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Sample records for barium plasma injection

  1. Fine structure of striations observed in barium plasma injections in the magnetospheric cleft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.J.; Eastman, T.E.; Pongratz, M.B.

    1976-01-01

    In January and November of 1975, the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory sponsored four high altitude shaped charge barium plasma injections in the magnetospheric cleft region. These experiments were TORDO UNO (January 6), TORDO DOS (January 11), PERIQUITO UNO (November 25), and PERIQUITO DOS (November 28). All four injections took place near 500 km altitude, and optical data were taken from two aircraft and a ground station. The TORDO DOS and the PERIQUITO experiments showed rapid formation of striations (within one minute after injection), and fast horizontal spreading in contrast with TORDO UNO. In PERIQUITO DOS, the debris cloud spread magnetically east-west with a small net northerly motion. TORDO UNO shows very rapid poleward motion, and the remaining two events resulted in magnetically east-west horizontal spreading, with no noticeable poleward motion. Striations observed in the PERIQUITO DOS experiment separate in opposite directions with relative velocities of up to 3 km/sec. These field-aligned structures appear to form in sheets of approximately constant magnetic latitude. Significant spatial variations occur on a scale of less than 200 meters. Spatial frequency power spectra across these striations have been determined at various times. Observations of the debris cloud and the fast barium streak show strong field-aligned coherency of striation fine structure, indicating a field line mapping of transverse electric fields and gradients

  2. Creating unstable velocity-space distributions with barium injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    Large Debye lengths relative to detector dimensions and the absence of confining walls makes space an attractive laboratory for studying fundamental theories of plasma instabilities. However, natural space plasmas are rarely found displaced from equilibrium enough to permit isolation and diagnosis of the controlling parameters and driving conditions. Furthermore, any plasma or field response to the departure from equilibrium can be masked by noise in the natural system. Active experiments provide a technique for addressing the chicken or egg dilemma. Early thermite barium releases were generally conducted at low altitudes from sounding rockets to trace electric fields passively or to study configuration-space instabilities. One can also study velocity-space instabilities with barium releases. Neutral barium vapor releases wherein a typical speed greatly exceeds the thermal speed can be used to produce barium ion velocity-space distributions that should be subject to a number of microinstabilities. We examine the ion velocity-space distributions resulting from barium injections from orbiting spacecraft and shaped-charges

  3. Plasma irregularities caused by cycloid bunching of the CRRES G-2 barium release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Huba, J. D.; Pongratz, M. B.; Simons, D. J.; Wolcott, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) spacecraft carried a number of barium thermite canisters for release into the upper atmosphere. The barium release labeled G-2 showed evidence of curved irregularities not aligned with the ambient magnetic field B. The newly discovered curved structures can be explained by a process called cycloid bunching. Cycloid bunching occurs when plasma is created by photoionization of a neutral cloud injected at high velocity perpendicular to B. If the injection velocity is much larger than the expansion speed of the cloud, the ion trail will form a cycloid that has irregularities spaced by the product of the perpendicular injection speed and the ion gyroperiod, Images of the solar-illuminated barium ions are compared with the results of a three-dimensional kinetic simulation. Cycloid bunching is shown to be responsible for the rapid generation of both curved and field-aligned irregularities in the CRRES G-2 experiment.

  4. Plasma Injection Schemes for Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Faure, J.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma injection schemes are crucial for producing high-quality electron beams in laser-plasma accelerators. This article introduces the general concepts of plasma injection. First, a Hamiltonian model for particle trapping and acceleration in plasma waves is introduced; ionization injection and colliding-pulse injection are described in the framework of this Hamiltonian model. We then proceed to consider injection in plasma density gradients.

  5. Radiographic, Hematologic and Biochemical Alterations in Peritoneal Fluid after Intraperitoneal Injection of Barium Sulfate and Gastrografin in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardar Jafari-Shoorijeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of contrast-induced changes in the peritoneal area may reveal the effects of their permeation followed by gastrointestinal perforation. This study aims to compare the radiographic changes and hematological and biochemical parameters of peritoneal fluid and blood after intraperitoneal injection of barium sulfate and gastrografin to the rabbit.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 15 healthy male rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups. Respectively to each group 10 ml/kg barium sulfate 30%, 10 ml/kg gastrografin, and 10 ml/kg saline was intraperitoneally injected. Before injection and 24 hours after injection, blood samples and peritoneal fluid were collected to measure glucose, total protein, WBC count and pH. Lateral and dorsal-ventral radiography was provided 20 min and 24 hours after contrast injection.Results: After injection of barium sulfate, serum glucose decreased, cell count and blood neutrophil percentage increased, glucose and the percentage of peritoneal fluid lymphocytes decreased (p<0.05. The amount of total protein, cell count and peritoneal fluid neutrophil percentage increased (p<0.05. Gastrografin injection only increased peritoneal fluid total protein (p=0.04. Other blood factors and peritoneal fluid showed no significant changes. In radiographies, barium sulfate remained in abdominal area and rapid absorption of gastrografin was observed.Conclusion: The use of gastrografin has fewer side effects than barium sulfate and is recommended in patients suspected with gastrointestinal perforation.

  6. Barium determination in gastric contents, blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the case of oral barium chloride poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Hanć, Anetta; Grzegorowski, Adam; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Gaca, Michał; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A serious case of barium intoxication from suicidal ingestion is reported. Oral barium chloride poisoning with hypokalemia, neuromuscular and cardiac toxicity, treated with intravenous potassium supplementation and hemodialysis, was confirmed by the determination of barium concentrations in gastric contents, blood, serum and urine using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Barium concentrations in the analyzed specimens were 20.45 µg/L in serum, 150 µg/L in blood, 10,500 µg/L in urine and 63,500 µg/L in gastric contents. Results were compared with barium levels obtained from a non-intoxicated person. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Injection into electron plasma traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgadze, Vladimir; Pasquini, Thomas A.; Fajans, Joel; Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2003-01-01

    Computational studies and experimental measurements of plasma injection into a Malmberg-Penning trap reveal that the number of trapped particles can be an order of magnitude higher than predicted by a simple estimates based on a ballistic trapping model. Enhanced trapping is associated with a rich nonlinear dynamics generated by the space-charge forces of the evolving trapped electron density. A particle-in-cell simulation is used to identify the physical mechanisms that lead to the increase in trapped electrons. The simulations initially show strong two-stream interactions between the electrons emitted from the cathode and those reflected off the end plug of the trap. This is followed by virtual cathode oscillations near the injection region. As electrons are trapped, the initially hollow longitudinal phase-space is filled, and the transverse radial density profile evolves so that the plasma potential matches that of the cathode. Simple theoretical arguments are given that describe the different dynamical regimes. Good agreement is found between simulation and theory

  8. Dielectric properties and vacancy-like defects in plasma-sprayed barium titanate.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Čížek, J.; Sedláček, J.; Lukáč, František

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 7 (2017), s. 2972-2983 ISSN 0002-7820 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : barium titanate * plasma spraying * vacancies Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics Impact factor: 2.841, year: 2016

  9. Nanostructured tetragonal barium titanate produced by the polyol and spark plasma sintering (SPS) route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Salas, Ulises; Breitwieser, Romain; Gaudisson, Thomas; Nowak, Sophie; Ammar, Souad; Valenzuela, Raúl

    2017-10-01

    There is a great interest to synthesize ferroelectric ceramics both with fine grain size and significant electric properties. Here, we report the preparation of nanostructured tetragonal barium titanate by combining forced hydrolysis of metallic salts in polyol, soft annealing and 650 °C spark plasma sintering under uniaxial pressure of 120 MPa for 5 min. The stabilization of highly dense (density of 90%), nanostructured (grains about 50 nm) tetragonal barium titanate ceramic was achieved. The produced ceramic exhibited ferroelectric behavior and a dielectric permittivity of 3600 at 1 kHz and room temperature.

  10. An improved barium plasma source for q-machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.J.; Gorgerat, P.; Simik, A.; Rynn, N.; Roe, S.; Schleipen, M.

    1988-06-01

    We have developed a stable q-machine with well determined parameters for long term times, of constant plasma density and temperature. The plasma characteristics and gun behaviour allow research in fundamental plasma physics, especially with the use of non perturbing powerful optical (LIF) diagnostics in the determination of many of the plasma parameters. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs

  11. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael W; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-08-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 microg of plasma with density above 10(17) cm(-3) to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 microg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  12. Solution-processed barium salts as charge injection layers for high performance N-channel organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Koo; Khim, Dongyoon; Xu, Yong; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kang, Minji; Kim, Jihong; Facchetti, Antonio; Noh, Yong-Young; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2014-06-25

    N-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have generally shown lower field-effect mobilities (μFET) than their p-type counterparts. One of the reasons is the energetic misalignment between the work function (WF) of commonly used charge injection electrode, i.e. gold (Au), and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of n-channel electron-transporting organic semiconductors. Here, we report barium salts as solution-processed interlayers, to improve the electron-injection and/or hole-blocking in top-gate/bottom-contact n-channel OFETs, based on poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-dithiophene)} (P(NDI2OD-T2)) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM). Two different barium salts, barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2) and barium chloride (Ba(Cl)2), are employed as the ultrathin interlayer (∼2 nm); and they effectively tune the WF of Au from 4.9 eV, to as low as 3.5 eV. The resulting n-channel OFETs exhibit significantly improved μFET, approaching 2.6 cm(2)/(V s) and 0.1 cm(2)/(V s) for the best P(NDI2OD-T2) and PC61BM devices, respectively, with Ba(OH)2 as interlayer.

  13. Heating of toroidal plasmas by neutral injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, T.H.

    1971-08-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the physics of ion acceleration, charge exchange and ionization, trajectories for fast ions in toroidal magnetic fields, and fast-ion thermalization. The injection of fast atoms is found to be a highly competitive method both for heating present-day experimental toroidal plasmas and for bringing full-scale toroidal CTR plasmas to low-density ignition. 13 refs., 9 figs

  14. Comparative analysis of barium titanate thin films dry etching using inductively coupled plasmas by different fluorine-based mixture gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Cong; Yao, Zhao; Kim, Hong-Ki; Kim, Nam-Young

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the inductively coupled plasma etching technique was applied to etch the barium titanate thin film. A comparative study of etch characteristics of the barium titanate thin film has been investigated in fluorine-based (CF4/O2, C4F8/O2 and SF6/O2) plasmas. The etch rates were measured using focused ion beam in order to ensure the accuracy of measurement. The surface morphology of etched barium titanate thin film was characterized by atomic force microscope. The chemical state of the etched surfaces was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. According to the experimental result, we monitored that a higher barium titanate thin film etch rate was achieved with SF6/O2 due to minimum amount of necessary ion energy and its higher volatility of etching byproducts as compared with CF4/O2 and C4F8/O2. Low-volatile C-F compound etching byproducts from C4F8/O2 were observed on the etched surface and resulted in the reduction of etch rate. As a result, the barium titanate films can be effectively etched by the plasma with the composition of SF6/O2, which has an etch rate of over than 46.7 nm/min at RF power/inductively coupled plasma (ICP) power of 150/1,000 W under gas pressure of 7.5 mTorr with a better surface morphology.

  15. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei; Hsu, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection into a uniform hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into core fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER and NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). Unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection is similar to compact toroid injection but with much higher plasma density and total mass, and consequently lower required injection velocit...

  16. Multifunctional bulk plasma source based on discharge with electron injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, A S; Medovnik, A V; Tyunkov, A V; Savkin, K P; Shandrikov, M V; Vizir, A V

    2013-01-01

    A bulk plasma source, based on a high-current dc glow discharge with electron injection, is described. Electron injection and some special design features of the plasma arc emitter provide a plasma source with very long periods between maintenance down-times and a long overall lifetime. The source uses a sectioned sputter-electrode array with six individual sputter targets, each of which can be independently biased. This discharge assembly configuration provides multifunctional operation, including plasma generation from different gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen, acetylene) and deposition of composite metal nitride and oxide coatings.

  17. Neutral beam injection and plasma convection in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Hiroe, S.

    1988-06-01

    Injection of a neutral beam into a plasma in a magnetic field has been studied by means of numerical plasma simulations. It is found that, in the absence of a rotational transform, the convection electric field arising from the polarization charges at the edges of the beam is dissipated by turbulent plasma convection, leading to anomalous plasma diffusion across the magnetic field. The convection electric field increases with the beam density and beam energy. In the presence of a rotational transform, polarization charges can be neutralized by the electron motion along the magnetic field. Even in the presence of a rotational transform, a steady-state convection electric field and, hence, anomalous plasma diffusion can develop when a neutral beam is constantly injected into a plasma. Theoretical investigations on the convection electric field are described for a plasma in the presence of rotational transform. 11 refs., 19 figs

  18. Plasma heating by cluster injection: basic features and expected behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1976-08-01

    The main components of a cluster injection line intended for plasma heating is briefly discussed, that is the beam source, the cluster ionizer and the accelerating tube, as well as the behavior of clusters interacting with a plasma. Outlines of the experiment of cluster injection into TFR, in progress at Fontenay-aux-Roses, and expected results will be presented and discussed all along the paper

  19. Trapping of gun-injected plasma by a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A.W.; Dexter, R.N.; Sprott, J.C.

    1986-10-01

    It is shown that a plasma produced by a Marshall gun can be injected into and trapped by a tokamak plasma. Gun injection raises the line-averaged density and peaks the density profile. Trapping of the gun-injected plasma is explainable in terms of a depolarization current mechanism. A model is developed which describes the slowing of a plasma beam crossing into the magnetic field of a tokamak. The slowing down time is shown to go as tau/sub s/ ∞ n -1 /sub b/T 3 /sub e/(α 0 /L) 2 , where n/sub b/ and T/sub e/ are the density and temperature of the plasma beam and α 0 /L is the pitch of the field lines per unit length in the direction in which the beam is traveling. Experimental tests of this model are consistent with the scaling predictions

  20. Search for auroral belt Eparallel fields with high-velocity barium ion injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heppner, J.P.; Ledley, B.G.; Miller, M.L.; Marionni, P.A.; Pongratz, M.B.; Slater, D.W.; Hallinan, T.J.; Rees, D.

    1989-01-01

    Four high-velocity shaped charge Ba + injections were conducted from two Black Brant-10 rockets at collision-free altitudes (770-975 km) over northern Alaska (L = 7.4-10.6) in April 1984 under active auroral and magnetic disturbance (Kp 4+ and 5) conditions. The motions of the Ba + pencil beams from these injections were accurately triangulated to altitudes ranging from 9,000 to 14,000 km from multistation image observations. Well-defined initial conditions and improved software for predicting the unperturbed. E = 0, trajectories in the presence of convection, E perpendicular , fields permitted an accurate detection of changes in the motion which could be attributed to E parallel fields. Large (> 1 keV) potential changes that might be anticipated from double-layer or V-, U- and S-shaped potential structures were not encountered even though the Ba + rays were clearly located on auroral arc flux tubes on at least several occasions and were at various times in close proximity to auroral flux tubes for many minutes. Abnormally intense E perpendicular fields that might also indicate that the above potential structures were also not observed. Transient accelerations and/or decelerations involving magnetic field-aligned energy changes ≤ 375 eV were, however, encountered by each of the seven principal Ba + rays tracked to high altitudes. Acceleration events were only slightly more frequent than deceleration events. Interpretation, taking into account limits on the duration of the events and simultaneous auroral conditions, favors explanation in terms of propagating waves, soliton trains, or other pulse forms provided that the propagation is primarily field-aligned

  1. Trapping of gun-injected plasma by a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A.W.; Dexter, R.N.; Sprott, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    It has been seen that a plasma produced by a Marshall gun can be injected into and trapped by a tokamak plasma. This trapping of a gun-injected plasma is explained in terms of a depolarization current mechanism. A model is developed that describes the slowing of a plasma beam crossing into the magnetic field of a tokamak. The slowing down time is shown to go as tau/sub s/proportionalT/sup 3/2//sub e/L 2 /n/sub b/α 2 0 , where n/sub b/ and T/sub e/ are the density and temperature of the plasma beam and α 0 /L is the pitch of the field lines per unit length in the direction in which the beam is traveling. Experimental tests of this model are consistent with the scaling predictions

  2. Barium light source method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John J. (Inventor); MacDonagh-Dumler, Jeffrey (Inventor); Anderson, Heidi M. (Inventor); Lawler, James E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Visible light emission is obtained from a plasma containing elemental barium including neutral barium atoms and barium ion species. Neutral barium provides a strong green light emission in the center of the visible spectrum with a highly efficient conversion of electrical energy into visible light. By the selective excitation of barium ionic species, emission of visible light at longer and shorter wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously with the green emission from neutral barium, effectively providing light that is visually perceived as white. A discharge vessel contains the elemental barium and a buffer gas fill therein, and a discharge inducer is utilized to induce a desired discharge temperature and barium vapor pressure therein to produce from the barium vapor a visible light emission. The discharge can be induced utilizing a glow discharge between electrodes in the discharge vessel as well as by inductively or capacitively coupling RF energy into the plasma within the discharge vessel.

  3. Momentum Injection in Tokamak Plasmas and Transitions to Reduced Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, F. I.; Highcock, E. G.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Barnes, M.; Cowley, S. C.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of momentum injection on the temperature gradient in tokamak plasmas is studied. A plausible scenario for transitions to reduced transport regimes is proposed. The transition happens when there is sufficient momentum input so that the velocity shear can suppress or reduce the turbulence. However, it is possible to drive too much velocity shear and rekindle the turbulent transport. The optimal level of momentum injection is determined. The reduction in transport is maximized in the regions of low or zero magnetic shear.

  4. The study of a plasma jet injected by an on-board plasma thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebnev, I.A.; Ivanov, G.V.; Khodnenko, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    The injection of a steady plasma jet into the ionosphere results in interactions which were studied in experiments conducted onboard two Meteor satellites in 1977-1979. The jet parameters at the propulsion system output were as follows: propulsive mass: Xe Xe (+) ion density at the nozzle section 3 x 10 to the 11th per cu cm plasma stream divergence: 20 degrees jet velocity: 10-12 km/cm ion energy: 130 eV electron temperature: 1 + 3 eV. A Bennett-type modified radio-frequency mass-spectrometer and a two-channel electromagnetic wave analyzer were used for the measurements. It was found that (1) the injected plasma jet propagation depends on the jet injection pitch angle (2) when the plasma jet was injected along the magnetic field, impactless jet spreading took place without considerable interaction with the ionospheric plasma (3) when the plasma jet was injected across the magnetic field, considerable interaction was observed between the plasma jet/ionospheric plasma and the earth's magnetic field and (4) electromagnetic fields were generated near the satellite by plasma jet interaction

  5. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... single-contrast lower GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast or air-contrast lower GI series, which uses ... to evenly coat the large intestine with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast lower GI series, the radiologist will inject air ...

  6. Three dimensional simulation study of spheromak injection into magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Watanabe, T.H.; Sato, T.; Hayashi, T.

    2000-01-01

    The three dimensional dynamics of a spheromak-like compact toroid (SCT) plasmoid, which is injected into a magnetized target plasma region, is investigated by using MHD numerical simulations. It is found that the process of SCT penetration into this region is much more complicated than that which has been analysed so far by using a conducting sphere (CS) model. The injected SCT suffers from a tilting instability, which grows with a similar timescale to that of the SCT penetration. The instability is accompanied by magnetic reconnection between the SCT magnetic field and the target magnetic field, which disrupts the magnetic configuration of the SCT. Magnetic reconnection plays a role in supplying the high density plasma, initially confined in the SCT magnetic field, to the target region. The penetration depth of the SCT high density plasma is also examined. It is shown to be shorter than that estimated from the CS model. The SCT high density plasma is decelerated mainly by the Lorentz force of the target magnetic field, which includes not only the magnetic pressure force but also the magnetic tension force. Furthermore, by comparing the SCT plasmoid injection with the bare plasmoid injection, magnetic reconnection is considered to relax the magnetic tension force, i.e. the deceleration of the SCT plasmoid. (author)

  7. NOx reduction by ozone injection and direct plasma treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Salewski, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    NOx reduction by ozone injection and direct plasma treatment is investigated for different process parameters in a 6 m long serpentine reactor. Several aspects including the role of mixing scheme, water vapours, steep temperature gradient and time dependet NOx levels are taken into consideration...

  8. Improved plasma uniformity in a discharge system with electron injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizir, A V; Tyunkov, A V; Shandrikov, M V

    2009-02-01

    We present the results of experiments leading to improvement in bulk plasma uniformity of a constricted-arc discharge system with electron injection. The steady-state discharge was in argon, at a gas pressure of 0.5 mTorr, and operated with a main discharge voltage between 20 and 100 V and current between 3 and 15 A. The radial plasma distribution was measured with a movable Langmuir probe. We find that geometric modification of the intermediate electrode exit aperture and the main discharge cathode add little to the plasma uniformity. Improved bulk plasma uniformity is observed when a special distributing grid electrode is used and the main discharge voltage is less than 20-30 V. The application of a weakly divergent magnetic field in the region of the intermediate electrode exit aperture decreases the plasma nonuniformity from 20% to 14% over a radial distance of 30 cm. The plasma uniformity was further improved by compensating the magnetic self-field of the injected electron beam by a reverse magnetic field produced with a special electrode compensator. It is shown that an increase in discharge current causes a proportional increase in back current in the distributing electrode. The approach allows a decrease in plasma nonuniformity from 20% to 13% over a radial distance of 30 cm.

  9. An experimental study on barium peritonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    Barium sulfate is universally used contrast media in gastrointestinal roentgenology, and spillage of barium into peritoneal cavity can occur. The references on effect of barium sulfate in the peritoneal cavity have been scattered and the results are varied. In 80 rats, body weight of 130 gm to 150 gm, sterile pure barium, sterile commercial barium, intestinal content, and mixed pure barium and intestinal content were experimentally injected into the peritoneal cavity. Consecutive weekly laparotomy and microscopic examination were done for 4 weeks. The results are as followings: 1. Mind inflammatory reaction and mild adhesion after sterile pure barium injection. 2. Mild inflammatory reaction and moderate adhesion after sterile commercial barium injection. 3. Acute peritonitis and abscess formation after intestinal content injection. 4. High mortality due to severe acute peritonitis, and severe adhesion in survivors after injection of both pure barium and intestinal content.

  10. Impact of Distributed Injection on Plasma Wakefield Acceleration at FACET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei-Najafabadi, Navid

    2017-10-01

    Impact of Distributed Injection on Plasma Wakefield Acceleration at FACET An electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) will sustain accelerating gradients of tens of GeV/m in a meter-scale plasma. If the transverse radius of the electron beam is not matched to the plasma, the envelope of this drive beam will execute betatron oscillations in the focusing force of the ion column. At its lowest radius in this oscillation cycle, the electric field of the beam can surpass the ionization threshold of elements, leading to ionization injection of these electrons in to the wake. Electrons from each cycle of this betatron oscillation then accumulate at the back of the wake and decrease the accelerating field. The experiments were carried out at FACET, where the drive electron beam had 3 nC of charge and an energy of 20.35 GeV. Two different plasma sources were used: a 30 cm self-ionized Rubidium (Rb) vapor confined by argon (Ar) gas at room-temperature and a partially pre-ionized hydrogen gas. The experimental and simulation evidence for the distributed injection of electrons and their impact on the PWFA at FACET will be presented in this talk. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1415386 and DOE Grant No. DE-SC0010064. Work at SLAC was supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  11. Theoretical Considerations for Liquid Jet Injection into Tokamak Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, P. B.; Rosenbluth, M. N.; Sessions, W. D.; Geskin, E.; Jardin, S. C.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of hydrogen, or helium, liquid jet injection for high-current ITER-like plasmas is to deliver a rapid and massive plasma density increase in order to prevent ``avalanche'' runaway electron formation during disruptions and preemptive plasma terminations. Multiple pellet injection may be too slow for this purpose, and killer impurity pellets can cause runaways and because of their limited penetration range, can generate steep pressure gradients, leading to a core energy quench. After complete jet burnthrough and isobaric cooling, a nearly flat temperature profile of a few hundred eV is established which can provide a pathway for deep penetration of a killer ``stealth" pellet that takes out the thermal and magnetic energy by radiative dissipation. This disruption mitigation blueprint is being studied for ITER using a recently modified jet ablation theory coupled with the TSC plasma simulation code. Also discussed is a LHe or LCH4 jet injection concept for future plasma quench and disruption mitigation experiments in DIII--D.

  12. Plasma injection events at synchronous orbit related to positive Dst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Moore, T. E.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1982-01-01

    AST 6 spacecraft synchronous orbit measurements are compared with space and ground data in a study of plasma effects related to SI and SC magnetic perturbations. It is found that synchronous orbit plasma injections related to the sudden phenomena are similar to those associated with substorms, although the former occur at all local times. The synchronous orbit plasma injections are interpreted as the co-location of particle boundaries on an inward propagating front and the compression magnetic pulse associated with SI and SC events is seen as responsible for the co-location of the boundaries and their inward propagation. The positive Dst magnetic pulse plays a role similar to that of the magnetic tail reconfiguration pulse associated with substorms, and evidence is shown that positive Dst enhances magnetospheric convection independently of interplanetary magnetic field direction

  13. Influence on Injection Mode on Properties of DC Plasma Jets for Thermal Plasma Spraying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavka, Tetyana; Mašláni, Alan; Arnold, J.; Henne, R.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, suppl.C (2004), C766-C771 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /21st/. Praha, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] Grant - others:DFG(XX) HE2061/2-1-879/97; DFG(XX) HE2061-2-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma spraying, DC arc, injection Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  14. Relativistic electron-beam generation in plasma-filled diode and foilless injection into dense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmasov, V. S.; Kandaurov, I. V.; Kruglyakov, E. P.; Meshkov, O. I.

    1994-05-01

    The traditional way of relativistic electron beam (REB) injection in the experiments on REB- plasma interaction is the injection through an anode foil that separates vacuum diode from plasma chamber. The presence of separating foil leads to the following: (1) replacement of destroyed foil is required after each shot, and (2) the beam angular characteristics making worse. A beam with low angular spread can be obtained from foilless diode placed into strong guiding magnetic field; the problem is how to avoid the diode shortening in the presence of a dense plasma from the interaction chamber. In the experiments on studying of Langmuir turbulence, carrying out on GOL-M device it becomes possible to avoid a separating foil and to obtain a foilless injection of REB into a dense (plasma, utilizing a special drift pipe as an anode of the foilless axially symmetric magnetized diode.

  15. MHD simulation study of compact toroid injection into magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Kishimoto, Yasuaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Hayashi, Takaya [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    To understand the fuelling process in a fusion device by a compact toroid (CT) plasmoid injection method, we have carried out MHD numerical simulations where a spheromak-like CT (SCT) is injected into a magnetized target plasma region. So far, we revealed that the penetration depth of the SCT plasma becomes shorter than that estimated from the conducting sphere (CS) model, because in the simulation the Lorentz force of the target magnetic field sequentially decelerates the injected SCT while in the CS model only the magnetic pressure force acts as the deceleration mechanism. In this study, we represent the new theoretical model where the injected SCT is decelerated by both the magnetic pressure force and the magnetic tension force (we call it the non-slipping sphere (NS) model) and investigate in detail the deceleration mechanism of the SCT by comparison with simulation results. As a result, it is found that the decrease of the SCT kinetic energy in the simulation coincides with that in the NS model more than in the CS model. It means that not only the magnetic pressure force but also the magnetic tension force acts as the deceleration mechanism of the SCT. Furthermore, it is revealed that magnetic reconnection between the SCT magnetic field and the target magnetic field plays a role to relax the SCT deceleration. (author)

  16. Injection techniques of platelet-rich plasma into and around the Achilles tendon: a cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; Reilingh, Mikel L.; de Jonge, Milko C.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.

    2011-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections are used to treat (Achilles) tendinopathies. Platelet-rich plasma has been injected at different locations, but the feasibility of PRP injections and the distribution after injection have not been studied. To evaluate (1) the feasibility of ultrasound-guided PRP

  17. Effect of sulfur hexafluoride gas and post-annealing treatment for inductively coupled plasma etched barium titanate thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Li, Yang; Yao, Zhao; Kim, Hong-Ki; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Nam-Young

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol deposition- (AD) derived barium titanate (BTO) micropatterns are etched via SF6/O2/Ar plasmas using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching technology. The reaction mechanisms of the sulfur hexafluoride on BTO thin films and the effects of annealing treatment are verified through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, which confirms the accumulation of reaction products on the etched surface due to the low volatility of the reaction products, such as Ba and Ti fluorides, and these residues could be completely removed by the post-annealing treatment. The exact peak positions and chemicals shifts of Ba 3d, Ti 2p, O 1 s, and F 1 s are deduced by fitting the XPS narrow-scan spectra on as-deposited, etched, and post-annealed BTO surfaces. Compared to the as-deposited BTOs, the etched Ba 3d 5/2 , Ba 3d 3/2 , Ti 2p 3/2 , Ti 2p 1/2 , and O 1 s peaks shift towards higher binding energy regions by amounts of 0.55, 0.45, 0.4, 0.35, and 0.85 eV, respectively. A comparison of the as-deposited film with the post-annealed film after etching revealed that there are no significant differences in the fitted XPS narrow-scan spectra except for the slight chemical shift in the O 1 s peak due to the oxygen vacancy compensation in O2-excessive atmosphere. It is inferred that the electrical properties of the etched BTO film can be restored by post-annealing treatment after the etching process. Moreover, the relative permittivity and loss tangent of the post-annealed BTO thin films are remarkably improved by 232% and 2,695%, respectively.

  18. Barium toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Fiona H; Noble, Peter J M; Swift, Simon T; Higgins, Brent M; Sieniawska, Christine E

    2010-09-01

    A 2-year-old 14.9-kg (32.8-lb) neutered female Shetland Sheepdog was admitted to the University of Liverpool Small Animal Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute collapse. At admission, the dog was tachypneic and had reduced limb reflexes and muscle tone in all limbs consistent with diffuse lower motor neuron dysfunction. The dog was severely hypokalemic (1.7 mEq/L; reference range, 3.5 to 5.8 mEq/L). Clinical status of the dog deteriorated; there was muscle twitching, flaccid paralysis, and respiratory failure, which was considered a result of respiratory muscle weakness. Ventricular arrhythmias and severe acidemia (pH, 7.18; reference range, 7.35 to 7.45) developed. Intoxication was suspected, and plasma and urine samples submitted for barium analysis had barium concentrations comparable with those reported in humans with barium toxicosis. Analysis of barium concentrations in 5 control dogs supported the diagnosis of barium toxicosis in the dog. Fluids and potassium supplementation were administered IV. The dog recovered rapidly. Electrolyte concentrations measured after recovery were consistently unremarkable. Quantification of plasma barium concentration 56 days after the presumed episode of intoxication revealed a large decrease; however, the plasma barium concentration remained elevated, compared with that in control dogs. To our knowledge, this case represented the first description of barium toxicosis in the veterinary literature. Barium toxicosis can cause life-threatening hypokalemia; however, prompt supportive treatment can yield excellent outcomes. Barium toxicosis is a rare but important differential diagnosis in animals with hypokalemia and appropriate clinical signs.

  19. Electron beam manipulation, injection and acceleration in plasma wakefield accelerators by optically generated plasma density spikes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, Georg; Karger, Oliver S.; Knetsch, Alexander [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Xi, Yunfeng; Deng, Aihua; Rosenzweig, James B. [Particle Beam Physics Laboratory, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bruhwiler, David L. [RadiaSoft LLC, Boulder, CO 80304 (United States); RadiaBeam Technologies LLC (United States); Smith, Jonathan [Tech-X UK Ltd, Daresbury, Cheshire WA4 4FS (United Kingdom); Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, Dino A.; Manahan, Grace G. [Physics Department, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Hidding, Bernhard [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Physics Department, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    We discuss considerations regarding a novel and robust scheme for optically triggered electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators [1]. In this technique, a transversely propagating focused laser pulse ignites a quasi-stationary plasma column before the arrival of the plasma wake. This localized plasma density enhancement or optical “plasma torch” distorts the blowout during the arrival of the electron drive bunch and modifies the electron trajectories, resulting in controlled injection. By changing the gas density, and the laser pulse parameters such as beam waist and intensity, and by moving the focal point of the laser pulse, the shape of the plasma torch, and therefore the generated trailing beam, can be tuned easily. The proposed method is much more flexible and faster in generating gas density transitions when compared to hydrodynamics-based methods, and it accommodates experimentalists needs as it is a purely optical process and straightforward to implement.

  20. Plasma heating by cluster injection: basic features and expected behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92

    1976-01-01

    Each main component of an injection line (beam source, cluster ionizer, accelerating tube) is briefly discussed together with the behavior of clusters interacting with a plasma. Outlines of the experiment of cluster injection into TFR, in progress at Fontenay-aux-Roses are presented and discussed all along the paper. It is shown that high current densities at rather low energy per atom can be obtained by accelerated cluster beams. In present size toroidal devices, both ion temperature and density can be increased simultaneously without heating electrons. This feature could be attractive as long as tokamak losses are dominated by electrons. The extrapolation of the ionizers under construction does not seem to present much difficulty; on the contrary, the accelerating tube could be the most serious problem to solve. (40 references)

  1. Barium titanate nanometric polycrystalline ceramics fired by spark plasma sintering.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Ryukhtin, Vasyl; Cinert, Jakub; Lukáč, František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 14 (2016), s. 15989-15993 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : BaTiO3 * Spark plasma sintering * Electrical properties Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass; JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass (UJF-V) Impact factor: 2.986, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272884216311695

  2. Modeling of noble gas injection into tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, D.Kh.; Yurchenko, E.I.; Lukash, V.E.; Baronova, E.O.; Rozhansky, V.A.; Senichenkov, I.Yu.; Veselova, I.Yu.; Schneider, R.

    2005-01-01

    Noble gas injection for mitigation of the disruption in DIII-D is simulated. The simulation of the first two stages is performed: of the neutral gas jet penetration through the background plasmas, and of the thermal quench. In order to simulate the first stage the 1.5-dimensional numerical code LLP with improved radiation model for noble gas is used. It is demonstrated that the jet remains mainly neutral and thus is able to penetrate to the central region of the tokamak in accordance with experimental observations. Plasma cooling at this stage is provided by the energy exchange with the jet. The radiation is relatively small, and the plasma thermal energy is spent mainly on the jet expansion. The magnetic surfaces in contact with the jet are cooled significantly. The cooling front propagates towards the plasma center. The simulations of the plasma column dynamics in the presence of moving jet is performed by means of the free boundary transport modeling DINA code. It has been shown that the cooling front is accompanied by strongly localized 'shark fin-like' perturbation in toroidal current density profile. After few milliseconds the jet (together with the current perturbation) achieves the region where safety factor is slightly higher than unity and a new type of the non-local kink mode develops. The unstable kink perturbation is non-resonant for any magnetic surface, both inside the plasma column, and in the vacuum space. The mode disturbs mainly the core region. The growth time of the 'shark fin-like' mode is higher than the Alfven time by a factor of 100 for DIII-D parameters. Hence, the simulation describes the DIII-D experimental results, at least, qualitatively. (author)

  3. Plasma debinding and pre-sintering of injected parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Maria Antônia dos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of polypropylene removal in injected metallic parts by using plasma technology are presented. The samples were injected with 55.18% Vol. of unalloyed iron powder, 23.57% Vol. of paraffin and 21.25% Vol. of polypropylene. The paraffin was previously removed in hexane bath, followed by a treatment in abnormal glow discharge of argon and hydrogen for the removal of the polypropylene. The electric discharge was generated in two configurations: a confined anode-cathode with the samples placed on the anode and a confined grid (anode-cathode system with the sample placed on a holder at floating potential inside the grid. In the first geometry, electrons bombarded the sample surface, while in the second, they are collected by the grid. The samples were characterized by mass loss measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the hydrogen discharge was more efficient for both configurations, which is attributed to the high reactivity of hydrogen atoms produced in the discharge. In addition, when plasma debinding was performed at 400 ºC for 10 min, by using the confined anode-cathode configuration, the polypropylene removal was total, while in the confined grid (anode-cathode geometry the removal was approximately 32%. The higher polypropylene removing observed in the anode-cathode configuration is attributed to electron bombardment of the surface of the sample.

  4. Observation of plasma microwave emission during the injection of supersonic plasma flows into magnetic arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorov, Mikhail; Mansfeld, Dmitry; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Golubev, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    Understanding of the energy transfer mechanisms from supersonic plasma flow into the thermal energy of plasma, waves and accelerated particles in the environment of planetary bow shocks and interplanetary shocks have been topical for many decades. Almost all mechanisms of energy dissipation in collisionless shock waves end with microscopic processes involving wave-particle interactions. Excitation of plasma waves in electron cyclotron frequency range plays an important role in the dissipation of bulk flow energy across the Earth bow shock. In the present work, the process of plasma deceleration during the injection of supersonic plasma flow across the magnetic field of an arched configuration is experimentally demonstrated. Pulsed plasma microwave emission in the electron cyclotron frequency range is observed. It is shown that the frequency spectrum of plasma emission is determined by the position of the deceleration region in the magnetic field of the magnetic arc and its bandwidth is defined by the magnetic field inhomogeneity in the deceleration region. The observed emission can be related to the cyclotron mechanism of wave generation by non-equilibrium energetic electrons in the dense plasma, especially excitation of electron Bernstein waves. The work was supported by RFBR (Project No. 16-32-60056).

  5. Neutral Beam Injection for Plasma and Magnetic Field Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaa, Jaakko Hannes; Leung, Ka Ngo; Kwan, Joe W.; Levinton, Fred

    2007-01-01

    At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) a diagnostic neutral beam injection system for measuring plasma parameters, flow velocity, and local magnetic field is being developed. High proton fraction and small divergence is essential for diagnostic neutral beams. In our design, a neutral hydrogen beam with an 8 cm x 11 cm (or smaller) elliptical beam spot at 2.5 m from the end of the extraction column is produced. The beam will deliver up to 5 A of hydrogen beam to the target with a pulse width of ∼1 s, once every 1-2 min. The H1+ ion species of the hydrogen beam will be over 90 percent. For this application, we have compared two types of RF driven multicusp ion sources operating at 13.56MHz. The first one is an ion source with an external spiral antenna behind a dielectric RF-window. The second one uses an internal antenna in similar ion source geometry. The source needs to generate uniform plasma over a large (8 cm x 5 cm) extraction area. We expect that the ion source with internal antenna will be more efficient at producing the desired plasma density but might have the issue of limited antenna lifetime, depending on the duty factor. For both approaches there is a need for extra shielding to protect the dielectric materials from the backstreaming electrons. The source walls will be made of insulator material such as quartz that has been observed to generate plasma with higher atomic fraction than sources with metal walls. The ion beam will be extracted and accelerated by a set of grids with slits, thus forming an array of 6 sheet-shaped beamlets. The multiple grid extraction will be optimized using computer simulation programs. Neutralization of the beam will be done in neutralization chamber, which has over 70 percent neutralization efficiency

  6. Helicity injection with moving vacuum--plasma boundary with arbitrary flux surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    If a toroidal plasma has arbitrary nested magnetic flux surfaces and a moving plasma--vacuum interface, then any helicity injected by modulating the magnetic fields is simply consumed by an increase in helicity dissipation due to the modulated fields

  7. Characteristics of magnetized plasma flow for helicity injection into reversed-field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shotaro; Asai, Tomohiko; Nagata, Masayoshi; Koguchi, Haruhisa; Hirano, Yoichi; Sakakita, Hajime; Kiyama, Satoru

    2007-11-01

    The magnetized plasma flow injection experiment has been performed on the large sized reversed-field pinch (RFP) device of TPE-RX. The magnetized plasma flow injection has been demonstrated to support RFP formation fueling and helicity injection. In the start-up experiment with the plasma flow injection, reduced density pump-out, loop voltage and Da emission have been observed clearly. Also the effect of plasma flow on the RFP with improved confinement by PPCD technique has been evaluated. To determine the efficiency of fueling and helicity injection, density, temperature and magnetic structure have been measured by using Langmuir and magnetic probe arrays.The series of experiments will show the magnetic structure and actual helicity and energy contents of injected magnetized plasma flow.

  8. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  9. Experiments with electron beam injection in ionosphere plasma and rare gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykovskij, V.F.; Meshkov, I.N.; Seleznev, I.A.; Syresin, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    The active experiment 'Electron' is intended for the electron beam injection from a meteorological rocket in the ionosphere plasma. The beam is injected in the ionosphere plasma at a current of 0.5 A and an energy of 6.5 - 8 keV. The energy spectra are given for the plasma electrons and ions. The radio-wave spectrum is measured in a RF frequency range of 100-500 MHz. The radio wave traversing through the electron beam injection region is discussed. The laboratory experiments are performed with the electron beam injection in a rare gas to model the active outer-space experiments

  10. Registration of ELF waves in rocket-satellite experiment with plasma injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeinikov, V. G.; Oraevskii, V. N.; Ruzhin, Iu. Ia.; Sobolev, Ia. P.; Skomarovskii, V. S.; Chmyrev, V. M.; Namazov, C. A.; Pokhunkov, A. A.; Nesmeianov, V. I.

    1992-12-01

    Two rocket KOMBI-SAMA experiments with plasma injection at height 100-240 km were performed in August 1987 in the region of Brazilian magnetic anomaly (L = 1.25). The launching time of the rocket was determined so that plasma injection was at the time when COSMOS 1809 satellite passed as close as possible to magnetic tube of injection. Caesium plasma jet was produced during not less than 300 s by an electric plasma generator separated from the payload. When the satellite passed the geomagnetic tube intersecting the injection region an enhancement of ELF emission at 140 Hz, 450 Hz by a factor of 2 was registered on board the satellite. An enhancement of energetic particle flux by a factor of 4-5 was registered on board the rocket. Observed ELF emission below 100 Hz is interpreted as the generation of oblique electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves due to drift plasma instability at the front of the plasma jet.

  11. Barite (Barium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Miller, M. Michael; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) is vital to the oil and gas industry because it is a key constituent of the mud used to drill oil and gas wells. Elemental barium is an additive in optical glass, ceramic glazes, and other products. Within the United States, barite is produced mainly from mines in Nevada. Imports in 2011 (the latest year for which complete data were available) accounted for 78 percent of domestic consumption and came mostly from China.Barite deposits can be divided into the following four main types: bedded-sedimentary; bedded-volcanic; vein, cavity-fill, and metasomatic; and residual. Bedded-sedimentary deposits, which are found in sedimentary rocks with characteristics of high biological productivity during sediment accumulation, are the major sources of barite production and account for the majority of reserves, both in the United States and worldwide. In 2013, China and India were the leading producers of barite, and they have large identified resources that position them to be significant producers for the foreseeable future. The potential for undiscovered barite resources in the United States and in many other countries is considerable, however. The expected tight supply and rising costs in the coming years will likely be met by increased production from such countries as Kazakhstan, Mexico, Morocco, and Vietnam.Barium has limited mobility in the environment and exposed barium in the vicinity of barite mines poses minimal risk to human or ecosystem health. Of greater concern is the potential for acidic metal-bearing drainage at sites where the barite ores or waste rocks contain abundant sulfide minerals. This risk is lessened naturally if the host rocks at the site are acid-neutralizing, and the risk can also be lessened by engineering measures.

  12. Transient effects caused by pulsed gas and liquid injections into low pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, D; Goeckner, M; Overzet, L; Chung, C W

    2010-01-01

    The fast injection of liquid droplets into a glow discharge causes significant time variations in the pressure, the chemical composition of the gas and the phases present (liquid and/or solid along with gas). While the variations can be large and important, very few studies, especially kinetic studies, have been published. In this paper we examine the changes brought about in argon plasma by injecting Ar (gas), N 2 (gas) hexane (gas) and hexane (liquid droplets). The changes in the RF capacitively coupled power (forward and reflected), electron and ion density (n e , n i ), electron temperature (T e ) and optical emissions were monitored during the injections. It was found that the Ar injection (pressure change only) caused expected variations. The electron temperature reduced, the plasma density increased and the optical emission intensity remained nearly constant. The N 2 and hexane gas injections (chemical composition and pressure changes) also followed expected trends. The plasma densities increased and electron temperature decreased while the optical emissions changed from argon to the injected gas. These all serve to highlight the fact that the injection of evaporating hexane droplets in the plasma caused very little change. This is because the number of injected droplets is too small to noticeably affect the plasma, even though the shift in the chemical composition of the gas caused by evaporation from those same droplets can be very significant. The net conclusion is that using liquid droplets to inject precursors for low pressure plasmas is both feasible and controllable.

  13. Warming barium sulfate improves esophageal leak detection in pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Vignesh; MacGlaflin, Caitlyn E; Moodie, Karen L; Kaiser, Larry R; Erkmen, Cherie P

    2015-12-01

    Barium esophagograms have poor sensitivity in detecting leaks. We hypothesized that heating barium would decrease viscosity, facilitate extravasation, and enhance its sensitivity in detecting esophageal leaks. We characterized the viscosity of barium at increasing temperatures. We measured the radiopacity of barium at 25°C and 50°C. We determined the smallest diameter defect in esophagus that barium can detect by perforating a porcine esophageal segment with angiocatheters of various diameters, injecting barium at 25°C, and observing extravasation of contrast. We repeated this with barium heated to 30°C, 40°C, 50°C, and 70°C. To determine the ability of barium to detect a staple line leak, we perforated a stapled esophageal segment by air insufflation, injected barium at different temperatures, and monitored extravasation. We used Visipaque, a water-soluble contrast agent, for comparison in all experiments. The viscosity of barium decreased with increasing temperature. The radiopacity of barium did not change with increasing temperature and was higher than that of Visipaque (P detectable leak decreased from 2.1 mm with barium at 25°C to 1.3 mm at 40°C and 1.1 mm with Visipaque (P leak detection increased from 0% for barium at 25°C to 80% (P = 0.02) with barium at 40°C. There was no significant difference in sensitivity between barium at 40°C and Visipaque. Barium warmed to 40°C offers the best sensitivity of esophageal leak detection without compromising radiopacity. Barium at 40°C may be the optimum choice for swallow study to detect esophageal leaks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Large potential change induced by pellet injection in JIPP T-IIU tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Sato, K.N.; Sakakita, H.

    1995-05-01

    A large, rapid change in the local plasma potential is found to be induced by off-axis hydrogen ice-pellet injection into a tokamak plasma. The polarity of the rapid change is reversed when the pellet is injected into the upper and lower halves of the poloidal plasma cross-section. This change can be interpreted as being due to the gradient-B drift of particles in the high-density plasmas of the pellet cloud, before the increase of the plasma density due to the ablation becomes uniform on the magnetic surface. (author)

  15. The first experiment of MPD Jet injection into GAMMA 10 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Kazuya; Nakashima, Yousuke; Takeda, Hisato

    2014-01-01

    Results of the first experiment of short pulse plasma injection by MPD (magneto plasma dynamic) Jet into GAMMA 10/PDX's longer pulse plasma are reported. In the experiment, a new method for plasma start-up without using plasma guns was applied. In this method, the main plasma of GAMMA 10/PDX was produced by ECRH (electron cyclotron resonance heating) and ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequency). Then, MPD Jet plasma was injected into the main plasma along magnetic field line. As a result, density of the main plasma was increased and the end-loss flux was doubled. Flow velocity of the plasmoid injected by the MPD Jet was evaluated from the change of plasma density in each cell of the tandem mirror. The result indicated that the flow speed is several km/s. It is found that the plasmoid worked as strong fueling device which dramatically raises the density of plasma. Therefore injection of MPD Jet plasma into tandem mirror can be a useful tool to study physical phenomena of divertor and PWI. (author)

  16. Beam-plasma interaction in case of injection of the electron beam to the symmetrically open plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opanasenko, A.V.; Romanyuk, L.I.

    1992-01-01

    A beam-plasma interaction at the entrance of the symmetrically open plasma system with an electron beam injected through it is investigated. An ignition of the plasma-beam discharge on waves of upper hybrid dispersion branch of a magnetoactive plasma is found in the plasma penetrating into the vacuum contrary to the beam. It is shown that the beam-plasma discharge is localized in the inhomogeneous penetrating plasma in the zone where only these waves exist. Regularities of the beam-plasma discharge ignition and manifestation are described. It is determined that the electron beam crossing the discharge zone leads to the strong energy relaxation of the beam. It is shown possible to control the beam-plasma discharge ignition by changing the potential of the electron beam collector. (author)

  17. Radial plasma profile and neutron yield in an adiabatic trap with fast atom injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Radial profiles of ion densities depending on two dimensionless parameters, which values are determined by the trap, plasma and injected beam parameters are found in dimensionless units for a plasma generated by fast atom injection in an adiabatic trap. The calculated profiles are used for determining the neutron yield. Simple approximated dimensional relations permitting to estimate quickly neutron yield, required injection power, flux of charge exchange atoms on the wall around the plasma in a wide energy range of injected atoms, trap field modulud, injection angle, trap radius and length are determined. The energetic efficiency of neutron production is estimated and it is shown that it grows with the injection energy. 7 refs.; 7 figs

  18. Experimental investigation of coaxial-gun-formed plasmas injected into a background transverse magnetic field or plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yue; Hsu, Scott C.; Fisher, Dustin M.; Gilmore, Mark; Lynn, Alan G.

    2017-01-01

    Injection of coaxial-gun-formed magnetized plasmas into a background transverse vacuum magnetic field or into a background magnetized plasma has been studied in the helicon-cathode (HelCat) linear plasma device at the University of New Mexico [M. Gilmore et al., J. Plasma Phys.81, 345810104 (2015)]. Magnetized plasma jet launched into a background transverse magnetic field shows emergent kink stabilization of the jet due to the formation of a sheared flow in the jet above the kink-stabilizati...

  19. Formation of compact toroidal plasmas by magnetized coaxial plasma gun injection into an oblate flux conserver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.C.; Goldenbaum, G.C.; Granneman, E.H.A.; Hartman, C.W.; Prono, D.S.; Taska, J.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Initial results are reported on the formation of compact toroidal plasmas in an oblate shaped metallic flux conserver. A schematic of the experimental apparatus is shown. The plasma injector is a coaxial plasma gun with solenoid coils wound on the inner and outer electrodes. The electrode length is 100 cm, the diameter of the inner (outer) electrode is 19.3 cm (32.4 cm). Deuterium gas is puffed into the region between electrodes by eight pulsed valves located on the outer electrode 50 cm from the end of the gun. The gun injects into a cylindrically symmetrical copper shell (wall thickness = 1.6 mm) which acts as a flux conserver for the time scale of experiments reported here. The copper shell consists of a transition cylinder 30 cm long, 34 cm in diameter, a cylindrical oblate pill box 40 cm long, 75 cm in diameter and a downstream cylinder 30 cm long, 30 cm in diameter. The gap between the gun and transition cylinder is 6 cm. An axial array of coils outside the vacuum chamber can be used to establish an initial uniform bias field

  20. Manufacturing nanostructured YSZ coatings by suspension plasma spraying (SPS): effect of injection parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meillot, E; Vert, R; Caruyer, C; Damiani, D; Vardelle, M

    2011-01-01

    The suspension plasma spraying process is investigated using shadow imaging techniques to appreciate the different trajectories of the liquid jet interacting with a dc high-energy plasma flow. Then, the modelling of different liquid injections (isolated droplet, train of droplets and continuous jet) helps us to determine which injection type must be preferred. From that, coating depositions have been carried out with yttria zirconia suspension. Trajectory deviations at impact have been measured depending on the injection pressure and injection location. Coatings have been realized under the same operating investigations and their microstructures and mechanical properties have been characterized.

  1. Metal impurity injection into DIVA plasmas with a Q-switched laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Nagami, Masayuki; Sengoku, Seio; Kumagai, Katsuaki

    1978-08-01

    Metal impurity injection into DIVA plasmas with a Q-switched ruby laser beam is described. Metal materials used are aluminium and gold. The Q-switched laser beam is incident onto a thin metal film thickness about 0.2 μm coated on pyrex glass plate surface. The metal film is vaporized by the laser beam and injected into DIVA plasma. The laser-beam injection method has advantages of sharp profile of vaporized metal, easy control of vaporized metal quantity and injection rate control of metal vapor. (author)

  2. The response of the Tore Supra edge plasma to supersonic pulsed gas injection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, Radomír; Gunn, J. P.; Bucalossi, J.; Ďuran, Ivan; Geraud, A.; Hron, Martin; Loarer, T.; Pégourié, B.; Stöckel, Jan; Tsitrone, E.

    337-339, č. 16 (2005), s. 530-534 ISSN 0022-3115. [Plasma Surface Interactions /16./. Portland, 24.5.2005-28.5.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP202/03/P062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Edge plasma * Gas injection and fuelling * probes * Plasma flow * Tore Supra Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2005

  3. Impurity injection into tokamak plasmas by erosion probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Bakos, J.S.; Buerger, G.; Paszti, F.; Petravich, G.

    1987-08-01

    Exposing special erosion probes into the edge plasma of MT-1 the impurities Li and Ti were released and contaminated the plasma. By the use of collector probes the torodial transport of these impurities were investigated. The results indicate a preferential impurity flow into codirection of the plasma current. However, the asymmetric component of this flow is much larger than expected from the toroidal drift correlated to the plasma current. (author)

  4. Poloidal rotation induced by injecting lower hybrid waves in tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yiming; Gao Qingdi; Shi Bingren

    2001-01-01

    The poloidal rotation of the magnetized edge plasma in tokamak driven by the ponderomotive force which is generated by injecting lower hybrid wave (LHW) electric field has been studied. The LHW is launched from a waveguide in the plasma edge, and by Brambilla's grill theory, analytic expressions for the wave electric field in the slab model of an inhomogeneous cold plasma have been derived. It is shown that a strong wave electric field will be generated in the plasma edge by injecting LH wave of the power in MW magnitude, and this electric field will induce a poloidal rotation with a sheared poloidal velocity

  5. Early results of microwave transmission experiments through an overly dense rectangular plasma sheet with microparticle injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2014-06-01

    These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.

  6. Role of Ultrasound Guided Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP Injection in Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enass M. Khattab

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that US-guided platelet-rich plasma (PRP injection for treatment of lateral epicondylitis was a safe, minimally invasive and effective procedure in improving the sonographic and pathological changes of common extensor tendon (CET.

  7. Effects of progesterone injection on performance, plasma hormones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... for glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TAG), P4, estradiol (E2), testosterone, T3 and T4 concentration. Settable egg production .... b c b a a c c b. Figure 1. Settable egg production in ad libitum fed with (AI) or without (AN) P4 injection and in restricted fed hens with (RI) or without (RN) P4 injection. Data are.

  8. Plasma jet source parameter optimisation and experiments on injection into Globus-M spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, V.K.; Petrov, Yu.V.; Sakharov, N.V.; Semenov, A.A.; Voronin, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Results of theoretical and experimental research on the plasma sources and injection of plasma and gas jet produced by the modified source into tokamak Globus-M are presented. An experimental test stand was developed for investigation of intense plasma jet generation. Optimisation of pulsed coaxial accelerator parameters by means of analytical calculations is performed with the aim of achieving the highest flow velocity at limited coaxial electrode length and discharge current. The optimal parameters of power supply to generate a plasma jet with minimal impurity contamination and maximum flow velocity were determined. A comparison of experimental and calculation results is made. Plasma jet parameters are measured, such as: impurity species content, pressure distribution across the jet, flow velocity, plasma density, etc. Experiments on the interaction of a higher kinetic energy plasma jet with the magnetic field and plasma of the Globus-M tokamak were performed. Experimental results on plasma and gas jet injection into different Globus-M discharge phases are presented and discussed. Results are presented on the investigation of plasma jet injection as the source for discharge breakdown, plasma current startup and initial density rise. (author)

  9. Platelet-Rich-Plasma Injections in Treating Lateral Epicondylosis: a Review of the Recent Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, D J; Javed, S; Jain, N; Kemp, S; Watts, A C

    2015-12-01

    Lateral epicondylosis is common, with various treatment modalities. Platelet-rich-plasma injections from autologous blood have recently been used in centres worldwide for the treatment of tennis elbow. We review and present the recent published evidence on the effectiveness of PRP injections for lateral epicondylosis. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria including 6 RCT's for the purpose of analysis. PRP injections have an important and effective role in the treatment of this debilitating pathology, in cases where physiotherapy has been unsuccessful.

  10. 3D MHD simulations of pellet injection and disruptions in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    Nonlinear MHD simulation results of pellet injection show that MHD forces can accelerate large pellets, injected on the high field side of a tokamak, to the plasma center. Magnetic reconnection can produce a reverse shear q profile. Ballooning instability caused by pellets is also reduced by high field side injection. Studies are also reported of the current quench phase of disruptions, which can cause 3D halo currents and runaway electrons. (author)

  11. 3D MHD simulations of pellet injection and disruptions in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear MHD simulation results of pellet injection show that MHD forces can accelerate large pellets, injected on the high field side of a tokamak, to the plasma center. Magnetic reconnection can produce a reverse shear q profile. Ballooning instability caused by pellets is also reduced by high field side injection. Studies are also reported of the current quench phase of disruptions, which can cause 3D halo currents and runaway electrons. (author)

  12. Effect of intravenous injection of galanin on plasma concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... concentrations of growth hormone, thyroid hormones and milk production in the Saanen goat ... this study indicated that galanin may increase the plasma concentration of GH, and decrease the plasma concentration of T3 and T4, but ..... Neuroendocrine regulation of growth hormone secretion in sheep VI.

  13. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  14. plasma modes behaviors and electron injection influence in an audio-ultrasonic air gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.S.; Haleem, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    the main purpose of this study is to investigate the favorable conditions for the production of plasma particle acceleration in an audio-ultrasonic air gas discharge of 20 cm long and 34 mm diameter.it is found that according to the applied conditions the formed plasma changes its behavior and overtakes diverse modes of different characteristics. the pressure, the voltage, and the frequency applied to the plasma determine its proper state. both experimental data collection and optical observations are introduced to clarify and to put in evidence the present plasma facts. the distribution of the electrons density along the plasma tube draws in average the electric field distribution of the ionization waves. in addition, the plasma is studied with and without electrons injection in order to investigate its influence . it is found that the electron injection decreases the plasma intensity and the plasma temperature, while it increases the discharge current. in turn, the decrease of the plasma temperature decreases the plasma oscillations and enhances the plasma instability. on the other hand,the enhancement of the plasma instability performs good conditions for electron acceleration. as a result, the qualified mode for particles acceleration is attained and its conditions are retrieved and defined for that purpose.

  15. Adverse consequences of a moving vacuum-plasma boundary on axisymmetric ac helicity injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    The recent prediction of Liewer, Gould, and Bellan that a moving plasma-vacuum boundary significantly lowers the effectiveness of ac helicity injection is generalized by resolution of the apparent discrepancy between the helicity-conservation equations of Jensen and Chu and of Moffatt. It is shown that, if there are axisymmetric circular flux surfaces and a moving vacuum-plasma boundary, the helicity injected by oscillating fields (if net injection occurs) is simply consumed by an increase in helicity dissipation due to the same oscillating fields

  16. Film formation from HMDSO: comparison of direct plasma injection with afterglow injection using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallimann, Roger; Oberbossel, Gina; Butscher, Denis; Rudolf von Rohr, Philipp

    2017-07-01

    The afterglow of a dielectric barrier discharge plasma was used for the film formation from Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) on silicon wafers. The process gas was argon with varying admixtures of HMDSO and oxygen. The silicon wafers were analyzed using white light interferometry and ATR-FTIR to characterize film volume and composition, respectively. The topology of deposited films was compared to a flow model to link the film thickness to flow velocity. Results show that deposition only occurs where flow velocity is low. Maximum film volume was observed at an oxygen admixture of 0.05 vol.%, while oxygen depletion for lower admixtures and plasma quenching at higher oxygen contents reduce the film formation. Additionally, film deposition depends on the residence time in the region where active species promote dissociation and on the density of active species in this region. Afterglow injection of HMDSO yields film deposition comparable to direct plasma injection with respect to volume and composition, eliminating the need of direct plasma treatment and preventing unwanted reactor deposition. Contribution to the topical issue "The 15th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi and Tomáš Hoder

  17. Radioimmunoassay for vasopressin: plasma levels after stimulation by I-V nicotine injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte-Devolx, B.; Rougon-Rapuzzi, G.; Millet, Y.

    1976-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for vasopressin which permits the estimation of plasma levels as low as 0.25μIU/ml was developed. The average plasma level of ADH after overnight water restriction was found to be 5.20μIU/ml. A hypersecretion of ADH was provoked by the intravenous injection of 1-2mg of nicotine. In 10 volunteer subjects this stimulation by nicotine provoked ADH secretion which reached a maximum between 2 and 15 minutes after injection; the hormone plasma level reached an average value of 21.3μIU/ml [fr

  18. Hydrogen and deuterium pellet injection into ohmically and additionally ECR-heated TFR plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawin, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    The ablation clouds of hydrogen and deuterium pellets injected into ohmically and electron cyclotron resonance heated (ECRH) plasmas of the Fontenay-aux-Roses tokamak TFR have been photographed, their emission has been measured photoelectrically. Without ECRH the pellets penetrate deeply into the plasma, the clouds are striated. Injection during ECRH leads to ablation in the outer plasma region. The position of the ECR layer has no influence on the penetration depth which is only a few centimeters. The ablation clouds show no particular structure when ECRH is applied

  19. BARIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, R.E.

    1959-07-21

    A method of separating barium from nuclear fission products is described. In accordance with the invention, barium may be recovered from an acidic solution of neutron-irradiated fissionable material by carrying ihe barium cut of solution as a sulfate with lead as a carrier and then dissolving the barium-containing precipitate in an aqueous solution of an aliphatic diamine chelating reagent. The barium values together with certain other metallic values present in the diamine solution are then absorbed onto a cation exchange resin and the barium is selectively eluted from the resin bed with concentrated nitric acid.

  20. Experimental investigation of coaxial-gun-formed plasmas injected into a background transverse magnetic field or plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Fisher, Dustin M.; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott C.; Lynn, Alan G.

    2018-05-01

    Injection of coaxial-gun-formed magnetized plasmas into a background transverse vacuum magnetic field or into a background magnetized plasma has been studied in the helicon-cathode (HelCat) linear plasma device at the University of New Mexico [M. Gilmore et al., J. Plasma Phys. 81, 345810104 (2015)]. A magnetized plasma jet launched into a background transverse magnetic field shows emergent kink stabilization of the jet due to the formation of a sheared flow in the jet above the kink stabilization threshold 0.1kVA [Y. Zhang et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 110702 (2017)]. Injection of a spheromak-like plasma into a transverse background magnetic field led to the observation of finger-like structures on the side with a stronger magnetic field null between the spheromak and the background field. The finger-like structures are consistent with magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Jets or spheromaks launched into a background, low-β magnetized plasma show similar behavior as above, respectively, in both cases.

  1. Impacts of pellets injected from the low-field side on plasma in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisitsorasak, A.; Onjun, T.

    2011-01-01

    Impacts of pellets injected from the low-field side (LFS) on plasma in ITER are investigated using the 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code. In these simulations, the pellet ablation is described using the neutral gas shielding (NGS) model. The pellet ablation model is coupled with the plasma core transport model, which is a combination of the MMM95 anomalous transport model and NCLASS neoclassical transport model. The boundary conditions are assumed to be at the top of the pedestal, in which the pedestal parameters are predicted using a pedestal model based on the theoretical-based pedestal width scaling (either magnetic and flow shear stabilization width scaling, or flow shear stabilization width scaling, or normalized poloidal pressure width scaling) and the infinite-n ballooning mode pressure gradient limit. These pedestal models depend sensitively on the density at the top of the pedestal, which can be strongly influenced by the injection of pellets. The combination of the MMM95 and NCLASS models, together with the pedestal and NGS models, is used to simulate the time evolution of the plasma current, ion and electron temperatures, and density profiles for ITER standard type-I ELMy H-mode discharges during the injection of LFS pellets. It is found that the injection of pellets results in a complicated plasma scenario, especially in the outer region of the plasma and the plasma conditions at the boundary in which the pellet has an impact on increasing the plasma edge density, but reducing the plasma edge temperature. The LFS pellet has a stronger impact on the edge as compared to the center. For fusion performance, the pellet can result in either enhancement or degradation, depending sensitively on the pellet parameters; such as the pellet size, pellet velocity, and pellet frequency. For example, when a series of deuterium pellets with a size of 0.5 cm, velocity of 1 km/s, and frequency of 2 Hz are injected into the ITER plasma from the LFS, the

  2. The present state of research into plasma heating and injection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    The advantages and disadvantages recognized by the Advisory Group on Heating and injection for twelve plasma heating and injection methods currently under investigation in Europe are related. The heating and injection requirements of four reference reactor designs are previously defined. The problems which arise when one attempts to extrapolate existing work towards the reactor goal are emphasized. Two refuelling methods not directly linked with the heating problem are discussed. The experiments in operation or under construction in Europe in which each method is investigated are listed. Sixteen working papers which served as a basis for the Advisory Group discussion and which cover all the heating and injection methods examined are included

  3. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masaaki [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey USA (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This paper briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactor program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.

  4. Preliminary study of cross-field plasma injection in 2XIIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, D.Y.; Hartman, C.W.; Simonen, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a study of cross-field plasma injection in the 2XIIB mirror machine. Plasma accelerated by a coaxial deflagration gun was observed to pass 3.5M across the vacuum field, and some trapping was observed when the gun plasma intersected a plasma streaming along B at the center of the magnetic well. Parameters for the experiment are: gun plasma kinetic energy 50 to 200 eV, n/sub gun/ = 3 x 10 13 cm -3 , streaming plasma 25 to 50 eV and n/sub streaming/ = 6 x 10 11 cm -3 , duration of both 100 to 200 μsec. For the trapped plasma, n = 2.4 x 10 12 cm -3 , and the decay time is t/sub 1 / 2 / = 400 μsec consistent with Coulomb scattering loss at 100 eV mean ion energy

  5. Barium enema (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  6. Enhanced acceleration of injected electrons in a laser-beat-wave-induced plasma channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochitsky, S Ya; Narang, R; Filip, C V; Musumeci, P; Clayton, C E; Yoder, R B; Marsh, K A; Rosenzweig, J B; Pellegrini, C; Joshi, C

    2004-03-05

    Enhanced energy gain of externally injected electrons by a approximately 3 cm long, high-gradient relativistic plasma wave (RPW) is demonstrated. Using a CO2 laser beat wave of duration longer than the ion motion time across the laser spot size, a laser self-guiding process is initiated in a plasma channel. Guiding compensates for ionization-induced defocusing (IID) creating a longer plasma, which extends the interaction length between electrons and the RPW. In contrast to a maximum energy gain of 10 MeV when IID is dominant, the electrons gain up to 38 MeV energy in a laser-beat-wave-induced plasma channel.

  7. Esophagram (Barium Swallow Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink 1 to 2 cups of barium. The barium is a contrast material that makes liquids show up on the ... MRI Intravenous Contrast Information MRI with or without Contrast Small Bowel Follow Through (SBFT) Tailored Barium Swallow Study The Upper GI Study (GI Series) ...

  8. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low beta compact toroid injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low {beta} compact toroid (CT) injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into CT fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). A regime is identified in terms of CT injection speed and CT-to-background magnetic field ratio that appears promising for precise core fueling. Shock-dominated regimes, which are probably unfavorable for tokamak fueling, are also identified. The CT penetration depth is proportional to the CT injection speed and density. The entire CT evolution can be divided into three stages: (1) initial penetration, (2) compression in the direction of propagation and reconnection, and (3) coming to rest and spreading in the direction perpendicular to injection. Tilting of the CT is not observed due to the fast transit time of the CT across the background plasma.

  9. Distribution of Platelet-rich Plasma after Ultrasound-Guided Injection for Chronic Elbow Tendinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi-Young; Kwon, Dong Rak; Cho, Hee Kyung; Park, Jinyoung; Park, Jung Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Characteristics of the spreads of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are not widely known despite commonly use. This study aims to evaluate whether PRP stays within the injected area by using ultrasonography, to improve understanding of the spreads of intratendinous injected PRP. Thirty-nine patients (15 males, 24 females; mean age, 49.3 years), who had symptoms on their elbows (> 6 months) and diagnosed as lateral (25 elbows) or medial (14 elbows) tendinopathies of elbow, were included. The severity of tendon pathology was assessed by ultrasonography as tear or no tear. Immediately after ultrasound-guided PRP injection, ultrasound images were evaluated to assess the area of PRP distribution, which was defined as the presence of fluid or microbubbles. Ultrasound revealed that 13 elbows had tendon tear and 26 had no tear, respectively. Post-injection ultrasound confirmed the injected PRP was within the tendon in all cases. The mean distance of distribution from the injection site was 12.6 mm (5.0-26.0 mm). There was no difference in the distance of PRP distribution between tendon tear and no tear. Injected PRP spread to soft tissue outside the tendon in 20 of 39 cases. Intra-articular extension of PRP was observed in 5 cases. Although PRP remained intratendinous after the injection in all cases, some portion tended to spread outside from the injection site in a short space of time. Postinjection ultrasonographic imaging has a value for observing the spreading patterns of intratendinous PRP injection.

  10. Field-enhanced electrodes for additive-injection non-thermal plasma (NTP) processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosocha, Louis A [Los Alamos, NM; Ferreri, Vincent [Westminster, CO; Kim, Yongho [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-04-21

    The present invention comprises a field enhanced electrode package for use in a non-thermal plasma processor. The field enhanced electrode package includes a high voltage electrode and a field-enhancing electrode with a dielectric material layer disposed in-between the high voltage electrode and the field-enhancing electrode. The field-enhancing electrode features at least one raised section that includes at least one injection hole that allows plasma discharge streamers to occur primarily within an injected additive gas.

  11. Hole injection enhancement in organic light emitting devices using plasma treated graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesuraj, P. Justin; Parameshwari, R. [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Kanthasamy, K.; Koch, J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, ATMOS, Appelstr. 2, D-30167, Hannover (Germany); Pfnür, H. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, ATMOS, Appelstr. 2, D-30167, Hannover (Germany); Laboratorium für Nano- und Quantene$ngineering, Schneiderberg 30, D-30167, Hannover (Germany); Jeganathan, K., E-mail: kjeganathan@yahoo.com [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Plasma treated Graphene oxide for hole injection enhancement in OLEDs. - Highlights: • Oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plasma exposed graphene oxide (GO) sheets have been demonstrated as hole buffer layers in OLEDs. • O{sub 2} plasma exposure induces assimilation of oxygen contents in GO lattice resulting in improved work function that reduced the hole injection barrier further. Whereas, H{sub 2} plasma contrastingly reduced the GO by excluding oxygen which ensuing lower work function. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy investigations reveal the capricious amount of oxygen in GO lattice and its corresponding work function variations. • GO and O{sub 2} plasma treated GO significantly improves the current efficiency of OLEDs more than one order with notable reduction in turn on voltage. - Abstract: The hole injection layer (HIL) with high work function (WF) is desirable to reduce the injection barrier between anode and hole transport layer in organic light emitting devices (OLED). Here, we report a novel approach to tune the WF of graphene oxide (GO) using oxygen and hydrogen plasma treatment and its hole injection properties in OLEDs. The mild exposure of oxygen plasma on GO (O{sub 2}-GO) significantly reduces the injection barrier by increasing the WF of anode (4.98 eV) through expansion of C−O bonds. In contrast, the hole injection barrier was drastically increased for hydrogen plasma treated GO (H{sub 2}-GO) layers as the WF is lowered by the contraction of C−O bond. By employing active O{sub 2}-GO as HIL in OLEDs found to exhibit superior current efficiency of 4.2 cd/A as compared to 3.3 cd/A for pristine GO. Further, the high injection efficiency of O{sub 2}-GO infused hole only device can be attributed to the improved energy level matching. Ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to correlate the WF of HIL infused anode towards the enhanced performance of

  12. New mode of operating a magnetized coaxial plasma gun for injecting magnetic helicity into a spheromak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, S; Hill, D N; Stallard, B W; Bulmer, R; Cohen, B; Holcomb, C T; Hooper, E B; McLean, H S; Moller, J; Wood, R D

    2003-03-07

    By operating a magnetized coaxial plasma gun continuously with just sufficient current to enable plasma ejection, large gun-voltage spikes (approximately 1 kV) are produced, giving the highest sustained voltage approximately 500 V and highest sustained helicity injection rate observed in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment. The spheromak magnetic field increases monotonically with time, exhibiting the lowest fluctuation levels observed during formation of any spheromak (B/B>/=2%). The results suggest an important mechanism for field generation by helicity injection, namely, the merging of helicity-carrying filaments.

  13. The model of beam-plasma discharge in the rocket environment during an electron beam injection in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishin, E.V.; Ruzhin, Yu.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    The model of beam-plasma discharge in the rocket environment during electron beam injection in the ionosphere is constructed. The discharge plasma density dependence on the neutral gas concentration and the beam parameters is found

  14. Expansion of a plasma injected from an electrodeless gun along a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.

    1978-04-01

    The dynamics of a plasma injected from an electrodeless plasma gun (conical theta pinch) into a longitudinal magnetic field is studied theoretically. For the experiments referred to, conditions are collisionless for the ions and range from collision dominated to collisionless for the electrons. During the expansion of the injected plasma the electrons are trapped by an ambipolar electric field maintaining charge neutrality and a magnetic mirror at the gun. The development of the ion and electron distribution functions for the completely collisionless case is considered in detail. Assuming that the acceleration of the ions is negligible and taking the action integral over an electron oscillation to be an adiabatic invariant self similar solutions are found. The electrons lose energy adiabatically as a result of the plasma expansion and it is suggested that a re-thermalisation process must operate in experimental situations to account for the observed electron energies

  15. Nanostructured Photocatalytic TiO2 Coating Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spraying with Different Injection Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuezhang; Wen, Kui; Deng, Chunming; Yang, Kun; Deng, Changguang; Liu, Min; Zhou, Kesong

    2018-02-01

    High plasma power is beneficial for the deposition efficiency and adhesive strength of suspension-sprayed photocatalytic TiO2 coatings, but it confronts two challenges: one is the reduced activity due to the critical phase transformation of anatase into rutile, and the other is fragmented droplets which cannot be easily injected into the plasma core. Here, TiO2 coatings were deposited at high plasma power and the position of suspension injection was varied with the guidance of numerical simulation. The simulation was based on a realistic three-dimensional time-dependent numerical model that included the inside and outside of torch regions. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the microstructure of the TiO2 coatings, whereas x-ray diffraction was adopted to analyze phase composition. Meanwhile, photocatalytic activities of the manufactured TiO2 coatings were evaluated by the degradation of an aqueous solution of methylene blue dye. Fragmented droplets were uniformly injected into the plasma jet, and the solidification pathway of melting particles was modified by varying the position of suspension injection. A nanostructured TiO2 coating with 93.9% anatase content was obtained at high plasma power (48.1 kW), and the adhesive coating bonding to stainless steel exhibited the desired photocatalytic activity.

  16. Blood content and excretory plasma clearance of plutonium 104 days after injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Ilcewicz, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from two subjects who had been injected intravenously with about 0.3 μCi 239 Pu(IV) as the citrate 10 4 days previously; the subjects were on a metabolic ward, and all urine and feces were collected. Plutonium was determined by alpha-spectrometric isotope dilution in the samples of excreta and in separated plasma and red cells. The concentration of 239 Pu in the plasma of each subject was four or five times that in the red cells; the 239 Pu in the latter was thought to be due to entrained plasma. In dividing the daily excretion rate (urinary or urinary plus fecal) by the contemporary concentration in the plasma, the urinary or total excretory plasma clearance was obtained. The results show that while the excretion rate is higher for the female than for the male, the reverse is true for the plasma clearance

  17. Electric potential structures and propagation of electron beams injected from a spacecraft into a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nagendra; Hwang, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    One-dimensional Vlasov simulations are used to study the propagation of electron beams injected from a spacecraft into an ambient plasma and the associated potential structures. It is shown that, for a given beam velocity, the propagation velocity and the potential structure depends on the beam density. In the case of moderate beams, a double layer forms near the beam head which propagates into the ambient plasma much more slowly than the initial beam velocity.

  18. Assessment of the plasma start-up in Wendelstein 7-X with neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradic, D.; Dinklage, A.; Brakel, R.; McNeely, P.; Rust, N.; Wolf, R.; Osakabe, M.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma start-up by neutral beam injection was investigated for stellarators. A zero-dimensional collisional model was extended to evaluate the temporal evolution of the plasma start-up in a confining toroidal magnetic field. Inclusion of different beam energy components indicated a substantial effect due to the energy dependence of beam–gas collisions. Additional collision processes and particle equations were considered to simulate the plasma start-up in helium–hydrogen mixtures. The isotope effect between operation with hydrogen and deuterium beams was also investigated. As a major objective the conditions necessary for a plasma start-up with neutral beams in W7-X have been examined. The assessed beam configuration in W7-X was found not to allow plasma start-up by neutral beam injection alone. The model has been validated for experimental data from W7-AS and Large Helical Device. Quantitative predictions of this study show that the ratio of the beam–plasma interaction length and the plasma volume is an essential quantity for the successful plasma start-up with neutral beams. (paper)

  19. Time-dependent modeling of dust injection in semi-detached ITER divertor plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Roman; Krasheninnikov, Sergei

    2017-10-01

    At present, it is generally understood that dust related issues will play important role in operation of the next step fusion devices, i.e. ITER, and in the development of future fusion reactors. Recent progress in research on dust in magnetic fusion devises has outlined several topics of particular concern: a) degradation of fusion plasma performance; b) impairment of in-vessel diagnostic instruments; and c) safety issues related to dust reactivity and tritium retention. In addition, observed dust events in fusion edge plasmas are highly irregular and require consideration of temporal evolution of both the dust and the fusion plasma. In order to address the dust-related fusion performance issues, we have coupled the dust transport code DUSTT and the edge plasma transport code UEDGE in time-dependent manner, allowing modeling of transient dust-induced phenomena in fusion edge plasmas. Using the coupled codes we simulate burst-like injection of tungsten dust into ITER divertor plasma in semi-detached regime, which is considered as preferable ITER divertor operational mode based on the plasma and heat load control restrictions. Analysis of transport of the dust and the dust-produced impurities, and of dynamics of the ITER divertor and edge plasma in response to the dust injection will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under Award Number DE-FG02-06ER54852.

  20. Controlled Electron Injection into Plasma Accelerators and SpaceCharge Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fubiani, Gwenael G.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Plasma based accelerators are capable of producing electron sources which are ultra-compact (a few microns) and high energies (up to hundreds of MeVs) in much shorter distances than conventional accelerators. This is due to the large longitudinal electric field that can be excited without the limitation of breakdown as in RF structures.The characteristic scale length of the accelerating field is the plasma wavelength and for typical densities ranging from 1018 - 1019 cm-3, the accelerating fields and scale length can hence be on the order of 10-100GV/m and 10-40 μm, respectively. The production of quasimonoenergetic beams was recently obtained in a regime relying on self-trapping of background plasma electrons, using a single laser pulse for wakefield generation. In this dissertation, we study the controlled injection via the beating of two lasers (the pump laser pulse creating the plasma wave and a second beam being propagated in opposite direction) which induce a localized injection of background plasma electrons. The aim of this dissertation is to describe in detail the physics of optical injection using two lasers, the characteristics of the electron beams produced (the micrometer scale plasma wavelength can result in femtosecond and even attosecond bunches) as well as a concise estimate of the effects of space charge on the dynamics of an ultra-dense electron bunch with a large energy spread.

  1. On the atomic state densities of plasmas produced by the ``torche à injection axiale''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkers, J.; Vos, H. P. C.; van der Mullen, J. A. M.; Timmermans, E. A. H.

    1996-04-01

    The atomic state densities of helium and argon plasmas produced by the microwave driven plasma torch called the "torche à injection axiale" are presented. They are obtained by absolute line intensity measurements of the excited states and by applying the ideal gas law to the ground state. It will be shown that the atomic state distribution function (ASDF) does not obey the Saha-Boltzmann law: the ASDF cannot be described by one temperature. From the shape of the ASDF it can be concluded that the plasma is ionising. By extrapolating the measured state densities towards the ionisation limit, a minimum value of the electron density can be determined.

  2. Experimental and computational study of the injection of antiprotons into a positron plasma for antihydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M.D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.

    2013-01-01

    are commonly produced by mixing antiprotons and positrons stored in a nested Penning-Malmberg trap, which was achieved in ALPHA by an autoresonant excitation of the antiprotons, injecting them into the positron plasma. In this work, a hybrid numerical model is developed to simulate antiproton and positron...

  3. Ultrasound-Guided Injection Therapy of Achilles Tendinopathy With Platelet-Rich Plasma or Saline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Thøger P; Ellingsen, Torkell; Christensen, Robin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common and difficult to treat musculoskeletal disorder. PURPOSE: To examine whether 1 injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) would improve outcomes more effectively than placebo (saline) after 3 months in patients with AT. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized...

  4. Interfacing capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry by direct injection nebulization for selenium speciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, Lars; Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.

    2001-01-01

    A demountable direct injection high efficiency nebulizer operating at low sample uptake rates was developed and used for coupling of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). When the nebulizer was used for continuous sample introduction, detection...

  5. Individual-specific transgenerational marking of fish populations based on a barium dual-isotope procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelga-Suarez, Gonzalo; Moldovan, Mariella; Garcia-Valiente, America; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Alonso, J Ignacio Garcia

    2012-01-03

    The present study focuses on the development and evaluation of an individual-specific transgenerational marking procedure using two enriched barium isotopes, (135)Ba and (137)Ba, mixed at a given and selectable molar ratio. The method is based on the deconvolution of the isotope patterns found in the sample into four molar contribution factors: natural xenon (Xe nat), natural barium (Ba nat), Ba135, and Ba137. The ratio of molar contributions between Ba137 and Ba135 is constant and independent of the contribution of natural barium in the sample. This procedure was tested in brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) kept in captivity. Trout were injected with three different Ba137/Ba135 isotopic signatures ca. 7 months and 7 days before spawning to compare the efficiency of the marking procedure at long and short term, respectively. The barium isotopic profiles were measured in the offspring by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Each of the three different isotopic signatures was unequivocally identified in the offspring in both whole eggs and larvae. For 9 month old offspring, the characteristic barium isotope signatures could also be detected in the otoliths even in the presence of a high and variable amount of barium of natural isotope abundance. In conclusion, it can be stated that the proposed dual-isotope marking is inheritable and can be detected after both long-term and short-term marking. Furthermore, the dual-isotope marking can be made individual-specific, so that it allows identification of offspring from a single individual or a group of individuals within a given fish group. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Adrenaline Injection Plus Argon Plasma Coagulation versus Adrenaline Injection Plus Hemoclips for Treating High-Risk Bleeding Peptic Ulcers: A Prospective, Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Taghavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Several combination endoscopic therapies are currently in use. The present study aimed to compare argon plasma coagulation (APC + adrenaline injection (AI with hemoclips + AI for the treatment of high-risk bleeding peptic ulcers.

  7. Modeling and control of plasma rotation for NSTX using neoclassical toroidal viscosity and neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goumiri, I. R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Rowley, C. W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics; Gates, D. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Boyer, M. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Andre, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kolemen, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Taira, K. [Florida State Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Tallahassee, FL USA.

    2016-02-19

    A model-based feedback system is presented to control plasma rotation in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device, to maintain plasma stability for long-pulse operation. This research uses experimental measurements from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and is aimed at controlling plasma rotation using two different types of actuation: momentum from injected neutral beams and neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields. Based on the data-driven model obtained, a feedback controller is designed, and predictive simulations using the TRANSP plasma transport code show that the controller is able to attain desired plasma rotation profiles given practical constraints on the actuators and the available measurements of rotation.

  8. Numerical simulation of plasma of large-dimensions produced by injecting electron beam into air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Su Tie; Ouyang Liang; Wang Huihui; Bai Xiaoyan; Chen Zhipeng; Liu Wandong

    2006-01-01

    A four-species 1-D hybrid numerical model was set up to simulate the process of formation of large-dimension plasma produced by injecting electron beams into air. It showed that plasma of the order of 0.5 m in length and 10 12 cm -3 in density can be produced by an electron beam with the energy of 140 keV and flux of 50 mA/cm 2 . The effect of space charge associated with the beam on the beam propagation and related process vanishes soon after the plasma is produced. The beam flux is directly relevant to the plasma density, but the beam energy affects both the dimensions and the density of produced plasma. (authors)

  9. Single injection of platelet-rich plasma as a novel treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Alexander Malahias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Both in vitro and in vivo experiments have confirmed that platelet-rich plasma has therapeutic effects on many neuropathies, but its effects on carpal tunnel syndrome remain poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether single injection of platelet-rich plasma can improve the clinical symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Fourteen patients presenting with median nerve injury who had suffered from mild carpal tunnel syndrome for over 3 months were included in this study. Under ultrasound guidance, 1-2 mL of platelet-rich plasma was injected into the region around the median nerve at the proximal edge of the carpal tunnel. At 1 month after single injection of platelet-rich plasma, Visual Analogue Scale results showed that pain almost disappeared in eight patients and it was obviously alleviated in three patients. Simultaneously, the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire showed that upper limb function was obviously improved. In addition, no ultrasonographic manifestation of the carpal tunnel syndrome was found in five patients during ultrasonographic measurement of the width of the median nerve. During 3-month follow-up, the pain was not greatly alleviated in three patients. These findings show very encouraging mid-term outcomes regarding use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  10. Simulation of runaway electron generation during plasma shutdown by impurity injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, Tamas

    2011-03-15

    Disruptions are dangerous instabilities in tokamaks that should be avoided or mitigated. One possible disruption mitigation method is to inject impurities into the plasma to shut it down in a controlled way. Runaway Electrons (REs) can be generated after the plasma is cooled down by the impurities and these electrons can damage the tokamak. In this work a simulation code is developed to investigate different disruption mitigation scenarios. The response of the bulk plasma, more precisely the temperature evolution of electrons, deuterium and impurity ions are described by energy balance equations in a 1D cylindrical plasma model. The induction and resistive diffusion of electric field is calculated. RE generation rates are used to calculate the runaway current. The Dreicer, hot-tail and avalanche effect is taken into account and a simple model for RE losses is also included. RE generation is studied in JET-like plasmas during pellet injection. Carbon pellets cause effective cooling but these scenarios are prone to runaway generation. A mixture of argon and deuterium gas could be used for safe shutdown without RE generation. In ITER the hot-tail RE generation process becomes important, and the simulation is therefore extended to take this into account. Shutdown scenarios with different concentration of neon and argon impurities were tested in ITER-like plasmas. To simplify the problem the impurity injection into the plasma is not modeled in these cases, only the response of the bulk plasma. The avalanche process cannot be suppressed in a simple way and would produce high runaway current. It can be avoided if some runaway loss phenomenon is included in the simulations, like diffusion due to magnetic perturbations

  11. Radiative response on massive noble gas injection for Runaway suppression in disruptive plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    The most direct way to avoid the formation of a relativistic electron beam under the influence of an electric field in a highly conducting plasma, is to increase the electron density to a value, where the retarding collisional force balances the accelerating one. In a disruptive tokamak plasma, rapid cooling induces a high electric field, which could easily violate the force balance and push electrons into the relativistic regime. Such relativistic electrons, the so-called runaways, accumulate many MeV's and can cause substantial damage when they hit the wall. This thesis is based on the principle of rapidly fueling the plasma for holding the force balance even under the influence of high electric fields typical for disruptions. The method of injecting high amounts of noble gas particles into the plasma from a close distance is put into practice in the ASDEX Upgrade fusion test facility. In the framework of this thesis, a multi-channel photometer system based on 144 AXUV detectors in a toroidal stereo measurement setup was built. It kept its promise to provide new insights into the transport mechanisms in a disruptive plasma under the influence of strong radiative interaction dynamics between injected matter and the hot plasma.

  12. Estimation of effective renal plasma flow in children by use of a single plasma sample after injection of orthoiodohippurate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauxe, W.N.; Hagge, W.; Stickler, G.B.

    1975-01-01

    Estimates of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) in adults have been greatly simplified by the use of recently developed regression equations based on a single plasma concentration of radioiodinated orthoiodohippurate (OIH) obtained 44 min after a single intravenous injection of the material. The paper reports similar equations for the prediction of ERPF in children. Studies were made in 30 children of both sexes, aged 4 to 16 years, with a wide variety of renal diseases. A single intravenous injection of labelled OIH was made and plasma was sampled at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min after injection. Plasma concentration curves were analysed by the conventional two-compartment analysis technique (Sapirstein, Matthews) and ERPF was computed from them. In addition to ERPF calculations, sizes of the two volumes of distribution (V 1 and V 2 ), intercompartmental flow rates and fractional rate constants were also calculated. Surface area (SA) was calculated from the DuBois height-weight regression formula. Reciprocals of the OIH plasma concentration in terms of per cent injected dose per litre were calculated at each sampling time; this reciprocal is designated x. These values at each sampling time were plotted against ERPF and regression equations and residual error (Sy.x) were calculated. The optimal sampling time was found to occur at 53 min and the corresponding linear regression equation was 19.33 + 3.87x with a Sy.x value of 36 ml. This compares with an optimal sampling time in adults of 44 min. The mean initial volume of distribution (V 1 ) was found to be 5.3 litres and the mean V 2 was found to be 6.8 litres. In contrast to findings in the previous study in adults these volumes were found to correlate well with SA. A mean intercompartmental flow rate of 276 ml/min was found. No correlation between this value and clinical diagnosis was found. The relationship of the concentration reciprocal and plasma flow was a linear one instead of the polynomial one

  13. Distribution of Platelet-rich Plasma after Ultrasound-Guided Injection for Chronic Elbow Tendinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-Young Park, Dong Rak Kwon, Hee Kyung Cho, Jinyoung Park, Jung Hyun Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the spreads of platelet-rich plasma (PRP are not widely known despite commonly use. This study aims to evaluate whether PRP stays within the injected area by using ultrasonography, to improve understanding of the spreads of intratendinous injected PRP. Thirty-nine patients (15 males, 24 females; mean age, 49.3 years, who had symptoms on their elbows (> 6 months and diagnosed as lateral (25 elbows or medial (14 elbows tendinopathies of elbow, were included. The severity of tendon pathology was assessed by ultrasonography as tear or no tear. Immediately after ultrasound-guided PRP injection, ultrasound images were evaluated to assess the area of PRP distribution, which was defined as the presence of fluid or microbubbles. Ultrasound revealed that 13 elbows had tendon tear and 26 had no tear, respectively. Post-injection ultrasound confirmed the injected PRP was within the tendon in all cases. The mean distance of distribution from the injection site was 12.6 mm (5.0–26.0 mm. There was no difference in the distance of PRP distribution between tendon tear and no tear. Injected PRP spread to soft tissue outside the tendon in 20 of 39 cases. Intra-articular extension of PRP was observed in 5 cases. Although PRP remained intratendinous after the injection in all cases, some portion tended to spread outside from the injection site in a short space of time. Postinjection ultrasonographic imaging has a value for observing the spreading patterns of intratendinous PRP injection.

  14. Particle and momentum confinement in tokamak plasmas with unbalanced neutral beam injection and strong rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    There is a self-consistent theory of the effects of neutral beam injection on impurity transport in tokamak plasmas. The theory predicts that co-injection drives impurities outward and that counter-injection enhances the normally inward flow of impurities. The theory was applied to carry out a detailed analysis of the large experimental database from the PLT and the ISX-B tokamaks. The theory was found to generally model the experimental data quite well. It is, therefore, concluded that neutral beam co-injection can drive impurities outward to achieve clean central plasmas and a cool radiating edge. Theoretical predictions for future thermonuclear reactors such as INTOR, TIBER II, and ITER indicated that neutral beam driven flow reversal might be an effective impurity control method if the rate of beam momentum deposited per plasma ion is adequate. The external momentum drag, which is a pivotal concept in impurity flow reversal theory, is correctly predicted by the gyroviscous theory of momentum confinement. The theory was applied to analyze experimental data from the PLT and the PDX tokamaks with exact experimental conditions. The theory was found to be in excellent agreement with experiment over a wide range of parameters. It is, therefore, possible to formulate the impurity transport theory from first principles, without resort to empiricism

  15. Injection of a coaxial-gun-produced magnetized plasma into a background helicon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Lynn, Alan; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2014-10-01

    A compact coaxial plasma gun is employed for experimental investigation of plasma bubble relaxation into a lower density background plasma. Experiments are being conducted in the linear device HelCat at UNM. The gun is powered by a 120-uF ignitron-switched capacitor bank, which is operated in a range of 5 to 10 kV and 100 kA. Multiple diagnostics are employed to investigate the plasma relaxation process. Magnetized argon plasma bubbles with velocities 1.2Cs, densities 1020 m-3 and electron temperature 13eV have been achieved. The background helicon plasma has density 1013 m-3, magnetic field from 200 to 500 Gauss and electron temperature 1eV. Several distinct operational regimes with qualitatively different dynamics are identified by fast CCD camera images. Additionally a B-dot probe array has been employed to measure the spatial toroidal and poloidal magnetic flux evolution to identify plasma bubble configurations. Experimental data and analysis will be presented.

  16. Plasma behavior with molecular beam injection in the HL-1m tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lianghua; Tang Nianyi; Cui Zhengying; Xu Deming; Deng Zhongchao; Ding Xuantong; Luo Junlin; Dong Jiafu; Guo Gancheng; Yang Shikun; Cui Chenghe; Xiao Zhenggui; Liu Dequan; Chen Xiaoping; Yan Longwen; Yan Donghai; Wang Enyao; Deng Xiwen

    1999-01-01

    The authors report effect of the new fueling method of high speed molecular beam injection on Tokamak confinement improvement. The present method is an improvement of conventional gas puffing, with performance comparable to the small pellet injection in HL-1M and also to the slow pellet in ASDEX. The fact that a shallower fueling can lead to similar confinement improvement as a deep one suggests that there may exist a critical position in a Tokamak plasma such that any kind of fueling will have a better confinement as long as it can give rise to density peaking at the critical position

  17. Cross-field diffusion quenching by neutral gas injection in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasoli, A.; Skiff, F.; Good, T.N.; Paris, P.J.

    1991-12-01

    Cross-field transport of test ions is investigated in a linear Q-machine plasma. Test particles are created and followed in their motion by an optical tagging diagnostic scheme. Direct information on ion diffusivity is obtained from a comparison between the actual tag signal and a simple theoretical simulation. Diffusion is demonstrated to be supported by classical mechanisms. When different noble buffer gases are injected, the plasma reacts in such a way that the diffusivity remains classical but its magnitude is considerably reduced. (author) 9 figs., 15 refs

  18. Analysis of laser-produced heavy ions for direct plasma injection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, K.; Okamura, M.; Kondrashev, S.; Hattori, T.; Kashiwagi, H.; Kanesue, T.

    2006-01-01

    To accelerate highly charged intense ion beam, we have developed the direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS) with laser ion source. In this scheme an ion beam from a laser ion source is injected directly to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac without a low energy beam transport (LEBT) line and then beam losses in the LEBT can be avoided. We achieved high current acceleration of carbon ions (60 mA) by DPIS with the RFQ specially designed for high current heavy ions. As the next step we will use heavier elements such as Al, Fe, and Ta as targets in laser ion source (using high power laser, for example, glass laser) for DPIS and will examine properties of laser-produced plasma for highly charged ion production

  19. Phenomena accompanying gradient-B drift injection of energetic ions into Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.J.; Jassby, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The application of vertically asymmetric toroidal-field ripple, in order to permit the gradient B-drift injection and subsequent capture of energetic ions, results in a new radial diffusion of banana orbits. The nearly mono-kinetic velocity distribution of gradient B-drifting ions in the outer plasma region represents a large source of free energy; and the nonambipolar inward drift of these ions modifies the radial electric field

  20. Tailored Barium Swallow Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Different textures of food are often given. The barium is a contrast material that makes the food and liquid show ... MRI Intravenous Contrast Information MRI with or without Contrast Small Bowel Follow Through (SBFT) Tailored Barium Swallow Study The Upper GI Study (GI Series) ...

  1. Optimizing density down-ramp injection for beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Hu, Z.; Streeter, M. J. V.; Mehrling, T. J.; Kononenko, O.; Sheeran, B.; Osterhoff, J.

    2017-09-01

    Density down-ramp (DDR) injection is a promising concept in beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators for the generation of high-quality witness beams. We review and complement the theoretical principles of the method and employ particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in order to determine constrains on the geometry of the density ramp and the current of the drive beam, regarding the applicability of DDR injection. Furthermore, PIC simulations are utilized to find optimized conditions for the production of high-quality beams. We find and explain the intriguing result that the injection of an increased charge by means of a steepened ramp favors the generation of beams with lower emittance. Exploiting this fact enables the production of beams with high charge (˜140 pC ), low normalized emittance (˜200 nm ) and low uncorrelated energy spread (0.3%) in sufficiently steep ramps even for drive beams with moderate peak current (˜2.5 kA ).

  2. Transverse phase space diagnostics for ionization injection in laser plasma acceleration using permanent magnetic quadrupoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Nie, Z.; Wu, Y. P.; Guo, B.; Zhang, X. H.; Huang, S.; Zhang, J.; Cheng, Z.; Ma, Y.; Fang, Y.; Zhang, C. J.; Wan, Y.; Xu, X. L.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C. H.; Lu, W.; Mori, W. B.

    2018-04-01

    We report the transverse phase space diagnostics for electron beams generated through ionization injection in a laser-plasma accelerator. Single-shot measurements of both ultimate emittance and Twiss parameters are achieved by means of permanent magnetic quadrupole. Beams with emittance of μm rad level are obtained in a typical ionization injection scheme, and the dependence on nitrogen concentration and charge density is studied experimentally and confirmed by simulations. A key feature of the transverse phase space, matched beams with Twiss parameter α T ≃ 0, is identified according to the measurement. Numerical simulations that are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results reveal that a sufficient phase mixing induced by an overlong injection length leads to the matched phase space distribution.

  3. Percutaneous injections of Platelet rich plasma for treatment of intrasubstance meniscal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Fabian; Vavken, Patrick; Haenle, Maximilian; von Wehren, Lutz; Pagenstert, Geert; Majewski, Martin

    2015-01-01

    management of intrasubstance meniscal lesions is still controversial. Intrasubstance meniscal lesions can lead to reduced sports activity and meniscal rupture. Physical therapy is often not satisfactory. Therefore new treatment methods are requested. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) has the ability to regenerate tissue; this was proved in several experimental studies. Whether percutaneous injections of PRP are effective in intrasubstance meniscal lesions is unknown. We hypothesize that percutaneous PRP injections lead to pain relief and halt of progression on MRI over 6 months in patients with grade 2 meniscal lesions. ten recreational athletes with intrasubstance meniscal lesions (grade II according to Reicher) proven by MR-Imaging (MRI) were treated by percutaneous injections of PRP in the affected meniscal area. Three sequential injections in seven day intervals were performed in every patient. All injections were performed with image converter. Follow-up MRI was done six months after last injection in every patient. Level of sports activity and amount of pain at athletic loads according to numeric rating scale (NRS-11) were noted in each patient before injections and at the time of follow up MRI after six months. The t-test was used to determine statistical differences. four of ten patients (40%) showed decrease of meniscal lesion in follow up MRI after six months. Nine of ten patients (90%) complained about short episodes of heavy pain after the injections with average NRS-Score of 7.9 at daily loads after the last injection. Six of ten patients (60%) showed Improvement of NRS-Score at final follow up. Average NRS-Score improved significantly (p=0.027) from 6.9 before injections to 4.5 six month after treatment. Six of ten patients (60%) reported increase of sports activity compared to the situation before injections. In four patients (40%) additional surgical treatment was necessary because of persistent knee pain or progression of meniscal lesion. percutaneous

  4. Barium Depletion in the NSTAR Discharge Cathode After 30,000 Hours of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of barium released by impregnant materials in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. Examinations of cathode inserts from long duration ion engine tests show deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of barium from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of barium transport in the insert plasma indicates that the barium partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant barium-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress barium loss in the upstream part of the insert. New measurements of the depth of barium depletion from a cathode insert operated for 30,352 hours reveal that barium loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis.

  5. Investigation of Plasma Treatment on Micro-Injection Moulded Microneedle for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Nair

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasma technology has been widely used to increase the surface energy of the polymer surfaces for many industrial applications; in particular to increase in wettability. The present work was carried out to investigate how surface modification using plasma treatment modifies the surface energy of micro-injection moulded microneedles and its influence on drug delivery. Microneedles of polyether ether ketone and polycarbonate and have been manufactured using micro-injection moulding and samples from each production batch have been subsequently subjected to a range of plasma treatment. These samples were coated with bovine serum albumin to study the protein adsorption on these treated polymer surfaces. Sample surfaces structures, before and after treatment, were studied using atomic force microscope and surface energies have been obtained using contact angle measurement and calculated using the Owens-Wendt theory. Adsorption performance of bovine serum albumin and release kinetics for each sample set was assessed using a Franz diffusion cell. Results indicate that plasma treatment significantly increases the surface energy and roughness of the microneedles resulting in better adsorption and release of BSA.

  6. Development of quantitative atomic modeling for tungsten transport study Using LHD plasma with tungsten pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, I.; Sakaue, H.A.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, D.; Goto, M.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; Morita, S.

    2014-10-01

    Quantitative tungsten study with reliable atomic modeling is important for successful achievement of ITER and fusion reactors. We have developed tungsten atomic modeling for understanding the tungsten behavior in fusion plasmas. The modeling is applied to the analysis of tungsten spectra observed from currentless plasmas of the Large Helical Device (LHD) with tungsten pellet injection. We found that extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lines of W 24+ to W 33+ ions are very sensitive to electron temperature (Te) and useful to examine the tungsten behavior in edge plasmas. Based on the first quantitative analysis of measured spatial profile of W 44+ ion, the tungsten concentration is determined to be n(W 44+ )/n e = 1.4x10 -4 and the total radiation loss is estimated as ∼4 MW, of which the value is roughly half the total NBI power. (author)

  7. Numerical study on iron particles behaviour injected in an argon plasma from an electric transferred arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douce, A.; Flour, I.

    1995-11-01

    In the scope of the Research and Development Project `Control of Plasma/Product Interaction`, the aim of this study is to analyze the behaviour of iron particles injected in an argon plasma flow from an electric transferred arc. It includes particle trajectories and, heat and mass transfer (as the particle undergoes smelting and evaporation), using a 3 dimensional Lagrangian simulation with the numerical code ESTET. The plasma flow is a result of a calculation done using Melodie, a 2 dimensional axisymmetrical software, in the scope of a modelling bath heating with plasma transferred arc. The first step consists of an analysis on the forces applied to a single particle. Simulations show that equation of motion would reduce, finally, to the sum of the drag force and the gravitational effects. In a second step, special attention is given to the effect of steep temperature gradients (across the boundary layer around the particle) on the evaluation of the plasma properties, the drag coefficient, and the heat and mass transfer coefficients. The comparison of several correlations show that the definition of the mean temperature mainly controls the calculation of plasma properties across the boundary layer around the particle.At least, several particle injection conditions are tested on four different sizes particles (50, 100, 150 et 200{mu}m), showing that the 200 {mu}m particle is the only one falling into the bath, without being completely evaporated. However, taking into account the `blow-up effect`, induced by evaporation, leads to a decrease of the heat transfer coefficient which slow down the evaporation, and then modify the conclusion made before. (authors). 18 refs., 41 figs., 5 tabs., 4 appends.

  8. Intraarticular injections (corticosteroid, hyaluronic acid, platelet rich plasma) for the knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Egemen; Kesmezacar, Hayrettin; Akgun, Isik

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex “whole joint” disease pursued by inflammatory mediators, rather than purely a process of “wear and tear”. Besides cartilage degradation, synovitis, subchondral bone remodeling, degeneration of ligaments and menisci, and hypertrophy of the joint capsule take parts in the pathogenesis. Pain is the hallmark symptom of OA, but the extent to which structural pathology in OA contributes to the pain experience is still not well known. For the knee OA, intraarticular (IA) injection (corticosteroids, viscosupplements, blood-derived products) is preferred as the last nonoperative modality, if the other conservative treatment modalities are ineffective. IA corticosteroid injections provide short term reduction in OA pain and can be considered as an adjunct to core treatment for the relief of moderate to severe pain in people with OA. IA hyaluronic acid (HA) injections might have efficacy and might provide pain reduction in mild OA of knee up to 24 wk. But for HA injections, the cost-effectiveness is an important concern that patients must be informed about the efficacy of these preparations. Although more high-quality evidence is needed, recent studies indicate that IA platelet rich plasma injections are promising for relieving pain, improving knee function and quality of life, especially in younger patients, and in mild OA cases. The current literature and our experience indicate that IA injections are safe and have positive effects for patient satisfaction. But, there is no data that any of the IA injections will cause osteophytes to regress or cartilage and meniscus to regenerate in patients with substantial and irreversible bone and cartilage damage. PMID:25035839

  9. Hydrogen production by conversion of ethanol injected into a microwave plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czylkowski, Dariusz; Hrycak, Bartosz; Jasiński, Mariusz; Dors, Mirosław; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Reforming of gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon compounds into hydrogen is of high interest. In this paper we present a microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma-based method for hydrogen production by conversion of ethanol (C2H5OH) in the thermal reforming process in nitrogen plasma. In contrast to our earlier investigations, in which C2H5OH vapour was supplied into the microwave plasma region either in the form of a swirl or axial flow, in this experiment we injected C2H5OH vapour directly into the nitrogen microwave plasma flame, behind the microwave plasma generation region. The experimental results were as follows. At an absorbed microwave power of 5 kW, N2 (plasma-generating gas) swirl flow rate of 2700 NL(N2)/h and C2H5OH mass flow rate of 2.7 kg(C2H5OH)/h the hydrogen production rate was 1016 NL(H2)/h, which corresponds to the energy yield of hydrogen production 203 NL(H2)/kWh. After the C2H5OH conversion the outlet gas contained 27.6% (vol.) H2, 10.2% CO, 0.2% CO2, 4.8% CH4, 4.3% C2H2, 3.7% C2H4 and 3.7% C2H6. These results are comparable to those obtained in our earlier investigations, in which different methods of C2H5OH vapour supply to the microwave plasma generation region were employed. Contribution to the Topical Issue: "Advances in Plasma Chemistry", edited by Slobodan Milošević, Nikša Krstulović, and Holger Kersten.

  10. Longitudinal community plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations and incidence of HIV-1 among injecting drug users: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Marshall, Brandon D L; Li, Kathy; Zhang, Ruth; Hogg, Robert S; Harrigan, P Richard; Montaner, Julio S G

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations in the community and HIV incidence among injecting drug users. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Inner city community in Vancouver, Canada. Participants Injecting drug users, with and without HIV, followed up every six months between 1 May 1996 and 30 June 2007. Main outcome measures Estimated community plasma HIV-1 RNA in the six months before each HIV negative participant?s follow-up visit. Associated HIV incid...

  11. ECRH results during current ramp-up and post-pellet injection in FTU plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, G.; Bruschi, A.; Buratti, P.

    2001-01-01

    Recent ECRH experiments in FTU have provided new results in two plasma scenarios, both characterized by the absence of the sawtooth activity and by flat or reversed q profiles. The first is the current ramp-up phase where low density plasmas have been heated up to high electron temperature. When the heating is localized on the plasma axis, the high additional power density has produced the evidence of a deformation of the bulk of the local electron distribution function, which is in agreement with the results of a detailed kinetic simulation. When off-axis heating is applied, no clear evidence of non-diffusive energy transport has been found. In the second scenario, ECRH has been applied on the high density plasma produced by pellet injection, resulting in strong ion heating as shown by the increase of the neutron yield. The analysis of this scenario shows that, when the post pellet phase is MHD quiescent, an enhanced energy confinement regime can be obtained with ECRH as found previously in ohmically heated post-pellet plasmas. (author)

  12. Techniques For Injection Of Pre-Charaterized Dust Into The Scrape Off Layer Of Fusion Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquemore, A.L.; John, B.; Friesen, F.; Hartzfeld, K.; Mansfield, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of micron-sized dust into the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a plasma has recently found many applications aimed primarily at determining dust behavior in future fusion reactors. The dust particles are typically composed of materials intrinsic to a fusion reactor. On DIII-D and TEXTOR carbon dust has been introduced into the SOL using a probe inserted from below into the divertor region. On NSTX, both Li and tungsten dust have been dropped from the top of the machine into the SOL throughout the duration of a discharge, by utilizing a vibrating piezoelectric based particle dropper. The original particle dropper was developed to inject passivated Li powder ∼ 40 μm in diameter into the SOL to enhance plasma performance. A simplified version of the dropper was developed to introduce trace amounts of tungsten powder for only a few discharges, thus not requiring a large powder reservoir. The particles emit visible light from plasma interactions and can be tracked by either spectroscopic means or by fast frame rate visible cameras. This data can then be compared with dust transport codes such as DUSTT to make predictions of dust behavior in next-step devices such as ITER. For complete modeling results, it is desired to be able to inject pre-characterized dust particles in the SOL at various known poloidal locations, including near the vessel midplane. Purely mechanical methods of injecting particles are presently being studied using a modified piezoelectric-based powder dropper as a particle source and one of several piezo-based transducers to deflect the particles into the SOL. Vibrating piezo fans operating at 60 Hz with a deflection of ±2.5 cm can impart a significant horizontal boost in velocity. The highest injection velocities are expected from rotating paddle wheels capable of injecting particles at 10's of meters per second depending primarily on the rotation velocity and diameter of the wheel. Several injection concepts have been tested and will be

  13. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. PURPOSE: To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP...

  14. An exercise-based physical therapy program for patients with patellar tendinopathy after platelet-rich plasma injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Meijer, L.T.B.; Zwerver, Hans

    Objectives: To describe a post platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection, exercise-based physical therapy program, investigate feasibility and report the first results of patellar tendinopathy patients treated with PRP injection combined with the physical therapy program. Study Design: Case-series.

  15. Pellet injection into ohmically and additionally electron cyclotron resonance heated tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawin, H.W.; Geraud, A.

    1988-12-01

    Frozen H 2 and D 2 pellets injection into the electron cyclotron resonance heated plasmas of the Fontenay-aux-Roses tokamak are studied. Pellet injection with and without ECR heating are considered. In the first case, pellets penetration into the plasma is deeper than the neutral gas model predictions. In the second case, the position of the ECR layer had practically no influence on the penetration depth (reduced to a few centimeters). Only two-third of the pellet mass was found as ionized matter in the plasma, compared to the ohmic case. On the photographs the ablation clouds showed no particular structure when ECR heating was applied. Also the H β intensity was generally free of modulation. The enhanced ablation during ECRH can be simulated by a Parks and Turnbull formula. Perpendicular electron temperature of the hot electrons heated by the EC waves is by orders of magnitude larger than its parallel temperature. The resulting electron density profiles calculated by using the 1-D transport code MAKOKOT are in agreement with experiments, when suitable values of the anomalous radial convection velocity are chosen

  16. Laser induced plasma methodology for ignition control in direct injection sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, José V.; García-Oliver, José M.; García, Antonio; Pinotti, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser Induced Plasma Ignition system is designed and applied to a Diesel Spray. • A method for quantification of the system effectiveness and reliability is proposed. • The ignition system is optimized in atmospheric and engine-like conditions. • Higher system effectiveness is reached with higher ambient density. • The system is able to stabilize Diesel combustion compared to auto-ignition cases. - Abstract: New combustion modes for internal combustion engines represent one of the main fields of investigation for emissions control in transportation Industry. However, the implementation of lean fuel mixture condition and low temperature combustion in real engines is limited by different unsolved practical issues. To achieve an appropriate combustion phasing and cycle-to-cycle control of the process, the laser plasma ignition system arises as a valid alternative to the traditional electrical spark ignition system. This paper proposes a methodology to set-up and optimize a laser induced plasma ignition system that allows ensuring reliability through the quantification of the system effectiveness in the plasma generation and positional stability, in order to reach optimal ignition performance. For this purpose, experimental tests have been carried out in an optical test rig. At first the system has been optimized in an atmospheric environment, based on the statistical analysis of the plasma records taken with a high speed camera to evaluate the induction effectiveness and consequently regulate and control the system settings. The same optimization method has then been applied under engine-like conditions, analyzing the effect of thermodynamic ambient conditions on the plasma induction success and repeatability, which have shown to depend mainly on ambient density. Once optimized for selected engine conditions, the laser plasma induction system has been used to ignite a direct injection Diesel spray, and to compare the evolution of combustion

  17. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection With Percutaneous Needling for Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis: Comparison of Tenotomy and Fenestration Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar, Michael P.; Motto, Michael A.; Lewis, Sarah; Jacoby, Sidney M.; Culp, Randall W.; Lee Osterman, A.; Kane, Patrick M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a common debilitating condition, with numerous treatment options of varying success. An injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to improve LE, although it is unclear whether the method of needling used in conjunction with a PRP injection is of clinical importance. Purpose: To determine whether percutaneous needle tenotomy is superior to percutaneous needle fenestration when each is combined with a PRP injection for the trea...

  18. A randomized study of autologous conditioned plasma and steroid injections in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebiedziński, Radosław; Synder, Marek; Buchcic, Piotr; Polguj, Michał; Grzegorzewski, Andrzej; Sibiński, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Chronic tendinopathy of lateral epicondyle of the humerus, commonly known as "tennis elbow" is one of the most frequent tendinopathies caused by recurrent overload of the muscle origins. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of treating lateral epicondylitis (LE) with autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) and betamethasone injections, and to compare these methods over the course of a one year follow-up. Patients were randomly placed into one of into two groups: 53 were treated with ACP, and 46 with 1 ml betamethasone injections and 2 ml of 1 % lignocaine. Both those groups were comparable in terms of initial DASH score. After six weeks and six months, the mean DASH score was significantly better in the betamethasone group, but was better in ACP group after one year. Full recovery (patients with no symptoms) at all time points was more common in the betamethasone group. A comparison of grouped DASH scores revealed more very good and good results in the ACP group after one year. More patients had pain symptoms related to injection in the ACP group than the betamethasone group. ACP therapy of LE allows better results to be obtained at 12 months. Betamethasone injections give more rapid improvement, but the therapeutic effect is longer lasting in the ACP group.

  19. Single injection 51Cr EDTA plasma clearance determination in children using capillary blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Christoffersen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of a determination of the total 51 Cr EDTA plasma clearance (e) (and with it the glomerular filtration rate), by a simplified single injection method (injected dose: 4.5 μCi per kg b.w.) using capillary blood samples (0.2 ml), was investigated in twenty children. Clearance values determined from capillary blood samples did not differ significantly from those measured simultaneously from venous blood samples, the mean ratio+-SD being 1.02+-0.06(n = 10). The reproducibility (total day-to-day variation) of E determined from capillary blood samples was 6.7% in children with decreased renal function (n = 3) and 6.9% in children with normal renal function (n = 7). The present data indicate that the use of capillary blood samples is an accurate and very precise approach for determination of E in children. (Auth.)

  20. Rapid and sensitive determination of radiocesium (Cs-135, Cs-137) in the presence of excess barium by electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) with potassium thiocyanate as modifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.; Probst, T.U.; Berryman, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    An electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ETV-ICP-MS) method based on selective volatilization of cesium with KSCN as modifier has been developed for determination of radiocesium, i.e. 135 Cs and 137 Cs, in the presence of isobaric barium. A 10000 times excess of barium, which was volatilized at a temperature of 1100 C, resulted only in a 1% signal increase in the signal of mass 135 amu. The recommended concentration of KSCN is 0.3 mM, and pretreatment and volatilization temperatures are 400 C and 1100 C, respectively. A ramp time of 1 s is recommended for the volatilization step. The achieved limit of detection for 135 Cs is 0.2 pg/mL (10 μBq/mL) and 4 fg (0.2 μBq) absolute for a sample volume of 20 μL. This means a limit of detection for 137 Cs of 0.2 pg/mL (0.6 Bq/mL) and of 4 fg (0.01 Bq) absolute. Signal variations of 135 Cs and 137 Cs, respectively, in spiked samples with various matrices were investigated. (orig.)

  1. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient’s medical fil...

  2. Plasma injection from the independent SHF-source in the open configuration 2. Magnetic fields of magnetic mirror configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beriya, Z.R.; Gogashvili, G.E.; Nanobashvili, S.I.

    1992-01-01

    The investigation was aimed at studying the characteristics and properties of plasma injected from independent stationary SHF source into an open magnetic trap of mirror geometry within a wide range of change in the experimental conditions. The investigations were primarily based on measurements of the distribution of charged particles in a plasma along the trap and on the dependence of the concentration on plasma production conditions in a SHF source. It is shown that the aggregate of the experimental data enables a conclusion that independent of SHF plasma can be succesfully used for filling on open magnetic trap of mirror configuration with plasma

  3. Peculiarities of heat transfer in the experiments of beam injection heating of a plasma at the GOL-3 device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdakov, A. V.; Postupaev, V. V.

    The dynamics is discussed of the heat redistribution in plasma, heated by microsecond relativistic electron beam in the GOL-3 facility. The electron temperature dependence on time and distance up to beam injection point are compared with heat transfer calculations. At the stage of plasma cooling, the time dependence of the plasma temperature is well described by the classical electron heat conduction on the facility buttends. At the same time, the dynamics of the observed electron temperature increase and its distribution in the facility length during beam injection time can not be explained by the classical electron heat conduction.

  4. Development of quantitative atomic modeling for tungsten transport study using LHD plasma with tungsten pellet injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, I.; Sakaue, H. A.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, D.; Goto, M.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; Morita, S.

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative tungsten study with reliable atomic modeling is important for successful achievement of ITER and fusion reactors. We have developed tungsten atomic modeling for understanding the tungsten behavior in fusion plasmas. The modeling is applied to the analysis of tungsten spectra observed from plasmas of the large helical device (LHD) with tungsten pellet injection. We found that extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission of W24+ to W33+ ions at 1.5-3.5 nm are sensitive to electron temperature and useful to examine the tungsten behavior in edge plasmas. We can reproduce measured EUV spectra at 1.5-3.5 nm by calculated spectra with the tungsten atomic model and obtain charge state distributions of tungsten ions in LHD plasmas at different temperatures around 1 keV. Our model is applied to calculate the unresolved transition array (UTA) seen at 4.5-7 nm tungsten spectra. We analyze the effect of configuration interaction on population kinetics related to the UTA structure in detail and find the importance of two-electron-one-photon transitions between 4p54dn+1- 4p64dn-14f. Radiation power rate of tungsten due to line emissions is also estimated with the model and is consistent with other models within factor 2.

  5. Mechanisms of disruptions caused by noble gas injection into tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, D.Kh.; Yurchenko, E.I.; Lukash, V.E.; Baronova, E.O.; Pozdnyakov, Yu.I.; Rozhansky, V.A.; Senichenkov, I.Yu.; Veselova, I.Yu.; Schneider, R.

    2005-01-01

    Noble gas injection for disruption mitigation in DIII-D is simulated. The simulation of the first two stages of the disruption is performed: the first one is the neutral gas jet penetration through the background plasmas, and the second one is the instability growth. In order to simulate the first stage, the MHD pellet code LLP with improved radiation model for noble gas is used. Plasma cooling at this stage is provided by the energy exchange with the jet. The opacity effects in radiation losses are found to be important in the energy balance calculations. The magnetic surfaces in contact with the jet are cooled significantly; however, the temperature as well as the electric conductivity, remains high. The cooling front propagates towards the plasma centre. It has been shown that the cooling front is accompanied by strongly localized 'shark fin-like' perturbation in toroidal current density profile. The simplified cylindrical model shows that the cooling front is able to produce the internal kink-like mode with growth rate significantly higher than the tearing mode. The unstable kink perturbation obtained is non-resonant for any magnetic surface, both inside the plasma column, and in the vacuum space outside the separatrix. The mode disturbs mainly the core region. The growth time of the 'shark fin-like' mode is higher than the Alfven time by a factor of 10-100 for DIII-D parameters

  6. Electrostatic potential generated by perpendicular neutral-beam injection to a tokamak plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Murakami, S.

    2018-01-01

    The electrostatic potential generated by neutral-beam-injection (NBI) heating in a tokamak plasma is investigated using numerical simulations. The density distribution of the NBI fast ions in an assumed tokamak is evaluated using the GNET drift-kinetic-equation solver which is based on the Monte Carlo method. The electrostatic potential is evaluated assuming an adiabatic response of the electrons to the fast-ion density distribution in the plasma. It is found that an electrostatic potential peak is generated near the beam-injection point owing to the trapped fast ions satisfying the zero-precession condition. An analytic model expressing the expected potential except for the peak is derived and shows a good agreement with the radial distribution and linear dependence on the electron temperature predicted by the simulation within a factor of 1–2. The existence of three-dimensional electrostatic trapping may break the poloidally-closed particle orbits, and may change the spatial distribution and transport of high-Z impurity ions.

  7. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  8. Optimizing density down-ramp injection for beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martinez de la Ossa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Density down-ramp (DDR injection is a promising concept in beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators for the generation of high-quality witness beams. We review and complement the theoretical principles of the method and employ particle-in-cell (PIC simulations in order to determine constrains on the geometry of the density ramp and the current of the drive beam, regarding the applicability of DDR injection. Furthermore, PIC simulations are utilized to find optimized conditions for the production of high-quality beams. We find and explain the intriguing result that the injection of an increased charge by means of a steepened ramp favors the generation of beams with lower emittance. Exploiting this fact enables the production of beams with high charge (∼140  pC, low normalized emittance (∼200  nm and low uncorrelated energy spread (0.3% in sufficiently steep ramps even for drive beams with moderate peak current (∼2.5  kA.

  9. Combined Effect of food deprivation and serotonin injection on plasma prolactin and glucose levels in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, R.B.; Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Khamis, F.I.; Abu Zaid, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the role of serotonin (5-HT) on the homeostasis of plasma prolactin and glucose in rats induced by gamma irradiation and food deprivation. Animals were divided into seven groups; control, irradiated at a dose level of 6 Gy, injected with 500 mg/kg b.wt. 5-HT intra-peritoneally, injected with 5-HT before irradiation food deprived for 48 hrs then irradiated, food deprived then injected with 5-HT, and food deprived then injected with 5-HT before whole body irradiation. Samples were collected at 1,3, 7 and 14 days post irradiation. The results showed that gamma irradiation firstly elevated prolactin (PRL) levels in plasma (1 and 3 days) then the levels decreased after 7 and 14 days as compared to control values. Rats received serotonin before irradiation exhibited an increased level of PRL after 14 days post irradiation compared to control value, while the level decreased after 1, 3, 7 days post irradiation. Food deprivation for 48 hrs altered the effect of serotonin and /or irradiation on PRL levels in plasma. Rats injected with serotonin showed a decreased level of plasma prolactin in food deprived rats, 3 days post injection. The obtained results showed that serotonin causes variable effects on plasma prolactin compared to control values. Glucose plasma levels were increased in both irradiated and serotonin injected rats before irradiation, and also in serotonin injected rats as compared to control values. Irradiation of rats after 48 hrs food deprivation induced an increase in plasma glucose levels measured throughout the different experimental periods. Injection of serotonin to rats after 48 hrs food deprivation before irradiation increased plasma glucose levels after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days compared to control value. Also, injection of serotonin to 48 hrs food deprived rats increased glucose levels during all examined days of experiment.It could be concluded that serotonin may have a variable mechanism controlling prolactin

  10. Initial Thomson Scattering Survey of Local Helicity Injection and Ohmic Plasmas at the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2014-10-01

    A multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been installed on the Pegasus ST. The system utilizes a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ0 ~ 532 nm), spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings, and a gated, intensified CCD camera. It provides measurements of Te and ne at 8 spatial locations for each spectrometer once per discharge. A new multiple aperture and beam dump system has been implemented to mitigate interference from stray light. This system has provided initial measurements in the core region of plasmas initiated by local helicity injection (LHI), as well as conventional Ohmic L- and H-mode discharges. Multi-shot averages of low-density (ne ~ 3 ×1018 m-3) , Ip ~ 0 . 1 MA LHI discharges show central Te ~ 75 eV at the end of the helicity injection phase. Ip ~ 0 . 13 MA Ohmic plasmas at moderate densities (ne ~ 2 ×1019 m-3) have core Te ~ 150 eV in L-mode. Generally, these plasmas do not reach transport equilibrium in the short 25 ms pulse length available. After an L-H transition, strong spectral broadening indicates increasing Te, to values above the range of the present spectrometer system with a high-dispersion VPH grating. Near-term system upgrades will focus on deploying a second spectrometer, with a lower-dispersion grating capable of measuring the 0.1-1.0 keV range. The second spectrometer system will also increase the available number of spatial channels, enabling study of H-mode pedestal structure. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  11. Differential rotation of plasma in the GOL-3 multiple-mirror trap during injection of a relativistic electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, I. A.; Burdakov, A. V.; Burmasov, V. S.; Kuklin, K. N.; Makarov, M. A.; Mekler, K. I.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Postupaev, V. V.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Sidorov, E. N.; Sinitsky, S. L.; Sudnikov, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    Results of spectral and magnetic diagnostics of plasma differential rotation in the GOL-3 multiplemirror trap are presented. It is shown that the maximum frequency of plasma rotation about the longitudinal axis reaches 0.5 MHz during the injection of a relativistic electron beam into the plasma. The data of two diagnostics agree if there is a region with a higher rotation frequency near the boundary of the electron beam. Plasma differential rotation can be an additional factor stabilizing interchange modes in the GOL-3 facility.

  12. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  13. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fuentes Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient’s medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test.

  14. Optimization of the Magnetic Field Structure for Sustained Plasma Gun Helicity Injection for Magnetic Turbulence Studies at the Bryn Mawr Plasma Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena-Sanchez, C. A.; Schaffner, D. A.; Johnson, H. K.; Fahim, L. E.

    2017-10-01

    A long-pulsed magnetic coaxial plasma gun is being implemented and characterized at the Bryn Mawr Plasma Laboratory (BMPL). A cold cathode discharged between the cylindrical electrodes generates and launches plasma into a 24cm diameter, 2m long chamber. Three separately pulsed magnetic coils are carefully positioned to generate radial magnetic field between the electrodes at the gun edge in order to provide stuffing field. Magnetic helicity is continuously injected into the flux-conserving vacuum chamber in a process akin to sustained slow-formation of spheromaks. The aim of this source, however, is to supply long pulses of turbulent magnetized plasma for measurement rather than for sustained spheromak production. The work shown here details the optimization of the magnetic field structure for this sustained helicity injection.

  15. IL-10 plasma levels are elevated after LPS injection in splenectomized A/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Manuel B; Vega, Virginia L; Bedri, Mazen; Saad, Daniel; Trentzsch, Heiko; Reeves, Roger H; De Maio, Antonio

    2005-11-01

    Splenectomy is clinically indicated in certain cases of hypersplenism and splenic trauma. However, it is associated with serious complications, in particular, reduced clearance of encapsulated organisms and a high incidence of sepsis, which has been coined overwhelming post-splenectomy sepsis (OPSS). In addition to the role of the spleen in the clearance of microorganisms, this organ may be involved in regulation of the inflammatory response. We investigated the effect of splenectomy on the inflammatory process induced by LPS in a murine model that resembles, in part, the pathophysiological aspects of sepsis. Male mice (8-weeks-old) from different inbred strains were randomized into three groups: splenectomized (SPX), sham operated (SHAM), and non-operated controls (NoOp). After 9 days of recovery, mice were injected with LPS (15 mg/kg) and cytokine plasma levels were measured by ELISA at 1.5 or 6 h after injection. Peritoneal macrophages (PMphi) were isolated from the three groups, and cytokine production was evaluated after incubation with LPS in culture conditions. IL-10 plasma levels were elevated in SPX A/J mice (6.7 +/- 0.4 mug/ml) after injection of LPS (15 mg/kg) compared to NoOp A/J mice (4.2 +/- 0.2 mug/ml, P < 0.05). Similar elevation in IL-10 plasma levels was detected in SPX DBA/2J mice as compared to NoOp DBA/2J mice, but not in C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice. In contrast, SPX AKR mice displayed lower IL-10 levels than NoOp mice. PMphis from SPX A/J mice produced elevated levels of IL-10 compared to PMphis from SHAM or NoOp A/J mice, mimicking the in vivo observations. Our data suggest that the spleen plays an important role in modulating the inflammatory process induced by LPS, extending beyond passive clearance of encapsulated organisms. In addition, the contribution of the spleen to the inflammatory process may be influenced by the genetic background.

  16. Platelet-rich plasma versus autologous blood versus steroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: systematic review and network meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Arirachakaran, Alisara; Sukthuayat, Amnat; Sisayanarane, Thaworn; Laoratanavoraphong, Sorawut; Kanchanatawan, Wichan; Kongtharvonskul, Jatupon

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical outcomes between the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), autologous blood (AB) and corticosteroid (CS) injection in lateral epicondylitis are still controversial. Materials and methods A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted with the aim of comparing relevant clinical outcomes between the use of PRP, AB and CS injection. Medline and Scopus databases were searched from inception to January 2015. A network meta-analysis was ...

  17. Filterless preconcentration, flow injection analysis and detection by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    The influence of interferences in the analysis of elements by inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) may be significantly diminished by utilising a protocol of flow-injection analysis (FIA). The method is based on filterless preconcentration of metallic elements at the walls...... of a knotted reactor that was made of nylon tubings. In the load mode, the preconcentration was accomplished by precipitation of metallic species in alkaline-buffered carriers onto the inner walls of the hydrofilic tube. After a preconcen-tration period of 40-120 seconds using sample volumes of 4-10 m...... of 10-30 were obtained in the analysis of aluminium, of chromium and of iron, which resulted in detection limits (3) down to 20 g/L at a sampling frequency of 50 per hour. The preconcentration protocol improves the selectivity thus allowing direct determination of the elements in saline media. Anionic...

  18. Properties and parameters of the electron beam injected into the mirror magnetic trap of a plasma accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V. V., E-mail: temple18@mail.ru; Novitsky, A. A.; Vinnichenko, L. A.; Umnov, A. M.; Ndong, D. O. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    The parameters of the injector of an axial plasma beam injected into a plasma accelerator operating on the basis of gyroresonance acceleration of electrons in the reverse magnetic field are determined. The trapping of the beam electrons into the regime of gyroresonance acceleration is numerically simulated by the particle- in-cell method. The optimal time of axial injection of the beam into a magnetic mirror trap is determined. The beam parameters satisfying the condition of efficient particle trapping into the gyromagnetic autoresonance regime are found.

  19. Reduction of Edge-Localized Mode Intensity Using High-Repetition-Rate Pellet Injection in Tokamak H-Mode Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, L. R.; Commaux, N.; Jernigan, T. C.; Brooks, N. H.; Combs, S. K.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Isler, R. C.; Lasnier, C. J.; Meitner, S. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Osborne, T. H.; Parks, P. B.; Snyder, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Unterberg, E. A.; Loarte, A.

    2013-06-01

    High repetition rate injection of deuterium pellets from the low-field side (LFS) of the DIII-D tokamak is shown to trigger high-frequency edge-localized modes (ELMs) at up to 12× the low natural ELM frequency in H-mode deuterium plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape, normalized beta, and input power just above the H-mode threshold. The pellet size, velocity, and injection location were chosen to limit penetration to the outer 10% of the plasma. The resulting perturbations to the plasma density and energy confinement time are thus minimal (pellet injection excites a localized high-n instability. Triggered ELMs produce up to 12× lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor, and result in a strong decrease in plasma core impurity density. These results show for the first time that shallow, LFS pellet injection can dramatically accelerate the ELM cycle and reduce ELM energy fluxes on plasma facing components, and is a viable technique for real-time control of ELMs in ITER.

  20. Impact of localized gas injection on ICRF coupling and SOL parameters in JET-ILW H-mode plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lerche, E.; Goniche, M.; Jacquet, P.; Van Eester, D.; Bobkov, V.; Colas, L.; Czarnecka, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Brix, M.; Crombe, K.; Graham, M.; Groth, M.; Monakhov, I.; Mathurin, T.; Matthews, G.; Meneses, L.; Noble, C.; Petržílka, Václav; Rimini, F.; Shaw, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 463, August (2015), s. 634-639 ISSN 0022-3115. [PLASMA-SURFACE INTERACTIONS 21: International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices. Kanazawa, 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Ion cyclotron * gas injection Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.10.074

  1. Plasma dynamics near an earth satellite and neutralization of its electric charge during electron beam injection into the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamics of the ionospheric plasma in the vicinity of an earth satellite injecting an electron beam. The time evolution of the electric charge of the satellite is determined. The electric potential of the satellite is found to be well below the beam-cutoff potential. It is shown that, under conditions typical of active experiments in space, the plasma electrons are capable of neutralizing the satellite's charge

  2. Intraneural Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections for the Treatment of Radial Nerve Section: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai García de Cortázar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The radial nerve is the most frequently injured nerve in the upper extremity. Numerous options in treatment have been described for radial nerve injury, such as neurolysis, nerve grafts, or tendon transfers. Currently, new treatment options are arising, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP, an autologous product with proved therapeutic effect for various musculoskeletal disorders. We hypothesized that this treatment is a promising alternative for this type of nerve pathology. The patient was a healthy 27-year-old man who suffered a deep and long cut in the distal anterolateral region of the right arm. Forty-eight hours after injury, an end-to-end suture was performed without a microscope. Three months after the surgery, an electromyogram (EMG showed right radial nerve neurotmesis with no tendency to reinnervation. Four months after the trauma, serial intraneural infiltrations of PRP were conducted using ultrasound guidance. The therapeutic effect was assessed by manual muscle testing and by EMG. Fourteen months after the injury and 11 months after the first PRP injection, functional recovery was achieved. The EMG showed a complete reinnervation of the musculature of the radial nerve dependent. The patient remains satisfied with the result and he is able to practice his profession. Conclusions: PRP infiltrations have the potential to enhance the healing process of radial nerve palsy. This case report demonstrates the therapeutic potential of this technology for traumatic peripheral nerve palsy, as well as the apt utility of US-guided PRP injections.

  3. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections With Needle Tenotomy for Gluteus Medius Tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J.; Harrison, Julian R.; Boachie-Adjei, Kwadwo; Vargas, Elizabeth; Moley, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gluteal tendinopathy is a prevalent condition that can be associated with significant pain and disability. To date, no studies have prospectively assessed the efficacy of intratendinous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections as a minimally invasive treatment for gluteus medius tendinopathy. Purpose: To prospectively assess the efficacy of intratendinous PRP injections as treatment for chronic recalcitrant gluteus medius tendinopathy. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: During the study period between July 2011 and November 2015, data were collected from the Hospital for Special Surgery Center for Hip Preservation Outcomes Registry on participants who underwent ultrasound-guided intratendinous PRP injections for recalcitrant gluteus medius tendinosis and/or partial tears of the tendon associated with moderate to severe lateral hip pain for longer than 3 months. All participants were assessed pre- and postinjection with 4 outcome measures: modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Hip Outcome Score–Activities of Daily Living subscale (HOS-ADL), Hip Outcome Score–Sport-Specific subscale (HOS-Sport), and the International Hip Outcome Tool–33 (iHOT-33). Demographic data, including age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, and smoking status, were also collected. Results: A total of 21 patients were included in the study, with a mean follow-up of 19.7 months (range, 12.1-32.3 months). The mean improvements from preinjection to postinjection follow-up were 56.73 to 74.17 for mHHS, 68.93 to 84.14 for HOS-ADL, 45.54 to 66.72 for HOS-Sport, and 34.06 to 66.33 for iHOT-33. All mean outcome measure improvements were clinically and statistically significant (P gluteus medius tendinopathy due to moderate to severe tendinosis and/or partial tendon tears. Well-powered randomized controlled studies are warranted to confirm our findings and further define the ideal candidates for this treatment. PMID:27868077

  4. Platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection for recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis: clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, V K; Verma, Saurabh; Batra, Sahil; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Arora, Sumit

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic changes in the morphology and vascularity of the common extensor tendon after injecting platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or corticosteroid (CS) for recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (LE). 30 patients aged 18 to 60 years with recalcitrant (>6 months) LE not responsive to oral medication or non-invasive treatment were randomised to receive PRP (n=15) or CS (n=15) injection. Patients were assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Scale (DASH) score, Oxford Elbow Score, modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow (modified Mayo score), and hand grip strength. Ultrasonography was performed by a musculoskeletal ultrasonologist to evaluate for tear at the common extensor origin, oedema at the common extensor origin, cortical erosion, probe-induced tenderness, and thickness of the tendon. The VAS for pain, DASH score, Oxford Elbow Score, modified Mayo score, and hand grip strength all improved significantly from pre-injection to the 6-month follow-up in the PRP and CS groups. However, in the CS group, the scores generally peaked at 3 months and then deteriorated slightly at 6 months indicating recurrence of symptoms, which involved 46.7% of the CS patients. At 6 months, the number of patients positive for various ulrasonographic findings generally decreased. However, in the CS group, the number of patients with reduced thickness of the common extensor tendon increased from 2 to 12, and the number of patients with cortical erosion at the lateral epicondyle increased from 9 to 11. PRP appeared to enable biological healing of the lesion, whereas CS appeared to provide short-term, symptomatic relief but resulted in tendon degeneration.

  5. On the possibility of forming a thermonuclear plasma by the injection of accelerated ions into a magnetic mirror configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevot, Francois; Hubert, Pierre; Gourdon, Christian

    1959-01-01

    It is proposed to form a plasma at very high temperature by injection of fast molecular ions into a magnetic field, in such a way that the ions injected from a ring-shaped source pass through the revolution axis of the system and are dissociated from it. The properties of this movement provide reason to hope for favourable performances from this type of injection. A numerical example of its application is given. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 249, p. 997-999, sitting of 14 September 1959 [fr

  6. Platelet-rich plasma versus autologous blood versus steroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arirachakaran, Alisara; Sukthuayat, Amnat; Sisayanarane, Thaworn; Laoratanavoraphong, Sorawut; Kanchanatawan, Wichan; Kongtharvonskul, Jatupon

    2016-06-01

    Clinical outcomes between the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), autologous blood (AB) and corticosteroid (CS) injection in lateral epicondylitis are still controversial. A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted with the aim of comparing relevant clinical outcomes between the use of PRP, AB and CS injection. Medline and Scopus databases were searched from inception to January 2015. A network meta-analysis was performed by applying weight regression for continuous outcomes and a mixed-effect Poisson regression for dichotomous outcomes. Ten of 374 identified studies were eligible. When compared to CS, AB injection showed significantly improved effects with unstandardized mean differences (UMD) in pain visual analog scale (VAS), Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Patient-Related Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) score and pressure pain threshold (PPT) of -2.5 (95 % confidence interval, -3.5, -1.5), -25.5 (-33.8, -17.2), -5.3 (-9.1, -1.6) and 9.9 (5.6, 14.2), respectively. PRP injections also showed significantly improved VAS and DASH scores when compared with CS. PRP showed significantly better VAS with UMD when compared to AB injection. AB injection has a higher risk of adverse effects, with a relative risk of 1.78 (1.00, 3.17), when compared to CS. The network meta-analysis suggested no statistically significant difference in multiple active treatment comparisons of VAS, DASH and PRTEE when comparing PRP and AB injections. However, AB injection had improved DASH score and PPT when compared with PRP injection. In terms of adverse effects, AB injection had a higher risk than PRP injection. This network meta-analysis provided additional information that PRP injection can improve pain and lower the risk of complications, whereas AB injection can improve pain, disabilities scores and pressure pain threshold but has a higher risk of complications. Level I evidence.

  7. Solenoid-free Plasma Startup in NSTX using Coaxial Helicity Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger Raman; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Bell, Michael G.; Dennis Mueller; Nelson, Brian A.; Benoit LeBlanc; Charles Bush; Masayoshi Nagata; Ted Biewer

    2005-01-01

    The favorable properties of the Spherical Torus (ST) arise from its very small aspect ratio. However, small aspect ratio devices have very restricted space for a substantial central solenoid. Thus methods for initiating the plasma current without relying on induction from a central solenoid are essential for the viability of the ST concept. Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) is a promising candidate for solenoid-free plasma startup in a ST. Recent experiments on the HIT-II ST at the University of Washington, have demonstrated the capability of a new method, referred to as transient CHI, to produce a high quality, closed-flux equilibrium that has then been coupled to induction, with a reduced requirement for transformer flux [R. Raman, T.R. Jarboe, B.A. Nelson, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (February 2003) 075005-1]. An initial test of this method on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has produced about 140 kA of toroidal current. Modifications are now underway to improve capability for transient CHI in NSTX

  8. Effect of perimuscular injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom on plasma creatine kinase levels in mice: influence of dose and volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calil-Elias S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dose and volume of a perimuscular injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom on myonecrosis of skeletal muscle was studied in mice. An increase of the venom dose (0.25 to 2.0 µg/g at a given volume (50 µl resulted in an increase in plasma creatine kinase (CK levels 2 h after injection. Plasma CK activity increased from the basal level of 129.27 ± 11.83 (N = 20 to 2392.80 ± 709.43 IU/l (N = 4 for the 1.0 µg/g dose. Histological analysis of extensor digitorum longus muscle 4 h after injection showed lesion of peripheral muscle fibers, disorganization of the bundles or the complete degeneration of muscle fibers. These lesions were more extensive when higher doses were injected. Furthermore, an increase in volume (12.5 to 100 µl by dilution of a given dose (0.5 µg/g also increased plasma CK levels from 482.31 ± 122.79 to 919.07 ± 133.33 IU/l (N = 4, respectively. These results indicate that care should be taken to standardize volumes and sites of venom injections.

  9. Feasibility of driving perpendicular rotation in core plasma by off-axis neutral beam injection to suppress microturbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassam, A.B.

    1993-01-01

    Various aspects pertaining to driving perpendicular rotation in core plasma with neutral beam injection to suppress microturbulence are discussed. The assessment is based on the premise that a critical perpendicular velocity shear of order C s /L s is required to effect significant turbulence suppression. The equilibrium of a tokamak plasma rotating poloidally at such high frequencies is examined from drift-kinetic theory. It is shown that a substantial fraction of trapped particles is now detrapped. The calculation also shows that viscous damping from magnetic pumping falls off as the square of the poloidal speed. This reduction in viscous damping makes more efficacious the driving of large poloidal flows from off-axis neutral beam injection. The feasibility of exceeding the critical velocity shear is assessed, both for present day tokamaks as well as for reactor parameters. The magnetohydrodynamic stability of tokamak plasma rotating at high speeds with respect to Kelvin-Helmholtz and interchange modes is assessed

  10. Study of the injection of plasma into a magnetic field of double curvature geometry; Etude de l'injection de plasma dans un champ magnetique a double courbure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasry, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    An hydrogen plasma puff is injected along the lines of a magnetic field with a double curvature geometry. The plasma is produced by a coaxial gun with an annular preionization system. It is shown theoretically that the electric drift of the plasma can be cancelled if a depolarizing current flows along the field lines towards a region of good transverse conductivity. The experiment shows that in these conditions the curvature drift of the ions of the plasma may be used as a very efficient process to purify the fast component of the plasma puff. The depolarizing electron currents are measured and the mutual cancellation of the electric fields developing into the oppositely curved region is demonstrated to be possible. The current densities agree with the values deduced of the curvature drift of the ions. (author) [French] Un plasma d'hydrogene est injecte le long des lignes de force d'un champ magnetique a double courbure. Le plasma est produit par un canon coaxial a preionisation annulaire. Il est montre theoriquement que la derive electrique du plasma peut etre annulee si un courant de depolarisation circule le long des lignes de force vers une region de conductivite transversale elevee. L'experience montre que dans ces conditions, la derive de courbure des ions peut etre utilisee comme un moyen efficace de purification de la composante rapide du plasma. Les courants electroniques de depolarisation sont mesures et l'annulation mutuelle des champs electriques se developpant dans les regions de courbures opposees est demontree. Les densites de courant sont en accord avec les valeurs deduites de la derive de courbure des ions. (auteur)

  11. Platelet-rich plasma injections for the treatment of refractory Achilles tendinopathy: results at 4 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, Giuseppe; Kon, Elizaveta; Di Matteo, Berardo; Di Martino, Alessandro; Tesei, Giulia; Pelotti, Patrizia; Cenacchi, Annarita; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic Achilles tendinopathy is responsible for a severe reduction in physical performance and persistent pain. There is currently a number of therapeutic options and the local administration of growth factors is an emerging treatment strategy. In particular, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a widely used way to provide a local regenerative stimulus for tendon healing. The aim of this study was to document the mid-term results obtained after treating recalcitrant Achilles tendinopathy with injections of high concentrate, leucocyte-rich PRP. Materials and methods Twenty-seven patients (mean age: 44.6 years; 22 men and 5 women) affected by chronic mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy (7 bilateral, for a total of 34 tendons), refractory to previous treatments, were enrolled. Patients were treated with three ultrasound-guided intra-tendinous injections of PRP at 2-week intervals. Patients were prospectively evaluated at baseline, and then at 2, 6, and up to a mean of 54.1 months of follow-up (minimum 30 months), using the following tools: Blanzina, VISA-A, EQ-VAS for general health, and Tegner scores. Results The VISA-A score showed a significant improvement: the baseline score of 49.9±18.1 increased to 62.9±19.8 at 2 months (p=0.002), with a further improvement at 6 months (84.3±17.1, ptendinopathy with a stable outcome up to a medium-term follow-up. Longer symptom duration was related with a more difficult return to sporting activity. PMID:24960641

  12. Exposure to low-dose barium by drinking water causes hearing loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgami, Nobutaka; Hori, Sohjiro; Ohgami, Kyoko; Tamura, Haruka; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Ohnuma, Shoko; Kato, Masashi

    2012-10-01

    We continuously ingest barium as a general element by drinking water and foods in our daily life. Exposure to high-dose barium (>100mg/kg/day) has been shown to cause physiological impairments. Direct administration of barium to inner ears by vascular perfusion has been shown to cause physiological impairments in inner ears. However, the toxic influence of oral exposure to low-dose barium on hearing levels has not been clarified in vivo. We analyzed the toxic influence of oral exposure to low-dose barium on hearing levels and inner ears in mice. We orally administered barium at low doses of 0.14 and 1.4 mg/kg/day to wild-type ICR mice by drinking water. The doses are equivalent to and 10-fold higher than the limit level (0.7 mg/l) of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water, respectively. After 2-week exposure, hearing levels were measured by auditory brain stem responses and inner ears were morphologically analyzed. After 2-month exposure, tissue distribution of barium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Low-dose barium in drinking water caused severe hearing loss in mice. Inner ears including inner and outer hair cells, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion neurons showed severe degeneration. The Barium-administered group showed significantly higher levels of barium in inner ears than those in the control group, while barium levels in bone did not show a significant difference between the two groups. Barium levels in other tissues including the cerebrum, cerebellum, heart, liver and kidney were undetectably low in both groups. Our results demonstrate for the first time that low-dose barium administered by drinking water specifically distributes to inner ears resulting in severe ototoxicity with degeneration of inner ears in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microporous Titanium through Metal Injection Moulding of Coarse Powder and Surface Modification by Plasma Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Menhal Shbeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium is one of the most attractive materials for biomedical applications due to having excellent biocompatibility accompanied by good corrosion resistance. One popular processing technique for Ti is Metal Injection Moulding (MIM. However, there are several issues associated with the use of this technique, such as the high cost of the fine powder used, the high level of contamination and consequent alteration to material properties, as well as the large volume shrinkage that occurs during sintering. In this study, the use of a relatively coarse Ti powder with a mean particle size of 75 μm to process Ti parts with the potential for biomedical applications by MIM will be examined, compared to a commercial Ti feedstock, and subsequently coated using Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO. The results show that samples produced with the coarse powder shrink 35% less and have a relative density 14% less with an average pore size three-times larger than that of the commercial feedstock. This helps increase the potential competitiveness of MIM in the production of biomedical parts, as it reduces cost, shrinkage and results in more intentionally-induced micropores, such as are desired for biomedical implants. PEO treatment of the samples yields a thick rough coating comprised of a mixture of rutile and anatase with interconnected microporous channels and openings resembling the mouth of a volcanic crater.

  14. DIAGNOSTICS OF HYBRID WATER/ARGON THERMAL PLASMA JET WITH WATER, ETHANOL AND THEIR MIXTURE INJECTION TO PLASMA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Michal; Mašláni, Alan; Medřický, Jan; Kotlan, Jiří; Mušálek, Radek; Hrabovský, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2016), s. 62-65 ISSN 2336-2626. [SPPT 2016 - 27th Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/27./. Prague, 20.06.2016-23.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-12145S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * suspension * enthalpy probe * spectroscopy * air entrainment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://ppt.fel.cvut.cz/

  15. Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aba Marcelo A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Llamas (Lama glama are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. Oestradiol-17β (E2 and its esters are currently used in domestic species, including camelids, in synchronization treatments. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants. The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular (i.m. injection of two oestradiol esters: oestradiol benzoate (EB and oestradiol cypionate (ECP. Methods Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i.m. injected on day 0 with 2.5 mg of EB (EB group, n = 6 or ECP (ECP group, n = 6. Blood samples were collected immediately before injection, at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance (ANOVA using a repeated measures (within-SS design. Plasma E2 concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC values were compared between groups by ANOVA. In all cases a Least-Significant Difference test (LSD was used to determine differences between means. Hormonal and AUC data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Results Peak plasma E2 concentrations were achieved earlier and were higher in EB group than in ECP group. Thereafter, E2 returned to physiological concentrations earlier in EB group (day 5 than in ECP group (day 9. Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions The i.m. injection of a single dose

  16. The internal kink mode in an anisotropic flowing plasma with application to modeling neutral beam injected sawtoothing discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J. P.; Sauter, O.; Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2003-04-01

    For some time it has not been clear to what extent neutral injected beam ions have a stabilizing influence on sawteeth. To investigate this, the well known toroidal internal kink instability is generalized to account for weakly anisotropic and flowing equilibria. An analytical approach is proposed, which upon employing an appropriate model distribution function, accurately accounts for the hot ion response of neutral beam injection (NBI) to the internal kink mode. Large fluid contributions, which are expected to arise as a consequence of the anisotropic velocity deposition of NBI, are identified and shown to be stabilizing to the internal kink mode for populations with large passing fractions. In particular for tangential injection, such as that employed in the Joint European Torus [J. Wesson, Tokamaks, 2nd ed. (Oxford Science, Oxford, 1997), p. 581], it is found that fast ion stabilization can be dominated by anisotropic fluid effects rather than kinetic effects. In contrast, for predominantly trapped populations, the anisotropic fluid effects are destabilizing and thus reduce the stabilizing role of fast ions. This is especially evident for cases where the subsonic sheared toroidal plasma rotation induced by unbalanced NBI reduces kinetic stabilization. Sheared plasma rotation orientated either co or counter to the plasma current can reduce fast ion stabilization, but counter-rotation has the greatest effect by impeding the conservation of the third adiabatic invariant.

  17. Progress toward magnetic confinement of a positron-electron plasma: nearly 100% positron injection efficiency into a dipole trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    The hydrogen atom provides the simplest system and in some cases the most precise one for comparing theory and experiment in atomics physics. The field of plasma physics lacks an experimental counterpart, but there are efforts underway to produce a magnetically confined positron-electron plasma that promises to represent the simplest plasma system. The mass symmetry of positron-electron plasma makes it particularly tractable from a theoretical standpoint and many theory papers have been published predicting modified wave and stability properties in these systems. Our approach is to utilize techniques from the non-neutral plasma community to trap and accumulate electrons and positrons prior to mixing in a magnetic trap with good confinement properties. Ultimately we aim to use a levitated superconducting dipole configuration fueled by positrons from a reactor-based positron source and buffer-gas trap. To date we have conducted experiments to characterize and optimize the positron beam and test strategies for injecting positrons into the field of a supported permanent magnet by use of ExB drifts and tailored static and dynamic potentials applied to boundary electrodes and to the magnet itself. Nearly 100% injection efficiency has been achieved under certain conditions and some fraction of the injected positrons are confined for as long as 400 ms. These results are promising for the next step in the project which is to use an inductively energized high Tc superconducting coil to produce the dipole field, initially in a supported configuration, but ultimately levitated using feedback stabilization. Work performed with the support of the German Research Foundation (DFG), JSPS KAKENHI, NIFS Collaboration Research Program, and the UCSD Foundation.

  18. Rapid determination of piracetam in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sample direct injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsin-Hua; Yang, Yuan-Han; Ko, Ju-Yun; Chen, Su-Hwei

    2006-07-07

    A simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method with UV detection at 200 nm for analysis of piracetam in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by direct injection without any sample pretreatment is described. The separation of piracetam from biological matrix was performed at 25 degrees C using a background electrolyte consisting of Tris buffer with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the electrolyte solution. Several parameters affecting the separation of the drug from biological matrix were studied, including the pH and concentrations of the Tris buffer and SDS. Under optimal MEKC condition, good separation with high efficiency and short analyses time is achieved. Using imidazole as an internal standard (IS), the linear ranges of the method for the determination of piracetam in plasma and in CSF were all between 5 and 500 microg/mL; the detection limit of the drug in plasma and in CSF (signal-to-noise ratio=3; injection 0.5 psi, 5s) was 1.0 microg/mL. The applicability of the proposed method for determination of piracetam in plasma and CSF collected after intravenous administration of 3g piracetam every 6h and oral administration 1.2g every 6h in encephalopathy patients with aphasia was demonstrated.

  19. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V. [Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl{sub 2}-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl{sub 2}-MCl systems.

  20. Single-shot measurements of low emittance beams from laser-plasma accelerators comparing two triggered injection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    The success of laser plasma accelerator (LPA) based applications, such as a compact x-ray free electron laser (FEL), relies on the ability to produce electron beams with excellent 6D brightness, where brightness is defined as the ratio of charge to the product of the three normalized emittances. As such, parametric studies of the emittance of LPA generated electron beams are essential. Profiting from a stable and tunable LPA setup, combined with a carefully designed single-shot energy-dispersed emittance diagnostic, we present a direct comparison of charge dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by two different injection mechanisms: ionization injection and shock-induced density down-ramp injection. Both injection mechanisms have gained in popularity in recent years due to their demonstrated stable LPA performance. For the down-ramp injection configuration, normalized emittances a factor of two lower were recorded: less than 1 micron at spectral charge densities up to 2 pC/MeV. For both injection mechanisms, a contributing correlation of space charge to the emittance was identified. This measurement technique in general, and these results specifically, are critical to the evaluation of LPA injection methods and development of high-quality LPA beam lines worldwide. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the U.S. DOE NNSA, DNN R&D (NA22), by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1415596, and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under Grant ID GBMF4898.

  1. Transient plasma injections in the dayside magnetosphere: one-to-one correlated observations by Cluster and SuperDARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchaudon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctions in the cusp between the four Cluster spacecraft and SuperDARN ground-based radars offer unique opportunities to compare the signatures of transient plasma injections simultaneously in the high-altitude dayside magnetosphere and in the ionosphere. We report here on such observations on 17 March 2001, when the IMF initially northward and duskward, turns southward and dawnward for a short period. The changes in the convection direction at Cluster are well correlated with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF By variations. Moreover, the changes in the ionosphere follow those in the magnetosphere, with a 2–3min delay. When mapped into the ionosphere, the convection velocity at Cluster is about 1.5 times larger than measured by SuperDARN. In the high-altitude cusp, field and particle observations by Cluster display the characteristic signatures of plasma injections into the magnetosphere suggestive of Flux Transfer Events (FTEs. Simultaneous impulsive and localized convection plasma flows are observed in the ionospheric cusp by the HF radars. A clear one-to-one correlation is observed for three successive injections, with a 2–3min delay between the magnetospheric and ionospheric observations. For each event, the drift velocity of reconnected flux tubes (phase velocity has been compared in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere. The drift velocity measured at Cluster is of the order of 400–600ms–1 when mapped into the ionosphere, in qualitative agreement with SuperDARN observations. Finally, the reconnected flux tubes are elongated in the north-south direction, with an east-west dimension of 30–60km in the ionosphere from mapped Cluster observations, which is consistent with SuperDARN observations, although slightly smaller. Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection – Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  2. MR Colonography with fecal tagging: Barium vs. barium ferumoxsil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M.P.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.B.

    2008-01-01

    and Methods. Twenty patients referred to CC underwent dark lumen MRC prior to the colonoscopy. Two groups of patients received two different oral contrast agents (barium sulfate and barium sulfate/ferumoxsil) as a laxative-free fecal tagging prior to the MRC. After MRC, the contrast agent was rated...... qualitatively (with the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio) and subjectively (using a visual analog scale [VAS]) by three different blinded observers. Results. Evaluated both qualitatively and subjectively, the tagging efficiency of barium sulfate/ferumoxsil was significantly better (P ... barium sulfate alone. The VAS method for evaluating the tagging efficiency of contrast agents showed a high correlation (observer 11, r = 0.91) to the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio and also a high interclass correlation (observer 11 and III = 0.89/0.85). MRC found I of 22 (5%) polyps

  3. Estimation of the quantification uncertainty from flow injection and liquid chromatography transient signals in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborda, Francisco; Medrano, Jesus; Castillo, Juan R.

    2004-01-01

    The quality of the quantitative results obtained from transient signals in high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS) and flow injection-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICPMS) was investigated under multielement conditions. Quantification methods were based on multiple-point calibration by simple and weighted linear regression, and double-point calibration (measurement of the baseline and one standard). An uncertainty model, which includes the main sources of uncertainty from FI-ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS (signal measurement, sample flow rate and injection volume), was developed to estimate peak area uncertainties and statistical weights used in weighted linear regression. The behaviour of the ICPMS instrument was characterized in order to be considered in the model, concluding that the instrument works as a concentration detector when it is used to monitorize transient signals from flow injection or chromatographic separations. Proper quantification by the three calibration methods was achieved when compared to reference materials, although the double-point calibration allowed to obtain results of the same quality as the multiple-point calibration, shortening the calibration time. Relative expanded uncertainties ranged from 10-20% for concentrations around the LOQ to 5% for concentrations higher than 100 times the LOQ

  4. A comparison of continuous pneumatic nebulization and flow injection-direct injection nebulization for sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.

    1995-08-01

    Dilute nitric acid blanks and solutions containing Ni, Cd, Pb, and U (including two laboratory waste samples) were analyzed eighteen times over a two-month period using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two different sample introduction techniques were employed: flow injection-direct injection nebulization (FI-DIN) and continuous pneumatic nebulization (CPN). Using comparable instrumental measurement procedures, FI-DIN analyses were 33% faster and generated 52% less waste than CPN analyses. Instrumental limits of detection obtained with FI-DIN and CPN were comparable but not equivalent (except in the case of Pb) because of nebulizer-related differences in sensitivity (i.e., signal per unit analyte concentration) and background. Substantial and statistically significant differences were found between FI-DIN and CPN Ni determinations, and in the case of the laboratory waste samples, there were also small but statistically significant differences between Cd determinations. These small (2 to 3%) differences were not related to polyatomic ion interference (e.g., 95 Mo 16 O + ), but in light of the time savings and waste reduction to be realized, they should not preclude the use of FI-DIN in place of CPN for determination of Cd, Pb, U and chemically

  5. The effect of platelet-rich plasma injection on lateral epicondylitis following failed conservative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkljac, Milos; Kumar, Shyam; Kalloo, Dale; Hirehal, Kiran

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the effect PRP injection on pain and function in patients with lateral epicondylitis where conservative management had failed. We prospectively reviewed 34 patients. The mean follow-up was 26 weeks (range 6-114 weeks). We used the Oxford Elbow Score (OES) and progression to surgery to assess outcomes. 88.2% improved their OES. 8.8% reported symptom progression. One patient had no change. No patients suffered adverse reactions. Two patients underwent an open release procedure. One had the injection repeated. An injection of PRP improves pain and function in patients suffering from LE where conservative management has failed.

  6. Knee Osteoarthritis Injection Choices: Platelet- Rich Plasma (PRP versus Hyaluronic Acid (A one-year randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Knee osteoarthritis (OA is the most common articular disease. Different methods are used to alleviate the symptoms of patients with knee OA, including analgesics, physical therapy, exercise prescription, and intra-articular injections (glucocorticoids, hyaluronic acid [HA], etc. New studies have focused on modern therapeutic methods that stimulate cartilage healing process and improve the damage, including the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP as a complex of growth factors. Due to the high incidence of OA and its consequences, we decided to study the long-term effect of intraarticular injection of PRP and HA on clinical outcome and quality of life of patients with knee OA. Method This non-placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial involved 160 patients affected by knee OA, grade 1–4 of Kellgren–Lawrence scale. In the PRP group ( n = 87, two intra-articular injections at 4-week interval were applied, and in the HA group ( n = 73, three doses of intra-articular injection at 1-week interval were applied. All patients were prospectively evaluated before and at 12 months after the treatment by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC and SF-36 questionnaires. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.1 software (RCT code: IRCT2014012113442N5. Results At the 12-month follow-up, WOMAC pain score and bodily pain significantly improved in both groups; however, better results were determined in the PRP group compared to the HA group ( P < 0.001. Other WOMAC and SF-36 parameters improved only in the PRP group. More improvement (but not statistically significant was achieved in patients with grade 2 OA in both the groups. Conclusion This study suggests that PRP injection is more efficacious than HA injection in reducing symptoms and improving quality of life and is a therapeutic option in select patients with knee OA who have not responded to conventional treatment.

  7. Choice of intra-articular injection in treatment of knee osteoarthritis: platelet-rich plasma, hyaluronic acid or ozone options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duymus, Tahir Mutlu; Mutlu, Serhat; Dernek, Bahar; Komur, Baran; Aydogmus, Suavi; Kesiktas, Fatma Nur

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to compare the efficacy of treatment in three groups of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) given an intra-articular injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), hyaluronic acid (HA) or ozone gas. A total of 102 patients with mild-moderate and moderate knee OA who presented at the polyclinic with at least a 1-year history of knee pain and VAS score ≥4 were randomly separated into three groups. Group 1 (PRP group) received intra-articular injection of PRP × 2 doses, Group 2 (HA group) received a single dose of HA, and Group 3 (Ozone group) received ozone × four doses. Weight-bearing anteroposterior-lateral and Merchant's radiographs of both knees were evaluated. WOMAC and VAS scores were applied to all patients on first presentation and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. At the end of the 1st month after injection, significant improvements were seen in all groups. In the 3rd month, the improvements in WOMAC and VAS scores were similar in Groups 1 and 2, while those in Group 3 were lower (p injections, as the application alone was sufficient to provide at least 12 months of pain-free daily living activities. Therapeutic study, Level I.

  8. Combination of Intra-Articular and Intraosseous Injections of Platelet Rich Plasma for Severe Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess a novel approach to treating severe knee osteoarthritis by targeting synovial membrane, superficial articular cartilage, synovial fluid, and subchondral bone by combining intra-articular injections and intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma. We explored a new strategy consisting of intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma into the subchondral bone in combination with the conventional intra-articular injection in order to tackle several knee joint tissues simultaneously. We assessed the clinical outcomes through osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS and the inflammatory response by quantifying mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid. There was a significant pain reduction in the KOOS from baseline (61.55±14.11 to week 24 (74.60±19.19, after treatment (p=0.008, in the secondary outcomes (symptoms, p=0.004; ADL, p=0.022; sport/rec., p=0.017; QOL, p=0.012, as well as VAS score (p<0.001 and Lequesne Index (p=0.008. The presence of mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid and colony-forming cells one week after treatment decreased substantially from 7.98±8.21 MSC/μL to 4.04±5.36 MSC/μL (p=0.019 and from 601.75±312.30 to 139.19±123.61  (p=0.012, respectively. Intra-articular injections combined with intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma reduce pain and mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid, besides significantly improving knee joint function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis. This trial is registered on EudraCT with the number 2013-003982-32.

  9. Statistical properties of barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Barium stars are G- and K-giant stars with atmospheric excesses of s-process elements, and a broadband spectral depression in the blue portion of the spectrum. The strength of the λ4554 Ball line is used as a classification parameter known as the Barium Intensity. They have a mean absolute magnitude of 1.0 and a dispersion of 1.2 magnitudes (assuming a Gaussian distribution in absolute magnitude) as measured from secular and statistical parallaxes. These stars apparently belong to a young-disk population from analyses of both the solar reflex motion and their residual velocity distribution, which implies that they have an upper mass limit of around three solar masses. There is no apparent correlation of barium intensity with either luminosity or kinematic properties. The barium stars appear to be preferentially distributed in the direction of the local spiral arm, but show no preference to associate with or avoid the direction of the galactic center. They do not appear related to either the carbon or S-stars because of these tendencies and because of the stellar population to which each type of star belongs. The distribution in absolute magnitude combined with star count analyses implies that these stars are slightly less numerous than previously believed. Barium stars show infrared excesses that correlate with their barium intensities

  10. A spilt head study of efficacy of placebo versus platelet-rich plasma injections in the treatment of androgenic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kachhawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is an autologous concentration of human platelets contained in a small volume of plasma with haemostatic and tissue repairing effects. Being enriched by various growth factors, PRP has become the focus of attention in numerous fields of medicine. Androgenic alopecia (AGA is a common chronic hair loss disorder, characterised by progressive hair loss. Despite the therapeutic options available, there is low patient compliance and satisfaction rate. The topical and often systemic adverse effects of therapy has lead to the search of new treatment options for AGA. Recently, PRP has received growing attention as a potential therapeutic tool for hair loss. Aim: To compare the efficacy of placebo versus PRP injections in the treatment of male AGA. Patients and Methods: Fifty male patients with AGA (Grade III to VI were enrolled in the study. PRP was prepared using the double-spin method and injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp on the left side. Normal saline was injected on the right side in a similar fashion. Treatment sessions were performed with an interval of 21 days, and six sittings were completed for every patient. Results: Hair loss reduced with evidence of new hair growth. Digital image analysis showed an overall improvement in hair density and quality as lanugo-like hair became thicker, normal hair. An improvement in hair density, quality and thickness on trichoscopy was noted. Conclusion: Our data suggest that PRP injections have therapeutic effect on male pattern hair loss with no major side effects and high patient satisfaction overall.

  11. Development of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun for compact toroid injection into the C-2 field-reversed configuration device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T; Sekiguchi, J; Asai, T; Gota, H; Garate, E; Allfrey, I; Valentine, T; Morehouse, M; Roche, T; Kinley, J; Aefsky, S; Cordero, M; Waggoner, W; Binderbauer, M; Tajima, T

    2016-05-01

    A compact toroid (CT) injector was developed for the C-2 device, primarily for refueling of field-reversed configurations. The CTs are formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylindrical electrodes and a bias coil for creating a magnetic field. First, a plasma ring is generated by a discharge between the electrodes and is accelerated by Lorenz self-force. Then, the plasma ring is captured by an interlinkage flux (poloidal flux). Finally, the fully formed CT is ejected from the MCPG. The MCPG described herein has two gas injection ports that are arranged tangentially on the outer electrode. A tungsten-coated inner electrode has a head which can be replaced with a longer one to extend the length of the acceleration region for the CT. The developed MCPG has achieved supersonic CT velocities of ∼100 km/s. Plasma parameters for electron density, electron temperature, and the number of particles are ∼5 × 10(21) m(-3), ∼40 eV, and 0.5-1.0 × 10(19), respectively.

  12. Development of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun for compact toroid injection into the C-2 field-reversed configuration device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, T., E-mail: cstd14003@g.nihon-u.ac.jp; Sekiguchi, J.; Asai, T. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 1018308 (Japan); Gota, H.; Garate, E.; Allfrey, I.; Valentine, T.; Morehouse, M.; Roche, T.; Kinley, J.; Aefsky, S.; Cordero, M.; Waggoner, W.; Binderbauer, M. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010 Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Tajima, T. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010 Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    A compact toroid (CT) injector was developed for the C-2 device, primarily for refueling of field-reversed configurations. The CTs are formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylindrical electrodes and a bias coil for creating a magnetic field. First, a plasma ring is generated by a discharge between the electrodes and is accelerated by Lorenz self-force. Then, the plasma ring is captured by an interlinkage flux (poloidal flux). Finally, the fully formed CT is ejected from the MCPG. The MCPG described herein has two gas injection ports that are arranged tangentially on the outer electrode. A tungsten-coated inner electrode has a head which can be replaced with a longer one to extend the length of the acceleration region for the CT. The developed MCPG has achieved supersonic CT velocities of ∼100 km/s. Plasma parameters for electron density, electron temperature, and the number of particles are ∼5 × 10{sup 21} m{sup −3}, ∼40 eV, and 0.5–1.0 × 10{sup 19}, respectively.

  13. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection With Percutaneous Needling for Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis: Comparison of Tenotomy and Fenestration Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Michael P; Motto, Michael A; Lewis, Sarah; Jacoby, Sidney M; Culp, Randall W; Lee Osterman, A; Kane, Patrick M

    2017-12-01

    Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a common debilitating condition, with numerous treatment options of varying success. An injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to improve LE, although it is unclear whether the method of needling used in conjunction with a PRP injection is of clinical importance. To determine whether percutaneous needle tenotomy is superior to percutaneous needle fenestration when each is combined with a PRP injection for the treatment of recalcitrant LE. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 93 patients with recalcitrant LE were treated with a PRP injection and percutaneous needle fenestration (n = 45) or percutaneous needle tenotomy (n = 48) over a 5-year study interval. Preoperative patient data, including visual analog scale for pain (VAS-P), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH), and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) scores and grip strength, were obtained from a chart review and compared with postoperative values obtained prospectively. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of complications, need for additional interventions, return to work, and patient satisfaction. At a mean follow-up of 40 months, significant improvements in VAS-P (mean, -6.1; 95% CI, -6.8 to -5.5; P PRP injection with concomitant percutaneous needling is an effective treatment for recalcitrant LE, with sustained improvements in pain, strength, and function demonstrated at a mean follow-up of longer than 3 years. Although the method of concomitant needling does not appear to have a significant effect on treatment outcomes, more aggressive needle tenotomy is less likely to require conversion to open tenotomy than needle fenestration in the short term to midterm.

  14. The Effect of Ante-Mortem Epinephrine Injection on Plasma Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight West African dwarf ewes were allotted into two equal groups in an attempt to study the effect of epinephrine on body glucose, post mortem glycolysis and some aspects of meat quality factors. One group was injected subcutaneously a one-shot dosage of 0.1% adrenaline solution at a level of a 1.8 mg/10 kg live body ...

  15. The development of submucosal injection of platelet rich plasma for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement and preserving pressure side alveolar bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. W. Liou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the surgical-assisted accelerated orthodontic tooth movement has been proved to be the most effective one currently, its disadvantages are it is a bone surgery, and it causes loss of alveolar bone that undermines the periodontal support of the target teeth. The submucosal injection of platelet rich plasma (PRP is a technique developed for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement by simulating the effects of bone insult without surgery and loss of alveolar bone. We have revealed clinically that submucosal injection of PRP accelerated the mandibular or maxillary alignment 1.7 folds faster in average, and the acceleration was dose-dependent when the PRP fold (platelet count in PRP/platelet count in blood was <12.5. The optimal PRP fold for a more than 2-fold acceleration of orthodontic alignment ranged from 9.5 to 12.5 folds. On the other hand, the injection of PRP on the pressure side of en masse anterior retraction decreased 71–77% of alveolar bone loss, and this was dose-dependent. The pressure side of en masse anterior retraction had no alveolar bone loss when the PRP fold was higher than 11.0. In conclusion, the optimal PRP fold for the best performance in acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement and preservation of the pressure side alveolar bone is 11.0–12.5.

  16. Comparison of Local Injection of Platelet Rich Plasma and Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis of Humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Raman; Kothari, S Y; Borah, Diganta

    2015-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis or Tennis Elbow is one of the most common causes of upper extremity pain with various treatment options. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) offers a new option for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. This study was conducted with an aim to compare the efficacy of PRP versus methyl-prednisolone local injection in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Sixty five patients with lateral epicondylitis were included in the study and randomized into two groups. Group A was treated with single injection of 1ml PRP with absolute platelet count of at least 1 million platelets/ mm(3). Group B was treated with single injection of 1ml (40mg) methyl-prednisolone. Pain, grip strength and functional improvements were assessed using visual analogue scale, dynamometer and quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scale respectively at baseline, 15 days, 1 month and 3 months. Sixty patients completed the follow up. All assessment parameters improved significantly in both the Groups at each follow up compared to baseline. At the end of three months group A showed significantly better improvement as compared to Group B. PRP and methyl-prenisolone both are effective in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. However, PRP is a superior treatment option for longer duration efficacy.

  17. Study of platelet-rich plasma injections in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia through an one-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Angeliki Gkini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is defined as an autologous concentration of plasma with a greater count of platelets than that of whole blood. Its action depends on the released growth factors from platelets. It has been investigated and used in numerous fields of medicine. Recently, PRP has received growing attention as a potential therapeutic tool for hair loss. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PRP injections in the scalp of patients with androgenetic alopecia. Settings and Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: 20 patients, 18 males and 2 females, with androgenetic alopecia were enrolled in the study. PRP was prepared using a single spin method (Regenlab SA. Upon activation, it was injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp. Three treatment sessions were performed with an interval of 21 days and a booster session at 6 months following the onset of therapy. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 19.0 (IBM, NY, USA. Results: Hair loss reduced and at 3 months it reached normal levels. Hair density reached a peak at 3 months (170.70 ± 37.81, P < 0.001. At 6 months and at 1 year, it was significantly increased, 156.25 ± 37.75 (P < 0.001 and 153.70 ± 39.92 (P < 0.001 respectively, comparing to baseline. Patients were satisfied with a mean result rating of 7.1 on a scale of 1-10. No remarkable adverse effects were noted. Conclusions: Our data suggest that PRP injections may have a positive therapeutic effect on male and female pattern hair loss without remarkable major side effects. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy.

  18. Numerical investigation on lithium transport in the edge plasma of EAST real-time- Li-injection experiments in the frame of BOUT++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the transport of Li species in the plasma with real-time Li aerosol injection on EAST, a model has been developed by reducing Braginskii's equations, and implemented in the frame of BOUT++. The simulation results show that Li atoms propagate inwards since the Li injection, and their penetration depth depends on both the local plasma conditions along their path and initial injection velocity. It is also found that Li ions accumulate rapidly in the edge, and only a small fraction of Li species can transport cross the separatrix into the core. In the poloidal direction, Li ions drift swiftly downwards along the field lines, and transport much faster at the high field side than at the low field side. The interaction between background plasma and Li species plays a critical role in determining the edge plasma profile. It is found that real-time Li injection raises the plasma density in the pedestal region and reduces the plasma temperature, just as has been observed experimentally.

  19. Microporous Titanium through Metal Injection Moulding of Coarse Powder and Surface Modification by Plasma Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Shbeh, Mohammed; Yerokhin, Aleksey; Goodall, Russell

    2017-01-01

    Titanium is one of the most attractive materials for biomedical applications due to having excellent biocompatibility accompanied by good corrosion resistance. One popular processing technique for Ti is Metal Injection Moulding (MIM). However, there are several issues associated with the use of this technique, such as the high cost of the fine powder used, the high level of contamination and consequent alteration to material properties, as well as the large volume shrinkage that occurs during...

  20. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestorino, N. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: nmestorino@yahoo.com; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-04-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg{sup -1}). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 {mu}g h mL{sup -1} and its elimination half life (T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2}) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2} from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal.

  1. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... No: 2010-8568] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium... determination to conduct a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  2. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  3. Reduction of electron density in a plasma by injection of liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodha, M. S.; Evans, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    In this paper, the authors have investigated the physics of various processes relevant to the reduction of electron density in a plasma by addition of water droplets; two processes have in particular been analyzed in some detail, viz, the electron attachment to charged dielectric droplets and the emission of negative ions by vaporization from these droplets. The results of these analyses have been applied to a study of the kinetics of reduction of electron density and charging of droplets in an initially overionized plasma, after addition of water droplets. A number of simplifying assumptions including uniform size and charge on droplets and negligible change in the radius of the droplet due to evaporation have been made.

  4. Microwave plasma source for neutral-beam injection systems. Quarterly technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The overall program is described and the technical and programmatic reasons for the decision to pursue both the RFI and ECH sources into the current hydrogen test stage is discussed. We consider the general characteristics of plasma sources in the parameter regime of interest for neutral beam applications. The operatonal characteristics, advantages and potential problems of RFI and ECH sources are discussed. In these latter two sections we rely heavily on experience derived from developing RFI and ECH ion engine sources for NASA

  5. Counter-crossing injection for stable high-quality electron beam generation via laser-plasma interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotaki, H; Daito, I; Hayashi, Y; Ma, J; Chen, L-M; Kando, M; Esirkepov, T Z; Fukuda, Y; Homma, T; Pirozhkov, A; Koga, J K; Nakajima, K; Daido, H; Bulanov, S V [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto (Japan)], E-mail: kotaki.hideyuki@jaea.go.jp

    2008-05-01

    Counter-crossing injection, which is a realistic setup for applications, by two sub-relativistic laser pulses colliding at an angle of 45 degrees is demonstrated. The collision of the two laser pulses generates a high-quality electron beam with high reproducibility. The generated monoenergetic electron beam has a peak energy of 14.4 MeV, an energy spread of 10.6%, a charge of 21.8 pC, a normalized emittance of 1.6 {pi} mm mrad, and a reproducibility of 50%. The electron beam generation is unfolded with two-dimensional-particle-in-cell simulations. The laser pulses in plasma are self-focused to higher intensity when the laser power is above the threshold for relativistic self-focusing. The collision of the self-focused laser pulses generates a high-quality electron beam with high reproducibility.

  6. Intraarticular Injections of Platelet-rich Plasma (PRPin the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   The clinical use of PRP therapy in the practical setting of orthopaedic fields is increasing partly because of the accessibility of devices that are used in outpatient preparation and delivery. Another reason is the strong advertisement of PRP procedures as the ultimate treatment and novel technology for knee problems by a few orthopaedic surgeons based on claims of abundant scientific evidence. Hence, PubMed articles related to the clinical use of PRP in knee osteoarthritis were searched using the key words: PRP, knee and osteoarthritis in order to study these claims. A total of 20 reports were found directly related to the topic. The aforementioned clinical studies suggest that intraarticular injections of PRP could have preventive effects against osteoarthritis progression. However, presently there is no clear evidence from well-designed clinical trials that intraarticular injections of PRP are efficacious in osteoarthritis. Therefore, at this time the efficacy of PRP requires more investigation, wherein better scientific studies should be performed that include high powered randomized controlled trials.

  7. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection With Percutaneous Needling for Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis: Comparison of Tenotomy and Fenestration Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Michael P.; Motto, Michael A.; Lewis, Sarah; Jacoby, Sidney M.; Culp, Randall W.; Lee Osterman, A.; Kane, Patrick M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a common debilitating condition, with numerous treatment options of varying success. An injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to improve LE, although it is unclear whether the method of needling used in conjunction with a PRP injection is of clinical importance. Purpose: To determine whether percutaneous needle tenotomy is superior to percutaneous needle fenestration when each is combined with a PRP injection for the treatment of recalcitrant LE. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 93 patients with recalcitrant LE were treated with a PRP injection and percutaneous needle fenestration (n = 45) or percutaneous needle tenotomy (n = 48) over a 5-year study interval. Preoperative patient data, including visual analog scale for pain (VAS-P), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH), and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) scores and grip strength, were obtained from a chart review and compared with postoperative values obtained prospectively. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of complications, need for additional interventions, return to work, and patient satisfaction. Results: At a mean follow-up of 40 months, significant improvements in VAS-P (mean, –6.1; 95% CI, –6.8 to –5.5; P < .0001), QuickDASH (mean, –46; 95% CI, –52 to –40; P < .0001), and PRTEE (mean, –57; 95% CI, –64 to –50; P < .0001) scores and grip strength (mean, +6.1 kg; 95% CI, 4.9 to 7.3; P < .0001) were observed across the entire study cohort, with no significant differences noted between the fenestration and tenotomy groups. Nine of 45 patients (22%) underwent additional procedures to treat recurrent symptoms in the fenestration group compared with 5 of 48 patients (10%) in the tenotomy group (P = .05). No complications occurred in any patients, and no patients expressed dissatisfaction with their treatment course. Conclusion: A PRP injection

  8. INJECTION OF PLASMA INTO THE NASCENT SOLAR WIND VIA RECONNECTION DRIVEN BY SUPERGRANULAR ADVECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liping; He Jiansen; Tu Chuanyi; Chen Wenlei; Zhang Lei; Wang Linghua; Yan Limei; Peter, Hardi; Marsch, Eckart; Feng, Xueshang

    2013-01-01

    To understand the origin of the solar wind is one of the key research topics in modern solar and heliospheric physics. Previous solar wind models assumed that plasma flows outward along a steady magnetic flux tube that reaches continuously from the photosphere through the chromosphere into the corona. Inspired by more recent comprehensive observations, Tu et al. suggested a new scenario for the origin of the solar wind, in which it flows out in a magnetically open coronal funnel and mass is provided to the funnel by small-scale side loops. Thus mass is supplied by means of magnetic reconnection that is driven by supergranular convection. To validate this scenario and simulate the processes involved, a 2.5 dimensional (2.5D) numerical MHD model is established in the present paper. In our simulation a closed loop moves toward an open funnel, which has opposite polarity and is located at the edge of a supergranulation cell, and magnetic reconnection is triggered and continues while gradually opening up one half of the closed loop. Its other half connects with the root of the open funnel and forms a new closed loop which is submerged by a reconnection plasma stream flowing downward. Thus we find that the outflowing plasma in the newly reconnected funnel originates not only from the upward reconnection flow but also from the high-pressure leg of the originally closed loop. This implies an efficient supply of mass from the dense loop to the dilute funnel. The mass flux of the outflow released from the funnel considered in our study is calculated to be appropriate for providing the mass flux at the coronal base of the solar wind, though additional heating and acceleration mechanisms are necessary to keep the velocity at the higher location. Our numerical model demonstrates that in the funnel the mass for the solar wind may be supplied from adjacent closed loops via magnetic reconnection as well as directly from the footpoints of open funnels.

  9. Autologous Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma Dermal Injections for Facial Skin Rejuvenation: Clinical, Instrumental, and Flow Cytometry Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Norma; Mariano, Maria; Cordone, Iole; Abril, Elva; Masi, Serena; Foddai, Maria Laura

    2017-06-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an emerging treatment in dermatology recently proposed for skin rejuvenation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of autologous pure PRP dermal injections on facial skin rejuvenation, investigating the cellularity of PRP samples. Twelve patients underwent 3 sessions of PRP injection at 1-month intervals. The clinical and instrumental outcomes were evaluated before (T0) and 1 month (T1) after the end of treatment by means of transepidermal water loss, corneometry, Cutometer, Visioscan, and Visioface. A flow cytometry characterization on PRP and peripheral blood (PB) samples was performed. Clinical and patient evaluation showed improvement of skin texture. Skin gross elasticity, skin smoothness parameters, skin barrier function, and capacitance were significantly improved. No difference between PRP and PB lymphocyte immunological asset was observed. A leukocyte population (mainly CD3) and neutrophils depletion were documented in all the PRP samples. This instrumental study demonstrated that PRP poor in leukocytes can provide objective improvements in skin biostimulation. Flow cytometry showed no variability among the PRP samples using a reproducible separation system and a low content in proinflammatory cells. Although a pilot study, it may be helpful for future investigations on PRP cellularity.

  10. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections With Needle Tenotomy for Gluteus Medius Tendinopathy: A Registry Study With Prospective Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J; Harrison, Julian R; Boachie-Adjei, Kwadwo; Vargas, Elizabeth; Moley, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    Gluteal tendinopathy is a prevalent condition that can be associated with significant pain and disability. To date, no studies have prospectively assessed the efficacy of intratendinous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections as a minimally invasive treatment for gluteus medius tendinopathy. To prospectively assess the efficacy of intratendinous PRP injections as treatment for chronic recalcitrant gluteus medius tendinopathy. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. During the study period between July 2011 and November 2015, data were collected from the Hospital for Special Surgery Center for Hip Preservation Outcomes Registry on participants who underwent ultrasound-guided intratendinous PRP injections for recalcitrant gluteus medius tendinosis and/or partial tears of the tendon associated with moderate to severe lateral hip pain for longer than 3 months. All participants were assessed pre- and postinjection with 4 outcome measures: modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living subscale (HOS-ADL), Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific subscale (HOS-Sport), and the International Hip Outcome Tool-33 (iHOT-33). Demographic data, including age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, and smoking status, were also collected. A total of 21 patients were included in the study, with a mean follow-up of 19.7 months (range, 12.1-32.3 months). The mean improvements from preinjection to postinjection follow-up were 56.73 to 74.17 for mHHS, 68.93 to 84.14 for HOS-ADL, 45.54 to 66.72 for HOS-Sport, and 34.06 to 66.33 for iHOT-33. All mean outcome measure improvements were clinically and statistically significant ( P gluteus medius tendinopathy due to moderate to severe tendinosis and/or partial tendon tears. Well-powered randomized controlled studies are warranted to confirm our findings and further define the ideal candidates for this treatment.

  11. Effectiveness of a single platelet-rich plasma injection to promote recovery in rugby players with ankle syndesmosis injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, David J; Sman, Amy D; Rae, Katherine; Linklater, James; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Hiller, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether a single ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection into the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL) reduces the time for rugby athletes to return to function and match play following MRI confirmed ankle syndesmosis injury. Cohort controlled pilot study. 10 Rugby Union players were recruited during the 2014 season, and consented to receive a single autologous PRP injection into the AITFL within 14 days of MRI confirmed ankle syndesmosis injury. A historical control group included 11 comparable Rugby Union players between 2011 and 2013 who were treated conservatively with the same inclusion criteria and rehabilitation protocol as the intervention group. Participants followed a standardised rehabilitation protocol involving simple milestones for progression. Early functional tests were performed 2 weeks after the removal of the CAM (controlled ankle motion) boot. Time to return to play was recorded. Repeat functional testing occurred within 1 week of return to play. Groups were comparable in anthropometrics, playing position and MRI injury severity. Time to return to play was significantly less in the intervention group (p=0.048). Following return to play, athletes in the intervention group showed higher agility (p=0.002) and vertical jump (p=0.001). There was a lower level of fear avoidance associated with rugby in the intervention group (p=0.014). This pilot study shows that, following ankle syndesmosis injury, a single autologous PRP injection may accelerate safe and successful return to Rugby Union, with improved functional capacity and reduced fear avoidance. It demonstrates the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial to further assess this therapy. ANZCTRN12614000055606.

  12. Multi-layer WSe2 field effect transistor with improved carrier-injection contact by using oxygen plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Won-Mook; Lee, SungTae; Cho, In-Tak; Park, Tae Hyung; Shin, Hyeonwoo; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Lee, Changhee; Park, Byung-Gook; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the effect of an oxygen (O2) plasma treatment on multi-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) field-effect transistor (FET) by forming tungsten trioxide (WO3) layers. Palladium (Pd), which is known to form an Ohmic contact with WSe2, is used for the source and drain (S/D) contact electrodes as a control group for metal variables. And then, Nickel (Ni), which is thought to form a Schottky contact with WSe2 experimentally, is used as an experimental group. For both cases of the control group and the experimental group, the electrical characteristics including drain current (ID), on/off ratio (ION/IOFF), subthreshold swing (SS) and field effect mobility (μeff) are analyzed according to the presence or absence of WO3. In case of adopting the WO3 contact layer between the WSe2 and the Ni for the S/D contact electrode, we observe a remarkable improvement in ID, ION/IOFF, μeff, and SS compared to the case without the WO3 contact layer. The analyzed electrical characteristics show that an efficient hole-injection contact was achieved for the multi-layer WSe2 FET by the O2 plasma treatment, which leads to the formation of an Ohmic-like contact at an electrode/WSe2 interface.

  13. Detection of transgenerational barium dual-isotope marks in salmon otoliths by means of LA-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelga-Suarez, Gonzalo; Fernández, Beatriz; Moldovan, Mariella; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2013-03-01

    The present study evaluates the use of an individual-specific transgenerational barium dual-isotope procedure and its application to salmon specimens from the Sella River (Asturias, Spain). For such a purpose, the use of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in combination with multiple linear regression for the determination of the isotopic mark in the otoliths of the specimens is presented. In this sense, a solution in which two barium-enriched isotopes ((137)Ba and (135)Ba) were mixed at a molar ratio of ca. 1:3 (N Ba137/N Ba135) was administered to eight returning females caught during the spawning period. After injection, these females, as well as their offspring, were reared in a governmental hatchery located in the council of Cangas de Onís (Asturias, Spain). For comparison purposes, as well as for a time-monitoring control, egg and larva data obtained by solution analysis ICP-MS are also given. Otoliths (9-month-old juveniles) of marked offspring were analysed by LA-ICP-MS demonstrating a 100 % marking efficacy of this methodology. The capabilities of the molar fraction approach for 2D imaging of fish otoliths are also addressed.

  14. Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Intra-Articular Knee Injections for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lawrence P; Stitik, Todd P; Foye, Patrick M; Georgy, John S; Patibanda, Varun; Chen, Boqing

    2015-06-01

    To systematically analyze the literature on the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for intra-articular injections of the knee and its efficacy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Systematic literature reviews were conducted in PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL (ie, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) on October 30, 2013, using the keywords "platelet-rich plasma" and "knee" and "osteoarthritis." Inclusion criteria included (1) studies with human subjects, (2) prospective clinical studies (including either clinical trials or observational studies), and (3) full-text articles published in English. Exclusion criteria were: (1) animal studies; (2) retrospective studies; (3) patients with previous surgical intervention with total knee arthroplasty or reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligaments; and (4) articles not published in English A total of 319 abstracts and titles were reviewed (60 from PubMed, 250 from Embase, and 9 from CINAHL). A total of 8 relevant journal articles were identified, all of which were published between 2010 and 2013. One-half of the studies were prospective observational studies that included only PRP treatment; the rest were prospective comparative studies including both PRP and controls-2 were randomized controlled trials. Of the 4 comparative studies, 3 compared PRP with hyaluronic acid, which was considered as a commonly used effective treatment for knee OA; the other one used saline injection (ie, placebo) as the control. Although most of the analyses suffered from small sample size and was thus inconclusive, the findings consistently indicated that PRP might have better outcomes in patients with a lesser degree of degeneration and in younger patients. PRP intra-articular injections of the knee may be an effective alternative treatment for knee OA. However, current studies are at best inconclusive regarding the efficacy of the PRP treatment. A large, multicenter randomized trial study is needed to further

  15. Reduced 3d modeling on injection schemes for laser wakefield acceleration at plasma scale lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Anton; Vieira, Jorge; Silva, Luis; Fonseca, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    Current modelling techniques for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) are based on particle-in-cell (PIC) codes which are computationally demanding. In PIC simulations the laser wavelength λ0, in μm-range, has to be resolved over the acceleration lengths in meter-range. A promising approach is the ponderomotive guiding center solver (PGC) by only considering the laser envelope for laser pulse propagation. Therefore only the plasma skin depth λp has to be resolved, leading to speedups of (λp /λ0) 2. This allows to perform a wide-range of parameter studies and use it for λ0 Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal, through Grant No. PTDC/FIS-PLA/2940/2014 and PD/BD/105882/2014.

  16. Shape, size, velocity and field-aligned currents of dayside plasma injections: a multi-altitude study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchaudon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available On 20 February 2005, Cluster in the outer magnetosphere and Double Star-2 (TC-2 at mid-altitude are situated in the vicinity of the northern cusp/mantle, with Cluster moving sunward and TC-2 anti-sunward. Their magnetic footprints come very close together at about 15:28 UT, over the common field-of-view of SuperDARN radars. Thanks to this conjunction, we determine the velocity, the transverse sizes, perpendicular and parallel to this velocity, and the shape of three magnetic flux tubes of magnetosheath plasma injection. The velocity of the structures determined from the Cluster four-spacecraft timing analysis is almost purely antisunward, in contrast with the antisunward and duskward convection velocity inside the flux tubes. The transverse sizes are defined from the Cluster-TC-2 separation perpendicular to the magnetic field, and from the time spent by a Cluster spacecraft in one structure; they are comprised between 0.6 and 2 RE in agreement with previous studies. Finally, using a comparison between the eigenvectors deduced from a variance analysis of the magnetic perturbation at the four Cluster and at TC-2, we show that the upstream side of the injection flux tubes is magnetically well defined, with even a concave front for the third one giving a bean-like shape, whereas the downstream side is far more turbulent. We also realise the first quantitative comparison between field-aligned currents at Cluster calculated with the curlometer technique and with the single-spacecraft method, assuming infinite parallel current sheets and taking into account the velocity of the injection flux tubes. The results agree nicely, confirming the validity of both methods. Finally, we compare the field-aligned current distribution of the three injection flux tubes at the altitudes of Cluster and TC-2. Both profiles are fairly similar, with mainly a pair of opposite field-aligned currents, upward at low-latitude and downward at high-latitude. In terms of

  17. Flow injection on-line dilution for multi-element determination in human urine with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2001-01-01

    A simple flow injection on-line dilution procedure with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the determination of copper, zinc, arsenic, lead, selenium, nickel and molybdenum in human urine. Matrix effects were minimized by employing a dilution factor...

  18. Injection barrel with a tapered structure for a low speed and small size cryogenic hydrogen pellet in medium-sized plasma fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motojima, G.; Sakamoto, R.; Okada, H.; Nagasaki, K.; Yamada, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Kado, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Konoshima, S.; Minami, T.; Ohshima, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Mizuuchi, T.; Mutoh, T.

    2016-10-01

    An injection barrel was designed and fabricated for a small size 0.8 mm cryogenic pellet with a low speed of 200-300 m/s in medium-sized plasma fusion devices. Pellet injection with pneumatic acceleration was examined using a conventional in situ technique. A tapered structure was applied in the downstream side of the injection barrel to satisfy the requirement of pellet speed reduction by expansion of the propellant gas. Shadowgraph and light gate measurements show that the intact pellets have speeds of 260 ± 30 m/s and a typical size of 1.1-1.2 mm. The pellet ablation code based on a neutral gas shielding model shows that the penetration depth of the measured pellet parameters does not cross the plasma center, even in medium-sized plasma devices such as the Heliotron J helical device. The injection barrel with a tapered structure developed in this study is feasible for low speed pellet injection.

  19. Evaluation of pain regression in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction treated by intra-articular platelet-rich plasma injections: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihut, M; Szuta, M; Ferendiuk, E; Zeńczak-Więckiewicz, D

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the regression of temporomandibular pain as a result of intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction previously subjected to prosthetic treatment. The baseline study material consisted of 10 patients, both males and females, aged 28 to 53 years, previously treated due to painful temporomandibular joint dysfunction using occlusal splints. All patients were carried out to a specialist functional assessment of the dysfunction using the Polish version of the RDC/TMD questionnaire axis I and II. Intra-articular injections were preceded by a preparation of PRP. The injection sites were determined by the method used during arthroscopic surgical procedures. Following aspiration, 0.5 mL of plasma was injected into each temporomandibular joint. The comparison of the intensity of pain during all examinations suggests a beneficial effect of the procedure being performed as the mean VAS score was 6.5 at examination I, 2.8 at examination II, and 0.6 at examination III. Application of the intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma into the temporomandibular joints has a positive impact on the reduction of the intensity of pain experienced by patients treated for temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

  20. Biokinetics and effects of barium sulfate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, Nagarjun; Keller, Jana; Ma-Hock, Lan; Gröters, Sibylle; Landsiedel, Robert; Donaghey, Thomas C; Brain, Joseph D; Wohlleben, Wendel; Molina, Ramon M

    2014-10-21

    Nanoparticulate barium sulfate has potential novel applications and wide use in the polymer and paint industries. A short-term inhalation study on barium sulfate nanoparticles (BaSO₄ NPs) was previously published [Part Fibre Toxicol 11:16, 2014]. We performed comprehensive biokinetic studies of ¹³¹BaSO₄ NPs administered via different routes and of acute and subchronic pulmonary responses to instilled or inhaled BaSO₄ in rats. We compared the tissue distribution of ¹³¹Ba over 28 days after intratracheal (IT) instillation, and over 7 days after gavage and intravenous (IV) injection of ¹³¹BaSO₄. Rats were exposed to 50 mg/m³ BaSO₄ aerosol for 4 or 13 weeks (6 h/day, 5 consecutive days/week), and then gross and histopathologic, blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analyses were performed. BAL fluid from instilled rats was also analyzed. Inhaled BaSO₄ NPs showed no toxicity after 4-week exposure, but a slight neutrophil increase in BAL after 13-week exposure was observed. Lung burden of inhaled BaSO₄ NPs after 4-week exposure (0.84 ± 0.18 mg/lung) decreased by 95% over 34 days. Instilled BaSO₄ NPs caused dose-dependent inflammatory responses in the lungs. Instilled BaSO₄ NPs (0.28 mg/lung) was cleared with a half-life of ≈ 9.6 days. Translocated ¹³¹Ba from the lungs was predominantly found in the bone (29%). Only 0.15% of gavaged dose was detected in all organs at 7 days. IV-injected ¹³¹BaSO₄ NPs were predominantly localized in the liver, spleen, lungs and bone at 2 hours, but redistributed from the liver to bone over time. Fecal excretion was the dominant elimination pathway for all three routes of exposure. Pulmonary exposure to instilled BaSO₄ NPs caused dose-dependent lung injury and inflammation. Four-week and 13-week inhalation exposures to a high concentration (50 mg/m³) of BaSO₄ NPs elicited minimal pulmonary response and no systemic effects. Instilled and inhaled BaSO₄ NPs were cleared quickly yet

  1. Intravaginal and intracervical application of seminal plasma in in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment cycles--a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wolff, Michael; Rösner, Sabine; Thöne, Christina; Pinheiro, Rafael Mota; Jauckus, Julia; Bruckner, Thomas; Biolchi, Vanderleyen; Alia, Amal; Strowitzki, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether intravaginal application of seminal plasma at the time of follicle aspiration in IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment cycles has the potential to increase pregnancy rate. To calculate the number of patients needed to achieve significance in a multicenter trial. Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized pilot study. University department of gynecological endocrinology and reproductive medicine. One hundred sixty-eight patients undergoing IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment. Cryopreserved seminal plasma from the patient's partner or sodium chloride (placebo) was injected into the cervix and the posterior fornix of the vagina just after follicle aspiration. Clinical-pregnancy rate. One hundred sixty-eight patients agreed to participate in the study. Participation was limited to one treatment cycle. Thirty-one patients (18%) were excluded from the study, mainly as a result of canceled embryo transfers. Seventy patients received placebo, and 67 received seminal plasma. The clinical-pregnancy rate was 25.7% (18/70) in the placebo group. The clinical-pregnancy rate in the seminal plasma group reached 37.3% (25/67), corresponding to a relative increase of 45%. Even though significance was not reached in this pilot study, the data suggest that seminal plasma has the potential to improve pregnancy rate. It is estimated that around 450 patients need to be recruited to reach significance in a multicenter study.

  2. Investigation of plasma behavior during noble gas injection in the end-cell of GAMMA 10/PDX by using the multi-fluid code ‘LINDA’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. S.; Nakashima, Y.; Hatayama, A.

    2017-12-01

    The linear divertor analysis with fluid model (LINDA) code has been developed in order to simulate plasma behavior in the end-cell of linear fusion device GAMMA 10/PDX. This paper presents the basic structure and simulated results of the LINDA code. The atomic processes of hydrogen and impurities have been included in the present model in order to investigate energy loss processes and mechanism of plasma detachment. A comparison among Ar, Kr and Xe shows that Xe is the most effective gas on the reduction of electron and ion temperature. Xe injection leads to strong reduction in the temperature of electron and ion. The energy loss terms for both the electron and the ion are enhanced significantly during Xe injection. It is shown that the major energy loss channels for ion and electron are charge-exchange loss and radiative power loss of the radiator gas, respectively. These outcomes indicate that Xe injection in the plasma edge region is effective for reducing plasma energy and generating detached plasma in linear device GAMMA 10/PDX.

  3. Surface tailoring of newly developed amorphous Znsbnd Sisbnd O thin films as electron injection/transport layer by plasma treatment: Application to inverted OLEDs and hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongsheng; Kim, Junghwan; Yamamoto, Koji; Xing, Xing; Hosono, Hideo

    2018-03-01

    We report a unique amorphous oxide semiconductor Znsbnd Sisbnd O (a-ZSO) which has a small work function of 3.4 eV for as-deposited films. The surface modification of a-ZSO thin films by plasma treatments is examined to apply it to the electron injection/transport layer of organic devices. It turns out that the energy alignment and exciton dissociation efficiency at a-ZSO/organic semiconductor interface significantly changes by choosing different gas (oxygen or argon) for plasma treatments (after a-ZSO was exposed to atmospheric environment for 5 days). In situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) measurement reveals that the work function of a-ZSO is increased to 4.0 eV after an O2-plasma treatment, while the work function of 3.5 eV is recovered after an Ar-plasma treatment which indicates this treatment is effective for surface cleaning. To study the effects of surface treatments to device performance, OLEDs and hybrid polymer solar cells with O2-plasma or Ar-plasma treated a-ZSO are compared. Effects of these surface treatments on performance of inverted OLEDs and hybrid polymer solar cells are examined. Ar-plasma treated a-ZSO works well as the electron injection layer in inverted OLEDs (Alq3/a-ZSO) because the injection barrier is small (∼ 0.1 eV). On the other hands, O2-plasma treated a-ZSO is more suitable for application to hybrid solar cells which is benefiting from higher exciton dissociation efficiency at polymer (P3HT)/ZSO interface.

  4. Efficacy of platelet-rich plasma injections in pain associated with chronic tendinopathy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Umatheepan; Dissanayake, Ravi; Annabell, Lucas

    2015-07-01

    Chronic tendinopathy has often been a management dilemma for general practitioners. With our understanding of the pathophysiology of tendinopathy evolving, so has our management, with the advent of newer strategies such as topical glycerol trinitrate, extracorporeal shock-wave therapy, as well as platelet-rich plasma (PRP). To systematically review the literature regarding PRP therapy in chronic tendinopathy. The databases used in our search include the Elton B. Stephens Co. (EBSCO) database, Medline, the Cochrane library, Ovid, and Embase (the Excerpta Medica database). A total of 389 articles were reviewed from Feb 2010 to April 2014, for possible inclusion. Of these articles, a total of 9 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met our inclusion criteria. Only 1 RCT was excluded due to previous surgery in both the trial and control groups. Each article was reviewed independently by 2 authors. Each article was analyzed using the Cochrane Criteria checklist. Where any discrepancy occurred in results, a third independent reviewer was consulted. Our review found that PRP was most effective in patellar and lateral epicondylar tendinopathy, with both RCTs in the patellar section of our study supporting the use of PRP in pain reduction at 3 and 12 months, whereas 2 of 4 studies in the lateral epicondylar section showed improvements in pain and disability at 6 and 12 months. There was a lack of evidence to support the use of PRP in Achilles and rotator cuff tendinopathy. Although the results of this review show promise for the use of PRP in chronic tendinopathy, the analysis highlighted the need for more controlled clinical trials comparing PRP with placebo.

  5. Departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in argon plasmas sustained in a Torche à Injection Axiale sur Guide d'Ondes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincón, R.; Muñoz, J.; Calzada, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma torches are suitable plasma sources for a wide range of applications. The capability of these discharges to produce processes like sample excitation or decomposition of molecules inside them depends on the density of the plasma species and their energies (temperatures). The relation between these parameters determines the specific state of thermodynamic equilibrium in the discharge. Thus, the understanding of plasma possibilities for application purposes is related to the knowledge of the plasma thermodynamic equilibrium degree. In this paper a discussion about the equilibrium state for Ar plasmas generated by using a Torche à Injection Axiale sur Guide d'Ondes, TIAGO device, is presented. Emission spectroscopy techniques were used to measure gas temperature and electron density at the exit of the nozzle torch and along the dart. Boltzmann-plots as well as b p parameters were calculated to characterize the type and degree of departure from partial Local Saha Equilibrium (pLSE). This study indicates that the closer situation to Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) of the plasma corresponds to larger Ar flows which highlights the importance of the nitrogen (atmosphere surrounding the plasma) in the kinetics of Ar-TIAGO discharges. - Highlights: • Discharges sustained in Ar using a TIAGO Torch show a significant departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium. • Nitrogen entrance from surrounding air highly influences Thermodynamic Equilibrium. • Departure from LTE has been studied by means of Boltzmann plots and b p parameters. • The discharge is ionizing at the nozzle exit plasma, while along the dart it becomes recombining

  6. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection With Arthroscopic Acromioplasty for Chronic Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Andrew J; Murphy, Richard; Dakin, Stephanie G; Rombach, Ines; Wheway, Kim; Watkins, Bridget; Franklin, Sarah L

    2015-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proposed to augment tendon healing through improving tissue structure during the initial repair phase. To investigate both the clinical and tissue effects of the coapplication of PRP injection with arthroscopic acromioplasty (AA) in patients with chronic rotator cuff tendinopathy. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. The study comprised 60 randomized patients diagnosed with rotator cuff tendinopathy (55% women) aged between 35 and 75 years. Patients were randomized to AA alone or in combination with an injection of autologous PRP into the subacromial bursa (AA + PRP). Efficacy of treatment was assessed by analysis of patient-reported outcomes up to 2 years after treatment (Oxford Shoulder Score [OSS]) and by analysis of tendon biopsy specimens taken 12 weeks after treatment. There was no significant difference in the OSS between AA alone and AA + PRP at any time point in the study. From 12 weeks onward, there was a significant increase in the OSS for both groups compared with their baseline scores (P < .001). Bonar scoring determined no significant change in tissue structure with the coapplication of PRP compared with surgery alone. The number of blood vessels and tendon cellularity were significantly decreased in tissue biopsy specimens taken from PRP-treated patients. The expression of p53-positive apoptotic cells increased after AA + PRP but decreased after AA alone. Arthroscopic acromioplasty significantly improves long-term clinical outcomes up to 2 years. The coapplication of PRP did not affect clinical outcomes. PRP significantly alters the tissue characteristics in tendons after surgery with reduced cellularity and vascularity and increased levels of apoptosis. The coapplication of PRP did not improve clinical outcomes and may have potential deleterious effects on healing tendons. ISRCTN 10464365. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Barium aspiration and alveolarisation of barium in an infant: A case report and review of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Isles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of bilateral inhalation and alveolarisation of barium in an infant following a barium swallow for investigation of dusky spells associated with feeds. A bronchoscopy subsequently revealed the presence of a mid-tracheal tracheo-oesophageal cleft. We review the literature on barium aspiration, its consequences and make recommendations for management.

  8. Improvement of Short-Term Outcomes for High-Risk Bleeding Peptic Ulcers With Addition of Argon Plasma Coagulation Following Endoscopic Injection Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huay-Min; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Yu, Hsien-Chung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Chen, Wen-Chi; Lin, Kung-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Sun, Wei-Chih; Hsu, Ping-I

    2015-08-01

    A second endoscopic method together with injection therapy is recommended to treat high-risk bleeding peptic ulcers. This study investigated whether additional argon plasma coagulation (APC) treatment could influence hemostatic efficacy following endoscopic injection therapy to treat high-risk bleeding ulcers.From October 2010 to January 2012, eligible patients with high-risk bleeding ulcers were admitted to our hospital. They prospectively randomly underwent either APC therapy along with distilled water injection or distilled water injection alone. Episodes of rebleeding were retreated with endoscopic combination therapy. Patients in whom retreatment was ineffective underwent emergency surgery or transarterial embolization (TAE).A total of 116 enrolled patients were analyzed. The hemostatic efficacy in 58 patients treated with APC along with distilled water injection was compared with that in 58 patients treated with distilled water injection alone. The 2 treatment groups were similar with respect to all baseline characteristics. Initial hemostasis was accomplished in 56 patients treated with combined therapy, and 55 patients treated with distilled water injection therapy (97% vs 95%, P = 0.648). Bleeding recurred in 2 patients treated with combined therapy, and 9 patients treated with distilled water injection (3.6% vs 16%, P = 0.029). Treatment method was the only independent prognostic factor for recurrent bleeding (odds ratio 0.17; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.84; P = 0.029). The 2 groups did not differ significantly in hospital stay, TAE, surgery, and mortality.Endoscopic therapy with APC following distilled water injection is more effective than distilled water injection alone for preventing rebleeding of peptic ulcer.

  9. Data Retention Characterization of Gate-Injected Gold-Nanoparticle Non-Volatile Memory with Low-Damage CF4-Plasma-Treated Blocking Oxide Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gold-nanoparticle (Au-NP non-volatile memories (NVMs with low-damage CF4 plasma treatment on the blocking oxide (BO layer have been investigated to present the gate injection of the holes. These holes, injected from the Al gate with the positive gate bias, were explained by the bandgap engineering of the gradually-fluorinated BO layer and the effective work function modulation of the Al gate. The Si–F complex in the BO layer was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, while the depth of fluorine incorporation was verified using a secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS. In addition, the valence band modification of the fluorinated BO layer was examined by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS to support the bandgap engineering. The reactive power of the CF4 plasma treatment on the BO layer was modified to increase the electric field of the BO layer and raise the effective work function of the Al gate, leading to the hole-injection from the gate. The injected holes are trapped at the interface between the gold-nanoparticles (Au-NPs and the tunneling oxide (TO layer, resulting in superior data retention properties such as an extremely low charge loss of 5.7% at 104 s and a nearly negligible increase in charge loss at 85 °C of the CF4-plasma-treated Au-NP NVMs, which can be applied in highly reliable consumer electronics.

  10. Data Retention Characterization of Gate-Injected Gold-Nanoparticle Non-Volatile Memory with Low-Damage CF₄-Plasma-Treated Blocking Oxide Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Hua; Kao, Chyuan-Haur; Cheng, Tsung-Chin; Wu, Chih-I; Wang, Jer-Chyi

    2017-11-10

    Gold-nanoparticle (Au-NP) non-volatile memories (NVMs) with low-damage CF₄ plasma treatment on the blocking oxide (BO) layer have been investigated to present the gate injection of the holes. These holes, injected from the Al gate with the positive gate bias, were explained by the bandgap engineering of the gradually-fluorinated BO layer and the effective work function modulation of the Al gate. The Si-F complex in the BO layer was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while the depth of fluorine incorporation was verified using a secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). In addition, the valence band modification of the fluorinated BO layer was examined by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) to support the bandgap engineering. The reactive power of the CF₄ plasma treatment on the BO layer was modified to increase the electric field of the BO layer and raise the effective work function of the Al gate, leading to the hole-injection from the gate. The injected holes are trapped at the interface between the gold-nanoparticles (Au-NPs) and the tunneling oxide (TO) layer, resulting in superior data retention properties such as an extremely low charge loss of 5.7% at 10⁴ s and a nearly negligible increase in charge loss at 85 °C of the CF₄-plasma-treated Au-NP NVMs, which can be applied in highly reliable consumer electronics.

  11. Spatial distribution of Ti vapor admixture ratio in Ar induction thermal plasma torch during Ti feedstock injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Naoto; Tanaka, Yasunori; Ishisaka, Yosuke; Shimizu, Kotaro; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Shu; Sueyasu, Shiori; Nakamura, Keitaro

    2018-03-01

    The spatial distribution of the Ti vapor admixture ratio (X Ti) was determined together with Ti excitation temperature (T\\text{ex}\\text{Ti}) from two-dimensional (2D) optical emission spectroscopy (OES) during Ti feedstock injection into an Ar induction thermal plasma (ICTP) torch for Ti nanoparticle synthesis. The X Ti is one important parameter affecting ICTP properties such as its electrical conductivity. The value of X Ti was estimated from the radiation intensity ratio of the Ar atomic line to the Ti atomic line, and T\\text{ex}\\text{Ti} obtained from 2D OES observation. Furthermore the electron density (n e) was also determined from the estimated results of T\\text{ex}\\text{Ti} and X Ti through the equilibrium composition. These 2D OES results revealed T\\text{ex}\\text{Ti} as 2500–4000 K at around the central axis of the ICTP torch, although it was higher than 4000 K in the off-axis region. In the off-axis region, X Ti and n e were much higher than in the on-axis region.

  12. Plasma simulation by macroscale, electromagnetic particle code and its application to current-drive by relativistic electron beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.; Sato, T.

    1985-01-01

    A new implicit macroscale electromagnetic particle simulation code (MARC) which allows a large scale length and a time step in multi-dimensions is described. Finite mass electrons and ions are used with relativistic version of the equation of motion. The electromagnetic fields are solved by using a complete set of Maxwell equations. For time integration of the field equations, a decentered (backward) finite differencing scheme is employed with the predictor - corrector method for small noise and super-stability. It is shown both in analytical and numerical ways that the present scheme efficiently suppresses high frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves in a plasma, and that it accurately reproduces low frequency waves such as ion acoustic waves, Alfven waves and fast magnetosonic waves. The present numerical scheme has currently been coded in three dimensions for application to a new tokamak current-drive method by means of relativistic electron beam injection. Some remarks of the proper macroscale code application is presented in this paper

  13. Preconcentration and determination of some lanthanide elements with immobilized bacteria by flow injection inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maquieira, A.; Elmahadi, H.; Puchades, R. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    1996-02-01

    The on-line combination of flow injection column preconcentration with sequential inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry is shown to provide an enrichment factor of 36 for La{sup 3+}, 34 for Ce{sup 3+} and 51 for Nd{sup 3+}, at 1 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for 5 ml of sample. The significant improvement in the (3s) detection limit by preconcentration compared with that without preconcentration demonstrates the efficiency of preconcentration with the bacterium Spirulina platensis immobilized on controlled-pore glass. Recovery of all the lanthanide cations is quantitative and the capacity was calculated. Practical application of the method was demonstrated by the determination of La{sup 3+} and Nd{sup 3+} impurities in a cerium(III) nitrate reagent. Adsorption isotherm studies were used to describe the mechanisms and the nature of the column binding sites. Isotherm plots showed a Langmuirian shape for La{sup 3+} and an anti-Lanmuirian shape for Ce{sup 3+} and Nd{sup 3+}. Equilibrium constants were also calculated. (Author).

  14. Successful treatment of athletic pubalgia in a lacrosse player with ultrasound-guided needle tenotomy and platelet-rich plasma injection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Paul M; Massimi, Stephen; Dahmen, Nick; Diamond, Joanne; Wyss, James

    2015-01-01

    Athletic pubalgia is a syndrome of persistent groin pain due to chronic repetitive trauma or stress involving the pelvic joints and many musculotendinous structures that cross the anterior pelvis. As a result, the differential diagnosis can be complex, but insertional tendinopathies are the most common. This case report describes a novel approach to the treatment of distal rectus abdominis tendinopathies with ultrasound-guided needle tenotomy and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection. After injection, the patient returned to pain-free play at his previous level of intensity. This suggests that PRP may be a useful treatment for this diagnosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Exploiting flow injection and sequential injection for trace metal determinations in conjunction with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    Despite their excellent analytical chemical capacities, Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS), nevertheless, often require suitable pretreatment of the sample material in order to obtain the necessary sensitivity...

  16. Repeated intravesical injections of platelet-rich plasma are effective in the treatment of interstitial cystitis: a case control pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Jia-Fong; Wu, Shu-Yu; Lin, Teng-Yi; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2017-12-19

    Interstitial cystitis (IC), also known as bladder pain syndrome (BPS), is a debilitating chronic disease. There are few treatment options for IC/BPS refractory to current medical therapy. This study investigated the clinical efficacy of intravesical injections of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in IC/BPS. Fifteen patients with IC/BPS received 4 intravesical injections, at 1-monthly intervals, of 12 mL PRP extracted from 50 mL of the patient's whole blood, followed by cystoscopic hydrodistention. The primary endpoint was the change in O'Leary-Sant symptom (OSS) index from baseline to 1 month after the 4th PRP injection. Secondary endpoints were changes in pain (measured using a visual analog scale [VAS]), daily frequency, nocturia, functional bladder capacity (FBC), maximum flow rate, voided volume, post-void residual (PVR) volume, and global response assessment (GRA). Urinary cytokine levels were measured at baseline and 1 month after the 1st PRP treatment. Of the 15 women in the study, 13 completed the 4 injections and follow-up visits (mean [± SD] age 52.9 ± 12.1 years). The OSS index and VAS pain score decreased significantly and FBC and GRA increased after the 1st PRP injection and lasted until the final endpoint. There was no change in PVR after repeated PRP injections, and all patients were free of urinary tract infections and difficulty urinating. Urinary interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-8 concentrations increased significantly after the 1st PRP injection. In patients with reductions in the VAS pain score ≥1, urinary IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor increased. In patients without reductions in the VAS pain score, IL-6 concentrations increased after PRP injection. Repeated intravesical PRP injections are well tolerated and appear to be safe and effective in medically refractive IC/BPS, providing significant symptom improvement. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Plasma and milk concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 following intravenous injection of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M; Knipfel, J E

    1984-01-01

    Plasma levels of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in ewes after administration of a single massive intravenous dose of vitamin D3 (2 X 10(6) IU) or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (5 mg) were determined at zero, one, two, three, five, ten and 20 days postinjection. In six ewes injected with vitamin D3 conversion of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 resulted in a six-fold increase in the plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level within one day. Elevated levels were maintained until day 10 but by day 20 a s...

  18. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1977-11-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  19. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  20. Laser cooling and trapping of barium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Subhadeep

    2008-01-01

    Laser cooling and trapping of heavy alkaline-earth element barium have been demonstrated for the first time ever. For any possible cycling transition in barium that could provide strong cooling forces, the excited state has a very large branching probability to metastable states. Additional lasers

  1. Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in plasma and milk samples after a single subcutaneous injection in lactating goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, B; Rowe, J D; Carlson, J; Wetzlich, S E; Tell, L A

    2014-04-01

    Eight adult female dairy goats received one subcutaneous administration of tulathromycin at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Blood and milk samples were assayed for tulathromycin and the common fragment of tulathromycin, respectively, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic disposition of tulathromycin was analyzed by a noncompartmental approach. Mean plasma pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) following single-dose administration of tulathromycin were as follows: C(max) (121.54 ± 19.01 ng/mL); T(max) (12 ± 12-24 h); area under the curve AUC(0→∞) (8324.54 ± 1706.56 ng·h/mL); terminal-phase rate constant λz (0.01 ± 0.002 h⁻¹); and terminal-phase rate constant half-life t1/2λz (67.20 h; harmonic). Mean milk pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) following 45 days of sampling were as follows: Cmax (1594 ± 379.23 ng/mL); Tmax (12 ± 12-36 h); AUC(0→∞) (72,250.51 ± 18,909.57 ng·h/mL); λz (0.005 ± 0.001 h⁻¹); and t(1/2λz) (155.28 h; harmonic). All goats had injection-site reactions that diminished in size over time. The conclusions from this study were that tulathromycin residues are detectable in milk samples from adult goats for at least 45 days following subcutaneous administration, this therapeutic option should be reserved for cases where other treatment options have failed, and goat milk should be withheld from the human food chain for at least 45 days following tulathromycin administration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Ultrasound-guided perineural injection with platelet-rich plasma improved the neurophysiological parameters of carpal tunnel syndrome: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ying-Chen; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Hsieh, Lin-Fen

    2017-10-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common and sometimes challenging condition, which causes pain; paresthesia; tingling of the thumb, index and long fingers; and even thenar weakness in the hands. The effectiveness of corticosteroid injections seems to be transient, and there is a lack of information around long-term effects in previous studies. In recent years, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has proven to bean alternative as it encourages tissue regeneration. We hereby describe a patient with CTS showing significant improvements in electrophysiological parameters after receiving PRP injections. The results revealed significant improvements in the distal motor and sensory latencies as well as the sensory nerve action potential and compound muscle action potential amplitudes of the both median nerves. In summary, if patients are refractory to conservative treatments-such as splinting, oral medication, and corticosteroid injection-PRP may be used as an alternative before surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparing the role of subcision suction method with and without the injection of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of depressed scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouran Abd El-Aziz Abou Khedr

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Among wound-healing modalities, platelet-rich plasma (PRP has been used for wound healing, through the release of multiple growth factors. The platelets mediate wound healing by initiating the clotting pathway and the subsequent matrix remodelisation. The aim of the work was to study the role of injection of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of scars. This study was conducted on thirty patients who were divided into two groups (A and B. Each group included fifteen patients. The two groups were randomly distributed by using individual sealed envelopes. Group A was subjected to subcision of their acne scars using Nokor needle, followed by suction. Group B patients were subjected to the same treatment but followed by an injection of platelet-rich plasma once per month over three months. In Group A, 6 patients (40% showed moderate improvement, 5 patients (33.3% showed slight improvement and 4 patients (26.7% showed significant improvement. In Group B, 7 patients (46.7% showed moderate improvement, 5 patients (33.3% showed marked improvement and 3 patients (20% showed significant improvement. There was a statistically significant difference on the independent observer’s after-treatment assessment between the groups (P=0.014. In conclusion, subcision suction leads to a persistent improvement of acne scars in a short time, and the coupling with injection of PRP is the most effective in the treatment of depressed facial scars.

  4. Injections of Galanin-Like Peptide directly into the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) reduces food intake and body weight but increases metabolic rate and plasma leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Lindy; Rodriguez-Dimitrescu, Carla; Barney, Christopher C; Fraley, Gregory S

    2017-04-01

    Galanin-Like Peptide (GALP) is a hypothalamic neuromediator of metabolism and reproduction. GALP is known to stimulate reproduction and alter food intake and body weight in multiple species. The regulation of body weight involves control of both energy intake and energy expenditure. Since GALP is known to alter food intake - possibly via the autonomic nervous system - we first hypothesized that GALP would increase metabolic rate. First, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannulae and abdominal radiotelemetry temperature transmitters. Following ICV injection with either 5nmol GALP or vehicle, the oxygen consumption of each rat was monitored for 8h. Food intake, core temperature, and general motor activity were monitored for 24h. GALP significantly increased oxygen consumption, an indirect estimator of metabolic rate, without having any significant effect on motor activity. Compared to controls, GALP increased core body temperature during the photophase and reduced food intake over the 24h period following injection. ICV GALP also increased plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH). A second group of male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with abdominal transmitters and given injections of GALP directly into the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). These injections resulted in a significant reduction in food intake, and a significant increase in both oxygen consumption and core body temperature compared to vehicle injections. Direct injections of GALP into the NTS compared to vehicle also resulted in a significant increase in plasma leptin levels, but not LH levels. GALP appears to increase energy expenditure in addition to decreasing energy input by actions within the NTS and thus may play an important role in the hypothalamic regulation of body weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Coupling sequential injection on-line preconcentration using a PTFE beads packed column to direct injection nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2002-01-01

    An automated sequential injection on-line preconcentration procedure for trace metals by using a PTFE bead-packed microcolumn coupled to ICP-MS is described, and used for simultaneous analyses of cadmium and lead. In dilute nitric acid (0.5%, v/v), neutral complexes between the analytes and chela......An automated sequential injection on-line preconcentration procedure for trace metals by using a PTFE bead-packed microcolumn coupled to ICP-MS is described, and used for simultaneous analyses of cadmium and lead. In dilute nitric acid (0.5%, v/v), neutral complexes between the analytes...... and chelating reagent, diethyldithiophosphate (DDPA), are formed and adsorbed onto the surface of the PTFE beads. The adsorbed complexes are afterwards eluted with 20% nitric acid and the leading part of the eluate (40 mul) is stored in a sample loop (SL), the contents of which are subsequently transported, via...

  6. H- Enhancement Process in a Multicusp Ion Source Operated with a Barium Insert Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, K.N.; Van Os, C.F.A.; Kunkel, W.B.

    1990-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the H{sup -} output current from a small multicusp source can be substantially enhanced if the hydrogen plasma is seeded with barium. Operating with a barium washer insert at the extraction aperture, it is found that the extractable H{sup -} current is increased by a factor of three if the insert bias potential is optimized. By use of a mixture of xenon and hydrogen gas, it is further demonstrated that the positive hydrogen ions are responsible for the observed H{sup -} enhancement.

  7. Growth factor-based therapies provide additional benefit beyond physical therapy in resistant elbow tendinopathy: a prospective, single-blind, randomised trial of autologous blood injections versus platelet-rich plasma injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creaney, Leon; Wallace, Andrew; Curtis, Mark; Connell, David

    2011-09-01

    Growth factor technologies are increasingly used to enhance healing in musculoskeletal injuries, particularly in sports medicine. Two such products; platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and autologous blood, have a growing body of supporting evidence. No previous trial has directly compared the efficacy of these two methods. Growth factor administration improves tissue regeneration in patients who have failed to respond to conservative therapy. A prospective, double-blind, randomised trial. Elbow tendinopathy patients who had failed conservative physical therapy were divided into two patient groups: PRP injection (N=80) and autologous blood injection (ABI) (N=70). Each patient received two injections at 0 and 1 month. Patient-related tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE) was recorded by a blinded investigator at 0, 1, 3 and 6 months. The main outcome measure was PRTEE, a validated composite outcome for pain, activities of daily living and physical function, utilising a 0-100 scale. At 6 months the authors observed a 66% success rate in the PRP group versus 72% in the ABI group, p=NS. There was a higher rate of conversion to surgery in the ABI group (20%) versus the PRP group (10%). In patients who are resistant to first-line physical therapy such as eccentric loading, ABI or PRP injections are useful second-line therapies to improve clinical outcomes. In this study, up to seven out of 10 additional patients in this difficult to treat cohort benefit from a surgery-sparing intervention.

  8. Comparison of intra-articular injection of plasma rich in growth factors versus hyaluronic acid following arthroscopy in the treatment of temporomandibular dysfunction: A randomised prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ferro, Martín; Fernández-Sanromán, Jacinto; Blanco-Carrión, Andrés; Costas-López, Alberto; López-Betancourt, Annahys; Arenaz-Bua, Jorge; Stavaru Marinescu, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the injection of plasma rich in platelet-derived growth factors (PRGF) versus hyaluronic acid (HA) following arthroscopic surgery in patients diagnosed with internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) with osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 100 patients were randomised into two study groups. Group A (n = 50) received an injection of PRGF, and Group B (n = 50) received an injection of HA. The mean age was 35.5 years (range 18-77 years), and 88% of the patients were women. The pain intensity (visual analogue scale) and the extent of maximum mouth opening before and after the procedure were statistically analysed. Better results were observed in the group treated with PRGF, with a significant reduction in pain at 18 months, compared with HA treatment. Regarding mouth opening, an increase was observed in both groups, with no significant difference. The injection of PRGF following arthroscopy is more effective than the injection of HA with respect to pain in patients with advanced internal derangement of the TMJ. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A new double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Sang; Cho, Won Sik; Lee, Sung Woo; Lee, Mun Gyu; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Jaun, Woo Ki; Han, Chung Yul

    1987-01-01

    A new technic of the barium enema was proposed for the better colonic double contrast study with the average 204ml of 50w/v% barium, applied to 109 serial patients. The barium was introduced to sigmoid colon, and then pushed to a mid transverse colon by the air insufflation through an enema syringe, a new device. An advance to cecum is accomplished by the air insufflation and/or the position change of the patient. The barium transfer method was developed for the best spot film exposure, through colon, by the position change of the patient, the tilting of the x-ray table and the air insufflation with the enema syringe. The mean angle of the x-ray table tilted was -10 .deg. at the beginning the barium enema till the barium sent past the splenic flexure, -15 . deg. for the best lateral view of rectum and -18 .deg. for the bet prone PA view of rectosigmoid colon. This was a simple, better and economic double contrast barium enema for the cooperative patients

  10. Double contrast barium meal and acetylcysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Pietilae, J.; Ahovuo, J.; Mankinen, P.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective double blind study, acetylcysteine, a local and systemic respiratory tract mucolytic agent, or a placebo, were given to 100 patients prior to a double contrast barium meal to decrease the gastric mucus viscosity and to make the mucus layer thinner, in order to permit barium to outline the furrows surrounding the areae gastricae instead of the overlying thick mucus. However, acetylcysteine failed to improve either visualization of the areae gastricae or the general quality of the double contrast barium meal. (orig.)

  11. Effect of additive gases and injection methods on chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F2 remote plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y. B.; Park, S. M.; Kim, D. J.; Lee, N.-E.; Kim, K. S.; Bae, G. H.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of various additive gases and different injection methods on the chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F 2 remote plasmas. N 2 and N 2 +O 2 gases in the F 2 /Ar/N 2 and F 2 /Ar/N 2 /O 2 remote plasmas effectively increased the etch rate of the layers. The addition of direct-injected NO gas increased the etch rates most significantly. NO radicals generated by the addition of N 2 and N 2 +O 2 or direct-injected NO molecules contributed to the effective removal of nitrogen and oxygen in the silicon nitride and oxide layers, by forming N 2 O and NO 2 by-products, respectively, and thereby enhancing SiF 4 formation. As a result of the effective removal of the oxygen, nitrogen, and silicon atoms in the layers, the chemical dry etch rates were enhanced significantly. The process regime for the etch rate enhancement of the layers was extended at elevated temperature

  12. The clinical impact of platelet-rich plasma on tendinopathy compared to placebo or dry needling injections: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikopoulos, Konstantinos; Tsikopoulos, Ioannis; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Papathanasiou, Efthymia; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Anastasopoulos, Nikolaos; Natsis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the impact of platelet-rich plasma with that of placebo or dry needling injections on tendinopathy. The databases of PubMed, CENTRAL, Scopus, Web of Science, and trial registries, reference lists, and conference abstract books were searched up to December 2014. Adults with tendinopathy in randomized controlled trials were enrolled. The trials compared effect of platelet-rich plasma with that of placebo or dry needling. We used subgroup analysis linked to the anatomical location of the tendinopathy. The primary outcome was pain intensity at two or three and six months after intervention. The secondary outcome was functional disability at three months after treatment. Five trials were included. There was a statistically significant difference in favor of the platelet-rich plasma intervention at the second primary outcome time point (SMD -0.48, 95%CIs -0.86 to -0.10, I(2) = 0%, p = 0.01) and at the secondary outcome time point (SMD -0.47, 95%CIs -0.85 to -0.09, I(2) = 0%, p=0.01). Platelet-rich plasma did not provide significantly greater clinical benefit versus placebo or dry needling for the treatment of tendinopathy at a six-month follow-up. However, there was a marginal clinical difference in favor of platelet-rich plasma injections on rotator cuff tendinopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Time requirement for barium reduction in intussusception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hye Eun; Kim, Seung Ho; Kang, In Young; Park, Byoung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun

    1988-01-01

    During the period between January 1985 and December 1987, barium reduction was performed in 146 cases of intussusception who were admitted to Kwangju Christian Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Success rate to the symptom duration is relatively constant. 2. The success rate in infants with severe dehydration was 50% but it was gradually increased in infants with moderate dehydration and in infants with mild dehydration, 83.3% and 100% respectively. 3. The success rate of 12 cases in severely dehydrated infants with positive dissection sign was 16.7%. 4. The success rate of 15 cases in moderately dehydrated infants with positive dissection sign was 66.7%. 5. The average time requirement for barium reduction was 58.3 minutes. No serious complications were noted during barium reduction, except mild vomiting. 6. With above results, it is desirable that barium reduction should be performed according to the patient's physical status and radiologic findings.

  14. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Barium appendicitis after upper gastrointestinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Nathan M; Lillemoe, Keith D; Falimirski, Mark E

    2010-02-01

    Barium appendicitis (BA) is a rarely seen entity with fewer than 30 reports in the literature. However, it is a known complication of barium imaging. To report a case of BA in a patient whose computed tomography (CT) scan was initially read as foreign body ingestion. An 18-year-old man presented with right lower quadrant pain after upper gastrointestinal imaging 2 weeks prior. A CT scan was obtained of his abdomen and pelvis that revealed a finding that was interpreted as a foreign body at the area of the terminal ileum. A plain X-ray study of the abdomen revealed radiopaque appendicoliths. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of barium appendicitis. BA is a rare entity and the pathogenesis is unclear. Shorter intervals between barium study and presentation with appendicitis usually correlate with fewer complications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Filterless pre-concentration by co-precipitation by formation of crystalline precipitate in the analysis of barium by FIA-FAES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plamboeck, C.; Westtoft, H.C.; Pedersen, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel method based on flow injection analysis (FIA) and flame atomic emission spectrometry (FAES) is presented. It was developed for direct determination of barium in drinking water, in natural water, in digested samples of bone and liver, in saline water and in a standard reference material...... (NIST SRM 1640). It was found that digestion of bone by an incineration procedure was required, in order to extract most of the barium. In the FIA manifold, barium was pre-concentrated by co-precipitation with lead chromate leading to a crystalline deposit that adhered well to the inner walls of a nylon...

  17. Assessment of the efficacy and safety of single platelet-rich plasma injection on different types and grades of facial wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnehrawy, Naema Y; Ibrahim, Zeinab A; Eltoukhy, Azza M; Nagy, Hala M

    2017-03-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is considered as a growing modality for tissue regeneration and a developing research area for clinicians and researchers. PRP injection treatment provides supraphysiological concentrations of growth factors that may help in accelerated tissue remodeling and regeneration. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of single autologous PRP intradermal injection for treatment of facial wrinkles and for facial rejuvenation. A total of 20 subjects with different types of facial wrinkles were included in this study. All subjects received single PRP intradermal injection and were clinically assessed before and after treatment for a period of 8 weeks using Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale (WSRS), Skin Homogeneity and Texture (SHnT) Scale, Physician Assessment Scale, and Subject Satisfaction Scale. The mean value of WSRS reduced from 2.90 ± 0.91 before treatment to 2.10 ± 0.79 after 8 weeks of treatment. The most significant results were with younger subjects that have mild and moderate wrinkles of the nasolabial folds (NLFs). Fourteen of seventeen subjects with NLFs showed more than 25% improvement in their appearance. Side effects of PRP treatment were minimal to mild and with excellent tolerability. Single PRP intradermal injection is well tolerated and capable of rejuvenating the face and producing a significant correction of wrinkles especially the NLFs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Intra-articular injections of expanded mesenchymal stem cells with and without addition of platelet-rich plasma are safe and effective for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ricardo; Mathias, Marcelo; Andrade, Renato; Bastos, Raquel; Balduino, Alex; Schott, Vinicius; Rodeo, Scott; Espregueira-Mendes, João

    2018-03-06

    To compare the effectiveness and safety of intra-articular injections of autologous expanded mesenchymal stromal stem cells alone (MSCs), or in combination with platelet-rich plasma (MSCs + PRP), in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Eighteen patients (57.6 ± 9.6 years) with radiographic symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (Dejour grades II-IV) were randomized to receive intra-articular injections of MSCs (n = 9) or MSCs + PRP (n = 9). Injections were performed 2-3 weeks after bone marrow aspiration (± 80-100 ml) which was obtained from both posterior iliac crests. The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) improved significantly throughout the 12 months for both groups (p osteoarthritis. Adding PRP to the MSCs injections did not provide additional benefit. These results are encouraging and support the recommendation of this minimally invasive procedure in patients with knee osteoarthritis, without requiring hospitalization. The CFU-F results may be used as reference for future research. Prospective cohort study, Level II.

  19. Flow-injection analysis utilizing a spectrally segmented photodiode-array inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer—I. Microcolumn preconcentration for the determination of molybdenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, N.; Brushwyler, K. R.; Hieftje, G. M.

    A flow-injection analysis (FIA) system incorporating a microcolumn of activated alumina was used for the determination of molybdenum by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The transient signal resulting from the injection of molybdenum was determined by a spectrally segmented photodiode-array spectrometer. Linear calibration was established for molybdenum over a concentration range 0-1000 ng ml -1. The detection capability was approximately 50 times better than that offered by comparable continuous-nebulization systems. The detection limit for molybdenum was 0.2 ng ml -1, and the relative standard deviations at 500 and 10 ng ml -1 were about 2 and 5%, respectively. The ability of the multichannel photodiode-array spectrometer to correct for background shifts which occur during the signal integration period provided improved precision and accuracy. Application to the determination of molybdenum in standard sea water (NASS-2) was demonstrated.

  20. Flow-injection analysis utilizing a spectrally segmented photodiode-array inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer. 1: Microcolumn preconcentration for the determination of molybdenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Naoki; Brushwyler, K. R.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    1989-02-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system incorporating a microcolumn of activated alumina was used for the determination of molybdenum by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The transient signal resulting from the injection of molybdenum was determined by a spectrally segmented photodiode-array spectro-meter. Linear calibration was established for molybdenum over a concentration range 0 to 1000 ng/ml. The detection capability was approximately 50 times better than offered by comparable continuous-nebulization systems. The detection limit for molybdenum was 0.2 ng/ml, and the relative standard deviations at 500 and 10 ng/ml were about 2 and 5 percent, respectively. The ability of the multichannel photodiode array spectrometer to correct for background shifts which occur during signal integration period provided improved precision and accuracy. Application to the analysis of molybdenum in standard sea water (NASS-2) was demonstrated.

  1. Bacterial Reduction Of Barium Sulphate By Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide problem leading to contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. The barium salts application presents one of the methods for the sulphates removing from AMD. Barium chloride, barium hydroxide and barium sulphide are used for the sulphates precipitation in the form of barium sulphate. Because of high investment costs of barium salts, barium sulphide is recycled from barium sulphate precipitates. It can be recycled by thermic or bacterial reduction of barium sulphate. The aim of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of the bacterial transformation of BaSO4 to BaS by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Applied BaSO4 came from experiments of sulphates removal from Smolnik AMD using BaCl2.

  2. [Case-control study on local injection of autoallergic platelet rich plasma or whole blood for the treatment of tennis elbow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Lai; Tong, Pei-Jian; Xiao, Lu-Wei; Zhu, Qiu-Liang; Xu, Bin; Yan, Mao-Hua

    2014-11-01

    To compare therapeutic effects of local injection with autoallergic platelet rich plasma (PRP) or autoallergic whole blood (AWB) for the treatment of chronic tennis elbow. From January 2011 to January 2014, 40 patients with chronic tennis elbow were divided into 2 groups, 20 cases in each group: PRP group and AWB group. There were 20 patients in PRP group treated with local injection of autoallergic platelet rich plasma, including 5 males and 15 females, with an average age of (47.50 ± 9.86) years old; and the average course of disease was (4.67 ± 3.27) months. Among the 20 patients in AWB group treated with local injection of autoallergic whole blood, 3 patients were male and 17 patients were female, with an average age of (46.50 ± 9.96) years old;and the average course of disease was (4.53 ± 2.27) months. The elbow joint was fixed with elastic stockings after injection. All the patients were guided to do strengthening and extension exercises during the follow-up period. Visual analog scale (VAS), Mayo scores for elbow and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were used to evaluate clinical effects after injection immediately and 4,8 weeks after treatment. Results:All the patients were followed up,there were no infections and swelling occurred. The VAS, Mayo and PPT scores of patients in PRP group were improved from pre-therapy 7.22 ± 1.32, 56.71 ± 10.90 and 17.47 ± 4.62 to 2.73 ± 1.00, 91.59 ± 6.95 and 21.35 ± 4.80 respectively 8 weeks after treatment. The VAS, Mayo and PPT scores of patients in AWB group were improved from pre-therapy 7.16 ±1.27, 54.72 ± 8.36 and 17.06 ± 4.83 to 3.81 ± 1.36, 82.06 ± 7.89 and 20.12 ± 4.97 respectively 8 weeks after treatment. All the pain and functional variables including VAS, PPT, and Mayo scores were improved significantly in both groups 4 weeks after injection. On the 4th week after injection, there was no statistically significant difference in PPT between two groups; while the VAS and Mayo score of AWB group were

  3. Bead Injection Extraction Chromatography using High-capacity Lab-on-Valve as a Front End to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Urine Radiobioassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2013-01-01

    L) incorporated within the LOV processing unit is loaded on-line with a metered amount of disposable extraction chromatographic resin (up to 330 mg of TEVA) through programmable beads transport. Selective capture and purification of plutonium onto the resin beads is then performed by pressure driven flow after......A novel bead injection (BI) extraction chromatographic microflow system exploiting high-capacity lab-on-valve (LOV) platform coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection is developed for rapid and automated determination of plutonium in human urine. A microconduit (1 m...

  4. Visible Spectrometer at the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment, the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment and the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak for Doppler Width and Shift Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, A; Howard, S; Horton, R; Hwang, D; May, M; Beiersdorfer, P; McLean, H; Terry, J

    2006-05-15

    A novel Doppler spectrometer is currently being used for ion or neutral velocity and temperature measurements on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak. The spectrometer has an f/No. of {approx}3.1 and is appropriate for visible light (3500-6700 {angstrom}). The full width at half maximum from a line emitting calibration source has been measured to be as small as 0.4 {angstrom}. The ultimate time resolution is line brightness light limited and on the order of ms. A new photon efficient detector is being used for the setup at C-Mod. Time resolution is achieved by moving the camera during a plasma discharge in a perpendicular direction through the dispersion plane of the spectrometer causing a vertical streaking across the camera face. Initial results from C-Mod as well as previous measurements from the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX) and the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment (SSPX) are presented.

  5. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  6. Comprehensive growth performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, gene expressions and cell death morphology responses to a daily corticosterone injection course in broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal M K Mehaisen

    Full Text Available The massive meat production of broiler chickens make them continuously exposed to potential stressors that stimulate releasing of stress-related hormones like corticosterone (CORT which is responsible for specific pathways in biological mechanisms and physiological activities. Therefore, this research was conducted to evaluate a wide range of responses related to broiler performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, related gene expressions and cell death morphology during and after a 7-day course of CORT injection. A total number of 200 one-day-old commercial Cobb broiler chicks were used in this study. From 21 to 28 d of age, broilers were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups with 5 replicates of 20 birds each; the first group received a daily intramuscular injection of 5 mg/kg BW corticosterone dissolved in 0.5 ml ethanol:saline solution (CORT group, while the second group received a daily intramuscular injection of 0.5 ml ethanol:saline only (CONT group. Growth performance, including body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FC, were calculated at 0, 3 and 7 d after the start of the CORT injections. At the same times, blood samples were collected in each group for hematological (TWBC's and H/L ratio, T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation and plasma biochemical assays (total protein, TP; free triiodothyronine hormone, fT3; aspartate amino transaminase, AST; and alanine amino transaminase, ALT. The liver, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen were dissected and weighed, and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (IGF-1 in liver and cell-death-program gene (caspase-9 in bursa were analyzed for each group and time; while the apoptotic/necrotic cells were morphologically detected in the spleen. From 28 to 35 d of age, broilers were kept for recovery period without CORT injection and the same sampling and parameters were repeated at the end (at 14 d after initiation of the CORT injection

  7. Over-estimation of glomerular filtration rate by single injection [51Cr] EDTA plasma clearance determination in patients with ascites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, J.H.; Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Malchow-Moeller, A.; Schlichting, P.

    1980-01-01

    The total plasma (Clsub(t)) and the renal plasma (Clsub(r)) clearances of [ 51 Cr]EDTA were determined simultaneously in nine patients with ascites due to liver cirrhosis. Clsub(t) (mean 78 ml/min, range 34-115 ml/min) was significantly higher than Clsub(r) (mean 52 ml/min, range 13-96 ml/min, P 51 Cr]EDTA increased throughout the investigation period (5 h). The results suggested that [ 51 Cr]EDTA equilibrates slowly with the peritoneal space which indicates that Clsub(t) will over-estimate the glomerular filtration rate by approximately 20 ml/min in patients with ascites. To assess glomerular filtration rate in presence of ascites, the renal plasma clearance of [ 51 Cr]EDTA should be used instead of the total plasma clearance. (author)

  8. Barium nucleosynthesis in the disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twarog, B.A.

    1981-11-15

    The history of Ba production in the disk is discussed, particularly with regard to the apparent constancy of the production rate of Ba relative to Fe over the lifetime of the disk. An infall model of the chemical evolution of Ba/Fe within the disk is constructed under the assumption that the mass function and star formation rate are independent of time and Ba is produced as purely a secondary element. The model not only satisfies the present constraints for the disk, but produces a (Ba/H)-(Fe/H) relation which is consistent with the available observational data. It is shown that the apparent constancy of the Ba/Fe ratio is an artifact of (1) an inadequate and insufficiently accurated data sample, and (2) secondary production of Ba within the disk which is 20 to 80 times less efficient relative to Fe than the production ratio for the halo. The model predicts that stars formed during the transition period between halo and disk should show a Ba/Fe excess relative to the Sun of about a factor of 2. It is concluded that the possible sources of the Ba/Fe overproduction in the halo relative to the disk are incompatible with present theoretical limits on the mass ranges for iron and barium production by stars.

  9. Optimum time of blood sampling for determination of glomerular filtration rate by single-injection [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Roedbro, P.

    1976-01-01

    We have investigated the influence on reproducibility of total [ 51 Cr]EDTA plasma clearance (E) of various times and numbers of blood samples in patients with normal (13 patients) and low (14 patients) renal function. The study aims at fixing a clinically useful procedure suitable for all levels of renal function. Six different types of E were evaluated with time periods for blood sampling between 3 and 5 h after tracer injection, and the variation from counting radioactivity, s 1 , was determined as part of the total variation, s 2 . Optimum mean time, t(E), for blood sampling was calculated as a function of E, as the mean time giving the least change in E for a given change in the 'final slope' of the plasma curve. For patients with normal E, s 1 did not contribute significantly to s 2 , and t(E) was about 2h. For patients with low renal function s 1 contributed significantly to s 2 , and t(E) increased steeply with decreasing E. The relative error in s 1 from fixed Etypes was calculated for all levels of renal function. The results indicate that blood sampling individualized according to predicted E values is not necessary. A sufficient precision of E can be achieved for all function levels from three blood samples drawn at 180, 240, and 300 min after injection. (Auth.)

  10. Ultra-low emittance beam generation using two-color ionization injection in a CO2 laser-driven plasma accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Benedetti, Carlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bulanov, Stepan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Min [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China); Esarey, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geddes, Cameron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vay, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yu, Lule [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China); Leemans, Wim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Ultra-low emittance (tens of nm) beams can be generated in a plasma accelerator using ionization injection of electrons into a wakefield. An all-optical method of beam generation uses two laser pulses of different colors. A long-wavelength drive laser pulse (with a large ponderomotive force and small peak electric field) is used to excite a large wakefield without fully ionizing a gas, and a short-wavelength injection laser pulse (with a small ponderomotive force and large peak electric field), co-propagating and delayed with respect to the pump laser, to ionize a fraction of the remaining bound electrons at a trapped wake phase, generating an electron beam that is accelerated in the wake. The trapping condition, the ionized electron distribution, and the trapped bunch dynamics are discussed. Expressions for the beam transverse emittance, parallel and orthogonal to the ionization laser polarization, are presented. An example is shown using a 10-micron CO2 laser to drive the wake and a frequency-doubled Ti:Al2O3 laser for ionization injection.

  11. Comparison of Hemostatic Efficacy of Argon Plasma Coagulation with and without Distilled Water Injection in Treating High-Risk Bleeding Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Rung Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Argon plasma coagulation (APC is useful to treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding, but its hemostatic efficacy has received little attention. Aims. This investigation attempted to determine whether additional endoscopic injection before APC could improve hemostatic efficacy in treating high-risk bleeding ulcers. Methods. From January 2007 to April 2011, adult patients with high-risk bleeding ulcers were included. This investigation compared APC plus distilled water injection (combined group to APC alone for treating high-risk bleeding ulcers. Outcomes were assessed based on initial hemostasis, surgery, blood transfusion, hospital stay, rebleeding, and mortality at 30 days posttreatment. Results. Totally 120 selected patients were analyzed. Initial hemostasis was accomplished in 59 patients treated with combined therapy and 57 patients treated with APC alone. No significant differences were noted between these groups in recurred bleeding, emergency surgery, 30-day mortality, hospital stay, or transfusion requirements. Comparing the combined end point of mortality plus the failure of initial hemostasis, rebleeding, and the need for surgery revealed an advantage for the combined group (P=0.040. Conclusions. Endoscopic therapy with APC plus distilled water injection was no more effective than APC alone in treating high-risk bleeding ulcers, whereas combined therapy was potentially superior for patients with poor overall outcomes.

  12. Arthroscopic Debridement Versus Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection: A Prospective, Randomized, Comparative Study of Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis With a Nearly 2-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, Giovanni; Dellabiancia, Fabio; Ricci, Annamaria; Mussoni, Maria Pia; Nucci, Simonetta; Zanoli, Gustavo; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized study was to compare the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections and arthroscopic lateral release in treating chronic lateral epicondylitis (LE). Patients who had a clinical diagnosis of LE confirmed by ultrasound (US) were included in this study. A total of 101 patients received arthroscopic release (n = 50) or US-guided PRP injections (n = 51). Outcomes were assessed using a visual analog scale for pain, the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and a calibrated hand dynamometer for grip strength. Both patient groups experienced significant improvement in all measures. Between-group comparisons showed a significantly higher value in the PRP group only for grip strength at week 8 (P = .0073); all other significant differences were in favor of arthroscopy: overall pain (P = .0021), night pain (P = .0013), and PRTEE score (P = .0013) at week 104 and grip strength at weeks 24, 52, and 104 (all P PRP injections and arthroscopic extensor carpi radialis brevis release are both effective in the short and medium term; (2) PRP patients experienced a significant worsening of pain at 2 years; (3) arthroscopic release ensured better long-term outcomes in terms of pain relief and grip strength recovery; and (4) both procedures were safe and well accepted by patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, prospective comparative study. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Barium ferrite nanoparticles prepared by self-propagating low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    temperature combustion method using ... talline barium ferrite. Keywords. Barium ferrite; self-propagating combustion method; magnetic property; X-ray diffraction; morphology. 1. Introduction .... known that γ-Fe2O3 is a cubic spinel, whose chemical.

  14. Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid (HA) and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injection versus Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection alone in Patients with Grade III and IV Knee Osteoarthritis (OA): A Retrospective Study on Functional Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturveithan, C; Premganesh, G; Fakhrizzaki, S; Mahathir, M; Karuna, K; Rauf, K; William, H; Akmal, H; Sivapathasundaram, N; Jaspreet, K

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely utilized in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis whereas platelet rich plasma (PRP) enhances the regeneration of articular cartilage. This study analyses the efficacy of HA and PRP in grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study with retrospective review of 64 patients (101 knees) which includes 56 knees injected with HA+ PRP, and 45 knees with HA only. Results: During the post six months International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) evaluation, HA+PRP group showed marked improvement of 24.33 compared to 12.15 in HA group. Decrement in visual analogue score (VAS) in HA+PRP was 1.9 compared to 0.8 in HA group. Conclusion: We propose intra-articular HA and PRP injections as an optional treatment modality in Grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis in terms of functional outcome and pain control for up to six months when arthroplasty is not an option.

  15. On film quality in barium-air double contrast colon study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhu, Sang Hyung; Rhee, Jae Ho; Kim, Hai Sung; Cheung, Hwan

    1984-01-01

    The colon double contrast study provides valuable diagnostic information by means of appropriate control of Kvp and mAa when making double contrast image by injecting air into the colon after coating the colon wall by appropriately diluted Barium solution. The following experiments were performed the results of which allowed to improve the quality of film in barium-air double contrast colon study: (1) Do the pictures have uniform density when measured with a densitometer from three measuring points established in the picture by changing Kvp and mAs depending on the thickness of the patient? (2) Is the quality of the picture improved by being compensated from the adjacent area when using a wedge filter in routine check lateral decubitus and erect view? (3) What is the optimum dilution of barium solution which gives the best result for colon wall coating? The above experiments revealed that as the patient's thickness increased, it should be considered to increase mAs as well as Kvp and a wedge filter could give diagnostically very informative pictures in routine-check lateral decubitus and erect view. And 70-80% solution of Barium-water mixture provided the best quality of double contrast image

  16. An Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatographic-Tandem Mass Spectrometric Method for the Determination of Sinomenine in Human Plasma after Transdermal Delivery of the Zhengqing Fengtongning Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingbo Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive, precise and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the determination of trace amounts of sinomenine (ng/mL in minute volumes of human plasma. Fifty microliter plasma samples were precipitated using methanol to extract sinomenine. Separation was carried out on a C18 column with a water and acetonitrile mobile phase gradient with formic acid as an additive. The mass spectrometry data were obtained in the positive ion mode, and the transition of multiple reactions was monitored at m/z 330.2→181.0 for sinomenine quantification. The working assay range for sinomenine was linear from 0.1173 to 15.02 ng/mL with the lower limit of quantification of 0.1173 ng/mL. The precision and accuracy of the method was less than 15% in intra-day and inter-day experiments with a matrix effect of less than 6.5%. After validation, the quantitative method was applied to analyze sinomenine levels in human plasma after transdermal delivery of the Zhengqing Fengtongning Injection. The results showed that some samples contained sinomenine within the concentration range 0.4131–4.407 ng/mL.

  17. Evaluation of Plasma Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK Level Following a Single Injection of Methotrexate as a Predicator of Treatment Success in Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Safdarian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK level after a single injection of methotrexate (MTX as a predictor of treatment success in ectopic pregnancy (EP.In this prospective study, seventy nine women older than 18 years treated with methotrexate for ectopic pregnancy were evaluated for CPK and β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG levels, while they received intramuscular MTX at a dose of 50 mg/m2. The day of injection was considered as day 1 (D1. CPK level on D1 was compared between the group 1(as treatment success group, treated by a single MTX injection, and the group 2, treated by two or three MTX injections or by surgery.The success rate of MTX treatment was 58 (73.3%. The mean of CPK was higher in treatment success group (group1 than failure group (group 2 (71.98 ± 15.711 vs. 64.43 ± 15.898, but the difference was not significant (p=0.06. The mean of βhCG was significantly lower in treatment success group (group 1 than failure group (group 2 (1187.52±631.45 vs. 1663.87±1096.845; p=0.01. Ultrasonographic findings of EP were seen in 63 patients, while the means of βHCG and CPK were higher in these patients than those with normal ultrasonography, but difference was not significant (p=0.37 and p=0.24, respectively.The sample was not large enough to indicate a significant difference in the CPK level, which can be considered as an indicator for differentiating between the successful and unsuccessful treatment groups. Moreover, the present study did not show any relation between initial β-hCG and CPK serum levels, so our findings indicate that they are not possibly considered as two independent biomarkers in ectopic pregnancy.

  18. Platelet-rich plasma injections in the treatment of chronic rotator cuff tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesikburun, Serdar; Tan, Arif Kenan; Yilmaz, Bilge; Yaşar, Evren; Yazicioğlu, Kamil

    2013-11-01

    Rotator cuff tendinopathy (RCT) is a significant source of disability and loss of work. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been suggested to be beneficial in the treatment of RCT. To investigate the effect of PRP injections on pain and shoulder functions in patients with chronic RCT. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 40 patients, 18 to 70 years of age, with (1) a history of shoulder pain for >3 months during overhead-throwing activities, (2) MRI findings of RCT or partial tendon ruptures, and (3) a minimum 50% reduction in shoulder pain with subacromial injections of an anesthetic were included in this placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomized into a PRP group (n = 20) or placebo group (n = 20). Patients received an ultrasound-guided injection into the subacromial space that contained either 5 mL of PRP prepared from autologous venous blood or 5 mL of saline solution. All patients underwent a 6-week standard exercise program. Outcome measures (Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index [WORC], Shoulder Pain and Disability Index [SPADI], 100-mm visual analog scale [VAS] of shoulder pain with the Neer test, and shoulder range of motion) were assessed at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks and 1 year after injection. Comparison of the patients revealed no significant difference between the groups in WORC, SPADI, and VAS scores at 1-year follow-up (P = .174, P = .314, and P = .904, respectively). Similar results were found at other assessment points. Within each group, the WORC, SPADI, and VAS scores showed significant improvements compared with baseline at all time points (P shoulder range of motion than placebo in patients with chronic RCT who were treated with an exercise program.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium calcium...

  20. Synthesis of nanosized barium titanate/epoxy resin composites and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barium titanate/epoxy resin composites have been synthesized and tested for microwave absorption/ transmission. Nanocrystalline barium titanate (BaTiO3 or BT) ... Anechoic chamber; barium titanate; electromagnetic interference and compatibility; epoxy resin ..... electromagnetic waves, the two port calibrations have been.

  1. Destruction of POPs agents in a Plasma-Arc Reactor and equilibrium calculations of steam injected for syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Junguo; Li, Yaojian; Wang, Rui; Xu, Yongjiang; Sheng, Hongzhi

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A 30 kW DC plasma-arc reactor has been used to destruct hazardous Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of POPs is investigated. Due to similar to several POPs at chemical structure such as DDT, PCBs, pure chlorobenzene (C 6 H 5 Cl) is selected as the experimental material. Because the arc temperature attains 5000 K and the average temperature exceeds 1600 K in reaction area, the chlorinated organics, which are difficult to be destructed in conventional incinerators, can be rapidly pyrolyzed into simple molecules. Detected by Gas Chromatography (CP-3800 Varian), the off-gas is a mixture of H 2 , HCl and some hydrocarbons such as CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , and C 6 H 5 Cl is not detected in the off-gas. Furthermore, the treatment of POPs in a steam-plasma system has been simulated. The process acts as energy transformation - electrical energy is restored in the syngas. Based on the principle of Gibbs free energy minimum, the equilibrium product distribution versus steam content and temperature is calculated. At the ideal temperature of POPs treatment, the energy recovered (Qre) minus the energy input (Qin) gets to maximum while the molar ration of oxygen to carbon (O/C) is near 1. The results show that the plasma-arc technology is environmentally friendly and economically feasible for disposal of POPs. (author)

  2. Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Toetterman, S.; Kaila, R.; Pietilae, J.; Linden, H.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal. (orig.) [de

  3. Analyte enrichment and matrix removal in flow injection analysis-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry: determination of phosphorus in steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, C. W.; Cook, I. G.; Worsfold, P. J.; Davies, J. E.; Queay, J.

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system incorporating a microcolumn of activated alumina has been devised for performing rapid analyte enrichment/matrix removal in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The activated alumina has a high affinity for phosphate ions and the FIA system was tested for the determination of trace P in synthetic aqueous solutions utilizing the PI 213.62 nm line. Phosphate deposition and elution were dependent on sample acidity, column length and the nature and concentration of eluent. Linear calibration was established over the range 0-50 μgP ml -1 and the relative standard deviation was 1.6% at 20 μgP ml -1. The limit of detection was 0.6 μgP ml -1 without analyte enrichment. Application to the analysis of a standard steel (BCS 408) was demonstrated.

  4. Agglomeration processes sustained by dust density waves in Ar/C2H2 plasma: From C2H2 injection to the formation of an organized structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dap, Simon; Hugon, Robert; Poucques, Ludovic de; Briancon, Jean-Luc; Bougdira, Jamal; Lacroix, David

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation of dust particle agglomeration in a capacitively coupled RF discharge is reported. Carbonaceous particles are produced in an argon plasma using acetylene. As soon as the particle density becomes sufficient, dust density waves (DDWs) are spontaneously excited within the cathode sheath. Recently, it was proven that DDWs can significantly enhance the agglomeration rate between particles by transferring them a significant kinetic energy. Thus, it helps them to overcome Coulomb repulsion. The influence of this mechanism is studied from acetylene injection to the formation of very large agglomerates forming an organized structure after a few dozens of seconds. For this purpose, three diagnostic tools are used: extinction measurements to probe nanometer-sized particles, fast imaging for large agglomerates and a dust extraction technique developed for ex-situ analysis.

  5. Work Function Calculation For Hafnium- Barium System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Tursunmetov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption process of barium atoms on hafnium is considered. A structural model of the system is presented and on the basis of calculation of interaction between ions dipole system the dependence of the work function on the coating.

  6. High temperature impedance spectroscopy of barium stannate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High temperature impedance spectroscopy of barium stannate, BaSnO3. SHAIL UPADHYAY. Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. MS received 29 May 2012; revised 14 July 2012. Abstract. Polycrystalline powder of BaSnO3 was prepared at 1300 ◦C using a ...

  7. Impurities in barium titanate posistor ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korniyenko, S. M.; Bykov, I. P.; Glinchuk, M. J.; Laguta, V. V.; Belous, A. G.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 239, - (2000), s. 1209-1218 ISSN 0015-0193 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : barium titanate phase transition * ESR * positive temperature coefficient of resistivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.547, year: 2000

  8. Magneto-optical trapping of barium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, S.; Dammalapati, U.; Jungmann, K.; Willmann, L.

    Laser cooling and trapping of the heavy alkaline-earth-metal element barium has been achieved based on the strong 6s(2) (1)S(0)-6s6p (1)P(1) transition. The excited state decays to a large fraction into metastable D states. Two schemes were implemented where three additional laser-driven transitions

  9. Scattering lengths of calcium and barium isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammalapati, U.; Willmann, L.; Knoop, S.

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the s-wave scattering length of all the even isotopes of calcium (Ca) and barium (Ba) in order to investigate the prospect of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). For Ca we have used an accurate molecular potential based on detailed spectroscopic data. Our calculations show that Ca

  10. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy...

  11. Barium Transport Process in Impregnated Dispenser Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-25

    Coupon Indicating Initial Discontinuity in Bariumn Coverage 17 ...... .... aru apo Hae Cuo ......... GsLie ifuso ..4... Fig. 5. SAI! Barium ’tap of a...monitoring. Electronics Research Laboratory: Microelectronics. GaAs low-noise and pover devices, semiconductor lasers. electromagnetic and optical propagation...phenomena, quantum electronics, laser comunications, lidar, and electro-optics; communication sciences, applied electronics, semiconductor crystal

  12. Electrical characterization of zirconium substituted barium titanate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nyquist (Cole–Cole) plots show both inter and intra grain boundary ... Ferroelectrics; barium zirconate titanate; complex impedance spectroscopy. ... The impedance plots in the complex plane appear in the form of succe- ssion of semicircles representing electrical phenomena due to the bulk material, grain boundary effect ...

  13. The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Survival of the Composite Graft and the Proper Time of Injection in a Rabbit Ear Composite Graft Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Nam Choi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAdministration of growth factors has been associated with increased viability of composite grafts greater than 1-cm in diameter. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP contains many of the growth factors studied. In this study, we evaluate the effect of PRP injection on composite graft viability and the proper time for injection.MethodsA total of 24 New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups. Autologous PRP was injected into the recipient sites three days before grafting in group 1, on the day of grafting in group 2, and three days after grafting in group 3. Group 4 served as control without PRP administration. Auricular composite grafts of 3-cm diameter were harvested and grafted back into place after being rotated 180 degrees. Median graft viability and microvessel density were evaluated at day 21 of graft via macroscopic photographs and immunofluorescent staining, respectively.ResultsThe median graft survival rate was 97.8% in group 1, 69.2% in group 2, 55.7% in group 3, and 40.8% in the control group. The median vessel counts were 34 (per ×200 HPF in group 1, 24.5 in group 2, 19.5 in group 3, and 10.5 in the control group.ConclusionsThis study demonstrates that PRP administration is associated with increased composite graft viability. All experimental groups showed a significantly higher survival rate and microvessel density, compared with the control group. Pre-administration of PRP was followed by the highest graft survival rate and revascularization. PRP treatments are minimally invasive, fast, easily applicable, and inexpensive, and offer a potential clinical pathway to larger composite grafts.

  14. Ultrasound-Guided Injection of Platelet-Rich Plasma and Hyaluronic Acid, Separately and in Combination, for Hip Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallari, Dante; Stagni, Cesare; Rani, Nicola; Sabbioni, Giacomo; Pelotti, Patrizia; Torricelli, Paola; Tschon, Matilde; Giavaresi, Gianluca

    2016-03-01

    The effectiveness of intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections has been evaluated in knee chondroplasty and osteoarthritis (OA); however, little evidence of its efficacy in hip OA exists. To compare the therapeutic efficacy of autologous PRP, hyaluronic acid (HA), or a combination of both (PRP+HA) in hip OA. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Patients aged between 18 and 65 years who were treated with outpatient surgery and who had hip OA and pain intensity at baseline of >20 on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) were recruited for this study. Exclusion criteria were extensive surgery; presence of excessive deformities; or rheumatic, infective, cardiovascular, or immune system disorders. The primary outcome measure was a change in pain intensity as assessed by the VAS at 2, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Secondary outcome measures were the Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and concentration of growth factors in PRP and their correlation with clinical outcomes. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by assessors and collectors blinded to the type of treatment administered. A total of 111 patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups and received 3 weekly injections of either PRP (44 patients), PRP+HA (31 patients), or HA (36 patients). At all follow-ups, the PRP group had the lowest VAS scores. In particular, at 6-month follow-up, the mean VAS score was 21 (95% CI, 15-28) in the PRP group, 35 (95% CI, 26-45) in the PRP+HA group, and 44 (95% CI, 36-52) in the HA group (P injections offer a significant clinical improvement in patients with hip OA without relevant side effects. The benefit was significantly more stable up to 12 months as compared with the other tested treatments. The addition of PRP+HA did not lead to a significant improvement in pain symptoms. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Plasma shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Takahide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent concentration of plasma currents to the plasma center upon plasma shutdown in a torus type thermonuclear device by the injection of fuels to the plasma center thereby prevent plasma disruption at the plasma center. Constitution: The plasma shutdown device comprises a plasma current measuring device that measures the current distribution of plasmas confined within a vacuum vessel and outputs a control signal for cooling the plasma center when the plasma currents concentrate to the plasma center and a fuel supply device that supplies fuels to the plasma center for cooling the center. The fuels are injected in the form of pellets into the plasmas. The direction and the velocity of the injection are set such that the pellets are ionized at the center of the plasmas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Plasma free amino acid kinetics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a bolus injection of 15N-labeled amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jacob William; Yanke, Dan; Mirza, Jeff; Ballantyne, James Stuart

    2011-02-01

    To gain insight into the metabolic design of the amino acid carrier systems in fish, we injected a bolus of (15)N amino acids into the dorsal aorta in mature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The plasma kinetic parameters including concentration, pool size, rate of disappearance (R(d)), half-life and turnover rate were determined for 15 amino acids. When corrected for metabolic rate, the R(d) values obtained for trout for most amino acids were largely comparable to human values, with the exception of glutamine (which was lower) and threonine (which was higher). R(d) values ranged from 0.9 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1) (lysine) to 22.1 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1) (threonine) with most values falling between 2 and 6 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1). There was a significant correlation between R(d) and the molar proportion of amino acids in rainbow trout whole body protein hydrolysate. Other kinetic parameters did not correlate significantly with whole body amino acid composition. This indicates that an important design feature of the plasma-free amino acids system involves proportional delivery of amino acids to tissues for protein synthesis.

  17. Incident neutron spectra on the first wall and their application to energetic ion diagnostics in beam-injected deuterium-tritium tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, S.; Matsuura, H.; Uchiyama, D.

    2017-09-01

    A diagnostic method for small non-Maxwellian tails in fuel-ion velocity distribution functions is proposed; this method uses the anisotropy of neutron emissions, and it is based on the numerical analysis of the incident fast neutron spectrum on the first wall of a fusion device. Neutron energy spectra are investigated for each incident position along the first wall and each angle of incidence assuming an ITER-like deuterium-tritium plasma; it is heated by tangential-neutral-beam injection. Evaluating the incident neutron spectra at all wall positions and angles of incidence enables the selective measurement of non-Gaussian components in the neutron emission spectrum for energetic ion diagnostics; in addition, the optimal detector position and orientation can be determined. At the optimal detector position and orientation, the ratio of non-Gaussian components to the Gaussian peak can be two orders of magnitude greater than the ratio in the neutron emission spectrum. This result can improve the accuracy of energetic ion diagnostics in plasmas when small, anisotropic non-Maxwellian tails are formed in fuel ion velocity distribution functions. We focus on the non-Gaussian components greater than 14 MeV, where the effect of the background noise (i.e., slowing-down neutrons by scattering throughout the machine structure) can be ignored.

  18. Barium carbonate as an agent to improve the electrical properties of neodymium-barium-copper system at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, J.P.; Duarte, G.W.; Caldart, C.; Kniess, C.T.; Montedo, O.R.K.; Rocha, M.R.; Riella, H.G.; Fiori, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Specialized ceramics are manufactured under special conditions and contain specific elements. They possess unique electrical and thermal properties and are frequently used by the electronics industry. Ceramics containing neodymium-barium-copper (NBC) exhibit high conductivities at low temperatures. NBC-based ceramics are typically combined with oxides, i.e., NBCo produced from neodymium oxide, barium oxide and copper oxide. This study presents NBC ceramics that were produced with barium carbonate, copper oxide and neodymium oxide (NBCa) as starting materials. These ceramics have good electrical conductivities at room temperature. Their conductivities are temperature dependent and related to the starting amount of barium carbonate (w%). - Highlights: • The new crystalline structure were obtained due presence of the barium carbonate. • The NBCa compound has excellent electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The grain crystalline morphology was modified by presence of the barium carbonate. • New Phases α and β were introduced by carbonate barium in the NBC compound

  19. The effect of aspirated barium sulfate, iodixanol, and diatrizoic acid on survival and lung injury in a lagomorph model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M Tausif; Litts, Juliana K; Cheney, Diane M; Kuhn, Maggie A; Nativ-Zeltzer, Nogah; Belafsky, Peter C

    2017-05-01

    Contrast agents are an integral component of the video fluoroscopic swallow study. Agents commonly used include barium sulfate (E-Z Paque), iodixanol (Visipaque), and diatrizoic acid (Gastrografin). Barium is water insoluble, whereas iodixanol and diatrizoic acid are water-soluble iodine-based agents. The detrimental effect of these agents on the lungs has not been systematically evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate and compare the effects of aspirated barium, iodixanol, and diatrizoic acid on pulmonary injury in a lagomorph model. Animal model. Twenty adult male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups (n = 5). Group 1 received 3 mL of barium sulfate injected into the trachea for 3 consecutive days. Group 2 received 3 mL of iodixanol injected into the trachea for 3 consecutive days. Group 3 received 3 mL of diatrizoic acid injected into the trachea for 3 consecutive days. A control group received 3 mL of air injected into the trachea under an identical protocol. All animals were euthanized on day 4, and the lung and trachea were harvested for blinded histopathologic analysis. The primary outcome measure was survival. The secondary endpoint was a blinded, histologic grading system of lung injury. Two animals in the barium group, one in the diatrizoic acid group, and 0 animals in the iodixanol and control groups died. The overall lung injury score for the barium (60.60 ± 6.34) and iodixanol groups (52.30 ± 3.11) were significantly higher (worse) than the diatrizoic acid (49.60 ± 7.64) and control groups (37.80 ± 3.56) (P barium sulfate (E-Z Paque) over 3 consecutive days causes more severe lung injury in a lagomorph model than 3 mL of aspirated iodixanol (Visipaque) and diatrizoic acid (Gastrografin). Diatrizoic acid caused the least histologic evidence of lung injury. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E148-E152, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE MELTING OF PARTICLES INJECTED IN A PLASMA JET SIMULACIÓN NUMÉRICA DE LA FUSIÓN DE PARTÍCULAS INYECTADAS EN UN JET DE PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Romero Rojas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the numerical simulation of the melting process of a particle injected in a plasma jet. The plasma process is nowadays applied to produce thin coatings on metal mechanical components with the aim of improving the surface resistance to different phenomena such as corrosion, temperature or wear. In this work we studied the heat transfer including phase-change of a bi-layer particle composed of a metallic iron core coated with ceramic alumina, inside a plasma jet. The model accounted for the environmental conditions along the particle path. The numerical simulation of this problem was performed via a temperature-based phase-change finite element formulation. The results obtained with this methodology satisfactorily described the melting process of the particle. Particularly, the results of the present work illustrate the phase change evolution in a bi-layer particle during its motion in the plasma jet. Moreover, the numerical trends agreed with those previously reported in the literature and computed with a finite volume enthalpy based formulation.Este trabajo presenta la simulación numérica de la fusión de una partícula inyectada en un jet de plasma. Este proceso es hoy en día aplicado para producir capas o recubrimientos delgados sobre componentes mecánicos metálicos, con el objetivo de mejorar su resistencia superficial frente a diferentes fenómenos tales como corrosión, temperatura y desgaste. En este trabajo se estudió la transferencia de calor incluyendo cambio de fase, de una partícula bimaterial compuesta por un centro metálico de hierro recubierto por una capa protectora de alúmina cerámica, dentro de un jet de plasma. El modelo numérico tomó en cuenta las condiciones ambientales a lo largo de toda su trayectoria en el jet. La simulación numérica de este problema fue realizada mediante una formulación de elementos finitos con cambio de fase que retiene como variable única la temperatura. Los

  1. Determination of barium in natural waters by ICP-OES technique. Part II: Assessment of human exposure to barium in bottled mineral and spring waters produced in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Swiecicka, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    A method of the classification of natural mineral and spring waters and maximum admissible concentration (MAC) levels of metals present in such types of waters are regulated by Commission Directive 2003/40/EC, Directive 2009/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Ordinance of Minister of Health of 30 March 2011 on the natural mineral waters, spring waters and potable waters. MAC of barium in natural mineral and spring waters was set at 1.0 mg/l, while World Health Organization determined the Ba guideline value in water intended for human consumption at the level of 0.7 mg/l. The aims of the study were: the determination of barium in natural mineral and spring waters (carbonated, non-carbonated and medium-carbonated waters) produced and bottled on the area of Poland, and assessment of human exposure to this metal presents in the above-mentioned types of waters. The study concerning barium determinations in 23 types of bottled natural mineral waters and 15 types of bottled spring waters (bought in Polish retail outlets) was conducted in 2010. The analyses were performed by validated method of determination of barium in water based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, using modern internal quality control scheme. Concentrations of barium determined in natural mineral and spring waters were in the ranges from 0.0136 mg/l to 1.12 mg/l and from 0.0044 mg/l to 0.43 mg/l, respectively. Only in the single case of natural mineral water the concentration of barium (1.12 mg/l), exceeded above-mentioned MAC for this metal, which is obligatory in Poland and the European Union - 1.0 mg/l. The long-term monitoring of barium concentration in another natural mineral water (2006 - 2010), in which incidental exceeding MAC was observed in 2006, was conducted. All measured barium concentrations in this water were lower than 1.0 mg/l and therefore, it is possible to state that the proper method of mixing waters taken from six independent

  2. Magnetic configuration effects on plasma transport under Neutral Beam Injection at TJ-II (Simulation); Efectos de Configuracion Magnetica en el Transporte de Plasma durante la Inyeccion de Haces Neutros en el TJ-II (Simulacion)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J.; Fuentes, C.; Liniers, M.

    2001-07-01

    A systematic analysis of magnetic configurations (27 in total), using a Transport model including impurity dynamics and sputtering effects has been done. For small size configurations or those close to rational t values there is radioactive collapse, independently of the external gas puffing (GP) strategy chosen. The reason is the insufficiency of observed power, either by the high shine through losses due to their low radii, or by the increase of fast ion orbit losses near the resonances. For the majority of configurations without collapse, fast ion orbit losses for CO injection (going in the same direction than the toroidal magnetic field) are higher, and in consequence the power absorption and the plasma {beta} achieved are laser, than for the opposite direction. Nevertheless in the region placed just above the main resonances (1/3 and 1/2 per period) this situation reverses. The reasons have been analysed and explained at previous studies. A consequence of this fact is that the optima of confinement for the Counter case are shifted towards higher t values than the CO one, with higher plasma {beta}, except near the resonances. As usual the balanced case is in between. The optima achieving stationary state are very close (and often are coincident) with those lacking that restriction. The best configuration (highest average {beta}) for balanced injection, with <{beta}>=1.1% and central value 3.2%, although in this region the results are rather insensitive to configuration and GP strategy. The configurations placed around the 100{sub 4}4 would need also the lowest power entering the torus in order to avoid collapse and to achieve an acceptable NBI absorption level. (Author) 12 refs.

  3. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  4. Specific features of the ferroelectric state in two-layer barium strontium titanate-based heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryukov, D. V.; Mukhortov, V. M.; Golovko, Yu. I.; Biryukov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The structural properties of one- and two-layer heterostructures based on the barium-strontium titanate of various compositions deposited by the Frank-Van der Merve on a magnesium oxide substrate have been studied. The heterostructures have been prepared by the rf sputtering of the stoichiometric ceramic targets in a Plazma 50 SE deposition system. The principal difference of this method of deposition from known analogs is that the growth of single-crystal films occurs from a disperse oxide phase formed in the plasma of a high-current rf discharge during the ceramic target sputtering at the cluster level. The peculiarities of the manifestation of the ferroelectric state in the two-layer heterostructures when changing the sequence order of the films with various compositions of barium-strontium titanate.

  5. Pellet injection requirements for TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafferranderie, J.

    1986-01-01

    The main parameters of TORE SUPRA are outlined and pellet injection requirements to meet plasma density goals are discussed. Topics considered include plasma buildup, plasma refueling and penetration depth

  6. Experimental Design: Application to the Development of a Treatment to Inhibit the Deposition of Barium Sulfate Liable to Be Formed in Enhanced Oil Recovery by Waterflooding Planification d'expériences : application à la mise au point d'un traitement inhibiteur du depôt de sulfate de baryum susceptible de se former en récupération assistée du pétrole par injection d'eau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available For technical and economic reasons, waterflooding is the most widely-used method in enhanced oil recovery [1]. In many situations, unfortunately, the formation water is incompatible with the injection water. The deposits and corrosion induced by the various reactions of this incompatibility cause irreversible damage, which is especially dangerous for the reservoir rock and the downhole and surface production facilities. This study is concerned exclusively with barium sulfate deposits liable to occur in surface production facilities by the mixing of injection water loaded with sulfate (1300 mg. 1 to the power of (-1 with a formation water with a high barium concentration (1200 mg. 1 to the power of (-1 [2]. Pour des raisons techniques et économiques, l'injection d'eau dans les réservoirs est la méthode la plus employée dans la récupération du pétrole. Malheureusement, dans bien des cas, l'eau en place dans le gisement est incompatible avec l'eau injectée. Les dépôts et les corrosions causés par les diverses réactions physico-chimiques de cette incompatibilité provoquent des dégradations irréversibles particulièrement dangereuses pour les installations de production de fond comme de surface et quelquefois pour la roche réservoir elle-même. Dans le cadre des travaux de recherche relatifs à l'inhibition des dépôts de sulfate sur le champ algérien de Tin Fouyé Tabankort, cette étude a eu pour objectif de sélectionner et d'adapter aux conditions spécifiques de la production un traitement de prévention des dépôts par injection d'un agent inhibiteur. Elle concerne exclusivement les dépôts de sulfate de baryum pouvant apparaître dans les installations de production par mélange d'eau d'injection très chargée en ion sulfate (1300 mg. 1 puissance(-1 avec une eau de gisement très concentrée en élément baryum (1200 mg. 1 puissance(-1. Une méthode expérimentale au laboratoire, faisant appel à des mesures de type

  7. Nanoparticles of barium induce apoptosis in human phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mores, Luana; França, Eduardo Luzia; Silva, Núbia Andrade; Suchara, Eliane Aparecida; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients and immunological factors of breast milk are essential for newborn growth and the development of their immune system, but this secretion can contain organic and inorganic toxins such as barium. Colostrum contamination with barium is an important issue to investigate because this naturally occurring element is also associated with human activity and industrial pollution. The study evaluated the administration of barium nanoparticles to colostrum, assessing the viability and functional activity of colostral mononuclear phagocytes. Colostrum was collected from 24 clinically healthy women (aged 18-35 years). Cell viability, superoxide release, intracellular Ca(2+) release, and phagocyte apoptosis were analyzed in the samples. Treatment with barium lowered mononuclear phagocyte viability, increased superoxide release, and reduced intracellular calcium release. In addition, barium increased cell death by apoptosis. These data suggest that nanoparticles of barium in colostrum are toxic to cells, showing the importance of avoiding exposure to this element.

  8. Application of an on-line flow injection high resolution inductivity coupled plasma mass spectrometry to the determination of Pu isotopes in soil and seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Cheol-Su; Rho, Byung-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Inn

    2000-01-01

    High resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry combined with an on-line flow injection system (FI-HR-ICP-MS) was applied to the determination of ultra-trace level 239 Pu and 240 Pu and their atomic ratio ( 240 Pu/ 239 Pu) in soil and seawater samples. To reduce the interference effect of 238 U, MCN-6000(R) was used as a sample introduction system, which showed a 5-fold reduction in 238 UH + formation, compared to the conventional pneumatic nebulizer. The flow injection system (PrepLab(TM)) coupled with HR-ICP-MS, which was composed of Sr-Spec(R) and TEVA-Spec(R) resins, reduced significantly the sample volume and the analysis time, compared to the conventional method of Pu isotopes. With this method, it was possible to determine ultra-low level of Pu in only 0.5 g soil and 5L surface seawater with an analysis speed of 3 - 5 hours per sample. The accuracy of this method was verified by the spike recovery experiments and by the comparison of results obtained from the on-line FI-HR-ICP-MS method with one from alpha spectrometry. In spite of small amount sample, the RSD in the determination of 239 Pu and 240 Pu by the on-line FI-HR-ICP-MS were less than 7%. The analytical results of the NIST reference material obtained by the present method agreed with certified values within a 10% of relative error. The detection limits for 239 Pu and 240 Pu were 1.27 fg m -1 (2.92 μBq ml -1 ) and 0.88 fg ml -1 (7.38 μBq ml -1 ), respectively. (author)

  9. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Ni; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Chen, Yen-Ling; Sahayam, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions in a single run. • Accurate analysis using isotope dilution and standard addition methods. • Vapor generation ICP-MS yielded superior detection limits compared to ETV-ICP-MS. • No sample dissolution increased sample through put. • Analysis of GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material for accuracy. - Abstract: A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions using flow injection (FI) vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 2% m/v lotion, 2% m/v thiourea, 0.05% m/v L-cysteine, 0.5 μg mL −1 Co(II), 0.1% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.2% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the analytes in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, an isotope dilution method and a standard addition method were used for the determination. This method has been validated by the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material. The method was also applied for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in three cosmetic lotion samples obtained locally. The analysis results of the reference material agreed with the certified value and/or ETV-ICP-MS results. The detection limit estimated from the standard addition curve was 0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.03 ng g −1 for Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi, respectively, in original cosmetic lotion sample

  10. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Ni [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Shiuh-Jen, E-mail: sjjiang@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Ling [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Sahayam, A.C. [National Centre for Compositional Characterisation of Materials (CCCM), Hyderabad (India)

    2015-02-20

    Highlights: • Determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions in a single run. • Accurate analysis using isotope dilution and standard addition methods. • Vapor generation ICP-MS yielded superior detection limits compared to ETV-ICP-MS. • No sample dissolution increased sample through put. • Analysis of GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material for accuracy. - Abstract: A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions using flow injection (FI) vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 2% m/v lotion, 2% m/v thiourea, 0.05% m/v L-cysteine, 0.5 μg mL{sup −1} Co(II), 0.1% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.2% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the analytes in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, an isotope dilution method and a standard addition method were used for the determination. This method has been validated by the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material. The method was also applied for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in three cosmetic lotion samples obtained locally. The analysis results of the reference material agreed with the certified value and/or ETV-ICP-MS results. The detection limit estimated from the standard addition curve was 0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.03 ng g{sup −1} for Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi, respectively, in original cosmetic lotion sample.

  11. Nonsurgical Treatments of Patellar Tendinopathy: Multiple Injections of Platelet-Rich Plasma Are a Suitable Option: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriolo, Luca; Altamura, Sante Alessandro; Reale, Davide; Candrian, Christian; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Filardo, Giuseppe

    2018-03-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is a condition characterized by anterior knee activity-related pain. It has a high incidence among athletes engaged in jumping sports and may become a chronic condition. Nonoperative management is the first choice in these patients, and several nonsurgical treatment options have been proposed. Nonetheless, clear indications on the most effective approach to address patellar tendinopathy are still lacking. To analyze the evidence on nonoperative options to treat chronic patellar tendinopathy through a systematic review of the literature and to perform a meta-analysis to identify the most effective nonsurgical option. Systematic review and meta-analysis. The search was conducted with the PubMed and Cochrane databases on January 4, 2017. All clinical English-language reports of any level of evidence on nonsurgical treatment of patellar tendinopathy were included. The quality of each article was assessed by use of the Coleman score. A meta-analysis was performed on all articles reporting the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment scale for patellar tendinopathy to evaluate the results of the most described treatments. A total of 70 studies involving 2530 patients were included in the qualitative data synthesis. The Coleman score showed an overall poor study quality. The most described treatment groups that could be included in the meta-analysis were reported in 22 studies on eccentric exercise, extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Single and multiple PRP injections were evaluated separately. Eccentric exercise therapies obtained the best results ( P patellar tendinopathy with important limitations in terms of study quality. The available evidence showed an overall positive outcome, but some differences have been highlighted. Eccentric exercises may seem the strategy of choice in the short-term, but multiple PRP injections may offer more satisfactory results at long-term follow-up and can be therefore considered

  12. Deflocculants for Tape Casting Barium Titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    are discussed in detail by Mitchell and Smith (2). The measurement of free and bound water was performed by titration to an electrometric end point by...the dead- stop ( biamperometric ) technique using a Fisher Model 391 aquametry apparatus. The fundamental theory behind this technique is reviewed p in... Titrations were performed at 25 ± 10C. "i 9 For insoluble materials, such as the barium titanate powder, the solid was added to the pyridine solvent

  13. Barium hexaferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosyan, K.S.; Galstyan, E.; Hossain, S.M.; Wang Yiju; Litvinov, D.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon combustion synthesis is applied to rapid and energy efficient fabrication of crystalline barium hexaferrite nanoparticles with the average particle size of 50-100 nm. In this method, the exothermic oxidation of carbon nanoparticles with an average size of 5 nm with a surface area of 80 m 2 /g generates a self-propagating thermal wave with maximum temperatures of up to 1000 deg. C. The thermal front rapidly propagates through the mixture of solid reactants converting it to the hexagonal barium ferrite. Carbon is not incorporated in the product and is emitted from the reaction zone as a gaseous CO 2 . The activation energy for carbon combustion synthesis of BaFe 12 O 19 was estimated to be 98 kJ/mol. A complete conversion to hexagonal barium ferrite is obtained for carbon concentration exceeding 11 wt.%. The magnetic properties H c ∼3000 Oe and M s ∼50.3 emu/g of the compact sintered ferrites compare well with those produced by other synthesis methods.

  14. BARIUM REDUCTION OF INTUSSUSCEPTION IN INFANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denenholz, Edward J.; Feher, George. S.

    1955-01-01

    Barium enema reduction was used as the initial routine treatment in 29 infants with intussusception. In 22 of them the intussusception was reduced by this means. In three of eight patients operated upon the intussusception was found to be reduced. Four of the remaining five patients had clinical or x-ray evidence of complications before reduction by barium enema was attempted. Twenty-one of the patients, all of whom were observed in private practice, were treated without admission to the hospital. After reduction, these patients were observed closely by the clinician. None of these patients showed clinical or x-ray signs of complications before reduction. Certain clinical and roentgen criteria must be satisfied before it can be concluded that reduction by barium enema is complete. If there are clinical signs of complications with x-ray evidence of small bowel obstruction, only a very cautious attempt at hydrostatic reduction should be made. As the time factor is generally a reliable clinical guide to reducibility, the late cases should be viewed with greater caution. Long duration of symptoms, however, is not per se a contraindication to an attempt at hydrostatic reduction. PMID:13230908

  15. Effects of Barium Concentration on Oropharyngeal Swallow Timing Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Stokely, Shauna L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2013-01-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between “thin” (40 % w/v concentration) and “ultrathin” (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; ...

  16. Contrast characteristics of barium preparations and the timing of exposure

    OpenAIRE

    渋谷, 光一; 中桐, 義忠; 東, 義晴; 杉田, 勝彦; 小橋, 高郎; 大倉, 保彦; 丹谷, 延義; 三上, 泰隆; 平木, 祥夫

    1995-01-01

    We studied the relationship between the contrast characteristics of barium suspension and timing of exposure. We poured several kinds of barium preparations on the phantom manufactured by ourselves, and took X-ray pictures continuously by a DSA system. We analyzed each of the characteris-tics of the contrast. The time which was reguired for the contrast to reach the peak (Contrast Peak Time ; CPT) was unrelated with the kind of barium preparations used. It depended on the viscosity of the con...

  17. Barium peritonitis following upper gastrointestinal series: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Su Jin; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Yong Jin; Hong, Seong Sook [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    We report a rare case of barium peritonitis following an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series and its imaging findings in a 74-year-old female. Barium peritonitis is a rare but life-threatening complication of GI contrast investigation. Therefore, clinical awareness of barium peritonitis as a complication of GI tract contrast investigation would help to prevent such a complication and manage the patients properly.

  18. Effects of barium concentration on oropharyngeal swallow timing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokely, Shauna L; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-02-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between "thin" (40 % w/v concentration) and "ultrathin" (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; mean age = 31 years) each performed a series of three noncued 5-ml swallows each of ultrathin and thin liquid barium solutions in videofluoroscopy. Timing measures were compared between barium concentrations using a mixed-model ANOVA. The measures of interest were stage transition duration, pharyngeal transit time, and duration of upper esophageal sphincter opening. Significant differences were observed in the timing measures of swallowing with respect to barium concentration. In all cases, longer durations were seen with the higher barium concentration. Barium concentration influences timing parameters in healthy swallowing, even between ultrathin and thin concentrations. Clinicians need to understand and control for the impact of different barium stimuli on swallowing physiology.

  19. History and challenges of barium titanate: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijatović M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate is the first ferroelectric ceramics and a good candidate for a variety of applications due to its excellent dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Barium titanate is a member of a large family of compounds with the general formula ABO3 which is called perovskite. Barium titanate can be prepared using different methods. The synthesis method depends on the desired characteristics for the end application and the method used has a significant influence on the structure and properties of barium titanate materials. In this review paper, in Part II the properties of obtained materials and their application are presented.

  20. History and challenges of barium titanate: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijatović M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate is the first ferroelectric ceramics and a good candidate for a variety of applications due to its excellent dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Barium titanate is a member of a large family of compounds with the general formula ABO3 called perovskites. Barium titanate can be prepared using different methods. The synthesis method depends on the desired characteristics for the end application. The used method has a significant influence on the structure and properties of barium titanate materials. In this review paper, Part I contains a study of the BaTiO3 structure and frequently used synthesis methods.

  1. Impact of the barium enema examination on patient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.M.; Ott, D.J.; Munitz, H.A.; Gelfand, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The records of 214 patients who underwent barium enema examinations were reviewed. Indications for the examination, radiographic efficacy, and patient outcome were correlated to determine the impact of barium enema examination on patient management. The most frequent indications were rectal bleeding (33%), abdominal pain (31%), and anemia (17%). Diverticulosis (30%), polyps (10%), and malignancies (12%) were the most common abnormalities detected. The sensitivity of barium enema examination for detecting neoplasms was 89%. The effects on patient management were as follows: serious pathology was excluded (64%); a diagnosis was made that changed therapy (24%); existing therapy was continued (10%); additional studies were ordered (2%). No serious lesion was missed on barium enema examination

  2. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  3. Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicken, Matthew J; Sweatlock, Luke A; Pacifici, Domenico; Lezec, Henri J; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Atwater, Harry A

    2008-11-01

    We demonstrate control of the surface plasmon polariton wavevector in an active metal-dielectric plasmonic interferometer by utilizing electrooptic barium titanate as the dielectric layer. Arrays of subwavelength interferometers were fabricated from pairs of parallel slits milled in silver on barium titanate thin films. Plasmon-mediated transmission of incident light through the subwavelength slits is modulated by an external voltage applied across the barium titanate thin film. Transmitted light modulation is ascribed to two effects, electrically induced domain switching and electrooptic modulation of the barium titanate index.

  4. Performance of different preconcentration columns used in sequential injection analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for multielemental determination in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, María. S.; Velarte, Rosario; Castillo, Juan R.

    2002-03-01

    A simple, versatile and economical method of sequential injection analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with matrix removal in two different ion-exchange resins for the determination of Al, As, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and V is reported. The resins used, both of which contain the iminodiacetic acid functional group, were Chelex 100 and Metpac CC-1. With both resins, a matrix removal step (alkaline and alkaline-earth metals) with ammonium acetate is required before elution of the analytes with 2 M HNO 3. The procedure was validated by analyzing CASS-3 seawater reference material and good agreement was found with the certified values. Precision ( n=8) for the nine elements was in the range 0.8-4.9% for the Chelex 100 column and the recoveries ranged from 87.4 to 107.9%, except for Cu (78.7%) and Pb (74.9%), owing to the formation of hydroxides. For the Metpac CC-1 column, precision for the nine elements was in the range 1.2-7.1% and the recoveries between 91.7 and 109.3%, except for Al (127.2%), Co (118.5%) and Ni (127.5%) due to contamination problems.

  5. Flow injection on-line dilution for multi-element determination in human urine with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2001-01-01

    A simple flow injection on-line dilution procedure with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the determination of copper, zinc, arsenic, lead, selenium, nickel and molybdenum in human urine. Matrix effects were minimized by employing a dilution factor...... of 16.5 with on-line standard addition, and sup/ 103/Rh was used as internal standard to compensate for signal fluctuation. The procedure was validated by the analysis of two standard reference materials SRM 2670 (NIST) and Seronorm(TM) Trace Elements in Urine. Recovery experiments were performed...... by spiking the reference materials as well as artificial urine. The detection limits (mug/l were 0.12, 0.96, 0.30, 0.09, 0.45, 0.08, 0.09, and the precisions (RSD,%) were 2.6, 2.3, 3.0, 3.7, 3.7, 4.9, 2.8 for Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Se, Ni and Mo, respectively. The procedure was applied to the analysis of 41 human...

  6. Fast Determination of Yttrium and Rare Earth Elements in Seawater by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry after Online Flow Injection Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhao Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A method for daily monitoring of yttrium and rare earth elements (YREEs in seawater using a cheap flow injection system online coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry is reported. Toyopearl AF Chelate 650M® resin permits separation and concentration of YREEs using a simple external calibration. A running cycle consumed 6 mL sample and took 5.3 min, providing a throughput of 11 samples per hour. Linear ranges were up to 200 ng kg−1 except Tm (100 ng kg−1. The precision of the method was <6% (RSDs, n = 5, and recoveries ranged from 93% to 106%. Limits of detection (LODs were in the range 0.002 ng kg−1 (Tm to 0.078 ng kg−1 (Ce. Good agreement between YREEs concentrations in CASS-4 and SLEW-3 obtained in this work and results from other studies was observed. The proposed method was applied to the determination of YREEs in seawater from the Jiulong River Estuary and the Taiwan Strait.

  7. Fast Determination of Yttrium and Rare Earth Elements in Seawater by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry after Online Flow Injection Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zuhao; Zheng, Airong

    2018-02-23

    A method for daily monitoring of yttrium and rare earth elements (YREEs) in seawater using a cheap flow injection system online coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry is reported. Toyopearl AF Chelate 650M ® resin permits separation and concentration of YREEs using a simple external calibration. A running cycle consumed 6 mL sample and took 5.3 min, providing a throughput of 11 samples per hour. Linear ranges were up to 200 ng kg -1 except Tm (100 ng kg -1 ). The precision of the method was <6% (RSDs, n = 5), and recoveries ranged from 93% to 106%. Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.002 ng kg -1 (Tm) to 0.078 ng kg -1 (Ce). Good agreement between YREEs concentrations in CASS-4 and SLEW-3 obtained in this work and results from other studies was observed. The proposed method was applied to the determination of YREEs in seawater from the Jiulong River Estuary and the Taiwan Strait.

  8. The effect of intravenous injection of Ghrelin on the mean plasma concentrations of insulin in immature camels fed different levels of their energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone secreted into the circulation from the stomach, but this peptide is also synthetized in a number of different body tissues including the brain and pancreas, suggesting both endocrine and paracrine effects. These include: stimulation of GH and ACTH secretion, an increase in appetite and diabetogenic effect on carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, ghrelin is the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R. Ghrelin and its mRNAas well as GH secretagogue receptor mRNAs are expressed in the pancreas and islet cells and regulates insulin release and glucose metabolism, but because the effect of ghrelin on insulin secretion before puberty in semiruminant animals has never been examined,   therefore the purpose of the present research was to determine the effect of ghrelin on insulin secretion before puberty in camels. In this investigation 12 camels were randomly divided into two groups. Animals in each group were fed either 50% and 100% energy content in diet for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks camels received 8 μg ghrelin/kg body weight via their jugular vein for 4 days. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of all animals before, during (30 minutes after injection of ghrelin and after the intervention for 4 continuous days and plasma insulin concentrations determined by RIA. Data obtained were analyzed by repeated measures –ANOVA and paired t-Test. p

  9. Flow injection on-line dilution for multi-element determination in human urine with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, J.H.; Hansen, E.H.; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2001-01-01

    A simple flow injection on-line dilution procedure with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the determination of copper, zinc, arsenic, lead, selenium, nickel and molybdenum in human urine. Matrix effects were minimized by employing a dilution fact...... of 16.5 with on-line standard addition, and Rh-103 was used as internal standard to compensate for signal fluctuation. The procedure was validated by the analysis of two standard reference materials SRM 2670 (NIST) and Seronorm (TM) Trace Elements in Urine. Recovery experiments were pet......-formed by spiking the reference materials as well as artificial urine. The detection limits (mug l(-1)) were 0.12, 0.96, 0.30, 0.09, 0.45, 0.08, 0.09, and the precisions (RSD,%) were 2.6, 2.3, 3.0, 3.7, 3.7, 4.9, 2.8 for Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Se, Ni and Mo, respectively. The procedure was applied to the analysis of 41...... human urine samples. No correlations between the concentrations of the elements were observed. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved...

  10. Treatment of Knee Osteochondral Lesions Using a Novel Clot of Autologous Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Mixed with Healthy Hyaline Cartilage Chips and Intra-Articular Injection of PRGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Cugat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee cartilage or osteochondral lesions are common and challenging injuries. To date, most symptomatic lesions warrant surgical treatment. We present two cases of patients with knee osteochondral defects treated with a one-step surgical procedure consisting of an autologous-based matrix composed of healthy hyaline cartilage chips, mixed plasma poor-rich in platelets clot, and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF. Both patients returned to playing soccer at the preinjury activity level and demonstrated excellent defect filling in both magnetic resonance imaging and second-look arthroscopy (in one of them. The use of a clot of autologous plasma poor in platelets with healthy hyaline cartilage chips and intra-articular injection of plasma rich in platelets is an effective, easy, and cheap option to treat knee cartilage injuries in young and athletic patients.

  11. Binding and leakage of barium in alginate microbeads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch, Yrr A; Qi, Meirigeng; Gundersen, Per Ole M; Formo, Kjetil; Lacik, Igor; Skjåk-Braek, Gudmund; Oberholzer, Jose; Strand, Berit L

    2012-11-01

    Microbeads of alginate crosslinked with Ca(2+) and/or Ba(2+) are popular matrices in cell-based therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify the binding of barium in alginate microbeads and its leakage under in vitro and accumulation under in vivo conditions. Low concentrations of barium (1 mM) in combination with calcium (50 mM) and high concentrations of barium (20 mM) in gelling solutions were used for preparation of microbeads made of high-G and high-M alginates. High-G microbeads accumulated barium from gelling solution and contained higher concentrations of divalent ions for both low- and high-Ba exposure compared with high-G microbeads exposed to calcium solely and to high-M microbeads for all gelling conditions. Although most of the unbound divalent ions were removed during the wash and culture steps, leakage of barium was still detected during storage. Barium accumulation in blood and femur bone of mice implanted with high-G beads was found to be dose-dependent. Estimated barium leakage relevant to transplantation to diabetic patients with islets in alginate microbeads showed that the leakage was 2.5 times lower than the tolerable intake value given by WHO for high-G microbeads made using low barium concentration. The similar estimate gave 1.5 times higher than is the tolerable intake value for the high-G microbeads made using high barium concentration. To reduce the risk of barium accumulation that may be of safety concern, the microbeads made of high-G alginate gelled with a combination of calcium and low concentration of barium ions is recommended for islet transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Gluten content of barium sulfate suspensions used for barium swallows in patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jennifer G; Shin, Yoona; Patel, Priti N; Mangione, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the availability and accuracy of information provided by hospitals, imaging centers, and manufacturers regarding gluten in barium sulfate suspensions. A total of 105 facilities were contacted via telephone to determine the gluten content of the contrast media used in those facilities. Manufacturers were contacted and their Web sites reviewed to determine the gluten content of their barium products. Thirty-nine percent of the hospitals and 52% of the imaging centers were not aware of the gluten content of the contrast media they used. Twenty-nine-and-a-half percent of the respondents provided the correct gluten content. The manufacturers noted that 5 products were tested and confirmed gluten free, 1 product was not tested but described as gluten free, 1 product's gluten content depended upon its flavor, and 1 product was reported to contain gluten. Clinicians caring for patients with celiac disease or patients who choose to restrict their gluten consumption must ensure that the barium sulfate suspension ingested is gluten free. It can be difficult to determine the gluten content of barium sulfate, as a majority of radiology departments and imaging centers did not know whether the product they use is gluten free. Educating staff members and improving product labeling would benefit the quality of care provided to patients with celiac disease.

  13. Comparison of barium and gastrograffin swallow for radiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    using radio-opaque contrast is a standard step in treatment planning prior to delivering radiation therapy. Various contrast mediums such as barium, gastrograffin and hexabrix have been used for simulation at different centres. Objective. The purpose of the study was to compare barium and gastrograffin as a useful and ...

  14. Study on the preparation and formation mechanism of barium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports a simple method to prepare barium sulphate nanoparticles by use of tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and stearic acid as modifier. The barium sulphate nanoparticles obtained are characterized by using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission ...

  15. Outcome of barium enema in patients with colorectal symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: For many years, double contrast barium enema has been an effective way to evaluate the large bowel. With the development of the colonoscope, the role of barium enema has been questioned. However it is still useful in investigating patients with colorectal symptoms especially in the developing world where ...

  16. Application of magnesium hydroxide and barium hydroxide for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of magnesium hydroxide and barium hydroxide for the removal of metals and sulphate from mine water. ... equivalent to the Ba(OH)2 dosage. During CO2-dosing, CaCO3 is precipitated to the saturation level of CaCO3. Keywords: Magnesium hydroxide; barium hydroxide; sulphate removal; water treatment ...

  17. Barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Hee Jung

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants. Retrospective evaluation of the plain abdominal radiography and barium enema findings was performed in fifteen young infants suffering with milk allergy. The presence of gaseous distension, rectal gas, paralytic ileus and mechanical obstruction was evaluated on the plain radiography. The presence of spasm, a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index and mucosal irregularity was analyzed on the barium enema; the presence of barium retention was also evaluated on 24-hour-delayed plain radiography. Paralytic ileus was the most common finding on the plain radiography (93%). On the barium enema, continuous spasm of the colon, ranging from the rectum to the descending colon, was revealed in ten infants (67%). A transitional zone was observed in one infant and a reversed rectosigmoid index was revealed in four. Mucosal irregularity was observed in two infants. Barium retention was demonstrated in 11 of fifteen cases: throughout the entire colon (n = 3), from the rectum to the descending colon (n = 7), and up to the transverse colon (n = 1). The most common barium enema finding of milk allergy in infants was spasm of the distal colon. The other findings were a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index, mucosal irregularity and barium retention

  18. Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shum, Sam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization.

  19. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  20. Dielectric properties of barium titanate supramolecular nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun Hyung; Kao, Joseph; Parizi, Saman Salemizadeh; Caruntu, Gabriel; Xu, Ting

    2014-04-07

    Nanostructured dielectric composites can be obtained by dispersing high permittivity fillers, barium titanate (BTO) nanocubes, within a supramolecular framework. Thin films of BTO supramolecular nanocomposites exhibit a dielectric permittivity (εr) as high as 15 and a relatively low dielectric loss of ∼0.1 at 1 kHz. These results demonstrate a new route to control the dispersion of high permittivity fillers toward high permittivity dielectric nanocomposites with low loss. Furthermore, the present study shows that the size distribution of nanofillers plays a key role in their spatial distribution and local ordering and alignment within supramolecular nanostructures.

  1. Structural and Dynamical Properties of Barium Stannate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, D.; Krogstad, M. J.; Lopez-Bezanilla, A.; Parshall, D.; Gim, Y.; Cooper, S. L.; Zheng, H.

    Barium stannate based perovskites have recently drawn attention due to their potential as transparent conducting oxides and reports of high carrier mobility in La-doped single crystals. Published DFT calculations and experimental results have suggested phonon instabilities at high symmetry zone boundary positions and local octahedral rotations, respectively, for BaSnO3. Here, we discuss recent structural measurements of BaSnO3, in which we have searched for such distortions by employing a combination of single crystal neutron diffraction and total scattering analysis of powder neutron diffraction. Moreover, we discuss lattice dynamical measurements, comparing phonon dispersion measurements to DFT calculations.

  2. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, D.M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P.J.; Mcclelland, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system

  3. Barium from a mini r-process in supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, D.

    1983-01-01

    McCulloch and Wasserburg (1978) have reported nonlinear isotopic anomalies in barium for two Ca-Al-rich inclusions of the Allende carbonaceous chondrite, known as EK-1-4-1 and C-1. In an attempt to account for these anomalies, it has been proposed that Ba from an r-process of nucleosynthesis, containing Ba-135 and Ba-137, was injected into the primeval color system but was not totally homogenized. Questions arise in connection with the relations of Xe isotopes in carbonaceous chondrites. This has prompted Heymann and Dziczkaniec (1979, 1980, 1981) to study the formation of r-Xe, r-Kr, and r-Te by the mini r-process which is thought to occur in the O, Ne-rich shells of Type II supernovae. Lee et al. (1979) have studied the formation of r-Ba, r-Nd, and r-Sm by the same process. Certain differences regarding the approaches used by Lee et al. and by Heymann and Dziczkaniec make it necessary to restudy the work of Lee et al. Attention is given to the survival probabilities of nuclear species of interest, taking into accounts the elements Cs, Ba, I, and Xe.

  4. Barium and radium migration in unconsolidated Canadian geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillham, R.W.; Sharma, H.D.; Reddy, M.R.; Cooper, E.L.; Cherry, J.A.

    1981-05-01

    This report describes the results of laboratory studies on the distribution coefficients of radium and barium in samples of unconsolidated geologic materials. Graphs of Ksub(d) versus solution concentration for the respective elements showed constant Ksub(d) values in the low concentration range suggesting that, at low concentrations, a distribution coefficient is a valid means of representing the geochemical reactions of both barium and radium. The Ksub(d) values for barium range between 60 and 3500 ml/g. The values appear to be influenced by the amount of barium occurring naturally in the soil materials and thus there is little possiblility of using barium as an analog of radium in laboratory experiments. The Ksub(d) values of radium vary from 50 to 1000 ml/g indicating that a wide range of geological materials have a substantial capacity to retard the migration of radium

  5. Synthesis of chemically-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes by counter-current ammonia gas injection into the induction thermal plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdi, Ali

    Pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are poorly dispersible and insoluble in many solvents and need to be chemically modified prior to their use in many applications. This work is focused on the investigation of the synthesis of chemically modified SWCNTs material through an in situ approach. The main objectives of the presented research are: 1) to explore the in situ chemical process during the synthesis of SWCNT and 2) to closely examine the effect of a reactive environment on SWCNTs. Effects of the catalyst type and content on the SWCNTs final product, synthesized by induction thermal plasma (ITP), were studied to replace toxic cobalt (Co) in the feedstock. In this regard, three different catalyst mixtures (i.e. Ni-Y2O3, Ni-Co-Y2O3, and Ni-Mo-Y2O3) were used. Experimental results showed that the catalyst type affects the quality of the SWCNT final product. Similar quality SWCNTs can be produced when the same amount of Co was replaced by Ni. Moreover, the results observed in this experimental work were further explained by thermodynamic calculation results. Thermogravimetry (TG) was used throughout the work to characterize the SWCNTs product. TG was firstly standardized by studying the effects of three main instrumental parameters (temperature ramp, TR, initial mass of the sample, IM, and gas flow rate, FR) on the Tonset and full-width half maximum (FWHM) obtained from TG and derivative TG graphs of carbon black, respectively. Therefore, a two-level factorial statistical design was performed. The statistical analysis showed that the effect of TR, IM, and to a lower extent, FR, is significant on FWHM and insignificant on Tonset. A methodology was then developed based upon the SWCNTs synthesis using the ITP system, through an in situ chemistry approach. Ammonia (NH3) was selected and counter-currently injected into the ITP reactor at three different flow rates and by four different nozzle designs. Numerical simulation indicated a better mixing of NH3 in

  6. Thermostable ferroelectric capacitors based on graded films of barium strontium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumarkin, A. V.; Razumov, S. V.; Volpyas, V. A.; Gagarin, A. G.; Odinets, A. A.; Zlygostov, M. V.; Sapego, E. N.

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the pressure of working gas during the ion-plasma sputtering on properties of deposited ferroelectric barium strontium titanate coatings has been experimentally studied. Variations in the of pressure of the working gas during deposition allows the component composition of the deposited layer to be changed, which leads to the diffusion of the phase transition and the improvement of temperature stability of properties of ferroelectric film. The gradation of layers has an impact on the temperature of the dielectric permittivity maximum, the shape of the dependence of the capacity on temperature, and the capacitance-voltage characteristics of the capacitor structures.

  7. Fully Automatic In-Syringe Magnetic Stirring-Assisted Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction Hyphenated to High-Temperature Torch Integrated Sample Introduction System-Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer with Direct Injection of the Organic Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Raquel; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Fikarová, Kateřina; Sklenářová, Hana; Maestre, Salvador E.; Miró, Manuel; Todolí Torró, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    A proof of concept study involving the online coupling of automatic dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) with direct introduction and analysis of the organic extract is herein reported for the first time. The flow-based analyzer features a lab-in-syringe (LIS) setup with an integrated stirring system, a Meinhard nebulizer in combination with a heated single-pass spray chamber, and a rotary injection valve, used ...

  8. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  9. On-line complexation/cloud point preconcentration for the sensitive determination of dysprosium in urine by flow injection inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Claudia; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, Maria F. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700, San Luis (Argentina); Olsina, Roberto A.; Martinez, Luis D. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700, San Luis (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Avda. Rivadavia 1917, CP C1033AAJJ, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2003-01-01

    An on-line dysprosium preconcentration and determination system based on the hyphenation of cloud point extraction (CPE) to flow injection analysis (FIA) associated with ICP-OES was studied. For the preconcentration of dysprosium, a Dy(III)-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol complex was formed on-line at pH 9.22 in the presence of nonionic micelles of PONPE-7.5. The micellar system containing the complex was thermostated at 30 C in order to promote phase separation, and the surfactant-rich phase was retained in a microcolumn packed with cotton at pH 9.2. The surfactant-rich phase was eluted with 4 mol L{sup -1} nitric acid at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min{sup -1}, directly in the nebulizer of the plasma. An enhancement factor of 50 was obtained for the preconcentration of 50 mL of sample solution. The detection limit value for the preconcentration of 50 mL of aqueous solution of Dy was 0.03 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 2.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}Dy level was 2.2% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for dysprosium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9994 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 100 {mu}g L {sup -1}. The method was successfully applied to the determination of dysprosium in urine. (orig.)

  10. Barium sulfate aspiration: Severe chemical pneumonia induced by a massive reflux of contrast medium during small bowel barium enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Ji; Zhou, Xiaowei; Dong, Hongmei; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-08-01

    Barium contrast radiography is a conventional procedure aimed at revealing lesions of the alimentary tract using barium sulfate on X-ray irradiation. Although it is widely used in clinics, adverse effects and complications are observed, such as anaphylaxis, granuloma, fecalithes, abdomen-leaking, embolism, bacterial contamination, and aspiration. We report a case of death due to a massive barium sulfate aspiration resulted from an air-barium double contrast enema radiography. A 25-year-old female patient was hospitalized with symptoms of abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea for three days. A progressive respiratory distress presented only 1h after a small bowel air-barium double contrast enema. The patient died 11h later. The result of autopsy revealed the cause of death to be severe chemical pneumonitis induced by gastric fluid which was aspirated into her lungs. Barium sulfate is generally recognized to be chemically inert for the respiratory system, but a mixture of barium sulfate with gastric contents is fatal. Here we intend to suggest that, when determining the potential cause of death, medical examiners should consider a patient's status quo as well as the possible adverse effects and complications caused by the barium sulfate preparation during gastrointestinal radiography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. NANOSCALE BARIUM HYDROSILICATES: CHOOSING THE SYNTHESIS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRISHINA Anna Nikolaevna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cement concretes are the most used materials in modern civil engineering. Due to that such materials draw great attention both in the Russian Federation and abroad. The possibility to enhance the manufacturability and operational properties of concretes results in significant reduction of overall operating costs. Many enhancement methods have been elaborated. Among them there is one based on introduction of calcium hydrosilicates into construction composition. The authors set up a hypothesis that similarity between properties and structures of different hydrosilicates (for example, alkaline earth metals and metals of the second group will provide similar increased operational characteristics. The specialists of Research and Educational Center «Nanotechnology» are developing cement composites nanomodification methods which include introduction of nanodimensional barium hydrosilicates particles. The synthesis of barium hydrosilicates particles can be done with the use of many technologies, different by energy consumption or performing complexity. Taking into account both these factors, one can assume that low-temperature sol-gel synthesis from diluted water solutions is the proper technology. The present paper shows that this assumption is correct. The selection of certain technology is made by the means of multiobjective optimization, which is in turn is performed by the means of linear scalarization. This method, while not always giving the Pareto optimal solutions, can be easily implemented. The particle size distribution is taken into consideration during selection of objectives and weights. It is shown that selected technology allows manufacturing nanoparticles with median size about 30 nm.

  12. The Novel Formation of Barium Titanate Nanodendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Jung Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanoparticles with novel dendrite-like structures have been successfully fabricated via a simple coprecipitation method, the so-called BaTiO3 nanodendrites (BTNDs. This method was remarkable, fast, simple, and scalable. The growth solution is prepared by barium chloride (BaCl2, titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4, and oxalic acid. The shape and size of BaTiO3 depend on the amount of added BaCl2 solvent. To investigate the influence of amount of BaCl2 on BTNDs, the amount of BaCl2 was varied in the range from 3 to 6 mL. The role of BaCl2 is found to have remarkable influence on the morphology, crystallite size, and formation of dendrite-like structures. The thickness and length of the central stem of BTND were ~300 nm and ~20 μm, respectively. The branchings were found to occur at irregular intervals along the main stem. Besides, the formation mechanism of BTND is proposed and discussed.

  13. Three barium diphosphonates with 3-D structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuikka, Matti; Haukka, Matti; Ahlgrén, Markku

    2007-06-01

    The gel crystallization method was exploited in this work in order to study the 3-D solid state structures of barium diphosphonates. This technique proved to be an effective tool for the growth of single crystals of diphosphonates for structure analysis. By using this approach, three barium diphosphonates, Ba[HO 3P(CH 2) 2PO 3H] ( 1), Ba 2[O 3P(CH 2) 3PO 3]·3H 2O ( 2) and Ba[HO 3P(CH 2) 4PO 3H] ( 3), with different three dimensional structures, were synthesized and characterized. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and the structure of 3 by the powder diffraction method. In the structure of 1, the diphosphonate ligand is completely surrounded by the Ba atoms, which is an unusual arrangement in a diphosphonate system. The structures of 2 and 3 are more conventional. They are organized in typical pillared layers in which the separation of the layers can be adjusted by varying the length of the hydrocarbon chain.

  14. Radiation doses to patients undergoing barium meal and barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delichas, M. G.; Hatziioannou, K.; Papanastassiou, E.; Albanopoulou, P.; Chatzi, E.; Sioundas, A.; Psarrakos, K.

    2004-01-01

    The radiation doses received by patients during 41 barium meal (BM) and 42 barium enema (BE) examinations in two Greek hospitals are presented. Radiation dose was measured in terms of the dose area product (DAP). The effective dose and doses to certain organs were estimated using the ODS-60 software. Mean total DAP values were found to be 25 ± 11 Gy cm 2 for BM and 60 ± 35 Gy cm 2 for BE examinations, whereas the estimated mean values of effective dose were 8.6 ± 4.0 and 24 ± 16 mSv respectively. DAP to effective dose conversion coefficients were estimated to be 0.34 mSv per Gy cm 2 for BM and 0.41 mSv per Gy cm 2 for BE. (authors)

  15. Atomic and ionic density measurement by laser absorption spectroscopy of magnetized or non-magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gourrierec, P.

    1989-11-01

    Laser absorption spectroscopy is an appreciated diagnostic in plasma physics to measure atomic and ionic densities. We used it here more specifically on metallic plasmas. Firstly, a uranium plasma was created in a hollow cathode. 17 levels of U.I and U.II (12 for U.I and 5 for U.II) are measured by this method. The results are compared with the calculated levels of two models (collisional-radiative and LTE). Secondly, the theory of absorption in presence of a magnetic field is recalled and checked. Then, low-density magnetized plasma produced on our ERIC experiment (acronym for Experiment of Resonance Ionic Cyclotron), have been diagnosed successfully. The use of this technique on a low density plasma has not yet been published to our knowledge. The transverse temperature and the density of a metastable atomic level of a barium plasma has been derived. The evolution of a metastable ionic level of this element is studied in terms of two source parameters (furnace temperature and injected hyperfrequency power) [fr

  16. Neotendon infilling of a full thickness rotator cuff foot print tear following ultrasound guided liquid platelet rich plasma injection and percutaneous tenotomy: favourable outcome up to one year [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/xz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arockia Doss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report on excellent clinical outcome and neotendon infilling at one year follow up in a degenerative rotator cuff full thickness tear following percutaneous tenotomy and platelet rich plasma injection.

  17. Large Flexoelectric Anisotropy in Paraelectric Barium Titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Jackeline; Saremi, Sahar; Hong, Jiawang; Stengel, Massimiliano; Catalan, Gustau

    2015-07-17

    The bending-induced polarization of barium titanate single crystals has been measured with an aim to elucidate the origin of the large difference between theoretically predicted and experimentally measured flexoelectricity in this material. The results indicate that part of the difference is due to polar regions (short-range order) that exist above T(C) and up to T*≈200-225 °C. Above T*, however, the flexovoltage coefficient still shows an unexpectedly large anisotropy for a cubic material, with (001)-oriented crystals displaying 10 times more flexoelectricity than (111)-oriented crystals. Theoretical analysis shows that this anisotropy cannot be a bulk property, and we therefore interpret it as indirect evidence for the theoretically predicted but experimentally elusive contribution of surface piezoelectricity to macroscopic bending-induced polarization.

  18. Large Flexoelectric Anisotropy in Paraelectric Barium Titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Jackeline; Saremi, Sahar; Hong, Jiawang; Stengel, Massimiliano; Catalan, Gustau

    2015-07-01

    The bending-induced polarization of barium titanate single crystals has been measured with an aim to elucidate the origin of the large difference between theoretically predicted and experimentally measured flexoelectricity in this material. The results indicate that part of the difference is due to polar regions (short-range order) that exist above TC and up to T*≈2 00 - 2 2 5 °C . Above T* , however, the flexovoltage coefficient still shows an unexpectedly large anisotropy for a cubic material, with (001)-oriented crystals displaying 10 times more flexoelectricity than (111)-oriented crystals. Theoretical analysis shows that this anisotropy cannot be a bulk property, and we therefore interpret it as indirect evidence for the theoretically predicted but experimentally elusive contribution of surface piezoelectricity to macroscopic bending-induced polarization.

  19. Thermal decomposition of barium valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, P.; Norby, Poul; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    degrees C and evidence was found for the solidification of the melt at 380-440 degrees C, i.e. simultaneously with the onset of decomposition. Between 400 degrees C and 520 degrees C (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2) decomposes in two main steps, first into BaCO3 with release of C4H9COC4H9 (5-nonanone), whereas final......The thermal decomposition of barium valerate (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2)/Ba-pentanoate) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage optical microscopy. Melting takes place in two different steps, at 200 degrees C and 280...

  20. Solar Twins and the Barium Puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Lambert, David L., E-mail: bala@astro.as.utexas.edu [W.J. McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    Several abundance analyses of Galactic open clusters (OCs) have shown a tendency for Ba but not for other heavy elements (La−Sm) to increase sharply with decreasing age such that Ba was claimed to reach [Ba/Fe] ≃ +0.6 in the youngest clusters (ages < 100 Myr) rising from [Ba/Fe] = 0.00 dex in solar-age clusters. Within the formulation of the s -process, the difficulty to replicate higher Ba abundance and normal La−Sm abundances in young clusters is known as the barium puzzle. Here, we investigate the barium puzzle using extremely high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 solar twins and measured the heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm with a precision of 0.03 dex. We demonstrate that the enhanced Ba ii relative to La−Sm seen among solar twins, stellar associations, and OCs at young ages (<100 Myr) is unrelated to aspects of stellar nucleosynthesis but has resulted from overestimation of Ba by standard methods of LTE abundance analysis in which the microturbulence derived from the Fe lines formed deep in the photosphere is insufficient to represent the true line broadening imposed on Ba ii lines by the upper photospheric layers from where the Ba ii lines emerge. Because the young stars have relatively active photospheres, Ba overabundances most likely result from the adoption of a too low value of microturbulence in the spectrum synthesis of the strong Ba ii lines but the change of microturbulence in the upper photosphere has only a minor affect on La−Sm abundances measured from the weak lines.

  1. Injection of 40 kHz-modulated electron beam from the satellite: I. Beam-plasma interaction near the linear stability boundary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baranets, N.; Ruzhin, Y.; Dokukin, V.; Ciobanu, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Kiraga, A.; Vojta, Jaroslav; Šmilauer, Jan; Kudela, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 12 (2017), s. 2951-2968 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : beam-plasma interaction * space charge beam waves * pump wave * weak-coupling prediction Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.401, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117717302181

  2. Investigation of radiation of alumina particles injected into water-argon plasma jet and measurement of particle temperature by optical pyrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chumak, Oleksiy; Kopecký, Vladimír; Sember, Viktor; Hrabovský, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, supplement D (2002), s. 872-877 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/20th./. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/1563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma jet, pyrometry, temperature measurement, radiation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  3. Injection of 40 kHz-modulated electron beam from the satellite: I. Beam-plasma interaction near the linear stability boundary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baranets, N.; Ruzhin, Yu.; Dokukin, V.; Ciobanu, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Kiraga, A.; Vojta, Jaroslav; Šmilauer, Jan; Kudela, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 12 (2017), s. 2951-2968 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : energy waves * instability * system * beam-plasma interaction * space charge beam waves * pump wave * weak-coupling prediction Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.401, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117717302181

  4. Study of the photovoltaic effect in thin film barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, W. W.; Dharmadhikari, V. S.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of making non-volatile digital memory devices of barium titanate, BaTiO3, that are integrated onto a silicon substrate with the required ferroelectric film produced by processing, compatible with silicon technology was examined.

  5. The Overview of The Electrical Properties of Barium Titanate

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Ertuğ

    2013-01-01

    The perovskite family includes many titanates used in various electroceramic applications, for example, electronic, electro-optical, and electromechanical applications of ceramics. Barium titanate, perovskite structure, is a common ferroelectric material with a high dielectric constant, widely utilized to manufacture electronic components such as mutilayer capacitors (MLCs), PTC thermistors, piezoelectric transducers, and a variety of electro-optic devices. Pure barium titanate is an insulato...

  6. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; and urinary tract, abdominal (stomach area), female reproductive organs, blood, ... by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  7. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damaged, and do not use an auto-injection device if the security seal is broken. Look through the viewing window on the prefilled syringe or auto-injection device. The liquid inside should be clear and colorless ...

  8. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have been exposed to anthrax in the air. Doxycycline injection is in a class of medications ... decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, or injections). Talk to your doctor ...

  9. Abaloparatide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection may cause osteosarcoma (bone cancer) in laboratory rats. It is not known whether abaloparatide injection increases ... too have too much calcium in the blood, hyperparathyroidism (condition in which the body produces too much ...

  10. Paliperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliperidone extended-release injections (Invega Sustenna, Invega Trinza) are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that ... interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Paliperidone extended-release injection (Invega Sustenna) is also used ...

  11. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such ... if you are allergic to doripenem injection; other carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin) or meropenem ( ...

  12. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceftriaxone injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted ... skin, urinary tract, blood, bones, joints, and abdomen. Ceftriaxone injection is also sometimes given before certain types ...

  13. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  14. Naltrexone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Drugs, Herbs and Supplements → Naltrexone Injection URL of this page: ... become depressed and sometimes try to harm or kill themselves. Receiving naltrexone injection does not decrease the ...

  15. Cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lorraine; Desai, Sharad

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To assess the cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers compared to those performed by consultant radiologists. METHOD: Prospective study of 200 barium enemas carried out by a senior radiographer and a consultant radiologist. The sample was a consecutive sample of adult out-patients over a 3-month period, with no exclusion. The length of time of the enema and the numbers and grades of staff involved in the procedure were recorded. This was translated into staffing costs using the appropriate pay scales. RESULTS: The barium enemas performed by the superintendent radiographer were more cost-effective than those performed by the consultant radiologist (1406 pounds for 100 radiographer-performed barium enemas compared to 1787 pounds for 100 carried out by the consultant radiologist). CONCLUSION: In terms of staffing costs, radiographers performing barium enemas not only liberates radiologist time, it is also a cost-effective method of providing an out-patient barium enema service. Brown, L. and Desai, S. (2002)

  16. Anastomotic stenosis of the descending colon caused by barium granuloma formation following barium peritonitis: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Toshihiro; Tomizawa, Kenji; Hanaoka, Yutaka; Toda, Shigeo; Matoba, Shuichiro; Kuroyanagi, Hiroya; Oota, Yasunori

    2014-11-01

    Anastomotic stricture reportedly often recurs following barium peritonitis, regardless of whether the anastomotic diameter is initially sufficient. However, the causes of repetitive stricture have not been clarified. We report a case that suggests the pathophysiology of recurrent anastomotic strictures following barium peritonitis. The patient was a 39-year-old Japanese man with idiopathic perforation of the descending colon after undergoing an upper gastrointestinal barium contrast study. After emergency peritoneal lavage and diverting colostomy, created using the perforated region, the patient recovered uneventfully and 3 months later, the colostomy was closed and the perforated colon was resected. However, 7 months after colostomy closure, abdominal distention gradually developed, and colonoscopy revealed an anastomotic stricture. The patient was referred to our hospital where he underwent resection of the anastomotic stricture. The surgical specimen exhibited barium granulomas not only in the subserosa of the entire specimen, but also in the submucosa and lamina propria localized in the anastomotic site. These findings suggest that barium was embedded in the submucosa and lamina propria with manipulation of the stapled anastomosis and that the barium trapped in the anastomotic site caused persistent inflammation, resulting in an anastomotic stricture.

  17. The efficacy of steroids for postoperative persistent inflammatory reaction in a patient with barium peritonitis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Kojima

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Residual barium in the intraperitoneal cavity causes persistent inflammatory reaction in patients with barium peritonitis. The use of steroids is effective for postoperative persistent inflammation due to the residual barium.

  18. Over-estimation of glomerular filtration rate by single injection [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance determination in patients with ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Brøchner-Mortensen, J; Malchow-Møller, A

    1980-01-01

    The total plasma (Clt) and the renal plasma (Clr) clearances of [51Cr]EDTA were determined simultaneously in nine patients with ascites due to liver cirrhosis. Clt (mean 78 ml/min, range 34-115 ml/min) was significantly higher than Clr (mean 52 ml/min, range 13-96 ml/min, P ... fluid-plasma activity ratio of [51Cr]EDTA increased throughout the investigation period (5h). The results suggest that [51Cr]EDTA equilibrates slowly with the peritoneal space which indicates that Clt will over-estimate the glomerular filtration rate by approximately 20 ml/min in patients with ascites...

  19. Study of a plasma produced in a neutral gas chamber by the injection of a beam generated by a coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castell, R.; Sanchez, A.; Mandelbaum, D.

    1982-01-01

    The design and operation of a plasma coaxial gun is described. The penetration and characteristics of the plasma emitted by the gun propagating in a expansion chamber with helium at 40 feBar is analyzed. The diagnostics is made with a double Langmuir probe observing the time variation of the electronic density along the propagation axis. Optical spectroscopy is used to measure one of the emission lines of the plasma radiation propaganting in the medium. The space-time description of the ion distribution function in a free-force field is made by the fit of an analytical model. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Effectiveness of therapeutic barium enema for diverticular hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Komiya, Yasuhiko; Inoh, Yumi; Kawasima, Keigo; Naitoh, Mai; Fujita, Yuji; Eduka, Akiko; Kanazawa, Noriyoshi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Tani, Rie; Kawana, Kennichi; Ohtani, Setsuya; Nagase, Hajime

    2015-05-14

    To evaluate the effectiveness of barium impaction therapy for patients with colonic diverticular bleeding. We reviewed the clinical charts of patients in whom therapeutic barium enema was performed for the control of diverticular bleeding between August 2010 and March 2012 at Yokohama Rosai Hospital. Twenty patients were included in the review, consisting of 14 men and 6 women. The median age of the patients was 73.5 years. The duration of the follow-up period ranged from 1 to 19 mo (median: 9.8 mo). Among the 20 patients were 11 patients who required the procedure for re-bleeding during hospitalization, 6 patients who required it for re-bleeding that developed after the patient left the hospital, and 3 patients who required the procedure for the prevention of re-bleeding. Barium (concentration: 150 w%/v%) was administered per the rectum, and the leading edge of the contrast medium was followed up to the cecum by fluoroscopy. After confirmation that the ascending colon and cecum were filled with barium, the enema tube was withdrawn, and the patient's position was changed every 20 min for 3 h. Twelve patients remained free of re-bleeding during the follow-up period (range: 1-19 mo) after the therapeutic barium enema, including 9 men and 3 women with a median age of 72.0 years. Re-bleeding occurred in 8 patients including 5 men and 3 women with a median age of 68.5 years: 4 developed early re-bleeding, defined as re-bleeding that occurs within one week after the procedure, and the remaining 4 developed late re-bleeding. The DFI (disease-free interval) decreased 0.4 for 12 mo. Only one patient developed a complication from therapeutic barium enema (colonic perforation). Therapeutic barium enema is effective for the control of diverticular hemorrhage in cases where the active bleeding site cannot be identified by colonoscopy.

  1. Optical plasma torch electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wittig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel, flexible method of witness electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators is described. A quasistationary plasma region is ignited by a focused laser pulse prior to the arrival of the plasma wave. This localized, shapeable optical plasma torch causes a strong distortion of the plasma blowout during passage of the electron driver bunch, leading to collective alteration of plasma electron trajectories and to controlled injection. This optically steered injection is more flexible and faster when compared to hydrodynamically controlled gas density transition injection methods.

  2. Rapid Determination of Plutonium Isotopes in Environmental Samples Using Sequential Injection Extraction Chromatography and Detection by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an automated method for the rapid determination of 239Pu and 240Pu in various environmental samples. The analytical method involves the in-line separation of Pu isotopes using extraction chromatography (TEVA) implemented in a sequential injection (SI) network followed...... of the in-line extraction chromatographic run was...

  3. Air (CO2) double-contrast barium enteroclysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglinte, Dean D T; Kohli, Marc D; Romano, Stefania; Lappas, John C

    2009-09-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s in North America and Europe, air (CO(2)) double-contrast barium enteroclysis took a back seat to biphasic methylcellulose double-contrast enteroclysis in the investigation of small-bowel diseases. The widespread application of capsule endoscopy in the 21st century has identified a number of limitations of radiologic examinations in the investigation of mucosal diseases of the small intestine. Evidence-based studies comparing barium, computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) enteroclysis have shown that in spite of improvements in small-bowel examination methods using CT and MR, barium examinations remain superior in the depiction of mucosal abnormalities, particularly the apthoid lesions of early Crohn disease. Barium small-bowel examinations have been recommended in the patient with a negative CT or MR enteroclysis study where the pretest probability of Crohn disease is high. A recent prospective comparison of methylcellulose double-contrast barium enteroclysis to capsule endoscopy with review of the literature has shown that air enteroclysis depicts mucosal details better than does methylcellulose double-contrast enteroclysis because of the "washout" effect of methylcellulose on superficial mucosal features. Recent articles have shown that air enteroclysis compares favorably with wireless capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy in the diagnosis of mucosal abnormalities of the small bowel. This article describes the authors' technique of performing air double-contrast enteroclysis, its clinical indications, and its pitfalls.

  4. Preparation of barium hexaferrite powders using oxidized steel scales waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiani, Ardita; Idayanti, Novrita; Kristiantoro, Tony

    2016-02-01

    Research on preparation of barium hexaferrite powders has been done using Hot Strip Mill scales as raw materials. Hot Strip Mill scales are oxidized steel scales waste from steel industrial process. The method used for preparing the barium hexaferrite powders was solid state reaction method. Oxidized steel scales were milled using ball mill for 10 hours, then screened through a 250 mesh sieve to obtain powders with maximum size of 63 µm. Powders were roasted at 600°C temperature for 4 hours to obtain hematite (Fe2O3) phase. Roasted powders were then mixed with barium carbonate, and were subsequently milled for 16 hours. After mixing, powders were calcined with an increasing rate of 10°C/min and maintained at 1100°C for 3 hours. Calcination process was performed to acquire barium hexaferrite phase. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization in conjunction with RIR analysis showed that 85 wt. % of barium hexaferrite is formed. The magnetic properties of powders were characterized using Permagraph. It is found the value of remanent induction is 1.09 kG, coercivity of 2.043 kOe, and the maximum energy product of 0.25 MGOe.

  5. Intra-Articular Injections of Platelet-Rich Plasma versus Hyaluronic Acid in the Treatment of Osteoarthritic Knee Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial in the Context of the Spanish National Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montañez-Heredia, Elvira; Irízar, Sofia; Huertas, Pedro J; Otero, Esperanza; Del Valle, Marta; Prat, Isidro; Díaz-Gallardo, Macarena S; Perán, Macarena; Marchal, Juan A; Hernandez-Lamas, María Del Carmen

    2016-07-02

    Intra-articular injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been established as a suitable treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Here, we present a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, conducted in a public Hospital of the Spanish National Health Care System, to evaluate the efficacy of injecting autologous PRP versus hyaluronic acid (HA) in knee osteoarthritis. PRP was manufactured in Malaga's Regional Blood Center (Spain). Patients that met the eligibility criteria were randomized into a PRP group or a HA group. Pain and functional improvements were assessed pre- and post-treatment (three and six months follow-up) using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); the Knee and Osteoarthritis Outcome System (KOOS) scale and the European Quality of Life scale (EUROQOL). Both groups presented pain reduction at six months. The VAS scores for the PRP group improved by at least 50% from their initial value, particularly at three months following the final infiltration, with results resembling those of the HA group at six months. PRP was more effective in patients with lower osteoarthritis grades. Both treatments improved pain in knee osteoarthritis patients without statistically significant differences between them. However, PRP injection was proved to improve pain three months after the final infiltration and to be more effective in lower osteoarthritis grades.

  6. Intra-Articular Injections of Platelet-Rich Plasma versus Hyaluronic Acid in the Treatment of Osteoarthritic Knee Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial in the Context of the Spanish National Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montañez-Heredia, Elvira; Irízar, Sofia; Huertas, Pedro J.; Otero, Esperanza; del Valle, Marta; Prat, Isidro; Díaz-Gallardo, Macarena S.; Perán, Macarena; Marchal, Juan A.; Hernandez-Lamas, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Intra-articular injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been established as a suitable treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Here, we present a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, conducted in a public Hospital of the Spanish National Health Care System, to evaluate the efficacy of injecting autologous PRP versus hyaluronic acid (HA) in knee osteoarthritis. PRP was manufactured in Malaga’s Regional Blood Center (Spain). Patients that met the eligibility criteria were randomized into a PRP group or a HA group. Pain and functional improvements were assessed pre- and post-treatment (three and six months follow-up) using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); the Knee and Osteoarthritis Outcome System (KOOS) scale and the European Quality of Life scale (EUROQOL). Both groups presented pain reduction at six months. The VAS scores for the PRP group improved by at least 50% from their initial value, particularly at three months following the final infiltration, with results resembling those of the HA group at six months. PRP was more effective in patients with lower osteoarthritis grades. Both treatments improved pain in knee osteoarthritis patients without statistically significant differences between them. However, PRP injection was proved to improve pain three months after the final infiltration and to be more effective in lower osteoarthritis grades. PMID:27384560

  7. Effects of intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells associated with platelet-rich plasma in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermeto, L C; DeRossi, R; Oliveira, R J; Pesarini, J R; Antoniolli-Silva, A C M B; Jardim, P H A; Santana, A E; Deffune, E; Rinaldi, J C; Justulin, L A

    2016-09-02

    The current study aims to evaluate the macroscopic and histological effects of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and platelet-rich plasma on knee articular cartilage regeneration in an experimental model of osteoarthritis. Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: control group, platelet-rich plasma group, autologous MSC undifferentiated group, and autologous MSC differentiated into chondrocyte group. Collagenase solution was used to induce osteoarthritis, and treatments were applied to each group at 6 weeks following osteoarthritis induction. After 60 days of therapy, the animals were euthanized and the articular surfaces were subjected to macroscopic and histological evaluations. The adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation potentials of MSCs were evaluated. Macroscopic and histological examinations revealed improved tissue repair in the MSC-treated groups. However, no difference was found between MSC-differentiated and undifferentiated chondrocytes. We found that MSCs derived from adipose tissue and platelet-rich plasma were associated with beneficial effects in articular cartilage regeneration during experimental osteoarthritis.

  8. Centrifugal Jet Spinning for Highly Efficient and Large-scale Fabrication of Barium Titanate Nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Liyun; Kotha, Shiva P.

    2013-01-01

    The centrifugal jet spinning (CJS) method has been developed to enable large-scale synthesis of barium titanate nanofibers. Barium titanate nanofibers with fiber diameters down to 50 nm and grain sizes around 25 nm were prepared with CJS by spinning a sol-gel solution of barium titanate and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) with subsequent heat treatment at 850 °C. XRD and FTIR analysis demonstrated high purity and tetragonal perovskite structured barium titanate nanofibers. SEM and TEM images confirm t...

  9. Simultaneous determination of 9-dehydro-17-hydro-andrographolide and sodium 9-dehydro-17-hydro-andrographolide-19-yl sulfate in rat plasma by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS after administration of xiyanping injection: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Lan; Chen, Weikang; Luo, Yuehua; Jiang, Zihua

    2013-07-01

    9-Dehydro-17-hydro-andrographolide (DHA) and sodium 9-dehydro-17-hydro-andrographolide-19-yl sulfate (DHAS) are active ingredients of xiyanping injection in clinical use. A simple, rapid and sensitive UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of DHA and DHAS in rat plasma, and the pharmacokinetics of DHA and DHAS after intravenous administration of xiyanping injection was investigated. The plasma samples were treated with methanol to precipitate out protein, and the separation of DHA and DHAS was achieved on a Waters BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. DHA, DHAS and the internal standard (internal standard, IS) diethylstilbestrol were detected at negative ion mode. The precursor-product ion pairs used in multiple reaction monitoring mode were: m/z 349.1 → 286.9 (DHA), m/z 428.9 → 96.0 (DHAS) and m/z 267.1 → 236.9 (IS). Calibration curves offered satisfactory linearity within the test range, and all correlation coefficients were >0.995. The lower limit of detection of DHA and DHAS in plasma samples were determined to be 0.1 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.5 ng/mL for DHA and DHAS. All the recoveries of the quality control samples were in the range of 86.0-102.4%. The ratios of matrix effect were between 89.2 and 105.1%. The method was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of DHA and DHAS in rats. The study showed that both DHA and DHAS were distributed and eliminated rapidly in rats. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Occupational doses in pediatric barium meal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipov, D.; Schelin, H.R.; Denyak, V.; Legnani, A.; Ledesma, J.A.; Paschuk, S.A.; Sauzen, J.; Yagui, A.; Hoff, G.; Khoury, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has become an indispensable tool when it comes to diagnosis and therapy. However, its use should happen in a rational manner, taking into account the risks to which the staff is being exposed. Barium meal (BM), or upper gastrointestinal (GI) studies, using fluoroscopy, are widely used for gastroesophageal reflux disease diagnostic in children and professionals are required to stay inside the examination room to position and immobilize pediatric patients during the procedure. Therefore, it is very important that proffessionals strictly follow the technical standards of radiation protection. According to the ICRP and the NCRP recommendations, the annual limit equivalent doses for eyes, thyroid and hands are, espectively, 20 mSv, 150 mSv and 500 mSv. Based on those data, the aim of the current study is to estimate the annual equivalent dose for eyes, thyroid and hands of professionals who perform BM procedures in children. This was done using properly package LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent dosimeters in 37 procedures; 2 pairs were positioned near each staff´s eye, 2 pairs on each professional´s neck (on and under the lead protector) and 2 pairs on both staff´s hands. The range of the estimative annual equivalent doses, for eyes, thyroid and hands, are, respectively: 14 – 36 mSv, 7 – 22 mSv and 14 – 58 mSv. Only the closest staff to the patient exceeded the annual equivalent doses in the eyes (around 80% higher than the limit set by ICRP). However, the results from this study, for hands and thyroid, compared to similar studies, show higher values. Therefore, the optimization implementation is necessary, so that the radiation levels can be reduced. (authors)

  11. Selectivity in biomineralization of barium and strontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Minna R; Wasserman, Brian; Finney, Lydia; McNulty, Ian; Legnini, Daniel; Vogt, Stefan; Joester, Derk

    2011-11-01

    The desmid green alga Closterium moniliferum belongs to a small number of organisms that form barite (BaSO(4)) or celestite (SrSO(4)) biominerals. The ability to sequester Sr in the presence of an excess of Ca is of considerable interest for the remediation of (90)Sr from the environment and nuclear waste. While most cells dynamically regulate the concentration of the second messenger Ca(2+) in the cytosol and various organelles, transport proteins rarely discriminate strongly between Ca, Sr, and Ba. Herein, we investigate how these ions are trafficked in C. moniliferum and how precipitation of (Ba,Sr)SO(4) crystals occurs in the terminal vacuoles. Towards this goal, we simultaneously visualize intracellular dynamics of multiple elements using X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) of cryo-fixed/freeze-dried samples. We correlate the resulting elemental maps with ultrastructural information gleaned from freeze-fracture cryo-SEM of frozen-hydrated cells and use micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES) to determine sulfur speciation. We find that the kinetics of Sr uptake and efflux depend on external Ca concentrations, and Sr, Ba, and Ca show similar intracellular localization. A highly ion-selective cross-membrane transport step is not evident. Based on elevated levels of sulfate detected in the terminal vacuoles, we propose a "sulfate trap" model, where the presence of dissolved barium leads to preferential precipitation of (Ba,Sr)SO(4) due to its low solubility relative to SrSO(4) and CaSO(4). Engineering the sulfate concentration in the vacuole may thus be the most direct way to increase the Sr sequestered per cell, an important consideration in using desmids for phytoremediation of (90)Sr. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gastrointestinal tract wall visualization and distention during abdominal and pelvic multidetector CT with a neutral barium sulphate suspension: comparison with positive barium sulphate suspension and with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M R; Erturk, S M; Ichikawa, T; Rocha, T; Ros, P R; Silverman, S G; Mortele, K J

    2012-01-01

    When examining patients with contrast-enhanced multidetector-row CT, we determined if the stomach and small bowel were visualized and distended better with a neutral barium sulphate suspension than with positive barium sulphate suspension or water. After obtaining approval from our institutional review board, 156 patients (women: 84; mean age: 54 yrs) with no history of gastrointestinal tract disease were randomized prospectively to receive orally either 900 ml of neutral (0.1% w/v) barium sulphate suspension (n = 53), 900 ml of positive (2.1% w/v) barium sulphate suspension (n = 53), or 900 ml of water (n = 50), prior to undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic multidetector-row CT. Two independent radiologists evaluated the stomach, and small bowel, for luminal distension and wall visualization, using a five point scale. Results were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The walls of the stomach, and small bowel were visualized better in patients who were administered neutral barium sulphate suspension than those who were administered either positive barium sulphate suspension (p barium sulphate suspension, the stomach and small bowel were distended better compared to patients administered water (p barium sulphate suspension (p contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic multidetector-row CT, orally administered neutral barium sulphate suspension allows the gastrointestinal tract to be visualized and distended better than either positive barium sulphate suspension, or water.

  13. Barium titanate thick films prepared by screen printing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana M. Vijatović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 thick films were prepared by screen printing technique using powders obtained by soft chemical route, modified Pechini process. Three different barium titanate powders were prepared: i pure, ii doped with lanthanum and iii doped with antimony. Pastes for screen printing were prepared using previously obtained powders. The thick films were deposited onto Al2O3 substrates and fired at 850°C together with electrode material (silver/palladium in the moving belt furnace in the air atmosphere. Measurements of thickness and roughness of barium titanate thick films were performed. The electrical properties of thick films such as dielectric constant, dielectric losses, Curie temperature, hysteresis loop were reported. The influence of different factors on electrical properties values was analyzed.

  14. Diagnostic role of barium enema in carcinoma rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this barium enema study was to evaluate its role in patients suspected to have rectal pathologies with complaints of change in bowel habit, anorexia/weight loss, bleeding per rectum and acute/sub-acute colonic obstruction. Results: barium enema study as screening test for colo-rectal carcinoma was undertaken. Contrast outlined the colonic growth in 35 cases, out of which the cases of carcinoma colon were 24 including 13 patients suffering from carcinoma rectum. The percentage of carcinoma colon to total colonic growth was 68% while, carcinoma rectum to total carcinoma colon was 54%. Conclusion: On the basis of these investigations, it is concluded that patient's compliance is important factor in the early detection of colonic neoplasia. Though results of colonoscopy are more reliable but in practice, barium enema (double contrast) is performed initially to outline the lesion and then colonoscopy for biopsy purpose. (author)

  15. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or more...

  16. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') would... of initiation of the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from the...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN P-00...

  18. The diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease cannot be made with barium esophagograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleh, C. M. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    For over 50 years, barium studies have been used to diagnose gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), but the value of this test is controversial. Our study aimed to determine if barium esophagograms can be used to diagnose GERD. Barium esophagograms and pH-impedance measurement were performed in 20

  19. Measurement of Elastic Modulus of Alumina and Barium Strontium Titanate Wafers Produced by Tape Casting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MEASUREMENT OF ELASTIC MODULUS OF ALUMINA AND BARIUM STRONTIUM TITANATE WAFERS PRODUCED BY...configuration testing method. Samples of barium strontium titanate (BST) were made using a regular powder pressing, sintering, pelletizing, and...fabricated using thin wafers of barium strontium titanate (BST) and aluminum oxide (alumina) ceramic during launch of a system. Sandia National

  20. Diagnosis of anastomotic leak: electrolyte detection versus barium fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArmond, Daniel T; Carswell, Aimee; Louden, Christopher L; Simmons, Jeremy D; Bayer, Johanna; Das, Nitin A; Johnson, Scott B

    2013-06-15

    We recently described a new method of diagnosing anastomotic leak using the detection of electrical changes induced by electrolyte extravasation from a surgically created gastric leak site in experimental rats. We sought to compare the sensitivity and specificity of anastomotic leak detection for this method to that of upper gastrointestinal (GI) barium fluoroscopy. Experimental rats with a surgically created gastric leak site and controls were interrogated as to the presence of leak using either the electrolyte-gated leak detection method or upper GI barium fluoroscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of leak detection for the two methods were compared. The sensitivity and specificity of electrolyte-gated leak detection were both 100% (95% confidence interval 69-100%). Barium upper GI fluoroscopy misidentified one leak as a control and one control as a leak, for a sensitivity and specificity of 80% each (95% confidence interval 37-97%). No statistically significant difference was seen between electrolyte-gated leak detection and barium upper GI fluoroscopy in terms of the sensitivity and specificity of anastomotic leak detection. Electrolyte-gated leak detection was similarly sensitive and specific for anastomotic leak detection as upper GI barium fluoroscopy, the current standard. The electrolyte-gated method has the advantages of an inert contrast agent (normal saline) and the possibility of performing leak interrogation at the bedside. Electrolyte-gated leak detection might represent a plausible alternative to upper GI barium fluoroscopy for routine postoperative anastomotic leak surveillance after esophagectomy or other foregut surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Compact pulse forming line using barium titanate ceramic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Sharma, Surender; Deb, P; Shukla, R; Prabaharan, T; Shyam, A

    2011-11-01

    Ceramic material has very high relative permittivity, so compact pulse forming line can be made using these materials. Barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) has a relative permittivity of 1200 so it is used for making compact pulse forming line (PFL). Barium titanate also has piezoelectric effects so it cracks during high voltages discharges due to stresses developed in it. Barium titanate is mixed with rubber which absorbs the piezoelectric stresses when the PFL is charged and regain its original shape after the discharge. A composite mixture of barium titanate with the neoprene rubber is prepared. The relative permittivity of the composite mixture is measured to be 85. A coaxial pulse forming line of inner diameter 120 mm, outer diameter 240 mm, and length 350 mm is made and the composite mixture of barium titanate and neoprene rubber is filled between the inner and outer cylinders. The PFL is charged up to 120 kV and discharged into 5 Ω load. The voltage pulse of 70 kV, 21 ns is measured across the load. The conventional PFL is made up of oil or plastics dielectrics with the relative permittivity of 2-10 [D. R. Linde, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed. (CRC, 2009); Xia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 086113 (2008); Yang et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 43303 (2010)], which increases the length of PFL. We have reported the compactness in length achieved due to increase in relative permittivity of composite mixture by adding barium titanate in neoprene rubber. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  2. Reaction sintering of a zirconia-containing barium feldspar ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, A.; Cheng, Y-B.; Muddle, B. C.

    1996-01-01

    Zircon (ZrSiO 4 ) is a natural mineral resource known to react with certain oxides to produce a dispersion of zirconia particles within ceramic or glass-ceramic matrices. Barium aluminosilicates, particularly the celsian polymorphs of BaO- Al 2 O 3 2SiO 2 display oxidation resistance and refractory characteristics commensurate with the properties required of high temperature materials. Such properties, coupled with the high melting point of ZrO 2 (2680 deg C), suggest that barium aluminosilicates and zirconia are an ideal combination from which to fabricate high temperature materials. A recent study has indicated that a barium aluminosilicate containing up to 40mol% ZrO 2 can be prepared via a sol-gel process. However, the desire to utilise a natural resource in the form of zircon in the present work has led to the choice of reaction sintering as an alternative processing route. The current work was undertaken to investigate the possibility of forming a zirconia-containing barium feldspar composite material using the reaction sintering of zircon and assuming the following stoichiometric reaction: 2ZrSiO 4 + BaCO 3 + Al 2 O 3 → 2ZrO 2 + BaO-Al 2 O 3 -2SiO 2 + CO 2 ↑. The reaction sintering of zircon with alumina and barium carbonate produces a composite material comprising distributed ZrO 2 in a continous barium feldspar matrix. Yttria added during processing allows a significant fraction of the ZrO 2 to be retained as tetragonal phase to room temperature and thus the potential for a measure of transformation toughening

  3. Study of wave-particle interaction from the linear regime to dynamical chaos in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasoli, A.

    1993-10-01

    Deterministic chaos generated by the interaction between charged particles and electrostatic plasma waves has been observed in a linear magnetized plasma. The target plasma is created by a barium Q-source, guaranteeing low fluctuation levels and a high degree of uniformity over an extended plasma volume. Characteristics of the background plasma are investigated by a variety of diagnostic techniques, including laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and optical tagging (OT). Particular tagging schemes and specific theoretical approaches to data interpretation (both for LIF and OT) have been developed during this work. As part of these background plasma studies, special attention has been devoted to an investigation of test-ion cross-field transport under different conditions. Test-ions are created and followed in their motion across the magnetic field lines via spin state tagging. In the unperturbed plasma this motion is found to be a diffusive process, supported by classical mechanisms, even in the presence of relatively high pressures of non-reactive neutral gases injected into the plasma volume. Electrostatic waves are excited using a ring antenna structure encircling the plasma column and electrically isolated from it. This system has been chosen on the basis of a comparative analysis of different ion wave launching methods, including the use of grids, inductive coils coupled electromagnetically to the plasma and modulated high frequency electron waves. Two modes propagating parallel to the magnetic field, one of which has two perpendicular components (ion Bernstein and ion acoustic-like waves), characterize the spectrum excited by the electrostatic ring antenna for a single frequency, f, chosen in the range f ci ci . (author) figs., tabs., 134 refs

  4. Helicity injection experiment in the SINP tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Krishnendu; Ray, Nihar Ranjan

    2000-01-01

    The current drive or sustainment in magnetized toroidal resistive plasmas can be though of as a 'balance' between helicity injection and dissipation. In the present work, the mechanisms of the 'balance' in the fluctuating magnetized resistive plasmas of the SINP tokamak, have been studied experimentally. The result shows that the oscillatory vertical magnetic field and oscillatory plasmas' velocity in a definite phase relationship causes the balancing effect between helicity injection and dissipation and thus sustainment of plasma current for a longer period of time has been observed in the resistive plasmas of the SINP tokamak. (author)

  5. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis characterized by barium esophagography: a case report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2010-05-21

    Abstract Introduction Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis is a rare condition characterized by the dilatation of the submucosal glands. Case presentation We present a case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis in a 72-year-old Caucasian man who presented with dysphagia and with a background history of alcohol abuse. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy of our patient showed an esophageal stricture with abnormal mucosal appearances, but no malignant cells were seen at biopsy. Appearances on a barium esophagram were pathognomonic for esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis. Conclusion We demonstrate the enduring usefulness of barium esophagography in the characterization of abnormal mucosal appearances at endoscopy.

  6. Comparison of endoscopy and barium swallow with marshmallow in dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, S; Stevenson, G W; Thompson, G

    1986-06-01

    Forty-four patients with dysphagia were examined both by endoscopy and by barium swallow with a marshmallow bolus. In these patients 36 stenoses were found: 34 by radiology and 30 by endoscopy. The radiologic criteria for stenosis included arrest of the marshmallow in a manner to support a column of barium and reproduction of the patient's symptoms at the time this occurred. Radiologic false negative findings were partly due to an inability by patients to swallow an adequate marshmallow bolus; endoscopic failures were associated with small endoscopes and mild stenoses.

  7. The Kerr nonlinearity of the beta-barium borate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin

    2013-01-01

    A popular crystal for ultrafast cascading experiments is beta-barium-borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO). It has a decent quadratic nonlinear coefficient, and because the crystal is anisotropie it can be birefringence phase-matched for type I (oo → e) second-harmonic generation (SHG). For femtosecond experime......A popular crystal for ultrafast cascading experiments is beta-barium-borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO). It has a decent quadratic nonlinear coefficient, and because the crystal is anisotropie it can be birefringence phase-matched for type I (oo → e) second-harmonic generation (SHG). For femtosecond...

  8. Methods for producing monodispersed particles of barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a low-temperature controlled method for producing high-quality, ultrafine monodispersed nanocrystalline microsphere powders of barium titanate and other pure or composite oxide materials having particles ranging from nanosized to micronsized particles. The method of the subject invention comprises a two-stage process. The first stage produces high quality monodispersed hydrous titania microsphere particles prepared by homogeneous precipitation via dielectric tuning in alcohol-water mixed solutions of inorganic salts. Titanium tetrachloride is used as an inorganic salt precursor material. The second stage converts the pure hydrous titania microsphere particles into crystalline barium titanate microsphere powders via low-temperature, hydrothermal reactions.

  9. Preparation, structure and dielectric property of barium stannate titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Xiaoyong [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong Univesity, Xi' an 710049 (China)]. E-mail: wdy@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Yao Xi [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong Univesity, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2007-02-25

    The processing route of barium stannate titanate ceramics were optimized to prepare full composition range solid solution sample. The phase structure, microscopic morphology and dielectric properties of barium stannate titanate ceramics were studied. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the samples are of single perovskite structure. Linear empirical relationship between crystal lattice and tin content was proposed. This relationship is valid covering the full composition range, which suggests that this solid solution system is ultimate mutual soluble. The phase transition behavior was studied and a phase diagram was obtained based on the dielectric measurements.

  10. Fueling by coaxial plasma guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.

    1978-01-01

    The operating principles of pulsed coaxial guns are reviewed. Some problems involved with the injection of plasma beams from these guns into containment fields are described. The injection during reactor operating conditions is then discussed

  11. Carbon nanotubes decorated with gold, platinum and rhodium clusters by injection of colloidal solutions into the post-discharge of an RF atmospheric plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claessens, N; Demoisson, F; Dufour, T; Reniers, F [Service de Chimie Analytique et Chimie des Interfaces (CHANI), Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Faculte des Sciences, CP255, Boulevard du Triomphe 2, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Mansour, Ali; Guillot, J [Department ' Science and Analysis of Materials' (SAM), Centre de Recherche Public-Gabriel Lippmann, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Felten, A; Pireaux, J-J [Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Centre de Recherche en Physique de la Matiere et du Rayonnement (PMR), 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2010-09-24

    In this paper, we present a new, simple, robust and efficient technique to decorate multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with metal nanoparticles. As case studies, Au, Pt and Rh nanoparticles are grafted onto MWCNTs by spraying a colloidal solution into the post-discharge of an atmospheric argon or argon/oxygen RF plasma. The method that we introduce here is different from those usually described in the literature, since the treatment is operated at atmospheric pressure, allowing the realization in only one step of the surface activation and the deposition processes. We demonstrate experimentally that the addition of oxygen gas in the plasma increases significantly the amount of grafted metal nanoparticles. Moreover, TEM pictures clearly show that the grafted nanoparticles are well controlled in size.

  12. Optical Injection into Laser Wake Field Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cary, John R; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron G R; Giacone, Rodolfo; Leemans, Wim; Nieter, Chet

    2005-01-01

    The accelerating gradient of laser-generated wake fields in plasmas can be orders of magnitude greater than the gradients obtainable in traditional, rf structures. One of the hurdles to overcome on the road to practical utilization of said plasma wake fields for production of high energy particles is the creation of quality beams having significant charge, low emittance, and narrow energy spread. To generate appropriate beams, various injection methods have been proposed. Injection by conventional means of beam prepartion using conventional technology is very difficult, as the accelerating buckets are only tens of microns long. Therefore, the field has turned to all-optical injection schemes, which include injection by colliding pulses, plasma ramps, wave breaking, and self-trapping through pulse evolution. This talk will review the various concepts proposed for injection, including plasma ramps, colliding pulses, and self trapping. The results of simulations and experiments will be discussed along with propo...

  13. FI/SI on-line solvent extraction/back extraction preconcentration coupled to direct injection nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for determination of copper and lead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2002-01-01

    An automated sequential injection on-line preconcentration procedure for determination of trace levels of copper and lead via solvent extraction/back extraction coupled to ICP-MS is described. In citrate buffer of pH 3, neutral complexes between the analytes and the chelating reagent, ammonium...... acid containing Pd(II) ions as stripping agent, thereby facilitating a rapid metal exchange reaction with the APDC ligand and transfer of the analytes back into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is separated in a second dual-conical gravitational phase separator, and 30 mul is entrapped in a sample...

  14. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, respiratory tract (including pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection ...

  15. Atezolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the action of a ... infection breath that smells fruity slowed, fast or irregular heartbeat Atezolizumab injection may cause other side effects. ...

  16. Cidofovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people ... body's response to the medication.You must take probenecid tablets by mouth with each dose of cidofovir. ...

  17. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  18. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  19. Pegloticase Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease). Your doctor may test you for G6PD deficiency before you start to receive pegloticase injection. If ...

  20. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Risperidone extended-release injection is used alone or ... during your treatment: extreme thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, blurred vision, or weakness. It is very important ...

  1. Olanzapine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Olanzapine injection is used to treat episodes of ... during your treatment: extreme thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, blurred vision, or weakness. It is very important ...

  2. Tacrolimus Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in people who have received kidney, liver, or heart transplants. Tacrolimus injection should only be used by people ... or nurse will watch you closely during the first 30 minutes of your treatment and then will ...

  3. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  4. Daclizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck, armpits, or groin; diarrhea; bloody stools; stomach pain; or any new, unexplained symptom affecting any part of your body.Because of the risks with this medication, daclizumab injection is available only through a special ...

  5. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  6. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  7. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  8. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  9. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  10. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  11. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to haloperidol ...

  12. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ketorolac by intravenous (into a vein) or intramuscular (into a muscle) injection in a hospital or ... You can also visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ ...

  13. Arc Plasma Gun With Coaxial Powder Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor

    1988-01-01

    Redesigned plasma gun provides improved metallic and ceramic coatings. Particles injected directly through coaxial bore in cathode into central region of plasma jet. Introduced into hotter and faster region of plasma jet.

  14. AUTOIONIZATION OF LOW-LYING 5DNG STATES IN BARIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, R.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Hogervorst, W.

    1994-01-01

    The autoionizing 5dng J = 1-5 states in barium for n=5-8 were investigated in a two-step pulsed laser atomic beam experiment. The wavefunctions of the 5dng configuration can be well described in a (jl)K-coupled basis. Each 5d(j)ng[K] fine structure state autoionizes into a single 6sepsilonl

  15. Ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficient of barium-chloride-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 4. Ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficient of barium-chloride-based polymer electrolyte with poly(vinyl alcohol)–poly(4-styrenesulphonic acid) polymer complex. MAYANK PANDEY GIRISH M JOSHI NARENDRA NATH GHOSH. Volume 40 Issue 4 August ...

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG ORIG Comparison of barium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Simulation of patients with carcinoma of the oesophagus using radio-opaque contrast is a standard step in treatment planning prior to delivering radiation therapy. Various contrast mediums such as barium, gastrograffin and hexabrix have been used for simulation at different centres. Objective. The purpose of ...

  17. Barium Ferrite Films Grown By Pulsed Laser Ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisfi, A.; Lodder, J.C.; de Haan, P.; Roesthuis, F.J.G.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract available only. It is known that barium ferrite (BaFe12019) can grow with perpendicular anisotropy on A1203 a single crystal substrate,' but also on an amorphous substrate by using a ZnO buffer.2 Because of its large magnetic anisotropy which can easily overcome the shape anisotropy of the

  18. Synthesis of nanosized barium titanate/epoxy resin composites and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anechoic chamber; barium titanate; electromagnetic interference and compatibility; epoxy resin composites; microwave absorbers; radio frequency absorbers. ... The reflection loss (RL) and transmission loss (TL) of the composite materials were measured by the reflection/transmission method using a vector network ...

  19. Thermal expansion behaviour of barium and strontium zirconium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Thermal expansion behaviour of barium and strontium zirconium phosphates. P SRIKARI TANTRI, K GEETHA†, A M UMARJI† and SHEELA K RAMASESHA*. Materials Science Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017, India. †Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 ...

  20. Phase developments and dielectric responses of barium substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phase developments and dielectric responses of barium substituted four-layer CaBi4Ti4O15 Aurivillius. HUILING DU. ∗. , XIANG SHI and HUILU LI. College of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an 710054, China. MS received 26 December 2010; revised 8 February 2011.

  1. Experimental study of yttrium barium copper oxide superconducting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    667–676. Experimental study of yttrium barium copper oxide ... In the present study, torsional strain dependence of the critical current of the coated conductor is investigated experimentally for different current ramp rates. Again, the .... An empirical formula was proposed and established using a curve fit expressed in eq. (1).

  2. Dose-area product measurements during Barium enema radiograph ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to obtain a direct measurement of the typical dose delivered to an average adult patient during a barium enema examination. Measurement was done on a sample of 50 patients at three departments, using a dose-area product (DAP) meter. The comparison of the results with UK median levels ...

  3. peroxo-oxalate preparation of doped barium titanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, S.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Verweij, H.

    1999-01-01

    The peroxo-oxalate complexation method is a method that can be used for the preparation of doped barium titanate. In this paper we focus on BaTi0.91Zr0.09O3, which can be used for discharge capacitors in lamp starters. The preparation method described here is based on the complexation and subsequent

  4. Thermal expansion behaviour of barium and strontium zirconium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    small substitution of barium changes its sign. X = 1⋅0 and 1⋅25 samples have almost constant CTE over the entire temperature range. The low thermal expansion of these samples can be attributed to the ordering of the ions in the crystal structure of these materials. Keywords. Coefficient of thermal expansion; low thermal ...

  5. SEPARATION OF BARIUM VALUES FROM URANYL NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, E.R.

    1959-02-24

    The separation of radioactive barium values from a uranyl nitrate solution of neutron-irradiated uranium is described. The 10 to 20% uranyl nitrate solution is passed through a flrst column of a cation exchange resin under conditions favoring the adsorption of barium and certain other cations. The loaded resin is first washed with dilute sulfuric acid to remove a portion of the other cations, and then wash with a citric acid solution at pH of 5 to 7 to recover the barium along with a lesser amount of the other cations. The PH of the resulting eluate is adjusted to about 2.3 to 3.5 and diluted prior to passing through a smaller second column of exchange resin. The loaded resin is first washed with a citric acid solution at a pH of 3 to elute undesired cations and then with citric acid solution at a pH of 6 to eluts the barium, which is substantially free of undesired cations.

  6. Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of a Newly Developed Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF) Versus Hyaluronic Acid on Pain and Function of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Ahangar, Azadeh Gharooee; Abadi, Porya Hassan; Mojgani, Parviz; Ahangar, Omid Gharooi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injection of a newly developed plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) versus hyaluronic acid (HA) on pain and function of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: In this single-blinded randomized clinical trial, patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of knee were assigned to receive 2 intra-articular injections of our newly developed PRGF in 3 weeks or 3 weekly injections of HA. Our primary outcome was the mean change from baseline until 2 and 6 months post intervention in scores of visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Lequesne index. We used analysis of variance for repeated-measures statistical test. Results: A total of 69 patients entered final analysis. The mean age of patients was 58.2 ± 7.41 years and 81.2% were women. In particular, total WOMAC index decreased from 42.9 ± 13.51 to 26.8 ± 13.45 and 24.4 ± 16.54 at 2 and 6 months in the newly developed PRGF group (within subjects P = .001), and from 38.8 ± 12.62 to 27.8 ± 11.01 and 27.4 ± 11.38 at 2 and 6 months in the HA group (within subjects P = .001), respectively (between subjects P = .631). There was no significant difference between PRGF and HA groups in patients’ satisfaction and minor complications of injection, whereas patients in HA group reported significantly lower injection-induced pain. Conclusions: In 6 months follow up, our newly developed PRGF and HA, both are effective options to decrease pain and improvement of function in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. PMID:29051707

  7. [Determination of barium in natural curative waters by ICP-OES technique. Part I. Waters taken on the area of health resorts in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Swiecicka, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    Maximum admissible concentration level (MACL) of barium in natural mineral waters, natural spring waters and potable waters was set at the level of 1 mg/l, while MACL of this element in natural curative waters intended for drinking therapies and inhalations were set at the levels of 1.0 mg/l and 10.0 mg/l, respectively. Those requirements were related to therapies which are applied longer than one month. Above mentioned maximum admissible concentration levels of barium in consumed waters were established after taking into account actual criteria of World Health Organization which determined the guidelines value for this element in water intended for human consumption at the level of 0.7 mg/l. In this work developed and validated method of determination of barium by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry technique was applied for determination of this element in 45 natural curative waters sampled from 24 spa districts situated on the area of Poland. Concentrations of barium determined were in the range from 0.0036 mg/l to 24.0 mg/l. Natural curative waters characterized by concentrations of barium in the ranges of 0.0036 - 0.073 mg/l, 0.0036 - 1.31 mg/l and 0.0036 - 24.0 mg/l, were applied to drinking therapy, inhalations and balneotherapy, respectively (some of waters analyzed were simultaneously applied to drinking therapy, inhalations and balneotherapy). In the cases of 11 natural curative waters exceeding limit of 1 mg/l were observed, however they were classified mainly as waters applied to balneotherapy and in two cases to inhalation therapies (concentrations of barium - 1.08 mg/l and 1.31 mg/l). The procedure of classification of curative waters for adequate therapies based among other things on barium concentrations meets requirements of the Decree of Minister of Health from 13 April 2006 on the range of studies indispensable for establishing medicinal properties of natural curative materials and curative properties of climate, criteria of their

  8. A sensitive HPLC-MS method for simultaneous determination of thirteen components in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study of Tanreqing injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Su-Xiang; Li, Xian-He; Wang, Meng-Meng; Hao, Rui; Li, Meng-Meng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Zhe

    2018-01-30

    A rapid, sensitive and selective method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q-Exactive mass spectrometry was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of thirteen components in rat plasma, including chlorogenic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, luteoloside, isochlorogenic acid A, B and C, scutellarin, baicalin, wogonin, baicalein, phillyrin and forsythoside A. After precipitating proteins from the plasma samples with methanol, chromatographic separation of the thirteen components was achieved by using an XBridge™ C 18 column (2.1mm×150mm, 5μm) with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.3mL/min. High-resolution MS quantification was adopted with detection on a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer in full-scan mode, and the results were obtained using a mass extraction window of 10ppm at a mass resolution of 70, 000. All the calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r 2 >0.991) over the measured ranges. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was in the range of 1.05-8.13ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD) was less than 11.70% and the accuracy (RE) ranged from -5.58% to 12.29%. No significant matrix effect was observed and the extraction recoveries of all the analytes were more than 79.36%. The developed method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the thirteen ingredients in rats after intravenous administration of Tanreqing at three doses of 3, 6 and 12mL/kg. The results indicated that 8 of the 13 components, isochlorogenic acid A, B and C, chlorogenic acid, baicalin, wogonin, luteoloside and forsythoside A, had linear pharmacokinetic properties in the tested dosage range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of chemesthetic stimuli mixtures with barium on swallowing apnea duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, J Tee; Butler, Susan G; Plonk, Drew P; Grace-Martin, Karen; Pelletier, Cathy A

    2012-10-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that swallowing apnea duration (SAD) will increase given barium versus water, chemesthetic stimuli (i.e., water barium, age (older > younger), and genetic taste differences (supertasters > nontasters). Prospective group design. University Medical Center. Eighty healthy women were identified as nontasters and supertasters, equally comprising two age groups: 18 to 35 years and 60+ years. The KayPentax Swallowing Signals Lab was used to acquire SAD via nasal cannula during individually randomized swallows of 5 mL barium, 2.7% w/v citric acid with barium, carbonation with barium, and 50:50 diluted ethanol with barium. Data were analyzed using path analysis, with the mediator of chemesthetic perception, adjusted for repeated measures. Significant main effects of age (P = .012) and chemesthetic stimuli (P = .014) were found, as well as a significant interaction between chemesthetic stimuli and age (P = .028). Older women had a significantly longer SAD than younger women. Post hoc analyses revealed that barium mixed with ethanol elicited a significantly longer SAD than other bolus conditions, regardless of age group. There were no significant differences in SAD between barium and water conditions, and no significant effect of chemesthetic perception (P > .05). Ethanol added to barium elicited longer SAD compared to plain barium, but not the other chemesthetic conditions. Older women had a longer SAD than younger women in all conditions. These findings may influence design of future studies examining effects of various stimuli on SAD. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Regeneration of barium carbonate from barium sulphide in a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor and utilization for acid mine drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulopo, J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch regeneration of barium carbonate (BaCO3) from barium sulphide (BaS) slurries by passing CO2 gas into a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of BaCO3 recovery in the Alkali...

  11. Obtention of the ponderomotive force in the mark of the kinetic theory in the injection of high power in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Beltran P, M.

    2006-01-01

    To reach the quasi stationary work regime of a Tokamak, it is necessary to optimize the current generation by non inductive methods with the injection of radio-frequency waves (RF), such as the electron cyclotron waves, cyclotron ion, and in the inferior hybrid one. At the moment, the powers of the radiation sources are very big for what the such no-lineal effects as the ponderomotive force are very important. In the case of the electron cyclotron waves, in the mark of the lineal theory of waves propagation, using extraordinary waves (first and second harmonic), the problem of the singularity always arises in the exact resonance. One of the ways of eliminating this singularity is considering that the group of electrons under resonance conditions is big (quasi lineal theory) or introducing such non lineal effects such as the ponderomotive force. In the obtaining of the ponderomotive force under resonance conditions this indetermination arises also. In this work the kinetic theory to obtain the expression of the ponderomotive force in the cyclotron resonance of the electrons, where the Vlasov kinetic equation expands up to second order with regard to the electric field of the RF wave. The kinetic approach allows to the analysis of the ponderomotive force under resonance conditions considering the Landau integration method. (Author)

  12. Gas thermodesorption study of barium and strontium cerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenova, T.I.; Khromushin, I.V.; Zhotabaev, Zh.R.; Bukenov, K.D.; Medvedeva, Z.V.; Berdauletov, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Kinetic of water, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide molecules release from doped and undoped samples of barium cerates and doped strontium cerates during vacuum heating was studied. The samples were prepared by inductive melting method. The following two kinds of preliminary samples treatments were used: annealing in air (650-750 deg. C) and wet nitrogen atmosphere (625 deg.C). Main results of thermodesorption studies of barium and strontium cerates are represented in the table. The samples of doped LaSrMnO were investigated also. It was found that the initial doped samples (without preliminary annealing) did not show any gas release in temperature range of 20-1100 deg. C. This fact indicates on high stability of compositions and strong bond of 'host' oxygen in their lattice. A significant amount of water and oxygen molecules were released from BaCe 0.9 Nd 0.1 O 3 samples whereas water and hydrogen molecules desorption from SrCe 0.95 Y 0.05 O 3 samples took place. Hydrogen molecules desorption was found for strontium cerates samples; no hydrogen molecules release was observed for doped and pure barium cerate samples.Intensive water molecules release from doped samples confirms the necessity of oxygen vacancies creation in these compounds to get properties of proton conductivity, since it was not found any water molecules release from annealed undoped samples of BaCeO 3 It is necessary to notice that oxygen molecules release from these samples took place at ∼1000 deg. C that is significantly higher then from BaCeNdO samples. Forms of high temperatures part of oxygen and low temperature part of water spectra indicate that phase transformations are responsible for oxygen and water molecules desorption in this cases. These results are in good agreement with literature data. Desorption of water molecules from barium and strontium cerates took place. Oxygen desorption took place only from barium cerates. It can be explained as the following: doped barium cerates have

  13. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord) and ... killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  14. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  15. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...

  16. Dulaglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given dulaglutide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use dulaglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  17. Albiglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given medications similar to albiglutide developed ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use albiglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  18. Semaglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given semaglutide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use semaglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  19. Liraglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given liraglutide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use liraglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  20. Exenatide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given exenatide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use exenatide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  1. Etoposide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used in combination with other medications to treat cancer of the testicles that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications or radiation therapy. Etoposide injection ... type of lung cancer (small cell lung cancer; SCLC). Etoposide is in ...

  2. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection because they have a low number of white blood cells. Cefepime injection is in a class ... In case of overdose, call the poison control helpline at 1-800-222-1222. Information is also available online at https://www.poisonhelp.org/help. If the victim has ...

  3. Triptorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...

  4. Surface functionalization of barium titanate SHG nanoprobes for in vivo imaging in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čulić-Viskota, Jelena; Dempsey, William P; Fraser, Scott E; Pantazis, Periklis

    2012-09-01

    To address the need for a bright, photostable labeling tool that allows long-term in vivo imaging in whole organisms, we recently introduced second harmonic generating (SHG) nanoprobes. Here we present a protocol for the preparation and use of a particular SHG nanoprobe label, barium titanate (BT), for in vivo imaging in living zebrafish embryos. Chemical treatment of the BT nanoparticles results in surface coating with amine-terminal groups, which act as a platform for a variety of chemical modifications for biological applications. Here we describe cross-linking of BT to a biotin-linked moiety using click chemistry methods and coating of BT with nonreactive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). We also provide details for injecting PEG-coated SHG nanoprobes into zygote-stage zebrafish embryos, and in vivo imaging of SHG nanoprobes during gastrulation and segmentation. Implementing the PROCEDURE requires a basic understanding of laser-scanning microscopy, experience with handling zebrafish embryos and chemistry laboratory experience. Functionalization of the SHG nanoprobes takes ∼3 d, whereas zebrafish preparation, injection and imaging setup should take approximately 2-4 h.

  5. The effect of an intracerebroventricular injection of metformin or AICAR on the plasma concentrations of melatonin in the ewe: potential involvement of AMPK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collet Armelle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now widely accepted that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a critical regulator of energy homeostasis. Recently, it has been shown to regulate circadian clocks. In seasonal breeding species such as sheep, the circadian clock controls the secretion of an endogenous rhythm of melatonin and, as a consequence, is probably involved in the generation of seasonal rhythms of reproduction. Considering this, we identified the presence of the subunits of AMPK in different hypothalamic nuclei involved in the pre- and post-pineal pathways that control seasonality of reproduction in the ewe and we investigated if the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of two activators of AMPK, metformin and AICAR, affected the circadian rhythm of melatonin in ewes that were housed in constant darkness. In parallel the secretion of insulin was monitored as a peripheral metabolic marker. We also investigated the effects of i.c.v. AICAR on the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, a downstream target of AMPK, in brain structures along the photoneuroendocrine pathway to the pineal gland. Results All the subunits of AMPK that we studied were identified in all brain areas that were dissected but with some differences in their level of expression among structures. Metformin and AICAR both reduced (p Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest a potential role for AMPK on the secretion of melatonin probably acting trough the paraventricular nucleus and/or directly in the pineal gland. We conclude that AMPK may act as a metabolic cue to modulate the rhythm of melatonin secretion.

  6. Perforated colorectal neoplasms: Correlation of clinical, barium, and CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulnick, D.H.; Megibow, A.J.; Gordon, R.; Balthazar, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Findings on clinical, barium enema, and CT examinations in 24 patients with perforated colorectal neoplasms were retrospectively reviewed. In 12 patients with fever and leukocytosis, the clinical diagnoses were diverticulitis (n=8), appendicitis (n=2), pelvic inflammatory disease (n=2), and perforation of a known carcinoma (n=1). In 12 nontoxic patients, the clinical diagnoses were malignancy (n=8), obstruction (n=3) and an abdominal mass (n=1). In 18 barium enema examinations, the radiologic impression was uncomplicated carcinoma (n=9), perforated carcinoma (n=6), and diverticulitis (n=3). Twenty-two CT examinations revealed pericolic inflammation in all cases and macroperforation in 12. The primary tumor was evident in 14 patients, liver metastases were found in six, and ascites was present in three. CT findings influenced the management of patients initially suspected of having inflammatory conditions

  7. Electromagnetic properties of photodefinable barium ferrite polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Sholiyi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the magnetic and microwave properties of a Barium ferrite powder suspended in a polymer matrix. The sizes for Barium hexaferrite powder are 3–6 μm for coarse and 0.8–1.0 μm for the fine powder. Ratios 1:1 and 3:1 (by mass of ferrite to SU8 samples were characterized and analyzed for predicting the necessary combinations of these powders with SU8 2000 Negative photoresist. The magnetization properties of these materials were equally determined and were analyzed using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM. The Thru, Reflect, Line (TRL calibration technique was employed in determining complex relative permittivity and permeability of the powders and composites with SU8 between 26.5 and 40 GHz.

  8. Influence of Magnetron Effect on Barium Hexaferrite Thin Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassane, H.; Chatelon, J.P.; Rousseau, J.J; Siblini, A.; Kriga, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of a magnet, located in the cathode, on barium hexaferrite thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique. During the process, these effects can modify thickness, roughness and stress of coatings. The characteristics of the deposited layers depend on the substrate position that is located opposite of magnetron cathode. In the m agnetron area , one can observe that the high stress can produce cracks or detachment of layers and the increasing of both depositing rate and surface roughness. After sputtering elaboration, barium hexaferrite films are in a compressive stress mode. But, after the post-deposition heat treatment these films are in a tensile stress mode. To improve the quality of BaM films, the subsrtate has to be set outside the magnetron area. (author)

  9. Synthesis of Barium Titanate Piezoelectric Ceramics for Multilayer Actuators (MLAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglar Mojtaba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the characteristics of BaTiO3 ceramics synthesized by solid state method is presented. In order to receive the monophase ceramics the double activation and calcination were applied. A spray drier was used to granulate the powder of BaTiO3. Isostatic and uniaxial pressing were applied to manufacture the barium titanate pellets. The properties of fabricated BaTiO3 ceramics were determined at different stages of production. After the sintering phase, the hardness, the bending strength, the fracture toughness, and the coefficient of thermal expansion of barium titanate sinter were estimated. The BaTiO3 powder is characterized by spherical grains and the average size of 0.5 μm. The small value of the specific surface area of granulate ensured good properties of material mouldability and finally allowed to receive sinters of high density.

  10. Barium titanate nanoparticles: promising multitasking vectors in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giada Graziana; Marino, Attilio; Rocca, Antonella; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-06-10

    Ceramic materials based on perovskite-like oxides have traditionally been the object of intense interest for their applicability in electrical and electronic devices. Due to its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric features, barium titanate (BaTiO3) is probably one of the most studied compounds of this family. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been focused on the exploitation of barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) in the biomedical field, owing to the high biocompatibility of BTNPs and their peculiar non-linear optical properties that have encouraged their use as nanocarriers for drug delivery and as label-free imaging probes. In this review, we summarize all the recent findings about these 'smart' nanoparticles, including the latest, most promising potential as nanotransducers for cell stimulation.

  11. Attainment of barium hexaferrite nanoparticles by a Pechini Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, S.B.; Timoteo, Jr.J.F.; Melo, G.M.; Souto, K.K.O.; Florioto, N.T.; Paskocimas, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The barium hexaferrites (BaFe 12 O 19 ) are used as a compound of materials applied in electronic devices, as medical devices, satellites, dada servers systems, wireless systems and others. The general properties are strongly related to the microstructure and morphology, and the particles size decrease results in advantages to the majority applications, mainly the high-tech thumbnail devices. These magnetic ceramic materials, with perovskite structure, are traditionally prepared my conventional oxide mixture synthesis. In this work was studied the nanoparticle synthesis of BaFe 12 O 19 by the precursors polymeric method (Pechini), using as precursors the barium carbonate and the iron nitrate, under different thermal treatment conditions. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET, DTA and TGA. The results presented the attainment of a monophasic powder with particles size around 100 nm. (author)

  12. Barium fluoride surface preparation, analysis and UV reflective coatings at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has begun a program of study on barium fluoride scintillating crystals for the Barium Fluoride Electromagnetic Calorimeter Collaboration. This program has resulted in a number of significant improvements in the mechanical processing, polishing and coating of barium fluoride crystals. Techniques have been developed using diamond-loaded pitch lapping that can produce 15 angstrom RMS surface finishes over large areas. These lapped surfaces have been shown to be crystalline using Rutherford Back-scattering (RBS). Also, special polishing fixtures have been designed based on mounting technology developed for the 1.1 m diameter optics used in LLNL's Nova Laser. These fixtures allow as many as five 25--50 cm long barium fluoride crystals to be polished and lapped at a time with the necessary tolerances for the 16,000 crystal Barium Fluoride Calorimeter. In addition, results will be presented on coating barium fluoride with UV reflective layers of magnesium fluoride and aluminum

  13. Vanadium doped barium germanate microrods and photocatalytic properties under solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, L. Z.; Wang, S.; Liu, H. D.; Lin, N.; Yu, H. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Vanadium doped barium germanate microrods have been prepared by a facile hydrothermal process. The obtained vanadium doped barium germanate microrods are proved to be hexagonal BaGe4O9 and orthorhombic Ba2V2O7 phases by X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the vanadium doped barium germanate products consist of microrods with the diameter of microscale size. The diameter of the mirorods decreases from 800 nm to 150 nm with the vanadium doping mass percentage increasing from 1% to 10%. Solid UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra show that the band gap of the vanadium doped barium germanate is smaller than that of the undoped barium germanate. The photocatalytic activity has been greatly enhanced by the vanadium doping. The vanadium doped barium germanate microrods exhibit great application potential for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under solar light irradiation.

  14. Clinical efficacy of a new barium sulfate for abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tatuya; Kohno, Mitio; Uematsu, Sadao; Nisitani, Hiromu; Tanaka, Takao.

    1988-01-01

    Computed Tomography of the abdomen requires that the intestines are filled with contrast medium so that the gut is not misinterpreted as a pathologic process. Besides, normal structures may be difficult to delimit in patients with scanty intra-abdominal fat. In Japan, up to date, only a single contrast medium has been available for this purpose, Gastrografin and thus identical with the intravasculaly used Urografin or Angiografin. A new Barium Sulfate suspention (Fusimi Seiyaku, Kagawa) for computed tomographic use has been dilute solution (4.77 %) and with suspending agents that prevent a rapid sedimentation of the Barium Sulfate. The aim of this investigation was to compare Gastrografin with a new barium regarding patients tolerance, side effects and diagnostic information. The investigation comprised 146 patients who were reffered for abdominal CT and was carried out by 5 facilities; National Cancer Center, Kobe University, Chiba University, Kyushu University and Juntendo University. Diagnostic information was judged with respect to the filling of the stomach and intestines, the presence of imaging artifacts and finally clinical estimation. Patients tolerance was investigated as regards taste and side effects. Good filling of the stomach and intestines was obtained in this investigation. However, imaging artifacts occured in only a few cases. The imaging artifacts appeared almost exclusively to arise in the boundary layer between the bowel gas and contrast medium, and were most common in the stomach. However, the contrasting effect of this medium did not in itself appear to cause any imaging artifacts. Fushimi's new barium seems to be preffered because of its lesser tendency to arise artifacts and better tendency to make good filling of the stomach and intestines. Moreover, this investigation did not have any side effects. (J.P.N.)

  15. Optical and luminescent properties of the lead and barium molybdates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spassky, D.A. E-mail: dima@opts.phys.msu.ru; Ivanov, S.N.; Kolobanov, V.N.; Mikhailin, V.V.; Zemskov, V.N.; Zadneprovski, B.I.; Potkin, L.I

    2004-12-01

    Time-resolved luminescence as well as excitation and reflectivity spectra of the oriented lead and barium molybdate single crystals were studied using synchrotron radiation. Features in reflectivity spectra in the fundamental absorption region were analyzed. The contribution of electronic states of lead cation to the formation of the bandgap in PbMoO{sub 4} is supposed. The role of lead states in the intrinsic luminescence of PbMoO{sub 4} is discussed.

  16. Sulphate removal from industrial effluents through barium sulphate precipitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available surface wetland g Gas HiPRO Hi recovery Precipitating Reverse Osmosis l Liquid MBO Magnesium Barium Oxide ORP Oxidation-reduction potential RO Reverse osmosis s Solid SANAS South African National Accreditation System SANS... South African National Standards SEM Scanning electron microscopy SF wetland Subsurface flow wetland SPARRO Slurry precipitation and recycle reverse osmosis SRO Seeded reverse osmosis TDS Total Dissolved Solids WHO World Health...

  17. Structure and multiferroic properties of barium hexaferrite ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Guolong; Chen, Xiuna

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of large ferroelectricity and strong ferromagnetism have been observed in barium hexaferrite ceramics. Barium hexaferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) powders with hexagonal crystal structure were successfully synthesized in a polymer precursor method using barium acetate and ferric acetylacetonate as the precursors. The powders were pressed into pellets which were sintered into ceramics at 1200 °C and 1300 °C for 1 h. The structure and morphology of the ceramics were examined using X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Large spontaneous polarization was observed in the BaFe 12 O 19 ceramics at room temperature, revealing a clear ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The maximum remanent polarization of the BaFe 12 O 19 ceramic was estimated approximately 11.8 μC cm −2 . The FeO 6 octahedron in its perovskite-like hexagonal unit cell and the shift of Fe 3+ off the center of octahedron are suggested to be the origin of the polarization in BaFe 12 O 19 . The BaFe 12 O 19 ceramics also showed strong ferromagnetism at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Ferroelectric hysteresis loops of BaFe 12 O 19 ceramics measured at a frequency of 120 Hz, which shows that the ceramics sintered at 1200 °C is ferroelectric with P r ∼11.8 μC/cm 2 . Highlights: ► Large ferroelectricity and strong ferromagnetism were observed in barium hexaferrite ceramics. ► The maximum remanent polarization of the BaFe 12 O 19 ceramic was estimated to be 11.8 μC cm −2 . ► The FeO 6 octahedron and off-center shift of Fe 3+ are suggested to be the origin of the polarization.

  18. Preparation of barium and uranium targets on thick backings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sletten, G.

    1982-01-01

    Targets of 135 Ba and 235 U have been prepared by the technique of heavy ion sputtering. Rolled foils of 208 Pb and 197 Au were used to support 250-500 μg/cm 2 layers of barium. Uranium films have been prepared by sputtering UO 2 onto 1 mg/cm 2 titanium foils. Uranium deposit thicknesses of 300 to 1800 μg/cm 2 have been prepared. (orig.)

  19. Pamidronate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begins in the plasma cells [a type of white blood cell that produces substances needed to fight ... In case of overdose, call the poison control helpline at 1-800-222-1222. Information is also available online at https://www.poisonhelp.org/help. If the victim has ...

  20. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeru; Akiba, Masato

    1991-03-01

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  1. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of barium strontium titanate nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, A.Z., E-mail: alezipo@yahoo.co [Universidade Federal de Itajuba- Unifei - Campus Itabira, Rua Sao Paulo, 377, Bairro, Amazonas, CEP 35900-37, Itabira, MG (Brazil); Universidade Estadual Paulista- Unesp - Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Bairro Pedregulho, CEP 12516-410 Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Moura, F.; Onofre, T.B. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba- Unifei - Campus Itabira, Rua Sao Paulo, 377, Bairro, Amazonas, CEP 35900-37, Itabira, MG (Brazil); Ramirez, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica (LIEC), Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Barium strontium titanate nanoparticles were obtained by the Hydrothemal microwave technique (HTMW) {yields} This is a genuine technique to obtain nanoparticles at low temperature and short times {yields} Barium strontium titanate free of carbonates with tetragonal structure was grown at 130 {sup o}C. - Abstract: Hydrothermal-microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline barium strontium titanate (Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3}) nanoparticles (BST) in the temperature range of 100-130 {sup o}C. The crystallization of BST with tetragonal structure was reached at all the synthesis temperatures along with the formation of BaCO{sub 3} as a minor impurity at lower syntheses temperatures. Typical FT-IR spectra for tetragonal (BST) nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH- groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. FE/SEM revealed that lower syntheses temperatures led to a morphology that consisted of uniform grains while higher syntheses temperature consisted of big grains isolated and embedded in a matrix of small grains. TEM has shown BST nanoparticles with diameters between 40 and 80 nm. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could serve as an alternative to obtain BST nanoparticles.

  2. Barium as a potential indicator of phosphorus in agricultural runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Joakim; Djodjic, Faruk; Wallin, Mats

    2012-01-01

    In many catchments, anthropogenic input of contaminants, and in particular phosphorus (P), into surface water is a mixture of agricultural and sewage runoff. Knowledge about the relative contribution from each of these sources is vital for mitigation of major environmental problems such as eutrophication. In this study, we investigated whether the distribution of trace elements in surface waters can be used to trace the contamination source. Water from three groups of streams was investigated: streams influenced only by agricultural runoff, streams influenced mainly by sewage runoff, and reference streams. Samples were collected at different flow regimes and times of year and analyzed for 62 elements using ICP-MS. Our results show that there are significant differences between the anthropogenic sources affecting the streams in terms of total element composition and individual elements, indicating that the method has the potential to trace anthropogenic impact on surface waters. The elements that show significant differences between sources are strontium (p barium (p barium shows the greatest potential as a tracer for an individual source of anthropogenic input to surface waters. We observed a strong relationship between barium and total P in the investigated samples (R(2) = 0.78), which could potentially be used to apportion anthropogenic sources of P and thereby facilitate targeting of mitigation practices. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Early colon cancer : findings on double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Kwon; Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Soon Jin; Lim, Hyo Keun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the radiologic findings of early colon cancer on double-contrast barium enema. We retrospectively reviewed the double-contrast barium enemas of eight patients (M:F = 6:2; mean age : 67 yrs; range : 48-77 yrs) who were pathologically proven to be early colon cancer. The location, size and gross morphology of lesions was evaluated using double-contrast barium enema, while depth of invasion, degree of differentiation, precancerous lesions and lymph node metastasis were evaluated histopathologically. Early colon cancer was found in the rectum (n=4), sigmoid colon (n=3) and ascending colon (n=1). The size of mass ranged from 2.3 ∼ 8.3 (mean, 4.6) cm. And the polypoid type was most common (n=7); this was subdivided into sessile (Is, n=5), semipedunculated (Isp, n=1) and pedunculated type (Ip, n=1). Another mass was a sessile polypoid combined with a flat depressed lesion. In eight cases, four cancers were confined to the mucosa, while the remaining four had infiltrated the submucosa. Most cancers arose from villous and villotubular adenoma. All cases were well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and no metastasis to lymph nodes had occurred. In early colon cancer, lesions were mainly polypoid and large. Most arose from villous and villotubular adenoma. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  4. Aspiration of barium contrast medium in an elderly man with disordered swallowing

    OpenAIRE

    Bağcı Ceyhan, B.; Çelikel, T.; Koç, M.; Ahıskalı, R.; Biren, T.; Ataizi Çelikel, Ç.

    1995-01-01

    The aspiration of contrast medium during the investigation of gastrointestinal diseases is a well recognized hazard, particularly in patients with swallowing disorders. A case is reported in which accidental aspiration of contrast barium occurred owing to disordered swallowing in an elderly man. The infiltration on chest x-ray persisted 2 years after barium contrast aspiration. Inflammatory reaction and retractile, granular material observed in lung biopsy specimens suggested barium-induced p...

  5. Strontium-90 sorption from fresh waters in the process of barium manganite modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhen'kov, A.P.; Egorov, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    Strontium-90 extraction by barium manganite from fresh water (natural non-salty water in open ponds) may be increased adding to the solution the sulfate anion containing reagents that modify a sorbent and chemically bind a sorbate. Heterogeneous anion-exchanging reaction of barium manganite transformation into barium sulfate-manganese dioxide and simultaneous coprecipitation of strontium sulfate (microelement) occur as a result of it. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Simplified assessment of segmental gastrointestinal transit time with orally small amount of barium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Weitang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Jinbo; Li, Zhen; Song, Junmin; Wu, Changcai [Department of Colorectal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Zhengzhou University, 450052 Zhengzhou (China); Wang, Guixian, E-mail: guixianwang@hotmail.com [Department of Colorectal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Zhengzhou University, 450052 Zhengzhou (China)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness and advantage of small amount of barium in the measurement of gastrointestinal transmission function in comparison with radio-opaque pallets. Methods: Protocal 1: 8 healthy volunteers (male 6, female 2) with average age 40 ± 6.1 were subjected to the examination of radio-opaque pellets and small amount of barium with the interval of 1 week. Protocol 2: 30 healthy volunteers in group 1 (male 8, female 22) with average age 42.5 ± 8.1 and 50 patients with chronic functional constipation in group 2 (male 11, female 39) with average age 45.7 ± 7.8 were subjected to the small amount of barium examination. The small amount of barium was made by 30 g barium dissolved in 200 ml breakfast. After taking breakfast which contains barium, objectives were followed with abdominal X-ray at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h until the barium was evacuated totally. Results: Small amount of barium presented actual chyme or stool transit. The transit time of radio-opaque pallets through the whole gastrointestinal tract was significantly shorter than that of barium (37 ± 8 h vs. 47 ± 10 h, P < 0.05) in healthy people. The transit times of barium in constipation patients were markedly prolonged in colon (61.1 ± 22 vs. 37.3 ± 11, P < 0.01) and rectum (10.8 ± 3.7 vs. 2.3 ± 0.8 h, P < 0.01) compared with unconstipated volunteers. Transit times in individual gastrointestinal segments were also recorded by using small amount of barium, which allowed identifying the subtypes of constipation. Conclusion: The small amount barium examination is a convenient and low cost method to provide the most useful and reliable information on the transmission function of different gastrointestinal segments and able to classify the subtypes of slow transit constipation.

  7. Simplified assessment of segmental gastrointestinal transit time with orally small amount of barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Weitang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Jinbo; Li, Zhen; Song, Junmin; Wu, Changcai; Wang, Guixian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness and advantage of small amount of barium in the measurement of gastrointestinal transmission function in comparison with radio-opaque pallets. Methods: Protocal 1: 8 healthy volunteers (male 6, female 2) with average age 40 ± 6.1 were subjected to the examination of radio-opaque pellets and small amount of barium with the interval of 1 week. Protocol 2: 30 healthy volunteers in group 1 (male 8, female 22) with average age 42.5 ± 8.1 and 50 patients with chronic functional constipation in group 2 (male 11, female 39) with average age 45.7 ± 7.8 were subjected to the small amount of barium examination. The small amount of barium was made by 30 g barium dissolved in 200 ml breakfast. After taking breakfast which contains barium, objectives were followed with abdominal X-ray at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h until the barium was evacuated totally. Results: Small amount of barium presented actual chyme or stool transit. The transit time of radio-opaque pallets through the whole gastrointestinal tract was significantly shorter than that of barium (37 ± 8 h vs. 47 ± 10 h, P < 0.05) in healthy people. The transit times of barium in constipation patients were markedly prolonged in colon (61.1 ± 22 vs. 37.3 ± 11, P < 0.01) and rectum (10.8 ± 3.7 vs. 2.3 ± 0.8 h, P < 0.01) compared with unconstipated volunteers. Transit times in individual gastrointestinal segments were also recorded by using small amount of barium, which allowed identifying the subtypes of constipation. Conclusion: The small amount barium examination is a convenient and low cost method to provide the most useful and reliable information on the transmission function of different gastrointestinal segments and able to classify the subtypes of slow transit constipation

  8. Rapid ionic liquid-supported nano-hybrid composite reinforced hollow-fiber electromembrane extraction followed by field-amplified sample injection-capillary electrophoresis: An effective approach for extraction and quantification of Imatinib mesylate in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forough, Mehrdad; Farhadi, Khalil; Eyshi, Ali; Molaei, Rahim; Khalili, Hedayat; Javan Kouzegaran, Vahid; Matin, Amir Abbas

    2017-09-22

    The focus of this study is development of a new, convenient, rapid and sensitive electromembrane extraction approach (based on an ionic liquid-supported MWCNTs/ZnO reinforced hollow fiber, for the first time) as an off-line sample clean-up/preconcentration method coupled with capillary electrophoresis (CE-UV) using field-amplified sample injection (FASI) for quantification of Imatinib mesylate in human plasma. The nano-hybrid sorbent, coated by 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid ([OMIm]Br) in this research, was prepared by a feasible basic catalyzed sol-gel method. Then, it was immobilized (supported by capillary forces and sonication) in pores of a segment of a polypropylene hollow fiber membrane as the extraction unit after dispersing in 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) solvent and subsequently served as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) composition. Significant variables affecting the proposed method were evaluated and optimized to achieve the maximum extraction performance. Optimal conditions were obtained by NPOE with 4mgmL -1 nano-sorbent as the SLM composition, 105V as the driving force, pH 2 and 1.8 of the donor and acceptor phases, respectively, an extraction time of 15min and an agitation rate of 800rpm. The developed method was validated according to FDA guidelines. Regarding the validation results, the method is proved to be linear (R 2 =0.998) over concentrations ranging from 25 to 1500ngmL -1 (LOD=6.24ngmL -1 ). The mean RSD values for intra- and inter-day precision studies were 6.83 and 7.71%, respectively and the mean recoveries ranged between 98 and 106%. Finally, the validated method was successfully applied for sensitive, selective and rapid determination of Imatinib in patient's plasma samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of powdered versus liquid barium on the viscosity of fluids used in modified swallow studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, J.; Alexander, T. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Radiology, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2003-06-01

    To determine if the viscosity of thickened juice mixtures used in modified barium swallow studies significantly changes with the addition of powdered barium. We also describe a test formulation created using liquid barium, which has a negligible effect on juice viscosity. The viscosities of water and standardized honey- and nectar-consistency juices mixed with different amounts of powdered barium were measured by timing the laminar flow of a given initial hydrostatic head of fluid under gravity though an orifice of fixed diameter. Standardized juices were then mixed with a liquid formulation of barium and with measured quantities of water to produce viscosities that more closely equated with those of the standardized juices. With the addition of powdered barium, viscosity increased in all fluids, most markedly with the nectar-consistency juice. Liquid barium formulations maintained the viscosities of the original thickened juices. Rendering juices radio-opaque with barium powder results in dramatic increases in the viscosity of the resulting mixture and compromises diagnostic accuracy. Liquid barium preparations have the advantage that they can be rapidly and accurately dispensed by syringe, and their use does not significantly increase the viscosity of the preparation. (author)

  10. Results of a cooperative study for the evaluation of the barium meal Falibaryt HD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisinger, W.; Liess, G.; Beckmann, D.; Block, H.G.; Dietze, R.; Grosche, N.; Hall, E.; Lasch, G.; Knoth, H.J.; Kroeger, W.

    1986-01-01

    The diagnostic capabilities of radiologic investigations of the stomach in double contrast can be significantly improved with high-density low-viscosity barium meals. In the GDR the barium meal Falibaryt HD with a barium sulfate content of 215 g per 100 ml suspension has been developed. In nearly 1,000 radiologic investigations of the stomach (81% in relaxation with spasmolytics, 66% without hypotony) all fine structures were well imaged and the preparation therefore is comparable with the best barium meals presently on the market. (author)

  11. Barium titanate coated with magnesium titanate via fused salt method and its dielectric property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Renzheng; Cui Aili; Wang Xiaohui; Li Longtu

    2003-01-01

    Barium titanate fine particles were coated homogeneously with magnesium titanate via the fused salt method. The thickness of the magnesium titanate film is 20 nm, as verified by TEM and XRD. The mechanism of the coating is that: when magnesium chloride is liquated in 800 deg. C, magnesium will replace barium in barium titanate, and form magnesium titanate film on the surface of barium titanate particles. Ceramics sintered from the coated particles show improved high frequency ability. The dielectric constant is about 130 at the frequency from 1 to 800 MHz

  12. High Resolution Computed Tomography Appearences of late sequelae of Barium Aspiration in an asymptomatic young child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatraman, Bhat; Rahman, Hatim A.; Abdul-Wahab, Atiqa

    2005-01-01

    Barium aspiration is a well-known complication of upper gastro-intestinal studies. Consequences of aspiration are generally insignificant and leave no permanent changes in the lung parenchyma. However, large quantities of high density barium, if aspirated, lead to silent interstitial changes and fibrosis. High-resolution computed tomography HRCT appearances of lung changes have been demonstrated in adults; few such reports are available in the pediatric literature. We report a case of a child who aspirated barium 3 months before this presentation. The HRCT appearances of barium aspiration are presented with a review of the literature. (author)

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of barium germanate microrods and photocatalytic degradation performance for methyl blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, L.Z., E-mail: lzpei@ahut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma’anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Wang, S.; Xie, Y.K.; Yu, H.Y. [Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma’anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Guo, Y.H. [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • Barium germanate microrods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process. • The size of the barium germanate microrods can be controlled by growth conditions. • Barium germanate microrods exhibit good photocatalytic activities for methyl blue. -- Abstract: Barium germanate microrods were prepared by a facile hydrothermal process without any surfactants. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and photoluminescence spectra were used to characterize the structure, morphology, size and optical properties of the barium germanate microrods. XRD and SEM observations show that the microrods with hexagonal BaGe{sub 4}O{sub 9} phase have the diameter of 500 nm to 1.5 μm. The size of the barium germanate microrods can be tuned by controlling the hydrothermal temperature, reaction time and surfactants. The influence factors including the irradiation time, content of the barium germanate microrods and MB concentration on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) have been analyzed. The barium germanate microrods show a MB degradation ratio of 83.49% after the irradiation time for 30 min using 1.25 mg/ml barium germanate microrods in 10 mgL{sup −1} MB solution.

  14. Radiation losses in microwave K{sub u} region by conducting pyrrole/barium titanate and barium hexaferrite based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Talwinder [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411 (India); Kumar, Sachin [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Narang, S.B. [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Srivastava, A.K., E-mail: srivastava_phy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Nanocomposites of substituted barium hexaferrite and barium titanate embedded in a polymer were synthesized via emulsion polymerization. The study was performed by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, a vibrating sample magnetometer and a vector network analyzer. It is found that maximum radiation loss occur at 16.09 GHz (−14.23 dB) frequency owing to the combined effect of conducting polymer, suitable dielectric and magnetic material. This suggests that prepared material is suitable for radiation losses. Micro structural study reveals the presence of all the phases of the compounds comprises composite. Benzene ring absorption band (at 1183 cm{sup −1}) in FT-IR spectra illustrates the presence of polymer. Surface morphology reveals the presence of array of particles encapsulated by the polymer. - Highlights: • Composites having polymer, barium titanate and hexaferrite have been successfully prepared. • Effective radiation absorption and losses have been achieved. • Magnetic properties have made an impact on shielding effectiveness.

  15. Adsorption behaviors of surface active reagents on barium ferrite magnetic fine particles; Barium ferrite jisei biryushi eno hymen shorizai kyuchaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, M.; Otani, T.; Masuko, T. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-06-10

    The adsorption mode of lecithin (dioleoylphosphatidylcholine) or [3-(methacryloyloxy)propyl] trimethoxysilane (MPS) onto barium ferrite magnetic particles has been investigated by measurements of changes in solution concentration of the surfactant. Both adsortion isotherms of the surface active reagents on barium ferrite particles indicated to be of the Langmuir type. The occupied areas per one molecule on the surface of barium ferrite particles were estimated to be about 70 angstrom{sup 2}/molecule for lecithin and 22 angstrom{sup 2}/molecule for MPS at their saturated adsorption. In X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements for the adsorbed lecithin layer, the peak position in the binding energy distribution for the P (2p) photoelectron was observed to shift into slightly higher values with increasing amount of adsorbed lecithin. This implies that dipole-dipole interactions among the lecithin molecules become stronger because of increased high molecular packing in the adsorption layers. However, the peak position for the Si (2p) photoelectron remains almost unchanged due to slight interaction among the adsorbing functional groups onto the particles. 16 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Fully Automatic In-Syringe Magnetic Stirring-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Hyphenated to High-Temperature Torch Integrated Sample Introduction System-Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer with Direct Injection of the Organic Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Raquel; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Fikarová, Kateřina; Sklenářová, Hana; Maestre, Salvador; Miró, Manuel; Todolí, Jose-Luis

    2017-03-21

    A proof of concept study involving the online coupling of automatic dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) with direct introduction and analysis of the organic extract is herein reported for the first time. The flow-based analyzer features a lab-in-syringe (LIS) setup with an integrated stirring system, a Meinhard nebulizer in combination with a heated single-pass spray chamber, and a rotary injection valve, used as an online interface between the microextraction system and the detection instrument. Air-segmented flow was used for delivery of a fraction of the nonwater miscible extraction phase, 12 μL of xylene, to the nebulizer. All sample preparative steps including magnetic stirring assisted DLLME were carried out inside the syringe void volume as a size-adaptable yet sealed mixing and extraction chamber. Determination of trace level concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, and silver as model analytes has been demonstrated by microextraction as diethyldithiophosphate (DDTP) complexes. The automatic LIS-DLLME method features quantitative metal extraction, even in troublesome sample matrixes, such as seawater, salt, and fruit juices, with relative recoveries within the range of 94-103%, 93-100%, and 92-99%, respectively. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were found between concentration values experimentally obtained and the certified values of two serum standard reference materials.

  17. Time-Integral Correlations of Multiple Variables With the Relativistic-Electron Flux at Geosynchronous Orbit: The Strong Roles of Substorm-Injected Electrons and the Ion Plasma Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    2017-12-01

    Time-integral correlations are examined between the geosynchronous relativistic electron flux index Fe1.2 and 31 variables of the solar wind and magnetosphere. An "evolutionary algorithm" is used to maximize correlations. Time integrations (into the past) of the variables are found to be superior to time-lagged variables for maximizing correlations with the radiation belt. Physical arguments are given as to why. Dominant correlations are found for the substorm-injected electron flux at geosynchronous orbit and for the pressure of the ion plasma sheet. Different sets of variables are constructed and correlated with Fe1.2: some sets maximize the correlations, and some sets are based on purely solar wind variables. Examining known physical mechanisms that act on the radiation belt, sets of correlations are constructed (1) using magnetospheric variables that control those physical mechanisms and (2) using the solar wind variables that control those magnetospheric variables. Fe1.2-increasing intervals are correlated separately from Fe1.2-decreasing intervals, and the introduction of autoregression into the time-integral correlations is explored. A great impediment to discerning physical cause and effect from the correlations is the fact that all solar wind variables are intercorrelated and carry much of the same information about the time sequence of the solar wind that drives the time sequence of the magnetosphere.

  18. A review of the health impacts of barium from natural and anthropogenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Julia; Darrah, Thomas H; Miller, Richard K; Lyerly, H Kim; Vengosh, Avner

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing public awareness of the relatively new and expanded industrial barium uses which are potential sources of human exposure (e.g., a shale gas development that causes an increased awareness of environmental exposures to barium). However, absorption of barium in exposed humans and a full spectrum of its health effects, especially among chronically exposed to moderate and low doses of barium populations, remain unclear. We suggest a systematic literature review (from 1875 to 2014) on environmental distribution of barium, its bioaccumulation, and potential and proven health impacts (in animal models and humans) to provide the information that can be used for optimization of future experimental and epidemiological studies and developing of mitigative and preventive strategies to minimize negative health effects in exposed populations. The potential health effects of barium exposure are largely based on animal studies, while epidemiological data for humans, specifically for chronic low-level exposures, are sparse. The reported health effects include cardiovascular and kidney diseases, metabolic, neurological, and mental disorders. Age, race, dietary patterns, behavioral risks (e.g., smoking), use of medications (those that interfere with absorbed barium in human organism), and specific physiological status (e.g., pregnancy) can modify barium effects on human health. Identifying, evaluating, and predicting the health effects of chronic low-level and moderate-level barium exposures in humans is challenging: Future research is needed to develop an understanding of barium bioaccumulation in order to mitigate its potential health impacts in various exposured populations. Further, while occupationally exposed at-risk populations exist, it is also important to identify potentially vulnerable subgroups among non-occupationally exposed populations (e.g., elderly, pregnant women, children) who are at higher risk of barium exposure from drinking water and food.

  19. The diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease cannot be made with barium esophagograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, C M G; Smout, A J P M; Bredenoord, A J

    2015-02-01

    For over 50 years, barium studies have been used to diagnose gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), but the value of this test is controversial. Our study aimed to determine if barium esophagograms can be used to diagnose GERD. Barium esophagograms and pH-impedance measurement were performed in 20 subjects with reflux symptoms. pH-impedance measurements were used as gold standard for the diagnosis of GERD. Gastro-esophageal reflux measured with the barium study was defined as a positive outcome. 50% of patients presented gastro-esophageal reflux on the barium esophagogram. No significant differences were observed in acid exposure time between subjects with (median: 7.4%; interquartile range, IQR: 8.4%) or without reflux at barium esophagography (median: 5.95%; IQR: 13.05%; p > 0.05). Nor did we find differences in median proximal extent of reflux measured with impedance monitoring between patients with a positive (median: 6.7%; IQR: 1.95%) and negative barium study (median: 7.1%; IQR: 0.68%; p > 0.05). Patients with reflux on barium esophagogram did not have a positive symptom association probability more often than those who did not have reflux at barium esophagography. Lastly, there were no differences in numbers of acid, weakly acidic or total reflux episodes between those with positive or negative barium esophagogram (p > 0.05). No correlations were found between the maximum proximal extent of gastro-esophageal reflux during esophagography and pH-impedance parameters. Presence or absence of gastro-esophageal reflux during barium esophagography does not correlate with incidence or extent of reflux observed during 24-h pH-impedance monitoring and is not of value for the diagnosis of GERD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Construction of tangential injection NBI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohga, Tokumichi; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru

    1995-09-01

    In the Upgrading of the JT-60, the vacuum vessel has been modified to a larger bore. This larger bore vacuum vessel yields a larger toroidal field ripple in the vicinity of a plasma surface because of closing the toroidal field coils and plasmas. A ripple loss of injected neutral beams, then, estimated to be 30-40% through ripple field in the beam injection with the present NBI system that injects the beam perpendicularly to the plasma. An effective way to decrease the ripple loss in the plasma is to inject the beam tangentially. Meanwhile, it has been determined possible with the JT-60 upgrading to use a horizontal port as a tangential beam injection, because of eliminating a group of outer horizontal poloidal coils which are used as a divertor coil in the former JT-60. The modification from perpendicular beamline to tangential one has been executed in four beamlines out of 14 units. Four tangential beamlines are installed in two beamline tanks which are newly fabricated and positioned co- and counter-injection, respectively. Most of the beamline components are reused except a couple of cancellation coils. The modification to the tangential beamline completed in 1993, and the beam injection experiments with the tangential have been conducted successfully since 1993. (author)