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Sample records for barisia imbricata imbricata

  1. REPORTE DEL TAMAÑO DE UNA CAMADA DE BARISIA IMBRICATA (WIEGMANN, 1828) (REPTILIA: ANGUIDAE)

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    G. F. Aguilar-Martínez

    2011-01-01

    The genus Barisia is endemic to Mexico occurring in temperate regions, at elevations between 2200-3800 m above sea level. Few records of clutch size of the species of Barisia are available, in particular for B. imbricata. The first report of a large clutch size (15 neonates alive) is given for this species.

  2. Tinea imbricata or Tokelau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Archer-Dubon, Carla; Saúl, Amado

    2004-07-01

    Tinea imbricata (TI) or Tokelau is a superficial mycosis caused by Trichophyton concentricum, an anthropophilic dermatophyte. It is endemic in some islands of the South Pacific (Polynesia), South-East Asia, Central and South America, and Mexico, and is most often seen in individuals living in primitive and isolated conditions. The skin lesions are characteristically concentric and lamellar (imbricata: in Latin, tiled) plaques of scale. Predisposing conditions include humidity, inheritance, and immunologic factors. The diagnosis is usually made on clinical grounds, supported by skin scrapings and culture. Tokelau is a chronic and highly relapsing disease and, although no first-line treatment exists, best results are obtained with oral griseofulvin and terbinafine and a topical combination of keratolytic ointments, such as Whitfield's. TI is a disease model that allows the correlation of a series of environmental, genetic, immunologic, and therapeutic conditions.

  3. Final critical habitat for the Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) based on the description provided in...

  4. Antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities of the spine of stingray Himantura imbricata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaliyamoorthy Kalidasan; Velayudham Ravi; Sunil Kumar Sahu; Murugan Lakshmi Maheshwaran; Kathiresan Kandasamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the spine structure of stingray Himantura imbricata (H. imbricata) and to evaluate the anticoagulant properties of the spine extract obtained through various solvents extracts followed by antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Methods:Spines of H. imbricata were collected from Nagappattinam coast, Tamil Nadu, India and their spines were observed under the light microscope. The grounded spines were subjected to extraction of metabolites using methanol, ethanol, chloroform and acetone. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion technique against 10 human pathogens. Similarly, anticoagulant activity was also assessed by following United States Pharmacopeia method. Results:Light microscopic observation of spine revealed that the venom apparatus of the stingray H. imbricata consisted of two to three spines, glandular tissue and a sheath. The spine extract showed potent antibacterial activity against all tested pathogen. Maximum activity (14 mm) was found against Staphylococcus aureus. Crude extract showed 91.50 USP units/mg of anticoagulant activity. Conclusions: Microscopic observations gave new insight about the spine structure of the stingray. The spine extracts of H. imbricate showed potent activity against human pathogens revealed by the good zone of inhibition. Chloroform extracts conferred the most prominent antibacterial activity. The anticoagulant activity was also comparable with that of standard heparin.

  5. Antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities of the spine of stingray Himantura imbricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliyamoorthy Kalidasan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the spine structure of stingray Himantura imbricata (H. imbricata and to evaluate the anticoagulant properties of the spine extract obtained through various solvents extracts followed by antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Methods: Spines of H. imbricata were collected from Nagappattinam coast, Tamil Nadu, India and their spines were observed under the light microscope. The grounded spines were subjected to extraction of metabolites using methanol, ethanol, chloroform and acetone. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion technique against 10 human pathogens. Similarly, anticoagulant activity was also assessed by following United States Pharmacopeia method. Results: Light microscopic observation of spine revealed that the venom apparatus of the stingray H. imbricata consisted of two to three spines, glandular tissue and a sheath. The spine extract showed potent antibacterial activity against all tested pathogen. Maximum activity (14 mm was found against Staphylococcus aureus. Crude extract showed 91.50 USP units/mg of anticoagulant activity. Conclusions: Microscopic observations gave new insight about the spine structure of the stingray. The spine extracts of H. imbricate showed potent activity against human pathogens revealed by the good zone of inhibition. Chloroform extracts conferred the most prominent antibacterial activity. The anticoagulant activity was also comparable with that of standard heparin.

  6. Free radical scavenging property and antiproliferative activity of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew extracts in HT-29 human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravichandran Senthilkumar; Thangaraj Parimelazhagan; Om Prakash Chaurasia; RB Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of rhizome extracts of Rhodiola imbricata (R. imbricata) in HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. Methods: The successively extracted rhizome of R. imbricata using various solvents was analyzed for their total phenolics, tannins and flavonoid contents. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by employing different assays, including DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging assays, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum reduction assay, superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and metal chelating ability. Results: Acetone and methanol extracts recorded higher phenolic content and showed comparable antioxidant activity with standard reference. Additionally, they also inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells upon treatment at higher concentration (200 μg/mL) (acetone and methanol, 84% and 84%, respectively). On examination acetone extract exhibited antiproliferative activity in a concentration dependent manner whereas, methanol extract showed both dose dependent and time dependent inhibitory activity. Conclusions: The results obtained justify the traditional usage of R. imbricata from their promising antioxidant activity.

  7. Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, Brasil / Guiana Francesa Projet de tourisme à base communautaire Tartaruga Imbricata, Brésil /Guyane Tartaruga Imbricata community-based tourism project, Brazil / Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Nádia Bandeira Sacenco Kornijezuk

    2012-01-01

    Em novembro de 2009, participei, durante nove dias, de uma experimentação de turismo chamada Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, numa rota de integração do Parque Nacional do Cabo Orange, no Brasil, com a Guiana Francesa. Essa viagem foi o primeiro trabalho de campo para a minha tese em Geografia e Gestão Ambiental (em andamento). Essa edição da experimentação visava propiciar a um grupo de gestores franceses, participantes de um seminário de cunho terapêutico chamado ...

  8. Molecular mechanism for cadmium-induced anthocyanin accumulation in Azolla imbricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ling-Peng; Dong, Xin-Jiao; Ma, Hai-Hu

    2012-04-01

    Anthocyanins inducibly synthesized by Cd treatment showed high antioxidant activity and might be involved in internal detoxification mechanisms of Azolla imbricata against Cd toxicity. In order to understand anthocyanin biosynthesis mechanism during Cd stress, the cDNAs encoding chalcone synthase (CHS) and dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), two key enzymes in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway, were isolated from A. imbricata. Deduced amino acid sequences of the cDNAs showed high homology to the sequences from other plants. Expression of AiDFR, and to a lesser extent AiCHS, was significantly induced in Cd treatment plant in comparison with the control. CHS and DFR enzymatic activities showed similar pattern changes with these genes expression during Cd stress. These results strongly indicate that Cd induced anthocyanin accumulation is probably mediated by up-regulation of structural genes including CHS and DFR, which might further increase the activities of enzymes encoded by these structural genes that control the anthocyanin biosynthetic steps. PMID:22225708

  9. New isorhamnetin derivatives from Salsola imbricata Forssk. leaves with distinct anti-inflammatory activity

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    Samir M Osman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salsola imbricata Forssk. is a shrub widely growing in Egypt, used as a camel food, traditionally, used as anti-inflammatory agent. Literature survey showed no report about the anti-inflammatory activity of S. imbricata. Aim of the Study: This work was designed to study the phenolic constituents and to provide evidence for the traditional use of S. imbricata as an anti-inflammatory agent. Materials and Methods: The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the total aqueous methanol extract and some isolated compounds were investigated in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells using nitric oxide assay. All chemical structures were identified on the basis of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimension nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: Nine phenolic compounds, among them two new natural products; isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronyl (1'''→4'' glucuronide (1 and its dimethyl ester; isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-di glucuronate dimethyl ester (2, two isorhamnetin glycosides: Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (3, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, and isorhamnetin (5. In addition, an alkaloidal phenolic; trans N-feruloyl tyramine (6, three phenolic acids: Isovanillic acid (7, ferulic acid (8, and p-hydroxy benzoic acid (9 were isolated from salsola imbricata leaves. All compounds were isolated and identified for the first time from this plant except compound (6. The extract and the tested compounds showed distintict anti-inflammatory activities with no toxicity on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Conclusion: The extract and the tested compounds showed distintict anti-inflammatory activities with no toxicity on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

  10. Dendroecological potential of Fabiana imbricata shrub for reconstructing fire history at landscape scale in grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Facundo; Ghermandi, Luciana; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2014-05-01

    Fire recurrently affects many of the terrestrial ecosystems causing major implications on the structure and dynamics of vegetation. In fire prone, it is particularly important to know the fire regime for which precise fire records are needed. Dendroecology offers the possibility of obtaining fire occurrence data from woody species and has been widely used in forest ecosystems for fire research. Grasslands are regions with no trees but shrubs could be used to acquire dendroecological information in order to reconstructing fire history at landscape scale. We studied the dendroecological potential of shrub F. imbricata to reconstruct fire history at landscape scale in a fire prone grassland of northwestern Patagonia. To do this, we combined spatio-temporal information of recorded fires within the study area with the age structure of F. imbricata shrublands derived by dendroecology. Sampling sites were located over 2500 ha in San Ramón ranch, 30 km east from Bariloche, Río Negro province, Argentina (latitude -41° 04'; longitude -70° 51'). Shrubland age structure correctly described how fires occurred in the past. Pulses of individuals' recruitment were associated with fire in time and space. A bi-variate analysis showed that F. imbricata recruits individuals during the two years after fire and spatial distribution of pulses coincided with the fire map. In sites without fire data, the age structure allowed the identification of two additional fires. Our results show that shrub F. imbricata can be employed with other data sources such as remote sensing and operational databases to improve knowledge on fire regime in northwestern Patagonia grasslands. In conclusion, we raise the possibility of utilizing shrubs as a dendroecological data source to study fire history in grasslands where tree cover is absent.

  11. Spatial dynamics of Fabiana imbricata shrublands in northwestern Patagonia in relation to natural fires

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    L. Ghermandi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a critical disturbance in the structuring and functioning of most Mediterranean ecosystems. In northwestern Patagonia, vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by fire and environmental heterogeneity. Dendroecology, together with satellite imagery and GIS, have been demonstrated to be useful tools in studies that relate to fire effects with patches, patterns and species dynamics at landscape scale. Such studies can be approached from landscape ecology, which has evolved in the last years supported by the development of remote sensing and GIS technologies. This study evaluates the spatial dynamic of F. imbricata in response to fire using remote sensing, GIS and dendrochronology techniques, at landscape scale. Two sites were evaluated and one of them was affected by fire in the year 1999. The digital processing images (using the NBR spectral index and the dendroecological analysis verified this. A fire, occurring in 1978, was also detected by the analysis of F. imbricata growth rings. The relation between F. imbricata shrubland dynamics and spatial configuration with fire, land topography and hydrography was established in the study area.

  12. New Isorhamnetin Derivatives from Salsola imbricata Forssk. Leaves with Distinct Anti-inflammatory Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Samir M.; El Kashak, Walaa A.; Wink, Michael; El Raey, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Salsola imbricata Forssk. is a shrub widely growing in Egypt, used as a camel food, traditionally, used as anti-inflammatory agent. Literature survey showed no report about the anti-inflammatory activity of S. imbricata. Aim of the Study: This work was designed to study the phenolic constituents and to provide evidence for the traditional use of S. imbricata as an anti-inflammatory agent. Materials and Methods: The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the total aqueous methanol extract and some isolated compounds were investigated in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells using nitric oxide assay. All chemical structures were identified on the basis of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimension nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: Nine phenolic compounds, among them two new natural products; isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronyl (1’’’→4’’) glucuronide (1) and its dimethyl ester; isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-di glucuronate dimethyl ester (2), two isorhamnetin glycosides: Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (3), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), and isorhamnetin (5). In addition, an alkaloidal phenolic; trans N-feruloyl tyramine (6), three phenolic acids: Isovanillic acid (7), ferulic acid (8), and p-hydroxy benzoic acid (9) were isolated from salsola imbricata leaves. All compounds were isolated and identified for the first time from this plant except compound (6). The extract and the tested compounds showed distintict anti-inflammatory activities with no toxicity on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Conclusion: The extract and the tested compounds showed distintict anti-inflammatory activities with no toxicity on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. SUMMARY Investigation of the chemical constituents of the leaves of Salsola imbricata led to isolation of two new isorhamnetin derivatives: isorhamnetin.3-O-β-D.glucuronyl (1’“→”) glucuronide (1) and its dimethyl ester (2), together with seven known phenolic compounds. The extract and the

  13. [Gonadic histology and phenotypical maturation criteria in the marine turtles Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata (Testudines: Chelonidae) from Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Emir; Ruiz, Ariel; Espinosa, Georgina; Lee, Idania

    2010-03-01

    Gonad maturity is usually evaluated through macroscopic analysis of the gonads. In sea turtles, the maturation stages are associated with body size, depending on the studied marine stock. Fishermen classify turtles bigger than 65.0 cm as sexually mature. If they have secondary sex characters they are recorded as breeding males. We compared body size with macroscopic and microscopic gonad characteristics in two Cuban turtles. Eighteen individuals of C. mydas and twenty of E. imbricata was obtained from the legal fishery stock of Jardines del Rey Archipelago (Cuba), from October 2005 and 2006. In males, breeding condition (maximum spermiogenesis) was checked by histological analysis of the testes. In females, sexual maturity was identified by the presence of vitellogenic follicles or ovarian corpora. Most males were immature (C. mydas: 79.0 cm; E. imbricata: 73.1+/-4.9 cm, n=3) and lacked secondary sex characters. Some E. imbricata without a developed penis were in spermatogenic stages II to IV (i.e. pubescent). Most females were immature (C. mydas: 79.6+/-7.7 cm, n=17; E. imbricata: 69.0+/-7.1 cm, n=16; i.e.prepubescent and pubescent. The prepubescent females had ovaries with previtellogenic follicles near 1.0 mm in a compact and yellowish stroma. The pubescent females had ovaries with previtellogenic follicles between 2.0 and 3.0 mm. The stroma was more loosened and irrigated than in prepubescent turtles. The finding of spermatogenic activity in pubescent males indicates asynchrony between testicular and penial development in E. imbricata. The current phenotypical approach used by fishermen is not enough to determine sexual maturation in these turtles. The minimal size tentatively should be changed to: C. mydas: above 93.0 cm and E. imbricata above 79.0 cm.

  14. Chemometric profile of root extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. with hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayade, Amol B; Dhar, Priyanka; Kumar, Jatinder; Sharma, Manu; Chauhan, Rajinder S; Chaurasia, Om P; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2013-01-01

    Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. (Rose root or Arctic root or Golden root or Shrolo), belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is an important food crop and medicinal plant in the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert. Chemometric profile of the n-hexane, chloroform, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and 60% ethanol root extracts of R. imbricata were performed by hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. GC/MS analysis was carried out using Thermo Finnigan PolarisQ Ion Trap GC/MS MS system comprising of an AS2000 liquid autosampler. Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC/MS was done using the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database, with NIST MS search program v.2.0g. Chemometric profile of root extracts revealed the presence of 63 phyto-chemotypes, among them, 1-pentacosanol; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3β,24S); 1-teracosanol; 1-henteracontanol; 17-pentatriacontene; 13-tetradecen-1-ol acetate; methyl tri-butyl ammonium chloride; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; 7,8-dimethylbenzocyclooctene; ethyl linoleate; 3-methoxy-5-methylphenol; hexadecanoic acid; camphor; 1,3-dimethoxybenzene; thujone; 1,3-benzenediol, 5-pentadecyl; benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy, 5-methoxy; cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione; dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy; octadecane, 1-chloro; ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl); α-tocopherol; ascaridole; campesterol; 1-dotriacontane; heptadecane, 9-hexyl were found to be present in major amount. Eventually, in the present study we have found phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, alkyl halides, phenols, alcohols, ethers, alkanes, and alkenes as the major group of phyto-chemotypes in the different root extracts of R. imbricata. All these compounds identified by GC/MS analysis were further investigated for their biological activities and it was found that they possess a diverse range of positive pharmacological actions. In future, isolation of individual phyto-chemotypes and subjecting them to biological activity will definitely prove fruitful results in

  15. Chemometric profile of root extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. with hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol B Tayade

    Full Text Available Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. (Rose root or Arctic root or Golden root or Shrolo, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is an important food crop and medicinal plant in the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert. Chemometric profile of the n-hexane, chloroform, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and 60% ethanol root extracts of R. imbricata were performed by hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS technique. GC/MS analysis was carried out using Thermo Finnigan PolarisQ Ion Trap GC/MS MS system comprising of an AS2000 liquid autosampler. Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC/MS was done using the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database, with NIST MS search program v.2.0g. Chemometric profile of root extracts revealed the presence of 63 phyto-chemotypes, among them, 1-pentacosanol; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3β,24S; 1-teracosanol; 1-henteracontanol; 17-pentatriacontene; 13-tetradecen-1-ol acetate; methyl tri-butyl ammonium chloride; bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate; 7,8-dimethylbenzocyclooctene; ethyl linoleate; 3-methoxy-5-methylphenol; hexadecanoic acid; camphor; 1,3-dimethoxybenzene; thujone; 1,3-benzenediol, 5-pentadecyl; benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy, 5-methoxy; cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione; dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy; octadecane, 1-chloro; ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl; α-tocopherol; ascaridole; campesterol; 1-dotriacontane; heptadecane, 9-hexyl were found to be present in major amount. Eventually, in the present study we have found phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, alkyl halides, phenols, alcohols, ethers, alkanes, and alkenes as the major group of phyto-chemotypes in the different root extracts of R. imbricata. All these compounds identified by GC/MS analysis were further investigated for their biological activities and it was found that they possess a diverse range of positive pharmacological actions. In future, isolation of individual phyto-chemotypes and subjecting them to biological activity will definitely prove fruitful

  16. Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, Brasil / Guiana Francesa

    OpenAIRE

    Kornijezuk, Nádia Bandeira Sacenco

    2012-01-01

    Em novembro de 2009, participei, durante nove dias, de uma experimentação de turismo chamada Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, numa rota de integração do Parque Nacional do Cabo Orange, no Brasil, com a Guiana Francesa. Essa viagem foi o primeiro trabalho de campo para a minha tese em Geografia e Gestão Ambiental (em andamento). Essa edição da experimentação visava propiciar a um grupo de gestores franceses, participantes de um seminário de cunho terapêutico chamado ...

  17. First record of hybridization between green Chelonia mydas and hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata sea turtles in the Southeast Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelez, Shaleyla; Velez-Zuazo, Ximena; Pacheco, Aldo S

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization among sea turtle species has been widely reported in the Atlantic Ocean, but their detection in the Pacific Ocean is limited to just two individual hybrid turtles, in the northern hemisphere. Herein, we report, for the first time in the southeast Pacific, the presence of a sea turtle hybrid between the green turtle Chelonia mydas and the hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata. This juvenile sea turtle was captured in northern Peru (4°13'S; 81°10'W) on the 5(th) of January, 2014. The individual exhibited morphological characteristics of C. mydas such as dark green coloration, single pair of pre-frontal scales, four post-orbital scales, and mandibular median ridge, while the presence of two claws in each frontal flipper, and elongated snout resembled the features of E. imbricata. In addition to morphological evidence, we confirmed the hybrid status of this animal using genetic analysis of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I, which revealed that the hybrid individual resulted from the cross between a female E. imbricata and a male C. mydas. Our report extends the geographical range of occurrence of hybrid sea turtles in the Pacific Ocean, and is a significant observation of interspecific breeding between one of the world's most critically endangered populations of sea turtles, the east Pacific E. imbricata, and a relatively healthy population, the east Pacific C. mydas.

  18. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and toxic potential of extracts and triterpenes isolated from Maytenus imbricata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Vanessa G.; Duarte, Lucienir P.; Silva, Gracia D.F.; Silva, Fernando C.; Goes, Jefferson V.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.; Pimenta, Lucia P.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Vieira Filho, Sidney A., E-mail: vanessa.greg@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Dept. de Farmacia

    2012-07-01

    The phyto chemical study of hexane/ethyl ether (1:1) extract of the roots of M. imbricata, Celastraceae, resulted in the isolation and characterization of six known triterpenes: 11{alpha}-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one, previously isolated from this species besides, 3{beta},11{alpha}-di-hydroxylup-20(29)-ene, 3,7-dioxofriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol. The chemical structures of these triterpenes were established by spectrometric data (IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR) and through comparison with literature data. The hexane/ethyl ether (1:1), ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, and 11{alpha}-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol, showed antimicrobial properties on in vitro assays. All extracts and triterpenes, except 3{beta},11{alpha}-di-hydroxylup-20(29)-ene, presented toxicity demonstrated by the larvicidal effect test using Artemia salina. (author)

  19. Factors affecting hematology and plasma biochemistry in the southwest carpet python (Morelia spilota imbricata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gillian L; Fleming, Patricia A; Twomey, Leanne; Warren, Kristin A

    2012-04-01

    Despite increased worldwide popularity of keeping reptiles as pets, we know little about hematologic and biochemical parameters of most reptile species, or how these measures may be influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Blood samples from 43 wild-caught pythons (Morelia spilota imbricata) were collected at various stages of a 3-yr ecological study in Western Australia. Reference intervals are reported for 35 individuals sampled at the commencement of the study. As pythons were radiotracked for varying lengths of time (radiotransmitters were surgically implanted), repeated sampling was undertaken from some individuals. However, because of our ad hoc sampling design we cannot be definitive about temporal factors that were most important or that exclusively influenced blood parameters. There was no significant effect of sex or the presence of a hemogregarine parasite on blood parameters. Erythrocyte measures were highest for pythons captured in the jarrah forest and at the stage of radiotransmitter implantation, which was also linked with shorter time in captivity. Basophil count, the only leukocyte influenced by the factors tested, was highest when the python was anesthetized, as was globulin concentration. Albumin and the albumin:globulin ratio were more concentrated in summer (as was phosphorous) and at the initial stage of radiotransmitter placement (as was calcium). No intrinsic or extrinsic factors influenced creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid, or total protein. This study demonstrates that factors including season, location, surgical radiotransmitter placement, and anesthetic state can influence blood parameters of M. s. imbricata. For accurate diagnosis, veterinarians should be aware that the current reference intervals used to identify the health status of individuals for this species are outdated and the interpretation and an understanding of the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors are limited.

  20. Tinea imbricata: autosomal dominant pattern of susceptibility in a polygamous indigenous family of the Nahuatl zone in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, A; Araiza, J; Koffman-Alfaro, Susana; Paredes-Solis, Vanessa; Cuevas-Covarrubias, S; Rivera, M R

    2004-08-01

    We report on 9 confirmed cases of tinea imbricata (Tokelau, infection due to Trichophyton concentricum) out of 16 family members. They had a common mother with three different fathers. The genetic analysis of the family suggests an autosomal dominant pattern of susceptibility. Most cases (8/9) were presented as concentric and lamellar forms. One patient also had onychomycosis due to T. concentricum. Only two out of nine cases had a positive response to trichophytin.

  1. Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, Brasil / Guiana Francesa Projet de tourisme à base communautaire Tartaruga Imbricata, Brésil /Guyane Tartaruga Imbricata community-based tourism project, Brazil / Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Bandeira Sacenco Kornijezuk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Em novembro de 2009, participei, durante nove dias, de uma experimentação de turismo chamada Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, numa rota de integração do Parque Nacional do Cabo Orange, no Brasil, com a Guiana Francesa. Essa viagem foi o primeiro trabalho de campo para a minha tese em Geografia e Gestão Ambiental (em andamento. Essa edição da experimentação visava propiciar a um grupo de gestores franceses, participantes de um seminário de cunho terapêutico chamado “Descobrir-se em terras desconhecidas”, a oportunidade de viver alguns dias em condições materiais rudimentares em uma natureza inóspita, convivendo com comunidades locais. A experiência incluiu: travessias em catraias, trechos em botes infláveis, viagens de camionete em rodovias perigosas, e o melhor: longos trechos de rio a bordo do barco Peixe – Boi, que se tornaria nosso hotel, meio de transporte, refeitório e palco de intensas sessões do seminário Se découvrir en terres inconnues. De forma geral a experimentação mostrou resultado positivo. Concluí que o turismo de base comunitária, da forma como foi realizado no Parque Nacional do Cabo Orange, teve dois efeitos principais: a experiência singular de conviver com comunidades ribeirinhas e o  aprofundamento das relações entre o parque nacional e o seu entorno. Ao final, anexei trechos de entrevistas realizadas com moradores de comunidades ribeirinhas vizinhas do parque nacional e também de um documento raro encontrado nesta viagem: um levantamento sócio-cultural de uma das comunidades, realizado por professores de História e alunos da escola da Vila Velha do Cassiporé.En novembre 2009, j’ai participé, pendant neuf jours, à un projet appelé “Projet de tourisme à base communautaire Tartaruga Imbricata”, un parcours intégré entre le Parc National Cabo Orange au Brésil et la Guyane française. Ce voyage a été le premier travail de terrain pour ma thèse en

  2. Population Study of the Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Cheloniidae in the Southern Pacific region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tobón-López

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine biological and ecological population characteristics of the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata found in the southern Colombian Pacific department of Cauca. Morphometric measurements were recorded, the health status of individuals was reviewed, and blood samples were taken for a biochemistry assessment. During the seven months of the investigation, 25 hawksbill turtles were caught (16 different individuals on the reefs of Gorgona Natural National Park. Forty-six percent of the total numbers of turtles assessed were recaptured during the study period. While no obvious health problems were noted, most animals possessed epibionts and filamentous algae covering the carapace, some parts of the limbs, as well as on their neck. Curved carapace length (CCL showed the highest proportion of individuals were between 37 and 45 cm. Sixteen individuals captured in Gorgona Natural National Park were compared with 11 individuals captured in the coastal zone of the department of Cauca. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, a significant difference in CCL was found between these two groups; the animals from Gorgona National Park were larger than those present on the coast of the mainland (Z = -2.59, p = 0.007. Uric acid concentrations were found to be higher than previously referenced values. ESTUDIO POBLACIONAL DE LA TORTUGA CAREY Eretmochelys imbricata (CHELONIIDAE EN EL PACÍFICO SUR DE COLOMBIAEl objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer aspectos poblacionales, biológicos y ecológicos de las tortugas carey (Eretmochelys imbricata presentes en el Pacífico sur de Colombia (Departamento del Cauca, para esto se tomó información de morfometría, se revisó el estado de salud de los individuos y  se tomaron muestras de sangre para valoración de química sanguínea. Durante siete meses de muestreo se capturaron 25 tortugas carey (16 individuos diferentes en los arrecifes del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona

  3. Biological Characteristic of Azolla imbricata (Roxb) Nak and Its Utilization in Fisheries%满江红Azolla imbricata ( Roxb.) Nak的生物学特征及其渔业利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡家文; 沈子伟; 陈小江; 姚维志

    2005-01-01

    满江红(Azolla imbricata)天然资源丰富,产量高,渔业利用价值比较大.论文综述了近年来满江红的部分研究工作,介绍了满江红的生物学特征及其渔业利用,在前人的基础上,提出利用"鱼类-满江红"走生态养殖的模式.

  4. Fire affects size and shape of Fabiana imbricata Shurblands in northwestern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Facundo; Ghermandi, Luciana

    2010-05-01

    Fire is a major environmental ecological agent acting in the landscape configuration and a factor that models vegetation in Mediterranean environments. Fire impacts differently in the landscape due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of the environments and the characteristics associated with each fire event. After fire, density of patches may be increased and the size of them may be reduced because fire generates areas of different successional stages. Landscape ecology seems to be the ideal theoretical approach to study the fire impact in fire prone environments. Landscape ecology has been greatly favoured by a significant progress in the last years of geographic information technologies (GIT) (remote sensing, GIS, GPS). The study area of this work is the San Ramon ranch (22,000 ha) located in Northwester Patagonia in the ecotone between the sub Antarctic forest in the West and the Patagonian steppe in the East. We studied sectors of the ranch with different fire recurrence in the last 40 years and we mapped Fabiana imbricata shrubland with GPS. This specie is a native shrub characteristic of Northwester Patagonia grasslands and its dynamic is not very known. Shrublands compete for the space with palatable grasses that are used for forage and livestock production, the main economic resource of the region. We analysed the mapped patches with GIS software, and we assessed landscape metrics to determine differences between sites with different fire recurrence. In the future we foresee the integrated use of satellite imagery with different resolution to add to GIS other important spatial variables (topography, hydrography, aspect, soil) to develop models that can explain landscape metrics, spatial configuration and the potential shrub invasion in the grassland.

  5. Diving behavior and movements of juvenile hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata on a Caribbean coral reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, J. M.; Austin, T. J.; Bothwell, J. B.; Broderick, A. C.; Ebanks-Petrie, G.; Olynik, J. R.; Orr, M. F.; Solomon, J. L.; Witt, M. J.; Godley, B. J.

    2009-03-01

    As historically abundant spongivores, hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata likely played a key ecological role on coral reefs. However, coral reefs are now experiencing global declines and many hawksbill populations are critically reduced. For endangered species, tracking movement has been recognized as fundamental to management. Since movements in marine vertebrates encompass three dimensions, evaluation of diving behavior and range is required to characterize marine turtle habitat. In this study, habitat use of hawksbill turtles on a Caribbean coral reef was elucidated by quantifying diel depth utilization and movements in relation to the boundaries of marine protected areas. Time depth recorders (TDRs) and ultrasonic tags were deployed on 21 Cayman Islands hawksbills, ranging in size from 26.4 to 58.4 cm straight carapace length. Study animals displayed pronounced diel patterns of diurnal activity and nocturnal resting, where diurnal dives were significantly shorter, deeper, and more active. Mean diurnal dive depth (±SD) was 8 ± 5 m, range 2-20 m, mean nocturnal dive depth was 5 ± 5 m, range 1-14 m, and maximum diurnal dive depth was 43 ± 27 m, range 7-91 m. Larger individuals performed significantly longer dives. Body mass was significantly correlated with mean dive depth for nocturnal but not diurnal dives. However, maximum diurnal dive depth was significantly correlated with body mass, suggesting partitioning of vertical habitat by size. Thus, variable dive capacity may reduce intraspecific competition and provide resistance to degradation in shallow habitats. Larger hawksbills may also represent important predators on deep reefs, creating a broad ecological footprint over a range of depths.

  6. Nesting Ecology of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) on Utila, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damazo, Lindsey Renee Eggers

    The hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) has a circumtropical distribution and plays an important role in maintaining the health of coral reefs. Unfortunately, hawksbill populations have been decimated, and estimated numbers in the Caribbean are less than 10% of populations a century ago. The hawksbill is considered Critically Endangered, and researchers are coordinating worldwide efforts to protect this species. One country where we lack knowledge regarding hawksbills is Honduras. This study aimed to increase our understanding of hawksbill nesting ecology in Caribbean Honduras. Characteristics of hawksbill nesting activity and a nesting beach on the island of Utila were elucidated using satellite telemetry, beach profiling, vegetation surveys, beach monitoring, and nest temperature profiles. We affixed satellite transmitters to two nesting hawksbills, and found the turtles migrated to different countries. One turtle traveled 403 km to a bay in Mexico, and the other traveled 181 km to a Marine Protected Area off Belize. This study presents the first description of hawksbill migration routes from Honduras, facilitating protection efforts for turtles that traverse international waters. To investigate nesting beach and turtle characteristics, we conducted beach monitoring during the 2012 nesting season. Nesting turtle carapace sizes were similar to worldwide values, but hatchlings were heavier. To measure nest temperatures, we placed thermocouple data loggers in four nests and four pseudo-nests. Data suggested metabolic heating may be maintaining nest temperatures above the pivotal temperature. However, large temperature fluctuations corresponding to rainfall from Hurricane Ernesto (as determined using a time series cross-correlation analysis) make it difficult to predict sex ratios, and underscore the impact stochastic events can have on nest temperatures. We created topographic and substrate profiles of the beach, and found it was 475 m long, yet hawksbills

  7. Postfire encroachment of Fabiana imbricata is real? Assessing changes of shrubland occupation during 40 years in NW Patagonia steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Oddi, Facundo; Ghermandi, Luciana

    2014-05-01

    Landscapes are dynamic in space and time, being spatio-temporal processes of particular interest for landscape ecology. In particular, grasslands can change their structure through the expansion of shrubs in the landscape matrix. Shrub encroachment affect biodiversity as well as forage availability that is the key component of the productive use of rangelands. However, despite its recognition as a global problem, knowledge on the rates, dynamics and encroachment patterns is even scarce. For example, although it is generally accepted that fire control shrub encroachment, certain shrubby species could be favored by the occurrence of fire. In northwestern Patagonian steppe, Fabiana imbricata form large monospecific shrublands that are part of the landscape mosaic and its dynamics of regeneration is strongly related to fire. This long-lived shrub (≡ 150 years) is a typical seeder that is killed by fire and recruits seedlings almost exclusively in post-fire, establishing even-age patches. Our objective was to determine whether F. imbricata shrublands have expanded during the last 40 years in a landscape fire prone. The study area corresponds to San Ramon ranch (22,000 ha) located in northwestern Patagonia steppe, Argentina (latitude -41° 04'; longitude -70° 51'). Two distribution maps of the species were made that corresponds to the study area in 1968 and 2011. The 1968 map was elaborated from the digitalization of aerial photographs (1:45000) while the 2011 map was produced with very high resolution satellite images, current aerial photographs and GPS field data. Both maps were loaded into a GIS environment, in which landscape metrics at patch and class level were determined and then compared. From remote sensing and dendroecological techniques, we know that the study area was almost entirely affected by fires during the study period. Therefore, the comparison of both maps allows us to know post-fire changes in the shrublands spatial configuration at the landscape

  8. Recent sightings of the Hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1757 on the coast of Northern Andhra Pradesh, India

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    K.L.N Murthy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The coast of Northern Andhra Pradesh has predominantly rocky and sandy shores with sporadic nesting sites of olive ridley turtles Lepidochelys olivacea. However, there have been rare sightings of hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata along this coast in the past couple of decades and their nesting is seldom observed. Carcasses of two adult hawksbill turtles were observed on 29/12/2010 and 07/03/2011 along the coast of Visakhapatnam in Northern Andhra Pradesh, India. These sightings of dead hawksbill turtles along this coast come recently after a long gap of several years and emphasize on the need to carry out surveys in the area for devising effective long term conservation management strategies.

  9. Phenolic Profiling and Evaluation of Contraceptive Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salsola imbricata Forssk. in Male Albino Rats

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    Naglaa Gamil Shehab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reported researches dealing with either composition or bioactivity of Salsola imbricata are limited. This study was conducted aiming to investigate the phenolic composition of the plant and evaluate its efficacy as male contraceptive. Polyphenols, namely, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by RP-HPLC in the hydrolysed methanol extract using two different wavelengths, 280 and 330 nm. The efficiency of different solvents in extracting the plant phenolics was assessed via spectrophotometric determination of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Acute toxicity study was carried out on the ethanolic extract to ascertain its safety prior to biological evaluation. The contraceptive effect was assessed, in male rats, by oral administration of the extract at two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b. wt., over a period of 65 days. HPLC analyses allowed the identification and quantification of a total of 13 and 8 components in the hydrolysed-methanol extract; the overall phenolic composition was dominated by quercitrin (12.692% followed by coumaric acid (4.251%. Prolonged oral administration of the ethanolic extract caused slight reduction in the testis weight only. A significant decrease in the sperm count was observed (P<0.01 in the two treated groups while significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility was only observed in the high dose group. Morphological abnormalities were observed in sperms of treated animals. No distinct change in serum FSH, LH, and testosterone concentration was recorded. The histopathological findings supported to a high extent these results. The male contraceptive activity of Salsola imbricata could be ascribed to its phenolic components, especially quercitrin.

  10. Comparative cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate hexavalent chromium in human and hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamie L; Wise, Sandra S; Xie, Hong; Zhu, Cairong; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Wise, John Pierce

    2015-12-01

    Chromium is both a global marine pollutant and a known human health hazard. In this study, we compare the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of both soluble and particulate chromate in human and hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) skin fibroblasts. Our data show that both soluble and particulate Cr(VI) induce concentration-dependent increases in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular Cr ion concentrations in both human and hawksbill sea turtle fibroblasts. Based on administered concentration, particulate and soluble Cr(VI) were more cytotoxic and clastogenic to human cells than sea turtle cells. When the analysis was based on the intracellular concentration of Cr, the data showed that the response of both species was similar. The one exception was the cytotoxicity of intracellular Cr ions from soluble Cr(VI), which caused more cytotoxicity in sea turtle cells (LC50=271μM) than that of human cells (LC50=471μM), but its clastogenicity was similar between the two species. Thus, adjusting for differences in uptake indicated that the explanation for the difference in potency was mostly due to uptake rather than differently affected mechanisms. Overall these data indicate that sea turtles may be a useful sentinel for human health responses to marine pollution. PMID:26440299

  11. Unravelling the microbiome of eggs of the endangered sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata identifies bacteria with activity against the emerging pathogen Fusarium falciforme.

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    Jullie M Sarmiento-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. Here, we sampled nests of the endangered sea turtle species Eretmochelys imbricata that were infected with the fungal pathogen Fusarium falciforme. Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities associated with the shells of the sea turtle eggs revealed approximately 16,664 operational taxonomic units, with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as the most dominant phyla. Subsequent isolation of Actinobacteria from the eggshells led to the identification of several genera (Streptomyces, Amycolaptosis, Micromomospora Plantactinospora and Solwaraspora that inhibit hyphal growth of the pathogen F. falciforme. These bacterial genera constitute a first set of microbial indicators to evaluate the potential role of microbiota in conservation of endangered sea turtle species.

  12. 镉诱导满江红(Azolla imbricata)花色素苷的初步鉴定、抗氧化活性及其作用机理%Preliminary identification, antioxidant activity and mechanism of anthocyanins from Azolla imbricata induced by cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴灵鹏; 董新姣; 马海虎; 盛丽梅

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the molecular structure of the anthocyanins which are induced by Cd in Azolla imbricata, anthocyanins were induced with 0.1mg·L-1 Cd, extracted with 0.1% HCI in methanol, purified by an Amberlite XAD-7 column and separated by Sephedex LH-20 column. The main compound was preliminarily identified as luteolinidin- 5-glucoside by its ultraviolet/visible absorbance spectrum and high performance liquid ( HPLC )chromatography. In vitro antioxidant properties of anthocyanins before and after purification were also evaluated by different analytical methods. The results showed that the total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, scavenging activity of superoxide anion radical (O2 - )and hydroxyl radical ( · OH )increased significantly with increasing concentrations of anthocyanin extracts, and the antioxidant activity of anthocyanins after purification was higher than the values of anthocyanins before purification. When the concentration of anthocyanins reached 0. 5 mg · mL-1, the values of anthocyanins after purification were increased by 3.16,1.36,2.71 and 1.86 times respectively, compared to anthocyanins before purification, indicating that luteolinidin-5-glucoside was the most important substance responsible for the antioxidant properties of A. imbricata. In addition, the antioxidant mechanism of anthocyanins is also discussed in this paper. In conclusion, the results obtained in this work indicated that the increase in the content of anthocyanins may be involved in internal detoxification mechanisms of A. imbricata against Cd toxicity.%为了研究镉诱导的满江红花色素苷的分子结构,分别用0.1 mg·L-1Cd、0.1%盐酸-甲醇溶液、XAD-7大孔树脂和葡聚糖凝胶SephadexLH-20柱对其进行诱导、提取、纯化和分离.经紫外可见光谱特性和HPLC图谱分析.初步确定此物质为木犀草定-5-葡萄糖苷.采用不同的体外实验方法评价了满江红花色素苷纯化前后的抗氧化活性.结果表明,花

  13. Monitoring organic and inorganic pollutants in juvenile live sea turtles: results from a study of Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata in Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Orós, Jorge; López, Pedro; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-05-15

    Despite the current environmental concern regarding the risk posed by contamination in marine ecosystems, the concentrations of pollutants in sea turtles have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the current study, we determined the concentrations of 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 11 inorganic elements (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, As, Al, Hg and Se) for the first time in two sea turtle species (Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata). Only five of the 18 analyzed OCPs were detected in both species. The average total OCP concentration was higher in green turtles than in hawksbills (0.33 ng/ml versus 0.20 ng/ml). Higher concentrations of individual congeners and total PCBs were also detected in green turtles than in hawksbills (∑PCBs=0.73ng/ml versus 0.19 ng/ml), and different PCB contamination profiles were observed in these two species. Concerning PAHs, we also observed a different contamination profile and higher levels of contamination in green turtles (∑PAHs=12.06 ng/ml versus 2.95 ng/ml). Di- and tri-cyclic PAHs were predominant in both populations, suggesting a petrogenic origin, rather than urban sources of PAHs. Additionally, all of the samples exhibited detectable levels of the 11 inorganic elements. In this case, we also observed relevant differences between both species. Thus, Zn was the most abundant inorganic element in hawksbills (an essential inorganic element), whereas Ni, a well-known toxicant, was the most abundant inorganic element in green turtles. The presence of contaminants is greater in green turtles relative to hawksbill turtles, suggesting a greater exposure to hazardous chemical contaminants for green turtles. These results provide baseline data for these species that can serve for future monitoring purposes outlined in the EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive. PMID:24602915

  14. Monitoring organic and inorganic pollutants in juvenile live sea turtles: results from a study of Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata in Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Orós, Jorge; López, Pedro; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-05-15

    Despite the current environmental concern regarding the risk posed by contamination in marine ecosystems, the concentrations of pollutants in sea turtles have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the current study, we determined the concentrations of 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 11 inorganic elements (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, As, Al, Hg and Se) for the first time in two sea turtle species (Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata). Only five of the 18 analyzed OCPs were detected in both species. The average total OCP concentration was higher in green turtles than in hawksbills (0.33 ng/ml versus 0.20 ng/ml). Higher concentrations of individual congeners and total PCBs were also detected in green turtles than in hawksbills (∑PCBs=0.73ng/ml versus 0.19 ng/ml), and different PCB contamination profiles were observed in these two species. Concerning PAHs, we also observed a different contamination profile and higher levels of contamination in green turtles (∑PAHs=12.06 ng/ml versus 2.95 ng/ml). Di- and tri-cyclic PAHs were predominant in both populations, suggesting a petrogenic origin, rather than urban sources of PAHs. Additionally, all of the samples exhibited detectable levels of the 11 inorganic elements. In this case, we also observed relevant differences between both species. Thus, Zn was the most abundant inorganic element in hawksbills (an essential inorganic element), whereas Ni, a well-known toxicant, was the most abundant inorganic element in green turtles. The presence of contaminants is greater in green turtles relative to hawksbill turtles, suggesting a greater exposure to hazardous chemical contaminants for green turtles. These results provide baseline data for these species that can serve for future monitoring purposes outlined in the EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  15. Preferencias en la anidación de tortugas carey (Eretmochelys imbricata y baulas (Dermochelys coriacea en el Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca Manzanillo, Limón, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilliana Piedra-Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El Caribe costarricense es importante como sitio de alimentación, copulación, anidación y desove de las tortugas marinas, por lo que el presente trabajo pretendió actualizar el patrón de anidación en las tortugas marinas Dermochelys coriacea y Eretmochelys imbricata en el sector Gandoca, del Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca Manzanillo, Limón, Costa Rica, para proponer medidas de manejo. Se realizaron recorridos nocturnos entre las 8:00 p. m. y 4:00 a. m., la playa se dividió en cinco sectores, en estos se realizaron observaciones directas y de rastros, de las tortugas que elaboraron el nido, entre febrero y agosto del 2011 y 2012. Se registraron tres especies de tortugas marinas, Dermochelys coriacea, Eretmochelys imbricata y Chelonia mydas. La anidación de tortugas baula tuvo su punto máximo entre marzo y julio; por su parte, las carey, entre mayo y junio (2011, y junio hasta agosto en el 2012. Se observó preferencia en la posición de la playa utilizada para construir sus nidos; la baula utiliza principalmente la parte media, mientras que la carey utilizó mayormente la parte baja para anidar (t = 17.2525. Se observó que la baula utilizó frecuentemente el sector C; sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias en el uso de los sectores. Se concluye que ambas especies tienen preferencias en la selección de la zona de playa en que anidan; la carey en la parte baja cerca de la línea de costa y la baula en la parte media. Además, las tortugas baula utilizan indistintamente los diferentes sectores de la playa estudiada.

  16. The Nitrogen Absorption Effect of Azolla imbricata under Different Ratios of Nitrogen Source%满江红在不同氮浓度中对氮、磷的吸收效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易厚燕; 吴爱平; 王华

    2013-01-01

    采用单一变量差减对比法,研究了满江红(Azolla imbricata)在氨氮、硝氮比例下的生长状况,同时检测满江红植物组织中氮含量的变化,以确定能促使满江红具最佳氮吸收效果的氨氮、硝氮浓度及比例.结果表明:不同氨氮与硝氮比例对满江红的生长存在差异,氮浓度过高和过低都不利于满江红的生长,而氨氮更有利于满江红的吸收:满江红对水中的氮、磷有很好的去除效果,在短时间内就能使水中氮、磷浓度迅速下降;植物组织中的氮、磷含量均随水中氮浓度的增加而升高,但水中较高的氮浓度可能会降低满江红的固氮作用.

  17. Study on the Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Azolla imbricata (Roxb.)Nakai to Ce~(3+) Stress%满江红对Ce~(3+)胁迫的生理生化应答反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学

    2010-01-01

    [目的] 探讨了满江红对Ce~(3+)胁迫的生理生化应答反应机制.[方法] 以水生蕨类植物满江红[Azolla imbricata (Roxb.) Nakai]为试验材料,研究了其叶绿素含量、光合放氧速率和抗氧化酶(SOD、CAT、POD)活性随Ce~(3+)浓度的变化情况.[结果]随着Ce~(3+)浓度的升高,SOD、CAT、POD活性均出现不同程度的应激性升高,而后降低;叶绿素含量、光合放氧速率呈现出先升后降的变化趋势.[结论] 在低浓度Ce~(3+)处理下,满江红通过增强其抗氧化能力,提高了其对Ce~(3+)胁迫的抵抗力;但随着Ce~(3+)浓度的加大,满江红的抗氧化能力逐渐减弱,表现出抑制效应.

  18. Form feature of the leaf of Azolla imbricata (Roxb.) Nakai observed lively by environmental scanning electronic microscope%满江红叶片形态特征的环境扫描电子显微镜活体观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静波; 俞斐; 沈显生

    2009-01-01

    为了克服水生植物含水量高,形貌容易变化的问题,本文利用环境扫描电子显微镜对水生蕨类植物满江红(Azolla imbricata)的形态结构进行了活体观察.满江红枝条顶端的叶片交互式覆瓦状排列,叶片圆形,几乎无气孔.位于茎中部和下部的叶片,2列互生,叶片对折抱茎,具有气孔.满江红叶片边缘具分泌细胞,幼叶的分泌细胞外具许多方形的盐结晶体,老叶的盐结晶体则脱落.结果发现,满江红具有向体外泌盐的功能.%In order to surmount higher consist of water and the changeable morphology of aquatic plants, this article describes the use of environmental scanning electronic microscope ( ESEM) to observe the morphological structure of aquatic fern Azolla imbricata alive. Azolla branches are covered by the tile-shaped leaves that are interactive, round almost no porosity in the top. The leaves located in the middle and lower stem, two alternate, leaf fold with a stoma. The secretory cells were found along the edges of new leaves to a large amount of square salt crystals. The salt crystals fall off when the leaves turned old. The results showed that A. imbricata has the function to secrete salts from the outer leaves.

  19. Physiology and Ultrastructure of Azolla imbricata as Affected by Hg2+ and Cd2+ Toxicity%Hg2+和Cd2+胁迫对满江红生理和细胞超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施国新; 徐勤松; 解凯彬; 徐楠; 张小兰; 曾晓敏; 周红卫; 朱蕾

    2003-01-01

    The toxic effects of different gradient concentrations of Hg2+ and Cd2+ on chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b value, photosynthetic O2 evolution, respiration rate, anti-oxidase system (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD)) and ultrastructure of the cells of Azolla imbricata (Roxb.) Nakai were studied. The results showed that with Hg2+ and Cd2+ increase, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b value, photosynthetic O2 evolution decreased drastically; respiration rate peaked at 2 mg/L pollutant and declined afterwards. The activities of SOD, CAT and POD increased first and decreased afterwards except the activity of POD, which decreased with the increasing of Cd2+ concentration. Ultrastructural observation showed that the extent of ultrastructural damage was much more serious with higher pollutant concentration and longer time of stress. This resulted in swelling of chloroplast, disruption and disappearance of chloroplast membrane and disintegration of chloroplasts; swelling of cristae of mitochondria, deformation and vacuolization of mitochondria; condensation of chromatin in nucleus, dispersion of nucleolus and disruption of nuclear membrane. The experimental results showed: (1) Hg2+ and Cd2+ pollution not only destroyed physiological activities, but also caused irreversible damage to its ultrastructure, thus leading the cells to death; (2) With increase in the stress of Hg2+ and Cd2+, ultrastructural damage was related to the changes of plant physiology; (3) The toxic symptoms of plant showed an evident correlation between dose and effect; (4) The toxicity of Cd2+ on A. imbricata is heavier than that of Hg2+ under the same treatment time and concentration. The lethal concentration of Hg2+ to A. imbricata ranged from 3.5 to 4 mg/L, and that of Cd2+ ranged from 3 to 3.5 mg/L. The damage of cell ultrastructure on Anabaena azollae Strasburger was observed. The results indicated that tolerance of Azolla imbricata for Hg2+ and Cd2+ was higher

  20. Effects of Companion Fern Azolla imbricata Extracts on Rice Growth%伴生蕨类植物满江红提取物对水稻生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兵

    2011-01-01

    Using the method of laboratory bioassay, the interference of the extracts from Azolla imbricata on the growth of rice was primarily studied. The results showed that the extracts with different concentrations had influences of different degree on the seed germination and seedling growth of rice. Extracts at concentrations of 250~4 000 μg/mL had no significant effects on rice seed germination; ethanol and aqueous extracts at concentration of 1 000 μg/mL could enhance the seedling root length and plant height significantly by 27.32% and 9.15%, respectively; ethanol extracts at concentrations of 250~4 000μg/mL and aqueous extracts at concentration of 4 000 μg/mL showed significant inhibition on rice seedling height, the same as aqueous extracts at concentration of 1 000 ~4 000 μg/mL on rice seedling root length; ethanol extracts at concentrations of 2 000-4 000 μg/mL and aqueous extracts at concentration of 4 000 μg/mL on seedling fresh weight per plant, the relative highest inhibition rates was 31.85%, 14.28%, 23.41%, 16.49% and 10.94% respectively. Quadratic models were better for fitting the relationship between rice seedling root length, height, fresh weight per plant and ethahol extracts concentrations (root length: y=-0.215x2+1.541z+5.133, p=0.001; seedling height: y=-0.035x2-O.O62x+5.574, /><0.001; fresh weight per plant: y =-0.685x2 +1.484x +100.0, p<0.005), between seedling root length, height, fresh weight per plant and aqueous extracts concentrations (root length: y=-0.005x2-0276x+7.012, P<0.001; seedling height: y=-0.123x2+0.760x + 4.490, P<0.001; fresh weight per plant: y=-1.742x2+10.49x+89.27, p<0.005).%通过室内生物测定的方法研究满江红提取物对水稻种子萌发及幼苗生长的影响,并就提取物浓度与水稻生长相关指标间的关系进行回归分析.结果表明,与对照相比,250~4 000 μg/mL的提取物对水稻种子萌发不产生显著影响;1 000 μg/mL的醇提物和水提物分别对水稻幼苗根长

  1. Environ: E00520 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00520 Eretmochelys imbricata carapace Eretmochelyos carapax Crude drug Eretmochely...s imbricata [TAX:27787] Cheloniidae Eretmochelys imbricata carapace (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Reptiles E00520 Eretmochelys imbricata carapace ...

  2. Genetic structure and natal origins of immature hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata in Brazilian waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira C Proietti

    Full Text Available Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1 characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples, (2 analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3 inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa, and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations.

  3. In Vitro Thermal Effects on Embryonic Cells of Endangered Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshita, Satoshi; Matsuda, Naoki; Kodama, Seiji; Suzuki, Keiji; Watanabe, Masami

    2013-01-01

    The hawksbill turtle is an ectotherm, whose sex is determined by temperature during embryonic development. This study aimed to determine whether embryonic hawksbill turtle cells respond differently to temperature than mammalian cells. Embryonic hawksbill turtle cells were established in culture, and thermal effects on these cells were investigated in vitro. Cells were maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium supplemented with non-essential amino acids, vitamin solution, sodium pyruvate,...

  4. Effects of cadmium on nitrogen metabolism in Azolla imbricata-Anabaena azollae symbiosis%镉对满江红(Azolla imbricata)-鱼腥藻(Anabaena azollae)共生体氮代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴灵鹏; 熊治廷; 马海虎

    2009-01-01

    在实验室条件下,研究了不同浓度(0、0.01、0.05、0.1、0.5mg/L)的Cd对满江红-鱼腥藻共生体异型胞频率,固氮酶、谷氨酰氨合成酶活性以及铵态氮、游离氨基酸、可溶性蛋白、总氮含量的影响.结果表明,在整个实验期间,0.01mg/L Cd处理对上述指标均没产生显著影响,说明满江红-鱼腥藻共生体对Cd具有较强的耐性.当培养液中Cd浓度≥0.05mg/L时,随溶液中Cd浓度的增加和处理时间的推移,异型胞频率、固氮酶活性、谷氨酰氨合成酶活性、可溶性蛋白含量和总氮含量逐渐下降,而铵态氮含量在处理初期显著降低,随后迅速增加,游离氨基酸含量则逐渐增加.研究结果表明高浓度的Cd处理导致满江红-鱼腥藻共生体氮代谢的紊乱,最终造成氮素积累量的下降.

  5. Specific accumulation of arsenic compounds in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from Ishigaki Island, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of total arsenic (As) and individual compounds were determined in green and hawksbill turtles from Ishigaki Island, Japan. In both species, total As concentrations were highest in muscle among the tissues. Arsenobetaine was a major compound in most tissues of both turtles. High concentrations of trimethylarsine oxide were detected in hawksbill turtles. A significant negative correlation between standard carapace length (SCL), an indicator of age, and total As levels in green turtles was found. In contrast, the levels increased with SCL of hawksbill turtles. Shifts in feeding habitats with growth may account for such a growth-dependent accumulation of As. Although concentrations of As in marine sponges, the major food of hawksbill turtles are not high compared to those in algae eaten by green turtles, As concentrations in hawksbill turtles were higher than those in green turtles, indicating that hawksbill turtles may have a specific accumulation mechanism for As. - Green turtles and hawksbill turtles have specific accumulation features of arsenic

  6. Specific accumulation of arsenic compounds in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from Ishigaki Island, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Takagi, Kozue [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kubota, Reiji [Division of Environmental Chemistry, National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga 1-18-1, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Anan, Yasumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2008-05-15

    Concentrations of total arsenic (As) and individual compounds were determined in green and hawksbill turtles from Ishigaki Island, Japan. In both species, total As concentrations were highest in muscle among the tissues. Arsenobetaine was a major compound in most tissues of both turtles. High concentrations of trimethylarsine oxide were detected in hawksbill turtles. A significant negative correlation between standard carapace length (SCL), an indicator of age, and total As levels in green turtles was found. In contrast, the levels increased with SCL of hawksbill turtles. Shifts in feeding habitats with growth may account for such a growth-dependent accumulation of As. Although concentrations of As in marine sponges, the major food of hawksbill turtles are not high compared to those in algae eaten by green turtles, As concentrations in hawksbill turtles were higher than those in green turtles, indicating that hawksbill turtles may have a specific accumulation mechanism for As. - Green turtles and hawksbill turtles have specific accumulation features of arsenic.

  7. Characterization of a subtropical hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmocheyles imbricata assemblage utilizing shallow water natural and artificial habitats in the Florida Keys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Gorham

    Full Text Available In order to provide information to better inform management decisions and direct further research, vessel-based visual transects, snorkel transects, and in-water capture techniques were used to characterize hawksbill sea turtles in the shallow marine habitats of a Marine Protected Area (MPA, the Key West National Wildlife Refuge in the Florida Keys. Hawksbills were found in hardbottom and seagrass dominated habitats throughout the Refuge, and on man-made rubble structures in the Northwest Channel near Cottrell Key. Hawksbills captured (N = 82 were exclusively juveniles and subadults with a straight standard carapace length (SSCL ranging from 21.4 to 69.0cm with a mean of 44.1 cm (SD = 10.8. Somatic growth rates were calculated from 15 recaptured turtles with periods at large ranging from 51 to 1188 days. Mean SSCL growth rate was 7.7 cm/year (SD = 4.6. Juvenile hawksbills (<50 cm SSCL showed a significantly higher growth rate (9.2 cm/year, SD = 4.5, N = 11 than subadult hawksbills (50-70 cm SSCL, 3.6 cm/year, SD = 0.9, N = 4. Analysis of 740 base pair mitochondrial control region sequences from 50 sampled turtles yielded 12 haplotypes. Haplotype frequencies were significantly different compared to four other Caribbean juvenile foraging aggregations, including one off the Atlantic coast of Florida. Many-to-one mixed stock analysis indicated Mexico as the primary source of juveniles in the region and also suggested that the Refuge may serve as important developmental habitat for the Cuban nesting aggregation. Serum testosterone radioimmunoassay results from 33 individuals indicated a female biased sex ratio of 3.3 females: 1 male for hawksbills in the Refuge. This assemblage of hawksbills is near the northern limit of the species range, and is one of only two such assemblages described in the waters of the continental United States. Since this assemblage resides in an MPA with intensive human use, basic information on the assemblage is vital to resource managers charged with conservation and species protection in the MPA.

  8. Unravelling the microbiome of eggs of the endangered sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata identifies bacteria with activity against the emerging pathogen Fusarium falciforme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarmiento-Ramírez, J.M.; Voort, van der M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Diéguez-Uribeondo, J.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. H

  9. Unravelling the Microbiome of Eggs of the Endangered Sea Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Identifies Bacteria with Activity against the Emerging Pathogen Fusarium falciforme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarmiento-Ramirez, J.M.; van der Voort, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Dieguez-Uribeondo, J.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. H

  10. Molecular Data for the Sea Turtle Population in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibelle Torres Vilaça

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here a dataset comprising nine nuclear markers for the Brazilian population of Cheloniidae turtles: hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata, loggerheads (Caretta caretta, olive ridleys (Lepidochelys olivacea, and green turtles (Chelonia mydas. Because hybridization is a common phenomenon between the four Cheloniidae species nesting on the Brazilian coast, we also report molecular markers for the hybrids E. imbricata × C. caretta, C. caretta × L. olivacea, and E. imbricata × L. olivacea and for one hybrid E. imbricata × C. mydas and one between three species C. mydas × E. imbricata × C. caretta. The data was used in previous studies concerning (1 the description of frequent hybrids C. caretta × E. imbricata in Brazil, (2 the report of introgression in some of these hybrids, and (3 population genetics. As a next step for the study of these hybrids and their evolution, genome-wide studies will be performed in the Brazilian population of E. imbricata, C. caretta, and their hybrids.

  11. 75 FR 47825 - Emergency Exemption; Issuance of Emergency Permit to Rehabilitate Sea Turtles Affected by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... imbricata), Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii), leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea... eggs; release hatchling sea turtles; examine unhatched eggs and collect tissue/gonad samples;...

  12. 高产高蛋白饲草满江红(Azolla imbricata)放养技术研究初报%Cultivation Techniques of Azolla with High Yield and Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘一; 樊廷录; 唐小明

    2000-01-01

    满江红属蕨类植物,以营养体的侧枝断离无性繁殖方式为主,粗蛋白、赖氨酸、磷、粗脂肪含量均高于紫花苜蓿.研究结果表明,群体延续时间为7 d时,繁殖系数最高,在西北地区4~9月份的适宜生长季节,采用薄膜微水放养技术,每公顷水面生产鲜草约450 t,折合干重45 t,粗蛋白11.25 t,可作为优质饲料开发利用.

  13. 镉胁迫对满江红-鱼腥藻共生体供氮能力的影响%Effects of Cd stress on nitrogen supply ability of Azolla imbricata-Anabaena azolla symbiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹玲君; 马海虎; 南旭阳; 张业建; 陈访; 周舟; 戴灵鹏

    2015-01-01

    在实验室条件下,以土壤铵态氮、硝态氮、可溶性有机氮及可溶性总氮含量变化为指标,研究了镉胁迫下满江红-鱼腥藻共生体对稻田供氮能力的影响.当土壤中镉浓度为0.3 mg·kg-1时,满江红-鱼腥藻共生体对镉的蓄积量较少,土壤中铵态氮、硝态氮、可溶性有机氮及可溶性总氮含量与对照组无显著差异.当土壤中镉浓度≥1.0 mg·kg-1时,随土壤中镉浓度的增加和处理时间的推移,满江红-鱼腥藻共生体体内的镉含量逐渐增加,土壤中硝态氮、可溶性有机氮及可溶性总氮含量逐渐下降,而铵态氮含量先上升后下降.研究结果表明高浓度的镉胁迫导致满江红-鱼腥藻共生体对土壤的供氮能力显著下降.

  14. 废电池对水质的影响及满江红的净化效果%Effect of Wasted Battery on Water Quality and Purified Efficiency of Azolla imbricata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁丽水

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1 前言 废电池对水生生物的危害很大.20世纪30年代,日本某小镇由于常把用过的废电池随手扔在井水边,久而久之,电池中的有毒物质污染了井水,人们饮用了含有大量有毒物质的水,引起中毒,造成多人发疯. 废电池含有哪些有害、有毒物质,对水生生物的危害究竟如何,怎样净化废电池对水质的污染等,我们通过实验进行了一些探讨.

  15. Effects of Temperature and Phosphorus Concentration on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Uptake of Azolla imbricata%水温和磷浓度对满江红氮磷吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易厚燕; 吴爱平; 庞燕; 储昭升

    2014-01-01

    通过模拟研究满江红(Azolla imbricate)在不同水温和不同磷浓度下的生长状况,了解洱海满江红生物量的变化规律及其对水中磷吸收的最佳温度和最佳磷浓度.结果表明,满江红在10 ~ 30℃均能正常生长,最适生长温度为20~25℃.满江红植物组织中的氮磷浓度及植物的相对生长率随着水中磷浓度升高而增加,其组织中的氮磷浓度在水温25℃时达到最高.表明满江红对水体中的磷有较好的吸收效果,但受到水温和水中磷浓度的交互影响,即随着水中磷浓度的增加和温度的升高,对水中磷的吸收量均增多但吸收率下降;满江红对水中磷吸收的最佳条件为水温25℃、磷浓度为0.075 mg/L.

  16. 槐叶萍、浮萍、满江红对水体中镉离子的吸收研究%Study on Ability of Salvinia natans, Lemna minor and Azolla imbricata to Cumulate Cd2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 杨阿喜; 张晓燕; 金根娣

    2010-01-01

    在实验室水培条件下,研究了槐叶萍、满江红、浮萍等水生植物对Cd2+的累积吸收能力.用原子吸收分光光度法对三种植物的水培液中Cd2+的浓度进行了测定.结果表明Cd2+在2~20mg·L-1的浓度范围内,三种植物对Cd2+的累积吸收量随着浓度的增加而增加,槐叶萍累积吸收能力大于满江红,满江红优于浮萍;在40~100mg·L-1的浓度范围内,三种植物对Cd2+的累积吸收量则随着浓度的递增而大幅降低,槐叶萍对Cd2+的去除效果较其它两种植物为佳.因此,在治理轻度镉污染水体时,三种植物均是较好的备选植物,而在治理重度镉污染水体时,应首选满江红.

  17. A new ichnospecies of Nereites from carboniferous tidal-flat facies of Eastern Kansas, USA: Implications for the Nereites-Neonereites debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.; Maples, C.G.; West, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Predominantly horizontal, gently curved to slightly sinuous traces constituting uniserial rows of imbricated, subspherical sediment pads occur in Pennsylvanian tidal-flat facies of eastern Kansas. These traces exhibit a complex, actively filled internal structure. The presence of a median tunnel enveloped by overlapping pads of reworked sediment indicates that these biogenic structures should be included in the ichnogenus Nereites MacLeay in Murchison, 1839. A new ichnospecies, N. imbricata, is erected. Externally, Nereites imbricata differs from the other Nereites ichnospecies by the large, tightly packed, imbricated pads that commonly result in an annulated appearance on bedding-planes. Internally, obliquely arranged, arcuate lamiliae envelope the median tunnel and tend to follow the outline of the external semispherical pads. Additionally, the behavioral pattern reflected by N. imbricata is less specialized than that of the other Nereites ichnospecies. Eione monoliformis Tate, 1859 resembles N. imbricata in general appearance, but lack the diagnostic Nereites internal structure, and is invariably preserved as positive epireliefs. Occurrence of Nereites imbricata as both median tunnels surrounded by reworked sediment (Nereites preservation) and uniserial rows of imbricated sediment pads (Neonereites preservation) supports the notion that Neonereites Seilacher, 1960 is a preservational variant of Nereites. The ichnogenus Nereites is an eurybathic form and is a common component of Paleozoic shallow-marine facies.

  18. Twelve new polymorphic microsatellite markers from the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and crossspecies amplification on other marine turtle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monzón-Argüello, Catalina; Muñoz, Joaquin; Marco, Adolfo;

    2008-01-01

    from 3 to 13 (average of 7.33) and the values of observed heterozygosities from 0.32 to 0.80 (average of 0.61). Cross-species amplification on three other marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricata and Dermochelys coriacea, revealed polymorphism and variability at eight, eleven and three...

  19. Sea Turtle Conservation on Bonaire. Sea Turtle Club Bonaire 1995 Project Report and Long Term Proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkering, N.P.; Nugteren, Van P.; Eijck, Van T.J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Bonaire (12°12’N, 68°77’W), Netherlands Antilles, is famous for its unspoiled coral reefs. Reefs and lush sea grass provide forage and refuge for two species of endangered sea turtle, the green turtle ( Chelonia mydas) and the hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata). Loggerhead ( Caretta caretta ) and le

  20. Distinguishing suitable biotypes of Dactylopius tomentosus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) for biological control of Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathenge, C W; Holford, P; Hoffmann, J H; Zimmermann, H G; Spooner-Hart, R; Beattie, G A C

    2009-12-01

    Cylindropuntia fulgida (Engelmann) F.M. Knuth var. fulgida (Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Cff) (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae) is native to Mexico and Arizona and was introduced into South Africa for ornamental purposes. It subsequently became highly invasive, necessitating control. The cochineal insect, Dactylopius tomentosus (Lamarck) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae), was selected as a potential biological control agent based on its restricted host range among Cylindropuntia species and previous success in controlling C. imbricata (DC.) F. Knuth (Ci). Eight D. tomentosus provenances (Cholla, Cholla E, Fulgida, Mamillata, Imbricata, Tunicata U, Tunicata V and Rosea) from Cylindropuntia species in their native ranges were reared on Cff, whilst Cholla and Imbricata were also reared on Ci. Large differences were found in the development and survival of crawlers, and in the reproductive capacity of females. Three subjective categories of provenance interaction with host plants were identified based on a fitness index (FI) calculated from data relating to crawler survival, female development time and fecundity: (i) thriving (FI > or = 1) - insects had shorter developmental times, high crawler survival and highly fecund females (Cholla); (ii) surviving (FI0) - insects had extended development times, low crawler survival and low fecundity (Imbricata, Fulgida and Mamillata); and (iii) dying (FI = 0) - insects died before or at the second instar (Rosea, Tunicata U and Tunicata V). Cholla, therefore, is highly suitable for biological control of Cff in South Africa. In addition, Cholla thrived on Cff but only survived on Ci whilst, in contrast, Imbricata thrived on Ci but only survived on Cff. This differential ability of provenances to thrive or survive on different host plants demonstrated that host adapted biotypes of D. tomentosus exist; therefore, biotypes should be taken into account when considering this species as a biological control agent of cactus weeds. PMID:19302723

  1. The Status and Conservation of Sea Turtles in Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Okemwa, G.M.; Nzuki, S.; Mueni, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Five species of sea turtles have been documented as occurring within Kenyan waters: the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta), olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) and the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). Of these, green, hawksbill and olive ridley turtles are known to nest in Kenya. The 200km of beach land available for sea turtle nesting is however under critical threat of erosion and pollution (UNEP 19...

  2. Diversity and status of sea turtle species in the Gulf of Guinea islands

    OpenAIRE

    Castroviejo, Javier; Juste, Javier; Pérez del Val, Jaime; Castelo, Ramón; Gil, Ramón

    1994-01-01

    In West Africa, the Gulf of Guinea islands are important nesting places for four sea turtle species. The Green turtle (Chelonia mydas), the Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), the Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) and the Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles nest on Bioko’s southern beaches. The Green, Hawksbill and Leatherback turtles breed on Principe and São Tome. The Leatherback turtle nests, at least, on Annobén. The Leatherback turtle is reported on the four islan...

  3. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacities of phytococktail extracts from trans-Himalayan cold desert

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Priyanka; BAJPAI, Prabodh Kumar; Tayade, Amol Bapurao; CHAURASIA, Om Prakash; Srivastava, Ravi Bihari; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2013-01-01

    Background Himalayan plants are widely used in traditional system of medicine both as prophylactics and therapeutics for high altitude maladies. Our aim was to evaluate the antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds of methanol and n-hexane extracts of the phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and roseroot (Rhodiola imbricata) from trans-Himalaya. Methods The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-...

  4. Anatomy of the digestive tube of sea turtles (Reptilia: Testudines)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela dos S. Magalhães; Armando J. Barsante Santos; Naisandra B. da Silva; Carlos E. B. Moura

    2012-01-01

    This study characterized the morphology of the digestive tube of five species of sea turtles. We used specimens found dead along the coast of the state Rio Grande do Norte, as well as specimens accidentally killed as a result of pelagic longline fishing. Nineteen animals of the following species were analyzed: Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) (n = 9), Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) (n = 6), Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758) (n = 2), Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766) (n = 1) and...

  5. 千葉大学園芸学部松戸キャンパスにおけるシダ植物フロラと生育状況

    OpenAIRE

    水野,大樹; Taiki Mizuno; 竹﨑, 大悟; Hirosato Takezaki; 安田,正次; Masatsugu Yasuda; 百原,新; Arata Momohara; 沖津, 進; Susumu Okitsu

    2011-01-01

    Fern flora in the Matsudo campus has not been studied since 1933. To clarify existing species diversity of fernwhich is susceptible to urbanization and disturbance by planting, we made up a fern flora of the Matsudo Campus,Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University. We found 34 taxa of ferns including 12 family, 17 genus, 31 species, 1subspecies, 1 variety, and 1 hybrid species. Thirty species including aquatic ferns such as Azolla imbricata,Salvinia natans, and Marsilea quadrifolia have disap...

  6. 铀在植物-微生物共生体系满江红体内的分布%Distribution of Uranium in the Plant_microbe Symbiotic System_Azolla Imbircata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡南; 丁德馨; 潘长春; 胡劲松; 李乐; 李广悦; 王永东; 郑济芳

    2014-01-01

    采用扫描电镜( SEM)和能谱( EDS)联用分析技术,研究了铀在植物—微生物共生体系满江红中的分布,结果发现,铀在蕨类植物满江红和微生物满江红鱼腥藻中均有分布,满江红鱼腥藻中铀含量略高于蕨类植物满江红,表明了蕨类植物满江红和微生物满江红鱼腥藻都参与了去除水体中铀的过程。%The distribution of uranium in the plant_microbe symbiotic system_Azolla imbir_cata was analyzed by scanning electron microscope( SEM) and energy dispersive spectrom_eter( EDS ) hyphenated technique. The results showed that uranium distributed in both fern_Azolla imbricata and microbe_Anabena azollae. The content of uranium in Anabena azollae was slightly higher than that in Azolla imbricata. The fern_Azolla imbricata and mi_crobe_Anabena azollae had a synergistic effect on the process of removing uranium from the water.

  7. Some Physiological Adaptations to Drought in Xerohalophytic Plants Inhabiting Two Oases in Western Desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under natural drought, some physiological parameters were measured in some wild species inhabiting the western desert of Egypt. Seasonal changes of nitrogen metabolites and Na/K ratio were detected in the investigated species. Effect of seasons, species, and their interaction played an important role on total free amino acids, soluble proteins and Na/K ratio at two oases (Dakhla and Kharga). Species diversity showed more effective variable in regulating such metabolites at Kharga oasis. Plants responded to their environment in two ways, either by increasing their water binding molecules or by preventing the formation of amino acids into proteins. Some of the halophytic and xerophytic species may adjust osmotically to stress by the contribution of nitrogen metabolites. On the other hand, Zygophyllum coccineum, the succulent plant, may adapt to environmental conditions through the accumulation of free amino acids. Correlation analysis between Na+/K+ ratio with free amino acids, soluble proteins and water content in Tamarix aphylla, Salsola imbricata, Balanites aegyptiaca, Trichodesma africanum, and Z. coccineum (Kharga) indicated changes in ionic fraction or accumulating soluble organic compounds which were osmotically active and contribute to osmotic adjustment. Correlations were found between chlorophyll content, ionic and nitrogen metabolites. In Acacia nilotica, Suaeda monoica and Z. coccineum at Dakhla oasis, changes in soluble proteins or ionic ratio could be caused by chlorophyll response to stress, while S. imbricata and T. aphylla may control cellular protein contents. On the other hand, the sharing of both free amino acids and ionic fraction may play an important role of osmoregulation in S. imbricata, Citrullus colocynthis and Z. coccineum at Kharga oasis. (author)

  8. Typifications and synonymy in Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae) from Chile and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morero, Rita E.; Barrington, David S.; McHenry, Monique A.; Condack, João P. S.; Barboza, Gloria E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Polystichum Roth is one of the largest and most taxonomically challenging fern genera. South American species have a rich and complex nomenclatural history; many of the early names are inadequately typified. Based on extensive examination of original type material, we designate eleven lectotypes (including Aspidium mohrioides, Aspidium montevidense f. imbricata, Aspidium montevidense f. squamulosa, Aspidium plicatum, Aspidium pycnolepis, Dicksonia andina, Polystichum elegans, Polystichum mohrioides f. latifolia, Polystichum multifidum var. autranii, Polystichum platyphyllum var. kurtziana, and Polypodium polystichoides), and one neotype (Polystichum brongniartianum) for Polystichum taxa. Furthermore, three new synonyms are proposed. PMID:27489490

  9. Food-poisoning outbreak and fatality following ingestion of sea turtle meat in the rural community of Ndrondroni, Mohéli Island, Comoros, December 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ali Mbaé, Saindou; Mlindassé, Mohamed; Mihidjaé, Saindou; Seyler, Thomas

    2016-09-15

    On 24-December-2012 newspapers reported food-poisoning cases in Ndrondroni, Comoros. The authors conducted an investigation and a case-control study to identify the source and control the outbreak. They identified eight cases. A 6-month breastfed infant died. The results suggest consumption of Eretmochelys imbricata caused the outbreak. A bio-toxin ingested by the turtle might be the source. The local authorities informed the population on the danger of turtle-meat consumption. Cooking does not destroy the toxin. PMID:27452931

  10. Review of the fish-parasitic genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) from Australia, with description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Melissa B; Bruce, Niel L; Nowak, Barbara F

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852, is revised for Australian waters. Ceratothoa is represented in Australia by nine species, including two new species: Ceratothoa barracuda sp. nov. described from Cairns and Ceratothoa globulus sp. nov. described from Lord Howe Island. Ceratothoa imbricata Fabricius, 1775 is redescribed, with Ceratothoa trillesi (Avdeev, 1979) and Ceratothoa huttoni Filhol, 1885 placed into junior synonymy; the preferred hosts are species of the genus Trachurus (Carangidae). Ceratothoa banksii (Leach, 1818) is validated and brought out of synonymy with Ceratothoa imbricata; host species are from the families Kyphosidae, Scombridae, Latridae, Carangidae, Mugilidae, Salmonidae, Scatophagidae, Pomatomidae and Hemiramphidae. Species excluded from the Australian fauna are Ceratothoa trigonocephala (Leach, 1818) with an unknown host identity and type locality; and Ceratothoa lineata Miers, 1876a, that here is transferred to the genus Mothocya Costa, 1851, with Mothocya ihi Bruce, 1986 placed into junior synonymy. Ceratothoa contracta (Miers, 1880), the New Zealand Ceratothoa novaezelandiae Filhol, 1885 and the East Pacific Ceratothoa gaudichaudii (Milne Edwards, 1840) are regarded here as species inquirenda. A key to the Australian species of Ceratothoa is presented.

  11. Investigation of stingray spines by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis to recognize functional groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muthuramalingam Uthaya Siva; Mohideen Abdul Badhul Haq; Deivasigamani Selvam; Ganesan Dinesh Babu; Rathinam Bakyaraj

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate functional groups of toxic spines in stingray by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis.Methods:sephen were centrifuged at 6000 r/min for 10 min. The supernatant was collected and preserved separately in methanol, ethanol, chloroform, acetone (1:2) and then soaked in the mentioned solvents for 48 h. Then extracts were filtered and used for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis.Results:The venom extract of Himantura gerrardi, Himantura imbricata and Pastinachus and random coiled secondary structure. The presence of O-H stretch, C=O stretch, C-H stretch, N-H deformation, O-H deformation and C-O stretch in the sample aligned with standard bovine serum albumin. The influence of functional groups within the molecule was because of the impact of preferred spatial orientation, chemical and physical interaction on the molecule. In conclusion, compared to bovine serum albumin, Himantura imbricata consists of two C=O stretch, are involved in the hydrogen bonding that takes place between the different elements of secondary structure.Conclusions:The results identified that the presence of free amino acids and protein having β-sheet medicine not available for treatment against injuries causing stingray. Therefore, it's the baseline study, to motivate further process and produce effective antibiotics. The venom of poisonous animals has been extensively studied, since standard.

  12. Investigation of stingray spines by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis to recognize functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuramalingam Uthaya Siva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate functional groups of toxic spines in stingray by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. Methods: The venom extract of Himantura gerrardi, Himantura imbricata and Pastinachus sephen were centrifuged at 6 000 r/min for 10 min. The supernatant was collected and preserved separately in methanol, ethanol, chloroform, acetone (1:2 and then soaked in the mentioned solvents for 48 h. Then extracts were filtered and used for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. Results: The results identified that the presence of free amino acids and protein having β-sheet and random coiled secondary structure. The presence of O-H stretch, C=O stretch, C-H stretch, N-H deformation, O-H deformation and C-O stretch in the sample aligned with standard bovine serum albumin. The influence of functional groups within the molecule was because of the impact of preferred spatial orientation, chemical and physical interaction on the molecule. In conclusion, compared to bovine serum albumin, Himantura imbricata consists of two C=O stretch, are involved in the hydrogen bonding that takes place between the different elements of secondary structure. Conclusions: The venom of poisonous animals has been extensively studied, since standard medicine not available for treatment against injuries causing stingray. Therefore, it's the baseline study, to motivate further process and produce effective antibiotics.

  13. Ingestão de resíduos antropogênicos por tartarugas marinhas no litoral norte do estado da Bahia, Brasil Anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles in the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rodamilans Macedo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a presença de resíduos antropogênicos no trato digestório de tartarugas marinhas no Litoral Norte da Bahia, Brasil. Foram realizadas necropsias no trato digestório de 45 tartarugas marinhas encontradas mortas (Chelonia mydas n=36; Eretmochelys imbricata n=9, no período de janeiro de 2006 a outubro de 2007. Em 60% (27/45 das tartarugas necropsiadas foram encontrados resíduos, especialmente aqueles relacionados à atividade de pesca. Os resíduos encontravam-se ao longo de todo o trato gastrointestinal, com predominância no intestino grosso. A ingestão de resíduos pelas tartarugas marinhas do Litoral Norte da Bahia pode levar a debilidade e até mesmo provocar a morte destes animais.This study investigates the presence of anthropogenic debris in the digestive tract of sea turtles in the Northern Coast of Bahia, Brazil. Necropsies were performed on 45 turtles, 36 green turtles (Chelonia mydas and 9 hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata, found dead between january 2006 and october 2007. Debris was found in 60% of the animals, especially those related to fishing activities. Litter could be found throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract, but it was found predominantly in the large intestine (47.53%. The ingestion of debris by turtles from the Northern coast of Bahia may lead these animals to starvation, weakness and even death.

  14. Hybridization between Dactylopius tomentosus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) biotypes and its effects on host specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathenge, C W; Holford, P; Hoffmann, J H; Zimmermann, H G; Spooner-Hart, R N; Beattie, G A C

    2010-06-01

    Dactylopius tomentosus is composed of biotypes adapted to different Cylindropuntia species. One biotype is an important biological control agent of C. imbricata in South Africa while another has the potential for the control of C. fulgida var. fulgida. These two weed species occur in sympatry in some areas of South Africa, so the introduction of the second biotype could result in hybridization, which, in turn, could impact on the biological control programs through altered host specificity and fitness of the hybrids. To anticipate what might happen, reciprocal crosses were made between the two biotypes, and the biological performance of the resultant hybrids was compared with that of each parental lineage on C. imbricata and C. f. var. fulgida. The biotypes interbred freely and reciprocally in the laboratory. Comparisons of crawler and adult female traits showed differences in performance that were dependent on the origin of the maternal and paternal genomes. However, when all traits were combined into a 'fitness index', both hybrids clearly outperformed the parental lineages. The increase in fitness shown by the hybrids over their maternal lineage was greater on the alternative host of the maternal parent than on the natural host of the maternal parent. Therefore, in areas where the two cacti occur in sympatry, hybridization between the biotypes is not expected to be detrimental to the biological control of either weed. PMID:20074385

  15. Chelonians trading monitoring during seismic survey in North Fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) and South Capixaba (Espirito Santo); Monitoramento de encalhe de quelonios marinhos durante levantamento de dados sismicos na costa norte fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) e sul capixaba (Espirito Santo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Thays P.C.; Carloni, Giuliano G.; Erber, Claudia; Sabino, Carla M. [Ecologus Engenharia Consultiva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George A. [CGGVeritas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this research is to present the results of the marine chelonians stranding monitoring developed during and after the seismic survey in the north area of Rio de Janeiro and south of Espirito Santo. The monitoring lasted six months, reaching 200 km of beaches, from the Rio de Janeiro North up to the Espirito Santo South coasts. It was conducted by 34 monitors, who covered predefined beach sections daily, registering the stranded animals. At the end of the project, 159 chelonians stranded were registered. The species Chelonia mydas was prevailing in number and distribution. This species make use of this beach area to food. Lepidochelys olivacea was the second species in geographic distribution and number of registers. The other species identified were Caretta caretta and Eretmochelys imbricata. There was only one reproductive register, of Caretta caretta species. (author)

  16. A new species of Herbertus (Hepaticae) from China%中国剪叶苔属一新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣艳君; 付星; 高谦

    2001-01-01

    @@亚圆叶剪叶苔 新种 图1   Herbertus subrotundatus Fu et Yi, sp. Nov. Fig. 1   Species H. Herpocladioidi Scott et Miller affinis, sed differt foliis ovatis, apice ad 1/2 bifidis, lobulis anguste ovato-triangularibus, vitta I ndistincta.   Planta minor, caespitosa, brunnea vel fusco-brunnea. Caulis suberectus, ad 1~2 cm longus, cum foliisca. 1.2 mm latus, pauciramosus. Folia caulina imbricata, transverse inserta, ovata, margine leviter revoluta, apice ad 1/2 bifida, lobiselli pticis, apice obtusis; vitta indistincta, leviter concavavel plana. Cellulae folii opacae, verrucosae, irregulariter rectangulae, 12~16 μm×9~14 μm, parietibus crassis, trigonisnullis. Amphigastria caulina foliis similiased parum minora. Dioicus. Androecia intercalaria. Reliquiae desunt.

  17. Shifting the life-history paradigm: discovery of novel habitat use by hawksbill turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaos, Alexander R.; Lewison, Rebecca L.; Yañez, Ingrid L.; Wallace, Bryan P.; Liles, Michael J.; Nichols, Wallace J.; Baquero, Andres; Hasbún, Carlos R.; Vasquez, Mauricio; Urteaga, José; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Adult hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) are typically described as open-coast, coral reef and hard substrate dwellers. Here, we report new satellite tracking data on female hawksbills from several countries in the eastern Pacific that revealed previously undocumented behaviour for adults of the species. In contrast to patterns of habitat use exhibited by their Caribbean and Indo-Pacific counterparts, eastern Pacific hawksbills generally occupied inshore estuaries, wherein they had strong associations with mangrove saltwater forests. The use of inshore habitats and affinities with mangrove saltwater forests presents a previously unknown life-history paradigm for adult hawksbill turtles and suggests a potentially unique evolutionary trajectory for the species. Our findings highlight the variability in life-history strategies that marine turtles and other wide-ranging marine wildlife may exhibit among ocean regions, and the importance of understanding such disparities from an ecological and management perspective. PMID:21880620

  18. Mitochondrial DNA Profiling of Illegal Tortoiseshell Products Derived from Hawksbill Sea Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, David R; Ray, Rebecca L

    2016-07-01

    The hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) is a highly endangered species, commonly poached for its ornate shell. "Tortoiseshell" products made from the shell are widely, although illegally, available in many countries. Hawksbills have a circumglobal distribution; thus, determining their origin is difficult, although genetic differences exist geographically. In the research presented, a procedure was developed to extract and amplify mitochondrial DNA from tortoiseshell items, in an effort to better understand where the species is being poached. Confiscated tortoiseshell items were obtained from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and DNA from 56 of them was analyzed. Multiple mitochondrial haplotypes were identified, including five not previously reported. Only one tortoiseshell item proved to be of Atlantic origin, while all others corresponded to genetic stocks in the Indo-Pacific region. The developed methodology allows for unique, and previously unattainable, genetic information on the illegal poaching of sea turtles for the decorative tortoiseshell trade. PMID:27364288

  19. Stable isotopes in bivalves as indicators of nutrient source in coastal waters in the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graniero, Lauren E; Grossman, Ethan L; O'Dea, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    To examine N-isotope ratios ((15)N/(14)N) in tissues and shell organic matrix of bivalves as a proxy for natural and anthropogenic nutrient fluxes in coastal environments, Pinctada imbricata, Isognomon alatus, and Brachidontes exustusbivalves were live-collected and analyzed from eight sites in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Sites represent a variety of coastal environments, including more urbanized, uninhabited, riverine, and oceanic sites. Growth under differing environmental conditions is confirmed by δ (18)O values, with open ocean Escudo de Veraguas shells yielding the highest average δ (18)O (-1.0‰) value and freshwater endmember Rio Guarumo the lowest (-1.7‰). At all sites there is no single dominant source of organic matter contributing to bivalve δ (15)N and δ (13)C values. Bivalve δ (15)N and δ (13)C values likely represent a mixture of mangrove and seagrass N and C, although terrestrial sources cannot be ruled out. Despite hydrographic differences between end-members, we see minimal δ (15)N and δ (13)C difference between bivalves from the river-influenced Rio Guarumo site and those from the oceanic Escudo de Veraguas site, with no evidence for N from open-ocean phytoplankton in the latter. Populated sites yield relative (15)N enrichments suggestive of anthropogenic nutrient input, but low δ (15)N values overall make this interpretation equivocal. Lastly, δ (15)N values of tissue and shell organic matrix correlate significantly for pterioideans P. imbricata and I. alatus. Thus for these species, N isotope studies of historical and fossil shells should provide records of ecology of past environments.

  20. Turtle riders: remoras on marine turtles in Southwest Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sazima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented for a poorly documented relationship between reef vertebrates in Southwest Atlantic: remoras (Echeneidae associated with marine turtles. Two remora species (Echeneis naucrates and Remora remora and four turtle species (Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricata, and Dermochelys coriacea are here recorded in symbiotic associations in the SW Atlantic. Echeneis naucrates was recorded both on the coast and on oceanic islands, whereas R. remora was recorded only at oceanic islands and in the open sea. The remora-turtle association is usually regarded as an instance of phoresis (hitchhiking, albeit feeding by the fish is also involved in this symbiosis type. This association seems to be rare in SW Atlantic.Uma visão geé apresentada sobre uma relação pouco documentada entre vertebrados recifais no Atlântico Sul Ocidental: rêmoras (Echeneidae associadas a tartarugas marinhas. Duas espécies de rêmora ou pegador (Echeneis naucrates e Remora remora e quatro de tartarugas (Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricata e Dermochelys coriacea são aqui registradas em associações simbiônticas para o Atlântico Sul Ocidental. Echeneis naucrates foi registrada tanto na costa como em ilhas oceânicas, ao passo que R. remora foi registrada somente em ilhas oceânicas e região pelágica. A associação entre rêmoras e tartarugas é habitualmente considerada como forese, embora forrageamento, por parte das rêmoras, também esteja envolvido neste tipo de simbiose. Esta associação parece ser rara no Atlântico Sul Ocidental.

  1. Stranding and incidental catch of sea turtles in the coastal Tumbes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Rosales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Strandings and incidental catches of four sea turtles species (Chelonia mydas, Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriacea and Eretmochelys imbricata were registered in Tumbes Region since August 2007 to August 2009. These registers (52.6% of strandings and 47.4% of incidental catches occurred during all year; most frequently in Punta Picos (50.5%, Canoas (20.0% and Baja de Punta Mero (14.7%. The most registered species were C. mydas (64.2% and L. olivacea (30.5%; their sizes did not present significant differences between areas and climatic seasons. The higher percentage of C. mydas, L. olivacea and D. coriacea were considered sub-adults, including the only specimen of E. imbricata. The incidental catches were made with gillnets of different mesh sizes, but 8 inches mesh was most frequently. A high proportions of specimens were died with signs of drowning (22.2% this was due to the prolonged time of soak time of gillnet (approximately 12 hours. No significant differences in CPUE were found between climatic seasons and no seasonal pattern was evident. Lesions in 14% of stranded specimens were caused possibly by human attacks or by collisions with fishing boats. 77.8% of incidental catch specimens were sacrificed for the commercialization of his meat, and sometimes of his shell, this shows the lack of awareness of conservation. These observations indicate that the coast of Tumbes is an important foraging area and development of sub-adult specimens of sea turtles; so it is recomend to develop monitoring, awareness and critical areas protection programs to foment the conservation of these organisms in the Eastern Pacific.

  2. Stable isotopes in bivalves as indicators of nutrient source in coastal waters in the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graniero, Lauren E; Grossman, Ethan L; O'Dea, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    To examine N-isotope ratios ((15)N/(14)N) in tissues and shell organic matrix of bivalves as a proxy for natural and anthropogenic nutrient fluxes in coastal environments, Pinctada imbricata, Isognomon alatus, and Brachidontes exustusbivalves were live-collected and analyzed from eight sites in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Sites represent a variety of coastal environments, including more urbanized, uninhabited, riverine, and oceanic sites. Growth under differing environmental conditions is confirmed by δ (18)O values, with open ocean Escudo de Veraguas shells yielding the highest average δ (18)O (-1.0‰) value and freshwater endmember Rio Guarumo the lowest (-1.7‰). At all sites there is no single dominant source of organic matter contributing to bivalve δ (15)N and δ (13)C values. Bivalve δ (15)N and δ (13)C values likely represent a mixture of mangrove and seagrass N and C, although terrestrial sources cannot be ruled out. Despite hydrographic differences between end-members, we see minimal δ (15)N and δ (13)C difference between bivalves from the river-influenced Rio Guarumo site and those from the oceanic Escudo de Veraguas site, with no evidence for N from open-ocean phytoplankton in the latter. Populated sites yield relative (15)N enrichments suggestive of anthropogenic nutrient input, but low δ (15)N values overall make this interpretation equivocal. Lastly, δ (15)N values of tissue and shell organic matrix correlate significantly for pterioideans P. imbricata and I. alatus. Thus for these species, N isotope studies of historical and fossil shells should provide records of ecology of past environments. PMID:27547578

  3. Stable isotopes in bivalves as indicators of nutrient source in coastal waters in the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ethan L.; O’Dea, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    To examine N-isotope ratios (15N/14N) in tissues and shell organic matrix of bivalves as a proxy for natural and anthropogenic nutrient fluxes in coastal environments, Pinctada imbricata, Isognomon alatus, and Brachidontes exustusbivalves were live-collected and analyzed from eight sites in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Sites represent a variety of coastal environments, including more urbanized, uninhabited, riverine, and oceanic sites. Growth under differing environmental conditions is confirmed by δ18O values, with open ocean Escudo de Veraguas shells yielding the highest average δ18O (−1.0‰) value and freshwater endmember Rio Guarumo the lowest (−1.7‰). At all sites there is no single dominant source of organic matter contributing to bivalve δ15N and δ13C values. Bivalve δ15N and δ13C values likely represent a mixture of mangrove and seagrass N and C, although terrestrial sources cannot be ruled out. Despite hydrographic differences between end-members, we see minimal δ15N and δ13C difference between bivalves from the river-influenced Rio Guarumo site and those from the oceanic Escudo de Veraguas site, with no evidence for N from open-ocean phytoplankton in the latter. Populated sites yield relative 15N enrichments suggestive of anthropogenic nutrient input, but low δ15N values overall make this interpretation equivocal. Lastly, δ15N values of tissue and shell organic matrix correlate significantly for pterioideans P. imbricata and I. alatus. Thus for these species, N isotope studies of historical and fossil shells should provide records of ecology of past environments. PMID:27547578

  4. Efectividad del monitoreo de la anidación de tortugas marinas para determinar el éxito reproductivo en playas del sur de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Azanza-Ricardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El monitoreo de las anidaciones es muy útil como herramienta para la conservación pero el esfuerzo de trabajo en diferentes áreas puede variar grandemente. En Cuba, se aplican cuatro enfoques diferentes: monitoreo sistemático nocturno y diurno (MSN, y monitoreo esporádico con o sin comprobación de nidos (MECC. La cantidad y exactitud de los datos tomados y la calidad de la información derivada de ellos difieren. Por esta razón, en el presente trabajo se evalúa la efectividad de cada enfoque para determinar el éxito reproductivo de tortugas marinas en Cuba. El MSN sólo se realiza en las playas de anidación de la Península de Guanahacabibes, mientras que el MECC es el más extendido en el país. La porción de la temporada de anidación de cada una de las tres especies que anidan en Cuba (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta y Eretmochelys imbricata que se cubre con personal de monitoreo es baja para la mayoría de las playas, y sobre todo en el caso de E. imbricata. Se detectaron diferencias entre el monitoreo sistemático y esporádico, por tanto, la capacidad de detectar rastros falsos y verdaderos depende esencialmente de la frecuencia de monitoreo. Esto afecta la capacidad para evaluar el éxito de la anidación por playas. A pesar del incremento en los esfuerzos realizados en Cuba para el seguimiento de las principales colonias de anidación, se deben identificar nuevas estrategias para garantizar la correcta toma de información, y una mayor eficiencia del programa de monitoreo para obtener la mayor información posible de cada una de las especies con un adecuado balance de costo-beneficio.

  5. Determination of biotypes of Dactylopius tomentosus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) and insights into the taxonomic relationships of their hosts, Cylindropuntia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathenge, C W; Holford, P; Hoffmann, J H; Zimmermann, H G; Spooner-Hart, R; Beattie, G A C

    2010-06-01

    Host specialization to form biotypes is common among phytophagous insects, and it has been hypothesised that biotypes of Dactylopius tomentosus L. (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) occur. D. tomentosus is an important biological control agent for Cylindropuntia cacti when they occur as weeds. Additionally, there is uncertainty surrounding the taxonomic status of some species of Cylindropuntia. This study aimed to confirm the existence of D. tomentosus biotypes and to assess whether host specialization can help to resolve this systematic uncertainty. For this study, the host specificity and performance of ten provenances of D. tomentosus collected from C. cholla, C. fulgida var. fulgida, C. imbricata, C. f. var. mamillata, C. rosea and C. tunicata and reared on C. cholla, C. fulgida var. fulgida, C. imbricata and C. rosea were investigated. Five life-history parameters were measured including: crawler development time and survival, female development time, and the weight and number of eggs produced by females. Results revealed significant variation in host specificity with provenances either thriving, surviving or dying on the different hosts, thus demonstrating the existence of biotypes. Also, host specificity was related to host species and not to the geographic locality from which either the host or provenance was sourced. These findings suggest that the characteristics of Cylindropuntia species may differ sufficiently, there by presenting different selection pressures that induce and sustain distinct biotypes of D. tomentosus. The observed host use patterns of the biotypes separated the plant species into two groups that accorded with known phylogenetic relationships among Cylindropuntia species, suggesting that biotypes can be used to elucidate their taxonomic relatedness. Besides advancing our knowledge of the ecology and evolution of D. tomentosus, these novel findings have important implications for the biological control of Cylindropuntia species. PMID:20003574

  6. 水生植物的生态敏感度研究%A Study on Ecological Sensitivities of Several Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏文; Chien,PaulK

    2001-01-01

    By measuring ecological effects of several aquatic plants on heavy metals of Pb and Zn,it has been shown that the ecological sensitivities of plants on danger environmental factors are quite different between organism level and molecular level.According to CAT activity,an order for CAT- sensitivities of plants was found to be:Alternanthera philoxeroides>Spirodella polyrrhiza>Azolla imbricata>Hydrilla verticillata>Potamogeton malaianus.This result was contrary to the species- sensitivities based on injured levels of plants,such as:Potamogeton malaianus>Hydrilla verticillata>Azolla imbricata>Spirodella polyrrhiza>Alternanthera philoxeroides.The ecological sensitivity introduced into ecological planning has been recognized as index for delimiting ecological sensitive areas.The different idea of CAT- sensitivity and species- sensitivity may be applied to different areas with different ecological stabilities and different protecting needs.%通过人工室外玻璃水槽养殖试验,研究了几种水生植物在两个不同的生态水平上对重金属 Pb和 Zn的生态效应。结果发现,水生植物对有害环境因子的生态敏感度,在植物组织水平上与在分子水平上的表现截然相反。根据植物体内过氧化氢酶( CAT)的活性反应来排序,几种水生植物的( CAT)敏感度为:水花生 >紫背萍 >满江红 >轮叶黑藻 >马来眼子菜。这与植物受 Pb和 Zn伤害后的形态症状表现的生态敏感度(种敏感度)顺序完全相反。把不同的生态敏感度概念( CAT敏感度和种敏感度)引入生态规划,作为生态敏感区域划定的指标。对具有不同敏感等级和不同的保护水平要求的生态区域,应采用不同的生态敏感度,即 CAT敏感度或种敏感度。

  7. Phytochemicals with radioprotection and radio-sensitizing potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA damage and are harmful to mankind. They act through free radical generation, which target the double bonds of all cellular macromolecules. The radiation damage may be classified as probabilistic or deterministic, depending on the dose of radiation exposure. Since radiation affects multiple organs so those drugs which protect many organs, would be more beneficial. In this process herbal extracts, which are cocktail of several phyto-chemicals, would be more promising. Initially sulphur containing bio-molecules were identified as radio-protector, but now many secondary metabolites from plant kingdom, have been reported to be radio-protective. They have different mechanism of action, but most of them either prevent the FR induced DNA damage or accelerate the DNA repair process. Aminofostine, WR-2721, 159243, 2926 are some of the examples. However they have limited use because of associated cytotoxicity. Eicosanoids, topoisornerase inhibitors (e.g. camptothecin, topotecan), and the hypoxia-activated anthraquinone AQ4N have shown radioprotecting potential. Several plant products, derived from Tulsi, Vinca alkaloids, taxans, turmeric, Rubia cordifolia, Semecarpus anacardium and several plants rich in polyphenols and flavones have shown hemotherapeutic potential. Similarly, Hippophae, rhodiola imbricata, Podophyllum hexandrum, Ocimum sancturn, Plumbago zeylanica etc have shown radioprotection. Rubia cordifolia has shown both chemotherapeutic and radioprotective property in rats and A-431 cells. Similarly Semecarpus anacardium extract has shown cell cycle arrest in DU-145 cells. (author)

  8. Demographic models reveal the shape of density dependence for a specialist insect herbivore on variable host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tom E X

    2007-07-01

    1. It is widely accepted that density-dependent processes play an important role in most natural populations. However, persistent challenges in our understanding of density-dependent population dynamics include evaluating the shape of the relationship between density and demographic rates (linear, concave, convex), and identifying extrinsic factors that can mediate this relationship. 2. I studied the population dynamics of the cactus bug Narnia pallidicornis on host plants (Opuntia imbricata) that varied naturally in relative reproductive effort (RRE, the proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction), an important plant quality trait. I manipulated per-plant cactus bug densities, quantified subsequent dynamics, and fit stage-structured models to the experimental data to ask if and how density influences demographic parameters. 3. In the field experiment, I found that populations with variable starting densities quickly converged upon similar growth trajectories. In the model-fitting analyses, the data strongly supported a model that defined the juvenile cactus bug retention parameter (joint probability of surviving and not dispersing) as a nonlinear decreasing function of density. The estimated shape of this relationship shifted from concave to convex with increasing host-plant RRE. 4. The results demonstrate that host-plant traits are critical sources of variation in the strength and shape of density dependence in insects, and highlight the utility of integrated experimental-theoretical approaches for identifying processes underlying patterns of change in natural populations.

  9. Herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction shape the life history of an iteroparous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tom E X; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Louda, Svata M

    2008-02-01

    Plant reproduction yields immediate fitness benefits but can be costly in terms of survival, growth, and future fecundity. Life-history theory posits that reproductive strategies are shaped by trade-offs between current and future fitness that result from these direct costs of reproduction. Plant reproduction may also incur indirect ecological costs if it increases susceptibility to herbivores. Yet ecological costs of reproduction have received little empirical attention and remain poorly integrated into life-history theory. Here, we provide evidence for herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction, and we develop theory to examine how these costs influence plant life-history strategies. Field experiments with an iteroparous cactus (Opuntia imbricata) indicated that greater reproductive effort (proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction) led to greater attack by a cactus-feeding insect (Narnia pallidicornis) and that damage by this herbivore reduced reproductive success. A dynamic programming model predicted strongly divergent optimal reproductive strategies when ecological costs were included, compared with when these costs were ignored. Meristem allocation by cacti in the field matched the optimal strategy expected under ecological costs of reproduction. The results indicate that plant reproductive allocation can strongly influence the intensity of interactions with herbivores and that associated ecological costs can play an important selective role in the evolution of plant life histories.

  10. Plant reproductive allocation predicts herbivore dynamics across spatial and temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tom E X; Tyre, Andrew J; Louda, Svata M

    2006-11-01

    Life-history theory suggests that iteroparous plants should be flexible in their allocation of resources toward growth and reproduction. Such plasticity could have consequences for herbivores that prefer or specialize on vegetative versus reproductive structures. To test this prediction, we studied the response of the cactus bug (Narnia pallidicornis) to meristem allocation by tree cholla cactus (Opuntia imbricata). We evaluated the explanatory power of demographic models that incorporated variation in cactus relative reproductive effort (RRE; the proportion of meristems allocated toward reproduction). Field data provided strong support for a single model that defined herbivore fecundity as a time-varying, increasing function of host RRE. High-RRE plants were predicted to support larger insect populations, and this effect was strongest late in the season. Independent field data provided strong support for these qualitative predictions and suggested that plant allocation effects extend across temporal and spatial scales. Specifically, late-season insect abundance was positively associated with interannual changes in cactus RRE over 3 years. Spatial variation in insect abundance was correlated with variation in RRE among five cactus populations across New Mexico. We conclude that plant allocation can be a critical component of resource quality for insect herbivores and, thus, an important mechanism underlying variation in herbivore abundance across time and space.

  11. 满江红多胺氧化酶的抽提与初步纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何生根; 欧利叶; 等

    1998-01-01

    报告了满江红(Azolla imbricata)多胺氧化酶提取条件初步纯化的研究结果,以0.1mol/L磷酸缓冲液为介质抽提该酶时的最适PH为6.5,添加0.10-0.15mol/L NaCl和2%-4%(质量体积比)PVP可改善抽提效果,用硫酸铵沉淀法、PEG-6000沉淀法和丙酮沉淀法分别对酶抽提液进行初步纯化,发现丙酮沉淀法化效果最优,用1.2倍(体积比)冷丙酮(-15℃)沉淀时可提纯该酶8.92倍,产率达74.6%。

  12. 满江红多胺氧化酶部分特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何生根; 黄学林; 等

    1996-01-01

    本文报告了满江红(Azolla imbricata)多胺氧化酶特性的一些研究结果,该酶的最适底物为spd(亚精胺),其次为spm(精胺)(酶活性约为以spd为底物时的405),而对put(腐胺)和cad(尸胺)两种二胺几乎不氧化;在50-70℃或PH4-10的范围内均有活性,以spd和spm作底物时的最适PH最分别为6.5和5.5;该酶经10mmol/L的EDTA处理后酶活性仍能完全保持,说明其催化功能的实现可能无需金属离子的参与。另外,金属离子Ca2+,Mg2+对该酶活性无明显影响,但10mol/L的CuSO4可抑制约20%的活性。

  13. Up-regulated expression of AOS-LOXa and increased eicosanoid synthesis in response to coral wounding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helike Lõhelaid

    Full Text Available In octocorals, a catalase-like allene oxide synthase (AOS and an 8R-lipoxygenase (LOX gene are fused together encoding for a single AOS-LOX fusion protein. Although the AOS-LOX pathway is central to the arachidonate metabolism in corals, its biological function in coral homeostasis is unclear. Using an acute incision wound model in the soft coral Capnella imbricata, we here test whether LOX pathway, similar to its role in plants, can contribute to the coral damage response and regeneration. Analysis of metabolites formed from exogenous arachidonate before and after fixed time intervals following wounding indicated a significant increase in AOS-LOX activity in response to mechanical injury. Two AOS-LOX isoforms, AOS-LOXa and AOS-LOXb, were cloned and expressed in bacterial expression system as active fusion proteins. Transcription levels of corresponding genes were measured in normal and stressed coral by qPCR. After wounding, AOS-LOXa was markedly up-regulated in both, the tissue adjacent to the incision and distal parts of a coral colony (with the maximum reached at 1 h and 6 h post wounding, respectively, while AOS-LOXb was stable. According to mRNA expression analysis, combined with detection of eicosanoid product formation for the first time, the AOS-LOX was identified as an early stress response gene which is induced by mechanical injury in coral.

  14. Hawksbill satellite-tracking case study: Implications for remigration interval and population estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Pollock, Clayton; Lundgren, Ian; Hillis-Starr, Zandy

    2016-01-01

    Hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) are circumtropically distributed and listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN (Meylan & Donnelly 1999; NMFS & USFWS 1993). To aid in population recovery and protection, the Hawksbill Recovery Plan identified the need to determine demographic information for hawksbills, such as distribution, abundance, seasonal movements, foraging areas (sections 121 and 2211), growth rates, and survivorship (section 2213, NMFS & USFWS 1993). Mark-recapture analyses are helpful in estimating demographic parameters and have been used for hawksbills throughout the Caribbean (e.g., Richardson et al. 1999; Velez-Zuazo et al. 2008); integral to these studies are recaptures at the nesting site as well as remigration interval estimates (Hays 2000). Estimates of remigration intervals (the duration between nesting seasons) are critical to marine turtle population estimates and measures of nesting success (Hays 2000; Richardson et al. 1999). Although hawksbills in the Caribbean generally show natal philopatry and nesting-site fidelity (Bass et al. 1996; Bowen et al. 2007), exceptions to this have been observed for hawksbills and other marine turtles (Bowen & Karl 2007; Diamond 1976; Esteban et al. 2015; Hart et al. 2013). This flexibility in choosing a nesting beach could therefore affect the apparent remigration interval and subsequently, region-wide population counts.

  15. Fishery gear interactions from stranded bottlenose dolphins, Florida manatees and sea turtles in Florida, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimey, Nicole M; Hudak, Christine A; Powell, Jessica R; Bassos-Hull, Kim; Foley, Allen; Farmer, Nicholas A; White, Linda; Minch, Karrie

    2014-04-15

    Documenting the extent of fishery gear interactions is critical to wildlife conservation efforts, especially for reducing entanglements and ingestion. This study summarizes fishery gear interactions involving common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and sea turtles: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green turtle (Chelonia mydas), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) stranding in Florida waters during 1997-2009. Fishery gear interactions for all species combined were 75.3% hook and line, 18.2% trap pot gear, 4.8% fishing nets, and 1.7% in multiple gears. Total reported fishery gear cases increased over time for dolphins (p<0.05), manatees (p<0.01), loggerheads (p<0.05) and green sea turtles (p<0.05). The proportion of net interaction strandings relative to total strandings for loggerhead sea turtles increased (p<0.05). Additionally, life stage and sex patterns were examined, fishery gear interaction hotspots were identified and generalized linear regression modeling was conducted. PMID:24613263

  16. The role of turtles as coral reef macroherbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H R Goatley

    Full Text Available Herbivory is widely accepted as a vital function on coral reefs. To date, the majority of studies examining herbivory in coral reef environments have focused on the roles of fishes and/or urchins, with relatively few studies considering the potential role of macroherbivores in reef processes. Here, we introduce evidence that highlights the potential role of marine turtles as herbivores on coral reefs. While conducting experimental habitat manipulations to assess the roles of herbivorous reef fishes we observed green turtles (Chelonia mydas and hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata showing responses that were remarkably similar to those of herbivorous fishes. Reducing the sediment load of the epilithic algal matrix on a coral reef resulted in a forty-fold increase in grazing by green turtles. Hawksbill turtles were also observed to browse transplanted thalli of the macroalga Sargassum swartzii in a coral reef environment. These responses not only show strong parallels to herbivorous reef fishes, but also highlight that marine turtles actively, and intentionally, remove algae from coral reefs. When considering the size and potential historical abundance of marine turtles we suggest that these potentially valuable herbivores may have been lost from many coral reefs before their true importance was understood.

  17. The status of marine turtles in Montserrat (Eastern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of marine turtles in Montserrat (Eastern Caribbean is reviewed following five years of monitoring (1999-2003. The mean number of nests recorded during the annual nesting season (June-October was 53 (± 24.9 SD; range: 13-43. In accordance with earlier reports, the nesting of hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata and green (Chelonia mydas turtles was confirmed on several beaches around the island. Only non-nesting emergences were documented for loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta and there was no evidence of nesting by leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea; however, it is possible that additional survey effort would reveal low density nesting by these species. Officially reported turtle capture data for 1993-2003 suggest that a mean of 0.9 turtle per year (±1.2 SD; range: 0-4 were landed island-wide, with all harvest having occurred during the annual open season (1 October to 31 May. Informed observers believe that the harvest is significantly under-reported and that fishermen avoid declaring their catch by butchering turtles at sea (both during and outside the open season. Of concern is the fact that breeding adults are potentially included in the harvest, and that the open season partially coincides with the breeding season. The present study has shown that although Montserrat is not a major nesting site for sea turtles, it remains important on a regional basis for the Eastern Caribbean.

  18. Contextualising the Last Survivors: Population Structure of Marine Turtles in the Dominican Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carreras

    Full Text Available Nesting by three species of marine turtles persists in the Dominican Republic, despite historic threats and long-term population decline. We conducted a genetic survey of marine turtles in the Dominican Republic in order to link them with other rookeries around the Caribbean. We sequenced a 740bp fragment of the control region of the mitochondrial DNA of 92 samples from three marine turtle species [hawksbill (n = 48, green (n = 2 and leatherback (n = 42], and incorporated published data from other nesting populations and foraging grounds. The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea in the Dominican Republic appeared to be isolated from Awala-Yalimapo, Cayenne, Trinidad and St. Croix but connected with other Caribbean populations. Two distinct nesting populations of hawksbill turtles (Eremochelys imbricata were detected in the Dominican Republic and exhibited interesting patterns of connectivity with other nesting sites and juvenile and adult male foraging aggregations. The green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas has almost been extirpated from the Dominican Republic and limited inference could be made from our samples. Finally, results were compared with Lagrangian drifting buoys and published Lagrangian virtual particles that travelled through the Dominican Republic and Caribbean waters. Conservation implications of sink-source effects or genetic isolation derived from these complex inter-connections are discussed for each species and population.

  19. Ecological knowledge and incidental capture of sea turtles in São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pereira Brito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to register the ecological knowledge of fishermen from the municipality of São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil, regarding the occurrence of sea turtles on the Pará state coast, as well as measure their incidental capture when fishing; to do this, 50 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local fishermen. Fishing was practiced mostly by adult men, who used 7 fishing arts (gillnetting, hook and line, longline, fish corrals, net of tide canals, casting net, and basket trap, mainly aimed at catching king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla, serra Spanish mackerel (S. brasiliensis, king weakfish (Macrodon ancylodon, weakfish (Cynoscion spp., hake (Cynoscion spp., catfish (Bagre bagre, and mullet (Mugil spp.. Fishermen observed in the region 5 turtle species, with a more frequent occurrence of Chelonia mydas (100%, Dermochelys coriacea (66%, and Eretmochelys imbricata (46%; the less frequent species are Caretta caretta (16% and Lepidochelys olivacea (8%. The spawning areas of the 3 most common species demonstrate the significance of the Pará state coast for their conservation. Incidental capture was reported by 76% of fishermen, mainly occurring in net, longlines, and fish corrals. Usually, captured animals were released, although there is consumption of sea turtle meat and eggs by fishermen.

  20. Morphology vs Genetics: the hybrid origin of a sea turtle disproved by DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. GAROFALO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A putative hybrid sea turtle juvenile was evaluated with discriminant DNA markers. When compared with standard values for sea turtles, the general morphological features assigned the specimen to Caretta caretta, while the shape and coloration of the head and the beak profile fell within the Eretmochelys imbricata range; the front flippers were instead like those of a Chelonia mydas. Moreover, prefrontal scale number was outside the putative parental species’ ranges. The mitochondrial D-loop sequence was from C. caretta, and matched haplotype CC-A2.1, the most common in the Mediterranean. Sequence profiles at three nuclear loci withspecies-specific substitutions (Cmos, BDNF and R35 revealed only C. caretta variants, thus excluding that the individual wasan F1 hybrid. This study highlights the importance of integrating different methodological approaches to understand reproductive animal biology and to set the boundaries for specific morphological traits. In particular, we propose the genetic analysis of a new combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers as a standard procedure which can be adopted in the identification of sea turtlehybrids.

  1. Biohydrogen production from diary processing wastewater by anaerobic biofilm reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios-Gonzalez, L.J.; Moreno-Davila, I.M.; Rodriguez-Martinez, J.; Garza-Garcia, Y. [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: leopoldo.rios@mail.uadec.mx

    2009-09-15

    This article describes biological hydrogen production from diary wastewater via anaerobic fermentation using pretreated heat shock (100 degrees Celsius, 30 min.) and acid (pH 3.0, 24 h) treatment procedures to selectively enrich the hydrogen producing mixed consortia prior to inoculation to batch reactors. Bioreactor used for immobilization consortia was operated at mesophilic (room) temperature (20{+-}3 degrees Celsius), under acidophilic conditions (pH 4.0-4.5), HRT (2h), and a natural support for generate hydrogen producing mixed consortia biofilm: Opuntia imbricata. Reactor was initially operated with sorbitol (5g/L) for 60 days of operation. Batch tests were conducted using 20{+-}0.02g of natural support with biofilm. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of COD (2.9-21.1 g-COD/L), at initial pH of 7.0, 32{+-}1 degrees Celsius. Maximum hydrogen yield was obtained at 21.1 g-COD/L. Experiments of pH effect were conducted using the optimal substrate concentration (21.2 g-COD/L), at pH 4 to 7 and 11.32 (pH diary wastewater) ,and 32{+-}1 degrees Celsius. Experiments results indicate the optimum initial cultivation was pH 4.0, but we can consider also a stable hydrogen production at pH 11.32 (pH diary wastewater), so we can avoid to fit the pH, and use diary wastewater as it left the process of cheese manufacture. The operational pH of 4.0 is 1.5 units below that of previously reported hydrogen producing organisms. The influence of the effect of temperature were conducted using the optimal substrate concentration (21.2 g-COD/L), two pH levels: 4.0 and 11.32, and four different temperatures: 16{+-}3 degrees Celsius (room temperature), 3 C, 45{+-}1 degrees Celsius y 55{+-}1 degrees Celsius.Optimal temperature for hydrogen production from diary wastewater at pH 4.0 was 55{+-}1 degrees Celsius, and for pH 11.32 was 16{+-}3 degrees Celsius.Therefore, the results suggests biofilm reactors in a natural support like Opuntia imbricata have good potential

  2. Diversity, habitat distribution, and indigenous hunting of marine turtles in the Calamian Islands, Palawan, Republic of the Philippines

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    Christopher N.S. Poonian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All of the world’s seven species of marine turtle are threatened by a multitude of anthropogenic pressures across all stages of their life history. The Calamian Islands, Palawan, Philippines provide important foraging and nesting grounds for four species: green turtles (Chelonia mydas, hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata, loggerheads (Caretta caretta, and leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriacea. This work aimed to assess the relative importance of turtle nesting beaches and local threats using a combination of social science and ecological research approaches. Endangered green turtles and critically endangered hawksbills were found to nest in the Calamianes. The most important nesting sites were located on the islands off the west of Busuanga and Culion, particularly Pamalican and Galoc and along the north coast of Coron, particularly Linamodio Island. Opportunistic hunting and egg collection, conducted legally by indigenous communities, is the most significant threat to sea turtles in the area. Sites particularly vulnerable to hunting were found to be Galoc Island, Pamalican Island, and Panlaitan Island. Raising awareness, community engagement, and understanding of socio-cultural drivers of sea turtle exploitation, particularly among indigenous communities, are essential to gain support for any effective conservation program. Additionally, more effective enforcement of laws related to the trade in sea turtle products is required to close the commercial and export markets.

  3. Fishery gear interactions from stranded bottlenose dolphins, Florida manatees and sea turtles in Florida, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimey, Nicole M; Hudak, Christine A; Powell, Jessica R; Bassos-Hull, Kim; Foley, Allen; Farmer, Nicholas A; White, Linda; Minch, Karrie

    2014-04-15

    Documenting the extent of fishery gear interactions is critical to wildlife conservation efforts, especially for reducing entanglements and ingestion. This study summarizes fishery gear interactions involving common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and sea turtles: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green turtle (Chelonia mydas), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) stranding in Florida waters during 1997-2009. Fishery gear interactions for all species combined were 75.3% hook and line, 18.2% trap pot gear, 4.8% fishing nets, and 1.7% in multiple gears. Total reported fishery gear cases increased over time for dolphins (pmanatees (p<0.01), loggerheads (p<0.05) and green sea turtles (p<0.05). The proportion of net interaction strandings relative to total strandings for loggerhead sea turtles increased (p<0.05). Additionally, life stage and sex patterns were examined, fishery gear interaction hotspots were identified and generalized linear regression modeling was conducted.

  4. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013

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    M. BILECENOGLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  5. Plastic ingestion by sea turtles in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

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    Camila Poli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, plastics are recognized as a major pollutant of the marine environment, representing a serious threat to ocean wildlife. Here, we examined the occurrence and effects of plastic ingestion by sea turtles found stranded along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil from August 2009 to July 2010. Ninety-eight digestive tracts were examined, with plastic found in 20 (20.4%. Sixty five percent (n = 13 of turtles with plastic in the digestive tract were green turtles (Chelonia mydas, 25% (n = 5 were hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata, and 10% (n = 2 were olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea. More plastic was found in the intestine (85% than in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. We observed complete blockage of the gastrointestinal tract due to the presence of plastic in 13 of the 20 turtles that had ingested plastic. No correlation was found between the curved carapace length (CCL and the number or mass of the plastic ingested items. Significant differences were found between the intake of hard and soft plastic and the ingestion of white/transparent and colored plastic, with soft and white/transparent plastics being more commonly ingested. This study reveals the serious problem of plastic pollution to sea turtles at the area.

  6. [Mollusc diversity in an Arca zebra (Mollusca: Bivalvia) community, Chacopata, Sucre, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, A S; Ruiz, L J; García, N; Alvarez, M

    2001-06-01

    The diversity of a subtidal epifaunal mollusk community was studied from September, 1990 to September, 1991 in Chacopata, Sucre State, Venezuela. There were 40 species (24 bivalves and 16 gastropods). The diversity indexes (H' = 2.087, J' = 0.392, 1/D = 0.528) were low when compared with other tropical zones. Monthly diversity reached its maximum in September, 1990 (1.63 bits/ind.) and July, 1991 (1.60 bits/ind.); minimum diversity occurred in June, 1991 (0.52 bits/ind.). A Log series model applied to species abundance data showed a straight line with a diversity index alpha of 5.56. Of 40 species identified, the turkeywing Arca zebra was dominant (69% in number of individuals and 72% of biomass) followed by Pinctada imbricata, Modiolus squamosus, Chama macerophyla and Anadara notabilis. The predatory snails Phyllonotus pomum, Chicoreus brevifrons and Murex recurvirostris seemed to have trophic relationships with A. zebra. The total mean biomass in wet weight (469.20 +/- 263 g m-2, shell included) was high which indicates that A. zebra, a species with a rapid growth rate, occupies a central role in the assemblage as an efficient filter feeder that converts planktonic food into available biomass, supporting one of the most important fisheries in Venezuela. PMID:11935909

  7. The biology of Dactylopius tomentosus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathenge, C W; Holford, P; Hoffmann, J H; Spooner-Hart, R; Beattie, G A C; Zimmermann, H G

    2009-12-01

    Dactylopius tomentosus (Lamarck) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) is a cochineal insect whose host range is restricted to Cylindropuntia species (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae). This insect has been utilized successfully for biological control of Cylindropuntia imbricata (Haw.) F.M. Knuth in Australia and South Africa. Despite this, its biology has not been studied previously, probably due to the widely held belief that the biology of all Dactylopius species is similar. This study investigated the life cycle and the morphological and reproductive characteristics of D. tomentosus. Results revealed some unique characteristics of D. tomentosus: (i) eggs undergo a much longer incubation period, an average of 17 days compared to Dactylopius spp. due to a longer egg incubation period; (iv) D. tomentosus does not undergo parthenogenesis; (v) D. tomentosus is smaller in size than its congeners; and (vi) male mating capacity and reproductive potential were both high and variable between males. There was a significant, strong, positive relationship (r = 0.93) between female mass and fecundity, whereas the relationship between the number of females mated per male that became gravid and their fecundity was negative (r = -0.68). Besides contributing to our knowledge of this economically important species, the finding of unique characteristics of D. tomentosus biology underlines the need to study each species in this genus. PMID:19203403

  8. 安徽省水生植物资源的调查与分析%Investigation and Conservation of Resources of Aquatic Higher Plants in Anhui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明林; 刘玲玲; 张小平

    2004-01-01

    本文研究了安徽省水生高等植物资源的种类、生境、组成特点、经济价值及植被概况,结果表明本省有水生高等植物44科、72属、138种,其中单子叶植物占优势,分别占科、属、种的40.9%、50.0%、54.4%.各科亲缘关系较远,并且许多科仅有一属的少数种为水生的.其地理成分表明,本地水生种子植物以世界分布属为主,热带成分与温带成分几乎各占一半,基本反映安徽省具有热带和温带的双重性质.水生植被以竹叶眼子菜(Potamogeton malaianus)群落,苦草(Vallisineria spiralis)群落,紫萍(Spirodela polyrrhiza)、浮萍(Lemna minor)群落,满江红(Azolla imbricata)、槐叶苹(Salvinia natans)群落,莲(Nelumbo nucifera)群落为主.

  9. A suggested local regions in the Southern Gulf of Mexico using a diatom database (1979-2002) and oceanic hidrographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licea, Sergio; Zamudio, Ma E; Moreno-Ruiz, J L; Luna, R

    2011-07-01

    A diatom data-base of 255 species obtained from 14 oceanographic cruises (14801 entries of 647 sampling sites) together with the analysis of oceanic features were used to establish four local regions in the southern Gulf of Mexico. In addition, common species for each region were designated. This study is based on the application of cluster analysis and the species frequency data. Material for this undertaking consisted of water and net samples obtained between June 1979 and December 2002. Results show that the most frequent species (> 40%) were: Asterionellopsis glacialis, Bacteriastrum delicatulum, B. hyalinum, Chaetoceros affinis, C. coarctatus, C. compresus, C. curvisetus, C. danicus, C. decipiens, C. diversus, C. lorenzianus, C. pelagicus, C. peruvianus, Coscinodiscus radiatus, Cylindrotheca closterium, Guinardia flaccida, Hemiaulus hauckii, H. membranaceus, H. sinensis, Leptocylindrus danicus, Neocalyptrella robusta, Nitzschia bicapitata, Pleurosigma diverse-striatum, Proboscia alata, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, Rhizosolenia imbricata, R. setigera, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassionema bacillare, T frauenfeldii, T nitzschioides and Thalassiosira eccentrica. The species composition for each region and season are discussed. Itis concluded that sampling site assemblages are related to oceanographic conditions. A total list of species composition is given, forty-seven species taxa being new records for this area. PMID:22315823

  10. Anatomy of the digestive tube of sea turtles (Reptilia: Testudines

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    Marcela dos S. Magalhães

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the morphology of the digestive tube of five species of sea turtles. We used specimens found dead along the coast of the state Rio Grande do Norte, as well as specimens accidentally killed as a result of pelagic longline fishing. Nineteen animals of the following species were analyzed: Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 9, Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829 (n = 6, Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 2, Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766 (n = 1 and Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli, 1761 (n = 1. After opening the plastron, we removed the digestive organs and described the external and internal morphology of each organ. The esophagus of all species had pointed papillae on the mucosa. The stomach varied in shape among species. Differences were found in the mucosa of the small intestine. It was reticular in the duodenum, and longitudinal rectilinear in the jejunum/ileum. In all species an alternation of saccular and narrow regions was observed in the large intestine. The exception was D. coriacea, in which the mucosa of the entire large intestine had irregularly distributed folds. The pattern of the esophagus was the same in all species. The morphology of the stomach differed among species, and these differences reflect their diets. In addition, the distribution pattern of the folds on the mucosa of the small intestine varied between regions of the intestine and among species.

  11. Induction of oviposition by the administration of oxytocin in hawksbill turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazu, Isao; Kino, Masakatsu; Maeda, Konomi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Sawamukai, Yutaka

    2014-12-01

    We set out to develop an oviposition induction technique for captive female hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata. The infertile eggs of nine females were induced to develop by the administration of follicle-stimulating hormone, after which we investigated the effects of administering oxytocin on oviposition. Seven of the turtles were held in a stationary horizontal position on a retention stand, and then oxytocin was administrated (0.6-0.8 units/kg of body weight; 5 mL). The seven turtles were retained for a mandatory 2 h period after oxytocin administration, and were then returned to the holding tanks. As the control, normal saline (5 mL) was administered to the other two turtles, followed by the administration of oxytocin after 24 h. The eggs in oviducts of all nine turtles were observed by ultrasonography at 24 h after oxytocin administration. The control experiment validated that stationary retention and normal saline administration had no effect on egg oviposition. Eight of the turtles began ovipositing eggs at 17-43 min after oxytocin administration, while one began ovipositing in the holding tank immediately after retention. All turtles finished ovipositing eggs within 24 h of oxytocin administration. This report is the first to demonstrate successful induced oviposition in sea turtles. We suggest that the muscles in the oviducts of hawksbill turtles may respond to relatively lower doses of oxytocin (inducing contractions) compared to land and freshwater turtles (4-40 units/kg) based on existing studies.

  12. Evidence of Fluconazole-Resistant Candida Species in Tortoises and Sea Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Pedro Henrique de Aragão; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Riello, Giovanna Barbosa; Ribeiro, Joyce Fonteles; de Oliveira, Jonathas Sales; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Monteiro, André Jalles; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. recovered from tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) and sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, Lepidochelys olivacea, Eretmochelys imbricata). For this purpose, material from the oral cavity and cloaca of 77 animals (60 tortoises and 17 sea turtles) was collected. The collected specimens were seeded on 2% Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, and the identification was carried out by morphological and biochemical methods. Sixty-six isolates were recovered from tortoises, out of which 27 were C. tropicalis, 27 C. famata, 7 C. albicans, 4 C. guilliermondii and 1 C. intermedia, whereas 12 strains were obtained from sea turtles, which were identified as Candida parapsilosis (n = 4), Candida guilliermondii (n = 4), Candida tropicalis (n = 2), Candida albicans (n = 1) and Candida intermedia (n = 1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations for amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole ranged from 0.03125 to 0.5, 0.03125 to >16 and 0.125 to >64, respectively. Overall, 19 azole-resistant strains (14 C. tropicalis and 5 C. albicans) were found. Thus, this study shows that Testudines carry azole-resistant Candida spp.

  13. Male hatchling production in sea turtles from one of the world’s largest marine protected areas, the Chagos Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Nicole; Laloë, Jacques-Olivier; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Guzman, Antenor N.; Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-02-01

    Sand temperatures at nest depths and implications for hatchling sex ratios of hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nesting in the Chagos Archipelago, Indian Ocean are reported and compared to similar measurements at rookeries in the Atlantic and Caribbean. During 2012-2014, temperature loggers were buried at depths and in beach zones representative of turtle nesting sites. Data collected for 12,546 days revealed seasonal and spatial patterns of sand temperature. Depth effects were minimal, perhaps modulated by shade from vegetation. Coolest and warmest temperatures were recorded in the sites heavily shaded in vegetation during the austral winter and in sites partially shaded in vegetation during summer respectively. Overall, sand temperatures were relatively cool during the nesting seasons of both species which would likely produce fairly balanced hatchling sex ratios of 53% and 63% male hatchlings, respectively, for hawksbill and green turtles. This result contrasts with the predominantly high female skew reported for offspring at most rookeries around the globe and highlights how local beach characteristics can drive incubation temperatures. Our evidence suggests that sites characterized by heavy shade associated with intact natural vegetation are likely to provide conditions suitable for male hatchling production in a warming world.

  14. Home range, habitat use, and migrations of hawksbill turtles tracked from Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Pratt, Harold L.; Morley, Danielle; Feeley, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    To determine habitat-use patterns of sub-adult hawksbills Eretmochelys imbricata, we conducted satellite- and acoustic-tracking of 3 turtles captured in August 2008 within Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO), south Florida, USA, in the Gulf of Mexico; turtles ranged in size from 51.9 to 69.8 cm straight carapace length. After 263, 699, and 655 d of residence in the park, turtles migrated out of the DRTO. Within the park, core-use areas (i.e. 50% kernel density estimates) were 9.2 to 21.5 km2; all 3 turtle core-use areas overlapped in an area 6.1 km2 within a zone of the park with multiple human uses (e.g. fishing, anchoring). Two turtles migrated to Cuba and ceased transmitting after 320 and 687 tracking days; the third turtle migrated toward Key West, Florida, and ceased transmitting after 884 tracking days. The present study highlights previously unknown regional connections for hawksbills, possible turtle-harvest incidents, and fine-scale habitat use of sub-adult hawksbills within a United States National Park.

  15. Phylogeography, Genetic Diversity, and Management Units of Hawksbill Turtles in the Indo-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Sarah M; Jensen, Michael P; Ho, Simon Y W; Mobaraki, Asghar; Broderick, Damien; Mortimer, Jeanne A; Whiting, Scott D; Miller, Jeff; Prince, Robert I T; Bell, Ian P; Hoenner, Xavier; Limpus, Colin J; Santos, Fabrício R; FitzSimmons, Nancy N

    2016-05-01

    Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) populations have experienced global decline because of a history of intense commercial exploitation for shell and stuffed taxidermied whole animals, and harvest for eggs and meat. Improved understanding of genetic diversity and phylogeography is needed to aid conservation. In this study, we analyzed the most geographically comprehensive sample of hawksbill turtles from the Indo-Pacific Ocean, sequencing 766 bp of the mitochondrial control region from 13 locations (plus Aldabra, n = 4) spanning over 13500 km. Our analysis of 492 samples revealed 52 haplotypes distributed in 5 divergent clades. Diversification times differed between the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic lineages and appear to be related to the sea-level changes that occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum. We found signals of demographic expansion only for turtles from the Persian Gulf region, which can be tied to a more recent colonization event. Our analyses revealed evidence of transoceanic migration, including connections between feeding grounds from the Atlantic Ocean and Indo-Pacific rookeries. Hawksbill turtles appear to have a complex pattern of phylogeography, showing a weak isolation by distance and evidence of multiple colonization events. Our novel dataset will allow mixed-stock analyses of hawksbill turtle feeding grounds in the Indo-Pacific by providing baseline data needed for conservation efforts in the region. Eight management units are proposed in our study for the Indo-Pacific region that can be incorporated in conservation plans of this critically endangered species.

  16. The role of turtles as coral reef macroherbivores

    KAUST Repository

    Goatley, Christopher H. R.

    2012-06-29

    Herbivory is widely accepted as a vital function on coral reefs. To date, the majority of studies examining herbivory in coral reef environments have focused on the roles of fishes and/or urchins, with relatively few studies considering the potential role of macroherbivores in reef processes. Here, we introduce evidence that highlights the potential role of marine turtles as herbivores on coral reefs. While conducting experimental habitat manipulations to assess the roles of herbivorous reef fishes we observed green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) showing responses that were remarkably similar to those of herbivorous fishes. Reducing the sediment load of the epilithic algal matrix on a coral reef resulted in a forty-fold increase in grazing by green turtles. Hawksbill turtles were also observed to browse transplanted thalli of the macroalga Sargassum swartzii in a coral reef environment. These responses not only show strong parallels to herbivorous reef fishes, but also highlight that marine turtles actively, and intentionally, remove algae from coral reefs. When considering the size and potential historical abundance of marine turtles we suggest that these potentially valuable herbivores may have been lost from many coral reefs before their true importance was understood. © 2012 Goatley et al.

  17. Assessment of genetic diversity in Mucuna species of India using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and inter simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ravishankar R; Pawar, Kiran D; Rane, Manali R; Yadav, Shrirang R; Bapat, Vishwas A; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2016-04-01

    Genus Mucuna which is native to China and Eastern India comprises of perennial climbing legume with long slender branches, trifoliate leaves and bear green or brown pod covered with soft or rigid hairs that cause intense irritation. The plants of this genus are agronomically and economically important and commercially cultivated in India, China and other regions of the world. The high degrees of taxonomical confusions exist in Mucuna species that make authentic identification and classification difficult. In the present study, the genetic diversity among the 59 accessions of six species and three varieties of M. pruriens has been assessed using DNA fingerprinting based molecular markers techniques namely randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and combined dataset of RAPD and ISSR. Also, genetic relationship among two endemic species of Mucuna namely M. imbricata and M. macrocarpa and two varieties namely IIHR hybrid (MHR) and Dhanwantari (MD) with other species under study was investigated by using cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis. The cluster analysis of RAPD, ISSR and combined dataset of RAPD and ISSR clearly demonstrated the existence of high interspecific variation than intra-specific variation in genus Mucuna. The utility and efficacy of RAPD and ISSR for the study of intra species and interspecies genetic diversity was evident from AMOVA and PCoA analysis. This study demonstrates the genetic diversity in Mucuna species and indicates that these markers could be successfully used to assess genetic variation among the accessions of Mucuna species. PMID:27436912

  18. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM of brachiopod shell interiors for taxonomy: Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motchurova-Dekova Neda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM is a non-destructive technique for the investigation and visualization of the internal features of solid opaque objects, which allows reconstruction of a complete three-dimensional image of internal structures by recording of the differences in the effects on the passage of waves of energy reacting with those structures. Contrary to X-rays, produced in a conventional X-ray tube, the intense synchrotron light beams are sharply focused like a laser beam. We report encouraging results from the use of SRXTM for purely taxonomic purposes in brachiopods: an attempt to find a non-destructive and more efficient alternative to serial sectioning and several other methods of dissection together with the non-destructive method of X-ray computerised micro-tomography. Two brachiopod samples were investigated using SRXTM. In “Rhynchonella” flustracea it was possible to visualise the 3D shape of the crura and dental plates. In Terebratulina imbricata it was possible to reveal the form of the brachidium. It is encouraging that we have obtained such promising results using SRXTM with our very first two fortuitous samples, which had respectively fine-grained limestone and marl as infilling sediment, in contrast to the discouraging results communicated to us by some colleagues who have tested specimens with such infillings using X-ray micro-tomography. In future the holotypes, rare museum specimens or delicate Recent material may be preferentially subjected to this mode of analysis.

  19. Captura incidental de tortugas marinas durante El Niño 1997-1998, en el norte del Perú Sea turtles by-catch during El Niño 1997-1998, in northern Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Castro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta evidencia del aumento de capturas incidentales de tortugas marinas en el norte del Perú, durante el fenómeno El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENOS 1997-1998. El área de estudio se ubica frente a Lambayeque, entre 6°20'S y 7°10'S, y desde la costa hasta 35 mn mar afuera. Se analizaron y describieron los aparejos de enmalle por ser los que más interactuaban con estas tortugas, así como las características de las embarcaciones. Se registraron las tortugas capturadas por la flota artesanal entre enero 1996 y diciembre 1998; se identificó las especies capturadas y se analizó la captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE; la información se correlacionó con la temperatura superficial del mar (TSM. Se analizó un total de 265 operaciones de pesca, capturándose un total de 383 tortugas, correspondiendo 80,4% a la tortuga pico de loro (Lepidochelys olivacea, 19,3% a la tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas y 0.2% a la tortuga carey (Eretmochelys imbricata. Se encontró una correlación altamente significativa entre las capturas de tortugas marinas y la TSM con un intervalo de confianza del 99% (Pearson; r = 0,787; σ = 0,000; N = 36. Se recomienda reforzar la colaboración entre entidades públicas y privadas para implementar medidas de manejo adecuadas para la conservación de estas especies amenazadas, sobre todo ante la eventualidad de un fenómeno ENOS.The main purpose of this work is to present evidence of sea turtles by-catch increase in northern Peru during the 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO process. The study area is located off Lambayeque, between 6°20'S and 7°10'S, and from the coastline up to 35 nm offshore. The gillnet artisanal fishery was analyzed and described, since this was the fishing gear which most interact with sea turtles, the boat characteristics were evaluated as well. Sea turtle captures and species identification were registered from January 1996 until December 1998. The catch per unit effort (CPUE was

  20. Mass poisoning after consumption of a hawksbill turtle, Federated States of Micronesia, 2010

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    Boris Pavlin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine turtles of all species are capable of being toxic. On 17 October 2010, health authorities in the Federated States of Micronesia were notified of the sudden death of three children and the sickening of approximately 20 other people on Murilo Atoll in Chuuk State. The illnesses were suspected to be the result of mass consumption of a hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata. An investigation team was assembled to confirm the cause of the outbreak, describe the epidemiology of cases and provide recommendations for control. Methods: We conducted chart reviews, interviewed key informants, collected samples for laboratory analysis, performed environmental investigations and conducted a cohort study. Results: Four children and two adults died in the outbreak and 95 others were sickened; 84% of those who ate the turtle became ill (n = 101. The relative risk for developing illness after consuming the turtle was 11.1 (95% confidence inteval: 4.8–25.9; there was a dose-dependent relationship between amount of turtle meat consumed and risk of illness. Environmental and epidemiological investigations revealed no alternative explanation for the mass illness. Laboratory testing failed to identify a causative agent. Conclusion: We concluded that turtle poisoning (also called chelonitoxism was the cause of the outbreak on Murilo. The range of illness described in this investigation is consistent with previously reported cases of chelonitoxism. This devastating incident highlights the dangers, particularly to children, of consuming turtle meat. Future incidents are certain to occur unless action is taken to alter turtle-eating behaviour in coastal communities throughout the world.

  1. Effect of Anionic Surfactant Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate(LAS) on Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Aquatic Plants%阴离子型表面活性剂(LAS)对水生植物生理生化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红玉; 周朴华; 杨仁斌; 廖柏寒; 鲁双庆; 余苹中

    2001-01-01

    采用室内培养实验方法, 以植物的生长量、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性变化作为观测指标,研究了直链烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS)对稀脉浮萍(Lemna paucicostata L.)、满江红(Azolla imbricata(Roxb.) Nakai)、水网藻(Hydrodictyon sp.)生理生化特性的影响. 结果表明,当 LAS浓度超过 1 mg@ L-1时,稀脉浮萍的生长受到严重抑制,在 10、100 mg@ L-1下,出现负增长. CAT、POD活性变化与细胞受伤程度直接相关,可作为植物分子生态毒理学指标. LAS浓度在 0-10 mg@ L-1范围内,随着浓度升高,酶活性增加,清除细胞中由于 LAS产生的过氧化物伤害; 当浓度超过 10 mg@ L-1时,植物受到明显损伤,甚至死亡. 同时发现, CAT、POD活性水平与植物的类群直接相关, 被子植物稀脉浮萍的酶活性比蕨类植物满江红的高,藻类植物水网藻酶活性最低.

  2. SURVEY OF THE NOCUITÉ OF THE CONTRAPTIONS AND TECHNIQUES OF ARTISANAL FISHING ON THE POPULATIONS OF NAVY TURTLES OF THE BAY OF LOANGO (CONGO

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    Parisse Akouango

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chelonia marine turtle species preservation is one of the international community challenges through the world. In Congo-Brazzaville, the Renatura organization (ONG is engage to the biodiversity marine turtle species protection. Among the five of seven marine turtle species encountered in the coast, Turtle lute (Dermochelys coriacea; Green turtle (Chelonia mydas; Olive turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea; Turtle caouanne (Caretta caretta and Turtle overlapped (Eretmochelys imbricata. All these species of navy turtles well that protected by different international conventions, undergo several threats among which the nets and contraptions of traditional fishing constitute one of the main reasons of their decline. Indeed the accidental captures in the nets of the traditional fishers represent a serious threat for the navy turtles. This problem is delicate to manage because these holds don't depend directly on the will of the fishers. Indeed the turtles take themselves inauspiciously in the nets and entangle themselves of it while trying to clear itself/themselves of the net. To remedy this situation, Renatura Congo has, in 2005, initiated a program of liberation of the accidental captures of navy turtles in the nets of traditional fishing. About 1500 liberations are done annually by the agents of Renatura Congo. The liberation of these turtles doesn't constitute a long-term solution. Also, before the size of their accidental captures, it appeared to us necessary to bring our contribution in the survey of the nocuité of the contraptions and techniques of traditional fishing used to the bay of Loango in order to meter in evidence those that are more harmful. Such an objective reaches once, will allow us to improve these contraptions and techniques in order to reduce the risks of accidental captures while maintaining the level of the holds of fish and other aquatic organisms.

  3. Nest site selection and hatching success of hawksbill and loggerhead sea turtles (Testudines, Cheloniidae at Arembepe Beach, northeastern Brazil

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    Thiago Zagonel Serafini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nest site selection influences the hatching success of sea turtles and represents a crucial aspect of their reproductive process. Arembepe Beach, in the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, is a known nest site for Caretta caretta and Eretmochelys imbricata. For the nesting seasons in 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, we analyzed the influence of beach profile and amount of beach vegetation cover on nest site selection and the hatching success for both species. Loggerhead turtles nested preferentially in the sand zone, while hawksbill turtles demonstrated no preferences for either sand or vegetation zone. Beach vegetation was important in the modulation of nest site selection behavior for both species, but the amount of beach vegetation cover influenced (negatively hatching success only for the hawksbill, mainly via the increment of non-hatched eggs.Hatching success, outside the tide risk zone, was not influenced by the position of the nests along the beach profile. The pattern of nest distribution by species indicated that management of nests at risk of inundation and erosion by the tide is more important for loggerhead turtles than for hawksbill turtles. Beach vegetation is animportant factor in the conservation of these sea turtle species. Nests that are at risk due to tidal inundation and erosion can be translocated to any position along the beach profile without producing any significant effect on hatching success, as long as highdensities of beach vegetation cover are avoided for hawksbill nests. It is important to point out that the pattern we report here for distribution of hawksbill nests along the beach profile could be due in part to the influence of pure and hybrid individuals, since there are reports of hybridization among hawksbills and loggerheads to the study site.

  4. To eat or not to eat? Debris selectivity by marine turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Marine debris is a growing problem for wildlife, and has been documented to affect more than 267 species worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of marine debris ingestion in 115 sea turtles stranded in Queensland between 2006-2011, and assessed how the ingestion rates differ between species (Eretmochelys imbricata vs. Chelonia mydas) and by turtle size class (smaller oceanic feeders vs. larger benthic feeders). Concurrently, we conducted 25 beach surveys to estimate the composition of the debris present in the marine environment. Based on this proxy measurement of debris availability, we modeled turtles' debris preferences (color and type) using a resource selection function, a method traditionally used for habitat and food selection. We found no significant difference in the overall probability of ingesting debris between the two species studied, both of which have similar life histories. Curved carapace length, however, was inversely correlated with the probability of ingesting debris; 54.5% of pelagic sized turtles had ingested debris, whereas only 25% of benthic feeding turtles were found with debris in their gastrointestinal system. Benthic and pelagic sized turtles also exhibited different selectivity ratios for debris ingestion. Benthic phase turtles had a strong selectivity for soft, clear plastic, lending support to the hypothesis that sea turtles ingest debris because it resembles natural prey items such as jellyfish. Pelagic turtles were much less selective in their feeding, though they showed a trend towards selectivity for rubber items such as balloons. Most ingested items were plastic and were positively buoyant. This study highlights the need to address increasing amounts of plastic in the marine environment, and provides evidence for the disproportionate ingestion of balloons by marine turtles.

  5. To eat or not to eat? Debris selectivity by marine turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qamar Schuyler

    Full Text Available Marine debris is a growing problem for wildlife, and has been documented to affect more than 267 species worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of marine debris ingestion in 115 sea turtles stranded in Queensland between 2006-2011, and assessed how the ingestion rates differ between species (Eretmochelys imbricata vs. Chelonia mydas and by turtle size class (smaller oceanic feeders vs. larger benthic feeders. Concurrently, we conducted 25 beach surveys to estimate the composition of the debris present in the marine environment. Based on this proxy measurement of debris availability, we modeled turtles' debris preferences (color and type using a resource selection function, a method traditionally used for habitat and food selection. We found no significant difference in the overall probability of ingesting debris between the two species studied, both of which have similar life histories. Curved carapace length, however, was inversely correlated with the probability of ingesting debris; 54.5% of pelagic sized turtles had ingested debris, whereas only 25% of benthic feeding turtles were found with debris in their gastrointestinal system. Benthic and pelagic sized turtles also exhibited different selectivity ratios for debris ingestion. Benthic phase turtles had a strong selectivity for soft, clear plastic, lending support to the hypothesis that sea turtles ingest debris because it resembles natural prey items such as jellyfish. Pelagic turtles were much less selective in their feeding, though they showed a trend towards selectivity for rubber items such as balloons. Most ingested items were plastic and were positively buoyant. This study highlights the need to address increasing amounts of plastic in the marine environment, and provides evidence for the disproportionate ingestion of balloons by marine turtles.

  6. A Catalase-related Hemoprotein in Coral Is Specialized for Synthesis of Short-chain Aldehydes: DISCOVERY OF P450-TYPE HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE ACTIVITY IN A CATALASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teder, Tarvi; Lõhelaid, Helike; Boeglin, William E; Calcutt, Wade M; Brash, Alan R; Samel, Nigulas

    2015-08-01

    In corals a catalase-lipoxygenase fusion protein transforms arachidonic acid to the allene oxide 8R,9-epoxy-5,9,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid from which arise cyclopentenones such as the prostanoid-related clavulones. Recently we cloned two catalase-lipoxygenase fusion protein genes (a and b) from the coral Capnella imbricata, form a being an allene oxide synthase and form b giving uncharacterized polar products (Lõhelaid, H., Teder, T., Tõldsepp, K., Ekins, M., and Samel, N. (2014) PloS ONE 9, e89215). Here, using HPLC-UV, LC-MS, and NMR methods, we identify a novel activity of fusion protein b, establishing its role in cleaving the lipoxygenase product 8R-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid into the short-chain aldehydes (5Z)-8-oxo-octenoic acid and (3Z,6Z)-dodecadienal; these primary products readily isomerize in an aqueous medium to the corresponding 6E- and 2E,6Z derivatives. This type of enzymatic cleavage, splitting the carbon chain within the conjugated diene of the hydroperoxide substrate, is known only in plant cytochrome P450 hydroperoxide lyases. In mechanistic studies using (18)O-labeled substrate and incubations in H2(18)O, we established synthesis of the C8-oxo acid and C12 aldehyde with the retention of the hydroperoxy oxygens, consistent with synthesis of a short-lived hemiacetal intermediate that breaks down spontaneously into the two aldehydes. Taken together with our initial studies indicating differing gene regulation of the allene oxide synthase and the newly identified catalase-related hydroperoxide lyase and given the role of aldehydes in plant defense, this work uncovers a potential pathway in coral stress signaling and a novel enzymatic activity in the animal kingdom.

  7. Core and body surface temperatures of nesting leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas J; McCafferty, Dominic J; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-07-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are the largest species of marine turtle and the fourth most massive extant reptile. In temperate waters they maintain body temperatures higher than surrounding seawater through a combination of insulation, physiological, and behavioural adaptations. Nesting involves physical activity in addition to contact with warm sand and air, potentially presenting thermal challenges in the absence of the cooling effect of water, and data are lacking with which to understand their nesting thermal biology. Using non-contact methods (thermal imaging and infrared thermometry) to avoid any stress-related effects, we investigated core and surface temperature during nesting. The mean±SE core temperature was 31.4±0.05°C (newly emerged eggs) and was not correlated with environmental conditions on the nesting beach. Core temperature of leatherbacks was greater than that of hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting at a nearby colony, 30.0±0.13°C. Body surface temperatures of leatherbacks showed regional variation, the lateral and dorsal regions of the head were warmest while the carapace was the coolest surface. Surface temperature increased during the early nesting phases, then levelled off or decreased during later phases with the rates of change varying between body regions. Body region, behavioural phase of nesting and air temperature were found to be the best predictors of surface temperature. Regional variation in surface temperature were likely due to alterations in blood supply, and temporal changes in local muscular activity of flippers during the different phases of nesting. Heat exchange from the upper surface of the turtle was dominated by radiative heat loss from all body regions and small convective heat gains to the carapace and front flippers. PMID:25965013

  8. 莱芜水生观赏植物资源调查及其开发利用研究%Investigation and Exploitation of Hydrophilous Ornamental Plant Resources in Laiwu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绪霞; 温学森; 亓翠英; 王峰祥

    2014-01-01

    Based on the reference of related data , the field survey about the hydrophilous ornamental plants in Laiwu was done in their distribution , habitat and application situation in gardens .The results showed that there were 94 species of hydrophilous ornamental plants from 38 families were found in Laiwu area .Lyth-rum salicaria, Acorus calamus, Juncus effusus, Hydrocharis dubia, Scirpus tabernaemontani, Nymphoides pel-tatum, Salvinia natans, Marsilea quadrifolia, Azoila imbricata, Sparganium stoloniferum and so on were screened with higher ornamental value and better market application prospect .It was suggested that the wet-land plant recourses should be protected and exploited reasonably in Laiwu .%在查阅相关资料的基础上,对莱芜市范围内栽培水生观赏植物的园林应用现状进行了调查,并记录了水生观赏植物资源的种类、分布及生境特点。结果表明:莱芜水生观赏植物共计38科94种;从中筛选出了千屈菜、菖蒲、灯芯草、水鳖、水葱、荇菜、槐叶萍、苹、满江红、黑三棱等具有较高观赏价值和市场开发前景的优良植物资源。建议对湿地植物资源进行合理保护和开发利用。

  9. In Situ Conservation of Some Rare and Endemic Species of Iridaceae Family in National Botanical Garden of Georgia

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    Tamar Nadiradze

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article covers some information on anthropogenic influence upon natural ecosystems that is considered to be one of the strongest factors for reducing biodiversity of Georgian flora. With this purpose, some species of fam. Iridaceae that need to be protected under in situ conditions are being studied. The paper focuses on the fam. Iridaceae. This family is particularly interesting as it unites a considerable number of valuable, beautifully flowering plants with ornamental leaves, representing different biomorphs. Particularly rare and endangered species are: Iris iberica, I. Grossheimii, I. Lycotis, I. Camillae, I. Elegantissima, etc. We have carried out complex studies of bio-ecological peculiarities of bulbous geophytes and ephemeroids of genus Iridodictyum winogradowii, Ir. Reticulatum, Siphonastilis lasica and Iuno caucasica. There has been studied rhythm of growth and development of vital cycle of monocarpic shootings and ways of their propagation in the sub arid zone of East Georgia. There should be mentioned that they have perfectly adapted to the conditions. Such rare species of rootstock plants like Iris iberica, I. Carthalinical. Aphylla, I. graminea, I. imbricata, I. timofejewii, I. prilipkoana, I. musulmanica, Siphonastilis lazica and others even give abundant self-seedlings that undoubtedly makes it possible to protect them from being finally extinct. All the investigated plants can be recommended for using in landscape architecture under the conditions of East Georgia that will contribute to conservation of the valuable genofond of relict and endemic plants of Georgian flora. The work deals with the results of in situ conservation of some of rare and endemic species of fam. Iridaceae from Iridaceae Juss family. According to IUCN categories, the studied taxaare discussed as the endangered species in nature.

  10. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April 2015

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    Α. ΖΕΝΕΤΟΣ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native fish species include: the slender sunfish Ranzania laevis and the scalloped ribbonfish Zu cristatus in Calabria; the Azores rockling Gaidropsarus granti in Calabria and Sicily; the agujon needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis in the Northern Aegean; and the amphibious behaviour of Gouania willdenowi in Southern Turkey. As regards molluscs, the interesting findings include Ischnochiton usticensis in Calabria and Thordisa filix in the bay of Piran (Slovenia. The stomatopod Parasquilla ferussaci was collected from Lesvos island (Greece; the isopod Anilocra frontalis was observed parasitizing the alien Pteragogus trispilus in the Rhodes area. The asteroid Tethyaster subinermis and the butterfly ray Gymnura altavela were reported from several localities in the Greek Ionian and Aegean Seas. The new records of alien species include: the antenna codlet Bregmaceros atlanticus in Saronikos Gulf; three  new fish records and two decapods from Egypt; the establishment of the two spot cardinal fish Cheilodipterus novemstriatus and the first record of the Indo-Pacific marble shrimp Saron marmoratus in semi-dark caves along the Lebanese coastline; the finding of Lagocephalus sceleratus, Sargocentron rubrum, Fistularia commersonii and Stephanolepis diaspros around Lipsi island (Aegean Sea, Greece; the decapod Penaeus hathor in Aegean waters; the decapod Penaeus aztecus and the nudibranch Melibe viridis in the Dodecanese islands; the finding of Pinctada imbricata radiata in the Mar Grande of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy and the Maliakos Gulf (Greece.  

  11. Distribution patterns and changes of aquatic plant communities in Napahai Wetland in northwestern Yunnan Plateau,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derong XIAO; Kun TIAN; Hua YUAN; Yuming YANG; Ningyun LI; Shouguo XU

    2008-01-01

    Using GPS technology and community research methods for plant communities,we investigated the distribution patterns of aquatic plant communities in the high plateaus of the Napahai Wetlands,Yunnan,China,as well as the species changes of plant communities compared with that of 24 years ago since 2005.We found that the types and numbers of aquatic plant communities have changed.Some pollution-tolerant,nutrient-loving plant communities such as Scirpus tabernaemontani,Zizania caduciflora,Myriophyllum spicatum,and Azolla imbricata flourished,while the primary aquatic plant com-munities were reduced or even disappeared.The number of aquatic plant communities were increased from nine to 12 with the addition of two new emergent plant com-munities and one new floating-leaved plant community.The increase in emergent plant communities was signifi-cant.From east to west and from south to north,various types of plant communities were continuously distributed,including floating-leaved plant communities,emergent plant communities and submerged plant communities.The composition of the communities became more com-plicated and the number of accompanying species increased,while the percentage ratio of dominant plant species declined.In 2005,the coverage of emergent plant communities was the largest (528.42 hm2) followed by submerged plant communities (362.50 hm2) and the float-ing-leaf plant communities was the smallest (70.23 hm2).The variations in the distribution of aquatic plant com-munities in the Napahai Wetlands reflect the natural responses to the change of the wetland ecological envir-onment.This study indicates that human disturbances have led to an inward movement of the wetland shoreline,a decrease in water quality and a reduction in wetland habitat.

  12. Factors affecting hatch success of hawksbill sea turtles on Long Island, Antigua, West Indies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Allan Ditmer

    Full Text Available Current understanding of the factors influencing hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata hatch success is disparate and based on relatively short-term studies or limited sample sizes. Because global populations of hawksbills are heavily depleted, evaluating the parameters that impact hatch success is important to their conservation and recovery. Here, we use data collected by the Jumby Bay Hawksbill Project (JBHP to investigate hatch success. The JBHP implements saturation tagging protocols to study a hawksbill rookery in Antigua, West Indies. Habitat data, which reflect the varied nesting beaches, are collected at egg deposition, and nest contents are exhumed and categorized post-emergence. We analyzed hatch success using mixed-model analyses with explanatory and predictive datasets. We incorporated a random effect for turtle identity and evaluated environmental, temporal and individual-based reproductive variables. Hatch success averaged 78.6% (SD: 21.2% during the study period. Highly supported models included multiple covariates, including distance to vegetation, deposition date, individual intra-seasonal nest number, clutch size, organic content, and sand grain size. Nests located in open sand were predicted to produce 10.4 more viable hatchlings per clutch than nests located >1.5 m into vegetation. For an individual first nesting in early July, the fourth nest of the season yielded 13.2 more viable hatchlings than the initial clutch. Generalized beach section and inter-annual variation were also supported in our explanatory dataset, suggesting that gaps remain in our understanding of hatch success. Our findings illustrate that evaluating hatch success is a complex process, involving multiple environmental and individual variables. Although distance to vegetation and hatch success were inversely related, vegetation is an important component of hawksbill nesting habitat, and a more complete assessment of the impacts of specific

  13. Enhancing the use of Argos satellite data for home range and long distance migration studies of marine animals.

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    Xavier Hoenner

    Full Text Available Accurately quantifying animals' spatial utilisation is critical for conservation, but has long remained an elusive goal due to technological impediments. The Argos telemetry system has been extensively used to remotely track marine animals, however location estimates are characterised by substantial spatial error. State-space models (SSM constitute a robust statistical approach to refine Argos tracking data by accounting for observation errors and stochasticity in animal movement. Despite their wide use in ecology, few studies have thoroughly quantified the error associated with SSM predicted locations and no research has assessed their validity for describing animal movement behaviour. We compared home ranges and migratory pathways of seven hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata estimated from (a highly accurate Fastloc GPS data and (b locations computed using common Argos data analytical approaches. Argos 68(th percentile error was 4 km for LC ≤ 0. Argos error structure was highly longitudinally skewed and was, for all LC, adequately modelled by a Student's t distribution. Both habitat use and migration routes were best recreated using SSM locations post-processed by re-adding good Argos positions (LC 1, 2 and 3 and filtering terrestrial points (mean distance to migratory tracks ± SD = 2.2 ± 2.4 km; mean home range overlap and error ratio = 92.2% and 285.6 respectively. This parsimonious and objective statistical procedure however still markedly overestimated true home range sizes, especially for animals exhibiting restricted movements. Post-processing SSM locations nonetheless constitutes the best analytical technique for remotely sensed Argos tracking data and we therefore recommend using this approach to rework historical Argos datasets for better estimation of animal spatial utilisation for research and evidence-based conservation purposes.

  14. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae at La Gamba (Costa Rica

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    Michael Schmitt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found.Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression.A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of

  15. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of

  16. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

    2013-01-01

    A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young

  17. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

    2013-01-01

    A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young

  18. Nutritional profile of phytococktail from trans-Himalayan plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhar

    Full Text Available We estimated the nutritive value, vitamin content, amino acid composition, fatty acid content, and mineral profile of a phytococktail comprising sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides, apricot (Prunus armeniaca, and roseroot (Rhodiola imbricata from trans-Himalaya. The free vitamin forms in the phytococktail were determined by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS. Vitamin E and B-complex vitamins were detected as the principle vitamins. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC with pre-column derivatization was used for identification and quantification of amino acids. Eight essential and eleven non-essential amino acids were quantified, and the content ranged between 76.33 and 9485.67 µg/g. Among the essential amino acids, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-lysine, L-leucine, and L-histidine were found to be the dominant contributors. We also quantified the fatty acids in the phytococktail by using gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID with fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs derivatization. The analysis revealed the presence of 4 major fatty acids contributing to the total lipid content. Palmitic acid was found to be the rich source of saturated fatty acid (SFA and constituted ∼31% of the total lipid content. Among the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs, palmitoleic acid (43.47%, oleic acid (20.89%, and linoleic acid (4.31% were prominent. The mineral profiling was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES, and it was found to contain a number of important dietary mineral elements. The harsh climatic conditions, difficult terrain, and logistic constraints at high altitude regions of Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert lead to the scarcity of fresh fruits and vegetables. Therefore, the source of multiple vitamins, essential amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary minerals from the phytococktail would provide great health benefit

  19. Aquatic Plant Diversity and Its Changes in Changhu Lake of Hubei Province in China%长湖水生植物多样性及其变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭映辉; 简永兴; 倪乐意; 王建波; 陈家宽

    2003-01-01

    研究了湖北省第三大湖泊长湖水生植物多样性的现状及其长期变化,并探讨了多样性丧失的机理及多样性恢复与保护的有效途径.主要结论:(1)长湖现有水生植物98种,多度最大的是微齿眼子菜(Potamogeton maackianus)、密齿苦草(Vallisneria denseserrulata)、野菱(Trapa incisa)、双角菱(T.bispinosa)、菹草(Potamogeton crispus)、紫萍(Spirodela polyrhiza)、穗花狐尾藻(Myriophyllum spicatum)、轮叶黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)、满江红(Azolla imbricata).(2)长湖现有水生植物群丛类型14个,群落物种多样性指数最高的是芡实+野菱+双角菱群丛 (Euryale ferox+Trapa incisa+T.bispinosa Ass.),其次为轮叶黑藻+密齿苦草+大茨藻群丛 (Hydrilla verticillata+Vallisneria denseserrulata+Najas marioa Ass.) 与竹叶眼子菜+穗花狐尾藻群丛 (Potamogeton malaianus+Myriophyllum spicatum Ass.).(3)20年来,已有6种水生植物和7个水生植物群丛类型从长湖消失,植被覆盖率下降了54.85%,全湖平均单位面积生物量下降了69.78%.(4)多样性丧失的主要原因是过度养殖、过度打草和耙捞作业,以及由此导致的湖水透明度的大幅度下降.(5)多样性恢复的有效途径是政府部门的行政干预与经济支持.

  20. Water use in four model tropical plant associations established in the lowlands of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Soto, Marco V; Ewel, John J

    2008-12-01

    We examined soil water use patterns of four model plant associations established in the North Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica by comparing the stable hydrogen isotope composition, deltaD, in xylem sap and in soil water at different depths, under rainy and dry conditions. Four 5-year-old model plant associations composed of 2 tree species (Hyeronima alchorneoides and Cedrela odorata) having different architecture and phenology were studied. Average tree height was 8.9 and 7.6 m, respectively. Each tree species was grown in monoculture and in polyculture with 2 perennial monocotyledons (Euterpe oleracea and Heliconia imbricata). Maximum rooting depth at the time of 6D determination was approximately 2 m for almost all species. Most roots of all species were concentrated in the upper soil layers. Stomatal conductance to water vapor (gS) was higher in the deciduous C. odorata than in the evergreen H. alchorneoides; within each species, g, did not differ when the trees were grown in mono or in polyculture. During the rainy season, gradients in soil water 6D were not observed. Average rainy season xylem sap deltaD did not differ among members of the plant combinations tested (-30% per thousand), and was more similar to deltaD values of shallow soil water. Under dry conditions, volumetric soil water content declined from 50 to approximately 35%, and modest gradients in soil water deltaD were observed. Xylem sap deltaD obtained during dry conditions was significantly lower than rainy season values. Xylem sap deltaD of plants growing in the four associations varied between -9 and -22% per hundred, indicating that shallow water was predominantly absorbed during the dry period too. Differences in xylem sap deltaD of trees and monocots were also detected, but no significant patterns emerged. The results suggest that: (a) the plant associations examined extracted water predominantly from shallow soil layers (<1 m), (b) the natural isotopic variation in soil and plant water at

  1. Species and rotation frequency influence soil nitrogen in simplified tropical plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewel, John J

    2006-04-01

    Among the many factors that potentially influence the rate at which nitrogen (N) becomes available to plants in terrestrial ecosystems are the identity and diversity of species composition, frequency of disturbance or stand turnover, and time. Replicated suites of investigator-designed communities afforded an opportunity to examine the effects of those factors on net N mineralization over a 12-year period. The communities consisted of large-stature perennial plants, comprising three tree species (Hyeronima alchorneoides, Cedrela odorata, and Cordia alliodora), a palm (Euterpe oleracea), and a large, perennial herb (Heliconia imbricata). Trees were grown in monoculture and in combination with the other two life-forms; tree monocultures were subjected to rotations of one or four years, or like the three-life-form systems, left uncut. The work was conducted on fertile soil in the humid lowlands of Costa Rica, a site with few abiotic constraints to plant growth. Rates of net N mineralization and nitrification were high, typically in the range of 0.2-0.8 microg x g(1) x d(-1), with net nitrification slightly higher than net mineralization, indicating preferential uptake of ammonium (NH4+) by plants and microbes. Net rates of N mineralization were about 30% lower in stands of one of the three tree species, Hyeronima, than in stands of the other two. Contrary to expectations, short-rotation management (one or four years) resulted in higher net rates of N mineralization than in uncut stands, whether the latter were composed of a single tree species or a combination of life-forms. Neither additional species richness nor replenishment of leached N augmented mineralization rates. The net rate at which N was supplied tended to be lowest in stands where demand for N was highest. Careful choice of species, coupled with low frequency of disturbance, can lead to maintenance of N within biomass and steady rates of within-system circulation, whereas pulses, whether caused by cutting

  2. Water use in four model tropical plant associations established in the lowlands of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Soto, Marco V; Ewel, John J

    2008-12-01

    We examined soil water use patterns of four model plant associations established in the North Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica by comparing the stable hydrogen isotope composition, deltaD, in xylem sap and in soil water at different depths, under rainy and dry conditions. Four 5-year-old model plant associations composed of 2 tree species (Hyeronima alchorneoides and Cedrela odorata) having different architecture and phenology were studied. Average tree height was 8.9 and 7.6 m, respectively. Each tree species was grown in monoculture and in polyculture with 2 perennial monocotyledons (Euterpe oleracea and Heliconia imbricata). Maximum rooting depth at the time of 6D determination was approximately 2 m for almost all species. Most roots of all species were concentrated in the upper soil layers. Stomatal conductance to water vapor (gS) was higher in the deciduous C. odorata than in the evergreen H. alchorneoides; within each species, g, did not differ when the trees were grown in mono or in polyculture. During the rainy season, gradients in soil water 6D were not observed. Average rainy season xylem sap deltaD did not differ among members of the plant combinations tested (-30% per thousand), and was more similar to deltaD values of shallow soil water. Under dry conditions, volumetric soil water content declined from 50 to approximately 35%, and modest gradients in soil water deltaD were observed. Xylem sap deltaD obtained during dry conditions was significantly lower than rainy season values. Xylem sap deltaD of plants growing in the four associations varied between -9 and -22% per hundred, indicating that shallow water was predominantly absorbed during the dry period too. Differences in xylem sap deltaD of trees and monocots were also detected, but no significant patterns emerged. The results suggest that: (a) the plant associations examined extracted water predominantly from shallow soil layers (<1 m), (b) the natural isotopic variation in soil and plant water at

  3. Species and rotation frequency influence soil nitrogen in simplified tropical plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewel, John J

    2006-04-01

    Among the many factors that potentially influence the rate at which nitrogen (N) becomes available to plants in terrestrial ecosystems are the identity and diversity of species composition, frequency of disturbance or stand turnover, and time. Replicated suites of investigator-designed communities afforded an opportunity to examine the effects of those factors on net N mineralization over a 12-year period. The communities consisted of large-stature perennial plants, comprising three tree species (Hyeronima alchorneoides, Cedrela odorata, and Cordia alliodora), a palm (Euterpe oleracea), and a large, perennial herb (Heliconia imbricata). Trees were grown in monoculture and in combination with the other two life-forms; tree monocultures were subjected to rotations of one or four years, or like the three-life-form systems, left uncut. The work was conducted on fertile soil in the humid lowlands of Costa Rica, a site with few abiotic constraints to plant growth. Rates of net N mineralization and nitrification were high, typically in the range of 0.2-0.8 microg x g(1) x d(-1), with net nitrification slightly higher than net mineralization, indicating preferential uptake of ammonium (NH4+) by plants and microbes. Net rates of N mineralization were about 30% lower in stands of one of the three tree species, Hyeronima, than in stands of the other two. Contrary to expectations, short-rotation management (one or four years) resulted in higher net rates of N mineralization than in uncut stands, whether the latter were composed of a single tree species or a combination of life-forms. Neither additional species richness nor replenishment of leached N augmented mineralization rates. The net rate at which N was supplied tended to be lowest in stands where demand for N was highest. Careful choice of species, coupled with low frequency of disturbance, can lead to maintenance of N within biomass and steady rates of within-system circulation, whereas pulses, whether caused by cutting

  4. Radiation countermeasures from Himalayan herbs - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A successful radioprotector is the one, which essentially renders protection from the multi-organ dis-function syndrome (MODS) caused by the total body exposure to ionizing radiation. Our rationale is that and instead of a single molecule, a group of molecules/compounds working synergistically can combat the MODS more effectively. Plant extracts offer natural combinations of a plethora of compounds, which act through different mechanisms and are, therefore, the ideal choice. Plants of Himalayan regions have survived under extreme climatic conditions through millions of years and are expected to harbor a battery of anti-stress adaptive molecules offering survival benefits. Our group is actively engaged in developing composite herbal radioprotective preparations from Himalayan Plants. This group is working to develop radiation countermeasures by tapping the essential complex phytochemicals from the plants inhabiting extreme climatic zones of Himalayas. In our laboratory, systematic studies were undertaken to investigate some of these plants located at high altitude regions of Himalayas viz. Hippophae rhamnoides, Rhodiola imbricata and Podophylium hexandruin. The most effective preparation from each of these plants individually, could provide more than 80% survival benefit to the irradiated (10 Gy) mice population against zero per cent survival in non-drug treated irradiated (10 Gy) mice population. It was observed that whole extracts of plant provided much better protection than the partial extracts/fractions. It was also observed that some of the partial extracts/fractions although, provided much higher survival benefits, yet were found to be unsuitable for drug development due to much higher mutagenic and/or recombinogenic effects in comparison to the whole extracts, One of the preparations from leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides (drug) showed more than 90% survival benefits in the irradiated mice population. Only one time intra-peritoneal administration of the drug

  5. Somatic growth dynamics of West Atlantic hawksbill sea turtles: a spatio-temporal perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorndal, Karen A.; Chaloupka, Milani; Saba, Vincent S.; Diez, Carlos E.; van Dam, Robert P.; Krueger, Barry H.; Horrocks, Julia A.; Santos, Armando J. B.; Bellini, Cláudio; Marcovaldi, Maria A. G.; Nava, Mabel; Willis, Sue; Godley, Brendan J.; Gore, Shannon; Hawkes, Lucy A.; McGowan, Andrew; Witt, Matthew J.; Stringell, Thomas B.; Sanghera, Amdeep; Richardson, Peter B.; Broderick, Annette C.; Phillips, Quinton; Calosso, Marta C.; Claydon, John A. B.; Blumenthal, Janice; Moncada, Felix; Nodarse, Gonzalo; Medina, Yosvani; Dunbar, Stephen G.; Wood, Lawrence D.; Lagueux, Cynthia J.; Campbell, Cathi L.; Meylan, Anne B.; Meylan, Peter A.; Burns Perez, Virginia R.; Coleman, Robin A.; Strindberg, Samantha; Guzmán-H, Vicente; Hart, Kristen M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Hillis-Starr, Zandy; Lundgren, Ian; Boulon, Ralf H.; Connett, Stephen; Outerbridge, Mark E.; Bolten, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    Somatic growth dynamics are an integrated response to environmental conditions. Hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) are long-lived, major consumers in coral reef habitats that move over broad geographic areas (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). We evaluated spatio-temporal effects on hawksbill growth dynamics over a 33-yr period and 24 study sites throughout the West Atlantic and explored relationships between growth dynamics and climate indices. We compiled the largest ever data set on somatic growth rates for hawksbills – 3541 growth increments from 1980 to 2013. Using generalized additive mixed model analyses, we evaluated 10 covariates, including spatial and temporal variation, that could affect growth rates. Growth rates throughout the region responded similarly over space and time. The lack of a spatial effect or spatio-temporal interaction and the very strong temporal effect reveal that growth rates in West Atlantic hawksbills are likely driven by region-wide forces. Between 1997 and 2013, mean growth rates declined significantly and steadily by 18%. Regional climate indices have significant relationships with annual growth rates with 0- or 1-yr lags: positive with the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index (correlation = 0.99) and negative with Caribbean sea surface temperature (correlation = −0.85). Declines in growth rates between 1997 and 2013 throughout the West Atlantic most likely resulted from warming waters through indirect negative effects on foraging resources of hawksbills. These climatic influences are complex. With increasing temperatures, trajectories of decline of coral cover and availability in reef habitats of major prey species of hawksbills are not parallel. Knowledge of how choice of foraging habitats, prey selection, and prey abundance are affected by warming water temperatures is needed to understand how climate change will affect productivity of consumers that live in association with coral reefs. Main

  6. 濒危野生动植物药材非法贸易调查%Survey on Illegal Trade in Endangered Medicinal Species in China’s Traditional Chinese Medicine Wholesale Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹峰; 梦梦; 徐玲; 刘定震

    2015-01-01

    对10个药材市场上的沉香、冬虫夏草、肉苁蓉、蛤蚧、乌梢蛇、蕲蛇、金钱白花蛇、玳瑁、熊胆、麝香、虎骨、豹骨、犀牛角、羚羊角和穿山甲片等15种常用或曾用的濒危物种药材进行实地调查,结果表明:对国家明令禁止贸易的濒危物种药材公开摆卖现象并不突出,但其地下交易具有普遍性;虎豹骨和犀牛角的贸易已非常少见,仅0.8%和1.4%的药材经营者声称有售,而且他们都提及了贸易禁令,显示出从业人员较强的保护意识;“中国野生动物经营利用管理专用标识制度”的推行,在一定程度上遏制了标识物种药材的非法贸易;药市上部分濒危物种药材来自境外,走私现象依然存在。针对调查中存在的问题,建议修改和完善相应的法律法规、加大执法能力建设和打击力度、加强贸易和市场的监测、开展公众教育,以遏制药用濒危野生动植物药材的非法贸易。%In this survey,10 Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM)wholesale markets in China were visi-ted and 15 endangered medicinal species were recorded.The species include Aquilaria Spp.,Cordyceps sinensis,Cistanche Spp,Gekko gecko,Zaocys dhumnades,Agkistrodon acutus,Bungarus multicinctus, Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata)shell,Bear (Ursus thibetanus and U.arctos)bile,Musk (Moschus spp.),Tiger(Panthera tigris)bone,Leopard (Panthera pardus,Neofelis nebulosa and Uncia uncia,) bone,Rhino(Rhinoceros spp.)horn,Saiga(Saiga tatarica)horn and Pangolin(Manis spp.)scale.The investigation shows that the open illegal wildlife trade is not serious,however it is still common in black market.Very little tiger bone,leopard bone and rhino horn was found,only 0.8% and 1.4% dealers claimed to have tiger bone and rhino horn for sale,all of them mentioned the 1993 trade ban.The imple-mentation of Special Mark System of China Wildlife Management and Utilization has succeeded in de-creasing the

  7. 中东太平洋公海金枪鱼延绳钓误捕海龟的观察和分析%Observation and analysis of sea turtles mortality longline fishing in high seas of Central and Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴小杰; 李延; 许柳雄; 朱江峰

    2009-01-01

    根据2006年2-11月科学观察员对热带东太平洋公海海域(05°N~10°S,134°W~173°W)金枪鱼延绳钓渔业的调查,期间共投钩223次(天),误捕到绿海龟、蠵龟、丽龟、玳瑁和棱皮龟5种共22尾,死亡海龟13尾.从海龟误捕率看,平均每次尾数为0.098 65.平均每千钩尾数0.037 40.从海龟的钩获部位看,喙(嘴)上钩占41.0%,躯干部位上钩占13.6%,喉部上钩占13.6%,前肢上钩占18.2%,主绳缠绕被捕获占13.6%.海龟的误捕区域位于04°S以北海域,几乎可全年捕获.此外分析了不同钩位误捕海龟的数量,探讨了影响误捕率和死亡率的因素,提出保护对策.%Based on the data by scientific observer survey in the tropical Central and Eastern Pacific Ocean (05°N -10°S,134° W -173°W) by the tuna longline fishery targeting bigeye tuna during Feb.-Nov. , 2006, with the total 223 sets, 22 sea turtle bycatch were observed and analysed. The incidental sea turtles were classified as 5 species, namely green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas),loggerhead (Caretta caretta),Oliver ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), hawksbill turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata) and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) with total 22 individuals. There were 13 sea turtles mortality after capture. The incidental catch rate is 0. 09865 per set and 0. 374 0 per thousand hooks. The interaction between fishing gear and sea turtles showed that sea turtle body were hooked with mouth accounting for 41. 0% , external parts 13.6% , swallowed 13.6% .foreleg 18.2% and mainline entangement 13.6%. Most sea turtle bycatch occurred north of 04°S and almost all the year round. Analysis was also made to identify the specific hook number for interaction with sea turtles. Discussion was made on factors for affecting catch rate and mortality. Measures were suggested on conservation and by-catch mitigation for sea turtles.

  8. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia) Sevinç KAPAN, Sinem KABASAKAL, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department sevinckapan_yesilyurt@hotmail.com In this study, paleontology and stratigraphy of Neogene and Quaternary units around south of the Dardanelles have been examined using Gastropoda and Bivalvia fauna. In the investigation area, the base of the sediments that belongs to Neogene, consist of the volcanics which are formed with basalts, andesites and tuff. Neogene begins unconformity with basal conglomerate which are formed with basalt and tuff gravels. The measurable thickness of the Neogene sediments is approximately 200meters in total. First fossiliferius level which consist of Lymnocardium (Euxinicardium) nobile Sabba has showed similarities with the Pontian (Late Miocene) fauna of the Eastern Paratethys. The existence of Melanopsis and Psidium species indicate that the basin has been brackish water feeding by fresh water in the Early Pliocene. Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linne), Theodoxus (Calvertia) aff. imbricata Brusina, Theodoxus (Calvertia) licherdopoli scriptus (Stefanescu), Viviparus mammatus (Stefanescu), Valvata (Valavata) sulekiana Brusina, Valvata (Cincinna) crusitensis Fontannes, Hydrobia cf grandis Cobalcescu, Hydrobia ventrosa Monfort, Melanopsis (Melanopsis) cf. bergeroni Stefanescu, , Melanopsis (Melanopsis) sandbergeri rumana Tournouer, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma anili Taner, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma amaradica Fontannes, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) lanceolata Neumayr, Amphimelania fossariformis (Tournouer), Melanoides tuberculata monolithica (Bukowski), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller), Planorbarius thiollierei (Michaud), Potamida (Potamida) craiovensis craiovensis (Tournouer), Potamida (Potamida) berbestiensis (Fontannes), Unio pristinus davilai Porumbaru, Unio subexquisitus Jatzko, Anadonta zmaji