two separate aerobic landfill projects located in Georgia (USA) and discusses the potential, economic and environmental impacts to worldwide solid waste management practices.

  16. Applying of Electrical Imaging Survey (EIS) to Evaluate Leachate Pollution in Underground Area of Informal Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Song; Wang, Di; Mou, Zishen

    2014-01-01

    An informal landfill is an open dump that pollutes the underground environment because it lacks an impervious liner. The leakage of such a landfill is unidirectional and thus difficult to directly test. This study uses electrical imaging survey to evaluate the pollution of the underground...... environment of an informal landfill for municipal solid waste in Beijing. We hypothesize that every location has a specific resistivity resulting from the leachate. We use the membership function of fuzzy mathematics to quantitatively represent the pollution of the underground environment in the sanitary...... landfill. The results are consistent with borehole data....

  17. Landfill Gas Energy Cost Model Version 3.0 (LFGcost-Web V3 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help stakeholders estimate the costs of a landfill gas (LFG) energy project, in 2002, LMOP developed a cost tool (LFGcost). Since then, LMOP has routinely updated the tool to reflect changes in the LFG energy industry. Initially the model was designed for EPA to assist landfills in evaluating the economic and financial feasibility of LFG energy project development. In 2014, LMOP developed a public version of the model, LFGcost-Web (Version 3.0), to allow landfill and industry stakeholders to evaluate project feasibility on their own. LFGcost-Web can analyze costs for 12 energy recovery project types. These project costs can be estimated with or without the costs of a gas collection and control system (GCCS). The EPA used select equations from LFGcost-Web to estimate costs of the regulatory options in the 2015 proposed revisions to the MSW Landfills Standards of Performance (also known as New Source Performance Standards) and the Emission Guidelines (herein thereafter referred to collectively as the Landfill Rules). More specifically, equations derived from LFGcost-Web were applied to each landfill expected to be impacted by the Landfill Rules to estimate annualized installed capital costs and annual O&M costs of a gas collection and control system. In addition, after applying the LFGcost-Web equations to the list of landfills expected to require a GCCS in year 2025 as a result of the proposed Landfill Rules, the regulatory analysis evaluated whether electr

  18. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  19. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celary, Piotr, E-mail: pcelary@is.pcz.czest.pl; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta, E-mail: jszoltysek@is.pcz.czest.pl

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  20. Hunting for valuables from landfills and assessing their market opportunities A case study with Kudjape landfill in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Burlakovs, Juris; Kriipsalu, Mait; Hogland, Marika; Hogland, William

    2017-06-01

    Landfill mining is an alternative technology that merges the ideas of material recycling and sustainable waste management. This paper reports a case study to estimate the value of landfilled materials and their respective market opportunities, based on a full-scale landfill mining project in Estonia. During the project, a dump site (Kudjape, Estonia) was excavated with the main objectives of extracting soil-like final cover material with the function of methane degradation. In total, about 57,777 m 3 of waste was processed, particularly the uppermost 10-year layer of waste. Manual sorting was performed in four test pits to determine the detailed composition of wastes. 11,610 kg of waste was screened on site, resulting in fine (40 mm) fractions with the share of 54% and 46%, respectively. Some portion of the fine fraction was sieved further to obtain a very fine grained fraction of size, and the importance of developing and implementing innovative extraction methods for materials recovery from soil-like fractions.

  1. A framework for assessment and characterisation of municipal solid waste landfill leachate: an application to the Turbhe landfill, Navi Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Harshit; Rathod, Merwan; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialisation, growing population and changing lifestyles are the root causes for the generation of huge amounts of solid waste in developing countries. In India, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) through open dumping is the most common waste disposal method. Unfortunately, leachate generation from landfill is high due to the prolonged and prominent monsoon season in India. As leachate generation rate is high in most of the tropical countries, long-term and extensive monitoring efforts are expected to evaluate actual environmental pollution potential due to leachate contamination. However, the leachate characterisation involves a comprehensive process, which has numerous shortcomings and uncertainties possibly due to the complex nature of landfilling process, heterogeneous waste characteristics, widely varying hydrologic conditions and selection of analytes. In order to develop a sustainable MSW management strategy for protecting the surface and ground water resources, particularly from MSW landfill leachate contamination, assessment and characterisation of leachate are necessary. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past to characterise leachate quality from various municipal landfills; unfortunately, none of these propose a framework or protocol. The present study proposes a generic framework for municipal landfill leachate assessment and characterisation. The proposed framework can be applied to design any type of landfill leachate quality monitoring programme and also to facilitate improved leachate treatment activities. A landfill site located at Turbhe, Navi Mumbai, India, which had not been investigated earlier, has been selected as a case study. The proposed framework has been demonstrated on the Turbhe landfill site which is a comparatively new and the only sanitary landfill in Navi Mumbai.

  2. Methane emissions from a landfill in north-east India: Performance of various landfill gas emission models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollapalli, Muralidhar; Kota, Sri Harsha

    2018-03-01

    Rapid urbanization and economic growth has led to significant increase in municipal solid waste generation in India during the last few decades and its management has become a major issue because of poor waste management practices. Solid waste generated is deposited into open dumping sites with hardly any segregation and processing. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) are the major greenhouse gases that are released from the landfill sites due to the biodegradation of organic matter. In this present study, CH 4 and CO 2 emissions from a landfill in north-east India are estimated using a flux chamber during September, 2015 to August, 2016. The average emission rates of CH 4 and CO 2 are 68 and 92 mg/min/m 2 , respectively. The emissions are highest in the summer whilst being lowest in winter. The diurnal variation of emissions indicated that the emissions follow a trend similar to temperature in all the seasons. Correlation coefficients of CH 4 and temperature in summer, monsoon and winter are 0.99, 0.87 and 0.97, respectively. The measured CH 4 in this study is in the range of other studies around the world. Modified Triangular Method (MTM), IPCC model and the USEPA Landfill gas emissions model (LandGEM) were used to predict the CH 4 emissions during the study year. The consequent simulation results indicate that the MTM, LandGEM-Clean Air Act, LandGEM-Inventory and IPCC models predict 1.9, 3.3, 1.6 and 1.4 times of the measured CH 4 emission flux in this study. Assuming that this higher prediction of CH 4 levels observed in this study holds well for other landfills in this region, a new CH 4 emission inventory (Units: Tonnes/year), with a resolution of 0.1 0  × 0.1 0 has been developed. This study stresses the importance of biodegradable composition of waste and meteorology, and also points out the drawbacks of the widely used landfill emission models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A cost-benefit analysis of landfill mining and material recycling in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chuanbin; Gong, Zhe; Hu, Junsong; Cao, Aixin; Liang, Hanwen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessing the economic feasibility of landfill mining. • We applied a cost-benefit analysis model for landfill mining. • Four material cycling and energy recovery scenarios were designed. • We used net present value to evaluate the cost-benefit efficiency. - Abstract: Landfill mining is an environmentally-friendly technology that combines the concepts of material recycling and sustainable waste management, and it has received a great deal of worldwide attention because of its significant environmental and economic potential in material recycling, energy recovery, land reclamation and pollution prevention. This work applied a cost-benefit analysis model for assessing the economic feasibility, which is important for promoting landfill mining. The model includes eight indicators of costs and nine indicators of benefits. Four landfill mining scenarios were designed and analyzed based on field data. The economic feasibility of landfill mining was then evaluated by the indicator of net present value (NPV). According to our case study of a typical old landfill mining project in China (Yingchun landfill), rental of excavation and hauling equipment, waste processing and material transportation were the top three costs of landfill mining, accounting for 88.2% of the total cost, and the average cost per unit of stored waste was 12.7 USD ton −1 . The top three benefits of landfill mining were electricity generation by incineration, land reclamation and recycling soil-like materials. The NPV analysis of the four different scenarios indicated that the Yingchun landfill mining project could obtain a net positive benefit varying from 1.92 million USD to 16.63 million USD. However, the NPV was sensitive to the mode of land reuse, the availability of energy recovery facilities and the possibility of obtaining financial support by avoiding post-closure care

  4. Improved methodology to assess modification and completion of landfill gas management in the aftercare period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Jeremy W.F.; Crest, Marion; Barlaz, Morton A.; Spokas, Kurt A.; Åkerman, Anna; Yuan, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performance-based evaluation of landfill gas control system. ► Analytical framework to evaluate transition from active to passive gas control. ► Focus on cover oxidation as an alternative means of passive gas control. ► Integrates research on long-term landfill behavior with practical guidance. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste landfills represent the dominant option for waste disposal in many parts of the world. While some countries have greatly reduced their reliance on landfills, there remain thousands of landfills that require aftercare. The development of cost-effective strategies for landfill aftercare is in society’s interest to protect human health and the environment and to prevent the emergence of landfills with exhausted aftercare funding. The Evaluation of Post-Closure Care (EPCC) methodology is a performance-based approach in which landfill performance is assessed in four modules including leachate, gas, groundwater, and final cover. In the methodology, the objective is to evaluate landfill performance to determine when aftercare monitoring and maintenance can be reduced or possibly eliminated. This study presents an improved gas module for the methodology. While the original version of the module focused narrowly on regulatory requirements for control of methane migration, the improved gas module also considers best available control technology for landfill gas in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, and emissions of odoriferous compounds. The improved module emphasizes the reduction or elimination of fugitive methane by considering the methane oxidation capacity of the cover system. The module also allows for the installation of biologically active covers or other features designed to enhance methane oxidation. A methane emissions model, CALMIM, was used to assist with an assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of landfill covers.

  5. Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frändegård, Per; Krook, Joakim; Svensson, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compare two remediation scenarios; one with resource recovery and one without. • Economic analysis includes relevant direct costs and revenues for the landfill owner. • High degrees of metal and/or combustible contents are important economic factors. • Landfill tax and the access to a CHP can have a large impact on the result. • Combining landfill mining and remediation may decrease the project cost. - Abstract: This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation. Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP. Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to −€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to −€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material

  6. Co-generation potentials of municipal solid waste landfills in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Goran B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste management in the Republic of Serbia is based on landfilling. As a result of such year-long practice, a huge number of municipal waste landfills has been created where landfill gas has been generated. Landfill gas, which is essentially methane (50-55% and carbon dioxide (40-45% (both GHGs, has a great environmental impact which can be reduced by using landfill gas in cogeneration plants to produce energy. The aim of this paper is to determine economic and environmental benefits from such energy production. For that purpose, the database of cogeneration potentials (CP of 51 landfills in the Republic of Serbia (RS was created. Amount of landfill gas generated at each municipal landfill was calculated by applying a first order decay equation which requires the data about solid waste production and composition and about some landfill characteristics. For all landfills, which have over 100,000 m3 each, a techno-economic analysis about building a CHP plant was conducted. The results have shown, that the total investment in 14 CHP plants with payback period of less than 7 years amounts € 11,721,288. The total nominal power of these plants is 7 MW of electrical power and 7.9 MW of thermal power, and an average payback period is about 61 months. In addition, using landfill biogas as energy source in proposed plants would reduce methane emission for 161,000 tons of CO2 equivalent per year. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42013: Research of cogeneration potential of municipal and industrial energy power plant in Republic of Serbia and opportunities for rehabilitation of existing and construction of new cogeneration plants

  7. Holistic assessment of a landfill mining pilot project in Austria: Methodology and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Vorbach, Stefan; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Ragossnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Basic technical and economic examinations of Austrian mass waste landfills, concerning the recovery of secondary raw materials, have been carried out by the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Austria' pilot project for the first time in Austria. A main focus of the research - the subject of this article - was the first devotion of a pilot landfill to an integrated ecological and economic assessment so that its feasibility could be verified before a landfill mining project commenced. A Styrian mass waste landfill had been chosen for this purpose that had been put into operation in 1979 and received mechanically-biologically pre-treated municipal waste till 2012. The whole assessment procedure was divided into preliminary and main assessment phases to evaluate the general suitability of a landfill mining project with little financial and human resource expense. A portfolio chart, based on a questionnaire, was created for the preliminary assessment that, as a result, has provided a recommendation for subsequent investigation - the main assessment phase. In this case, specific economic criteria were assessed by net present value calculation, while ecological or socio-economic criteria were rated by utility analysis, transferring the result into a utility-net present value chart. In the case of the examined pilot landfill, assessing the landfill mining project produced a higher utility but a lower net present value than a landfill leaving-in for aftercare. Since no clearly preferable scenario could be identified this way, a cost-revenue analysis was carried out in addition that determined a dimensionless ratio: the 'utility - net present value quotient' of both scenarios. Comparing this quotient showed unmistakably that in the overall assessment, 'leaving the landfill in aftercare' was preferable to a 'landfill mining project' in that specific case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. A cost-benefit analysis of landfill mining and material recycling in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Chuanbin, E-mail: cbzhou@rcees.ac.cn; Gong, Zhe; Hu, Junsong; Cao, Aixin; Liang, Hanwen

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Assessing the economic feasibility of landfill mining. • We applied a cost-benefit analysis model for landfill mining. • Four material cycling and energy recovery scenarios were designed. • We used net present value to evaluate the cost-benefit efficiency. - Abstract: Landfill mining is an environmentally-friendly technology that combines the concepts of material recycling and sustainable waste management, and it has received a great deal of worldwide attention because of its significant environmental and economic potential in material recycling, energy recovery, land reclamation and pollution prevention. This work applied a cost-benefit analysis model for assessing the economic feasibility, which is important for promoting landfill mining. The model includes eight indicators of costs and nine indicators of benefits. Four landfill mining scenarios were designed and analyzed based on field data. The economic feasibility of landfill mining was then evaluated by the indicator of net present value (NPV). According to our case study of a typical old landfill mining project in China (Yingchun landfill), rental of excavation and hauling equipment, waste processing and material transportation were the top three costs of landfill mining, accounting for 88.2% of the total cost, and the average cost per unit of stored waste was 12.7 USD ton{sup −1}. The top three benefits of landfill mining were electricity generation by incineration, land reclamation and recycling soil-like materials. The NPV analysis of the four different scenarios indicated that the Yingchun landfill mining project could obtain a net positive benefit varying from 1.92 million USD to 16.63 million USD. However, the NPV was sensitive to the mode of land reuse, the availability of energy recovery facilities and the possibility of obtaining financial support by avoiding post-closure care.

  9. From California dreaming to California data: Challenging historic models for landfill CH4 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Spokas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Improved quantification of diverse CH4 sources at the urban scale is needed to guide local GHG mitigation strategies in the Anthropocene. Herein, we focus on landfill CH4 emissions in California, challenging the current IPCC methodology which focuses on a climate dependency for landfill CH4 generation (methanogenesis, but does not explicitly consider climate or soil dependencies for emissions. Relying on a comprehensive California landfill database, a field-validated process-based model for landfill CH4 emissions (CALMIM, and select field measurements at 10 California sites with a variety of methods, we support the contrary position: Limited climate dependency for methanogenesis, but strong climate dependency for landfill CH4 emissions. Contrary to the historic IPCC empirical model for methanogenesis with kinetic constants related to climate, we demonstrate a simpler and more robust linear empirical relationship (r2 = 0.85; n=128 between waste mass and landfill biogas recovery [126 × 10-6 Nm3 CH4 hr-1 Mgwaste-1]. More interestingly, there are no statistically significant relationships with climate, site age, or status (open/closed for landfill biogas recovery. The current IPCC methodology does not consider soil or climate drivers for gaseous transport or seasonal methanotrophy in different cover soils. On the other hand, we illustrate strong climate and soil dependencies for landfill emissions—e.g., average intermediate cover emissions below 20 g CH4 m-2 d-1 when the site’s mean annual precipitation is >500 mm y-1. Thereby, for the California landfill CH4 inventory, the highest-emitting sites shift from landfills containing the largest mass of waste to sites dominated by intermediate cover types having a reduced rate of soil CH4 oxidation during the annual cycle. These differences have profound implications for developing more realistic, science-based urban and regional scale GHG inventories for landfill CH4 while reducing

  10. Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frändegård, Per, E-mail: per.frandegard@liu.se; Krook, Joakim; Svensson, Niclas

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We compare two remediation scenarios; one with resource recovery and one without. • Economic analysis includes relevant direct costs and revenues for the landfill owner. • High degrees of metal and/or combustible contents are important economic factors. • Landfill tax and the access to a CHP can have a large impact on the result. • Combining landfill mining and remediation may decrease the project cost. - Abstract: This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation. Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP. Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to −€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to −€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material.

  11. Improved methodology to assess modification and completion of landfill gas management in the aftercare period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Jeremy W.F., E-mail: jmorris@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Crest, Marion, E-mail: marion.crest@suez-env.com [Suez Environnement, 38 rue du President Wilson, 78230 Le Pecq (France); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Spokas, Kurt A., E-mail: kurt.spokas@ars.usda.gov [United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, 439 Borlaug Hall, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Akerman, Anna, E-mail: anna.akerman@sita.fr [SITA France, Tour CB 21, 16 Place de l' Iris, 92040 Paris La Defense Cedex (France); Yuan, Lei, E-mail: lyuan@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance-based evaluation of landfill gas control system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical framework to evaluate transition from active to passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Focus on cover oxidation as an alternative means of passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrates research on long-term landfill behavior with practical guidance. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste landfills represent the dominant option for waste disposal in many parts of the world. While some countries have greatly reduced their reliance on landfills, there remain thousands of landfills that require aftercare. The development of cost-effective strategies for landfill aftercare is in society's interest to protect human health and the environment and to prevent the emergence of landfills with exhausted aftercare funding. The Evaluation of Post-Closure Care (EPCC) methodology is a performance-based approach in which landfill performance is assessed in four modules including leachate, gas, groundwater, and final cover. In the methodology, the objective is to evaluate landfill performance to determine when aftercare monitoring and maintenance can be reduced or possibly eliminated. This study presents an improved gas module for the methodology. While the original version of the module focused narrowly on regulatory requirements for control of methane migration, the improved gas module also considers best available control technology for landfill gas in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, and emissions of odoriferous compounds. The improved module emphasizes the reduction or elimination of fugitive methane by considering the methane oxidation capacity of the cover system. The module also allows for the installation of biologically active covers or other features designed to enhance methane oxidation. A methane emissions model, CALMIM, was used to assist with an assessment of the methane oxidation

  12. DAILY MEAL FREQUENCY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM LJUBLJANA IN RELATION TO SOME OF THEIR OTHER NUTRITIONAL AND LIFE-STYLE CHARACTERISTICS AND BODY MASS INDEX – PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Gabrijelčič-Blenkuš

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The recommended number of daily meals is three to five. The aim of this study was to establish the number of meals, daily consumed by secondary school students from Ljubljana, and the relationship with nutritional and other habits, including bad habits, demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the secondary school students and their body mass index.Methods. In 1999, an cross-section epidemiological study was performed on a proportional sample of 296 pupils attending the third class of Ljubljana secondary schools. The applied dietary data collection methods were the survey and the 24-hour dietary recall. The body mass index was calculated on the basis of the measured body height and body mass values. The Chi-square test, t-test, variance analysis and the multivariant linear regression method were used for the analysis.Results. The students consume 3.16 meals per day on average (boys 3.44, girls 2.87. The students who reported a smaller number of meals per day consume statistically significantly less fruit, vegetables, milk, milk products and fish. They take hot meals less frequently, consume less often all daily meals, their daily meals are of a poorer quality in respect to their composition, they eat less often their meals in a sitting position, they feel a greater difference in diet between working week days and weekends, their regular nourishment is more influenced by school obligations, they have poorer knowledge of healthy dietary practices, smoke more often, are less satisfied with their weight, are less physically active and girls sleep less at nights. The inverse proportional relationship between the number of daily meals and the body mass index was not statistically significant. The multivariant linear regression model explained the low variance percentage (R2 = 0.28.Conclusions. The average number of daily meals consumed by schoolboys is at the lower border of recommendations, while the average number of daily meals

  13. Landfill aeration in the framework of a reclamation project in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2014-03-01

    In situ aeration by means of the Airflow technology was proposed for landfill conditioning before landfill mining in the framework of a reclamation project in Northern Italy. A 1-year aeration project was carried out on part of the landfill with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of the Airflow technology for landfill aerobization, the evolution of waste biological stability during aeration and the effects on leachate and biogas quality and emissions. The main outcomes of the 1-year aeration project are presented in the paper. The beneficial effect of the aeration on waste biological stability was clear (63% reduction of the respiration index); however, the effectiveness of aeration on the lower part of the landfill is questionable, due to the limited potential for air migration into the leachate saturated layers. During the 1-year in situ aeration project approx. 275 MgC were discharged from the landfill body with the extracted gas, corresponding to 4.6 gC/kgDM. However, due to the presence of anaerobic niches in the aerated landfill, approx. 46% of this amount was extracted as CH4, which is higher than reported in other aeration projects. The O2 conversion quota was lower than reported in other similar projects, mainly due to the higher air flow rates applied. The results obtained enabled valuable recommendations to be made for the subsequent application of the Airflow technology to the whole landfill. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION AROUND RECLAIMED MUNICIPAL LANDFILL – OTWOCK AREA, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Porowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted around reclaimed landfill, located on the suburb of Otwock, around 25 km south-west of Warsaw. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical composition of groundwater and to determine the landfill impact on the chemical composition of groundwater downgrading from the landfill. Otwock landfill is located in very permeable area, where leachate quickly seeps into groundwater and plays a key role in controlling redox condition (and chemical composition of groundwater of the downgradient area. High concentrations of HCO3-, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fetot. as well as DOC in groundwater downgradient from the landfill (in comparison to background water likely indicate that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Currently, the load of contamination is released from landfill periodically and slowly moves (70 m/y in the aquifer along the flow direction. The effect of distance of the piezometer from the pollution source was also investigated. As expected, water from the nearest piezometer to the landfill showed the highest values of contaminant (water temperature, specific electrical conductivity, sodium, iron, chlorides (except for summer and autumn analysis and calcium (except for winter analysis. Chemical status of groundwater downgradient from the landfill is poor.

  15. Factors affecting water balance and percolate production for a landfill in operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Møoldrup, Per

    2005-02-01

    Percolate production and precipitation data for a full-scale landfill in operation measured over a 13-year period were used to evaluate the impact and importance of the hydrological conditions of landfill sections on the percolate production rates. Both active (open) and closed landfill sections were included in the evaluation. A simple top cover model requiring a minimum of input data was used to simulate the percolate production as a function of precipitation and landfill section hydrology. The results showed that changes over time in the hydrology of individual landfill sections (such as section closure or plantation of trees on top of closed sections) can change total landfill percolate production by more than 100%; thus, percolate production at an active landfill can be very different from percolate production at the same landfill after closure. Furthermore, plantation of willow on top of closed sections can increase the evapotranspiration rate thereby reducing percolate production rates by up to 47% compared to a grass cover. This process, however, depends upon the availability of water in the top layer, and so the evaporation rate will be less than optimal during the summer where soil-water contents in the top cover are low.

  16. Establishment and early growth of Populus hybrids irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Edmund O. Bauer; Jill A. Zalesny

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid poplar genotypes exhibit great potential for tree establishment and growth when irrigated with municipal solid waste landfill leachate. We evaluated the potential for establishment on leachate-irrigated soils by testing: 1) aboveground growth of hybrid poplar during repeated irrigation with landfill leachate and 2) aboveground and belowground biomass after 70 d...

  17. Methane oxidation at low temperatures in soil exposed to landfill gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mette; Linderød, L.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2000-01-01

    soil moisture regimes, At 2 degreesC the methane oxidation rates were 0.005 to 0.17 mu mol g(-1) h(-1), and calculations showed that it was possible to oxidize all the produced methane at older landfills, even during the winter. Therefore, methane oxidation in top covers of landfills is an alternative...

  18. Bioreactor tests preliminary to landfill in situ aeration: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.raga@unipd.it [ICEA Department, University of Padova. Via Marzolo, 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Cossu, Raffaello [ICEA Department, University of Padova. Via Marzolo, 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Carbon and nitrogen mass balances in aerated landfill simulation reactors. ► Waste stabilization in aerated landfill simulation reactors. ► Effect of temperature on biodegradation processes in aerated landfills. - Abstract: Lab scale tests in bioreactor were carried out in the framework of the characterization studies of a landfill where in situ aeration (possibly followed by landfill mining) had been proposed as part of the novel waste management strategy in a region in northern Italy. The tests were run to monitor the effects produced by aerobic conditions at different temperatures on waste sampled at different depths in the landfill, with focus on the carbon and nitrogen conversion during aeration. Temperatures ranging from 35 to 45 °C were chosen, in order to evaluate possible inhibition of biodegradation processes (namely nitrification) at 45 °C in the landfill. The results obtained showed positive effects of the aeration on leachate quality and a significant reduction of waste biodegradability. Although a delay of biodegradation processes was observed in the reactor run at 45 °C, biodegradation rates increased after 2 months of aeration, providing very low values of the relevant parameters (as in the other aerated reactors) by the end of the study. Mass balances were carried out for TOC and N-NH{sub 4}{sup +}; the findings obtained were encouraging and provided evidence of the effectiveness of carbon and nitrogen conversion processes in the aerated landfill simulation reactors.

  19. Temperatures In Compost Landfill Covers As Result Of Methane Oxidation And Compost Respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Merono, A. R.; Pedersen, Rasmus Broen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the temperature on methane (CH4) oxidation and respiration in compost sampled at a full scale biocover implemented at Klintholm landfill exhibiting high temperatures. Compost material was collected at Klintholm landfill and incubated with and without CH4...

  20. Operation of real landfill gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using internal dry reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langnickel, Hendrik; Hagen, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is one renewable energy source, which is independent from solar radiation and wind effect. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) are able to convert landfill gas derived from landfill directly into electricity and heat with a high efficiency. In the present work a planar 16cm2 SOFC cell...... was necessary to prevent poisoning and thereby to decrease the degradation rate....