WorldWideScience

Sample records for barium carbonate poisoning

  1. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  2. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  3. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful...

  5. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Kent; Smollin, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The main symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are non-specific in nature and relate to effects on the brain and heart. The symptoms correlate poorly with serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels. People with comorbidity, elderly or very young people, and pregnant women are most susceptible.Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, including inadequately ventilated heaters and car exhausts, or from chemicals such as methylene chloride paint stripper.Poisoning is cons...

  6. Mass carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    McGuffie, C; Wyatt, J.; Kerr, G; Hislop, W

    2000-01-01

    The largest occurrence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Britain demonstrates the potential for mass accidental poisoning. It emphasises the need for strict public health controls and the importance of good liaison between emergency services to ensure that such events are quickly recognised and that the necessary resources are organised.

  7. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters ... 16567227 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567227 . Nelson LS, Hoffman RS. Inhaled toxins. In: Marx JA, ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural gas, propane, oil, and methane) burn incompletely. ** Carbon Monoxide can have different effects on people based on its concentration in the air that people breathe, and the person’s health condition.**** Each year, carbon monoxide poisoning claims approximately 480 lives and sends another ...

  9. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of acute carbon monoxide poisoning with 1-year computed tomographic follow-up is presented. The typical initial bilateral symmetrical low-density areas in the basal ganglia were found to have decreased markedly in size in the latter scan. These appearances coincided with the initial early oedematous phase of infarction ending in the late permanent necrotic stage

  10. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home ...

  11. Diagnosing poisoning: Carbon monoxide (CO)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    Guidance for primary�care�on how to deal with�patients presenting with possible symptoms of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Produced by the Health Protection Agency and adapted by the Public Health Agency.

  12. Diagnosing poisoning: Carbon monoxide (CO)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    Guidance for primarycareon how to deal withpatients presenting with possible symptoms of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Produced by the Health Protection Agency and adapted by the Public Health Agency.

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Louise W; Nañagas, Kristine A

    2005-11-01

    CO is an ubiquitous poison with many sources of exposure. CO poisoning produces diverse signs and symptoms that are often subtle and may be easily misdiagnosed. Failure to diagnose CO poisoning may result insignificant morbidity and mortality and permit continued exposure to a dangerous environment. Treatment of CO poisoning begins with inhalation of supplemental oxygen and aggressive supportive care. HBOT accelerates dissociation of CO from hemoglobin and may also prevent DNS. Absolute indications forHBOT for CO poisoning remain controversial, although most authors would agree that HBOT is indicated in patients who are comatose or neurologically abnormal, have a history of LOC with their exposure, or have cardiac dysfunction. Pregnancy with an elevated CO-Hgb level(>15%-20%) is also widely, considered an indication for treatment.HBOT may be considered in patients who have persistent symptoms despite NBO, metabolic acidosis, abnormalities on neuropsychometric testing, or significantly elevated levels. The ideal regimen of oxygen therapy has yet to be determined, and significant controversy exists regarding HBOTtreatment protocols. Often the local medical toxicologist, poison control center, or hyperbaric unit may assist the treating physician with decisions regarding therapy. PMID:16227059

  14. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is Carbon Monoxide? Carbon monoxide, or “CO,” is an odorless, colorless gas that can kill you. Carbon monoxide detector Where is CO found? CO is ...

  15. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  16. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Audience: This oral boards case is appropriate for all emergency medicine learners (residents, interns, and medical students). Introduction: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless and odorless gas that typically results from combustion. It binds hemoglobin, dissociating oxygen, causing headache, weakness, confusion and possible seizure or coma. Pulse oxygen levels may be falsely elevated. Practitioners should maintain a high in...

  17. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  18. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  19. Tips on Protecting Your Family from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk of exposure to carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is an odorless, invisible gas produced when ... room and tell the physician you suspect carbon monoxide poisoning. If carbon monoxide poisoning has occurred, it often can be ...

  20. Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, I. K.; Kennedy, P. G.; Adams, J H; Cunningham, N. E.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted.

  1. Carbon monoxide poisoning in a diver.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, H

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a well recognized, but uncommon hazard of sport and inshore diving, which occurs either as a result of a faulty air compressor or from air contamination by the exhaust of nearby petrol engines. The incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning may be under-reported as it may mimic decompression sickness, and respond to the same treatment i.e. hyperbaric oxygen.

  2. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan; Atilla Çayır; Haşim Olgun

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific...

  3. Barium carbonate as an agent to improve the electrical properties of neodymium-barium-copper system at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specialized ceramics are manufactured under special conditions and contain specific elements. They possess unique electrical and thermal properties and are frequently used by the electronics industry. Ceramics containing neodymium-barium-copper (NBC) exhibit high conductivities at low temperatures. NBC-based ceramics are typically combined with oxides, i.e., NBCo produced from neodymium oxide, barium oxide and copper oxide. This study presents NBC ceramics that were produced with barium carbonate, copper oxide and neodymium oxide (NBCa) as starting materials. These ceramics have good electrical conductivities at room temperature. Their conductivities are temperature dependent and related to the starting amount of barium carbonate (w%). - Highlights: • The new crystalline structure were obtained due presence of the barium carbonate. • The NBCa compound has excellent electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The grain crystalline morphology was modified by presence of the barium carbonate. • New Phases α and β were introduced by carbonate barium in the NBC compound

  4. Barium carbonate as an agent to improve the electrical properties of neodymium-barium-copper system at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, J.P. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Duarte, G.W. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Research Group in Technology and Information, Centro Universitário Barriga Verde (UNIBAVE), Santa Catarina, SC (Brazil); Caldart, C. [Post-Graduate Program in Science and Materials Engineering, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, 88806-000 (Brazil); Kniess, C.T. [Post-Graduate Program in Professional Master in Management, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montedo, O.R.K.; Rocha, M.R. [Post-Graduate Program in Science and Materials Engineering, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, 88806-000 (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Fiori, M.A., E-mail: fiori@unochapeco.edu.br [Post-Graduate Program in Environmental Science, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (UNOCHAPECÓ), Chapecó, SC, 89809-000 (Brazil); Post-Graduate Program in Technology and Management of the Innovation, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (UNOCHAPECÓ), Chapecó, SC, 89809-000 (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Specialized ceramics are manufactured under special conditions and contain specific elements. They possess unique electrical and thermal properties and are frequently used by the electronics industry. Ceramics containing neodymium-barium-copper (NBC) exhibit high conductivities at low temperatures. NBC-based ceramics are typically combined with oxides, i.e., NBCo produced from neodymium oxide, barium oxide and copper oxide. This study presents NBC ceramics that were produced with barium carbonate, copper oxide and neodymium oxide (NBCa) as starting materials. These ceramics have good electrical conductivities at room temperature. Their conductivities are temperature dependent and related to the starting amount of barium carbonate (w%). - Highlights: • The new crystalline structure were obtained due presence of the barium carbonate. • The NBCa compound has excellent electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The grain crystalline morphology was modified by presence of the barium carbonate. • New Phases α and β were introduced by carbonate barium in the NBC compound.

  5. Barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to barium content in fluoride. In order to obtain the comprehensive view on barium distribution in fluorite 303 mono mineral fractions of various geologic deposits and ores of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and some geologic deposits of Russia were analyzed. The barium content in fluorite of geologic deposits of various mineralogical and genetic type was defined. The basic statistical estimation of barium distribution in fluorite were evaluated.

  6. Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Davous, P; Rondot, P; Marion, M H; Gueguen, B

    1986-01-01

    Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

  7. Intestinal infarction following carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Balzan, M.; Cacciottolo, J. M.; Casha, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 65 year old patient admitted with carbon monoxide poisoning developed acute pulmonary oedema during treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. After initial recovery he developed extensive intestinal ischaemia which rapidly led to death. It is suggested that intestinal vasoconstriction due to left ventricular failure made the gut much more vulnerable to the hypoxic effects of carbon monoxide than the brain and heart.

  8. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

  9. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Shruti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS, heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign, symptoms, and radiological evidence of suspected CO poisoning.

  10. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Mohammad Hossein Davari; Abolfazl Mollasadeghi; Mohammad Reza Vahidi; Mehrdad Mostaghaci; Maryam Bahaloo; Pedram Shokouh

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months...

  11. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...... after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup....

  12. A Myoclonus Case Related to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Özışık, Handan Işın; Kızkın, Sibel; Cemal ÖZCAN; Bölük, Ayhan; Çalışkan, Özden

    2005-01-01

    Delayed neurological findings due to carbon monoxide poisoning are changes in cognition and personality, psychotic behavior and parkinsonism. Rarely, these patients have movement disorders such dystonia, chorea and myoclonus. In this case study, we reported a case in which myoclonus appeared in the late stage of CO poisoning. Key words: Carbon monoxide poisoning, Movement disorders, Myoclonus.

  13. Brain MRI findings of carbon disulfide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the findings of brain MRI in patients with carbon disulfide poisoning. Ninety-one patients who had suffered carbon disulfide poisoning [male:female=87:4; age, 32-74 (mean 53.3) years] were included in this study. To determine the extent of white matter hyperintensity (Grade 0-V) and lacunar infarction, T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain was performed. T2-weighted images depicted white matter hyperintensity in 70 patients (76.9%) and lacunar infarcts in 27 (29.7%). In these patients, the prevalent findings at T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain were white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarcts. Disturbance of the cardiovascular system by carbon disulfide might account for these results

  14. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Pillion, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  15. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Shruti; Gupta Rahul; Paul Barinder; Puri Sandeep; Garg Shuchita

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS), heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign...

  16. ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  17. ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Gonullu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  18. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Y. S.

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied ...

  19. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function

    OpenAIRE

    Özgür Çiftçi; Murat Günday; Mustafa Çaliskan; Hakan Güllü; Rafi Dogan; Aytekin Güven; Haldun Müderrisoglu

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Ec...

  20. Intravascular Neutrophil Activation Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Thom, Stephen R.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Han, Shih-Tsung; Clark, James M.; HARDY, KEVIN R.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: We hypothesized that platelet–neutrophil interactions occur as a result of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, and subsequent neutrophil activation triggers events that cause neurologic sequelae.

  1. Myth busting in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    The evidence supporting many beliefs in medicine is based upon opinion, personal experience, hearsay, or "common knowledge." When one searches for the data supporting oft-quoted facts in medicine, they are sometimes found to be old, incorrect, or nonexistent. Such unsupported facts or beliefs can be termed myths. This minireview will summarize 4 examples of "myth busting" by the author when he has discovered widely held beliefs regarding carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning to be untrue during a 25-year career of research in the field. These include the mistaken beliefs that (1) symptoms correlate with presenting blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, (2) residents are safe from CO poisoning if their home does not contain fuel-burning appliances, (3) carboxyhemoglobin levels must be measured rapidly and on arterial blood, and (4) CO poisoning predisposes to premature long-term death from cardiac disease. In addition to providing the evidence disproving these myths, the importance of going back to the original reference when citing prior work is emphasized. PMID:26632018

  2. Cortical blindness in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katafuchi, Y; Nishimi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Matsuishi, T; Kimura, Y; Otaki, E; Yamashita, Y

    1985-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy had persistent cortical blindness following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. He was believed to have suffered anoxic brain damage due to incomplete combustion of the briquette-type solid fuel. Computed tomographic (CT) scan of the brain and visual evoked potentials (VEP) in the early stage were normal. However, on the 20th hospital day CT scan showed leukomalacia and VEP showed an absence of N1-, and P1-waves which was well correlated with the clinical feature at that time. PMID:4083389

  3. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured b...

  4. Severe neurologic impairment and uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings after carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Clément; Bouix, Julien; Poyat, Chrystelle; Alhanati, Laure; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Falzone, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of fatal poisoning worldwide and can lead to severe brain damages. We report a delayed encephalopathy after a severe carbon monoxide poisoning with uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings. PMID:26078257

  5. Case of carbon monoxide poisoning after smoking shisha

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Beng Leong; Lim, Ghee Hian; Seow, Eillyne

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning has been reported as a result of exposure to various sources of smoke, such as car exhaust fumes, home water heaters and tobacco smoke. We describe a case of symptomatic, moderately severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in a young Mediterranean man after smoking a waterpipe, or shisha. This case highlights the importance of considering carbon monoxide exposure in patients presenting with non-specific neurological symptoms to the emergency department (ED).

  6. Pitfalls in diagnosis and management of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, B.; Crawford, R

    1996-01-01

    Five members of one family suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning are described. Three were initially diagnosed as food poisoning cases at another hospital. A high level of suspicion is required to ensure early diagnosis. Indications for hyperbaric oxygen include: loss of consciousness, neurological signs and symptoms other than mild headache, cardiac complications, carboxyhaemoglobin > 40%, and pregnancy.

  7. New efficient catalyst for ammonia synthesis: barium-promoted cobalt on carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Stefan; Barfod, Rasmus; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Jacobsen, Claus J.H.; Teunissen, Herman T; Ståhl, Kenny; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2002-01-01

    Barium-promoted cobalt catalysts supported on carbon exhibit higher ammonia activities at synthesis temperatures than the commercial, multipromoted iron catalyst and also a lower ammonia......Barium-promoted cobalt catalysts supported on carbon exhibit higher ammonia activities at synthesis temperatures than the commercial, multipromoted iron catalyst and also a lower ammonia...

  8. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms. PMID:27120897

  9. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  10. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Carbon Monoxide Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/carbonmonoxidepoisoning.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  11. Carbon monoxide: The 21st century poison that goes unnoticed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This editorial article describes the effects of carbon monoxide poisoning on human beings and the mechanisms involving carbon monoxide saturation of haemoglobin that are responsible for it. The initial research done in the mid-1800s by Claude Bernard is presented. Methods of treatment for persons poisoned by carbon monoxide are discussed and the experiments made by J.B.S. Haldane on himself by breathing in carbon monoxide are described. Acclimatisation effects observed by Haldane and his co-workers and concerning persons occupationally exposed to carbon monoxide emissions are described

  12. Symmetrical Femoral Neuropathy and Rhabdomyolysis Complicating Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hua Kuo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Although carbon monoxide (CO is a common cause of morbidity due to poisoning,peripheral neuropathy following CO poisoning has rarely been reported. Furthermore, rhabdomyolysiscaused of CO poisoning is also uncommon. The report focuses on a patient withsymmetrical femoral neuropathy and rhabdomyolysis associated with CO poisoning.A 32-year-old male was admitted to hospital in a deep coma following CO poisoning.On admission, rhabdomylosis was also identified (total creatinine phosphokinase, 19662IU/L; CK-MB, 272 IU/L. After receiving hyperbaric oxygen, the patient regained consciousness;however, bilateral hip flexors and knee extensors were still weak in accordanceto the manual muscle test. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performedand did not reveal any abnormal lesions. Nerve conduction examination and electromyographyresults indicated symmetrical femoral neuropathy. After taking the rehabilitation programfor peripheral and central nervous system lesions, the patient achieved functionalimprovement in ambulation, endurance and balance.

  13. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Çiftçi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Echocardiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and 1 week after poisoning. Results: The impairment observed in the left and right ventricular diastolic function at the time of admission was greater than the impairment 1 week after poisoning. Mild CO poisoning did not have a significant effect on systolic function. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were positively correlated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, whereas the levels were not correlated with right ventricular diastolic function. Conclusions: In CO intoxication, the development of left and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction precedes systolic abnormality. Patients with mild CO poisoning do not manifest cardiovascular symptoms; however, it should be borne in mind that most of these patients have myocardial involvement.

  14. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of two patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning demonstrated white matter and cortical hyperintensities. In one patient, the changes on the FLAIR sequence were more subtle than those on DWI. The DWI abnormality in this patient represented true restriction. In the second patient, repeated exposure to CO caused restricted diffusion. DWI may be helpful for earlier identification of the changes of acute CO poisoning. (orig.)

  15. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

    1989-10-01

    An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

  16. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Improved Method of its Spot Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Rajwar

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews some investigations on carbon monoxide poisoning and describes a detailed method for detection of carbon monoxide. A comparative study indicating the scope, limitation and range of the various other methods of spot detection has also been given.

  17. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning alters hemorheological parameters in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Baris; Arihan, Okan; Coskun, Figen; Dikmenoglu-Falkmarken, Neslihan H

    2016-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning seriously hinders oxygen delivery to tissues. This harmful effect of CO may be aggravated by accompanying changes in the viscosity of blood. We had previously reported increased plasma viscosity in people chronically exposed to CO. This study was planned to test our hypothesis that acute CO poisoning increases blood viscosity. For this purpose four main parameters contributing to blood viscosity - hematocrit, erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation and plasma viscosity - were determined in patients with acute CO poisoning and compared with healthy controls. Plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation tendency were lower in the CO group (p <  0.05). Erythrocyte deformability was also lower in CO group (p <  0.05). Our results indicate that acute CO poisoning has diverse effects on hemorheological parameters such as attenuating hematocrit value, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation tendency and erythrocyte deformability. PMID:25536918

  18. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... talking with the Poison Control Center. GETTING HELP Call the Poison Control Center emergency number at 1-800-222-1222. DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you call. Try to have the following information ready: The ...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of carbon monoxide poisoning in chronic stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated in three patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in chronic stage by comparison with serial X-ray computed tomography (CT). In Case 1 and 3, no pallidal lesions believed to be the most common lesion of the gray matter in CO poisoning were found in the serial X-ray CT scans. In the other case (Case 2), the typical initial bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the globus pallidus were found to have decreased markedly in size and finally disappeared in the latter X-ray CT scan. But MRI using inversion recovery (IR) or spin echo (SE) pulse sequence clearly showed bilateral symmetrical decreased or increased signal intensity areas in the globus pallidus in all three cases. In Case 3, chronic CO poisoning was confirmed by the bilateral symmetrical pallidal lesions on MRI, although differential diagnosis was difficult. Furthermore, in Case 2, with pure alexia, MRI using IR or SE pulse sequence demonstrated a patchy decreased or increased signal intensity area in the subcortical white matter at the left angular gyrus, although X-ray CT scan showed no abnormal findings. MRI is useful in the diagnosis of CO poisoning, especially chronic CO poisoning, because necrosis, cavitation, demyelination, gliosis and so on due to hypoxia of CO poisoning were sensitively detected from changes in the proton density and the T1 or T2 relaxation time value on MRI. (J.P.N.)

  20. Frequency of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Turkey in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In Turkey, studies about frequency of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning are rare. In this study, it is aimed to determine the frequency of the CO poisoning cases occurring all around the country. METHOD: This study was planned as a descriptive study covering Turkey in general as stage. In this study, the CO poisoning case records of Ministry of Health Treat Services General Directorate in 2010 have been examined. The distribution of cases among regions-provinces, mortality rates, types of CO sources, seasonal and monthly dispersions have been examined. RESULTS: According to the records, totally 10.154 cases of CO poisoning were detected in Turkey in 2010 and only 39 of them were ended with death. It is determined that the frequency of cases is 0,0137% (approximately 14 in every 100.000 and mortality rate is about 5 in every 10 million. Poisoning cases have been occurred mostly in Marmara Region (3.426 cases, 33,7%. When it is evaluated in regard to the population, cases are mostly seen in Kilis (0,1998%. As of mortality rates, Bursa has the most number of cases ending with death (18 cases. CONCLUSION: Compared to studies in other countries, according to our data, Turkey was faced with more frequent cases of CO poisoning. The number of cases has increased, especially during the winter months. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 587-592

  1. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  2. Carbon monoxide poisoning: Bilateral lesions in the thalamus on MR imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging of the brain in a child with carbon monoxide poisoning revealed bilateral diffuse high signal in the centrum semiovale and the previously unreported finding of bilateral high intensity lesions the anterior thalami. This case illustrates a previously unrecognized effect of carbon monoxide poisoning and demonstrates the superiority of MR imaging over computed tomography in cases of carbon monoxide poisoning. (orig.)

  3. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured by the end 2011. The dementia incidence was 1.6-fold higher in the CO exposed cohort than in the non-exposed cohort (15.2 vs 9.76 per 10,000 person-years; n = 62 vs 174) with an adjusted HR of 1.50 (95% CI = 1.11–2.04). The sex- and age-specific hazards were higher in male patients (adjusted HR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.20–2.54), and those aged <=49 years (adjusted HR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.38–4.99). CO exposed patients with 7-day or longer hospital stay had an adjusted HR of 2.18 (95% CI = 1.42, 3.36). The CO poisoning patients on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy had an adjusted HR of 1.80 (95% CI = 0.96–3.37). This study suggests that CO poisoning may have association with the risk of developing dementia, which is significant for severe cases. The effectiveness of HBO2 therapy remains unclear in preventing dementia. Patients with CO poisoning are more prevalent with depression. PMID:26735545

  4. CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING--A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries: fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or mis-diagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxicat...

  5. Calcification of the basal ganglia following carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor calcification of the basal ganglia was demonstrated by computed tomography in a woman, aged 66, who had survived carbon monoxide poisoning 48 years earlier. Extensive neuropathological investigations have demonstrated calcified lesions of the basal ganglia in a number of conditions, but their frequency and topographic distribution in vivo remain to be elucidated, by means of CT. (orig.)

  6. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Seda Ozkan; Tayfun Ozturk; Yavuz Ozmen; Polat Durukan

    2013-01-01

    Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. ...

  7. A case of first degree AV block in carbon monoxide poisoning patient

    OpenAIRE

    Salih, Salih Bin; Alenezi, Helal; Alghamdi, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is one of the most common types of poisoning. Cardiac manifestations of CO poisoning are limited to case reports of Electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, myocardial dysfunction and myocardial ischemia.

  8. An Unusual Cause of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Zengin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Exposure to high concentrations of CO can be letha and is the most common cause of death from poisoning worldwide. Cardiac manifestations after exposure to CO, including myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmias, have been reported. A 28-year-old a patient was admitted to our emergency department with altered consciousness as a consequence of acute domestic exposure to CO from a stove. His carboxyhemoglobin level was 39%. The oxygen treatment was started promptly, and therapeutic red cell exchange was performed. An electrocardiogram revealed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, and an echocardiographic examination demonstrated normal cardiac functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the second to report a case of SVT attack due to acute CO intoxication. This paper discusses the management of this complication in patients poisoned with CO.

  9. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that could poison you include the following: Cleaning products Household products, such as nail polish remover and other personal ... Get rid of old or expired medicines and household products. Keep medicines and chemicals in their original containers. ...

  10. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning: easy to treat but difficult to recognise.

    OpenAIRE

    Balzan, M. V.; Agius, G.; Galea Debono, A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common medical emergency and a frequent cause of deliberate or accidental death. It can cause acute and chronic central nervous system damage which may be minimised by prompt treatment with 100% oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, recognition of this intoxication can be difficult. Failure to diagnose it may have disastrous effects on the patient, and other members of the household who could subsequently become intoxicated. Guidance on the correct ...

  12. The Role of Oxygen Therapies in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate and socio-economic issues in Turkey, the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is high, especially in winter. Clinical manifestations may vary depending on the type of CO source, concentration and duration of exposure. The symptoms of CO poisoning predominantly manifest in lots of organs and systems with high oxygen utilization, especially the brain and the heart. The primary aim in oxygen therapy is to eliminate CO and to reduce its toxic effects. In this context, normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are used to achieve these goals. Normobaric oxygen (NBO treatment is an easily accessible and relatively not expensive modality, where hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy requires specific equipment, certified staff and is available only in some centers. Additionally, HBO treatment has several additional advantages over NBO treatment. Despite its benefits, it is compulsory to search for some criteria in selecting patients to be treated because of the limited availability and access of hyperbaric facilities. For an effective evaluation and an optimal treatment, advanced education of the healthcare professionals on the use of oxygen delivery modalities in the management of CO poisoning is imperative. In this review, it has been aimed to outline the significance of oxygen treatment modalities and to determine patient selection criteria for HBO treatment in the management of CO poisoning which continues to be an important threat to community health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 487-494

  13. [Acute coronary syndrome with impaired left ventricular function in a carbon monoxide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilla, E; Pons, F; Poyet, R; Kerebel, S; Jego, C; Louge, P; Cellarier, G-R

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in France. Neuropsychological symptoms are most common. We report on a patient with acute coronary syndrome and transient left ventricular dysfunction in carbon monoxide poisoning. Patient improved under hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Coronary angiography shows no significant lesion leading to myocardial stunning diagnose. Patients exposed to carbon monoxide must have systematic cardiac evaluation with electrocardiogram and dosage of biomarkers. PMID:25261170

  14. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity: The difficulty in diagnosing this leading cause of poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. Th...

  15. Carbon monoxide poisoning-induced cardiomyopathy from charcoal at a barbecue restaurant: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwak, Kyeong Min; Ahn, Se-Jin; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Ju, Young-Su; Kwon, Young-Jun; Kim, Eun-A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has important clinical value because it can cause severe adverse cardiovascular effects and sudden death. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning due to charcoal is well reported worldwide, and increased use of charcoal in the restaurant industry raises concern for an increase in occupational health problems. We present a case of carbon monoxide poisoning induced cardiomyopathy in a 47-year-old restaurant worker. Materials and methods A male patient was broug...

  16. A Case of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning with Thrombus in Right Atrium

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyoin; Kim, Dae-Hee; Sun, Byung Joo; Kim, Joon-Seok; Yang, Jeeeun; Kim, Sun-Mok; Park, So Young; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a nonirritant, odorless, colorless gas. Its effects are prominent in organs most sensitive to oxygen deprivation, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Although less frequently, an association between thromboembolic events and carbon monoxide poisoning has been shown in the literatures. In this case, we report a case of atrial thrombus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  17. Carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes - report of two survivors from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning can result from, e.g., the use of unvented coal-burning heaters, indoor barbecues, or inhalation of exhaust of vehicles. The latter is sometimes used to commit suicide. The most common presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is cerebral hypoxia. Despite frequent use of indoor coal-burning heaters and stoves during winter months in the northern part of India, carbon monoxide poisoning has been infrequently reported. We describe two cases of carbon monoxide poisoning who reported to the Emergency Department in the early morning of a winter season with un-witnessed, unexplained development of altered level of consciousness. PMID:26873733

  18. Carbon monoxide poisoning in a patient with carbon dioxide retention: a therapeutic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Tristan RA; Williamson, Wilby J; Brostoff, Joshua M

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 70 year-old man with carbon monoxide poisoning following a house fire. A significant smoking history and likely underlying chronic lung pathology complicated treatment, as due to symptomatic retention of carbon dioxide we were unable to use high-flow oxygen to facilitate the elimination of carbon monoxide. We suggest that patients with risk factors for obstructive lung disease be monitored extremely carefully during treatment for carbon monoxide toxicity.

  19. Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachulis, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

  20. Abnormal fingernail beds following carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hatami, Mehrangiz; Naftolin, Frederick; Khatamee, Masood A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is a very common cause of death in accidental, suicidal, or homicidal cases throughout the world. Fingernail bed manifestation is reported in survivors of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A 40-year-old Caucasian woman was exposed to carbon monoxide when she was sleeping alone in her one-bedroom apartment; fortunately, the beeps from her First Alert combination smoke and carbon monoxide detector woke her and she was saved from any extensive he...

  1. CT of the brain in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral computed tomographic (CT) findings of acute carbon monoxide (Co) poisoning were analized in thirty-six cases treated with hyperbraric oxygen therapy and their relationship with prognosis was evaluated. The cases were classified into there groups, early stage, interval form, and non-interval form groups. In all groups, the initial abnormality was low density areas presumably due to edema, demyelination and/or softening. It was seen in the globus pallidus and/or white matter. Following these initial changes, cerebral hemorrhage, ventricular dilatation, and cerebral atrophy developed in a few cases. The frequency of abnormal CT findings was higher in the interval form group (85 %) or non-interval group (83 %) than the early stage group (41 %). The prognosis was good in most cases with normal CT findings. The possibility of recovery diminished in the patients with abnormal CT findings. The prognosis was particularly poor in cases showing abnormality both in globus pallidus and white matter. We conclude that CT is useful not only for detecting the pathologic change but also for predicting the prognosis of the patient with acute Co poisoning. (author)

  2. Brain CT scan in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brain CT findings in 19 patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning was analysed and the emphasis was placed on the relationship between CT findings and prognosis. Five had a normal manifestation in CT ; eight had the findings of ovoid or patchy low density area in globus pallidus, bilateral or unlateral, during the second day to fifth week after poisoning, and the low density areas were decreasing and blurring in edge in follow up and at last disappeared during 3 - 14 weeks in three cases of them ; nine showed the appearance of diffuse low density of white matter and of globus pallidus in some of them ; two had an appearance of brain atrophy. The pathology of CT findings mentioned above may be brain edema, necrosis, malacia and degeneration in gray matter and globus pallidus. The result suggested the cases with normal CT manifestation, cerebral edema and decreasing and disappearing low density area had a good prognosis, in contrary, the cases with persistant low density in globus pallidus had a poorer prognosis. (author)

  3. Regeneration of barium carbonate from barium sulphide in a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor and utilization for acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulopo, J; Zvimba, J N; Swanepoel, H; Bologo, L T; Maree, J

    2012-01-01

    Batch regeneration of barium carbonate (BaCO(3)) from barium sulphide (BaS) slurries by passing CO(2) gas into a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of BaCO(3) recovery in the Alkali Barium Calcium (ABC) desalination process and its use for sulphate removal from high sulphate Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of key process parameters, such as BaS slurry concentration and CO(2) flow rate on the carbonation, as well as the extent of sulphate removal from AMD using the recovered BaCO(3) were investigated. It was observed that the carbonation reaction rate for BaCO(3) regeneration in a bubbling column reactor significantly increased with increase in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) flow rate whereas the BaS slurry content within the range 5-10% slurry content did not significantly affect the carbonation rate. The CO(2) flow rate also had an impact on the BaCO(3) morphology. The BaCO(3) recovered from the pilot-scale bubbling column reactor demonstrated effective sulphate removal ability during AMD treatment compared with commercial BaCO(3). PMID:22233912

  4. Characteristics of Children with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Ankara: A Single Centre Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal Sac, Rukiye; Taşar, Medine Ayşin; Bostancı, İlknur; Şimşek, Yurda; Bilge Dallar, Yıldız

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to define characteristics of children with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Eighty children hospitalized with acute carbon monoxide poisoning were recruited prospectively over a period of 12 months. Sociodemographic features, complaints and laboratory data were recorded. When the patient was discharged, necessary preventive measures to be taken were explained to parents. One month later, the parents were questioned during a control examination regarding the precautions that they took. The ages of the cases were between one month and 16 yr. Education levels were low in 86.2% of mothers and 52.6% of fathers. All families had low income and 48.8% did not have formal housing. The source of the acute carbon monoxide poisoning was stoves in 71.2% of cases and hot-water heaters in 28.8% of cases. Three or more people were poisoned at home in 85.1% of the cases. The most frequent symptoms of poisoning were headache and vertigo (58.8%). Median carboxyhemoglobin levels at admission to the hospital and discharge were measured as 19.5% and 1.1% (P carbon monoxide poisoning are usually from families with low socioeconomic and education levels. Education about prevention should be provided to all people who are at risk of carbon monoxide poisoning before a poisoning incident occurs. PMID:26713060

  5. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Some Surprising Aspects of the Equilibrium between Hemoglobin, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senozan, N. M.; Devore, J. A.

    1996-08-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning and some aspects of the equilibrium between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and hemoglobin are discussed within the framework of Haldane's laws. The effect of CO on respiration is analyzed quantitatively using oxygen dissociation curves of hemoglobin in presence of carboxyhemoglobin. The analysis shows that the adverse cardiovascular consequences of chronic CO exposure are unlikely to be due to reduced O2 transport capability of hemoglobin.

  6. Epidemiology of carbon monoxide gas poisoning deaths in Ardabil city, 2008-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Farzaneh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon monoxide gas is odorless, colorless and toxic which are the most abundant pollutants in the lower atmosphere. Carbon monoxide poisoning is considered as one of the most common causes of mortality in Iran and Ardabil province. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of carbon monoxide gas poisoning died patients during 2008 to 2013. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, with referral to the Ardabil coroner center and poisoning ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, the statistics related to carbon monoxide poisoning died patients have been extracted and entered into the Checklists then analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS.19. Results: The number of deceased in this study was 35 people with a mean age of 33.66 +/- 21.38. Of them, 19 (54.3% were male and 16 (45.7% were female. 85.7 percent of the deceased had been poisoned at home which from them 71.4% died before transaction to hospital. The season winter with 48.6% include the most of cases and the most common vehicle of intoxication was water heater with 48.6%. Conclusion: Carbon monoxide gas poisoning is one of the cases that causes to death of people in Ardabil every year and so promoting public awareness about risks due to Carbon monoxide could have a considerable role in the prevention of poisoning. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 929-932

  7. Ammonia synthesis with barium-promoted iron–cobalt alloys supported on carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Stefan; Barfod, Rasmus; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Chorkendorff, Ib; Jacobsen, Claus J.H.; Teunissen, Herman T.

    2003-01-01

    Iron–cobalt alloys supported on carbon were investigated as ammonia synthesis catalysts. Barium was found to have a promoting effect for Fe with an optimum atomic ratio Ba/Fe of 0.35. At this Ba loading, a local maximum for the NH3 synthesis activity was found at 4 wt% Co by varying the Fe/Co ratio....... Samples containing only Co and no Fe, however, yielded by far the most active catalysts (7.0 μmol (NH3) g−1 s−1, 673 K, 10 bar). Barium was a very efficient promoter for Co, increasing the NH3 synthesis activity by more than two orders of magnitude compared to the unpromoted Co samples, while it was not...

  8. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning In Children: Diagnosis And Management In The Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnow, Theodore E; Waltzman, Mark L

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 5000 children present to the emergency department annually with unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning. Children may be more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of their increased metabolic demand and their inability to vocalize symptoms or recognize a dangerous exposure, and newborn infants are more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of the persistence of fetal hemoglobin. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning may present as viral symptoms in the absence of fever. While headache, nausea, and vomiting are the most common presenting symptoms in children, the most common symptom in infants is consciousness disturbance. This review discusses the limitations of routine pulse oximetry and carboxyhemoglobin measurement in determining carbon monoxide exposure, and notes effects of co-ingestions and comorbidities. Although the mainstay of treatment is 100% oxygen, the current evidence and controversies in the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in pediatric patients is reviewed, along with its possible benefit in preventing delayed neurologic sequelae. PMID:27547917

  10. An Epidemiological Study of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Rate and a Comparison with Other Poisonings Recorded in Mazandaran Department of Forensic Medicine, 2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless and poisonous gas. Since there is currently no information on the prevalence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Mazandaran, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of carbon monoxide poisoning and compare its prevalence with other poisonings recorded in Mazandaran Department of Forensic Medicine, from 2009 to 2011. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytical study, in which the information was received from Mazandaran Department of Forensic Medicine. Results: Among the 2446 human deaths in 2009, 2010, 2011, 237 deaths were due to poisoning and 27 (11.4% were due to carbon monoxide poisoning, which ranked third after narcotic and Aluminum phosphide intoxication. Poisoning in males was 1.7 times more than females. Co was the most common cause of deaths among people aged 21 to 30 years. Conclusion: Considering the fact that in most cases of poisoning deaths caused by CO (silent killer come by quietly and in a hidden manner, CO actually makes any defense and escape impossible for the person and despite seeing the shadow of death, that person will inevitably surrender and will be defeated. Therefore, it is necessary to educate and inform the public through media and educational institutions about the risks and sources of CO poisoning.

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning: correlation of neurological findings between accident and emergency departments and a hyperbaric unit

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, R.; Laden, G; Grout, P

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate and quantify the differences in neurological examination findings in patients acutely poisoned with carbon monoxide, between initial assessment at accident and emergency (A&E) departments and subsequently at a hyperbaric unit.

  12. Isotope brain scanning with Tc-HMPAO: a predictor of outcome in carbon monoxide poisoning?

    OpenAIRE

    Turner., M; Kemp, P M

    1997-01-01

    Tc-HMPAO isotope brain scans were performed in three patients who received hyperbaric oxygen treatment following carbon monoxide poisoning. Cerebral perfusion imaging provides an index of severity of the initial cerebral damage which correlated with outcome.

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, L.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

  14. Risk of Peripheral Artery Disease in Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Te-Yu; Dai, Ming-Shen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hung, Yuan; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can cause several life-threatening complications, particularly in cardiovascular and neurological systems. However, no studies have been performed to investigate the association between peripheral artery disease (PAD) and CO poisoning. We constructed a population-based retrospective cohort study to clarify the risks between PAD and CO poisoning. This population-based cohort study involved analyzing data from 1998 to 2010 obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2011. We identified patients with CO poisoning and selected a comparison cohort that was frequency matched according to age, sex, and year of diagnosis of CO poisoning at a ratio of 1 patient to 4 control patients. We analyzed the risks for patients with CO poisoning and PAD by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 9046 patients with CO poisoning and 36,183 controls were included. The overall risks for developing PAD were 1.85-fold in the patients with CO poisoning compared with the comparison cohort after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. Our long-term cohort study results showed a higher risk for PAD development among patients with CO poisoning. PMID:26448007

  15. Effect of the ruthenium loading and barium addition on the activity of ruthenium/carbon catalysts in carbon monoxide methanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truszkiewicz Elżbieta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of supported ruthenium catalysts was prepared and tested in methanation of small CO amounts (7000 ppm in hydrogen-rich streams. High surface area graphitized carbon (484 m2/g was used as a support for ruthenium and RuCl3 was used as a Ru precursor. Some of the Ru/C systems were additionally doped with barium (Ba(NO32 was barium precursor. The catalysts were characterized by the chemisorption technique using CO as an adsorbate. To determine the resistance of the catalysts to undesired carbon support methanation, the TG-MS experiments were performed. They revealed that the barium addition inhibits support losses. The studies of CO methanation (fl ow reactor, atmospheric pressure have shown that some of the supported ruthenium catalysts exhibit high activities referred to the metal mass. The catalytic properties of ruthenium proved to be dependent on metal dispersion. Some of the Ru/C and Ba-Ru/C systems exhibit higher activity in CO hydrogenation than the commercial nickel-based catalyst.

  16. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  17. Campaign to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning : fall-winter 2007-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quebec launched a public health campaign for the Montreal region to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. The objectives of the campaign were to communicate the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning, its potential sources, its effects on public health, and the means to prevent poisoning. Its purpose was to inform the public of the risks and strategies to be used in case of carbon monoxide poisoning and to lay out the merits of household carbon monoxide alarms. The communication was done by way of the media, in cooperation with community organizations and school boards. Other tools used in the campaign included the Internet, flyers and press releases. A poll taken in 2008 showed that 59 per cent of the respondents had one or more sources for carbon monoxide in their homes, including fireplaces, and that 28 per cent had a functioning alarm for carbon monoxide detection. A future survey will be held to follow-up on the evolution of the campaign. The development of various activities will help decrease the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. tabs., figs.

  18. Profile of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the west province of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To document the epidemiology and risk factors of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in the west of Iran and specify potentially presentable characteristics. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Imam Khomeini Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, from July 2006 to March 2008. Methodology: This study was conducted using the records of 143 cases of CO poisoning referred to the only centre for the reference of poisoning cases. Intent, age groups, source of poisoning and clinical presentation were noted and described as frequency. Results: One-hundred forty two cases (99.3%), were accidental and only one case (0.7%) was suicidal. Mortality was (21.7%, n=31). The highest mortality was found in the age groups of 20-30 years and below 10 years. The greatest frequency happened in autumn and winter. The clinical symptoms and manifestations of CO poisoning included headache (35.3%), nausea (25.4%), vomiting (21%), dyspnea (10.3%), and decrease in level of consciousness (8%). Gas water heaters (35%), room heaters (32%), stoves (24%) and other items (9%) were the principal sources of the individuals' exposure to CO. Conclusion: CO poisoning is a serious public health problem in west of Iran (Kermanshah). The number of CO poisoning cases was highest in the colder seasons of the year, whereas the majority of the poisoning cases could be prevented. (author)

  19. X-ray fluorescence analysis of strontium in environmental water by using barium carbonate coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of strontium in environmental water was studied by a coprecipitation method with barium carbonate and the subsequent X-ray fluorescence analysis. Fifty mg of barium ion and 1 g of sodium carbonate were added to sample water, which was then mixed for one hour by a magnetic stirrer. Precipitate was gathered onto a membrane filter paper to measure its XF intensity. The amount of strontium from 2 to 150 μg could be repeatedly determined by means of the calibration curve method, and the limit of detection was found to be 0.6 μg of strontium. A large amount of calcium and magnesium ions was found to interfere with the coprecipitation of strontium ion. However, this interference could be eliminated by using a small amount of sample water. Strontium in several environmental waters was determined by the above method. The results obtained from the calibration curve method and the standard addition method agreed with each other, and also agreed with those from the atomic absorption spectrometry. (author)

  20. Practice recommendations in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B; Piantadosi, Claude A; Thom, Stephen R; Weaver, Lindell K

    2012-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in modern society, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in the United States annually. Over the past two decades, sufficient information has been published about carbon monoxide poisoning in the medical literature to draw firm conclusions about many aspects of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and clinical management of the syndrome, along with evidence-based recommendations for optimal clinical practice. This article provides clinical practice guidance to the pulmonary and critical care community regarding the diagnosis, management, and prevention of acute CO poisoning. The article represents the consensus opinion of four recognized content experts in the field. Supporting data were drawn from the published, peer-reviewed literature on CO poisoning, placing emphasis on selecting studies that most closely mirror clinical practice. PMID:23087025

  1. 1H MR spectroscopy of gray and white matter in carbon monoxide poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, D.; Danielsen, E.R.; Hansen, K.;

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication leads to acute and chronic neurological deficits, but little is known about the specific noxious mechanisms. (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may allow insight into the pathophysiology of CO poisoning by monitoring neurochemical disturbances, yet only...... limited information is available to date on the use of this protocol in determining the neurological effects of CO poisoning. To further examine the short-term and long-term effects of CO on the central nervous system, we have studied seven patients with CO poisoning assessed by gray and white matter MRS...

  2. Carbon Monoxide Poisonings from Forklift Use During Produce Packing Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Anne E; Langley, Ricky L; McDaniel, Jesse S

    2016-01-01

    In August 2013, the North Carolina Division of Public Health investigated a carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on a farm. Two employees were overcome by CO and lost consciousness while using a propane-powered forklift to load produce into a refrigerated trailer backed up to a warehouse. One employee died, and the second employee was admitted to the hospital for hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Eighteen people, ranging in age from 18 to 69 years, were potentially exposed to CO, including the two employees, a family member who discovered the employees, two bystanders who stopped to offer assistance, and 13 first responders. Thirteen people who assisted in the emergency response experienced symptoms such as headache and dizziness, and all 16 who assisted were evaluated in a local hospital emergency department and released after receiving 100% oxygen. Blood tests showed five people (the two employees, family member, and two bystanders) had elevated blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, but all first responders had levels within normal range. Firefighters measured a peak CO concentration of 2214 parts per million in the warehouse. The North Carolina Division of Occupational Safety and Health investigated and determined that the forklift, operated inside the trailer with no ventilation, was the source of the CO. Public health investigation activities included interviewing responders, obtaining ambient CO concentration measurements from the fire department, advising the local health director, reviewing medical records, and developing a line listing of exposed persons. To prevent CO poisoning, employers should consider replacing gas-powered equipment with electric equipment, which does not produce CO. PMID:26788681

  3. Optimal burnable poison-loading in a PWR with carbon coated particle fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative PWR concept that uses carbon-coated particle fuels moderated by graphite as that of HTGR but cooled by pressurized light water has been studied. The aim of this concept is to take both the best advantages of fuel integrity against fission products release and the reliability PWR technology based on the long operational experience. The purpose of the study is to optimize loading pattern of burnable poison in the proposed core in order to suppress excess reactivity during a cycle. Although there are many parameters to be determined for optimization of the usage of burnable poison, the emphasis is put here on loading patterns of Gadolinia in an assembly and in the core. We investigated the burnup characteristics of the core varying the concentration of burnable poison in a fuel rod, the number of burnable poison-rods in an assembly, and the number of burnable poison-assemblies in the core. The result suggested that Gadolinia was more suitable for this reactor than boron as burnable poison, and it was possible to make the reactivity swing negligible by combining at least three kinds of burnable poison-assemblies in which the amount of Gadolinia was different. Therefore the requirement for the number of control rods was reduced and it meant that Control Rod Programming would become easier. (author)

  4. [Urgent cesarean section in a pregnant woman with carbon monoxide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Edit; Gesztes, Éva; Doroszlai, Richárd; Zacher, Gábor

    2014-06-01

    Recognition of carbon monoxide is difficult due to its plain physical-chemical properties. Carbon and gas operating heating systems may cause severe poisoning. Carbon-monoxide intoxication may generate severe hypoxic damage and it may cause death. The authors present the case of severe carbon monoxide poisoning affecting one young child and five adults, including a pregnant woman. Because the availability of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is limited in Hungary, urgent cesarean section was performed to avoid intrauterine hypoxic damage. The authors note that there are no standardized non-invasive methods for measuring fetal carbon-monoxide level and that the level of carbon monoxide accumulation is higher and the clearance is longer in the fetus than in the mother. The pathophysiology of carbon monoxide intoxication and therapeutic options in pregnancy are discussed. PMID:24860052

  5. The predictive value of MR diffusion weighted imaging on the delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)in predicting delayed encephalopathy of the rabbits brain after carbon monoxide (CO)poisoning. Methods: Sixty healthy rabbits were put into self-made poisoning cabinet and were poisoned by inhalation of CO. Aeration of CO was stopped when the rabbits became comatous, and the cabinet was kept airpoof for 6 h. The rabbits underwent MRI before poisoning , at 1 h, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 15 d, 30 d ,45 d, and 60 d after poisoning respectively. Axial and sagittal T2WI, axial T1WI and DWI were performed. In the rabbits that did not show symptoms of delayed encephalopathy, the observation was discontinued on the 60th day. In the rabbit that showed the symptoms, the observation was discontinued on the 30th-45th day. The changing pattern of cortical ADC values before and after CO poisoning was observed and its relationship with delayed encephalopathy was investigated. Results: In the group without delayed encephalopathy (15 rabbits), the ADC value at 1 h after poisoning [(7.58±0.36) x 10-4 mm2/s] decreased significantly compared with the pre- poisoning value [(8.02±0.35) x 10-4 mm2/s] (q=0.4441, P-4 mm2/s], and maintained at the same level as pre- poisoning at 60 d after poisoning (P >0.05). In the group with delayed encephalopathy (15 rabbits), the ADC value at 1 h after poisoning [(7.40±0.32) x 10-4 mm2/s] decreased significantly compared with the pre- poisoning value [(8.08± 0.32) x 10-4 mm2/s] (q=0.6728, P-4 mm2/s], secondly significantly decreased at 15 d [(7.29±0.93) x 10-4 mm2/s] without further recovery. The ADC value decrease at 15d alter poisoning [(7.29±0.93) x 10-4 mm2/s] was significant compared with the prepoisoning ADC value (q=0.7850, P<0.01). Conclusions: There is a correlation between the decrease of the ADC value and the degree of tissue damage. The decrease of the ADC value in acute stage can predict the delayed encephalopathy. The second significant decrease of the ADC value at 15 d

  6. Should hyperbaric oxygen be used to treat the pregnant patient for acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, K.B.; Camporesi, E.M.; Moon, R.E.; Hage, M.L.; Piantadosi, C.A. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

    1989-02-17

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the leading cause of death due to poisoning. Although uncommon, CO poisoning does occur during pregnancy and can result in fetal mortality and neurological malformations in fetuses who survive to term. Uncertainty arises regarding the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) as a treatment for the pregnant patient because of possible adverse effects on the fetus that could be induced by oxygen at high partial pressures. While the dangers of hyperoxia to the fetus have been demonstrated in animal models, careful review of animal studies and human clinical experience indicates that the short duration of hyperoxic exposure attained during HBO therapy for CO poisoning can be tolerated by the fetus in all stages of pregnancy and reduces the risk of death or deformity to the mother and fetus. A case is presented of acute CO poisoning during pregnancy that was successfully treated with HBO. Recommendations are suggested for the use of HBO during pregnancy.

  7. Carbon monoxide poisoning in Beirut, Lebanon: Patient′s characteristics and exposure sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen J El Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is a preventable disease. Patients present with nonspecific symptoms post CO exposure. Causal factors are well described in developed countries, but less in developing countries. Objectives: This study examined the characteristics of patients with CO poisoning treated at a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon, and their association with the CO poisoning source. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of all patients who presented to the Emergency Department (ED of the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC over 4-year period and for whom a carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb level was available. Patients with CO poisoning diagnosis were included in the study. Patients′ characteristics and their association with CO poisoning source were described. Results: Twenty-seven patients were treated for CO poisoning during the study period, 55% of whom were males. Headache was the most common presenting symptom (51.9%. Burning charcoal indoors was the most common causal factor (44.4%, whereas fire-related smoke was another causal factor. The median arterial CO-Hb level on presentation for all cases was 12.0% (interquartile range (IQR 7.3-20.2. All patients received normobaric oxygen therapy. No complications were documented in the ED. All patients were discharged from the ED with a median ED length of stay of 255 min (IQR 210-270. Young females were more likely to present with CO poisoning from burning charcoal indoors than from another cause. Conclusion: CO poisoning in Beirut, Lebanon is mainly due to charcoal burning grills used indoors and to fire-related smoke. A clinically significant association was present between gender and CO poisoning source. An opportunity for prevention is present in terms of education and increased awareness regarding CO emission sources.

  8. Isolated symmetrical bilateral basal ganglia T2 hyperintensity in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhaschandra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is not uncommon during the winter months. To make a diagnosis, strong clinical suspicion and acumen, and history of the exposure are necessary. Many a time, the presenting complaints may fail to help reach a diagnosis, in the absence of history. Imaging plays a role in the diagnosis of brain injury with the characteristic features, which are correlated with the clinical profile. Isolated bilateral basal ganglia injury revealing T2 hyperintensity in MRI may be observed in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  9. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 6. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Abelsohn, Alan; Sanborn, Margaret D.; Jessiman, Barry J.; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING IS AN ENIGMATIC ILLNESS. The symptoms are often nonspecific or masked by an exacerbation of an underlying illness, such as congestive heart failure, that has been triggered by carbon monoxide inhalation. The effects can range from mild, annoying symptoms relieved by removal of the source to severe morbidity with profound central nervous system dysfunction, acute complications and delayed sequelae. Estimates suggest that about one-third of nonfatal cases of carbon mon...

  10. Determination of carbon in amorphous carbon and uranium monocarbide by oxidation with lead(IV) oxide, copper(II) oxide or barium sulfate in an inert atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation behavior was studied on amorphous carbon and carbon in uranium monocarbide when lead(IV) oxide, copper(II) oxide and barium sulfate were used as the oxidizing fluxes in helium. The amorphous carbon and the carbon in the carbide were completely extracted with lead oxide in 5 min at 10000C and in 8 min at 700 and 5000C, respectively. Carbon in two samples was quantitatively extracted at 10000C with copper oxide in 8 and 5 min, and with barium sulfate in 7 and 5 min, respectively. The rate of extraction of carbon with copper oxide decreased with decreasing temperature. It was found that the mixing ratio of the oxidizing flux to the amorphous carbon or carbide gave effect on the recovery of carbon. The conventional capillary-trap method which is used for the determination of carbon has a disadvantage that, when carbon dioxide is caught in a cold trap (liquid nitrogen), oxygen is also trapped. This disadvantage was eliminated when a stream of helium was used in place of oxygen. Carbon in the sample can be determined with lead oxide, copper oxide or barium sulfate by extracting carbon dioxide at 10000C for 10 min. (auth.)

  11. Successful Treatment of Severe Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Refractory Shock Using Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerapuncharoen, Krittika; Sharma, Nirmal S; Barker, Andrew B; Wille, Keith M; Diaz-Guzman, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the most common cause of poisoning and poisoning-related death in the United States. It is a tasteless and odorless poisonous gas produced from incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons, such as those produced by cars and heating systems. CO rapidly binds to hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, leading to tissue hypoxia, multiple-organ failure, and cardiovascular collapse. CO also binds to myocardial myoglobin, preventing oxidative phosphorylation in cardiac mitochondria and resulting in cardiac ischemia or stunning and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Treatment of CO poisoning is mainly supportive, and supplemental oxygen remains the cornerstone of therapy, whereas hyperbaric oxygen therapy is considered for patients with evidence of neurological and myocardial injury. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been utilized effectively in patients with respiratory failure and hemodynamic instability, but its use has rarely been reported in patients with CO poisoning. We report the successful use of venoarterial ECMO in a patient with severe CO poisoning and multiple-organ failure. PMID:25922545

  12. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been o...

  13. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured by the end 2011. The dementia incidence was 1.6-fold higher in the CO exposed cohort than in the non-exposed cohort (15.2 vs 9.76 per 10,000 person-years; n = 62 vs 174) with an adjusted HR of 1.50 (95% CI = 1.11-2.04). The sex- and age-specific hazards were higher in male patients (adjusted HR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.20-2.54), and those aged <= 49 years (adjusted HR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.38-4.99). CO exposed patients with 7-day or longer hospital stay had an adjusted HR of 2.18 (95% CI = 1.42, 3.36). The CO poisoning patients on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy had an adjusted HR of 1.80 (95% CI = 0.96-3.37). This study suggests that CO poisoning may have association with the risk of developing dementia, which is significant for severe cases. The effectiveness of HBO2 therapy remains unclear in preventing dementia. Patients with CO poisoning are more prevalent with depression. PMID:26735545

  14. Characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Northwest Iran--Tabriz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Nazari, Jalil

    2011-12-01

    The study describes the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Northwest Iran between 2007 and 2009 using multiple data sources including records of the main provider of emergency medical transportation, death certificate reports of the Legal Medicine Organization and through household surveys. A total of 1005 people were diagnosed with non-fatal CO poisoning. Ninety deaths were confirmed due to CO exposure. The ratio of unintentional CO-related poisoning cases in relation to all poisonings was 17.6%. Non-fatal CO poisoning was higher in females and adults aged 25-44 year olds, whereas the death rate was highest for those over 64 years. Domestic gas appliances were involved in 98% of non-fatal incidents and in all fatal poisonings, with gas water heaters (59.2%) and free-standing heaters (25.3%) being the most common causes of CO exposure. The main mechanisms of poisoning were faulty installations and defective devices. The main locations of incidents were the bathroom (48%) and living room (32%). Only 19% of the households reported that they were aware of the hazards of CO exposure before the incident, and no household reported having a CO detector at the time of the poisoning. The results suggest that interventions should be targeted at home environments and focus on at-risk groups such as women and elderly people. Setting stricter standards and environmental legislations and promotion of public awareness against the dangers of CO exposure are important considerations for overcoming this public health problem. PMID:21827338

  15. Barium and Tc-poor S stars: Binary masqueraders among carbon stars

    OpenAIRE

    Jorissen, A; Van Eck, S.

    1997-01-01

    The current understanding of the origin of barium and S stars is reviewed, based on new orbital elements and binary frequencies. The following questions are addressed: (i) Is binarity a necessary condition to produce a barium star? (ii) What is the mass transfer mode (wind accretion or RLOF?) responsible for their formation? (iii) Do barium stars form as dwarfs or as giants? (iv) Do barium stars evolve into Tc-poor S stars? (v) What is the relative frequency of Tc-rich and Tc-poor S stars?

  16. Delayed Treatment of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning by HbO2

    OpenAIRE

    LeDez, Kenneth M.; Davies, Andrew O.; Koch, G. Helge

    1989-01-01

    This case report demonstrates the importance of hyperbaric treatment in managing cases of known or suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. Even when prolonged delays in initiating this treatment are unavoidable, it can be beneficial. Prolonged administration of normobaric oxygen is inadequate treatment.

  17. Transient splenial lesion in a case with carbon monoxide poisoning: A clue supporting the excitotoxicity hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmen, Rahşan; Ünal, Emre

    2015-11-01

    Transient splenial lesions of the corpus callosum are uncommon radiologic findings seen in a number of clinical conditions. Awareness of these lesions is crucial to prevent further invasive investigation and intervention. We report a unique case of transient splenial lesion in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26277728

  18. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time. PMID:27239377

  19. MRI of the brain in chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined 13 patients with CO poisoning by MRI; all of them had been in an explosion in a coal mine 25 years previously. Symmetrical globus pallidus lesions were observed in 12, as was degeneration of the white matter, with focal cortical atrophy. The temporal parietal and occipital lobes were usually affected, the parietooccipital region being the most frequently and extensively damaged. Of the 12 patients with white matter degeneration 7 had definitely asymmetrical cortical and subcortical lesions. There were 6 patients with dilated temporal horns, probably due to atrophy of the hippocampal gyri. (orig./MG)

  20. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Clinical Manifestations, Consequences, Monitoring, Diagnosis and Treatment of Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feruze Turan Sönmez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a multisystem condition that may present with a wide range of symptoms and can cause a confusing constellation of clinical features. Diagnosis may be easily missed if physician is not alert about. Carbon monoxide intoxication is more frequent than it is reported. It has a simple treatment if diagnosed, and has many long-term sequela if under-treated.

  1. Carbon monoxide poisoning and treatment with hyperbaric oxygen in the subacute phase

    OpenAIRE

    Coric, V.; Oren, D.; Wolkenberg, F.; Kravitz, R.

    1998-01-01

    The use of normobaric versus hyperbaric (>2 atm) oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide intoxication continues to be a matter of debate despite reports of increased efficacy with hyperbaric oxygen. When hyperbaric oxygen is used, immediate treatment is preferred for best results. The therapeutic window of time, however, is unknown. A patient presented with acute confusion and partial retrograde and total anterograde memory loss due to carbon monoxide poisoning. He was ...

  2. Are Iranians aware of carbon monoxide poisoning: symptoms and its prevention strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Emami-Razavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is still a health problem all over the world. Informing users about symptoms and suggesting annual inspection of CO producing devices will result in CO poisoning reduction. The goal of this study was to evaluate awareness about CO poisoning symptoms and its prevention ways in Iranian population. In this study, a total of 700 patients' family members attended Imam Khomeni hospital were asked to enroll in the study. A structured questionnaire was used including demographic characteristics, devices which were used at home, awareness of CO poisoning symptoms, awareness of CO detectors, the last time that tubal patency of devices are checked, if it is helpful to open the window to fix gas leak and if surveying devices by an expert at the beginning of the cold season is recommended. A total of 635 participants completed questionnaires. The most used device was gas water heater followed by gas heater. Five hundred and nine reported that they are aware of CO poisoning symptoms (80.1%, 398 (62.6% stated that it is possible to detect CO leak and 566 (89.1% told CO detectors would be helpful for reduction of mortality from CO poisoning. Fifty percent of participants had not checked their devices since they have bought their devices. Five hundred and thirty-six (84.4% reported that opening window could help CO leak, and 596 (93.8% agreed that an expert checked their fuel-burning devices at the beginning of the winter. Iranian people are not aware of all CO poisoning symptoms. Developing a national strategy for CO surveillance and people education will be helpful.

  3. Evaluation of findings on CT and EEG as indicators of recovery from carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of thirty-eight patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning were treated with oxygen under hyperbaric pressure (OHP). Both the changes in findings of CT and EEG, and the neurologic sequelae of the patients were investigated. Early abnormal EEG findings in patients with severe acute CO poisoning were rarely improved, and their neurologic prognosis was poor. On the other hand, two patients, whose early EEG was slightly abnormal, came into delayed neurologic sequelae about one month later. Therefore, early EEG findings failed to predict the neurologic outcome. The neurologic sequelae tended to get worse following deterioration of CT findings. On the contrary, improvement or continuity of abnormal findings did not correlate with the neurologic outcome. Since there was no specific predictable indicators to prevent patients from the delayed neurologic sequelae, it was considered that OHP should be continued for at least one month, especially in comatose patients with severe acute CO poisoning. (author)

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning in children riding in the back of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, N B; Norkool, D M

    OBJECTIVE - To describe the case characteristics of a series of children poisoned with carbon monoxide while traveling in the back of pickup trucks. DESIGN - Pediatric cases referred for treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen between 1986 and 1991 were reviewed. Those cases that occurred during travel in the back of pickup trucks were selected. Clinical follow-up by telephone interview ranged from 2 to 55 months. SETTING - A private, urban, tertiary care center in Seattle, Wash. PATIENTS - Twenty children ranging from 4 to 16 years of age. INTERVENTION - All patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Characteristics of the poisoning incident and clinical patient outcome. RESULTS - Of 68 pediatric patients treated for accidental carbon monoxide poisoning, 20 cases occurred as children rode in the back of pickup trucks. In 17 of these, the children were riding under a rigid closed canopy on the rear of the truck, while three episodes occurred as children rode beneath a tarpaulin. Average carboxyhemoglobin level on emergency department presentation was 18.2% +/- 2.4% (mean +/- SEM; range, 1.6% to 37.0%). Loss of consciousness occurred in 15 of the 20 children. One child died of cerebral edema, one had permanent neurologic deficits, and 18 had no recognizable sequelae related to the episode. In all cases, the truck exhaust system had a previously known leak or a tail pipe that exited at the rear rather than at the side of the pickup truck. CONCLUSIONS - Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant hazard for children who ride in the back of pickup trucks. If possible, this practice should be avoided. PMID:1370334

  5. Oral administration of lactulose: a novel therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dan-Feng; Hu, Hui-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Meng, Xiang-En; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is related to hypoxia, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that the novel, safe and effective free radical scavenger, hydrogen, has neuroprotective effects in both acute CO poisoning and delayed neuropsychological sequelae in CO poisoning. Orally administered lactulose, which may be used by some intestinal bacteria as a food source to produce endogenous hydrogen, can ameliorate oxidative stress. Based on the available findings, we hypothesize that oral administration of lactulose may be a novel therapy for acute CO poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production. PMID:27000012

  6. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in delayed encephalopathy of acute carbon monoxide poisoning - comparison with CT -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomographic (CT) imaging were performed in nine patients with mild to moderate degree of delayed neuropsychiatric symptoms following acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, to evaluate the capability of MR in demonstrating any additional finding to CT. The MR images were obtained using 0.15 Tesla resistive system with various combination of three pulse sequences, including partial saturation recovery, T2-weighted spin echo and inversion recovery. Bilateral white matter abnormalities suggesting demyelination were demonstrated in 4 patients with MR and in only 2 patients with CT. The contrast discrimination between normal and abnormal white matter proved to be better with T2-weighted spin echo and inversion recovery than with partial saturation recovery and CT. But necrosis of the globus pallidus (1 patient) and diffuse atrophy (3 patients) were equally demonstrated on both MR and CT. It is suggested that MR be used as a initial imaging method in the evaluation of the delayed encephalopathy following acute CO poisoning, especially for the detection of the possible white matter lesions. Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning produces hypoxia by displacing oxygen from hemoglobin and preventing its release from hemoglobin in tissues, often resulting in fetal event. Victims who survive acute CO poisoning may have various delayed symptoms and signs. Occasionally, an apparent recovery is followed within two days to three weeks by a sudden neurological deterioration. The degree of neuropsychiatric symptoms depends upon the extent and severity of the pathologic changes in the brain. The pathologic effects of CO poisoning are present in almost all organs of patients. However, the most important changes occur in the brain, which consist of necrosis of the globus pallidus and reticular zone of the substantia nigra, and the degeneration of the cerebral white matter. The diagnostic superiority of magnetic resonance (MR) over CT has already

  7. Rhabdomyolysis after Intentional Acetaminophen and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Iago Rodríguez–Lago; Delia D’Avola; Mercedes Iñarrairaegui; José Ignacio Herrero; Bruno Sangro; Jorge Quiroga

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen is one of the most frequent causes of acute liverfailure. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare adverse reaction reported withthis drug. Carbon monoxide (CO) can also lead to muscle injury butonly after severe intoxication. We present a case of rhabdomyolysisassociated to Acetaminophen over dosage and mild carbon monoxideexposure. A 38-year-old man was admitted because of acute hepaticinjury due to voluntary acetaminophen overdose. He also reporteda mild carbon monoxide exposure. He showed a...

  8. An Outbreak of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Yamagata Prefecture Following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Iseki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake, most of the areas in Yamagata prefecture experienced a serious power failure lasting for approximately 24 hours. A number of households were subsequently poisoned with carbon monoxide (CO due to various causes. In this study, we conducted a survey of CO poisoning during the disaster. Methods: A questionnaire regarding CO poisoning associated with the disaster was sent to 37 emergency hospitals in Yamagata prefecture. Results: A total of 51 patients were treated for unintentional CO poisoning in 7 hospitals (hyperbaric oxygen chambers were present in 3 of the hospitals. The patients (18 men, 33 women ranged in age from 0 to 90 years. The source of CO exposure was charcoal briquettes (23 cases; 45%, gasoline-powered electric generators (18 cases; 35%, electric generators together with oil stoves (8 cases; 16%, oil stoves (1 cases; 2%, and automobile exhaust (1 cases; 2%. Blood carboxyhemoglobin levels ranged from 0.5% to 41.6% in 49 cases. Of these, 41 patients were treated by normobaric oxygen therapy, while one was intubated for artificial respiration. Additionally, 5 patients (10% were treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and 3 patients (6% experienced delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae. Conclusion: CO sources included gasoline-powered electric generators and charcoal briquettes during the disaster. Storm-related CO poisoning is well recognized as a disaster-associated accident in the United States, but not in Japan. We emphasize that public education is needed to make people aware of the dangers of CO poisoning after a disaster. In addition, a pulse CO-oximeter should be set up in hospitals.  

  9. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the home as an indicator of social integration of immigrant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manservisi, S; De Noni, L; Valsecchi, M

    2007-12-01

    Verona is a town in Veneto Region (Italy) characterised by a high socio-economic status, but we register some health problems related to low income or social deprivation, such as unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in private houses. Recently, indeed, there has been a rise in the number of accidents concerning immigrant populations. Since early 1990s, epidemiological informations in the matter weren't complete and the number of cases was therefore probably underestimated. Presently no centralised system exists in Italy or in Veneto Region for recording the incidence of household CO poisoning. An "Observatory on CO poisonings" was therefore activated in Verona Municipality in 1994 to overcome the problem of lacking data. The Observatory systematically collects data on cases of acute household CO poisoning occurring in the whole Verona area. These informations are used to assess public health interventions. During 13 years' activity 671 cases of CO poisoning and 22 deaths were recorded. The accidents were caused by the malfunctioning of home hearing appliances. Statistics show a progressive increase in the number of not Italian involved in these episodes. Inspections revealed that immigrants often live in poor houses with unsafe systems or with extremely precarious heating systems. Data from this surveillance system on CO poisoning have shown that this is a public health problem involving immigrants much more often than local population. This system in real time supplies epidemiological and environmental data for improving public health intervention strategies. Such data collection systems could be useful to study other relevant problems of health disparities in lower socio-economical classes. PMID:18557303

  10. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awatef Tahouri

    2013-12-01

    How to cite this article: Tahouri A, Lyoussi B, Achour S. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:131-5.

  11. Promotion of water-mediated carbon removal by nanostructured barium oxide/nickel interfaces in solid oxide fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Lei; Choi, YongMan; Qin, Wentao; Chen, Haiyan; Blinn, Kevin; Liu, Mingfei; Liu, Ping; Bai, Jianming; Trevor A. Tyson; Liu, Meilin

    2011-01-01

    The existing Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) perform poorly in carbon-containing fuels because of coking and deactivation at desired operating temperatures. Here we report a new anode with nanostructured barium oxide/nickel (BaO/Ni) interfaces for low-cost SOFCs, demonstrating high power density and stability in C3H8, CO and gasified carbon fuels at 750°C. Synchrotron-based X-ray analyses and microscopy reveal that nanosized BaO islands grow on the Ni su...

  12. Research progress in immunological mechanism of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai FENG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP is a syndrome constituted by acute dementia, psychiatric symptoms, pyramidal and extrapyramidal symptoms, which can be developed after the original clinical symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning recovered. Lots of studies have been done to explain the mechanisms of DEACMP, and more and more researches have demonstrated that the immunological mechanism may be involved in or play an important role on the pathogenesis of the process. This article will review the researches of immunological mechanism of DEACMP in recent years and give some prompts to clinical study in the future. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.006

  13. Effects of Erythropoietin on Electrocardiogram Changes in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: an Experimental Study in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Asgharian Rezaee, Mitra; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Farzadnia, Mahdi; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the electrocardiogram (ECG) changes following the moderate to severe CO intoxication in rats, and also evaluating the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on observed cardiac disturbances. The growing literature on erythropoietin effect on cardiac ischemia led us to question its effect on cardiotoxicity due to the carbon monoxide poisoning. Wistar rats were exposed to three different concentrations of CO (250 PPM, 1000 PPM or 3000 PPM). EPO was administrated (500...

  14. Air Pollution by Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisonous Gas in Lagos Area Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kayode S. John; Kamson Feyisayo

    2013-01-01

    We examined exposure to air pollution caused by households’ wood burning of cooking, generating sets and vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) poisonous gas in the most populated urban city of Lagos Southwestern part of Nigeria. It is a known fact that many families including children and pregnant women; infant babies and individuals lost their lives due to poor quality air control policies, and inefficient control of air pollution caused by this deadly gas. Many ar...

  15. Risk of Peripheral Artery Disease in Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Te-Yu; Dai, Ming-Shen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hung, Yuan; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can cause several life-threatening complications, particularly in cardiovascular and neurological systems. However, no studies have been performed to investigate the association between peripheral artery disease (PAD) and CO poisoning. We constructed a population-based retrospective cohort study to clarify the risks between PAD and CO poisoning. This population-based cohort study involved analyzing data from 1998 to 2010 obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2011. We identified patients with CO poisoning and selected a comparison cohort that was frequency matched according to age, sex, and year of diagnosis of CO poisoning at a ratio of 1 patient to 4 control patients. We analyzed the risks for patients with CO poisoning and PAD by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 9046 patients with CO poisoning and 36,183 controls were included. The overall risks for developing PAD were 1.85-fold in the patients with CO poisoning compared with the comparison cohort after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. Our long-term cohort study results showed a higher risk for PAD development among patients with CO poisoning. PMID:26448007

  16. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennetto Luke

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaemia, hypotension, encephalopathy and a rash, whilst subsequent features included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, amnesia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, supranuclear gaze palsy and cerebral haemorrhage. Despite numerous investigations including magnetic resonance cerebral imaging, lumbar puncture, skin biopsy, muscle biopsy and electroencephalogram a diagnosis remained elusive. Several weeks after admission, diagnostic breakthrough was achieved when the gradual resolution of the patient's amnesia, encephalopathy and dysarthria allowed an accurate history to be taken for the first time. The patient's last recollection was turning on his gas heating for the first time since the spring. A gas heating engineer found the patient's gas boiler to be in a dangerous state of disrepair and it was immediately decommissioned. Conclusion This case highlights several important issues: the bewildering myriad of clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning, the importance of making the diagnosis even at a late stage and preventing the patient's return to a potentially fatal toxic environment, and the paramount importance of the history in the diagnostic method.

  17. Impact of SO 2 poisoning of platinum nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode on oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, M. I.; Saleh, M. M.; Ohsaka, T.

    An extraordinary recovery characteristic of Pt-nanoparticles from SO 2 poisoning is introduced in this study. Platinum nanoparticles (nano-Pt) modified glassy carbon electrode (nano-Pt/GC) has been compared with polycrystalline platinum (poly-Pt) electrode towards SO 2 poisoning. Two procedures of recovery of the poisoned electrodes were achieved by cycling the potential in the narrow potential range (NPR, 0-0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl/KCl (sat.)) and wide potential range (WPR, -0.2 to 1.3 V). The extent of recovery was marked using oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as a probing reaction. SO 2 poisoning of the electrodes changed the mechanism of the oxygen reduction from the direct reduction to water to the stepwise reduction involving the formation of H 2O 2 as an intermediate, as indicated by the rotating ring-disk voltammetry. Using the WPR recovery procedure, it was found that two potential cycles were enough to recover 100% of the activity of the ORR on the nano-Pt/GC electrode. At the poly-Pt electrode, however, four potential cycles of the WPR caused only 79% in the current recovery, while the peak potential of the ORR was 130 mV negatively shifted as compared with the fresh poly-Pt electrode. Interestingly, the NPR procedure at the nano-Pt/GC electrode was even more efficient in the recovery than the WPR procedure at the poly-Pt electrode.

  18. Barium enema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barium enema is a special x-ray of the large intestine, which includes the colon and rectum. ... to a bag that holds a liquid containing barium sulfate. This is a contrast material that highlights ...

  19. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barium sulfate is used to help doctors examine the esophagus (tube that connects the mouth and stomach), ... dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deutsch) Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Kurdish (کوردی) Laotian (Lao) Portuguese (português) Somali (af Soomaali) ... Khmer) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kurdish (کوردی) Prevention Guidelines: You Can Prevent Carbon Monoxide ...

  1. What do we know about carbon monoxide poisoning and cardiac compromise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiga, Rosa; Proença, Margarida; Carvalho, Carolina; Costa, Luís; Botella, Arturo; Marques, Filipa; Paulino, Carolina; Carvalho, António; Fonseca, Cândida

    2015-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is one of the most common types of poisoning and the leading cause of death by poisoning worldwide. Cardiac injury caused by CO poisoning has been little described despite being a predictor of poor prognosis. We present the case of a healthy 24-year-old woman, admitted to our emergency room due to an episode of lipothymia without loss of consciousness. She reported holocranial headache for the previous two weeks associated with nausea and vomiting. Laboratory tests revealed blood gas analysis: pH 7.392, pCO2 32 mmHg, pO2 101 mmHg, lactate 3.5 mmol/l, HCO3 20.8 mmol/l; COHb 29.2%; serial troponin I 1.21 → 5.25 → 6.13 → 3.65 μg/l; myoglobin 1378 → 964 → 352 μg/l; and NT-proBNP 1330 pg/l. The electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm, heart rate 110 bpm, and ST-segment depression of 2 mm in V4 and 1 mm in V5. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a left ventricle with normal wall motion and preserved ejection fraction. Given the clinical and epidemiological context, myocardial and central nervous system ischemia due to prolonged CO exposure was assumed and normobaric oxygen therapy was immediately started. In view of evidence of injury to two major organ systems the indication for hyperbaric oxygen therapy was discussed with a specialist colleague, who suggested maintaining conservative treatment with oxygen therapy and in-hospital monitoring for 72 h. The patient was discharged on the third day and was still asymptomatic at 400 days of follow-up. Besides symptoms and signs of central nervous system dysfunction, myocardial damage should also always be considered in the context of CO poisoning. Hyperbaric therapy is still controversial and the lack of objective data highlights the need for new randomized studies. PMID:26232341

  2. Increased Long-Term Risk of Dementia in Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chung-Shun; Lin, Ying-Chin; Hong, Li-Yee; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Ma, Hon-Ping; Hsu, Yung-Ho; Tsai, Shin-Han; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Wu, Mei-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning may cause toxicity of the central nervous system and heart. However, the association between CO poisoning and long-term dementia risk remains unestablished. We investigated the incidence of dementia in patients with CO poisoning in Taiwan and evaluated whether they had a higher risk of dementia than did the general population.A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted among patients with CO poisoning identified using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) during 2004 to 2013. CO poisoning was defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The study cohort comprised patients with CO poisoning between 2005 and 2010 (N = 14,590). Each patient was age-, sex-, and index date-matched with 4 randomly selected controls from the comparison cohort (N = 58,360). All patients were followed from the study date until dementia development, death, or the end of 2013. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed for comparing the hazard ratios for dementia between the 2 cohorts.Incident cases of dementia were identified from the NHIRD.After adjustment for potential confounders, the study cohort was independently associated with a higher dementia risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.75; 95% confidence interval, 2.26-3.35).This population-based cohort study indicated that patients with CO poisoning have a higher risk of dementia than do people without CO poisoning. PMID:26817904

  3. Electrocardiographic Findings and Serum Troponin I in Carbon Monoxide Poisoned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Reza Jafarian Kerman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning, though with different sources, is one of the most deadly emergencies in all countries. CO can threaten men's life by several paths especially cardiac complications, which can mimic other cardiac problems such as myocardial infarction. The objective of this study was to determine ECG findings and serum troponin I levels in CO poisoned patients. In this analytical cross-sectional study, 63 CO poisoning patients were consecutively included from hospital's emergency departments. CO content was measured by a CO-oximeter and an electrocardiography was taken first thing on admission. Arterial blood gas (ABG, troponin I and other data was collected afterwards. Data were divided by age groups (adults and children and gender. CO content was significantly higher only in subjects with normal T wave compared to patients with inverted T wave in their initial ECG (P=0.016. No other significant difference was noticed. None of the ABG findings correlated significantly with CO content. Also no significant correlation was found with CO content after stratification by gender and age groups, but pH in children (r=-0.484, P=0.026. CO content was significantly higher in adults (P=0.023, but other ABG data were not significantly different. Only 3 patients had elevated troponin I. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis showed no significant cutoff points in CO content for ECG changes. No significant specific change in electrocardiograms (ECG could contribute carboxyhemoglobin content in carbon monoxide poisoned patients. In addition, no specific difference was found between adults and pediatric subjects' ECGs. All other findings seemed to be accidental.

  4. Assessment of Functional Disturbances in the Central Nervous System Caused by Severe Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkach, P G; Basharin, V A; Grebenyuk, A N

    2016-02-01

    An experimental model was developed for assessment of disturbances in CNS functions of laboratory animals caused by severe carbon monoxide poisoning. Normalization of the state of experimental rats after acute poisoning was accompanied by the development of cognitive abnormalities. Disturbances in the long-term memory were observed on days 1 and 14 after CO poisoning, while abnormalities in the short-term memory developed on days 1, 7, and 14. Learning impairment were recorded on day 8, while the training course began on day 7. PMID:26906199

  5. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning hospitalization and emergency department counts and rates by county, year, and fire-relatedness among California residents,2000-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains case counts, rates, and confidence intervals of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning (CO) inpatient hospitalizations and emergency...

  6. BARIUM BIOAVAILABILITY AS THE CHLORIDE, SULFATE, OR CARBONATE SALT IN THE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine how the bioavailability of a low concentration of barium (Ba) in drinking water is affected by anion speciation. Male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 250-300 grams were maintained on a diet of less than 1 mg Ba/kg of food for at least 1 month pr...

  7. Barium carbonate sediment sampling for inorganic dissolved carbon using isotope mass ratio spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paperwork explain the method of water sampling to obtain the precipitate of BaCO3 solutions that will be used to analyze 13C from field work in Kelana Jaya, Selangor, Langkawi, Kedah and Taiping, Perak. The sampling involves collecting of water samples for groundwater from boreholes and surface water from canal, river, pond and ex-mining pond from several locations at the study sites. This study also elaborates the instruments and chemicals used. The main purpose of this sampling is to obtain the precipitate of BaCO3 for 13C analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). A correct sampling method according to standard is very important to ensure an accurate and precise result. With this, the data from the laboratory analysis result can be fully utilized to make the interpretation of the pollutants movement. (Author)

  8. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of barium titanate/carbon nanotube hybrid nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • BTO/CNT hybrid nanocomposites was prepared by sol–gel method. • BTO/CNT 60 wt.%, t = 1.1 mm showed a minimum reflection loss of ∼−56.5 dB. • Weight fraction and thickness can be manipulated for various absorption bands. - Abstract: Barium titanate/carbon nanotube (BTO/CNT) hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated by sol–gel method. The BTO/CNT hybrid nanomaterials were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The BTO/CNT hybrid nanomaterials were then loaded in paraffin wax with different weight percentage, and pressed into toroidal shape with thickness of 1.0 mm to evaluate their complex permittivity and complex permeability using vector network analyzer. The reflection loss of the samples was calculated according to their measured complex permittivity and permeability. The minimum reflection loss of the BTO/CNT 60 wt.% hybrid nanocomposites sample with a thickness of 1.0 mm reached 29.6 dB (over 99.9% absorption) at 13.6 GHz, and also exhibited a wide response bandwidth where the frequency bandwidth of the reflection loss of less than −10 dB (over 90% absorption) was from 12.1 to 13.8 GHz. The BTO/CNT 60 wt.% hybrid nanocomposites with thickness of 1.1 mm showed a minimum reflection loss of ∼−56.5 dB (over 99.999% absorption) at 13.2 GHz and was the best absorber when compared with the other samples of different thickness. The reflection loss peak shifted to lower frequency and wider response bandwidth can be obtained as the thickness of the samples increased. The capability to modulate the absorption band of these samples to suit various applications in different frequency bands simply by manipulating their weight percentage and thickness indicates that these hybrid nanocomposites could be a promising electromagnetic wave absorber

  9. Transient modeling of three dimensional multi-phase PEM fuel cell with carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Li, X. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). 20/20 Laboratory for Fuel Cells and Green Energy

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) concentration and sudden load change on fuel cell performance. It also examined the effects of reversibility on fuel cell performance under transient conditions. A numerical simulation combining various spatial and temporal scales was used to determine the physical and chemical reactions, and transient transport phenomena inside the cell. CO concentration degrades fuel cell performance considerably. A large amount of CO causes much faster degradation. In this study, fuel cell performance was explained through the differences in adsorption/desorption rates, and reaction rates of species, which contribute to the high sticking probability of CO on platinum surface compared to that of hydrogen. The influence of sudden load change was also analyzed, notably the change of cell voltage on characteristic time to promote CO tolerance. A 3D transient PEM fuel cell model was used to determine if the CO poisoning process was reversible. The study showed that the performance of fuel cell poisoned by CO could be recovered through reinjection of pure hydrogen, but it takes a long time to diminish the poisoning. 27 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  10. Detection of carbon monoxide poisoning that occurred before a house fire in three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Toru; Yonemitsu, Kosei; Sasao, Ako; Ohtani, Maki; Mimasaka, Sohtaro

    2015-09-01

    In our institutes, we perform a quantitative evaluation of volatile hydrocarbons in post-mortem blood in all fatal fire-related cases using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We previously reported that benzene concentrations in the blood were positively correlated with carbon monoxide-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentrations in fire-related deaths. Here, we present 3 cases in which benzene concentrations in the blood were not correlated with CO-Hb concentrations. A high CO-Hb concentration without a hydrocarbon component, such as benzene, indicates that the deceased inhaled carbon monoxide that was not related to the smoke from the fire. Comparing volatile hydrocarbons with CO-Hb concentrations can provide more information about the circumstances surrounding fire-related deaths. We are currently convinced that this is the best method to detect if carbon monoxide poisoning occurred before a house fire started. PMID:26004303

  11. The use of carbon dioxide as an insufflation agent in barium enema--does it have a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, N K; Lloyd, M; Regan, F

    1993-03-01

    A double blind prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of using carbon dioxide in double contrast barium enema (DCBE). 142 consecutive patients referred for DCBE were randomly allocated to receive either air or carbon dioxide (CO2) as the insufflation agent. The use of CO2 reduced the incidence of immediate and delayed severe pain from 31% to 12.5% and from 12.9% to 4.2% respectively. There was a statistically significant higher incidence of delayed severe pain in the younger age group as found in previous studies. Post-evacuation films showed that there was less residual gas after CO2. The quality of the DCBE was unchanged. We urge the more widespread use of CO2 as insufflation agent in DCBE. PMID:8472110

  12. Gamma ray induced decomposition of barium and strontium nitrates dispersed in sulphate and carbonate matrices in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The G(NO-2) values in gamma radiolytic decomposition of barium and strontium nitrates are enhanced by their respective sulphate and carbonate additives, their concentration and the absorbed dose. The enhancement is more significant at > 95 mol% of the additive after which the increasing trend is not so significant. Thermoluminescence and ESR spectral studies suggest the formation of radical species such as SO-4, SO-3, O-2, CO-3, CO-2, etc. which may interact with the radical species of nitrates (NO2-3, NO2 etc) causing enhanced decomposition by energy transfer. A comparison of the carbonate and sulphate additives shows the former to be more efficient medium of energy transfer. (author). 31 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Campaign to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning : fall-winter 2007-2008; Campagne de prevention des intoxications au monoxyde de carbone : automne-hiver 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, B.; Chabot, L.; Gratton, J. [Direction de sante publique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lacoursiere, D. [Quebec Ministere de la Sante et des Services sociaux du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Quebec launched a public health campaign for the Montreal region to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. The objectives of the campaign were to communicate the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning, its potential sources, its effects on public health, and the means to prevent poisoning. Its purpose was to inform the public of the risks and strategies to be used in case of carbon monoxide poisoning and to lay out the merits of household carbon monoxide alarms. The communication was done by way of the media, in cooperation with community organizations and school boards. Other tools used in the campaign included the Internet, flyers and press releases. A poll taken in 2008 showed that 59 per cent of the respondents had one or more sources for carbon monoxide in their homes, including fireplaces, and that 28 per cent had a functioning alarm for carbon monoxide detection. A future survey will be held to follow-up on the evolution of the campaign. The development of various activities will help decrease the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. tabs., figs.

  14. Microwave Absorption Properties of Double-Layer RADAR Absorbing Materials Based on Doped Barium Hexaferrite/TiO2/Conducting Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we demonstrate microwave absorption properties of barium hexaferrite, doped barium hexaferrite, titanium dioxide and conducting carbon black based RADAR absorbing material for stealth application. Double-layer absorbers are prepared with a top layer consisting of 30% hexaferrite and 10% titanium dioxide while the bottom layer composed of 30% hexaferrite and 10% conducting carbon black, embedded in chloroprene matrix. The top and bottom layers are prepared as impedance matching layer and conducting layer, respectively, with a total thickness of 2 mm. Microwave absorption properties of all the composites were analyzed in X-band region. Maximum reflection loss of −32 dB at 10.64 GHz was observed for barium hexaferrite based double-layer absorber whereas for doped barium hexaferrite based absorber the reflection loss was found to be −29.56 dB at 11.7 GHz. A consistence reflection loss value (>−24 dB was observed for doped barium hexaferrite based RADAR absorbing materials within the entire bandwidth.

  15. Detection of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a serum marker associated with inlfammations by acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Karabacak; Kenan Ahmet Turkdogan; Abuzer Coskun; Orhan Akpinar; Ali Duman; Mcahit Kapci; Sevki Hakan Eren; Pnar Karabacak

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), which is an indicator of systemic inflammation, in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: We included 528 patients (275 women) who presented with a diagnosis of CO poisoning between June 2009 and March 2014. Control group was composed of 54 patients (24 women). Platelet count and mean platelet volume level were significantly higher in the CO poisoning group. Results: White blood cell level (9.8 ± 3.3vs 8.6 ± 2.9× 103/mL, respectively;P= 0.01), neutrophil count (6.00 ± 2.29vs 4.43 ± 2.04×103/mL, respectively;P Conclusions: The increase ofNLR may indicate the progression of fatal complications due to CO poisoning.

  16. Optical planar waveguide in sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals by carbon ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is great interest in niobate crystals which belong to the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) families owing to their intriguing properties. As one representative of such crystals, CBN (calcium barium niobate) has attracted rapidly growing attention. Because it has a higher Curie temperature than SBN (strontium barium niobate), possesses outstanding ferroelectric and it possesses optical properties. In addition, doped with sodium, CBN will show a higher Curie temperature than pure CBN. We report on the fabrication and characterization of optical planar waveguide in x-cut sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystal by using C ion implantation. The guided-mode properties at the wavelength of 633 and 1539 nm are investigated through prism-coupling measurements, respectively. By applying direct end-face coupling arrangement, the near-field optical intensity distribution of waveguide modes is measured at 633 nm. For comparison, the modal profile of the same guided mode is also numerically calculated by the finite difference beam-propagation method via computer software BeamPROP. The transmission spectra of the waveguide before and after ion implantation treatments were investigated also. Our experiment results reveal that the waveguide could propagate light with transverse magnetic polarized direction only and it is assumed that the polarization selectivity of CBN crystal may responsible for this phenomenon

  17. Computed tomography of delayed encephalopathy of acute carbon monoxide poisoning - correlation with clinical findings -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral computed tomography (CT) findings were described in twenty-six cases with the late sequelae of acute carbon monoxide poisoning and were computed with the neurological symptoms and signs. The CT findings include symmetrical periventricular white matter low density in five cases, globes pallidus low density in six cases, ventricular dilatation in seven cases, ventricular dilatation and sulci widening in three cases, and normal findings in ten cases. Only one case showed low densities in both periventricular white matter and globes pallidus. Late sequelae of the interval from of carbon monoxide poisoning were clinically categorized as cortical dysfunction, parkinsonian feature, and cerebella dysfunction. The severity of the clinical symptoms and signs of neurological sequelae is generally correlated with presence and multiplicity of abnormal brain CT findings. But of fourteen cases showing the parkinsonian feature, only five cases had low density of globes pallidus in brain CT. Another case showing small unilateral low density of globes pallidus had no parkinsonian feature but showed mild cortical dysfunction.

  18. Transient analysis of carbon monoxide poisoning and oxygen bleeding in a PEM fuel cell anode catalyst layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    The presence of carbon monoxide in the fuel stream hinders the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell, known as carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Introducing oxygen in the fuel stream lessens CO poisoning. Since CO poisoning is a phenomenon that occurs over a substantial period of time, a transient model has been developed in this study, taking into account the effect of CO concentration, operating pressure and temperature, as well as oxygen bleeding on the performance of the cell. It is found that at a lower CO concentration the poisoning effect takes a much longer time to reach the steady state, even though for a better steady state anode performance. A higher operating temperature results in a better steady state performance, but the performance drops faster toward the steady state value at higher temperature. A higher operating pressure leads to an enhanced performance over the entire transient history, although the benefit diminishes as pressure is increased. Even with a small amount of oxygen (0.5%) introduced into the fuel stream, the anode performance can be improved significantly. Finally, it is observed that the use of pure hydrogen interspersed in carbon monoxide containing fuel improves the anode performance. However, performance recovery when operating on pure hydrogen is much slower than the performance degradation due to the CO poisoning. (author)

  19. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Flooding: Changes in Risk Before, During and After Flooding Require Appropriate Public Health Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Thomas; Murray, Virginia; Baker, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While many of the acute risks posed by flooding and other disasters are well characterised, the burden of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and the wide range of ways in which this avoidable poisoning can occur around flooding episodes is poorly understood, particularly in Europe. The risk to health from CO may continue over extended periods of time after flooding and different stages of disaster impact and recovery are associated with different hazards. Methods A review of the literature was undertaken to describe the changing risk of CO poisoning throughout flooding/disaster situations. The key objectives were to identify published reports of flood-related carbon monoxide incidents that have resulted in a public health impact and to categorise these according to Noji’s Framework of Disaster Phases (Noji 1997); to summarise and review carbon monoxide incidents in Europe associated with flooding in order to understand the burden of CO poisoning associated with flooding and power outages; and to summarise those strategies in Europe which aim to prevent CO poisoning that have been published and/or evaluated. The review identified 23 papers which met its criteria. The team also reviewed and discussed relevant government and non-government guidance documents. This paper presents a summary of the outcomes and recommendations from this review of the literature. Results Papers describing poisonings can be considered in terms of the appliance/source of CO or the circumstances leading to poisoning.The specific circumstances identified which lead to CO poisoning during flooding and other disasters vary according to disaster phase. Three key situations were identified in which flooding can lead to CO poisoning; pre-disaster, emergency/recovery phase and post-recovery/delayed phase. These circumstances are described in detail with case studies. This classification of situations is important as different public health messages are more appropriate at different

  20. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate neurons in experimental carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured changes in nitric oxide (·NO) concentration in the cerebral cortex during experimental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and assessed the role for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a glutamate receptor subtype, with progression of CO-mediated oxidative stress. Using microelectrodes, ·NO concentration was found to nearly double to 280 nM due to CO exposure, and elevations in cerebral blood flow, monitored as laser Doppler flow (LDF), were found to loosely correlate with ·NO concentration. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity was the cause of the ·NO elevation based on the effects of specific NOS inhibitors and observations in nNOS knockout mice. Activation of nNOS was inhibited by the NMDARs inhibitor, MK 801, and by the calcium channel blocker, nimodipine, thus demonstrating a link to excitatory amino acids. Cortical cyclic GMP concentration was increased due to CO poisoning and shown to be related to ·NO, versus CO, mediated guanylate cyclase activation. Elevations of ·NO were inhibited when rats were infused with superoxide dismutase and in rats depleted of platelets or neutrophils. When injected with MK 801 or 7-nitroindazole, a selective nNOS inhibitor, rats did not exhibit CO-mediated nitrotyrosine formation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) elevation (indicative of neutrophil sequestration), or impaired learning. Similarly, whereas CO-poisoned wild-type mice exhibited elevations in nitrotyrosine and myeloperoxidase, these changes did not occur in nNOS knockout mice. We conclude that CO exposure initiates perivascular processes including oxidative stress that triggers activation of NMDA neuronal nNOS, and these events are necessary for the progression of CO-mediated neuropathology

  1. Transient carbon monoxide poisoning of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell operating on diluted hydrogen feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, Krishnan Kumar; Chaoyang Wang [Pennsylvania State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park, PA (United States)

    2004-06-15

    The transient behavior of a 50 cm{sup 2} PEM fuel cell fed on simulated reformate containing diluted hydrogen and trace quantities of carbon monoxide (CO) was experimentally investigated. It was found that the overall cell performance throughout the CO poisoning process can be described with a lumped model of hydrogen and CO adsorption, desorption, and electro-oxidation coupled with a current-voltage relationship for fuel cell performance. It was shown that while hydrogen dilution alone does not have an appreciable effect on cell polarization, in the presence of trace amounts of CO, hydrogen dilution amplifies the problem of CO poisoning. This is a result of the diluent reducing the partial pressure of reactants in the anode fed stream, thus retarding the already CO-impaired hydrogen adsorption onto the catalyst surface. In a diluted hydrogen stream, even low CO concentrations (i.e. 10 ppm), which are traditionally considered safe for PEM fuel cell operation, were found to be harmful to cell performance. (Author)

  2. Intoxicación por Monóxido de Carbono Poisoning by carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sibón Olano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos autores recomiendan la realización de análisis toxicológico, prácticamente en todos los casos forenses, especialmente, cuando tras el examen macroscópico no aparece suficientemente aclarada la causa de la muerte. La ausencia de lesiones patognomónicas en la mayoría de las intoxicaciones avalan la recomendación anterior; sin embargo, en algunos casos los hallazgos en la autopsia son indicativos del agente causal. Así vemos como la coloración rojo cereza de las livideces cadavéricas van a ser muy sugestivas de intoxicación por monóxido de carbono o cianuro.Several authors recommend to perform a toxicological analysis in practically every forensic autopsy, specifically when the macroscopical examination does not reveal sufficiently the cause of death. The absence of pathognomonic findings in the majority of poisonings support this recommendation. However; in some cases autopsy findings are indicative of the causative agent. For instance, the red cherry coloration from livor mortis are suggestive of a carbon monoxide or cyanide poisoning.

  3. Effect of fuel utilization on the carbon monoxide poisoning dynamics of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Luis C.; Koski, Pauli; Ihonen, Jari; Sousa, José M.; Mendes, Adélio

    2014-07-01

    The effect of fuel utilization on the poisoning dynamics by carbon monoxide (CO) is studied for future automotive conditions of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). Three fuel utilizations are used, 70%, 40% and 25%. CO is fed in a constant concentration mode of 1 ppm and in a constant molar flow rate mode (CO concentrations between 0.18 and 0.57 ppm). The concentrations are estimated on a dry gas basis. The CO concentration of the anode exhaust gas is analyzed using gas chromatography. CO is detected in the anode exhaust gas almost immediately after it is added to the inlet gas. Moreover, the CO concentration of the anode exhaust gas increases with the fuel utilization for both CO feed modes. It is demonstrated that the lower the fuel utilization, the higher the molar flow rate of CO at the anode outlet at early stages of the CO poisoning. These results suggest that the effect of CO in PEMFC systems with anode gas recirculation is determined by the dynamics of its accumulation in the recirculation loop. Consequently, accurate quantification of impurities limits in current fuel specification (ISO 14687-2:2012) should be determined using anode gas recirculation.

  4. Recovery of cognitive dysfunction in a case of delayed encephalopathy of carbon monoxide poisoning after treatment with donepezil hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Pin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy following carbon monoxide poisoning is a serious complication. Here, we report a patient with delayed encephalopathy who suffered from cognitive disorders and urinary incontinence after a temporal normal period of 15 days after acute intoxication, and his cognitive function recovered gradually following donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Now, he can undertake slight farming work.

  5. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Eroglu

    2013-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite COHB level decreased, ADMA increased after oxygen therapy in patients with CO poisoning. We think that CO poisoning induced oxidative stress may cause increased ADMA levels. Further studies are needed to evaluate the importance of ADMA in CO poisoning. [Dis Mol Med 2013; 1(2.000: 21-25

  6. Intelligent Monitoring System For Carbon Monoxide Poisoning And Leakage In Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Thakur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a feasibility study of a wearable helmet in order to protect mine workers specially of goldmines from carbon monoxide poisoning and cyanidation. Carbon monoxide(CO poisoning is a common problem faced by the workers of coal, gold and many other mines. On the other hand cyanidation problem occurs in gold mines only during ore processing. Current safety systems for mine workers, only monitors environmental concentrations of gas. This is insufficient because toxic exposures effects people at different levels based on their immunity levels. During mining process CO can be emitted which is a odorless gas and lighter than air, it cannot be sensed by workers and effects the hemoglobin range in the body so a CO gas sensor is implemented here in order to detect CO, if the density of CO exceeds inside the mines then the exhaust fan can be switched ON automatically. The key feature of this system is pulse oximetery sensor which will be checking the health parameters of each and every person employed there. During ore processing sodium cyanide is added to the ore in order to extract the gold from its ore which is a acidic substance. If acidity increases beyond a certain level then system will automatically pump sodium hydroxide into the ore to make it less acidic. All these three parameters will be displayed on LCD in the central location which will contain buzzer also for emergency. So in this system we are monitoring three parameters of workers as compare to one in previous systems and hence the security of workers is enhanced.

  7. Serum bilirubin value predicts hospital admission in carbon monoxide-poisoned patients. Active player or simple bystander?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cervellin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although carbon monoxide poisoning is a major medical emergency, the armamentarium of recognized prognostic biomarkers displays unsatisfactory diagnostic performance for predicting cumulative endpoints. METHODS: We performed a retrospective and observational study to identify all patients admitted for carbon monoxide poisoning during a 2-year period. Complete demographical and clinical information, along with the laboratory data regarding arterial carboxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin, blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, was retrieved. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 38 poisoned patients (23 females and 15 males; mean age 39±21 years. Compared with discharged subjects, hospitalized patients displayed significantly higher values for blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, whereas arterial carboxyhemoglobin and hemoglobin did not differ. In a univariate analysis, hospitalization was significantly associated with blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, but not with age, sex, hemoglobin or carboxyhemoglobin. The diagnostic performance obtained after combining the blood lactate and total serum bilirubin results (area under the curve, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-0.99; p<0.001 was better than that obtained for either parameter alone. CONCLUSION: Although it remains unclear whether total serum bilirubin acts as an active player or a bystander, we conclude that the systematic assessment of bilirubin may, alongside lactate levels, provide useful information for clinical decision making regarding carbon monoxide poisoning.

  8. [Poisoning in swine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinritzi, K

    1986-01-01

    For clinical interests it is advisable to subdivide cases of swine poisoning in such as caused by food, drugs and environmental poisonings. This division gives pointers to aetiologic connections and special measures necessary for the clearing of the processes. With food poisoning mycotoxicoses play an evermore important role, whereas poisonings by trace elements are on the decrease. Sodium chloride poisoning often results primarily from insufficient water supply. With environmental poisonings carbon monoxide and cyanamide intoxication are presented. Poisonings caused by drugs are mainly the result of an overdose, of segregation in food or of non-licensed drugs. A relatively unknown swine poisoning by a drug against coccidiosis--licensed for poultry--is described. PMID:2943054

  9. Altered white matter metabolism in delayed neurologic sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Fujihara, Kazuo; Mugikura, Shunji; Takahashi, Shoki; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Aoki, Masashi

    2016-01-15

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was recently used to examine altered metabolism in the white matter (WM) of patients experiencing carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning; however, only a small number of patients with delayed neurologic sequelae (DNS) were analyzed. We aimed to detect altered metabolism in the WM of patients with DNS using (1)H-MRS; to explore its clinical relevance in the management of patients experiencing CO poisoning. Patients experiencing acute CO poisoning underwent (1)H-MRS and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination within 1week and at 1month after acute poisoning. Metabolites including choline-containing compounds (Cho), creatine (Cr), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and lactate were measured from the periventricular WM. Myelin basic protein (MBP) concentrations were measured in CSF. Fifty-two patients experiencing acute CO poisoning (15 with DNS, 37 without DNS; median age, 49years; 65% males) underwent (1)H-MRS. Within 1week, NAA/Cr ratios, reflecting neuroaxonal viability, were lower in patients with DNS than in those without DNS (PDNS, Cho/Cr ratios were higher, and NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios lower in patients with DNS (P=0.0001, DNS development; (1)H-MRS at 1month may be useful for discriminating patients with DNS and predicting long-term outcomes. PMID:26723994

  10. Comparison of carbon monoxide poisonings originated from coal stove and natural gas and the evaluation of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Kemal Günaydın

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to present the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory and prognosis differences between the coal stove origin poisoning and natural gas leakages. We also aimed to investigate relationship between the severity of clinical picture, prognosis, complications develop in CO poisoning with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR at the initial admission. Methods: All the acute carbon monoxide cases who applied to Ankara Training and Research Hospital Emergency Medicine Clinic between October 2009 and April 2010 were included to this prospective study. CO poisoning diagnosis was made by the history of CO poisoning with carboxyl hemoglobin (COHb concentration is over 10%. 100 patients were included to our study. Results: Of the patients, 55(55% were poisoned from the coal-stove and 45(45% from natural gas leakage. The mean COHb level of the natural gas group was significantly high (p=0.01. The mean value of GCS of the natural gas group was significantly lower (p=0.018. The number of patients with indication for HBO therapy were 17 and 6 in the natural gas group and coal-stove group, respectively, being significantly higher in the natural gas group(p=0.001. There was no statistically significant relationship between the value of NLR and values of COHb, troponin, and GCS (p=0.872, p=0.470, and p=0.896, respectively. Conclusions: Carbon monoxide poisoning from natural gas leakage is more toxic than that from the coal-stove. There is no relationship between NLR at the time of presentation and the severity of clinical findings, prognosis and complications.

  11. Study on Suface Modification of Barium Carbonate Powders with Stearic Acid%硬脂酸对碳酸钡表面改性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铭; 霍冀川; 刘树信

    2011-01-01

    采用硬脂酸对碳酸钡进行表面改性,研究改性剂用量、改性温度和改性时间等因素对碳酸钡表面改性的影响.采用粒度分析、红外光谱、热重分析、扫描电镜、X射线衍射及润湿性实验对改性前后的碳酸钡进行表征.结果表明:在硬脂酸用量为1.5%(质量分数),改性温度为80℃,改性时间为30 min的条件下制备的产品性能优良,活化指数达99.2%.碳酸钡经硬脂酸改性后,粒度由4.56 μm减小至4.19 μm;硬脂酸在碳酸钡表面发生吸附键合,形成新的化学键;改性后的碳酸钡表面性质由亲水变为疏水.%The surface modification of barium carbonate powders by stearic acid was investigated. The impact of modifier dosage, modification temperature and modification time on the surface modification of barium carbonate powders were studied. The unmodified and modified barium carbonate were both tested with the particle size distribution, FTIR, TG-DSC, SEM, XRD and the experiments of wettability. The results showed that the products with excellent modification effect as well as 99.2% activation exponential were prepared in the conditions of 80 ℃, with 1.5% stearic acid added (mass fraction) and stirring for 30 min. The particle size of barium carbonate reduced from 4.56 u.m to 4.19 μm. The stearic acid molecules occurred adsorbing bond on the surface of barium carbonate, forming new chemical bonds, and the surface property of barium carbonatemodified with stearic acid was changed from hydrophilicity tohydrophobicity.

  12. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  13. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  14. Residual carbon detection in barium titanate ceramics by nuclear reaction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual carbon content in BaTiO3 ceramics synthesized by the citric resin route has been evaluated by the 12C(d,p)13C nuclear reaction technique. The C content inside ceramics sintered at 1400oC is about 50 ppm in weight. The surface layer (0.4 μm) exhibits a concentration of several hundreds or thousands ppm with two origins for the detected carbon: atmospheric contamination carbon adsorbed at the surface, which has been roughly evaluated, and material intrinsic carbon: its concentration depends mainly on the sintering conditions, shape of ceramic pieces and sintering temperature. (author)

  15. Ischemia-modified albumin levels in the prediction of acute critical neurological findings in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daş, Murat; Çevik, Yunsur; Erel, Özcan; Çorbacioğlu, Şeref Kerem

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) levels in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning were higher compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. In addition, the study sought to determine if there was a correlation between serum IMA levels and carboxyhemoglobin (COHB) levels and other critical neurological findings (CNFs). In this prospective study, the IMA levels of 100 patients with CO poisoning and 50 control individuals were compared. In addition, the IMA and COHB levels were analyzed according to absence or presence CNFs in patients with CO poisoning. The levels of IMA (mg/dL) on admittance, and during the 1(st) hour and 3(rd) hour, in patients with CO poisoning (49.90 ± 35.43, 30.21 ± 14.81, and 21.87 ± 6.03) were significantly higher, compared with the control individuals (17.30 ± 2.88). The levels of IMA in the 6(th) hour were not higher compared with control individuals. The levels of IMA on admittance, and during the 1(st) hour, 3(rd) hour, and 6(th) hour, and COHB (%) levels in patients who had CNFs were higher compared with IMA levels and COHB levels in patients who had no CNFs (p < 0.001). However, when the multivariate model was created, it was observed that IMA level on admittance was a poor indicator for prediction of CNFs (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.08). We therefore concluded that serum IMA levels could be helpful in the diagnosis of CO poisoning. However, we believe that IMA levels cannot be used to predict which patients will develop CNFs due to CO poisoning. PMID:27185603

  16. Poisoning by carbon monoxide of the D2-H2O(v) exchange reaction over a platinum catalyst deposited on a hydrophobic support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of carbon monoxide and its poisoning effect for the D2-H2O(v) exchange reaction over Pt(0.25%)/Porapak Q (copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene) were studied. It was found that poisoning curves at 263 K, 273 K, and 297 K were similar in shape, which suggested that the activation energy for the D2-H2O(v) exchange over Pt/Porapak Q was not changed by carbon monoxide poisoning. The adsorption of hydrogen and water on the platinum surface on which carbon monoxide was pre-adsorbed to various extents was studied and demonstrated that the pre-adsorption of carbon monoxide does not cause any appreciable decrease in the amount of adsorption of hydrogen and water, and also the rate of hydrogen adsorption, although it is an effective poison for the exchange reaction. (orig.)

  17. New approach to carbon monoxide poisoning treatment by laser-induced photodissociation of carboxyhemoglobin of cutaneous blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Mustafo M.; Asimov, Rustam M.; Gisbrecht, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    A new approach to carbon monoxide poisoning treatment based on laser-induced photodissociation of the carboxyhemoglobin is proposed. Using the simple model of laser tissue interaction the action spectra of laser radiation on carboxyhemoglobin of cutaneous blood vessels has been calculated. The results of the calculatoins indicate that there is a relatively narrow spectral range in the visible region where one could effectively irradiate carboxyhemoglobin through the tissue not in a deep distances. In the case of deeper penetration, the action spectra of laser radiation shifts toward the longer wavelength region. Despite the similarity of the carboxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin action spectra, the significant difference in quantum yields of photodissociation makes possible to develop an effective method of carbon monoxide poisoning treatment.

  18. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using x-rays or computed tomography (CAT scan, CT scan; a type of body scan that uses ... be clearly seen by x-ray examination or CT scan. ... more times before an x-ray examination or CT scan.If you are using a barium sulfate ...

  19. Ischemic colitis associated with acute carbon monoxide poisoning--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lindell K; Deru, Kayla

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common, but it has rarely been reported to cause ischemic colitis. In this case, a 34-year-old female with depression presented to an emergency department after a period of unconsciousness, with urinary and bowel incontinence, following exposure to car exhaust. Her carboxyhemoglobin level was 23%. She had metabolic acidosis. She was transferred to our facility for hyperbaric oxygen treatment, where she had intractable nausea/vomiting with abdominal pain and bright-red bleeding per rectum. She exhibited lower abdominal tenderness and hypoactive bowel sounds. Vital signs were: temperature 36.8 degrees C; blood pressure 137/ 86 mmHg; heart rate 114 beats/minute; respiratory rate 28 breaths/minute. The patient's electrocardiogram showed sinus tachycardia with T-wave inversions in leads I, aVL and V3-V6. The troponin I level peaked at 3.7 ng/ml. Echocardiogram showed a reduced ejection fraction of 30%-35%, with akinesis in the posterior lateral and distal anterior distributions. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed diffuse colonic mural thickening, supporting mesenteric ischemia. Sigmoidoscopy showed edematous friable pale mucosa from rectum to distal sigmoid colon. Hyperbaric oxygen was deferred based on the patient's status. Over three days, the initial hematochezia progressed to melena and then resolved. Adenosine cardiac stress MRI was normal. She was transferred to the psychiatry service and discharged four days later. Four years later, she has no gastrointestinal, cardiac or cognitive problems. PMID:27265995

  20. A modern literature review of carbon monoxide poisoning theories, therapies, and potential targets for therapy advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderique, Joseph D; Josef, Christopher S; Feldman, Michael J; Spiess, Bruce D

    2015-08-01

    The first descriptions of carbon monoxide (CO) and its toxic nature appeared in the literature over 100 years ago in separate publications by Drs. Douglas and Haldane. Both men ascribed the deleterious effects of this newly discovered gas to its strong interaction with hemoglobin. Since then the adverse sequelae of CO poisoning has been almost universally attributed to hypoxic injury secondary to CO occupation of oxygen binding sites on hemoglobin. Despite a mounting body of literature suggesting other mechanisms of injury, this pathophysiology and its associated oxygen centric therapies persists. This review attempts to elucidate the remarkably complex nature of CO as a gasotransmitter. While CO's affinity for hemoglobin remains undisputed, new research suggests that its role in nitric oxide release, reactive oxygen species formation, and its direct action on ion channels is much more significant. In the course of understanding the multifaceted character of this simple molecule it becomes apparent that current oxygen based therapies meant to displace CO from hemoglobin may be insufficient and possibly harmful. Approaching CO as a complex gasotransmitter will help guide understanding of the complex and poorly understood sequelae and illuminate potentials for new treatment modalities. PMID:25997893

  1. Transient analysis of multicomponent transport with carbon monoxide poisoning effect of a PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chien-Ping; Chu, Hsin-Sen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (ROC)

    2006-09-22

    A one-dimensional, two-phase, transient mathematical model was developed to analyze how carbon monoxide poisoning affects the performance of a PEM fuel cell. This work examines both vapor and liquid water transport inside the cell. The theoretical results indicate that a higher CO concentration results in less hydrogen coverage and a large drop in the time to reach steady state t{sub ss}. The slowing of the reactions at both the anode and the cathode reduce the saturation of liquid water in the catalytic layers. The distribution of liquid water depends more strongly on the CO concentration than on dilution of hydrogen in the MEA of the fuel cell. Increasing the amount of pure hydrogen drastically increases t{sub ss} for a wide range of CO contents. At a relatively low CO content, a long t{sub ss} can be achieved using pure hydrogen, especially at high cell voltage, promoting the tolerance for CO and providing the desired performance of the fuel cell. (author)

  2. The clinical and imaging characteristics of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the clinical and imaging characteristics of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP). Methods: The clinical data of 14 patients with DEACMP were respectively analyzed. Results: Initial symptom included mentally falling (MMSE rate < 20 points) in 14 patients (100%), incontinence of urine in 11 patients (78%). Relatively significant increase of hematoma (HCT) (average level 0.503±0.027) was found in 6 patients. Three kinds of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance including diffuse white matter lesion, cortical lesion and basal nuclei lesion often existed in association. Therapy for improving circulation was given in 14 patients, and therapy with hormone was given in 9 patients; with 85% improvement rate. 5 patients without hormone therapy but with improving circulation therapy also received improvement. Conclusion: High level of HCT might be one of the causes of DECACMP due to acute disturbance of brain micro-circulation.. Close monitoring the change of HCT levels should be adopted for at least 3-6 months during therapy. Therapy for improving circulation and for anti-agglutination of platelets should be performed besides the routine high-tension oxygen therapy. Low FA value on DTI indicates the occurrence of a demyelization change in the brain long tract fibers, which indicated therapeutic effect of hormone treatment. And, therefore it would be better to perform DTI scan before therapy for individualized therapy. (authors)

  3. Structural Findings in the Brain MRI of Patients with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Davoudi

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The white matter and globus pallidus were the most common affected regions in brain following acute CO poisoning. Signal abnormalities and restricted diffusion in MRI were correlated with duration of exposure to CO but not with the carboxyhemoglobin levels.

  4. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Kerosene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Poison Ivy Posted under Health Guides . Updated 2 June ... everyone is sensitive to these plants. What is poison ivy? Poison ivy is a plant that can ...

  14. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Jimsonweed poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Mushroom Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisoning, call your doctor or the Poison Control Center. Call 911 immediately if the person is unconscious, not breathing or convulsing. The phone number for the Poison Control Center is 1-800-222-1222. This number is ...

  19. Risk Factors for Non-Occupational Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Anshan Prefecture, Liaoning Province, China, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiang; Zhang, Lijie; Zhu, Baoping

    2015-01-01

    Background Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can be fatal but is preventable. From October 2010 to February 2011, Anshan Prefecture reported 57 cases of non-occupational CO poisoning in District A, with two deaths. We conducted an investigation to identify risk factors and recommend preventive measures. Methods We defined a possible case of non-occupational CO poisoning as onset of at least two of the following symptoms: fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, cyanosis, loss of consciousness, coma, and shock from October 1, 2010, to February 28, 2011, in a resident of Anshan Prefecture with non-occupational exposure to CO poisoning. We defined a probable case as onset of at least one of the following symptoms: cyanosis, loss of consciousness, coma and shock, plus at least one of the following symptoms: fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, among possible cases. A confirmed CO poisoning case was a possible case or probable case plus hemoglobin (Hb) CO higher than 10%. We searched for cases by reviewing medical records and records of hyperbaric oxygen tank usage. In a case-control investigation, we compared home heating practices of 30 case-persons and 120 control-persons who were individually matched to each case by neighborhood. Results Overall, 56% (39/70) of case-patients’ households burned coal for home-heating. In the case-control investigation, 40% (12/30) of case-persons’ households compared with 5.8% (7/120) of control-persons’ households placed stoves in bedrooms (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio [ORM-H] = 11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.0–41); 53% (16/30) of case-patients’ households and 33% (40/120) of control-patients’ households did not extinguish the fire before sleeping (ORM-H = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.1–12); 13% (4/30) of case-patients’ households and 3% (4/120) of control-patients’ households had not installed the ventilation pipe vertically (ORM-H = 7.3, 95% CI = 1.0–56). Overall, 77% (23/30) of case-patients’ households

  20. [Case of interval form of carbon monoxide poisoning without increased carboxyhemoglobin level diagnosed by characteristic MR spectroscopy findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisawa, Tomoko; Ikawa, Masamichi; Hamano, Tadanori; Nagata, Miwako; Kimura, Hirohiko; Yoneda, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old man living alone was admitted for acute disturbance of consciousness during winter. He presented with semicoma, a decorticate posture, and exaggerated tendon reflexes of the limbs, but brainstem reflexes were intact. The carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level was normal in arterial blood gas on admission, and protein in cerebrospinal fluid was increased without pleocytosis. Brain MRI showed diffuse T2 high intensities in the deep white matter bilaterally without a contrast effect and abnormal T1 intensity in the pallidum. (1)H-MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the white matter lesion demonstrated findings suggesting demyelination as an increased choline peak, enhanced anaerobic metabolism as increased lactate and lipids peaks, and reduced neurons as a decreased N-acetylaspartate peak, which corresponded to delayed encephalopathy due to the interval form of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The possibility of CO exposure due to coal briquette use 2 weeks before the symptomatic onset was indicated by his family, so he was diagnosed with CO poisoning. His consciousness slightly improved with corticosteroid therapy and repetitive hyperbaric oxygen therapy, but brain MRI and MRS findings did not improve. Characteristic MRS findings of leukoencephalopathy are helpful for diagnosing the interval form of CO poisoning in the case of a normal COHb level. PMID:24705840

  1. Early Biomarkers in 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Striatal Pathological Mechanisms after Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Li; LI Zong Yang; ZHANG Yan Lin; CONG Cui Cui; ZHAO Jin Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective In vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can be used to evaluate the levels of specific neurochemical biomarkers of pathological mechanisms in the brain. Methods We conducted T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 1H-MRS with a 3.0-Tesla animal MRI system to investigate the early microstructural and metabolic profiles in vivo in the striatum of rats following carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Results Compared to baseline, we found significant cortical surface deformation, cerebral edema changes, which were indicated by the unclear gray/white matter border, and lateral ventricular volume changes in the brain. A significant reduction in the metabolite to total creatine (Cr) ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) was observed as early as 1 h after the last CO administration, while the lactate (Lac) levels increased marginally. Both the Lac/Cr and NAA/Cr ratios leveled off at 6 h and showed no subsequent significant changes. In addition, compared to the control, the choline (Cho)/Cr ratio was slightly reduced in the early stages and significantly increased after 6 h. In addition, a pathological examination revealed mild cerebral edema on cessation of the insult and more severe cerebral injury after additional CO poisoning. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that 1H-MRS of the brain identified early metabolic changes after CO poisoning. Notably, the relationship between the increased Cho/Cr ratio in the striatum and delayed neuropsychologic sequelae requires further research.

  2. Numerical simulations of carbon monoxide poisoning in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells with various flow channel designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Simulations of CO poisoning in HT-PEMFC with different flow channels are conducted. ► Parallel and serpentine designs result in least and most CO effects, respectively. ► General CO distributions in CLs are similar with different flow channel designs. - Abstract: The performance of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) is significantly affected by the carbon monoxide (CO) in hydrogen fuel, and the flow channel design may influence the CO poisoning characteristics by changing the reactant flow. In this study, three-dimensional non-isothermal simulations are carried out to investigate the comprehensive flow channel design and CO poisoning effects on the performance of HT-PEMFCs. The numerical results show that when pure hydrogen is supplied, the interdigitated design produces the highest power output, the power output with serpentine design is higher than the two parallel designs, and the parallel-Z and parallel-U designs have similar power outputs. The performance degradation caused by CO poisoning is the least significant with parallel flow channel design, but the most significant with serpentine and interdigitated designs because the cross flow through the electrode is stronger. At low cell voltages (high current densities), the highest power outputs are with interdigitated and parallel flow channel designs at low and high CO fractions in the supplied hydrogen, respectively. The general distributions of absorbed hydrogen and CO coverage fractions in anode catalyst layer (CL) are similar for the different flow channel designs. The hydrogen coverage fraction is higher under the channel than under the land, and is also higher on the gas diffusion layer (GDL) side than on the membrane side; and the CO coverage distribution is opposite to the hydrogen coverage distribution

  3. Barium poisoning:one case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ A 18-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of vomiting,diarrhea and worsening paralysis. The onset of symptoms,vomiting and diarrhea has been sudden for two hours.Shortly after that,generalized flaccid weakness developed,and he began to have an intense aching pain in the muscles of his legs.Also He was unable to walk without assistance.After one hour and thirty minutes,he was noted with mild shortness of breath.His mother brought him to the emergency department of this hospital at 7pm.He has no history of chest pain,fever.

  4. Status epilepticus and cardiopulmonary arrest in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning with full recovery after using a neuroprotective strategy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Salman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning can be associated with life-threatening complications, including significant and disabling cardiovascular and neurological sequelae. Case presentation We report a case of carbon monoxide poisoning in a 25-year-old Saudi woman who presented to our facility with status epilepticus and cardiopulmonary arrest. Her carboxyhemoglobin level was 21.4 percent. She made a full recovery after we utilized a neuroprotective strategy and normobaric oxygen therapy, with no delayed neurological sequelae. Conclusions Brain protective modalities are very important for the treatment of complicated cases of carbon monoxide poisoning when they present with neurological toxicities or cardiac arrest. They can be adjunctive to normobaric oxygen therapy when the use of hyperbaric oxygen is not feasible.

  5. [Carbon monoxide poisoning: clinical features of the victims of the explosion accident of Mitsui-Miike Mikawa coal mine 50 years ago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning have been described in 24 victims of an intense explosion accident of the Mitsui-Miike Mikawa coal mine in Japan 50 years ago; these victims were admitted to the Kyushu University Hospital as they suffered from severe poisoning. In the early stage of poisoning, all victims showed disturbed state of consciousness, varying in duration from 5.5 hours to 3 months, and the duration of unconsciousness was closely correlated to the clinical severity in the late stage. Some of the severely poisoned patients showed a transient stage of apallic syndrome. After recovery from unconsciousness, all patients presented with severe amnestic syndrome and loss of initiative. Neurologically, the extrapyramidal signs were prominent in the early stage, which gradually improved in the late stage. Variable types of agnosia and apraxia were apparent in some of the severely and moderately poisoned patients in the late stage, with prominent Gerstmann syndrome and visual-visuospatial agnosias. Since these signs showed poor improvement, the agnosia and apraxia, as well as impaired intellectual ability, remained as a sequela of the poisoning, and were one of the major causes of deficits of the patients in their daily life activities in the late stage. PMID:25585432

  6. Erythropoietin Protects Rat Brain Injury from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning by Inhibiting Toll-Like Receptor 4/NF-kappa B-Dependent Inflammatory Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Li; Zhang, Nan; Dong, Ning; Wang, Da-Wei; Xu, Da-Hai; Zhang, Ping; Meng, Xiang-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory responses play critical roles in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning-induced cerebral injury. The present study investigated whether erythropoietin (EPO) modulates the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inflammatory signaling pathways in brain injury after acute CO poisoning. EPO (2500 and 5000 U/kg) was injected subcutaneously twice a day after acute CO poisoning for 2 days. At 48 h after treatment, the expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB as well as the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampal tissues were measured. Our results showed that CO poisoning induced a significant upregulation of TLR4, NF-κB, and inflammatory cytokines in the injured rat hippocampal tissues. Treatment with EPO remarkably suppressed the gene and protein expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB, as well as the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the hippocampal tissues. EPO treatment ameliorated CO poisoning-induced histological edema and neuronal necrosis. These results suggested that EPO protected against CO poisoning-induced brain damage by inhibiting the TLR4-NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway. PMID:26521252

  7. Sequential CT change of the globus pallidus in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We presented CT findings in the globus pallidus of three cases of acute CO poisoning. The initial low density lesions in the bilateral globus pallidus became isodense two to three weeks after the onset, and later appeared again as low density spots. These changes on CT were similar to the so-called ''fogging effect'' that is often found in cases of cerebral infarcts. (author)

  8. Delayed neuropsychological sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning: predictive risk factors in the Emergency Department. A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botti Primo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS commonly occur after recovery from acute carbon monoxide (CO poisoning. The preventive role and the indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the acute setting are still controversial. Early identification of patients at risk in the Emergency Department might permit an improvement in quality of care. We conducted a retrospective study to identify predictive risk factors for DNS development in the Emergency Department. Methods We retrospectively considered all CO-poisoned patients admitted to the Emergency Department of Careggi University General Hospital (Florence, Italy from 1992 to 2007. Patients were invited to participate in three follow-up visits at one, six and twelve months from hospital discharge. Clinical and biohumoral data were collected; univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify predictive risk factors for DNS. Results Three hundred forty seven patients were admitted to the Emergency Department for acute CO poisoning from 1992 to 2007; 141/347 patients participated in the follow-up visit at one month from hospital discharge. Thirty four/141 patients were diagnosed with DNS (24.1%. Five/34 patients previously diagnosed as having DNS presented to the follow-up visit at six months, reporting a complete recovery. The following variables (collected before or upon Emergency Department admission were associated to DNS development at one month from hospital discharge in the univariate analysis: CO exposure duration >6 hours, a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score Conclusions Our study identified several potential predictive risk factors for DNS. Treatment algorithms based on an appropriate risk-stratification of patients in the Emergency Department might reduce DNS incidence; however, more studies are needed. Adequate follow-up after hospital discharge, aimed at correct recognition of DNS, is also important.

  9. Correlations among copeptin, ischemia-modified albumin, and the extent of myocardial injury in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Wang, J S; Xie, Z X; Wang, W Z; Wang, L; Ma, G Y; Li, Y Q; Wang, P

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationships among copeptin, ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), and extent of myocardial injury in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP). A total of 110 patients with different degrees of ACOP were selected as the poisoning group, and 30 healthy individuals as the control group. The levels of troponin I (cTnI), IMA, and copeptin were detected. Based on the presence of complications, the patients were assigned to the complication (26 patients) or non-complication (84 patients) group. Levels of cTnI, IMA, and copeptin were compared among the control, complication, and non-complication groups. Compared with the control group, in the 2 h after admission, the IMA levels decreased and copeptin levels increased in the poisoning group; these changes were more significant in patients with severe ACOP than in those with mild ACOP, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the IMA and copeptin levels between the groups 7 days after admission; the cTnI levels increased more significantly in patients with severe ACOP than in patients with mild and moderate ACOP, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). In the complication group, at 7 days after admission, the IMA levels decreased whereas the copeptin and cTnI levels were significantly higher than in the non-complication group, with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). IMA was negatively correlated with copeptin. IMA and copeptin detection is clinically useful in the early diagnosis and prognosis of ACOP-related myocardial injury and in guiding early clinical drug application. PMID:26345979

  10. MRI findings of otic and sinus barotrauma in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning during hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To study the MRI findings of otic and sinus barotrauma in patients with carbon monoxide(CO poisoning during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy and examine the discrepancies of otic and sinus abnormalities on MRI between barotrauma and acute otitis media with effusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients with CO-poisoning diagnosed with otic and sinus barotrauma after HBO therapy were recruited. Brain MRI was performed to predict delayed encephalopathy. Over the same period, 88 patients with acute otitis media with effusion on MRI served as control. The abnormalities of the middle ear and paranasal sinuses on MRI were noted and were compared between groups. Nine patients with barotrauma were followed up by MRI. RESULTS: In the barotrauma group, 92.5% of patients had bilateral middle ear abnormalities on MRI, and 60% of patients had both middle ear cavity and mastoid cavity abnormalities on MRI in both ears. Both rates were higher than those in the control group (p = 0.000. In the two groups, most abnormalities on MRI were observed in the mastoid cavity. The rate of sinus abnormalities of barotrauma was 66.3%, which was higher than the 50% in the control group (p = 0.033. In the nine patients with barotrauma followed up by MRI, the otic barotrauma and sinus abnormalities had worsened in 2 patients and 5 patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: MRI is able to depict the abnormalities of otic and sinus barotrauma in patients with CO-poisoning during HBO therapy and to differentiate these from acute otitis media with effusion.

  11. BARIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, R.E.

    1959-07-21

    A method of separating barium from nuclear fission products is described. In accordance with the invention, barium may be recovered from an acidic solution of neutron-irradiated fissionable material by carrying ihe barium cut of solution as a sulfate with lead as a carrier and then dissolving the barium-containing precipitate in an aqueous solution of an aliphatic diamine chelating reagent. The barium values together with certain other metallic values present in the diamine solution are then absorbed onto a cation exchange resin and the barium is selectively eluted from the resin bed with concentrated nitric acid.

  12. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

  13. Ethanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  14. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  15. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  16. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  17. Cologne poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Jacobsen D, Hovda KE. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. Mycyk MB. Toxic alcohols. ...

  18. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  19. Merbromin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 71. Linakis JG, Skarbek-Borowska S. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 18. Rusyniak DE, Arroyo A, ...

  20. Methylmercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... containing mercury are poisonous. Methylmercury is a very poisonous form of mercury. It forms when bacteria react with mercury in water, soil, or plants. It has been used to preserve grain that ...

  1. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  2. Barium enema (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  3. Transient evolution of carbon monoxide poisoning effect of PBI membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chien-Ping; Chu, Hsin-Sen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300 (China); Yan, Yi-Yie; Hsueh, Kan-Lin [Energy and Environment Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310 (China)

    2007-07-10

    High temperature polybenzimidazole membrane fuel cells are the focus of attention due to high CO tolerance and overcoming water managements. This paper develops a transient, one-dimensional mathematical model to predict CO tolerance, and validates it with experiments. Experimental results are measured at different temperatures. Fuel cell performance degradations with time are also measured under various fuel compositions. Transient evolutions of current density, H{sub 2} coverage, CO coverage, and ionic potential are shown during the CO poisoning process. The theoretical results show that hydrogen coverage decreases with time, reducing hydrogen oxidation reactions and dropping ionic potential loss. The effects of temperature, CO contents, and H{sub 2} dilutions on fuel cell performance and the time to reach steady t{sub ss} are all investigated. Predictions of fuel cell current density degradation also show good agreement with experimental results. (author)

  4. Effects of nimodipine and fructose-1,6-diphosphate on cerebral damage in carbon monoxide poisoning mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊卿; 赵晓辉; 周岐新; 蒋青松

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the dose- and time- dependent protective effects and the synergistic effects of nimodipine (NMDP) and fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) against cerebral damage induced by acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in mice.Methods Male mice were exposed to CO 170 mL/kg, i.p. After CO intraperitonealy exposure, mortality of mice, change in memory function estimated by passive avoidance test, the pathomorphologic observation of brain tissue slices, as well as changes of activities of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase in cerebral tissue were studied. In dose-dependent protective effect study, NMDP (10.6, 5.3, 2.7 mg/kg) and FDP (2.6, 1.3, 0.67 g/kg) was injected ip, respectively 15 min after CO exposure. To study the time-effect relationship of drugs, NMDP (5.3 mg/kg) and FDP (1.3 g/kg) were administered ip respectively 15 minutes, 45 minutes and 120 minutes after CO exposure. The combination of NMDP (2.7 mg/kg) and FDP (0.67 g/kg) was administered ip15 minutes, 45 min and 120 minutes after CO exposure to study the synergism of the two drugs.Results Either NMDP (10.6, 5.3 mg/kg) or FDP (2.6, 1.3 g/kg) administered ip within 15 minutes after CO exposure significantly decreased the impairment of memory function and mortality rate induced by CO, inhibited the decrease of Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity, blunted the rising of MAO-B activity and prevented the delayed hippocampal neuronal death in poisoning mice. To our surprise, the combined use of NMDP (2.7 mg/kg) and FDP (0.67 g/kg) within 15 minutes after CO exposure had similar effects to that in NMDP (10.6, 5.3 mg/kg) and FDP (2.6, 1.3 g/kg).Conclusions These results suggest that the impairment of CO on brain can be attenuated if NMDP or FDP are administered sufficiently and quickly as soon as possible after CO exposure and there exists a synergism of FDP and NMDP against CO poisoning damage.

  5. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... hang in loose clusters. back to top Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  6. A case of the interval form of carbon monoxide poisoning with apallic syndrome resulted in complete recovery after treatment with oxygen at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 44-year-old male patient had apallic syndrome 32 days after 12-hour coma resulting from acute carbon monoxide poisoning and could return to the social life by undergoing fifty oxygen treatments at high pressure. EEG revealed no low voltage, which is usually seen in cases of apallic syndrome. Cranial CT scan revealed that low density areas in the white matter of the brain had improved with improvement of clinical symptoms. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Radioisotope analyzer of barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principle of operation and construction of radioisotope barium sulphate analyzer type MZB-2 for fast determination of barium sulphate content in barite ores and enrichment products are described. The gauge equipped with Am-241 and a scintillation detector enables measurement of barium sulphate content in prepared samples of barite ores in the range 60% - 100% with the accuracy of 1%. The gauge is used in laboratories of barite mine and ore processing plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  8. Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide and potential impacts on the growth and toxicity of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of its ability to induce contact dermatitis, the establishment and spread of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze) is recognized as a significant public health concern. In the current study, we quantified potential changes in the biomass and urushiol content of poison ivy as a func...

  9. First-principles based phenomenological study of Ni nanocubes: The effects of nanostructuring on carbon poisoning of Ni(0 0 1) nanofacets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Ultra-small Ni nanocubes (perhaps 5 nm in size or smaller) as nanocatalysts for the reforming reactions of methane are studied and proposed as a possible alternative to alleviate the problem of carbon poisoning in reforming technologies. Highlights: ► Binding energies of carbon and surface carbidic structures on Ni(0 0 1)-facets. ► Phenomenological model to mimic nanostructuring effects on carbon binding. ► Ultra-small Ni nanocubes as nanocatalysts could relief carbon poisoning. - Abstract: Ni-based catalysts are long known to be an efficient low-cost catalyst for the dry (or steam) reforming of methane. However, they are often plagued with the serious issue of carbon poisoning, eventually leading to the deactivation of Ni-based catalysts for this reaction. In order to provide an atomistic, electronic structure-based examination of Ni-based catalyst deactivation, we perform first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations of chemisorbed carbon and other surface carbidic structures on Ni(0 0 1). This surface is the predominant surface of the nanocube catalysts engineered via shape-control synthesis for steam/dry reforming of methane. We calculate the chemical binding energy of carbon as a function of its surface coverage and we study the local chemical environment via its electronic structure to draw correlations between the thermodynamic (de)stability of these unwanted carbidic structures. In an attempt to mimic bond contraction at the surface of nanocatalysts, we report the influence of surface stress on our calculated values using a shape-dependent phenomenological bond contraction model.

  10. First-principles based phenomenological study of Ni nanocubes: The effects of nanostructuring on carbon poisoning of Ni(0 0 1) nanofacets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Renbo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jae; Son, In Hyuk [Energy Lab., Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Yongin 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyunjoo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Soon, Aloysius, E-mail: aloysius.soon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Ultra-small Ni nanocubes (perhaps 5 nm in size or smaller) as nanocatalysts for the reforming reactions of methane are studied and proposed as a possible alternative to alleviate the problem of carbon poisoning in reforming technologies. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binding energies of carbon and surface carbidic structures on Ni(0 0 1)-facets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenomenological model to mimic nanostructuring effects on carbon binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultra-small Ni nanocubes as nanocatalysts could relief carbon poisoning. - Abstract: Ni-based catalysts are long known to be an efficient low-cost catalyst for the dry (or steam) reforming of methane. However, they are often plagued with the serious issue of carbon poisoning, eventually leading to the deactivation of Ni-based catalysts for this reaction. In order to provide an atomistic, electronic structure-based examination of Ni-based catalyst deactivation, we perform first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations of chemisorbed carbon and other surface carbidic structures on Ni(0 0 1). This surface is the predominant surface of the nanocube catalysts engineered via shape-control synthesis for steam/dry reforming of methane. We calculate the chemical binding energy of carbon as a function of its surface coverage and we study the local chemical environment via its electronic structure to draw correlations between the thermodynamic (de)stability of these unwanted carbidic structures. In an attempt to mimic bond contraction at the surface of nanocatalysts, we report the influence of surface stress on our calculated values using a shape-dependent phenomenological bond contraction model.

  11. The BAEP assessment of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to carbon monoxide poisoning%高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒疗效的BAEP评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙萍; 李占清

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: 29 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning patients were collected, and the abnormal rate of BAEP before and after hyperbaric oxygen treatment were compared. Results: Before and after hyperbaric oxygen treatment, there were significant differences in the total abnormal rate of BAEP, abnormality rate of wave Ⅰor Ⅴ and the peak between Ⅰ -Ⅴ (ρ<0.01). Conclusion: The BAEP abnormal rate decreases when patients are treated with hyperbaric oxygen, hyperbaric oxygen therapy is effective for carbon monoxide poisoning.%目的:探讨高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒的疗效.方法:收集29例一氧化碳中毒患者,对高压氧治疗前后的脑干听觉诱发电位(BAEP)异常率进行统计学比较.结果:高压氧治疗前后BAEP的总异常率、Ⅰ波与Ⅴ波异常率、Ⅰ~Ⅴ峰间期异常率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:急性一氧化碳中毒患者经高压氧治疗后,BAEP异常率降低,高压氧治疗一氧化碳巾毒有效.

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Puncturing and Bloodletting at Twelve Hand Jing Points to Treat Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as Adjunct to First Aid Treatment: A Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ying; Pan, Xingfang; Zhang, Sai; Jin, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dongqiang; Han, Dexin; Wang, Guirong; Hu, Qunliang; Kang, Jingqing; Ding, Shasha; Yang, Yi; Bu, Huaien; Guo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP) have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients' basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26339271

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Puncturing and Bloodletting at Twelve Hand Jing Points to Treat Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as Adjunct to First Aid Treatment: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients’ basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  14. Activity, short-term stability (poisoning tolerance) and durability of carbon supported Pt-Pr catalysts for ethanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Patricia G.; Antolini, Ermete; Perez, Joelma

    2014-04-01

    Pt-Pr/C electrocatalysts were prepared by a modified formic acid method, and their activity for carbon monoxide and ethanol oxidation, their short term stability and durability were compared to that of commercial Pt/C and Pt-Sn/C (3:1) catalysts. By derivative voltammetry (DV) it was found that ethanol electro-oxidation takes place by two main pathways at different potentials. It was observed that, in the presence of Pr, ethanol electro-oxidation takes place mostly through the pathway at lower potential, which is the most interesting for fuel cell application. The Pt-Pr/C catalysts were less tolerant to poisoning by ethanol oxidation intermediate species than Pt/C. Durability test by a repetitive potential cycling under Ar atmosphere revealed a good structural stability of Pt-Pr/C catalysts. A repetitive potential cycling under CO atmosphere carried out on the Pt-Pr/C (1:1) catalyst, instead, indicated a structural change, likely by formation of a core-shell structure.

  15. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths...

  16. DNA pooling base genome-wide association study identifies variants at NRXN3 associated with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Li

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP is more characteristic of anoxic encephalopathy than of other types of anoxia. Those who have the same poisoning degree and are of similar age and gender have a greater risk of getting DEACMP. This has made it clear that there are obvious personal differences. Genetic factors may play a very important role. The authors performed a genome-wide association study involving pooling of DNA obtained from 175 patients and 244 matched acute carbon monoxide poisoning without delayed encephalopathy controls. The Illumina HumanHap 660 Chip array was used for DNA pools. Allele frequencies of all SNPs were compared between delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning and control groups and ranked. A total of 123 SNPs gave an OR >1.4. Of these, 46 mapped in or close to known genes. Forty-eight SNPs located in 19 genes were associated with DEACMP after correction for 5% FDR in the genome-wide association of pooled DNA. Two SNPs (rs11845632 and rs2196447 locate in the Neurexin 3 gene were selected for individual genotyping in all samples and another cohort consisted of 234 and 271 controls. There were significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of rs11845632 and rs2196447 between the DEACMP group and controls group (all P-values <0.05. This study describes a positive association between Neurexin 3 and controls in the Han Chinese population, and provides genetic evidence to support the susceptibility of DEACMP, which may be the resulting interaction of environmental and genetic factors.

  17. Development of SOFC anodes resistant to sulfur poisoning and carbon deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Song Ho

    The advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) over other types of fuel cells include high energy efficiency and excellent fuel flexibility. In particular, the possibility of direct utilization of fossil fuels and renewable fuels (e.g., bio-fuels) may significantly reduce the cost of SOFC technologies. However, it is known that these types of fuels contain many contaminants that may be detrimental to SOFC performance. Among the contaminants commonly encountered in readily available fuels, sulfur-containing compounds could dramatically reduce the catalytic activity of Ni-based anodes under SOFC operating conditions. While various desulphurization processes have been developed for the removal of sulfur species to different levels, the process becomes another source of high cost and system complexity in order to achieve low concentration of sulfur species. Thus, the design of sulfur tolerant anode materials is essential to durability and commercialization of SOFCs. Another technical challenge to overcome for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels is carbon deposition. Carbon formation on Ni significantly degrades fuel cell performance by covering the electrochemically active sites at the anode. Therefore, the prevention of the carbon deposition is a key technical issue for the direct use of hydrocarbon fuels in a SOFC. In this research, the surface of a dense Ni-YSZ anode was modified with a thin-film coating of niobium oxide (Nb2O5) in order to understand the mechanism of sulfur tolerance and the behavior of carbon deposition. Results suggest that the niobium oxide was reduced to NbO 2 under operating conditions, which has high electrical conductivity. The NbOx coated dense Ni-YSZ showed sulfur tolerance when exposed to 50 ppm H2S at 700°C over 12 h. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis suggest that different phases of NbSx formed on the surface. Further, the DOS (density of state) analysis of NbO2, NbS, and NbS2 indicates that niobium sulfides can be considered

  18. Method for in-situ prevention of stable barium carbonate formation in high Tc ceramic superconductor including the use of iodine or an iodine c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a method of making a pre-ceramic resinous material capable of being converted into a ceramic semiconductor material substantially free from stable barium carbonate and having the general composition RR'2Cu3O7-x where R is a rare earth metal, R' is an alkaline earth metal, and x is from 0 to 0.5. It comprises: refluxing stoichiometric amounts of a first solution comprising a rare earth isopropoxide and an alkaline earth isopropoxide in isopropanol; adding to the first solution a stoichiometric amount of a second solution comprising copper ethylhexanoate in isopropanol; refluxing the first and second solutions to obtain a precipitate; hydrolyzing the precipitate in a quantity of a first solvent comprising water and isopropanol sufficient to substantially dissolve the precipitate into a precipitate solution; adding a third solution comprising an iodine compound in an alcohol to the precipitate solution to form a precursor solution having at least about 1 mole of iodine per mole of rare earth metal; concentrating the precursor solution by removing a sufficient amount of solvents to produce the pre-ceramic resinous material; and adding a second solvent comprising a nonpolar solvent to the pre-ceramic resinous material to obtain a desired viscosity

  19. Exploring the Origin of Lithium, Carbon, Strontium and Barium with four new Ultra Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, T; Christlieb, N; Yong, D; Bessell, M S; Pérez, A E García; Beers, T C; Placco, V M; Frebel, A; Norris, J E; Asplund, M

    2014-01-01

    We present an elemental abundance analysis for four newly discovered ultra metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO survey, with $\\mathrm{[Fe/H]}\\leq-4$. Based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra, we derive abundances for 17 elements in the range from Li to Ba. Three of the four stars exhibit moderate to large over-abundances of carbon, but have no enhancements in their neutron-capture elements. The most metal-poor star in the sample, HE~0233$-$0343 ($\\mathrm{[Fe/H]} = -4.68$), is a subgiant with a carbon enhancement of $\\mathrm{[C/Fe]}= +3.5$, slightly above the carbon-enhancement plateau suggested by Spite et al. No carbon is detected in the spectrum of the fourth star, but the quality of its spectrum only allows for the determination of an upper limit on the carbon abundance ratio of $\\mathrm{[C/Fe]} < +1.7$. We detect lithium in the spectra of two of the carbon-enhanced stars, including HE~0233$-$0343. Both stars with Li detections are Li-depleted, with respect to the Li plateau for metal-poo...

  20. Lanolin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanolin is an oily substance taken from sheep's wool. Lanolin poisoning occurs when someone swallows a product that contains lanolin. This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or ...

  1. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used in agriculture to kill and control insects on crops and in gardens. The government also ... Mercaptothion poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . ...

  2. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee poisoning is caused by a sting from a bee, wasp , or yellow jacket. This article is for ... Bee, wasp, and yellow jacket stings contain a substance called venom. Africanized bee colonies are very sensitive ...

  3. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  4. Depilatory poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Pfau PR, Hancock SM. ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 27. Wax PM, Young A. ...

  5. Aftershave poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 185. Jacobsen D, Hovda KE. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. White SR. Toxic alcohols. ...

  6. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    The poisonous ingredient is: Calcium oxalate ... with a cold, wet cloth. Wash off any plant sap from the skin and eyes. ... weight, and condition Name and part of the plant swallowed, if known Time it was swallowed Amount ...

  7. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  8. The usefulness of the arterial blood gas in pure carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebby, T I; Zalenski, R; Hryhorczuk, D O; Leikin, J B

    1989-04-01

    In a retrospective study of 49 cases of carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication presented to the University of Illinois Hospital (UIH) Emergency Department between November 1986 and April 1988, we looked for a correlation between carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) as determined by a venous sample and the pH as determined by arterial blood gas analysis. The range of COHb levels in our study was 10-64% (mean 21.8% +/- 10.2%). Smoke inhalation cases (n = 3) were excluded from our study because they did not represent pure CO intoxication. Of the remaining 46 cases, 18 had arterial blood gases drawn. In none of these 18 cases (mean COHb 24.5% +/- 12.6%) did we find a correlation between COHb levels and the pH as determined by linear regression analysis. Also, in none of the 18 cases were there any therapeutic interventions associated with the arterial blood gas result. Additionally, in none of the remaining 28 cases were any therapeutic interventions performed with regards to patients' acidosis or ventilatory status (except 100% oxygen administration. We also retrospectively reviewed records of 104 cases who presented to Cook County Hospital Emergency Department with COHb levels over 10% during the period between March 1986 and May 1988. In these cases, we found no significant correlation between COHb level and arterial pH. We therefore conclude that arterial blood gases drawn in order to determine the degree of acidosis in mild CO intoxication without respiratory distress may not be useful in guiding therapeutic intervention and need not be routinely drawn. PMID:2929122

  9. Possible role of antioxidants and nitric oxide inhibitors against carbon monoxide poisoning: Having a clear conscience because of their potential benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Sumeyya; Yuksel, Sevda; Pehlivan, Sultan; Erdemli, Haci Kemal; Gulec, Mehmet Akif; Adam, Bahattin; Akyol, Omer

    2016-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the important emergency situations manifested by primarily acute and chronic anoxic central nervous system (CNS) injuries and other organ damages. Current descriptions and therapeutic approaches have been focused on the anoxic pathophysiology. However, this point of view incompletely explains some of the outcomes and needs to be investigated extensively. Considering this, we propose that reactive oxygen species (ROS) including especially nitric oxide (NO) are likely to be a key concept to understand the emergency related to CO poisoning and to discover new therapeutic modalities in CO toxicity. If we consider the hypothesis that ROS is involved greatly in acute and chronic toxic effects of CO on CNS and some other vital organs such as heart, it follows that the antioxidant and anti-NO therapies might give the clinicians more opportunities to prevent deep CNS injury. In support of this, we review the subject in essence and summarize clinical and experimental studies that support a key role of ROS in the explanation of pathophysiology of CO toxicity as well as new treatment modalities after CO poisoning. PMID:27241244

  10. The diagnostic value of apparent diffusion coefficient value on the delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of ADC on delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP). Methods: Forty healthy subjects with normal head MRI appearance and 32 cases with DEACMP were recruited and scanned using MRI. ADC values in bilateral globus pallidus, cerebral white matter (peri-ventricle, centrum semioval) and cortex were measured respectively. According to conventional MRI, 32 DEACMP patients were divided into abnormal and normal signal intensity groups, and followed up more than one year. Thirteen cases without evident symptoms and 3 cases with little headache and dizziness were good prognosis group. Fifteen cases with disturbance of intelligence and mental anomaly and one case with manifested unresponsive, inability in life self-care, urinary and fecal incontinence were poor prognosis group. Independent samples t-test was used to compared all parts of brain ADC values between DEACMP group and normal control, abnormal and normal signal intensity groups, normal signal intensity group and normal control, good and poor prognosis groups. Results: According to MRI findings, DEACMP were classified into three types: type 1: showing white matter involvement; type 2: showing neural nuclei involvement and type 3: showing brain cortex involvement. The ADC values [peri-ventricle white matter (0.62±0.06) x 10-3 mm2/s, the globus pallidus (0.67± 0.05) x 10-3 mm2/s, centrum semioval(0.57±0.07) x 10-3 mm2/s] in DEACMP group were statistically different with those [(0.74±0.03) x 10-3, (0.74±0.04) x 10-3, (0.73±0.05) x 10-3 mm2/s] in normal people (t=2.82,2.89,2.98, P-3 mm2/s, centrum semioval(0.52±0.09) x 10-3 mm2/s] in 20 cases with abnormal signal on routine MRI were statistically different with the ADC values [(0.66±0.05) x 10-3, (0.62±0.06) x 10-3 mm2/s] in 12 cases without abnormal signal (t=4.45,3.98, P-3 mm2/s, centrum semioval (0.58±0.05) x 10-3 mm2/s] in good prognosis group, the ADC value of 16 cases [(0.56±0.02) x

  11. Tailored Barium Swallow Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View Denver Pollen Count You are here: Programs & Services > Tests We Offer > Imaging Tests Tailored Barium Swallow Study The TBS is a special study that is completed in radiology. The test evaluates the mouth and the throat ...

  12. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G;

    2016-01-01

    function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...... supratherapeutic drug concentrations to clinical toxicity such as confusion, ataxia, or seizures. Lithium poisoning has a low mortality rate; however, chronic lithium poisoning can require a prolonged hospital length of stay from impaired mobility and cognition and associated nosocomial complications. Persistent...... or the duration of toxicity in high-risk exposures. There is disagreement in the literature regarding factors that define patients most likely to benefit from treatments that enhance lithium elimination, including specific plasma lithium concentration thresholds. In the case of extracorporeal treatments...

  13. Brain temperature measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in acute and subacute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain temperature (BT) is associated with the balance between cerebral blood flow and metabolism according to the ''heat-removal'' theory. The present study investigated whether BT is abnormally altered in acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients by using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eight adult CO-poisoned patients underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging in the acute and subacute phases after CO exposure. MRS was performed on deep cerebral white matter in the centrum semiovale, and MRS-based BT was estimated by the chemical shift difference between water and the N-acetyl aspartate signal. We defined the mean BT + 1.96 standard deviations of the BT in 15 healthy controls as the cutoff value for abnormal BT increases (p < 0.05) in CO-poisoned patients. BT of CO-poisoned patients in both the acute and subacute phases was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. However, BT in the subacute phase was significantly lower than in the acute phase. On the other hand, no significant difference in body temperature was observed between acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients. BT weakly correlated with body temperature, but this correlation was not statistically significant (rho = 0.304, p = 0.2909). The present results suggest that BT in CO-poisoned patients is abnormally high in the acute phase and remains abnormal in the subacute phase. BT alteration in these patients may be associated with brain perfusion and metabolism rather than other factors such as systemic inflammation and body temperature. (orig.)

  14. Brain temperature measured by {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in acute and subacute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Shunrou; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Akira; Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Yoshioka, Yoshichika [Osaka University, Laboratory of Biofunctional Imaging, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [MR Applications and Workflow Asia Pacific, GE Healthcare Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Iwate (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Brain temperature (BT) is associated with the balance between cerebral blood flow and metabolism according to the ''heat-removal'' theory. The present study investigated whether BT is abnormally altered in acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients by using {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eight adult CO-poisoned patients underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging in the acute and subacute phases after CO exposure. MRS was performed on deep cerebral white matter in the centrum semiovale, and MRS-based BT was estimated by the chemical shift difference between water and the N-acetyl aspartate signal. We defined the mean BT + 1.96 standard deviations of the BT in 15 healthy controls as the cutoff value for abnormal BT increases (p < 0.05) in CO-poisoned patients. BT of CO-poisoned patients in both the acute and subacute phases was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. However, BT in the subacute phase was significantly lower than in the acute phase. On the other hand, no significant difference in body temperature was observed between acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients. BT weakly correlated with body temperature, but this correlation was not statistically significant (rho = 0.304, p = 0.2909). The present results suggest that BT in CO-poisoned patients is abnormally high in the acute phase and remains abnormal in the subacute phase. BT alteration in these patients may be associated with brain perfusion and metabolism rather than other factors such as systemic inflammation and body temperature. (orig.)

  15. Barium in Twilight Zone suspended matter as a potential proxy for particulate organic carbon remineralization: Results for the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehairs, F.; Jacquet, S.; Savoye, N.; Van Mooy, B.A.S.; Buesseler, K.; Bishop, J.K.B.; Lamborg, C.H.; Elskens, M.; Baeyens, W.; Boyd, P.W.; Casciotti, K.L.; Monnin, C.

    2008-04-10

    This study focuses on the fate of exported organic carbon in the twilight zone at two contrasting environments in the North Pacific: the oligotrophic ALOHA site (22 degrees 45 minutes N 158 degrees W; Hawaii; studied during June-July 2004) and the mesotrophic Subarctic Pacific K2 site (47 degrees N, 161 degrees W; studied during July-August 2005). Earlier work has shown that non-lithogenic, excess particulate Ba (Ba{sub xs}) in the mesopelagic water column is a potential proxy of organic carbon remineralization. In general Ba{sub xs} contents were significantly larger at K2 than at ALOHA. At ALOHA the Ba{sub xs} profiles from repeated sampling (5 casts) showed remarkable consistency over a period of three weeks, suggesting that the system was close to being at steady state. In contrast, more variability was observed at K2 (6 casts sampled) reflecting the more dynamic physical and biological conditions prevailing in this environment. While for both sites Ba{sub xs} concentrations increased with depth, at K2 a clear maximum was present between the base of the mixed layer at around 50m and 500m, reflecting production and release of Ba{sub xs}. Larger mesopelagic Ba{sub xs} contents and larger bacterial production in the twilight zone at the K2 site indicate that more material was exported from the upper mixed layer for bacterial degradation deeper, compared to the ALOHA site. Furthermore, application of a published transfer function (Dehairs et al., 1997) relating oxygen consumption to the observed Ba{sub xs} data indicated that the latter were in good agreement with bacterial respiration, calculated from bacterial production. These results corroborate earlier findings highlighting the potential of Ba{sub xs} as a proxy for organic carbon remineralization. The range of POC remineralization rates calculated from twilight zone excess particulate Ba contents did also compare well with the depth dependent POC flux decrease as recorded by neutrally buoyant sediment traps

  16. Kinetics of thermal decomposition of barium zirconyl oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of the thermal decomposition of anhydrous barium zirconyl oxalate and a carbonate intermediate have been studied. Decomposition of the anhydrous oxalate, though it could be explained based on a contracting-cube model, is quite complex. Kinetics of decomposition of the intermediate carbonate Ba2Zr2O5CO3 is greatly influenced by thermal effects during its formation. (α-t) curves are sigmoidal and obey a power law equation followed by first order decay. Presence of carbon in the vacuum-prepared carbonate has a strong deactivating effect. Decomposition of the carbonate is accompanied by growth in particle size of the product barium zirconate. (Author)

  17. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing acetone-based ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Household Products Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  18. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How ... poisoning is still one of the most important health issues in the United States ... in housing built before 1946 have elevated blood lead levels. These ...

  19. Carbon monoxide poisoning of platinum-graphite catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells: comparison between platinum-supported on graphite and intercalated in graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilquin, J. Y.; Côté, R.; Guay, D.; Dodelet, J. P.; Denès, G.

    Platinum intercalated in graphite and Pt supported on graphite have been synthesized as catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells in order to test the effect of carbon monoxide adsorption on their electrochemical properties. These materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, neutron activation analysis and cyclic voltammetry in Nafion-based films in contact with H 2SO 4 solution at pH 0.5 Pt intercalates are indeed tridimensional Pt cluster inclusions in a perturbed graphite matrix. Hydrogen electrosorption measurements demonstrate that Pt supported on graphite has three times more active sites than Pt intercalated in graphite even if Pt loadings (16 ± 4 Pt wt.%) and the size of Pt clusters (3.4 ± 0.4 nm) are similar for both catalysts. Pt supported on graphite and intercalated in graphite are equally poisoned by carbon monoxide.

  20. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barium into a bedpan or nearby toilet. A health care professional may give you an enema to flush out the rest of the barium. An x-ray technician and a radiologist perform a lower gastrointestinal (GI) series at a ...

  1. Barium hexaferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martirosyan, K.S., E-mail: karen.martirosyan@utb.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Galstyan, E. [Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Hossain, S.M.; Wang Yiju [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Litvinov, D. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Carbon combustion synthesis is applied to rapid and energy efficient fabrication of crystalline barium hexaferrite nanoparticles with the average particle size of 50-100 nm. In this method, the exothermic oxidation of carbon nanoparticles with an average size of 5 nm with a surface area of 80 m{sup 2}/g generates a self-propagating thermal wave with maximum temperatures of up to 1000 deg. C. The thermal front rapidly propagates through the mixture of solid reactants converting it to the hexagonal barium ferrite. Carbon is not incorporated in the product and is emitted from the reaction zone as a gaseous CO{sub 2}. The activation energy for carbon combustion synthesis of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} was estimated to be 98 kJ/mol. A complete conversion to hexagonal barium ferrite is obtained for carbon concentration exceeding 11 wt.%. The magnetic properties H{sub c}{approx}3000 Oe and M{sub s}{approx}50.3 emu/g of the compact sintered ferrites compare well with those produced by other synthesis methods.

  2. Barium hexaferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon combustion synthesis is applied to rapid and energy efficient fabrication of crystalline barium hexaferrite nanoparticles with the average particle size of 50-100 nm. In this method, the exothermic oxidation of carbon nanoparticles with an average size of 5 nm with a surface area of 80 m2/g generates a self-propagating thermal wave with maximum temperatures of up to 1000 deg. C. The thermal front rapidly propagates through the mixture of solid reactants converting it to the hexagonal barium ferrite. Carbon is not incorporated in the product and is emitted from the reaction zone as a gaseous CO2. The activation energy for carbon combustion synthesis of BaFe12O19 was estimated to be 98 kJ/mol. A complete conversion to hexagonal barium ferrite is obtained for carbon concentration exceeding 11 wt.%. The magnetic properties Hc∼3000 Oe and Ms∼50.3 emu/g of the compact sintered ferrites compare well with those produced by other synthesis methods.

  3. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  4. Phase formation during the LnBa2Cu3Ox (Ln = Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Yb) synthesis from the mixture of copper and rare earth oxides with barium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase formation during LnBa2Cu3Ox synthesis from a mixture of copper and rare earth oxides with barium carbonate under different synthesis conditions in investigated by the methods of thermal, X-ray phase and X-ray microanalyses. Powder-like and molded pellets were synthesized at 800-1000 deg C with 0.5-18 h isothermal holding under heated furnace-air hardening or slow cooling conditions. To produce LaBa2Cu3Ox monophase samples from oxide-carbonate mixture 950 deg temperature is required for Ln = Nd, Eu, Ho and 980 deg temparature for Ln = Gd with approximatly 4 h holding. In case of Ln = Yb, a multistage annealing is essential, and in case of Tb, the above compound is not formed under the investigated conditions. Temperatures of rhombic-tetragonal transitions are determined for the produced compounds

  5. Assessment of damage to cerebral white matter fiber in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using fractional anisotropy in diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Departments of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Nishimoto, Hideaki; Ishigaki, Daiya [Iwate Medical University, Departments of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Fujiwara, Shunrou; Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Yoshida, Tomoyuki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, Morioka (Japan); Oikawa, Hirotaka [Iwate Prefectural Advanced Critical Care and Emergency, Morioka (Japan); Kamada, Katsura [Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Departments of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are caused by demyelination of cerebral white matter fibers. We examined whether diffusion tensor imaging can sensitively represent damage to fibers of the centrum semiovale in the subacute phase after CO intoxication. Subjects comprised 13 adult patients with CO poisoning, classified into three groups according to clinical behaviors: group A, patients with transit acute symptoms only; group P, patients with persistent neurological symptoms; and group D, patients with ''delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae'' occurring after a lucid interval. Median fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the centrum semiovale bilaterally at 2 weeks were compared between these groups and a control group of ten healthy volunteers. Myelin basic protein (MBP) concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was examined at 2 weeks to evaluate the degree of demyelination in patients. MBP concentration was abnormal or detectable for all group P and group D patients but was undetectable for all patients assigned to group A. Low FA values in groups P and D displaying chronic neurological symptoms clearly differed from those in controls and group A without chronic neurological symptoms, but ADC showed no significant differences between patient groups. MBP concentration at 2 weeks after CO inhalation confirmed a certain extent of demyelination in the central nervous system of patients who would develop chronic neurological symptoms. In these patients, FA sensitively represented damage to white matter fibers in the centrum semiovale in the subacute phase after CO intoxication. (orig.)

  6. Assessment of damage to cerebral white matter fiber in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using fractional anisotropy in diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are caused by demyelination of cerebral white matter fibers. We examined whether diffusion tensor imaging can sensitively represent damage to fibers of the centrum semiovale in the subacute phase after CO intoxication. Subjects comprised 13 adult patients with CO poisoning, classified into three groups according to clinical behaviors: group A, patients with transit acute symptoms only; group P, patients with persistent neurological symptoms; and group D, patients with ''delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae'' occurring after a lucid interval. Median fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the centrum semiovale bilaterally at 2 weeks were compared between these groups and a control group of ten healthy volunteers. Myelin basic protein (MBP) concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was examined at 2 weeks to evaluate the degree of demyelination in patients. MBP concentration was abnormal or detectable for all group P and group D patients but was undetectable for all patients assigned to group A. Low FA values in groups P and D displaying chronic neurological symptoms clearly differed from those in controls and group A without chronic neurological symptoms, but ADC showed no significant differences between patient groups. MBP concentration at 2 weeks after CO inhalation confirmed a certain extent of demyelination in the central nervous system of patients who would develop chronic neurological symptoms. In these patients, FA sensitively represented damage to white matter fibers in the centrum semiovale in the subacute phase after CO intoxication. (orig.)

  7. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Hair tonic poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Ciguatera poisoning, the poisonous ingredient is ciguatoxin. This is a poison made in small amounts by certain algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae ...

  10. Do all barium stars have a white dwarf companion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, J. F.; Lambert, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    International Ultraviolet Explorer short-wavelength, low-dispersion spectra were analyzed for four barium, two mild barium, and one R-type carbon star in order to test the hypothesis that the barium and related giants are produced by mass transfer from a companion now present as a white dwarf. An earlier tentative identification of a white dwarf companion to the mild barium star Zeta Cyg is confirmed. For the other stars, no ultraviolet excess attributable to a white dwarf is seen. Limits are set on the bolometric magnitude and age of a possible white dwarf companion. Since the barium stars do not have obvious progenitors among main-sequence and subgiant stars, mass transfer must be presumed to occur when the mass-gaining star is already on the giant branch. This restriction, and the white dwarf's minimum age, which is greater than 8 x 10 to the 8th yr, determined for several stars, effectively eliminates the hypothesis that mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star creates a barium star. Speculations are presented on alternative methods of producing a barium star in a binary system.

  11. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  12. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  13. First-principles based phenomenological study of Ni nanocubes: The effects of nanostructuring on carbon poisoning of Ni(0 0 1) nanofacets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Renbo; Lee, Seung Jae; Son, In Hyuk; Lee, Hyunjoo; Soon, Aloysius

    2013-01-01

    Ni-based catalysts are long known to be an efficient low-cost catalyst for the dry (or steam) reforming of methane. However, they are often plagued with the serious issue of carbon poisoning, eventually leading to the deactivation of Ni-based catalysts for this reaction. In order to provide an atomistic, electronic structure-based examination of Ni-based catalyst deactivation, we perform first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations of chemisorbed carbon and other surface carbidic structures on Ni(0 0 1). This surface is the predominant surface of the nanocube catalysts engineered via shape-control synthesis for steam/dry reforming of methane. We calculate the chemical binding energy of carbon as a function of its surface coverage and we study the local chemical environment via its electronic structure to draw correlations between the thermodynamic (de)stability of these unwanted carbidic structures. In an attempt to mimic bond contraction at the surface of nanocatalysts, we report the influence of surface stress on our calculated values using a shape-dependent phenomenological bond contraction model.

  14. New barium tantalum sulphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss a new barium tantalum sulphide, Ba3Ta2S8, prepared by sulphurization of a mixture of BaCO3 and Ta2O5. The electron and powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the compound are indexed on the basis of a monoclinic cell with lattice constants. A structure model is proposed. The refinement based on the powder X-ray diffraction intensities is performed

  15. Ciguatera fish poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    J. Crump; McLay, C.; Chambers, S.

    1999-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is one of a variety of non-bacterial forms of human seafood poisoning. Consuming large predatory fish from tropical reef ecosystems may be hazardous. We describe a case that is typical of the disease, and illustrates the persistence of neurological symptoms that occur in some patients.


Keywords: ciguatera fish poisoning; ichthyosarcotoxaemia; poisoning; biotoxins

  16. Barium calcium hydroxyapatite solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The replacement of calcium by barium in the hydroxyapatite structure by solid-state reaction at different temperatures and by precipitation from an aqueous system has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and i.r. absorption analyses. The products obtained by solid-state reaction at 1200 deg C are solid solutions over the range of barium concentration 60 to 100 atom %. The lattice dimensions and the i.r. frequencies of the solid solutions vary linearly with the atom % of barium. Only small amounts of barium can be incorporated in hydroxyapatite by precipitation from the aqueous system. (author)

  17. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD). Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  18. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  19. Carbonmonoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Huseyin Sen; Sezai Ozkan

    2009-01-01

    An odorless, colorless, tasteless, non-irritant properties as a gas carbon monoxide (CO) is common cause of intoxications in daily life. CO intoxication diagnosis depends on suspicious anamnesis. Carbon monoxide intoxication treatment basis is oxygen supply. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment should be started in first 24 hours. And after diagnosis of carbon monoxide intoxication patient should be transfered to the center as possible as where hyperbaric oxygen treatment is avaible. [TAF Prev Med Bul...

  20. Diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (dlco) in chemical lung injuries due to the use of mustard gas in the poisoned soldiers of Iran-Iraq war 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the Mustard gas exposure effects on pulmonary system, particularly on diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (DLCO) and simple spirometry. Sixty-five sulfur mustard- poisoned soldiers from Mostazafan and Janbazan organization were referred to our center in 2005. Complete history, physical examination, chest X ray, Echocardiography, Arterial blood gas, high - resolution computerized tomography, diffusion capacity for lung carbon monoxide and spirometry of these were performed and compared this result with normal value. The mean value of indices in studied injured subjects was: Spirometry: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) = 70.4, Forced vital capacity (FVC) = 66.5, EFE 25-75=81.1, FEV1/FVC=101.9, Flow 25% = 28.7, Flow 50%= 72.9, Flow 75%= 100.1, Sample volume: Functional residual capacity of lungs (FRC) = 131.5, residual volume (RV) = 157.3, RV/TLC= 169.1, Total lung capacity (TLC) = 91.3, KCO= 131.6, TLCO= 116.3. No significant correlation was observed between TLCO values with HRCT, echocardiography, ABG and spirometry values (P>0.05). We recommend TLCO and RV/TLV tests to assess severity of Injuries as there is no a suitable criterion to measure the real consequences of mustard gas on affected combatants. and Biological markers are also needed to determine cause effect relations. (author)

  1. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  2. Barium zirconate base ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical corrosion at high temperatures is a serious problem in the refractory materials field, leading to degradation and bath contamination by elements of the refractory. The main objective of this work was to search for ceramics that could present higher resistance to chemical attack by aggressive molten oxides. The general behaviour of a ceramic material based on barium zirconate (Ba Zr O3) with the addition of different amounts of liquid phase former was investigated. The densification behaviour occurred during different heat treatments, as well as the microstructure development, as a function of the additives and their reactions with the main phase, were observed and are discussed. (author)

  3. Nursing experience of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning%高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀杰; 王亚林

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析总结高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒患者的护理体会。方法采用回顾性分析法对收治的30例一氧化碳中毒患者在高压氧治疗过程中的护理方法进行总结。结果所有患者都得到有效治愈,治愈率高达100%。结论一氧化碳中毒患者早期采用高压氧治疗能减少迟发性脑病的发生率,提高治愈率。与此同时,在高压氧治疗整个过程中,做好护理工作也是成功救治一氧化碳中毒患者的关键;护理人员应当结合患者的特点,将治疗过程中的护理工作做好。%Objective To summarize nursing experience of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods 30 patients with carbon monoxide poisoning under hyperbaric oxygen therapy were analyzed to summarize the nursing methods. Results all patients were cured effectively,and the cure rate was as high as 100%. Conclusion Patients with carbon monoxide poisoning would get better curative effect under hyperbaric oxygen therapy in early stage ,which could make the number of times of occurrence of delayed encephalopathy decreased. At the same time,good nursing care was the key to save carbon monoxide poisoning patients successfully in the whole process of hyperbaric oxygen therapy,so the nursing staff should work well and take good care of the patients based on the patient characteristics.

  4. Facts and fallacies on industrial poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THIENES, C H

    1957-09-01

    Misdiagnosis of diseases as due to industrial poisoning leads to much misunderstanding, higher taxes and insurance rates and "compensation neuroses." It is important to know the concentration of the suspected poison and its specific effects in order to logically indict it as the cause of illness. Examples discussed to illustrate some of the pitfalls of diagnosis in industrial medicine are methylbromide, carbon monoxide, ozone, oxides of nitrogen and of sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, benzene analogs, boron and fluorides. PMID:13460717

  5. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair ...

  6. Face powder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002700.htm Face powder poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes ...

  7. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  8. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  9. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vicinity. Keep your children informed, too. Remove any poisonous plants. Never eat wild plants, mushrooms, roots, or berries unless you very familiar with them. Teach children about the dangers ... substances are poisonous if taken in large doses. If you are ...

  10. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  11. A case of carbon monoxide poisoning by explosion of coal mine presenting as visual agnosia: re-evaluation after 40 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaiwa, A.; Yamashita, K.; Nomura, T.; Shida, K.; Taniwaki, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Science

    2005-11-15

    We re-evaluated a case of carbon monoxide poisoning presenting as visual agnosia who had been injured by explosion of Miike-Mikawa coal mine 40 years ago. In an early stage, his main neuropsychological symptoms were visual agnosia, severe anterograde amnesia, alexia, agraphia, constructional apraxia, left hemispatial neglect and psychic paralysis of gaze, in addition to pyramidal and extra pyramidal signs. At the time of re-evaluation after 40 years, he still showed visual agnosia associated with agraphia and constructional apraxia. Concerning visual agnosia, recognition of the real object was preserved, while recognition of object photographs and picture was impaired. Thus, this case was considered to have picture agnosia as he could not recognize the object by pictorial cues on the second dimensional space. MRI examination revealed low signal intensity lesions and cortical atrophy in the bilateral parieto-occipital lobes on T1-weighted images. Therefore, the bilateral parieto-occipital lesions are likely to be responsible for his picture agnosia.

  12. Hyperbaric programs in the United States: Locations and capabilities of treating decompression sickness, arterial gas embolisms, and acute carbon monoxide poisoning: survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Walter; Jacoby, Laura; Simon, Olivia; Talati, Nisha; Wegrzyn, Gracelene; Jacoby, Rachelle; Proano, Jacob; Sprau, Susan E; Markovitz, Gerald; Hsu, Rita; Joo, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the primary treatment for arterial gas embolism, decompression sickness and acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Though there has been a proliferation of hyperbaric centers throughout the United States, a scarcity of centers equipped to treat emergency indications makes transport of patients necessary. To locate and characterize hyperbaric chambers capable of treating emergency cases, a survey of centers throughout the entire United States was conducted. Using Google, Yahoo, HyperbaricLink and the UHMS directory, a database for United States chambers was created. Four researchers called clinicians from the database to administer the survey. All centers were contacted for response until four calls went unreturned or a center declined to be included. The survey assessed chamber readiness to respond to high-acuity patients, including staff availability, use of medical equipment such as ventilators and intravenous infusion devices, and responding yes to treating hyperbaric emergencies within a 12-month period. Only 43 (11.9%, N = 361) centers had equipment, intravenous infusion pumps and ventilators, and staff necessary to treat high-acuity patients. Considering that a primary purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the treatment of arterial gas embolism and decompression sickness, more hyperbaric centers nationwide should be able to accommodate these emergency cases quickly and safely. PMID:27000011

  13. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakaran, A.C. Jesudoss

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD) being used by the people to color their hair all over the world. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, the importance of clinical manifestations and of hair dye poisoning is discussed due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. Since there is no specific antidote for PPD poisoning, the early supportive treatment modalities are dis...

  14. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  15. MR Colonography with fecal tagging: Barium vs. barium ferumoxsil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M.P.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.B.; Thomsen, H.S.; Rosenberg, J.

    2008-01-01

    . Materials and Methods. Twenty patients referred to CC underwent dark lumen MRC prior to the colonoscopy. Two groups of patients received two different oral contrast agents (barium sulfate and barium sulfate/ferumoxsil) as a laxative-free fecal tagging prior to the MRC. After MRC, the contrast agent was...... rated qualitatively (with the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio) and subjectively (using a visual analog scale [VAS]) by three different blinded observers. Results. Evaluated both qualitatively and subjectively, the tagging efficiency of barium sulfate/ferumoxsil was significantly better (P...... <.05) than barium sulfate alone. The VAS method for evaluating the tagging efficiency of contrast agents showed a high correlation (observer 11, r = 0.91) to the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio and also a high interclass correlation (observer 11 and III = 0.89/0.85). MRC found I of 22 (5...

  16. Doped barium titanate nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Kundu; A Jana; P Barik

    2008-06-01

    We have synthesized nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) ion doped BaTiO3 nanoparticles through a chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The concentration of dopant varies from 0 to 2 mole% in the specimens. The results from X-ray diffractograms and transmission electron micrographs show that the particle diameters in the specimen lie in the range 24–40 nm. It is seen that the dielectric permittivity in doped specimens is enhanced by an order of magnitude compared to undoped barium titanate ceramics. The dielectric permittivity shows maxima at 0.3 mole% doping of Fe ion and 0.6 mole% of Ni ion. The unusual dielectric behaviour of the specimens is explained in terms of the change in crystalline structure of the specimens.

  17. New barium tantalum sulphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new barium tantalum sulphide has been synthesized by the reaction of CS2 with a mixture of BaCO3 and Ta2O5. The chemical analysis of the compound was performed for 3 components (Ba, Ta and S), and the chemical composition was found to be BaTa2S5. The powder X-ray diffraction peaks were indexable on the basis of a hexagonal cell with lattices constants of a=3.32A, c=25.13A. However, the electron diffraction measurements show that the structure is more complex than that observed by powder X-ray diffraction. The compound indicates metallic behavior and Pauli paramagnetism

  18. Abundance analysis of barium and mild barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Smiljanic, R; Silva, L

    2007-01-01

    High signal to noise, high resolution spectra were obtained for a sample of normal, mild barium, and barium giants. Atmospheric parameters were determined from the FeI and FeII lines. Abundances for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd, were determined from equivalent widths and model atmospheres in a differential analysis, with the red giant Eps Vir as the standard star. The different levels of s-process overabundances of barium and mild barium stars were earlier suggested to be related to the stellar metallicity. Contrary to this suggestion, we found in this work no evidence for barium and mild barium to have a different range in metallicity. However, comparing the ratio of abundances of heavy to light s-process elements, we found some evidence that they do not share the same neutron exposure parameter. The exact mechanism controlling this difference is still not clear. As a by-product of this analysis we identify two normal red giants misclass...

  19. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  20. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  1. Barium aluminate cement: its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology of manufacturing barium aluminate cement from barium sulfate and alumina, using a rotary kiln for firing the clinker is described. The method of granulation of the homogenized charge was used. Conditions of using the ''to mud'' method in industry were indicated. The physical and chemical properties of barium aluminate cement are determined and the quality of several batches of cement prepared on a semi-industrial scale and their suitability for making highly refractory concretes are tested. The optimal composition of the concretes is determined as a function of the mixing water and barium aluminate cement contents. Several experimental batches of concretes were used in the linings of furnaces in the steel industry. The suitability of these cements for use in fields other than steelmaking is examined. It is established that calcium aluminate cement has certain limited applications

  2. Discovery of the Barium Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    SHORE, A.; A. Fritsch; Ginepro, J. Q.; Heim, M.; Schuh, A.; Thoennessen, M

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-eight barium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  3. Serious Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Treated with Naloxone and Hyperbaric Oxygen%钠洛酮、高压氧联合治疗重症一氧化碳中毒的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁丽华; 李武祥; 姚伟英

    2002-01-01

    Objective Observe the curative effect of uniting treating serious carbon monoxide poisoning with Naloxoneand Hyperbaric oxyen chamber therapy. Methods Dividing 231 exemples of sufferers into four groups: Naloxone group have54 patients, hyperbaric oxygen group have 34 patients, uniting treating group have 102 patients, comparison group have 41patients, the difference between each group is not palpable (P > 0.05). Result The heal rate of four groups is 77.28 %, 79.41%,87.25%,68.29% in turn,each group have prominence difference (P< 0.05).Conclusion Treating serious carbonmonoxide poisoning,the curative effect with Noloxone or hyperbaric sing lehanded is better than general treatment;the curativeeffect of the uniting treating is more prominence than others.

  4. Preparation of barium hexaferrite powders using oxidized steel scales waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiani, Ardita; Idayanti, Novrita; Kristiantoro, Tony

    2016-02-01

    Research on preparation of barium hexaferrite powders has been done using Hot Strip Mill scales as raw materials. Hot Strip Mill scales are oxidized steel scales waste from steel industrial process. The method used for preparing the barium hexaferrite powders was solid state reaction method. Oxidized steel scales were milled using ball mill for 10 hours, then screened through a 250 mesh sieve to obtain powders with maximum size of 63 µm. Powders were roasted at 600°C temperature for 4 hours to obtain hematite (Fe2O3) phase. Roasted powders were then mixed with barium carbonate, and were subsequently milled for 16 hours. After mixing, powders were calcined with an increasing rate of 10°C/min and maintained at 1100°C for 3 hours. Calcination process was performed to acquire barium hexaferrite phase. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization in conjunction with RIR analysis showed that 85 wt. % of barium hexaferrite is formed. The magnetic properties of powders were characterized using Permagraph. It is found the value of remanent induction is 1.09 kG, coercivity of 2.043 kOe, and the maximum energy product of 0.25 MGOe.

  5. Barium light source method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John J. (Inventor); MacDonagh-Dumler, Jeffrey (Inventor); Anderson, Heidi M. (Inventor); Lawler, James E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Visible light emission is obtained from a plasma containing elemental barium including neutral barium atoms and barium ion species. Neutral barium provides a strong green light emission in the center of the visible spectrum with a highly efficient conversion of electrical energy into visible light. By the selective excitation of barium ionic species, emission of visible light at longer and shorter wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously with the green emission from neutral barium, effectively providing light that is visually perceived as white. A discharge vessel contains the elemental barium and a buffer gas fill therein, and a discharge inducer is utilized to induce a desired discharge temperature and barium vapor pressure therein to produce from the barium vapor a visible light emission. The discharge can be induced utilizing a glow discharge between electrodes in the discharge vessel as well as by inductively or capacitively coupling RF energy into the plasma within the discharge vessel.

  6. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  7. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  8. Clinical Study on the Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen in the Treatment of 28 Cases of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning%高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒28例临床效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭良; 呼新华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒临床效果。方法整理我科2013年10月~2015年3月,接受高压氧治疗的一氧化碳中毒患者28例,治疗效果进行分析。结果两组治疗后评分治疗比较存在差异,接受高压氧治疗越早患者痊愈率越高,症状体征改善越明显。结论及早采取高压氧治疗能改善一氧化碳中毒患者的治疗效果,降低致残率,是一种最有效康复治疗方法。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.MethodsFrom October 2013 to March 2015,28 patients underwent hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning,treatment effect were analyzed.Results The treatment score significantly difference in two groups after treatment,the sooner accepted recovery in patients with hyperbaric oxygen therapy,the better improved signs and symptoms.Conclusion Early hyperbaric oxygen therapy can improve the treatment effect of carbon monoxide poisoning patients,decrease the rate of disability,is one of the most effective rehabilitation treatment methods.

  9. Efficacy of Hyperbaric Oxygen in the Treatment of 257 Cases With Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning%高压氧治疗急性一氧化碳中毒257例效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林素莲; 沈炳荣; 高惠珍

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒的临床效果。方法回顾分析我院1999年10月~2015年5月高压氧救治的257例一氧化碳中毒患者的治疗效果。结果257例患者中,252例患者经高压氧等综合救治后痊愈出院,无并发症发生,随访半年预后较好;3例患者留有后遗症,生活不能自理;2例患者治疗无效死亡。结论对于急性一氧化碳中毒患者,给予及时、充分的高压氧治疗是救治关键,可提高治愈率,减少迟发性脑病的发生。%ObjectiveTo study the clinical effect of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.Methods A total of 257 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning patients were retrospectively analyzed in our hospital from Oct 1999 to May 2015. Al patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen treatment,the effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment was investigated.Results252 of 257 cases patients recovered after hyperbaric oxygen treatment, and no complications were observed,a folowed up for half a year showed that al patients with a good prognosis,three patients underwent a poor prognosis,two cases died for ineffective treatment.Conclusion A timely and fuly hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a key treatment for patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning,it can improve the cure rate and reduce the occurrence of delayed encephalopathy.

  10. Analysis of related factors concerning prognosis in patients with delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning%一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病患者预后相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇; 高春锦; 王铁; 葛环; 杨晶; 宋振国

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病患者预后的相关因素,为临床更好地判断一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病预后提供依据.方法 一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病患者52例,详细记录预后可能的相关因素,包括性别、年龄、昏迷时间、假愈期、一氧化碳中毒后是否行高压氧治疗,有无高血压、糖尿病病史,并在迟发性脑病高峰期进行生活自理能力评分及脑葡萄糖代谢测定.结果 影响一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病患者临床预后的3个独立因素分别为性别、年龄和迟发性脑病假愈期时间(P<0.05).结论 一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病的预后与性别、年龄及假愈期时间有关,脑葡萄糖代谢值尚不能作为预测迟发性脑病预后的指标.%Objective To analyze related factors concerning prognosis in patients with delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning,and to provide clinical evidence for better assessment of prognosis of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning.Methods Fifty-two cases of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning were enrolled in our study.Such related factors as gender,age,duration of coma,false lucid interval time,HBO therapy,blood pressure and history of diabetes were all recorded in detail.Scores of activities of daily living (ADL) at the peak of delayed encephalopathy were recorded and cerebral glucose metabolism was monitored.Results The 3 independent factors affecting the clinical outcome of patients with delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning were gender,age and false lucid interval time (P < 0.05).Conclusions The prognosis of delayed encephalopathy was associated with gender,age,and false lucid interval time,the value of cerebral glucose metabolism could not be used as an index for predicting the prognosis of delayed encephalopathy.

  11. Reaction sintering of a zirconia-containing barium feldspar ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircon (ZrSiO4) is a natural mineral resource known to react with certain oxides to produce a dispersion of zirconia particles within ceramic or glass-ceramic matrices. Barium aluminosilicates, particularly the celsian polymorphs of BaO- Al2O3 2SiO2 display oxidation resistance and refractory characteristics commensurate with the properties required of high temperature materials. Such properties, coupled with the high melting point of ZrO2 (2680 deg C), suggest that barium aluminosilicates and zirconia are an ideal combination from which to fabricate high temperature materials. A recent study has indicated that a barium aluminosilicate containing up to 40mol% ZrO2 can be prepared via a sol-gel process. However, the desire to utilise a natural resource in the form of zircon in the present work has led to the choice of reaction sintering as an alternative processing route. The current work was undertaken to investigate the possibility of forming a zirconia-containing barium feldspar composite material using the reaction sintering of zircon and assuming the following stoichiometric reaction: 2ZrSiO4 + BaCO3 + Al2O3 → 2ZrO2 + BaO-Al2O3-2SiO2 + CO2 ↑. The reaction sintering of zircon with alumina and barium carbonate produces a composite material comprising distributed ZrO2 in a continous barium feldspar matrix. Yttria added during processing allows a significant fraction of the ZrO2 to be retained as tetragonal phase to room temperature and thus the potential for a measure of transformation toughening

  12. Reaction sintering of a zirconia-containing barium feldspar ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordmann, A.; Cheng, Y-B.; Muddle, B. C. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) is a natural mineral resource known to react with certain oxides to produce a dispersion of zirconia particles within ceramic or glass-ceramic matrices. Barium aluminosilicates, particularly the celsian polymorphs of BaO- Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 2SiO{sub 2} display oxidation resistance and refractory characteristics commensurate with the properties required of high temperature materials. Such properties, coupled with the high melting point of ZrO{sub 2} (2680 deg C), suggest that barium aluminosilicates and zirconia are an ideal combination from which to fabricate high temperature materials. A recent study has indicated that a barium aluminosilicate containing up to 40mol% ZrO{sub 2} can be prepared via a sol-gel process. However, the desire to utilise a natural resource in the form of zircon in the present work has led to the choice of reaction sintering as an alternative processing route. The current work was undertaken to investigate the possibility of forming a zirconia-containing barium feldspar composite material using the reaction sintering of zircon and assuming the following stoichiometric reaction: 2ZrSiO{sub 4} + BaCO{sub 3} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {yields} 2ZrO{sub 2} + BaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-2SiO{sub 2} + CO{sub 2} {up_arrow}. The reaction sintering of zircon with alumina and barium carbonate produces a composite material comprising distributed ZrO{sub 2} in a continous barium feldspar matrix. Yttria added during processing allows a significant fraction of the ZrO{sub 2} to be retained as tetragonal phase to room temperature and thus the potential for a measure of transformation toughening. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  14. Barium isotopes in Allende meteorite - Evidence against an extinct superheavy element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.; Shimamura, T.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon and chromite fractions from the Allende meteorite that contain isotopically anomalous xenon-131 to xenon-136 (carbonaceous chondrite fission or CCF xenon) at up to 5 x 10 to the 11th atoms per gram show no detectable isotopic anomalies in barium-130 to barium-138. This rules out the possibility that the CCF xenon was formed by in situ fission of an extinct superheavy element. Apparently the CCF xenon and its carbonaceous carrier are relics from stellar nucleosynthesis.

  15. Experimental investigation of carbon monoxide poisoning effect on a PBI/H3PO4 high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen;

    2015-01-01

    anode humidity level reduced the cell performance loss caused by CO poisoning. When the fuel cell was operated with pure H2, the cell performance was not significantly affect by the change in anode dew point temperature in the range of room temperature and 60 °C. CO2 in anode stream resulted in slight...

  16. Obtaining of a barium compound by combustion chemistry and their evaluation as Co adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, barium carbonate synthesized by chemical combustion method using a chemical precursor prepared by the combination of barium nitrate and urea as a fuel, with a 1:1 molar ratio in aqueous solution, the chemical precursor was heated to evaporate excess water, producing a homogeneous viscous liquid, that when heated to 900 centi grades for 5 minutes an exothermic reaction was produced very quickly and abruptly, forming a white powder final product, fine porous, little spongy, dry and crystalline ready to be used as material adsorbent. Additionally, the effect of water on the synthesis by chemical combustion was studied. Simultaneously, and with the purpose of comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the method by chemical combustion, barium carbonate was synthesized by precipitation method using barium nitrate salts and sodium carbonate. Synthesized barium carbonate, was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. We studied the adsorption capacity of Co present in aqueous solution by static tests on materials synthesized at room temperature using the neutron activation analysis. It was found that the synthesis by chemical combustion provides an interesting alternative compared to the synthesis by precipitation because it offers simplicity of synthesis and speed to have a good adsorbent material. It was found that the barium carbonate synthesized by the chemical combustion method using in their synthesis 1.0 ml of water, was the one who achieved the maximum adsorption capacity of 95.6% compared with the barium carbonate prepared by precipitation, which reached a capacity adsorption of 51.48%. (Author)

  17. CNO and F abundances in the barium star HD 123396

    CERN Document Server

    Alves-Brito, Alan; Yong, David; Meléndez, Jorge; Vásquez, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    [Abridged] Barium stars are moderately rare chemically peculiar objects which are believed to be the result of the pollution of an otherwise normal star by material from an evolved companion on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). We aim to derive carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine abundances for the first time from infrared spectra of the barium red giant star HD 123396 to quantitatively test AGB nucleosynthesis models for producing barium stars via mass accretion. High-resolution and high S/N infrared spectra were obtained using the Phoenix spectrograph mounted at the Gemini South telescope. The abundances were obtained through spectrum synthesis of individual atomic and molecular lines, using the MOOG stellar line analysis program together with Kurucz's stellar atmosphere models. The analysis was classical, using 1D stellar models and spectral synthesis under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We confirm that HD 123396 is a metal-deficient barium star ([Fe/H] = -1.05), with A(C) = 7.88, A...

  18. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair dye poisoning occurs when someone swallows dye or tint used to color hair. This article is for ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. ... aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene diamines ...

  19. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe enough to cause ... given through a vein (IV) to reverse severe acidosis Antidotes that slow the formation of the poisonous ...

  20. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  1. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemical products such as cleaning solutions or beauty products. Never mix household products together. For example, mixing bleach and ammonia ... the fan and open windows when using chemical products such as household cleaners. Keep Young Children Safe from Poisoning Be ...

  2. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it be!" aptly ... is caused by an allergic reaction ( allergic contact dermatitis ) to the oily coating that covers of these ...

  3. Medicine Poisoning in Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lígia Montenegro de Albuquerque

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to identify the main medications responsible for exogenous poisoning of children attended at a referral emergency hospital of Fortaleza, Ceará State,Brazil; to describe the most prevalent age and gender, as well as the main reactions presented by poisoned children. It was a documental retrospective study of 203 records of patients attended in 1997 at the Toxicology Center of Ceará. Our results showed that antidepressants, bronchodilators and vitamins were the most common agents; 77% of poisoned children were between 1 and 4 years of age, and 54% were males; somnolence, psicomotor excitement, tachycardia and vomiting were the most commonly encountered reactions. In conclusion, these medicines represents an important cause of children poisoning, Families must attempt to the safe storing and dealing with these products. It is mandatory that the government determines the utilization of special packages for children protection in our country.

  4. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  5. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Field R, Panter KE, et al. Selected poisonous plants affecting animal and human health. In: Haschek WAM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA, eds. Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 40.

  6. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  7. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... King St., Suite 510 Alexandria, VA 22314 Online http://www.aapcc.org/ Email not for emergency use. ... Poison Center" in the memo line. Donate online: http://bit.ly/1HDxdHb Tucson, AZ 85721 Online http:// ...

  8. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair spray or sprays it down their throat or into their eyes. ... The harmful ingredients in hair spray are: Carboxymethylcellulose ... Polyvinyl alcohol Propylene glycol Polyvinylpyrrolidone

  9. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  10. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 94. Wax PM, Yarema M. ...

  11. Window cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. Mycyk MB. Toxic alcohols. ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 151. White SR. Toxic alcohols. ...

  12. Ammonium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 97. Harchelroad FP Jr, Rottinghaus ... Textbook of Critical Care . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 187. Wax PM, Yarema M. ...

  13. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 146. Freedman DO. Protection of ...

  14. Wart remover poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 48. Nelson LS, Ford MD. ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 110. Seger DL, Murray L. ...

  15. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  16. 单壁碳纳米管/六角钡铁氧体复合材料的微波吸收性能%Microwave absorption properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes/barium hexaferrite composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺可强; 郁黎明; 盛雷梅; 安康; 赵新洛

    2011-01-01

    The Fe-filled single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs) were fabricated by a DC arc discharge method.After purification process and then doped the very substance into the nanocrystalline M-type barium hexaferrite(BaFe12O19),which was synthesized by a sol-gel auto-combustion method.The electromagnetic parameters of the samples were tested using coaxial method,and microwave absorption properties of SWCNTs/BaFe12O19 composite with different doping ratios were investigated.The results indicate that the magnetic loss of composite SWCNTs/BaFe12O19 is mainly attributed to the natural resonance and exchange resonance.When doping 2% mass fraction of SWCNTs,the maximum reflection loss of composite can reach 24.85dB and the frequency band width of above 10dB is 6.30GHz,which is a wide microwave absorption frequency band.%用电弧法制备含铁的单壁碳纳米管(SWCNTs),并将其提纯之后掺杂到用溶胶-凝胶自燃法制备的M型六角钡铁氧体(BaFe12O19)纳米晶粉体中,得到了具有网状结构的复合材料。利用同轴法测试了样品的电磁参数,研究了不同混合比SWCNTs/BaFe12O19复合材料的吸波性能。结果表明:复合粉体SWCNTs/BaFe12O19的磁损耗主要是由于自然共振和交换共振引起的;当掺杂2%(质量分数)SWCNTs时,微波反射衰减最大值可以达到24.85 dB,高于10 dB的频带宽度可以达到6.30 GHz,具有较宽的

  17. The problem of the barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm-Vitense, E.; Nemec, J.; Proffitt, C.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of barium stars and other cool stars with peculiar element abundances are reported. Those observations attempted to find hot white dwarf companions. Among six real barium stars studied, only Zeta Cap was found to have a white dwarf companion. Among seven mild, or marginal, barium stars studied, at least three were found to have hot subluminous companions. It is likely that all of them have white dwarf companions.

  18. Radioisotope barium sulphate gauge MZB-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and the gauge for measuring content of barium sulphate are described. The gauge is intended for fast determination of barium sulphate in barite ore and in output products of the enrichment process. The measuring range 60-100% of BaSO4, accuracy ±1% and measuring time 60 s were reached. The barium sulphate gauge is used in barite mine ''Boguszow'' in Poland. (author)

  19. Radar absorption properties of doped barium hexaferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since the 1950s, it has been known that barium hexaferrite exhibits a ferrimagnetic resonance at about 48 GHz. Early research was directed at finding dopants that would increase this frequency to enable the preparation of lossless waveguide components. However, more recent efforts have explored the potential of doped barium hexaferrite as a radar absorbing material in the low GHz frequency range. In particular, Nedkov et al demonstrated that partial substitution of the iron with cobalt-titanium, to give Ba(Co0.5Ti0.5)xFe11.9-xMn0.1O19 with x = 1.6, could reduce the ferrimagnetic resonance frequency to 15 GHz. The small amount of manganese was included 'to improve the dielectric properties' of the material. In this work we increased the doping to x = 2.2 to arrive at a resonance frequency of just 1.35 GHz, which lies within the operational frequency range of typical airborne early warning and control (AEWAC) radar systems. An increase in the resonance signal at this concentration is believed to be associated with the onset of a switch from axial to planar magnetocrystalline anisotropy, as reported by Kreisel et al . It is uncertain why our resonance frequency for x = 2.2 is significantly lower than the value of 2.56 GHz reported elsewhere for a Mn-free specimen with x = 2.6. Chromium was also tested as a new dopant material but proved unsuccessful in reducing the resonant frequency below 40 GHz, the upper limit of the microwave network analyser that was employed. All specimens were prepared using solid state reaction of stoichiometric amounts of oxides and carbonates, and characterised using x-ray powder diffraction and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy

  20. Detecting damaged regions of cerebral white matter in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using voxel-based analysis with diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Shunrou; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Sanjo, Katsumi; Koeda, Atsuhiko [Iwate Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, Morioka (Japan); Mori, Kiyoshi [Iwate Prefectural Critical Care and Emergency Center, Department of Neurology, Morioka (Japan); Kudo, Kohsuke; Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    The present study aimed to detect the main regions of cerebral white matter (CWM) showing damage in the subacute phase for CO-poisoned patients with chronic neurological symptoms using voxel-based analysis (VBA) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Subjects comprised 22 adult CO-poisoned patients and 16 age-matched healthy volunteers as controls. Patients were classified into patients with transient acute symptoms only (group A) and patients with chronic neurological symptoms (group S). In all patients, DTI covering the whole brain was performed with a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging system at 2 weeks after CO exposure. As procedures for VBA, all fractional anisotropy (FA) maps obtained from DTI were spatially normalized, and FA values for all voxels in the whole CWM on normalized FA maps were statistically compared among the two patient groups and controls. Voxels with significant differences in FA were detected at various regions in comparisons between groups S and A and between group S and controls. In these comparisons, more voxels were detected in deep CWM, including the centrum semiovale, than in other regions. A few voxels were detected between group A and controls. Absolute FA values in the centrum semiovale were significantly lower in group S than in group A or controls. VBA demonstrated that CO-poisoned patients with chronic neurological symptoms had already suffered damage to various CWM regions in the subacute phase. In these regions, the centrum semiovale was suggested to be the main region damaged in the subacute phase after CO inhalation. (orig.)

  1. Detecting damaged regions of cerebral white matter in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using voxel-based analysis with diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to detect the main regions of cerebral white matter (CWM) showing damage in the subacute phase for CO-poisoned patients with chronic neurological symptoms using voxel-based analysis (VBA) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Subjects comprised 22 adult CO-poisoned patients and 16 age-matched healthy volunteers as controls. Patients were classified into patients with transient acute symptoms only (group A) and patients with chronic neurological symptoms (group S). In all patients, DTI covering the whole brain was performed with a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging system at 2 weeks after CO exposure. As procedures for VBA, all fractional anisotropy (FA) maps obtained from DTI were spatially normalized, and FA values for all voxels in the whole CWM on normalized FA maps were statistically compared among the two patient groups and controls. Voxels with significant differences in FA were detected at various regions in comparisons between groups S and A and between group S and controls. In these comparisons, more voxels were detected in deep CWM, including the centrum semiovale, than in other regions. A few voxels were detected between group A and controls. Absolute FA values in the centrum semiovale were significantly lower in group S than in group A or controls. VBA demonstrated that CO-poisoned patients with chronic neurological symptoms had already suffered damage to various CWM regions in the subacute phase. In these regions, the centrum semiovale was suggested to be the main region damaged in the subacute phase after CO inhalation. (orig.)

  2. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  3. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  4. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  5. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets Anyone who takes medication prescribed ... of all phone calls to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) are about human medications. Your ...

  6. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly cause an allergic skin reaction. The result is most often ... oils most often enter the skin rapidly. POISON IVY This is one of the most frequent causes ...

  7. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  8. Processing science of barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Seymen Murat

    Barium titanate and barium strontium titanate thin films were deposited on base metal foils via chemical solution deposition and radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The films were processed at elevated temperatures for densification and crystallization. Two unifying research goals underpin all experiments: (1) To improve our fundamental understanding of complex oxide processing science, and (2) to translate those improvements into materials with superior structural and electrical properties. The relationships linking dielectric response, grain size, and thermal budget for sputtered barium strontium titanate were illustrated. (Ba 0.6Sr0.4)TiO3 films were sputtered on nickel foils at temperatures ranging between 100-400°C. After the top electrode deposition, the films were co-fired at 900°C for densification and crystallization. The dielectric properties were observed to improve with increasing sputter temperature reaching a permittivity of 1800, a tunability of 10:1, and a loss tangent of less than 0.015 for the sample sputtered at 400°C. The data can be understood using a brick wall model incorporating a high permittivity grain interior with low permittivity grain boundary. However, this high permittivity value was achieved at a grain size of 80 nm, which is typically associated with strong suppression of the dielectric response. These results clearly show that conventional models that parameterize permittivity with crystal diameter or film thickness alone are insufficiently sophisticated. Better models are needed that incorporate the influence of microstructure and crystal structure. This thesis next explores the ability to tune microstructure and properties of chemically solution deposited BaTiO3 thin films by modulation of heat treatment thermal profiles and firing atmosphere composition. Barium titanate films were deposited on copper foils using hybrid-chelate chemistries. An in-situ gas analysis process was developed to probe the organic removal and the

  9. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S;

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  10. Chronic lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, K.; Straub, P.W.

    1974-02-19

    A detailed description is given of the complex pathological picture observed in the case of a worker with 30 years' occupational exposure to lead in an accumulator factory (evolution of the disease, clinical findings, autopsy). In spite of a typical clinical picture, lead is not held responsible for the terminal encephalopathy, in view of the fact that Alzheimer's syndrome was discovered at autopsy. However, the neurovegetative asthenia and progressive kidney disease without hypertonia, but with uraemia, which preceded the encephalopathy are in all probability due to chronic lead poisoning. The article discusses the diagnosis and symptomatology of chronic lead poisoning, encephalopathy and kidney disease.

  11. Barium methylphosphonates: synthesis, characterization and mutual interconversions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, L.; Melánová, Klára; Svoboda, Jan; Zima, Vítězslav

    Strasbourg: University of Strasbourg, Francie, 2015. P64. [ISIC18 International Symposium on Intercalation Compounds. 31.05.2015-04.06.2015, Strasbourg] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-13368S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : hydrates of barium methylphosphonate * barium hydrogen methylphosphonate * powder X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  12. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A Text Size The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  13. Studies on characterization, microstructures and magnetic properties of nano-size barium hexa-ferrite prepared through a hydrothermal precipitation-calcination route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to prepare nano-size barium hexa-ferrite particles following a hydrothermal precipitation-calcination route using barium and iron nitrate solutions. During hydrothermal treatment at 180 deg. C (2 h precipitation time) barium carbonate and hematite phases were formed. This precursor was calcined at 800, 1000 and 1200 deg. C to determine the conditions for obtaining barium hexa-ferrite. The characterization studies on calcined products revealed that up to 800 deg. C, the major crystalline phases (barium carbonate and hematite) of the precursor were retained. At 1000 deg. C, formation of barium hexa-ferrite started and at 1200 deg. C, though most of the major peaks of X-ray diffractogram corresponded to barium hexa-ferrite, a number of peaks corresponding to hematite were also present. Some low intensity peaks for barium carbonate were observed. The average particle size was 40 nm. Saturation magnetization, remanence magnetization and coercivity were found to be 40.0, 21.6 emu g-1 and 2.87 kOe, respectively. The values obtained both for coercivity and magnetization for the present sample were lower than the reported bulk values which could be due to the fact that the sample prepared through the present technique was not mono-phasic

  14. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of barium strontium titanate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Barium strontium titanate nanoparticles were obtained by the Hydrothemal microwave technique (HTMW) → This is a genuine technique to obtain nanoparticles at low temperature and short times → Barium strontium titanate free of carbonates with tetragonal structure was grown at 130 oC. - Abstract: Hydrothermal-microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline barium strontium titanate (Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3) nanoparticles (BST) in the temperature range of 100-130 oC. The crystallization of BST with tetragonal structure was reached at all the synthesis temperatures along with the formation of BaCO3 as a minor impurity at lower syntheses temperatures. Typical FT-IR spectra for tetragonal (BST) nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH- groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. FE/SEM revealed that lower syntheses temperatures led to a morphology that consisted of uniform grains while higher syntheses temperature consisted of big grains isolated and embedded in a matrix of small grains. TEM has shown BST nanoparticles with diameters between 40 and 80 nm. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could serve as an alternative to obtain BST nanoparticles.

  15. Preparation of Nanoparticles of Barium Ferrite from Precipitation in Microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic nanoparticles of barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) have been synthesized using a microemulsion mediated process. The aqueous cores of water-in-oil microemulsions were used as constrained microreactors for the precipitation of precursor carbonate and hydroxide particles. These precursors were then calcined at 925 deg. C for 12 h, during which time they were transformed to the hexagonal ferrite. The pH of reaction was varied between 5 and 12, and it was found that the fraction of non-magnetic hematite (α-Fe2O3) in the particles varied with the pH of reaction, thus affecting the magnetic properties of the particles. The same precursor particles were also prepared by bulk co-precipitation reaction for comparison. It was found that the microemulsion derived nanoparticles of barium ferrite had both higher intrinsic coercivity (Hc) and saturation magnetization (σs) than the particles derived from bulk co-precipitation. Particles were analyzed by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The best barium ferrite particles produced by the microemulsion synthesis method yielded an intrinsic coercivity of 4310 Oe and a saturation magnetization of 60.48 emu/g

  16. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning depends upon precise history taking, careful physical examination, and a high index of suspicion. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:21221282

  17. Hemlock water dropwort poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, M J; Flather, M. L.; Forfar, J C

    1987-01-01

    Severe plant poisoning is relatively uncommon in adults. We report two adults who ingested hemlock water dropwort roots, having mistaken them for wild parsnip. One developed prolonged convulsions, severe metabolic acidosis and respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. The toxin--oenanthotoxin--was detected in the gastric aspirate and measured by high performance liquid chromatography.

  18. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call ... forms that need to be diluted before use. Exposure to concentrated cold wave lotion will cause much more damage than over-the-counter lotion.

  19. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al2O3-B4C and Al2O3-Gd2O3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B4C or Gd2O3 in Al2O3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author)

  20. Barium ferrite powders prepared by milling and annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Microstructure and magnetic properties analysis of barium ferrite powder obtained by milling and heat treatment.Design/methodology/approach: The milling process was carried out in a vibratory mill, which generated vibrations of the balls and milled material inside the container during which their collisions occur. After milling process the powders were annealed in electric chamber furnace. The X-ray diffraction methods were used for qualitative phase analysis of studied powder samples. The distribution of powder particles was determined by a laser particle analyzer. The magnetic hysteresis loops of examined powder material were measured by resonance vibrating sample magnetometer (R-VSM.Findings: The milling process of iron oxide and barium carbonate mixture causes decrease of the crystallite size of involved phases. The X-ray investigations of tested mixture milled for 30 hours and annealed at 950 °C enabled the identification of hard magnetic BaFe12O19 phase and also the presence of Fe2O3 phase in examined material. The Fe2O3 phase is a rest of BaCO3 dissociation in the presence of Fe2O3, which forms a compound of BaFe12O19. The best coercive force (HC for mixture of powders annealed at 950 °C for 10, 20 and 30 hours is 349 kA/m, 366 kA/m and 364 kA/m, respectively. The arithmetic mean of diameter of Fe2O3 and BaCO3 mixture powders after 30 hours of milling is about 6.0 μm.Practical implications: The barium ferrite powder obtained by milling and annealing can be suitable components to produce sintered and elastic magnets with polymer matrix.Originality/value: The results of tested barium ferrite investigations by different methods confirm their utility in the microstructure and magnetic properties analysis of powder materials.

  1. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  2. A new double contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Sang; Cho, Won Sik; Lee, Sung Woo; Lee, Mun Gyu; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Jaun, Woo Ki; Han, Chung Yul [Inje College Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    A new technic of the barium enema was proposed for the better colonic double contrast study with the average 204ml of 50w/v% barium, applied to 109 serial patients. The barium was introduced to sigmoid colon, and then pushed to a mid transverse colon by the air insufflation through an enema syringe, a new device. An advance to cecum is accomplished by the air insufflation and/or the position change of the patient. The barium transfer method was developed for the best spot film exposure, through colon, by the position change of the patient, the tilting of the x-ray table and the air insufflation with the enema syringe. The mean angle of the x-ray table tilted was -10 .deg. at the beginning the barium enema till the barium sent past the splenic flexure, -15 . deg. for the best lateral view of rectum and -18 .deg. for the bet prone PA view of rectosigmoid colon. This was a simple, better and economic double contrast barium enema for the cooperative patients.

  3. Synthesis of barium titanium oxide from barium sulphate and anatase. Study of equimolar mixtures under different atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enable the ceramization of a barium sulphate-rich radioactive waste the synthesis of barium titanium oxide is studied by using anatase and barium sulphate. As a function of the calcination atmosphere, helium (or air) and Ar/H2, two reactions are studied. A mechanism of barium titanium oxide synthesis in helium (or in air) is proposed

  4. Double contrast barium meal and acetylcysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a prospective double blind study, acetylcysteine, a local and systemic respiratory tract mucolytic agent, or a placebo, were given to 100 patients prior to a double contrast barium meal to decrease the gastric mucus viscosity and to make the mucus layer thinner, in order to permit barium to outline the furrows surrounding the areae gastricae instead of the overlying thick mucus. However, acetylcysteine failed to improve either visualization of the areae gastricae or the general quality of the double contrast barium meal. (orig.)

  5. Barium adsorption on the (110) and (111) molybdenum faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizov, U.V.; Sabirov, S.T.; Dzhalilov, S.T. (Tashkentskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1982-07-01

    Barium adsorption on Mo faces (110) and (111) was investigated by thermoemission and Cs surface ionization methods to obtain a more broad representation of barium adsorption at higher temperatures of cathode. Experiments show that the substrate temperature increase at a constant barium concentration results in the formation of small barium islands. At that, barium is under similar energy conditions in the small islands formed on the face (110) independent of relative areas of the islands.

  6. Poison control services in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following aspects are discussed: the public health problems of acute poisoning in China in recent years; the characteristics of acute poisoning; the negative effects of poison cases on the society and economy. The four stages of development of a poison control system in China are: (1) clinical hospital as the only facility used for detoxification; (2) institutes and hospitals of occupational medicine got involved in the program; (3) the traditional model of poison control changed to the modern National Poison Control Center (NPCC), and its network got established and it began to play a key role; (4) establishment of a multi-disciplinary network for dealing with emergencies in which chemical poison control is an important component. Introduction of the operations of the NPCC: the functions of the center are a 24 h hotline service, clinical consultants service, poison identification and diagnosis, laboratory analysis, education for public, training for physicians, coordination of anti-dotes, and the development of a network of poison control centers for dealing with chemical emergencies. The work practice and achievement of NPCC and its network in the field of poison control during the last 3 years is discussed. Lessons from SARS infection: to extend the network, to strengthen multi-disciplinary cooperation, enhance communication between centers, to pay attention to capacity building, to improve reporting systems, and to share resources

  7. Intoxicación por gases Gas poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La intoxicación por gases en nuestro medio es un problema importante debido a su alta incidencia. En el caso concreto de la intoxicación por monóxido de carbono, es la principal causa de muerte por intoxicación involuntaria en nuestro medio, muchas veces coexistiendo con una intoxicación por cianuro. Ambas intoxicaciones pueden ser de carácter grave, basándose su diagnóstico en la mera sospecha del médico. Además, su importancia radica en que ambas intoxicaciones tienen un tratamiento concreto. La oxigenoterapia normo o hiperbárica es el tratamiento de elección de la intoxicación por monóxido de carbono. En el caso de la intoxicación por cianuro, la hidroxocobalamina es hoy día el tratamiento de elección, ya que ha demostrado ser un eficaz antídoto.Poisoning by gases in our area is an important problem due to its high incidence. In the specific case of carbon monoxide poisoning, this is the main cause of death by poisoning in our environment, on many occasions coexisting with cyanide poisoning. Both poisonings can be severe, their diagnosis being based on the mere suspicions of the doctor. Besides, their importance lies in the fact that both poisonings have a very specific treatment. Normo or hyperbaric oxygenotherapy is the treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning. In the case of cyanide poisoning, hydroxocobalamin is nowadays the treatment of choice, since it has proved itself to be an efficient antidote.

  8. [Poisoning by bee sting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987

  9. Using Poison Center Exposure Calls to Predict Methadone Poisoning Deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Nabarun Dasgupta; Jonathan Davis; Michele Jonsson Funk; Richard Dart

    2012-01-01

    Purpose There are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC). In an era of improved electronic surveillance capabilities, exposure calls to PCs may be an alternate indicator of trends in over...

  10. nsect poisons in museums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eirik Granqvist

    2015-01-01

    Since natural history museums existed, there have been problems concerning how to protect the collections from damages caused by insects. In 1740s', French Chemist Becoeur started to use arsenic-soap to protect his taxidermy specimens against insects. But in the years of 1770s', it was discovered the terrible strong arsenic poison which was dangerous to human beings. Finally taxidermy specimens leave the use of ar- senic and borax to history and use Eulan in their place.

  11. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  12. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    OpenAIRE

    Ravn, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this manual a review is provided of the chemical and toxicological aspects of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). The document contains information on chemical structure, chemical data, where to obtain standards and reference materials, the origin and occurrence, chemical analysis, mouse bioassay, epidemiology, mechanisms of action, symptoms and therapeutics. The practical use of this document has been highlighted in agreement with the Members of the Task Team on Aquatic Biotoxins. This ...

  13. Approach in Pregnant Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Gulay Ok

    2014-01-01

    Poisoning in pregnant patients seen in the most common second trimester affects both the mother and fetus. Most of the toxic exposure is accidental and frequently occurs orally. Pregnant patients should be in emergency department or in any department which has a monitoring opportunity and when necessary interventions can be done quickly in the chosen department. The patient%u2019s airway should be secured, respiration must be protected, and changes in blood pressure, pulse, fever, peripheral ...

  14. Treatment of acetaminophen poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Sellers, E M; Freedman, F.

    1981-01-01

    Acetaminophen is an analgesic that is frequently used in Canada, and the occurrence of overdoses with this drug seems to be increasing. The most serious complication of acetaminophen overdose is hepatic failure. Because of pathophysiologic effects of acetaminophen poisoning and the mechanisms of its toxic effects are now better understood, a rational approach to treatment is possible. Several precursors of glutathione, acetylcysteine in particular, are effective in preventing liver damage if ...

  15. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  16. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Le poison chez les Trastamare

    OpenAIRE

    Ramires, Flora

    2012-01-01

    During the last centuries of the Middle Ages, poison seems to have played an important role in Castilian political life, and many authors of chronicles and medical treatises pay attention to the reality of this phenomenon. The article focuses on the use of poison by the Trastamaras, and on its political consequences. We attempt to show the impact of poison on the imagination of contemporaries and on the reality of this practice by members of the Trastamara dynasty, and to demonstrate that ref...

  18. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  19. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  20. An experimental study on barium peritonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium sulfate is universally used contrast media in gastrointestinal roentgenology, and spillage of barium into peritoneal cavity can occur. The references on effect of barium sulfate in the peritoneal cavity have been scattered and the results are varied. In 80 rats, body weight of 130 gm to 150 gm, sterile pure barium, sterile commercial barium, intestinal content, and mixed pure barium and intestinal content were experimentally injected into the peritoneal cavity. Consecutive weekly laparotomy and microscopic examination were done for 4 weeks. The results are as followings: 1. Mind inflammatory reaction and mild adhesion after sterile pure barium injection. 2. Mild inflammatory reaction and moderate adhesion after sterile commercial barium injection. 3. Acute peritonitis and abscess formation after intestinal content injection. 4. High mortality due to severe acute peritonitis, and severe adhesion in survivors after injection of both pure barium and intestinal content.

  1. Bacterial Reduction Of Barium Sulphate By Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide problem leading to contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. The barium salts application presents one of the methods for the sulphates removing from AMD. Barium chloride, barium hydroxide and barium sulphide are used for the sulphates precipitation in the form of barium sulphate. Because of high investment costs of barium salts, barium sulphide is recycled from barium sulphate precipitates. It can be recycled by thermic or bacterial reduction of barium sulphate. The aim of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of the bacterial transformation of BaSO4 to BaS by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Applied BaSO4 came from experiments of sulphates removal from Smolnik AMD using BaCl2.

  2. Analysis of risk factors of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning%一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟强; 王勤勇; 李丽; 李晓红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors for delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP).Methods All 198 patients with DEACMP were enrolled as DEACMP group,and 130 patients without DEACMP after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACMP) were as ACMP group.The general conditions(including age,gender,body mass index,occupation),poisoning degree,coma duration,the time of treatment of hyperbaric oxygen,complications after ACMP and brain image of CT/MRI were analyzed.Results The rates of age > 60 years,brainworkers,living alone in DEACMP group[65.2% (129/198),24.7% (49/198),48.5%(96/198)] were higher than those in ACMP group[50.0% (65/130),13.8% (18/130),19.2% (25/130)].The severe poisoning patients were more in DEACMP group than in ACMP group [58.1% (115/198) vs 9.2%(12/130),P < 0.01].The patients accompanied with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (including insufficiency of brain blood supply,encephalatrophy,coronay heart disease and hypertension) or diabetes in DEACMP group were more than those in ACMP grup(P <0.05 or P <0.01).The rates of coma duration more than 24 h and the time of treatment of hyperbaric oxygen treatment for more than 4 h in DEACMP group were higher than those in ACMP group (P < 0.05 or P <0.01).The patients accompanied with complications and brain injury in DEACMP group were more than those in ACMP group(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).The multiple factor regression analysis explored 8 risk factors of DEACMP,including poisoning degree,coma time,brain materially injury,living alone,pulmonary infection,the time accepted treatment of hyperbaric oxygen,multiple organ dysfunctions and brainworkers.Conclusion There are versatile risk factors of DEACMP.%目的 探讨急性一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病(DEACMP)的危险因素,为其预防提供参考.方法 DEACMP患者198例为DEACMP组,经历急性一氧化碳中毒(ACMP)但未出现DEACMP患者130例为ACMP组.对2组患者的一般情况[包括

  3. Venous barium embolization, a rare, potentially fatal complication of barium enema: 2 case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venous embolization of barium has been recognized for 4 decades as one of the most dreaded complications of barium enema. Fortunately, the condition is extremely rare. In this report, the radiographic findings in 2 cases of venous embolization (one involving the portal vein and one systematic) are described, and ways to decrease the risk of this complication are discussed. (author)

  4. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

  5. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  6. Rejuvenation processes applied to 'poisoned' anion exchangers in uranium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of 'poisons' from anion exchangers in uranium processing of Canadian radioactive ores is commonly called rejuvenation or regeneration. The cost of the ion exchange recovery of uranium is adversely affected by a decrease in the capacity and efficiency of the anion exchangers, due to their being 'poisoned' by silica, elemental sulphur, molybdenum and tetrathionates. These 'poisons' have a high affinity for the anion exchangers, are adsorbed in preference to the uranyl complex, and do not desorb with the reagents used normally in the uranyl desorption phase. The frequency of rejuvenation and the reagents required for rejuvenation are determined by the severity of the 'poisoning' accumulated by the exchanger in contact with the uranium leach liquor. Caustic soda (NaOH) at approximately equal to 18 cents/lb is commonly used to remove uranium anion exchangers of tetrathionate ((S406)/-/-) 'poisons'. A potential saving in operating cost would be of consequence if other reagents, e.g. sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) at approximately equal to 3.6 cents/lb or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) at approximately equal to 1.9 cents/lb, were effective in removing (S406)/-/-) from a 'poisoned' exchanger. A rejuvenation process for a test program was adopted after a perusal of the literature

  7. Synthesis of barium mercaptides and application of antimony/barium mercaptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿龙; 张露露; 舒万艮

    2001-01-01

    Mercaptoacetic acid, isooctyl thioglycolate and barium hydroxide used as start materials, barium bis (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Ba(2EHTG)2), barium thioglycolate (Ba(TG)) and barium bisthioglycolate (Ba(TG)2) were synthesized. Their optimum synthetic techniques were discussed, and some physicochemical data were reported. Infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods were used to identify the structures. They were put into PVC plastic products together with antimony tris (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Sb(2EHTG)3) under the suitable compounding, and their heat stability to PVC was studied. It is shown that these barium mercaptides have remarkable synergisms with antimony mercaptides and the long-term stabilizing effect of organoantimony stabilizer can be effectively improved, reducing the amount of antimony compounds so as to avoid the decrease of its stabilizing effect.

  8. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common means of self-poisoning in Europe and North America, often taken as an impulsive act of self-harm in young people. Mortality from paracetamol overdose is now about 0.4%, although without treatment, severe liver damage occurs in at least half of people with blood paracetamol levels above the UK standard treatment line.In adults, ingestion of less than 125 mg/kg is unlikely to lead to hepatotoxicity; even higher doses may be tolerated by children witho...

  9. Approach in Pregnant Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ok

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning in pregnant patients seen in the most common second trimester affects both the mother and fetus. Most of the toxic exposure is accidental and frequently occurs orally. Pregnant patients should be in emergency department or in any department which has a monitoring opportunity and when necessary interventions can be done quickly in the chosen department. The patient%u2019s airway should be secured, respiration must be protected, and changes in blood pressure, pulse, fever, peripheral O2 saturation should be measured. At the patients who do not respond cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the first 5 minutes, it is recommended to consider obstetric consultation with bedside cesarean section.

  10. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, D. B.; Pereira, C. B.; Roig, F.; Jilinski, E.; Drake, N. A.; Chavero, C.; Silva, J. V. Sales

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scale height, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, alpha-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars can not be represented by a single gaussian distribution. The abundances of alpha-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heavy-element abundance pattern as given by the ratio [s/Fe], we found that the barium stars present several degrees of enrichment. We also obtained the [hs/ls] ratio by measuring the photospheric abundances of the Ba-peak and the Zr-peak elements. Our results indicated that the [s/Fe] and the [hs/ls] ratios are strongly anti-correlated with the metallicity. Our kinematical analysis showed that 90% of the barium stars belong to the thin disk population. Based on their luminosities, none of the barium stars are luminous enough to be an AGB star, nor to become self-enriched in the s-process elements. Finally, we determined that the barium stars also follow an age-metallicity relation.

  11. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, D. B.; Pereira, C. B.; Roig, F.; Jilinski, E.; Drake, N. A.; Chavero, C.; Sales Silva, J. V.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scaleheight, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, α-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars cannot be represented by a single Gaussian distribution. The abundances of α-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heavy-element abundance pattern as given by the ratio [s/Fe], we found that the barium stars present several degrees of enrichment. We also obtained the [hs/ls] ratio by measuring the photospheric abundances of the Ba-peak and the Zr-peak elements. Our results indicated that the [s/Fe] and the [hs/ls] ratios are strongly anticorrelated with the metallicity. Our kinematical analysis showed that 90 per cent of the barium stars belong to the thin disc population. Based on their luminosities, none of the barium stars are luminous enough to be an asymptotic giant branch star, nor to become self-enriched in the s-process elements. Finally, we determined that the barium stars also follow an age-metallicity relation.

  12. Analysis of clinical features and risk factors for delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning%一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病临床特征及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘锐; 唐亚梅; 容小明; 沈庆煜; 谢海琴; 李鹏亮; 游春林; 彭英

    2012-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical features and potential risk factors of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP). Methods We surveyed the profiles of 58 patients with carbon monoxide-poisoning encephalopathy admitted to three affiliated hospitals of Sun Yat-sen University between 1998 and 2011 and divided patients to DEACMP group ( n = 17) and non-DEACMP group ( re =41 ) , based on the presence of DEACMP. This was followed by univariate analysis on the age, gender, past history of smoking or alcohol drinking, history of hypertension or diabetes or stroke,duration of coma,COHb saturation and acute-phase hyperbaric oxygenation therapy. Further processing on the correlation between duration of coma and incidence rate of DEACMP was conducted via Logistic regression analysis regarding the indices with statistical difference or clinical value. Results The most common symptom of DEACMP was dementia, followed by agitans paralysis and psychiatric symptom, while chorea and focal neurological dysfunction was less clinically manifested. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was featured by extensive slow waves,and abnormal signals could be observed bilaterally in white matter and basal ganglia region. Lower incidence rate of DEACMP was associated with prolonged observation period more than 30 days after acute poisoning. Both prolonged duration of coma( OR = 1. 197 ,95% CI 1. 067 ~ 1. 343 ) and failure of initiating hyperbaric oxygen therapy at acute phase(OR =0. 160,95%CI 0.033 -0.776) were regarded as risk factors of DEACMP. Prolonged duration of coma for > 11 hours may result in markedly increased incidence rate of DEACMP. Conclusion Physicians should be alert to the incidence of DEACMP in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning who had prolonged duration of coma for > 11 hours, suggesting that early initiation of hyperbaric oxygen therapy may effectively reduce the incidence rate of DEACMP.%目的 总结急性一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑

  13. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  14. Multi-dimensional modeling of CO poisoning effects on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide (CO), which is preferentially absorbed on the platinum catalyst layer of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), is extremely detrimental to cell performance. Essentially, the carbon monoxide absorption diminishes the cell's performance by blocking and reducing the number of catalyst sites available for the hydrogen oxidation reaction. In order to obtain a full understanding of CO poisoning characteristics and remediate CO-poisoned PEMFCs, a CO poisoning numerical model is developed and incorporated into a fully three-dimensional electrochemical and transport coupled PEMFC model. By performing CFD numerical simulations, this paper clearly demonstrates the CO poisoning mechanisms and characteristics of PEMFCs. The predictive capability for CO poisoning effects enables us to find major contributors to CO tolerance in a PEMFC and thus successfully integrate CO-resistant fuel cell systems

  15. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists. PMID:27133773

  16. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  17. [Poisonings in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P

    2012-03-01

    Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons". PMID:22349530

  18. A study of the microchemistry of nanocrystalline barium titanate with tetragonal and pseudocubic room temperature symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Robert A.

    The investigation of possible effects of undesired surface species on barium titanate, one of the most utilized ferroelectric ceramics, constitutes the focus of this work. Six commercial barium titanate powders from three manufacturers representing two different synthesis processes, with average particle sizes from 40 nm to 470 nm, were analyzed in this study. Four of the nanopowders exhibited pseudocubic room temperature symmetry. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopic analysis of the nanopowders was conducted in ambient atmosphere at room temperature. High temperature DRIFT followed incorporating four avenues of analysis: moisture adsorption studies, deuterium oxide exchange studies, carbon dioxide adsorption studies, and high temperature analysis under dry air and UHP nitrogen atmospheres. At the highest temperature used in this study, 1173K, moisture and the accompanying incorporated protonic impurities were still present. The powders readily readsorbed moisture during rapid cooling, 170K/minute, to room temperature. The smallest powder, as received, formed spherical agglomerates up to 10 mum diameter. These sintered as separate units attaining diameters up to 60 mum during intermediate stage sintering. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated a surface contamination layer of 10 A to 18 A; 50--70% of which was barium carbonate, the balance being atmospheric adsorbed species. Samples cooled at 3K/minute after an 1173K calcine retained cubic symmetry as indicated with high temperature X-ray diffraction. However, spectral evidence was obtained indicating that upon the rapid cooling from the 1173K calcine, a reorientation to the room temperature tetragonal symmetry was observed. Further, SEM and TEM supported this finding with visual evidence of interfacial rearrangement including corroborating electron diffraction analysis. This data, therefore, substantiated the hypothesis that the cause of the room temperature pseudocubic

  19. [Fatal poisoning in the Department of Toxicology in Poznarn in 2008-2012--preliminary analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Adamek, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary analysis of deaths from acute poisoning, which occurred in the Department of Toxicology in Poznań in 2008-2012. During this period, recorded 31 cases of fatal poisoning, representing 0.38% of all treated cases. In subsequent years the percentage of poisoning deaths ranged from 0.25 to 0.49%. Throughout the period leading cause of fatal poisoning were drugs (38.71%) and non-consumptive alcohols (methanol or ethylene glycol) (38.71%). In subsequent years, however, a decrease in the percentage of drug poisoning (from 75 to 0%) and an increase in the percentage of nonconsumptive alcohol poisoning (from 0% to 100%) were observed. In fatal cases were diagnosed among others olanzapine, carbamazepine, pseudoephedrine, tramadol, benzodiazepines, clozapine, morphine and benzodiazepines, insulin, verapamil, carbon monoxide and smoke fire, cyanide, Amanita phalloides, ethanol and a mixture of drugs with ethanol poisoning. The most common fatal poisoning occurred in people addicted (45.16%), mainly in alcohol dependence syndrome (35.48%). Suicidal poisoning was the cause of 32.26% of the deaths, while accidental of 19.35%. In nine cases, the procedure of diagnosis of death from irreversible cessation of brain stem function was performed in order to qualify donors of organs for transplantation or to terminate the therapy. One of the dead was liver and kidneys, and two were kidneys donors. PMID:24466679

  20. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium...

  1. Coprecipitation of iron and silver with barium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of trace contaminants of iron and silver at coprecipitation of barium fluoride is studied in present work. It is defined that iron almost completely coprecipitated with barium fluoride in wide range of ph 5.5-12. Silver coprecipitated with barium fluoride in ph range 4-7. The value of coprecipitation varies from 94% to 100%.

  2. Recrystallization of 223Ra with barium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the kinetics of barium sulfate recrystallization has been studied in acidic 0.01 mol dm-3 sodium sulfate solution using 223Ra and 133Ba tracers at very low total radium concentration, i.e. less than 10-13 mol dm-3. It was found that the system follows the homogeneous recrystallization model and that recrystallization rates, inferred by the decrease of 223Ra and 133Ba in the aqueous solution, are fast. Therefore, even at very low concentrations, below the solubility limit, radium will be retained by barium sulfate-a mineral present in the deep underground repository. (author)

  3. Printed Barium Strontium Titanate capacitors on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we show that Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) films can be prepared by inkjet printing of sol–gel precursors on platinized silicon substrate. Moreover, a functional variable capacitor working in the GHz range has been made without any lithography or etching steps. Finally, this technology requires 40 times less precursors than the standard sol–gel spin-coating technique. - Highlights: • Inkjet printing of Barium Strontium Titanate films • Deposition on silicon substrate • Inkjet printed silver top electrode • First ever BST films thinner than 1 μm RF functional variable capacitor that has required no lithography

  4. Printed Barium Strontium Titanate capacitors on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sette, Daniele [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Kovacova, Veronika [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Defay, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.defay@list.lu [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we show that Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) films can be prepared by inkjet printing of sol–gel precursors on platinized silicon substrate. Moreover, a functional variable capacitor working in the GHz range has been made without any lithography or etching steps. Finally, this technology requires 40 times less precursors than the standard sol–gel spin-coating technique. - Highlights: • Inkjet printing of Barium Strontium Titanate films • Deposition on silicon substrate • Inkjet printed silver top electrode • First ever BST films thinner than 1 μm RF functional variable capacitor that has required no lithography.

  5. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T;

    2015-01-01

    poisoning. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by data extraction and summarized findings, following a predetermined format. The entire work group voted by a 2-round modified Delphi method to reach consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify......-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment in salicylate poisoning. METHODS: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup is a multidisciplinary group with international representation whose aim is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in...

  6. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  7. Enterogastroesophageal reflux during barium enema: Report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enterogastric reflux during barium enema examination has been ascribed to various causes including incompetence of the ilepcecal valve, shunt, fistula, excessive barium etc. Recently we have encountered a case of complete enterogastroesphageal regurgitation during barium enema examination performed for the reduction of the ileocolic intuosusception in 6 months old baby. The regurgitation occurred only in the first of two barium enema examinations conducted at one month interval for recurring intussusception. The barium-saline solution used in the present study was not more than 350 ml in quantity. No organic or physical causes of such a complete regurgitation could be determined

  8. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

  9. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if swallowed. ...

  10. Pipazethate--acute childhood poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, O A; Lopez, M

    1977-01-01

    A previously healthy child who who had accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of 20-mg tablets of pipazethate developed severe acute poisoning with neurologic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disturbances. She recovered with symptomatic and supportive therapy. PMID:589958

  11. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J;

    2015-01-01

    diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method...

  12. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a resul...

  13. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  14. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 31757... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination to conduct a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on...

  15. Impurities in barium titanate posistor ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korniyenko, S. M.; Bykov, I. P.; Glinchuk, M. J.; Laguta, V. V.; Belous, A. G.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 239, - (2000), s. 1209-1218. ISSN 0015-0193 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : barium titanate phase transition * ESR * positive temperature coefficient of resistivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.547, year: 2000

  16. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... established a schedule for the conduct of this review (74 FR 62587, November 30, 2010). Subsequently, counsel... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  17. Thermal decomposition of barium valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, P.; Norby, Poul; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of barium valerate (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2)/Ba-pentanoate) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage optical microscopy. Melting takes place in two different steps, at 200 degrees C and 280...

  18. Effect of Nb on barium titanate prepared from citrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the addition of dopants on the microstructure development and electrical properties of BaTiO3 doped with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mol% of Nb and 0.01 mol% of Mn based compounds was studied. Doped barium titanate was prepared using the polymeric precursor method from citrate solutions. The powders calcined at 700°C for 4 hours were analysed by infrared (IR spectroscopy to verify the presence of carbonates, and by X-ray diffraction (XRD for phase formation. The phase composition, microstructure and dielectric properties show a strong dependence on the amount of added niobium.

  19. Transient carbon monoxide poisoning kinetics during warm-up period of a high-temperature PEMFC – Physical model and parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The extracted current density and CO volume fraction should be reduced to avoid sudden shoot up of the anode overpotential. • The temperature increase rate and the initial start-up temperature should be increased to avoid sudden shoot up of the anode overpotential. • An initial start-up temperature of 130 ± 5 °C is recommended to avoid premature shut down of the fuel cell. - Abstract: This paper investigates the anode electrokinetics during the start-up or warm-up period of a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) from a temperature above 100 °C, to the desired temperature of 180 °C, where carbon monoxide (CO) contaminated hydrogen (H2) is used as the fuel. The heating strategy considered in this study involves an initial heating of the HT-PEMFC by an external source to a temperature above 100 °C, after which current is drawn, where electrochemical reaction heating is expected to contribute to the heating process. Thus, a numerical transient three-dimensional model is derived addressing the anode electrokinetics under a specific temperature increase rate during the warm-up process. Operational parameters such as temperature increase rate, initial start-up temperature, CO volume fraction and extracted current density are varied and their effects on the CO and hydrogen coverage fractions on the electrode, the anode overpotential and the cell potential with respect to time, are studied. The results indicate that parameters such as temperature increase rate, initial start-up temperature, CO volume fraction and extracted current density would significantly affect the anode overpotential and the cell potential. Specifically, it is critical to reduce the extracted current density and CO volume fraction, and increase the temperature increase rate, to avoid a sudden shoot up of the anode overpotential that can result in the premature shutdown of the fuel cell. Having a low initial start-up temperature does result in a higher

  20. A one-dimensional barium(II) coordination polymer with a coordinated nitro group of 2-nitrobenzoate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikshandarkoil R Srinivasan; Santosh Y Shetgaonkar; Pallepogu Raghavaiah

    2008-03-01

    The aqueous reaction of barium carbonate with 2-nitrobenzoic acid (2-nbaH) results in the formation of a one-dimensional coordination polymer, catena-poly[[hexa(aqua)dibarium(II)]bis[(2-2-nitrobenzoate-O,O,O-NO2)(2-2-nitrobenzoate-O,O,O')

  1. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

  2. Influence of barium substitution on bioactivity, thermal and physico-mechanical properties of bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar, E-mail: askumar.rs.cer11@iitbhu.ac.in; Tripathi, Himanshu; Vyas, Vikash Kumar; Jain, Shubham; Suman, Shyam Kumar; Pyare, Ram; Singh, S.P., E-mail: spsinghceram@gmail.com

    2015-04-01

    Barium with low concentration in the glasses acts as a muscle stimulant and is found in human teeth. We have made a primary study by substituting barium in the bioactive glass. The chemical composition containing (46.1 − X) SiO{sub 2−}–24.3 Na{sub 2}O–26.9 CaO–2.6 P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, where X = 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 mol% of BaO was chosen and melted in an electric furnace at 1400 ± 5 °C. The glasses were characterized to determine their use in biomedical applications. The nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by DTA and the controlled crystallization was carried out by suitable heat treatment. The crystalline phase formed was identified by using XRD technique. Bioactivity of these glasses was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various time periods. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was identified by FTIR spectrometry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD which showed the presence of HCA as the main phase in all tested bioactive glass samples. Flexural strength and densities of bioactive glasses have been measured and found to increase with increasing the barium content. The human blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated and found to be pertinent. - Highlights: • In vitro bioactivity of soda-lime–baria-phospho-silicate glass was investigated. • HCA formed on surface of glasses was confirmed by XRD, SEM and FTIR spectrometry. • Mechanical properties of glasses were found to increase with barium addition. • Hemolysis showed that 1.2 mol% BaO bioactive glass exhibited better biocompatibility. • Barium substituted bioactive glasses can be used as bone implants.

  3. Influence of barium substitution on bioactivity, thermal and physico-mechanical properties of bioactive glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium with low concentration in the glasses acts as a muscle stimulant and is found in human teeth. We have made a primary study by substituting barium in the bioactive glass. The chemical composition containing (46.1 − X) SiO2−–24.3 Na2O–26.9 CaO–2.6 P2O5, where X = 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 mol% of BaO was chosen and melted in an electric furnace at 1400 ± 5 °C. The glasses were characterized to determine their use in biomedical applications. The nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by DTA and the controlled crystallization was carried out by suitable heat treatment. The crystalline phase formed was identified by using XRD technique. Bioactivity of these glasses was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various time periods. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was identified by FTIR spectrometry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD which showed the presence of HCA as the main phase in all tested bioactive glass samples. Flexural strength and densities of bioactive glasses have been measured and found to increase with increasing the barium content. The human blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated and found to be pertinent. - Highlights: • In vitro bioactivity of soda-lime–baria-phospho-silicate glass was investigated. • HCA formed on surface of glasses was confirmed by XRD, SEM and FTIR spectrometry. • Mechanical properties of glasses were found to increase with barium addition. • Hemolysis showed that 1.2 mol% BaO bioactive glass exhibited better biocompatibility. • Barium substituted bioactive glasses can be used as bone implants

  4. Effect of heat treatment on the phase composition, structure and magnetic properties of M-type barium hexaferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of the heat treatment of carbonate-hydroxide precipitates on the phase composition, structure and magnetic properties of M-type barium hexaferrite has been investigated using the Mőssbauer spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis and magnetic measurements. The distribution of Fe3+ ions over structural sites of barium hexaferrite with different degree of ferritizations has been defined. The conditions of single-domain behavior of barium hexaferrite nanoparticles in the magnetic field have been discussed. Obtained results explain the formation of magnetic structure during the synthesis of barium hexaferrite. This information could further be used for optimizing conditions for synthesis of nanosized barium hexaferrite with high-level properties. - Highlights: • In the T=973–1273 K range, BaFe12O19 (BHF) phase are formed from precipitates. • Fe3+ ions prefer to occupy 12k,2a,2b (at 1073 K) and 4f1,4f2 (at 1273 K) sites. • The most favorable magnetic structure for high Ms forms at T=1073 K. • The presence of 5–10% of α-Fe2O3 phase can improve magnetic properties of BHF

  5. Radioactive Barium Ion Trap Based on Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient and Irreversible Removal of Barium from Nuclear Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yaguang; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-04-01

    Highly efficient and irreversible capture of radioactive barium from aqueous media remains a serious task for nuclear waste disposal and environmental protection. To address this task, here we propose a concept of barium ion trap based on metal-organic framework (MOF) with a strong barium-chelating group (sulfate and sulfonic acid group) in the pore structures of MOFs. The functionalized MOF-based ion traps can remove >90% of the barium within the first 5 min, and the removal efficiency reaches 99% after equilibrium. Remarkably, the sulfate-group-functionalized ion trap demonstrates a high barium uptake capacity of 131.1 mg g(-1), which surpasses most of the reported sorbents and can selectively capture barium from nuclear wastewater, whereas the sulfonic-acid-group-functionalized ion trap exhibits ultrafast kinetics with a kinetic rate constant k2 of 27.77 g mg(-1) min(-1), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than existing sorbents. Both of the two MOF-based ion traps can capture barium irreversibly. Our work proposes a new strategy to design barium adsorbent materials and provides a new perspective for removing radioactive barium and other radionuclides from nuclear wastewater for environment remediation. Besides, the concrete mechanisms of barium-sorbent interactions are also demonstrated in this contribution. PMID:26999358

  6. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  7. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M;

    2014-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined...

  8. More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_158837.html More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils' Tennessee poison center reports doubling of dangerous exposures ... HealthDay News) -- Children are increasingly at risk from essential oils that are often used in natural remedies, a ...

  9. Prospects for Barium Tagging in Gaseous Xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagging events with the coincident detection of a barium ion would greatly reduce the background for a neutrino-less double beta decay search in xenon. This paper describes progress towards realizing this goal. It outlines a source that can produce large quantities of Ba++ in gas, shows that this can be extracted to vacuum, and demonstrates a mechanism by which the Ba++ can be efficiently converted to Ba+ as required for laser identification.

  10. Production of translationally cold barium monohalide ions

    OpenAIRE

    DePalatis, M. V.; Chapman, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    We have produced sympathetically cooled barium monohalide ions BaX$^+$ (X = F, Cl, Br) by reacting trapped, laser cooled Ba$^+$ ions with room temperature gas phase neutral halogen-containing molecules. Reaction rates for two of these (SF$_6$ and CH$_3$Cl) have been measured and are in agreement with classical models. BaX$^+$ ions are promising candidates for cooling to the rovibrational ground state, and our method presents a straightforward way to produce these polar molecular ions.

  11. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric acid (HNO3) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  12. Characterization of barium titanate powder doped with sodium and potassium ions by using Rietveld refining; Caracterizacao do po de titanato de bario dopado com ions sodio e potasio com o refinamento de Rietveld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, M.C.; Assis, J.T.; Pereira, F.R., E-mail: mcalixto@iprj.uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico; Araujo, J.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FFP/UERJ), Sao Goncalo, RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Formacao de Professores; Moreira, E.L.; Moraes, V.C.A.; Lopes, A.R. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF/MCT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A solid-reaction synthesis of doped barium titanate was done by employing barium carbonates, sodium, potassium and titanium oxides with classic procedures. Rietveld refining of X ray diffraction data of perovskite samples with tetragonal symmetry was applying and show good agreement. Besides, the treatment performed from 600 deg C produces nanocrystals of barium titanate with average size of 33 nm. The presence of endothermic peaks related to BaTiO{sub 3} formation at relatively low temperatures was determined by thermal analysis. A pseudo-Voigt Thompson-Cox-Hastings function was used to fit the standard samples of barium titanate. The Rietveld method has showed be efficient to detect the influences of temperature and doping on barium titanate microstructures. (author)

  13. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, D B; Roig, F; Jilinski, E; Drake, N A; Chavero, C; Silva, J V Sales

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scale height, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, $alpha$-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code {\\sc moog}. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars can not be represented by a single gaussian distribution. The abundances of $alpha$-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heav...

  14. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  15. New technique unveils environmental poisons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the extent of environmental poisons, the Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, has for some time been measuring the concentration of environmental poisons in mussels, fountain moss and seaweed. These organisms are 'bio monitors' that accumulate environmental poisons occurring in low concentrations in the water. Similar analyses are performed on fish gills to study poisonous metals in acid water (aluminium, copper, iron etc.)

  16. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    Çapan Konca; Zelal Kahramaner; Mehmet Boşnak; Halil Kocamaz

    2014-01-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a poisonous plant for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of its poisoning is supportive care. A 6-year-old girl who admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock was presented wi...

  17. Protecting Children from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heat and Cold Ebola Outbreak Financial Crisis Flash Floods/Flood Recovery Hurricanes, Tornadoes, and Storms Influenza/Pandemics National ... Heat and Cold Ebola Outbreak Financial Crisis Flash Floods/Flood Recovery Hurricanes, Tornadoes, and Storms Influenza/Pandemics ...

  18. Bilateral Globus Pallidus Ischemia: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizir Akdemir

    2014-03-01

    Karbonmonoksit zehirlenmesi ile iliskili serebral lezyonlar BT ve MRG ile tespit edilebilir. Karbonmonoksit zehirlenmesi sonrasi serebral korteks, derin beyaz cevher, bazal gangliyonlar ve hipokampal bölgede lezyonlar ortaya çikabilir. Radyolojik bulgularin ortaya çikisi farkli zamanlarda olabilir. Karbonmonoksit zehirlenmelerinde en sik beyaz cevher degisiklikleri görülür. Siklikla derin beyaz cevher ve sentrum semiovale düzeyinde bilateral diffüz radyolojik etkilenim saptanir.

  19. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt;

    2016-01-01

    extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled and discussed in person. A......BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were...

  20. Pattern of acute poisonings in childhood in Ankara: what has changed in twenty years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andiran, Nesibe; Sarikayalar, Fikriye

    2004-01-01

    Poisoning represents one of the most common medical emergencies in childhood, and epidemiological properties differ from country to country. Thus, special epidemiological surveillance for each country is necessary to determine the problem according to which preventive measures can be taken. The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of acute poisoning cases admitted to a pediatric referral hospital. All poisoned patients under 17 years of age, except for cases food poisoning, presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) from January 1995 to December 2000 were determined. The information about each case was recorded on standardized forms and a retrospective chart review survey was done. Complete epidemiological and clinical data were obtained for 489 patients. The mean age of all poisoned patients (mean +/- standard deviation) was 5.96 +/- 4.87 years, and the age range was 0.01 to 17 years. Three hundred and thirty-one children, forming 63.6% of all patients, were under five years of age. Slightly more boys (52.3%) than girls were intoxicated at ages less than 10 years, after which more girls (79%) than boys were involved. The majority of all cases were due to accidental poisoning (78.1% of all poisonings) which occurred mostly in children under five years of age (73.3%). While accidental poisonings (97.1%) were the most common mode of poisoning between 1-5 years, self-poisonings (67.3%) had the highest ratio in cases over 10 years of age. In patients younger than one year of age, 74.2% of all poisonings were due to therapeutical error. Drugs were the most frequent offending agent (57.7%), followed by ingestion of a caustic/corrosive substance (16.8%) and carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication (9.4%). Analgesics were the most common agents, forming 23.7% of all poisonings due to drugs, followed by ingestion of multiple drugs and tricyclic antidepressants at ratios of 21.6% and 9.6%, respectively. The most common route of poisoning was ingestion of the

  1. Edaravone attenuates brain damage in rats after acute CO poisoning through inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Bi, Ming Jun; Bi, Wei Kang; Kang, Hai; Yan, Le Jing; Guo, Yun-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common cause of death from poisoning all over the world and may result in neuropathologic and neurophysiologic changes. Acute brain damage and delayed encephalopathy are the most serious complication, yet their pathogenesis is poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Edaravone against apoptosis and oxidative stress after acute CO poisoning. The rat model of CO poisoning was established in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber by exposed to CO. Ultrastructure changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TUNEL stain was used to assess apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence double stain were used to evaluate the expression levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) protein and their relationship. By dynamically monitored the carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) level in blood, we successfully established rat model of severe CO poisoning. Ultrastructure changes, including chromatin condensation, cytoplasm dissolution, vacuoles formation, nucleus membrane and cell organelles decomposition, could be observed after CO poisoning. Edaravone could improve the ultrastructure damage. CO poisoning could induce apoptosis. Apoptotic cells were widely distributed in cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Edaravone treatment attenuated neuronal apoptosis as compared with the poisoning group (P < 0.01). Basal expressions of HO-1 and Nrf-2 proteins were found in normal brain tissue. CO poisoning could activate HO-1/Nrf-2 pathway, start oxidative stress response. After the administration of Edaravone, the expression of HO-1 and Nrf-2 significantly increased (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that Edaravone may inhibit apoptosis, activate the Keapl-Nrf/ARE pathway, and thus improve the ultrastructure damage and neurophysiologic changes following acute CO poisoning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 372-379, 2016

  2. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  3. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  4. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  5. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  6. Elevated Carboxyhaemoglobin Concentrations by Pulse CO-Oximetry is Associated with Severe Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhian, Mohammad; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Rahimi, Mitra; Zamani, Nasim; Aghabiklooei, Abbas; Shadnia, Shahin

    2016-09-01

    In pulse CO-oximetry of aluminium phosphide (ALP)-poisoned patients, we discovered that carboxyhaemoglobin (CO-Hb) level was elevated. We aimed to determine whether a higher CO level was detected in patients with severe ALP poisoning and if this could be used as a prognostic factor in these patients. In a prospective case-control study, 96 suspected cases of ALP poisoning were evaluated. In the ALP-poisoned group, demographic characteristics, gastric and exhalation silver nitrate test results, average CO-Hb saturation, methaemoglobin saturation, and blood pressure and blood gas analysis until death/discharge were recorded. Severely poisoned patients were defined as those with systolic blood pressure ≤80 mmHg, pH ≤7.2, or HCO3 ≤15 meq/L or those who died, while patients with minor poisoning were those without any of these signs/symptoms. A control group (37 patients) was taken from other medically ill patients to detect probable effects of hypotension and metabolic acidosis on CO-Hb and methaemoglobin saturations. Of 96 patients, 27 died and 37 fulfilled the criteria for severe poisoning. All patients with carbon monoxide saturation >18% met the criteria to be included in the severe poisoning group and all with a SpCO >25% died. Concerning all significant variables in univariate analysis of severe ALP toxicity, the only significant variable which could independently predict death was carbon monoxide saturation. Due to high mortality rate and need for intensive care support, early prediction of outcome is vital for choosing an appropriate setting (ICU or ordinary ward). CO-oximetry is a good diagnostic and prognostic factor in patients with ALP poisoning even before any clinical evidence of toxicity will develop. PMID:26899262

  7. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  8. Spasmolytic effect of peppermint oil in barium during double-contrast barium enema compared with Buscopan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asao, T.; Kuwano, H.; Ide, M.; Hirayama, I.; Nakamura, J.-I.; Fujita, K.-I.; Horiuti, R

    2003-04-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of peppermint oil in barium as a spasmolytic agent during a double-contrast barium enema (DCBE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 383 DCBEs with positive results from occult blood tests were assessed. Patients were assigned to one of four groups: peppermint in barium (n=91), peppermint in tube (n=90), Buscopan (n=105), or no treatment (n=97). After a screening sigmoidoscopy, the DCBEs were performed using air as a distending gas. In the Buscopan group, the DCBE was performed with an intramuscular injection of 20 mg Buscopan at the start of the examination. Patients in the no-treatment group underwent DCBE without any spasmolytic agent. A peppermint oil preparation (30 ml) was mixed in the barium solution for patients in the peppermint-in-barium group, and the same dose of peppermint oil was included in the enema tube in the peppermint-in-tube group. The presence of spasm on a series of spot films was evaluated without information about the type of spasmolytic agent used. RESULTS: The percentage of patients in the four groups (no treatment, Buscopan, peppermint in tube, and peppermint in barium) with absence of spasm in the entire colon on the series of spot films was 13.4, 38.1, 41.8, and 37.8%, respectively. In the group using peppermint oil or Buscopan, the rate of patients with non-spasm examination was higher than that in no-treatment group (p<0.0005). Peppermint oil had the same spasmolytic effect as the systemic administration of Buscopan in the transverse and descending colon. Peppermint oil had a stronger effect in the caecum and the ascending colon than a Buscopan injection (p<0.005). There was no advantage to placing peppermint oil in the enema tube over mixing it in the barium solution. A total of 157 polyps were found during the DCBE procedures, and no differences were observed in the number of lesions among the four groups. Peppermint oil did not impair image quality. CONCLUSION: Barium solution mixed with peppermint oil

  9. Single-step synthesis of well-crystallized and pure barium titanate nanoparticles in supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverón, Helen; Aymonier, Cyril; Loppinet-Serani, Anne; Elissalde, Catherine; Maglione, Mario; Cansell, François

    2005-08-01

    Single-step synthesis of ultra-fine barium titanate powder with a crystallinity as high as 90% and without barium carbonate contamination has been successfully performed under supercritical conditions using a continuous-flow reactor in the temperature range 150-380 °C at 16 MPa. To synthesize this bimetallic oxide, alkoxides, ethanol and water were used. The influence of the synthesis parameters on the BaTiO3 powder characteristics was investigated. The results show that the water to alkoxide precursor ratio, the reactor temperature and the Ba:Ti molar ratio of alkoxide precursor play a major role in the crystallization of pure and well-crystallized BaTiO3 nanoparticles. The continuous mode of operation without post-treatments for powder washing, drying or crystallization increase the industrial interest.

  10. Nanocrystalline barium zirconate titanate synthesized at low temperature by an aqueous co-precipitation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-phase nanocrystalline powder of barium zirconium titanate, Ba(Zr xTi1-x)O3 (BZT), x = 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30, was synthesized at low-temperature using an aqueous co-precipitation technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the as-precipitated powder showed single-phase BZT formation. The decrease in precipitant concentration resulted in impurity barium carbonate phase formation. Transmission electron microscopy studies of as-prepared powders showed an average particle size of 30 nm and the crystallite size from XRD was estimated to be 13 nm. The microstructural studies of sintered bodies showed an average grain size of 4 μm and the dielectric and ferroelectric behaviour of BZT with 10 mol.% Zr is reported

  11. Correlated Strontium and Barium Isotopic Compositions of Acid-Cleaned Single Silicon Carbides from Murchison

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Nan; Gallino, Roberto; Davis, Andrew M; Bisterzo, Sara; Gyngard, Frank; Kaeppeler, Franz; Cristallo, Sergio; Dauphas, Nicolas; Pellin, Michael J; Dillmann, Iris

    2015-01-01

    We present strontium, barium, carbon, and silicon isotopic compositions of 61 acid-cleaned presolar SiC grains from Murchison. Comparison with previous data shows that acid washing is highly effective in removing both strontium and barium contamination. For the first time, by using correlated $^{88}Sr$/$^{86}Sr$ and $^{138}Ba$/$^{136}Ba$ ratios in mainstream SiC grains, we are able to resolve the effect of $^{13}C$ concentration from that of $^{13}C$-pocket mass on s-process nucleosynthesis, which points towards the existence of large $^{13}C$-pockets with low $^{13}C$ concentration in AGB stars. The presence of such large $^{13}$R-pockets with a variety of relatively low $^{13}C$ concentrations seems to require multiple mixing processes in parent AGB stars of mainstream SiC grains.

  12. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T;

    2014-01-01

    cases of APAP poisoning. However, given that APAP is dialyzable, the workgroup agreed that ECTR is suggested in patients with excessively large overdoses who display features of mitochondrial dysfunction. This is reflected by early development of altered mental status and severe metabolic acidosis prior...

  13. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  14. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) wordt veroorzaakt door consumptie van schelpdieren die PSP toxinen bevatten. Er zijn 18 verschillende PSP toxinen, waarvan saxitoxine de meest bekende en de meest toxische is. PSP toxinen kunnen worden aangetoond met de muis bioassay, waarbij de dood van het d

  15. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by ingestion of shellfish containing PSP toxins. The PSP toxins are a group of 18 closely related tetrahydropurines. The first PSP toxin chemically characterised was saxitoxin. The various PSP toxins significantly differ in toxicity, with saxitoxin being

  16. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning. Products that can produce deadly ... Driven Generators, 2004-2014 January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  17. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning. Products that can produce deadly ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  18. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  19. Evaluation of poisoning deaths in the Cukurova Region, Turkey, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battal, Dilek; Aktas, Ayca; Sungur, Mehmet Ali; Bilgin, Nursel Gamsiz; Cekin, Necmi

    2016-03-01

    Complications of substances detected in poisoning deaths are important in order to observe changes in poisoning patterns and to monitor effects of preventive work. The aim of the present study was to describe the characteristics of substances investigated and detected in poisoning deaths by Adana Group Authority of the Council of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Chemistry, Cukurova, Turkey, between 2007 and 2011 retrospectively. A total of 7681 examinations were performed, of which, 7% (n = 564) determined positive for at least one compound investigated. Ages of the cases ranged from 1 to 97 years (mean ± SD: 36.10 ±19.16). Carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings were found most frequently with an incidence of 27.0%, followed by prescription medications with 25.0%. Illegal drug poisonings were present in 20.0% of blood and urine samples analyzed. Pesticides, mostly endosulfan, were found in 13.0% of the 564 cases investigated. In the blood samples analyzed, methyl and ethyl alcohol were detected in 14.0% and volatile substances in 1.0%. Overall, this study has managed to contribute substantial additional information regarding the epidemiology of poisoning in Cukurova region, Southern Turkey. The results confirm other epidemiological data that indicate CO as the major cause of poisoning deaths in Turkey. PMID:24193049

  20. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  1. 依达拉奉对一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病的治疗作用%Therapeutic effect of Edaravone on delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程万春; 朱洪坤; 陆少欢; 孟红旗

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the therapeutic effect of Edaravone on delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods 40 cases of patients with delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning in Department of Neurology of the Fifth People's Hospital of Foshan City from April 2013 to December 2014 were enrolled and ran-domly divided into treatment group and control group, with 20 cases in each group. 20 cases of healthy physical exami-nation persons at the same time were selected as healthy group. Treatment group received Edaravone combined with conventional treatment, control group received routine treatment. Then nerve function, EEG changes and serum indexes were compared. Results①Nerve function:the scores of Hasegawa dementia scale (points) and Barthel index (points) in treatment group were higher than those of control group [(32.52±4.25) vs (23.14±3.28), (73.45±8.94) vs (67.12±7.79)] (P<0.05); ②EEG change: (δ+Ɵ)/(α+β) in treatment group was significantly lower than that of control group [(5.68±1.32) vs (8.32±1.83)] (P < 0.05), EEG restore to normal rate was significantly higher than that of control group (85.0% vs 55.0%) (P<0.05);③serum indexes: before treatment, the levels of lipid peroxide, matrix metalloproteinase 9 in treat-ment group and control group were higher than those of healthy group (P<0.05), while the levels of glutathione peroxi-dase and vitamin E in treatment group and control group were lower than those of healthy group (P< 0.05). The con-tents of serum lipid peroxide (μmol/L), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (ng/L) in treatment group were lower than those of control group [(8.78±0.95) vs (13.47±1.85), (57.62±6.62) vs (87.45±9.62)] (P< 0.05); the levels of glutathione peroxi-dase (U/L) and vitamin E (μmol/L) were higher than those of control group [(415.32±52.61) vs (312.54±40.12), (36.62±4.52) vs (23.41±3.04)] (P<0.05). Conclusion Edaravone therapy contributes to scavenge free radicals and inhibit per

  2. Barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to evaluate the barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants. Retrospective evaluation of the plain abdominal radiography and barium enema findings was performed in fifteen young infants suffering with milk allergy. The presence of gaseous distension, rectal gas, paralytic ileus and mechanical obstruction was evaluated on the plain radiography. The presence of spasm, a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index and mucosal irregularity was analyzed on the barium enema; the presence of barium retention was also evaluated on 24-hour-delayed plain radiography. Paralytic ileus was the most common finding on the plain radiography (93%). On the barium enema, continuous spasm of the colon, ranging from the rectum to the descending colon, was revealed in ten infants (67%). A transitional zone was observed in one infant and a reversed rectosigmoid index was revealed in four. Mucosal irregularity was observed in two infants. Barium retention was demonstrated in 11 of fifteen cases: throughout the entire colon (n = 3), from the rectum to the descending colon (n = 7), and up to the transverse colon (n = 1). The most common barium enema finding of milk allergy in infants was spasm of the distal colon. The other findings were a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index, mucosal irregularity and barium retention

  3. Synthesis of double perxenate of lanthanum and barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of double perxenate of lanthanum and barium on the basis of sodium perxenate and lanthanum and barium acetates, is described. The obtained compound is characterized by means of element analysis, x-ray-electron-, IR- and RS-spectroscopy. Its thermal stability and water solubility are determined

  4. BARIUM IN TEETH AS INDICATOR OF BODY BURDEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the biological availability of naturally occurring barium in a municipal drinking water by the analysis of barium in deciduous teeth of children. The grade school children of two Illinois towns were chosen for the study. The towns were chosen ba...

  5. Colour centres in barium hexaaluminate (phase I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colour centres produced by X-ray irradiation of barium hexaaluminate (phase I) with β-alumina structure are studied by electron paramagnetic resonance, optical absorption, and thermally stimulated luminescence. It is shown that in addition to the F+ centres characteristic of β-alumina phases, this compound presents other colour centres such as F, O-, and possibly V-type centres. The stability of these defects is investigated by means of thermal bleaching experiments and thermally stimulated luminescence. An alternative model to the generally accepted one is proposed, for the F+ centres, together with a mechanism of defect formation. (author)

  6. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  7. Duodenal diverticula demonstrated by barium examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, T.; Thommesen, P.

    An investigation for biliary tract calculi and food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal reflux was carried out in 37 patients with duodenal diverticula demonstrated by barium examination. Sixty per cent of the diverticula were located in the descending part of the duodenum. Biliary tract calculi were demonstrated in 38 per cent and food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal reflux in 81 per cent of the patients. The detection of a duodenal diverticulum should result in a supplementary investigation for gallstones and gastrooesophageal reflux and its sequelae.

  8. Barium dithionate as an EPR dosemeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, M P; Bugay, O A; Kolesnik, S P; Maksimenko, V M; Teslenko, V V; Petrenko, T L; Desrosiers, M F

    2006-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry is growing in popularity and this success has encouraged the search for other dosimetric materials. Previous studies of gamma-irradiated barium dithionate (BaS(2)O(6) x 2H(2)O) have shown promise for its use as a radiation dosemeter. This work studies in greater detail several essential attributes of the system. Special attention has been directed to the study of EPR response dependences on microwave power, irradiation temperature, minimum detectable dose and post-irradiation stability. PMID:16565205

  9. Scattering lengths of calcium and barium isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Dammalapati, U.; Willmann, L.; Knoop, S.

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the s-wave scattering length of all the even isotopes of calcium (Ca) and barium (Ba), in order to investigate the prospect of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). For Ca we have used an accurate molecular potential based on detailed spectroscopic data. Our calculations show that Ca does not provide other isotopes alternative to the recently Bose condensed 40Ca that suffers strong losses because of a very large scattering length. For Ba we show by using a model potential that ...

  10. Barium cardiotoxicity: Relationship between ultrastructural damage and mechanical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, G; Amerini, S; Mugelli, A

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructural damage in guinea-pig ventricular strips caused by barium was analysed. At a concentration of 1 mmol/litre, barium chloride caused a dramatic increase in the developed tension associated with the onset of automaticity. The ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that barium caused notable and consistent alterations which affected most myocyte components. Various degenerative aspects were observed in mitochondria and in the contractile apparatus. Glycogen deposits were completely depleted. Preparations driven at 4 Hz (i.e. the rate of spontaneous firing of barium-treated preparations) showed moderate ultrastructural alterations, thus demonstrating that the increase in the rate of beating is not the only determinant of the observed damage. These results suggest that the myocardial toxicity of barium is due not only to the well-known modifications in membrane permeability, but possibly also to alterations in cell function. PMID:20702358

  11. Barium and radium migration in unconsolidated Canadian geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of laboratory studies on the distribution coefficients of radium and barium in samples of unconsolidated geologic materials. Graphs of Ksub(d) versus solution concentration for the respective elements showed constant Ksub(d) values in the low concentration range suggesting that, at low concentrations, a distribution coefficient is a valid means of representing the geochemical reactions of both barium and radium. The Ksub(d) values for barium range between 60 and 3500 ml/g. The values appear to be influenced by the amount of barium occurring naturally in the soil materials and thus there is little possiblility of using barium as an analog of radium in laboratory experiments. The Ksub(d) values of radium vary from 50 to 1000 ml/g indicating that a wide range of geological materials have a substantial capacity to retard the migration of radium

  12. 丁苯酞软胶囊在急性一氧化碳中毒迟发脑病认智功能障碍治疗中的应用%Butylphthalide soft capsules in the treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning delayed encephalopathy application recognize wisdom dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪诸权; 潘莹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate Butylphthalide soft capsules in acute carbon monoxide poisoning delayed encephalopathy recognize wisdom dysfunction treatment application effect. Methods The acute carbon monoxide poisoning delayed encephalopathy recognize wisdom dysfunction 40 cases were divided into two groups, 20 cases in each group, the control group received conven-tional treatment, the experimental group was given Butylphthalide soft capsules treatment on the basis of conventional therapy. Results The experimental group recognize wisdom score of 27-30 percentage points (65.0%) was higher (30.0%), Chi recognition score of 0-9 percentage points (10.0%) than the control group (40.0%), the overall response rate (90.0%) was higher (60.0%), two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion Butylphthalide soft capsule delayed treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning encephalopathy recognize wisdom dysfunction, which can effectively improve the recognition capabilities wisdom, clinical efficacy is obvious.%目的:探讨丁苯酞软胶囊在急性一氧化碳中毒迟发脑病认智功能障碍治疗中的应用效果。方法将急性一氧化碳中毒迟发脑病认智功能障碍40例分为2组,每组20例,对照组给予常规治疗,实验组在常规治疗基础上给予丁苯酞软胶囊治疗。结果实验组认智功能评分为27-30分的比率(65.0%)高于对照组(30.0%),认智功能评分为0~9分的比率(10.0%)低于对照组(40.0%),其总有效率(90.0%)高于对照组(60.0%),2组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论丁苯酞软胶囊治疗急性一氧化碳中毒迟发脑病认智功能障碍,可有效改善认智功能,临床疗效明显。

  13. An assessment of the redistribution of Barium during diagenesis of Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renock, D.; Symcox, C.; Lanids, J. D.; Sharma, M.

    2012-12-01

    Produced water from the hydrofracturing of Marcellus Shale have been reported to contain barium at concentrations >4000 ppm (Gregory et al, 2011). Understanding the reactions responsible for the leaching of Ba into produced water is important for improving the economic viability of gas extraction and to mitigate environmental concerns. Core samples of Marcellus Shale from New York and Pennsylvania were shown to contain Ba in the range of 400-2200 μg/g. In some of these samples, barite (BaSO4) grains are shown to be partially replaced by pyrite (massive and framboidal varieties) suggesting that Ba is remobilized in the zone of sulfate reduction sometime after sedimentation. Sequential extraction experiments show Ba being released into buffered acetic acid (carbonate fraction), aqua regia (sulfide fraction), and hydrofluoric acid (silicate fraction) extractions despite ~50% of the barium remaining undissolved as barite. Laser ablation ICP-MS showed negligible concentrations of Ba in calcite veins and elevated concentrations in areas of the shale that are predominantly clay + organics. These results suggest that some of the Ba is associated with the clay fraction of the shale (e.g., sorbed to clay surfaces as a result of the anoxic dissolution of barite). These results may inform future strategies for mitigating the release of barium into produced water.

  14. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a result many more patients were treated. This has resulted in a large increase in admissions and in the proportion suffering adverse reactions to the antidote acetylcysteine since, interestingly, higher paracetamol concentrations inhibit anaphylactoid reactions to the antidote. New approaches to assessing the toxicity of paracetamol are now emerging using new biomarkers in blood. This article discusses new approaches to risk assessment and treatment for paracetamol overdose based on recent research in this area. PMID:26099917

  15. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D;

    2015-01-01

    review of the literature, a subgroup reviewed articles, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a pre-determined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was......BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...... decontamination cannot be administered (2D). ECTR should be continued until clinical improvement is apparent or the [theophylline] is < 15 mg/L (83 μmol/L) (1D). Following the cessation of ECTR, patients should be closely monitored. Intermittent hemodialysis is the preferred method of ECTR (1C). If intermittent...

  16. The Novel Formation of Barium Titanate Nanodendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Jung Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanoparticles with novel dendrite-like structures have been successfully fabricated via a simple coprecipitation method, the so-called BaTiO3 nanodendrites (BTNDs. This method was remarkable, fast, simple, and scalable. The growth solution is prepared by barium chloride (BaCl2, titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4, and oxalic acid. The shape and size of BaTiO3 depend on the amount of added BaCl2 solvent. To investigate the influence of amount of BaCl2 on BTNDs, the amount of BaCl2 was varied in the range from 3 to 6 mL. The role of BaCl2 is found to have remarkable influence on the morphology, crystallite size, and formation of dendrite-like structures. The thickness and length of the central stem of BTND were ~300 nm and ~20 μm, respectively. The branchings were found to occur at irregular intervals along the main stem. Besides, the formation mechanism of BTND is proposed and discussed.

  17. High resolution studies of barium Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subtle structure of Rydberg states of barium with orbital angular momentum 0, 1, 2 and 3 is investigated. Some aspects of atomic theory for a configuration with two valence electrons are reviewed. The Multi Channel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) is concisely introduced as a convenient way to describe interactions between Rydberg series. Three high-resolution UV studies are presented. The first two, presenting results on a transition in indium and europium serve as an illustration of the frequency doubling technique. The third study is of hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in low-lying p states in Sr and Ba. An extensive study of the 6snp and 6snf Rydberg states of barium is presented with particular emphasis on the 6snf states. It is shown that the level structure cannot be fully explained with the model introduced earlier. Rather an effective two-body spin-orbit interaction has to be introduced to account for the observed splittings, illustrating that high resolution studies on Rydberg states offer an unique opportunity to determine the importance of such effects. Finally, the 6sns and 6snd series are considered. The hyperfine induced isotope shift in the simple excitation spectra to 6sns 1S0 is discussed and attention is paid to series perturbers. It is shown that level mixing parameters can easily be extracted from the experimental data. (Auth.)

  18. NANOSCALE BARIUM HYDROSILICATES: CHOOSING THE SYNTHESIS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRISHINA Anna Nikolaevna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cement concretes are the most used materials in modern civil engineering. Due to that such materials draw great attention both in the Russian Federation and abroad. The possibility to enhance the manufacturability and operational properties of concretes results in significant reduction of overall operating costs. Many enhancement methods have been elaborated. Among them there is one based on introduction of calcium hydrosilicates into construction composition. The authors set up a hypothesis that similarity between properties and structures of different hydrosilicates (for example, alkaline earth metals and metals of the second group will provide similar increased operational characteristics. The specialists of Research and Educational Center «Nanotechnology» are developing cement composites nanomodification methods which include introduction of nanodimensional barium hydrosilicates particles. The synthesis of barium hydrosilicates particles can be done with the use of many technologies, different by energy consumption or performing complexity. Taking into account both these factors, one can assume that low-temperature sol-gel synthesis from diluted water solutions is the proper technology. The present paper shows that this assumption is correct. The selection of certain technology is made by the means of multiobjective optimization, which is in turn is performed by the means of linear scalarization. This method, while not always giving the Pareto optimal solutions, can be easily implemented. The particle size distribution is taken into consideration during selection of objectives and weights. It is shown that selected technology allows manufacturing nanoparticles with median size about 30 nm.

  19. Coprecipitation of europium with barium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution behaviour of the trivalent europium ion at a micro-component scale, between barium sulphate and aqueous solution, was studied at ambient temperature. Experiments were carried out using radioactive tracers. Results indicate an enrichment of the micro component in the solid phase relative to the solution. The effects of the concentrations of the micro and macro-elements on the coprecipitation have been examined. Europium distribution coefficient DEu increases from 1.1 ± 0.2 to 3.2 ± 0.4 when initial europium concentration decreases from more than 17 x 10-5 to 1.4 x 10-5 M, in sulphuric media with SO42- in excess or CBa2+/CSO42- Eu. The coprecipitation of europium with barium sulphate as a heterovalent solid-solution is described by heterogeneous model obeying the Doerner and Hoskins logarithmic partition law. The weaker partition coefficients lower than unity (λ = 0.25 when CEu(III) ∼ 1.4 x 10-5 M and λ = 0.13 when CBa2+/CSO42- -5 ≤ CEu(III) = 153.5 x 10-5 M) lead to crystals increasingly enriched in the trace element. (orig.)

  20. Photon attenuation characteristics of barium enriched cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear radiations are widely used in several applications of nuclear sciences, medicine and industry. In the design and construction of installations housing high intensity radioactive sources and other radiation generating equipment, a variety of shielding materials are used to minimise the exposure to the individuals. Among the materials used, lead is best known for radiation shielding due to its high density and atomic number. However, in construction of radiation facilities, lead in the form of bricks or slabs cannot be substituted for cement as building material. As an alternative, barium enriched cement, which apart from better compressive strength, smoother surface finish and high abrasive resistance, offers adequate shielding to gamma radiations. In the present work, attenuation properties of commercial as well as barium enriched cements have been studied and compared with that of lead for photons of 662 and 1250 keV emitted from 137Cs and 60Co, respectively. Although photon attenuation data can be obtained by mixture rule theoretically, it is necessary to determine this data experimentally before use

  1. Drugs prescribed for self poisoners.

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, L F; Highley, M S

    1985-01-01

    Of 230 adults admitted for self poisoning over two months, 153 (67%) had previously been taking a total of 309 prescribed drugs. Of these patients, 119 (78%) had been given psychotropic drugs (usually benzodiazepines), 81 (53%) obtained them on repeat prescription, and 47 (31%) had been prescribed multiple psychotropic drugs, often in seemingly illogical combinations. The use of these drugs increased progressively with age and most patients took the same drugs in overdosage as they had been p...

  2. Absorber management using burnable poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the problem of optimal control carried out by means of a two-dimensional model of a PWR reactor. A solution is found to the problem, and the possibility of achieving optimal control with burnable poisons such as boron, cadmium and gadolinium is discussed. Further, an attempt is made to solve the control problem of BWR, but no final solution is found. (author)

  3. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetr...

  4. Efficient Factors for Food Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Fügen DURLU ÖZKAYA; CÖMERT, Menekşe

    2008-01-01

    In today’s world, extreme precautions must be taken for securing food processing and food hygiene issues in order to decrease food poisoning cases. Secure food processing is the process of purification of food from physical, chemical and biological artifacts, with certain controlling steps involved during the production. Food hygiene is defined as the state of afood being clean, or in other words in a condition that is not unhealthy, purified from artifacts that may have caused illness. Provi...

  5. A Survey of Primary Care Offices: Triage of Poisoning Calls without a Poison Control Center

    OpenAIRE

    Travis Austin; Brooks, Daniel E.; Sharyn Welch; Frank LoVecchio

    2012-01-01

    Poison control centers hold great potential for saving health care resources particularly by preventing unnecessary medical utilization. We developed a four-question survey with three poisoning-related scenarios, based on common calls to our poison center, and one question regarding after-hours calls. We identified primary care provider offices in our poison center's region from an internet search. We contacted these offices via telephone and asked to speak to an office manager or someone res...

  6. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar; Raghunadh Babu; Ramakrishna; Kathyayini; Surekha

    2015-01-01

    S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD) and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute ...

  7. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestio...

  8. Obtaining of a barium compound by combustion chemistry and their evaluation as Co adsorbent; Obtencion de un compuesto de bario por combustion quimica y su evaluacion como adsorbente de Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas G, N. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, barium carbonate synthesized by chemical combustion method using a chemical precursor prepared by the combination of barium nitrate and urea as a fuel, with a 1:1 molar ratio in aqueous solution, the chemical precursor was heated to evaporate excess water, producing a homogeneous viscous liquid, that when heated to 900 centi grades for 5 minutes an exothermic reaction was produced very quickly and abruptly, forming a white powder final product, fine porous, little spongy, dry and crystalline ready to be used as material adsorbent. Additionally, the effect of water on the synthesis by chemical combustion was studied. Simultaneously, and with the purpose of comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the method by chemical combustion, barium carbonate was synthesized by precipitation method using barium nitrate salts and sodium carbonate. Synthesized barium carbonate, was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. We studied the adsorption capacity of Co present in aqueous solution by static tests on materials synthesized at room temperature using the neutron activation analysis. It was found that the synthesis by chemical combustion provides an interesting alternative compared to the synthesis by precipitation because it offers simplicity of synthesis and speed to have a good adsorbent material. It was found that the barium carbonate synthesized by the chemical combustion method using in their synthesis 1.0 ml of water, was the one who achieved the maximum adsorption capacity of 95.6% compared with the barium carbonate prepared by precipitation, which reached a capacity adsorption of 51.48%. (Author)

  9. POISONOUS PLANTS IN GARDENS AND GRAZING LANDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. AGANGA; M. NSINAMWA; K. OTENG; B. MAULE

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review of poisonous plants, their toxic agents and the symptoms of poisoning. Poisonous plants are plants, which as a whole or part thereof under all or certain conditions and in amount likely to be taken or into contact with an organism will exert harmful effects or causes death either immediately or by reason of cumulative action of toxic property due to presence of known or unknown chemical action. There are different types of diseases caused by some poisonous plants. Poiso...

  10. Designed microstructures in textured barium hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, David Brian

    It is a fundamental principle of materials science that the microstructure of a material defines its properties and ultimately its performance for a given application. A prime example of this can be found in the large conch shell Strombus gigas, which has an intricate microstructure extending across five distinct length scales. This microstructure gives extraordinary damage tolerance to the shell. The structure of Strombus gigas cannot be replicated in a modern engineering ceramic with any existing processing technique, so new processing techniques must be developed to apply this structure to a model material. Barium hexaferrite was chosen as a model material to create microstructures reminiscent of Strombus gigas and evaluate its structure-property relations. This work describes novel processing methods to produce textured barium hexaferrite with no coupling between the sample geometry and the texture direction. This technique, combining magnetic field-assisted gelcasting with templated grain growth, also allows multilayer samples to be fabricated with different texture directions in adjacent layers. The effects of adding either B2O3 or excess BaCO 3 on the densification and grain growth of barium hexaferrite was studied. The texture produced using this technique was assessed using orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These measurements showed peak textures as high as 60 MRD and sharp interfaces between layers cast with different texture directions. The effect of oxygen on the quality of gelcasting is also discussed, and it is shown that with proper mold design, it is possible to gelcast multiple layers with differing texture directions without delamination. Monolithic and multilayer samples were produced and tested in four point bending to measure the strength and work of fracture. Modulus measurements, made with the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique, show clear signs of microcracking in both the isotropic and textured samples

  11. Low temperature preparation of nanocrystalline solid solution of strontium barium niobate by chemical process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asit B Panda; Amita Pathak; Panchanan Pramanik

    2002-11-01

    SrBa1–Nb2O6 (with = 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) powders have been prepared by thermolysis of aqueous precursor solutions consisting of triethanolamine (TEA), niobium tartarate and, EDTA complexes of strontium and barium ions. Complete evaporation of the precursor solution by heating at ∼ 200°C, yields in a fluffy, mesoporous carbon rich precursor material, which on calcination at 750°C/2 h has resulted in the pure SBN powders. The crystallite and average particle sizes are found to be around 15 nm and 20 nm, respectively.

  12. Structural, microstructural and impedance spectroscopy study of functional ferroelectric ceramic materials based on barium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differences between the physical properties of barium titanate BaTiO3 and newly obtained BaHfxTi1-xO3 were identified. These ceramics were prepared by solid-phase reaction from simple oxides and carbonates using the conventional method. The structure and morphology of investigated samples were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The application of impedance spectroscopy made possible to characterize of these materials in the terms of electrical properties

  13. Chemical composition of Eu2+ luminescence in the barium hexaaluminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of two parts. In the first part the chemical composition of two kinds of barium hexaaluminate (one poor and one rich in barium) is explained using the local electroneutrality concept. In the second part a reinvestigation of the Eu2+ luminescence in these compounds is reported. The emission spectrum of each of the two compounds shows a blue and a green emission bank. The blue emission bank is ascribed to Eu2+ ions at barium sites, whereas the green emission band is identified with Eu2+ ions incorporated at aluminum sites within spinel blocks of the structure

  14. Magic Wavelength of an Optical Clock Transition of Barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Similar to most of the other alkaline earth elements, barium atoms can be candidates for optical clocks, thus the magic wavelength for an optical lattice is important for the clock transition. We calculate the magic wavelength of a possible clock transition between 6s21S0 and 6s5d3 D2 states of barium atoms. Our theoretical result shows that there are three magic wavelengths 615.9nm, 641.2nm and 678.8nm for a linearly polarized optical lattice laser for barium. (atomic and molecular physics)

  15. A novel barium polymeric membrane sensor for selective determination of barium and sulphate ions based on the complex ion associate barium(II)-Rose Bengal as neutral ionophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A.M. [Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Minufiya University, Sadat City (Egypt); El-Shahawi, M.S. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science at Damiatta, Mansoura University, Damiatta, Dumyat 34517 (Egypt)]. E-mail: mohammad_el_shahawi@yahoo.co.uk; Abdel-Azeem, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science at Damiatta, Mansoura University, Damiatta, Dumyat 34517 (Egypt)

    2006-01-12

    A simple, long life, rapid response and sensitive barium(II)-PVC membrane sensor that typically follows Nernstian behavior has been developed for the assay of barium(II) ions. The developed sensor has been made by incorporating the complex ion associate of barium(II)-Rose Bengal (Ba-RB) as an ionophore into a plasticized PVC matrix. The sensor is stable and exhibited fast potential response of 20 s and gave a good linear response with a Nernstian slope of 28.5 {+-} 0.4 mV/decade of activity within the concentration range 5 x 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -1} M over a wide range of pH 4.5-10.0 for barium(II) ions. The developed sensor showed comparatively good selectivity for barium(II) ions with respect to other alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The plasticizer o-nitrophenyloctyl ether controlled significantly the calibration slope and the lifetime of the fabricated sensor. The proposed sensor was used successfully for the analysis of barium(II) ions in wastewater samples and in lithophone pigment with excellent recovery percentages in the range 98.9-99.8 {+-} 1.6%. The determination of sulphate in fresh and potable water samples with the developed sensor has been also achieved successfully. The described sensor provides a reliable means with good correlation with the data obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and other spectrophotometric methods for the analysis of trace amounts of barium(II) and/or sulphate ions in different matrices.

  16. A novel barium polymeric membrane sensor for selective determination of barium and sulphate ions based on the complex ion associate barium(II)-Rose Bengal as neutral ionophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, long life, rapid response and sensitive barium(II)-PVC membrane sensor that typically follows Nernstian behavior has been developed for the assay of barium(II) ions. The developed sensor has been made by incorporating the complex ion associate of barium(II)-Rose Bengal (Ba-RB) as an ionophore into a plasticized PVC matrix. The sensor is stable and exhibited fast potential response of 20 s and gave a good linear response with a Nernstian slope of 28.5 ± 0.4 mV/decade of activity within the concentration range 5 x 10-5 to 10-1 M over a wide range of pH 4.5-10.0 for barium(II) ions. The developed sensor showed comparatively good selectivity for barium(II) ions with respect to other alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The plasticizer o-nitrophenyloctyl ether controlled significantly the calibration slope and the lifetime of the fabricated sensor. The proposed sensor was used successfully for the analysis of barium(II) ions in wastewater samples and in lithophone pigment with excellent recovery percentages in the range 98.9-99.8 ± 1.6%. The determination of sulphate in fresh and potable water samples with the developed sensor has been also achieved successfully. The described sensor provides a reliable means with good correlation with the data obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and other spectrophotometric methods for the analysis of trace amounts of barium(II) and/or sulphate ions in different matrices

  17. Theoretical isotope shifts in neutral barium

    CERN Document Server

    Nazé, Cédric; Godefroid, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with a set of problems in isotope shifts of neutral barium spectral lines. Some well known transitions ($6s^2~^1S_0-6s6p~^{1,3}P^o_1$ and $6s^2~^1S_0-6p^2~^3P_0$) are first investigated. Values of the changes in the nuclear mean-square charge radius are deduced from the available experimental isotope shifts using our ab initio electronic factors. The three sets $\\{ \\delta\\langle r^2\\rangle^{A,A'}\\} $ obtained from these lines are consistent with each other. The combination of the available nuclear mean-square radii with our electronic factors for the $6s5d~^3D_{1,2} -6s6p~^{1}P^o_1$ transitions produces isotope shift values in conflict with the laser spectroscopy measurements of Dammalapati et al. (Eur. Phys. J. D 53, 1 (2009)).

  18. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, G C; Spite, M; Chen, Y Q; Zhao, G; Zhang, B; Liu, G Q; Liu, Y J; Liu, N; Deng, L C; Spite, F; Hill, V; Zhang, C X

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicity and microturbulent velocity) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their light elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-ca...

  19. Analysis of europium doped luminescent barium thioaluminate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东璞; 喻志农; 薛唯; 章婷; 丁瞾; 王武育

    2010-01-01

    Europium-doped barium thioaluminate sputtering target was synthesized by powder sintering method and thin film was deposited by radio frequency(RF) sputtering.X-ray diffractometer(XRD) pattern indicated that the main compound of the target was BaAl4S7.Oxygen was the main impurity which led to the formation of BaAl2O4.It was shown that both BaAl4S7 and BaAl2S4 were contained in the as-grown thin films and a 471.7 nm emission peak in the PL spectra appeared due to a combination of BaAl4S7:Eu2+ and BaAl2S4:Eu2...

  20. Barium hexaferrite ferrofluids - preparation and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R.; Hiergeist, R.; Steinmetz, H.; Ayoub, N.; Fujisaki, M.; Schüppel, W.

    1999-07-01

    Barium hexaferrite BaFe 12-2 xTi xCo xO 19 ferrofluids have been prepared for the first time using oleic acid as surfactant and Isopar M ® as carrier liquid. The initial susceptibility versus temperature for zero-field cooling of the ferrofluid was obtained by a vibrating sample magnetometer. TEM pictures of the fluid show isolated particles and only small agglomerates and a mean particle diameter of approx. 8 nm. Numerical calculations of the magneto-viscous effect, based on the local-equilibrium magnetic state model, clearly show the benefit for Ba-ferrite ferrofluids resulting from the high uniaxial anisotropy compared to magnetite ferrofluids. Rheological measurements were performed with a rotational-type viscometer with magnetic field perpendicular to the hydrodynamic vortex axis.