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Sample records for bankruptcy latvian radio

  1. Understanding Bankruptcy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstrøm, Anna; Isabella, Lynn A.

    2015-01-01

    Bankruptcies are becoming more and more prevalent, partly as a consequence of business conditions created by the financial crisis characterizing the beginning of the 21st century. Nonetheless, knowledge on the phenomenon of bankruptcy from the point of view of the people who undergo it is scant....... Knowledge on how members undergoing bankruptcy construe and make sense of their narrations of organizational death is important because when organizations die, members live on and in their afterlife their past forms and guides their present and future. In this inductive study, we focus on a small and local...... bank that went bankrupt as a consequence of the large and global crisis. Based on narrative interviews with 20 organizational members' the article offers a model that theorizes bankruptcy as a series of unfolding events that change a work world. Members narrate their immediate experience as a work...

  2. Corporate Bankruptcy Tourists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couwenberg, Oscar; Lubben, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Foreign corporations facing financial distress have a choice: resructure in their home jurisdiction or file for bankruptcy in the United States. And some number of foreign corporations do file bankruptcy petitions in the United States. But besides the occasional anecdotal account, how frequently thi

  3. Corporate Bankruptcy Tourists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couwenberg, Oscar; Lubben, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Foreign corporations facing financial distress have a choice: resructure in their home jurisdiction or file for bankruptcy in the United States. And some number of foreign corporations do file bankruptcy petitions in the United States. But besides the occasional anecdotal account, how frequently

  4. Evaluation of Suitability of Bankruptcy

    OpenAIRE

    Mackevičius, Jonas; Silvanavičiūtė, Simona

    2006-01-01

    Financial data is the main source of enterprise bankruptcy prediction. Applying bankruptcy prediction models, which consist of significant financial ratios, is one of the most simple as well as accurate ways for predicting bankruptcy of enterprises. With the help of these models, the threat of bankruptcy could be noticed several years before the process of bankruptcy actually starts. The research has proved the linear discriminant models (Altman, Springate, Taffler & Tisshaw) to be the mo...

  5. Bankruptcy Reform and Credit Cards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michelle J. White

    2007-01-01

    .... Personal bankruptcy filings fell to 600,000 in 2006. This paper explores why personal bankruptcy rates rose, and will argue that the main reason is the growth of "revolving debt"--mainly credit card debt...

  6. Predicting Bankruptcy in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul RASHID

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the financial ratios that are most significant in bankruptcy prediction for the non-financial sector of Pakistan based on a sample of companies which became bankrupt over the time period 1996-2006. Twenty four financial ratios covering four important financial attributes, namely profitability, liquidity, leverage, and turnover ratios, were examined for a five-year period prior bankruptcy. The discriminant analysis produced a parsimonious model of three variables viz. sales to total assets, EBIT to current liabilities, and cash flow ratio. Our estimates provide evidence that the firms having Z-value below zero fall into the “bankrupt” whereas the firms with Z-value above zero fall into the “non-bankrupt” category. The model achieved 76.9% prediction accuracy when it is applied to forecast bankruptcies on the underlying sample.

  7. Essential Corporate Bankruptcy Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couwenberg, Oscar; Lubben, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This article begins from a simple observation: Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code is the global standard for corporate restructuring, but at the same time it is a far more complex procedure than most jurisdictions seem to require. This observation begs the question what parts of a

  8. Physical Properties of Latvian Clays

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of clays mostly depends on its mineral and chemical composition, particle size and pH value. The mutual influence of these parameters is complex. Illite is the most abundant clay mineral in Latvia and usually used in building materials and pottery. The viscosity and plasticity of Latvian clays from several deposits were investigated and correlated with mineral composition, particle size and pH value. Fractionated and crude clay samples were used. The p...

  9. Unsecured debt, consumer bankruptcy, and small business

    OpenAIRE

    Meh, Césaire A.; Terajima, Yaz

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we develop a quantitative model of entrepreneurial activity (risk-taking) and consumer bankruptcy choices and use the model to study the effects of bankruptcy regulations on entrepreneurial activity, bankruptcy rate and welfare. We show that eliminating bankruptcy exemptions leads to a modest increase in the fraction of entrepreneurs, a large decrease in the overall bankruptcy rate and a significant welfare gain. In contrast, eliminating the whole consumer bankruptcy system lead...

  10. Bankruptcy as Implicit Health Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Neale Mahoney

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction between health insurance and the implicit insurance that people have because they can file (or threaten to file) for bankruptcy. With a simple model that captures key institutional features, I demonstrate that the financial risk from medical shocks is capped by the assets that could be seized in bankruptcy. For households with modest seizable assets, this implicit “bankruptcy insurance” can crowd out conventional health insurance. I test these predictions u...

  11. Health care insolvency and bankruptcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, L; Speiser, M; Maltz, A; Kirpalani, S

    1998-08-01

    Bankruptcy is an event that is often considered a business' worst nightmare. Debt, lawyers, and the U.S. government can lead to the eventual destruction of a business. This article shows how declaring bankruptcy can be a helpful instrument in continuing a successful venture in the health care marketplace.

  12. Why don’t Latvian pension funds diversify more internationally?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens); D. Vejina; R. Vilans

    2005-01-01

    textabstractLatvian employees have to choose a pension fund for the second-pillar of the Latvian pension system. These pension funds invest about 85% in domestic assets. In this paper, we address the question why this strong home bias might exist. Firstly, we conclude that the Latvian pension law is

  13. 7 CFR 762.148 - Bankruptcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) They were incurred in connection with the initiation of liquidation action prior to bankruptcy filing... collateral during bankruptcy may be used by the lender to pay reasonable costs, such as freight, labor and...

  14. Bankruptcy Law and Corporate Investment Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarantino, E.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes to the debate on optimal bankruptcy reform by providing a set of results that challenge the wisdom that "soft" bankruptcy codes have necessarily positive effects. The model hinges on the key idea that "soft" bankruptcy allows a poor performing entrepreneur to renegotiate the t

  15. 7 CFR 1980.475 - Bankruptcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.475 Bankruptcy. (a) It is the... protection is afforded to the business as defined under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code. Consequently... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Bankruptcy. 1980.475 Section 1980.475 Agriculture...

  16. Bankruptcy Law and Corporate Investment Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarantino, E.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes to the debate on optimal bankruptcy reform by providing a set of results that challenge the wisdom that "soft" bankruptcy codes have necessarily positive effects. The model hinges on the key idea that "soft" bankruptcy allows a poor performing entrepreneur to renegotiate the

  17. 7 CFR 4280.159 - Bankruptcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankruptcy. 4280.159 Section 4280.159 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL... Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.159 Bankruptcy. Bankruptcies will be handled in...

  18. Bankruptcy and the Per Capita Nucleolus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijink, S.; Borm, P.E.M.; Reijnierse, J.H.; Kleppe, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This article characterizes the per capita nucleolus for bankruptcy games as a bankruptcy rule. This rule, called the cligths rule, is based on the wellknown constrained equal awards principle. The essential feature of the rule however is that, for each bankruptcy problem, it takes into acc

  19. Paranormal beliefs of Latvian college students: a Latvian version of the revised paranormal belief scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utinans, A; Ancane, G; Tobacyk, J J; Boyraz, G; Livingston, M M; Tobacyk, J S

    2015-02-01

    A Latvian version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) was completed by 229 Latvian university students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed six relatively independent factors labeled Magical Abilities, Psychokinesis, Traditional Religious Belief, Superstition, Spirit Travel, and Extraordinary Life Forms. Based on the motivational-control model, it was hypothesized that the societal stressors affecting Latvian society during the last 50 yr. have led to a reduced sense of personal control which, in turn, has resulted in increased endorsement of paranormal beliefs to re-establish a sense of control. The motivational-control hypothesis was not supported. Results indicated that (except for Traditional Religious Belief in women), the majority of these students were disbelievers in paranormal phenomena. As hypothesized, Latvian women reported significantly greater paranormal belief than men.

  20. Bankruptcy Prediction with Rough Sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); V. Popova (Viara)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe bankruptcy prediction problem can be considered an or dinal classification problem. The classical theory of Rough Sets describes objects by discrete attributes, and does not take into account the order- ing of the attributes values. This paper proposes a modification of the Rough Set

  1. Bankruptcy Cascades in Interbank Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Gabriele; Mazloumian, Amin; Gallegati, Mauro; Helbing, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We study a credit network and, in particular, an interbank system with an agent-based model. To understand the relationship between business cycles and cascades of bankruptcies, we model a three-sector economy with goods, credit and interbank market. In the interbank market, the participating banks share the risk of bad debits, which may potentially spread a bank’s liquidity problems through the network of banks. Our agent-based model sheds light on the correlation between bankruptcy cascades and the endogenous economic cycle of booms and recessions. It also demonstrates the serious trade-off between, on the one hand, reducing risks of individual banks by sharing them and, on the other hand, creating systemic risks through credit-related interlinkages of banks. As a result of our study, the dynamics underlying the meltdown of financial markets in 2008 becomes much better understandable. PMID:23300760

  2. Bankruptcy cascades in interbank markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Gabriele; Mazloumian, Amin; Gallegati, Mauro; Helbing, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We study a credit network and, in particular, an interbank system with an agent-based model. To understand the relationship between business cycles and cascades of bankruptcies, we model a three-sector economy with goods, credit and interbank market. In the interbank market, the participating banks share the risk of bad debits, which may potentially spread a bank's liquidity problems through the network of banks. Our agent-based model sheds light on the correlation between bankruptcy cascades and the endogenous economic cycle of booms and recessions. It also demonstrates the serious trade-off between, on the one hand, reducing risks of individual banks by sharing them and, on the other hand, creating systemic risks through credit-related interlinkages of banks. As a result of our study, the dynamics underlying the meltdown of financial markets in 2008 becomes much better understandable.

  3. Bankruptcy cascades in interbank markets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Tedeschi

    Full Text Available We study a credit network and, in particular, an interbank system with an agent-based model. To understand the relationship between business cycles and cascades of bankruptcies, we model a three-sector economy with goods, credit and interbank market. In the interbank market, the participating banks share the risk of bad debits, which may potentially spread a bank's liquidity problems through the network of banks. Our agent-based model sheds light on the correlation between bankruptcy cascades and the endogenous economic cycle of booms and recessions. It also demonstrates the serious trade-off between, on the one hand, reducing risks of individual banks by sharing them and, on the other hand, creating systemic risks through credit-related interlinkages of banks. As a result of our study, the dynamics underlying the meltdown of financial markets in 2008 becomes much better understandable.

  4. EU Enlargement and Latvian Citizenship Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M. Morris

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines whether its desire to join the European Union exerted any influence upon Latvian nationality policy. The author concludes that external pressure upon Latvian policymakers during the accession process led to a significantly more liberal and inclusive citizenship law than might have otherwise been adopted. The analysis includes an assessment of current concerns in nationality and minority policy in Latvia including the large number and status of non-citizens, the application of language legislation, and the reform of the education system. EU membership is expected to make Latvian citizenship more attractive for non-citizens and the country will continue to be required to meet its international obligations regarding treatment of the non-citizen population and minorities. However, there is a risk that the completion of accession negotiations and accompanying reduction in European Commission influence coupled with intense pressure on limited economic and administrative resources in the new member states will sideline respect for and protection of minority rights.

  5. Systemic liquidity risk and bankruptcy exceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2010-01-01

    A series of amendments to US and EU bankruptcy laws created in 2002 - 2005 unique bankruptcy privileges for secured financial credit and derivatives. This major legal change, though poorly understood, created super priority rights for some investors. It fed the final and most damaging stage of the s

  6. Probabilistic Modeling and Visualization for Bankruptcy Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antunes, Francisco; Ribeiro, Bernardete; Pereira, Francisco Camara

    2017-01-01

    In accounting and finance domains, bankruptcy prediction is of great utility for all of the economic stakeholders. The challenge of accurate assessment of business failure prediction, specially under scenarios of financial crisis, is known to be complicated. Although there have been many successful...... studies on bankruptcy detection, seldom probabilistic approaches were carried out. In this paper we assume a probabilistic point-of-view by applying Gaussian Processes (GP) in the context of bankruptcy prediction, comparing it against the Support Vector Machines (SVM) and the Logistic Regression (LR......). Using real-world bankruptcy data, an in-depth analysis is conducted showing that, in addition to a probabilistic interpretation, the GP can effectively improve the bankruptcy prediction performance with high accuracy when compared to the other approaches. We additionally generate a complete graphical...

  7. Can a Sovereign State Declare Bankruptcy?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grigienė, Jurgita; Mockienė, Akvilė

    2010-01-01

    ... matter. In order to answer the question of legality, as well as to confirm or disconfirm the hypothesis that sovereign state can declare bankruptcy, descriptive, analytical and comparative methods are used...

  8. Branding elements : A study of the largest Latvian companies

    OpenAIRE

    Rageviciusa, Dina

    2014-01-01

    The thesis studied branding elements and management in the largest Latvian companies. The objective of the research is to provide overview information of branding elements, which are used among the largest Latvian companies. The theoretical framework consists of information about the most common and significant branding elements, their management and impact including what the successful use of branding elements can bring to the company. All that was viewed from three scopes – theory, exam...

  9. Corrective Feedback in L2 Latvian Classrooms: Teacher Perceptions versus the Observed Actualities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilans, Gatis

    2016-01-01

    This two-part study aims to investigate teacher perceptions about providing oral corrective feedback (CF) to minority students of Latvian as a second language and compare the perceptions to the actual provision of CF in L2 Latvian classrooms. The survey sample represents sixty-six L2 Latvian teachers while the classroom observations involved 13…

  10. Forecasting Business Bankruptcy with the Use of Soft Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomasz Korol

    2010-01-01

    This article is about the prediction of bankruptcy of companies in Poland. In the article author compares seven methods of artificial intelligence of forecasting the risks of bankruptcy of companies...

  11. Bankruptcy Problem Allocations and the Core of Convex Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Olvera-Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-known result related to bankruptcy problems establishes that a vector is a bankruptcy allocation if and only if it belongs to the core of the associated O’Neill’s bankruptcy game. In this paper we show that this game is precisely the unique TU-game based on convex functions that satisfies the previous result. In addition, given a bankruptcy problem, we show a way for constructing bankruptcy games such that the set of bankruptcy allocations is a subset of their core or their core is a subset of the set of bankruptcy allocations. Also, we show how these results can be applied for finding new bankruptcy solutions.

  12. 7 CFR 1962.47 - Bankruptcy and insolvency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Bankruptcy and insolvency. 1962.47 Section 1962.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... Bankruptcy and insolvency. (a) Borrower files bankruptcy. When the Agency becomes aware that a Farm Loan...

  13. Statistical Analysis of Processes of Bankruptcy is in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Berest Marina Nikolaevna

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis of processes of bankruptcy in Ukraine is conducted. Quantitative and high-quality indexes, characterizing efficiency of functioning of institute of bankruptcy of enterprises, are analyzed; the analysis of processes, related to bankruptcy of enterprises, being in state administration is conducted.

  14. 27 CFR 479.43 - Changes through bankruptcy of owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bankruptcy of owner. A receiver or referee in bankruptcy may continue the business under the stamp issued to... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes through bankruptcy... of creditors may continue business under his assignor's special tax stamp without incurring...

  15. A simple model of bank bankruptcies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksiejuk, Agata; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    2001-10-01

    Interbank deposits (loans and credits) are quite common in banking system all over the world. Such interbank co-operation is profitable for banks but it can also lead to collective financial failures. In this paper, we introduce a new model of directed percolation as a simple representation for contagion process and mass bankruptcies in banking systems. Directed connections that are randomly distributed between junctions of bank lattice simulate flows of money in our model. Critical values of a mean density of interbank connections as well as static and dynamic scaling laws for the statistics of avalanche bankruptcies are found. Results of computer simulations for the universal profile of bankruptcies spreading are in a qualitative agreement with the third wave of bank suspensions during The Great Depression in USA.

  16. Steps towards improvement of Latvian geoid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janpaule, Inese; Balodis, Janis

    2013-04-01

    The high precision geoid model is essential for the normal height determination when the GNSS positioning methods are used. In Latvia for more than 10 years gravimetric geoid model LV'98 is broadely used by surveyors and scientists. The computation of this model was performed using GRAVSOFT software using gravimetric measurements, digitised gravimetric data and satellite altimetry data over Baltic sea, the estimated accuracy of LV'98 geoid model is 6-8cm. (J. Kaminskis, 2010) However, the accuracy of Latvian geoid model should be improved. In order to aacomplish this task, the evaluation of several methods and test computations have been made. KTH method was developed at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm. This method utilizes the least-squares modification of the Stokes integral for the biased, unbiased, and optimum stochastic solutions. The modified Bruns-Stokes integral combines the regional terrestrial gravity data with a global geopotential model (GGM) (R. Kiamehr, 2006). DFHRS (Digital Finite-Element Height Reference Surface) method has been developed at the Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Geomatics (R. Jäger, 1999). In the DFHRS concept the area is divided into smaller finite elements - meshes. The height reference surface N in each mesh is calculated by a polynomial in term of (x,y) coordinates. Each group of meshes form a patch, which are related to a set of individual parameters, which are introduced by the datum parametrizations. As an input data the European Gravimetric Geoid Model 1997 (EGG97) and 102 GNSS/levelling points were used. In order to improve the Latvian geoid model quality and accuracy the development of mobile digital zenith telescope for determination of vertical deflections with 0.1" expected accuracy is commenced at University of Latvia, Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation. The project was started in 2010, the goal of it is to design a portable, cheap and robust instrument, using industrially

  17. Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Current relations between Russia and Latvia are still influenced by a series of mutual claims that appeared after the demise of the USSR. Latvia — as well as Estonia and Lithuania — is both an EU and NATO member state. However, unlike the above mentioned countries, its relations with Russia are developing at a more pragmatic level. Numerous political differences often result in economic losses both for Latvia and Russia. Despite the fact that Latvia has been an independent state for more than 20 years, there are still some unresolved issues in its relations with Russia. Today, relations between the two countries are often viewed through the prism of EU — Russia relations. Nonetheless, they often do not fit this context. Settling differences between Latvia and Russia will contribute to trade relations, which are increasingly important for both parties. In order to prevent and localise emerging conflicts, diplomats, politicians, and experts should interpret Russian-Latvian relations in view of the national features without referring to theoretical models based on the mythological “unity” of the three Baltic States.

  18. Bankruptcy risk model and empirical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Petersen, Alexander M; Urosevic, Branko; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-10-26

    We analyze the size dependence and temporal stability of firm bankruptcy risk in the US economy by applying Zipf scaling techniques. We focus on a single risk factor--the debt-to-asset ratio R--in order to study the stability of the Zipf distribution of R over time. We find that the Zipf exponent increases during market crashes, implying that firms go bankrupt with larger values of R. Based on the Zipf analysis, we employ Bayes's theorem and relate the conditional probability that a bankrupt firm has a ratio R with the conditional probability of bankruptcy for a firm with a given R value. For 2,737 bankrupt firms, we demonstrate size dependence in assets change during the bankruptcy proceedings. Prepetition firm assets and petition firm assets follow Zipf distributions but with different exponents, meaning that firms with smaller assets adjust their assets more than firms with larger assets during the bankruptcy process. We compare bankrupt firms with nonbankrupt firms by analyzing the assets and liabilities of two large subsets of the US economy: 2,545 Nasdaq members and 1,680 New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) members. We find that both assets and liabilities follow a Pareto distribution. The finding is not a trivial consequence of the Zipf scaling relationship of firm size quantified by employees--although the market capitalization of Nasdaq stocks follows a Pareto distribution, the same distribution does not describe NYSE stocks. We propose a coupled Simon model that simultaneously evolves both assets and debt with the possibility of bankruptcy, and we also consider the possibility of firm mergers.

  19. SMT of Latvian, Lithuanian and Estonian languages: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Khalilov; L. Pretkalniņa; N. Kuvaldina; V. Pereseina

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to discover the main challenges in working with Baltic and Estonian languages, and to identify the most significant sources of errors generated by a SMT system trained on large-vocabulary parallel corpora from legislative domain. An immense distinction between Latvian/Lithua

  20. Narratives of Landscape in Latvian History and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieda Skultans

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Latvian landscape has played a crucial, albeit changing, role in Latvian conceptions of identity. The nineteenth-century nationalist movement was articulated in terms of the relationship between land and people. During the independence period a uniquely local vision of the landscape was nurtured by art and literature, which encouraged a reverence for the landscape. Simultaneously, government policy encouraged agriculture, which flourished. Thus, the Soviets, following their occupation, entered a 'historically saturated landscape' and adopted as their remit the destruction of that landscape. My paper traces the semantic history of Latvian landscape and examines its role in providing a still point in personal narratives of loss and displacement. I conclude that the Soviets only partially succeeded in their mission of destruction. Although they succeeded in changing the physical face of the landscape and farming they were unable to destroy the pastoral vision which is a component of so many Latvian narratives. Our native hearth, Is burning in the sky, In order to come home, We do not open the door, But the cover of a book. We cannot learn from a snail, because home is not a refuge for us, But we will be a refuge for the homeland. Māra Zālīte

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF REHABILITATION ORIENTED RUSSIAN INSTITUTION OF BANKRUPTCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vаleriy Nikolaevich Alferov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper conducted a study on the mechanisms of the development of Russian rehabilitative orientation of the institution of bankruptcy. Objectivs. To analyze the existing conditions and particularly the implementation of the institution of bankruptcy of legal entities in Russia and abroad and on the basis of foreign experience to consider proposals for the development of its rehabilitation orientation.Methods. Empirical and economic and statistical research methods based on the Russian and international practice, implementation of bankruptcy legislation. Results. A generalization of the features of the implementation of domestic and foreign institution of bankruptcy and considered proposals for the development of its rehabilitation orientation. Conclusions and Relevance. In the Russian legislation on bankruptcy is necessary to develop rehabilitation procedure of bankruptcy to achieve the goal of a public law character – the restoration of the debtor's solvency. At present, primary importance should be given to the development of pre-trial financial recovery of debtors, including through the conciliation.

  2. The Social Representations of Soviet period in Latvian biographical discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Mārtiņš Kaprāns

    2012-01-01

    The PhD thesis demonstrates how the Latvian public biographical discourse has framed and transformed the understanding of Soviet period over the last 20 years and how these processes were influenced by autobiographers’ collective identities. The conceptual framework of the study is derived from the social representations theory that was founded at the beginning of the 1960s by French social psychologist Serge Moscovici. The empirical part of the thesis is based on three dataset...

  3. Who Invests in Home Equity to Exempt Wealth from Bankruptcy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corradin, S.; Gropp, R.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.

    2010-01-01

    Homestead exemptions to personal bankruptcy allow households to retain their home equity up to a limit determined at the state level. Households that may experience bankruptcy thus have an incentive to bias their portfolios towards home equity. Using US household data from the Survey of Income and P

  4. Bankruptcy around the World: Explanations of its Relative Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Claessens; L.F. Klapper

    2005-01-01

    The law and finance literature highlights the role of investor rights in financial development, firm corporate governance, and financing patterns. For a panel of 35 countries, we investigate how bankruptcy use relates to countries’ creditor rights and judicial efficiency. Bankruptcies are higher in

  5. Distress dynamics : An efficiency assessment of Dutch bankruptcy law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummelen, Jochem

    2015-01-01

    Both in the Netherlands and the United States of America a change in the dynamics of bankruptcy procedures is taking place. In the Netherlands, the opening of a bankruptcy procedure (faillissement) traditionally leads to the sale of the assets of the debtor and a distribution of the proceeds among

  6. MULTIVARIATE MODEL FOR CORPORATE BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current paper proposes a methodology for bankruptcy prediction applicable for Romanian companies. Low bankruptcy frequencies registered in the past have limited the importance of bankruptcy prediction in Romania. The changes in the economic environment brought by the economic crisis, as well as by the entrance in the European Union, make the availability of performing bankruptcy assessment tools more important than ever before. The proposed methodology is centred on a multivariate model, developed through discriminant analysis. Financial ratios are employed as explanatory variables within the model. The study has included 53,252 yearly financial statements from the period 2007 – 2010, with the state of the companies being monitored until the end of 2012. It thus employs the largest sample ever used in Romanian research in the field of bankruptcy prediction, not targeting high levels of accuracy over isolated samples, but reliability and ease of use over the entire population.

  7. MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF BANKRUPTCY OF ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to analyse the phenomenon of enterprises’ bankruptcy in Poland in 2004-2013 and attempt to build regression models defining the relationship between the number of bankrupted companies and selected macroeconomic parameters of the national economy. The analysis is based on Coface Poland reports presenting the phenomenon of bankruptcy in Poland of branches, provinces, legal forms of companies and types of bankruptcy proceedings. Studies have shown that the greatest risk of bankruptcy refers to metals production and fabricated metal products enterprises, manufacture of food products and beverages, wholesale trade, construction, micro and small enterprises, enterprises under the age of 10 years and companies from Mazovia region, Silesia and Lower Silesia. The estimated parameters of the regression models showed that the number of bankruptcies in Poland is strongly determined i.a. by the number of registered companies, GDP growth, dynamics of changes in fixed capital formation and changes in foreign exchange rates.

  8. Opinion Mining in Latvian Text Using Semantic Polarity Analysis and Machine Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatis Špats

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate approaches for opinion mining in Latvian text. Authors have applied, combined and extended results of several previous studies and public resources to perform opinion mining in Latvian text using two approaches, namely, semantic polarity analysis and machine learning. One of the most significant constraints that make application of opinion mining for written content classification in Latvian text challenging is the limited publicly available text corpora for classifier training. We have joined several sources and created a publically available extended lexicon. Our results are comparable to or outperform current achievements in opinion mining in Latvian. Experiments show that lexicon-based methods provide more accurate opinion mining than the application of Naive Bayes machine learning classifier on Latvian tweets. Methods used during this study could be further extended using human annotators, unsupervised machine learning and bootstrapping to create larger corpora of classified text.

  9. Is it Worth Comparing Different Bankruptcy Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Dolejšová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of small enterprises in the Zlín and Olomouc Regions. These enterprises were assessed using the Altman Z-Score model, the IN05 model, the Zmijewski model and the Springate model. The batch selected for this analysis included 16 enterprises from the Zlín Region and 16 enterprises from the Olomouc Region. Financial statements subjected to the analysis are from 2006 and 2010. The statistical data analysis was performed using the one-sample z-test for proportions and the paired t-test. The outcomes of the evaluation run using the Altman Z-Score model, the IN05 model and the Springate model revealed the enterprises to be financially sound, but the Zmijewski model identified them as being insolvent. The one-sample z-test for proportions confirmed that at least 80% of these enterprises show a sound financial condition. A comparison of all models has emphasized the substantial difference produced by the Zmijewski model. The paired t-test showed that the financial performance of small enterprises had remained the same during the years involved. It is recommended that small enterprises assess their financial performance using two different bankruptcy models. They may wish to combine the Zmijewski model with any bankruptcy model (the Altman Z-Score model, the IN05 model or the Springate model to ensure a proper method of analysis.

  10. Personal Bankruptcy Regulations in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Hetes-Gavra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from Central and Eastern Europe are in different stages of development andimplementation of personal bankruptcy legislation. Austria has regulations comparable to those inWestern Europe, while the Czech Republic and Poland have recently developed regulationsregarding the bankruptcy of individuals. The solutions identified in countries that have followed asimilar path, namely the abandonment of a centrally planned economy and transition to afunctioning market economy, which consequently led to the problem of individual bankruptcy, canalso be applied selectively in Romania in the next period.

  11. Conditional risk measure modeling for Latvian insurance companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Voronova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current economical situation on the Latvian market insurance companies are forced to consider other possibilities of income generation. One of such opportunities could be seen in cash flows from investment operations, while managing stocks' portfolios. The process of portfolio management is tightly connected with adequate risk management. In the current paper we have used copula approach for estimating portfolio’s conditional risk measures and though to contribute to the discussion about appropriate risk management in the insurance companies.

  12. Sustainability by Education: How Latvian Heritage was Kept Alive in German Exile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franzenburg Geert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is one of the core challenges for education in modern times, particularly concerning cultural heritage. The study evaluates, from a German point of view, how Latvians outside of Latvia after World War II kept their cultural heritage alive by educational concepts, which can be characterized as early roots of modern sustainable education. The evaluation focus concerns a group of Latvians in Germany associated with the Latvian high school in Muenster (MLG. The study concerns the 25 years from 1957 (school relocation to Muenster until 1982 (founding of the organization “Latvian Center of Muenster e.V.” (LCM, and combines interviews and literature research. It underlines that environmental, social and heritage education can be seen as core elements of Latvian education abroad. Therefore, the study will not present a concise history of the Latvian high school in Muenster (MLG, which has already been done (Sprogis, 2009, but will concisely evaluate the educational concepts of this particular period as a model, how Latvians maintained their heritage in a sustainable way.

  13. Bankruptcy – the consequence of defective bank management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imola DRIGA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Bank failure is the result of a defective management in banking leading the bank to a stage of bankruptcy, which means that the insolvent bank is going to be closed by the banking authority. In general, the banking sector is viewed as more vulnerable to contagion than other industries since banks are viewed as more susceptible to failures. Thus, the paper addresses the issue of bank insolvency as an extreme consequence of materialized risks, resulting in a payment disability for the bank. The paper presents the causes and consequences of bankruptcy and analysis the situation of bankruptcies in the Romanian banking system which was confronted with a number of bankruptcies beginning with 1994 and involving several significant financial institutions.

  14. ANALYSIS METHODS OF BANKRUPTCY RISK IN ROMANIAN ENERGY MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORICI MARIAN CATALIN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is an analysis of bankruptcy risk and assessing the economic performance of the entity in charge of energy mining industry from southwest region. The scientific activity assesses the risk of bankruptcy using score’s method and some indicators witch reflecting the results obtained and elements from organization balance sheet involved in mining and energy which contributes to the stability of the national energy system. Analysis undertaken is focused on the application of the business organization models that allow a comprehensive assessment of the risk of bankruptcy and be an instrument of its forecast. In this study will be highlighted developments bankruptcy risk within the organization through the Altman model and Conan-Holder model in order to show a versatile image on the organization's ability to ensure business continuity

  15. Bankruptcy and Financial Distress Prediction in the Mobile Telecom Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kpodoh, Bright

    2010-01-01

    Background and Problem Discussion: Signs of eminent business failure are usually evident long before official bankruptcy of any form, be it re-organization or liquidation. A number of methods have been developed over the years to assess the financial health of corporations, either using financial ratios directly or using bankruptcy prediction models based on grounded financial theories and ratios. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to test Altman’s Z-score prediction model using sample da...

  16. The Models of Personal Bankruptcy in Western Europe

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    Roxana Hetes-Gavra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal bankruptcy is regulated in all the countries from Western Europe. We selected a groupof three countries: France, Ireland and Germany, to analyze the ways in which physical personsare put under bankruptcy law protection, while considering that implementation of the personalbankruptcy law is constantly delayed in Romania. Taking into account some comparative studies,we have found out that in all three countries is applied the principle of “consumer-friendlylegislation”.

  17. A Real Options Analysis on Corporate Endogenous Bankruptcy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XianghuaLiu; ChulinLi

    2004-01-01

    This paper adopts the real options approach to study the decision-making of corporate endogenous bankruptcy and debt reorganization in a risk-neutral framework, while understanding corporate bankruptcy and debt reorganization as the options held by equity holders and the creditor. After obtaining the values of contingent claims on the corporate assets, the paper analyzes the bankruptcy decisions of different levered corporate. With standard debt contract and under absolute priority rule, the bankruptcy times maximizing the equity value are not consistent with those maximizing the corporate value: the high levered corporate will inefficiently bankrupt early while the low levered corporate will inefficiently bankrupt late. If debt reorganization or creditor concession isn't allowed, liquidation often leads to the loss in value. But if strategic default or deviation from absolute priority rule is allowed, the decision maximizing the equity value will be consistent with that maximizing the corporate value. Debt reorganization has significant economic implication: for high levered corporate or low levered corporate, with debt reorganization or deviation of the absolute priority rule permitted, postponed or hastened bankruptcy can be avoided, hence,the bankruptcy trigger chosen by equity holders to maximize the equity value is efficient decision without value losses.

  18. Financial Literacy of Latvian Citizens: Findings and Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guna Ciemleja

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis and financial stability issues of the Eurozone countries have demonstrated that the total of financial knowledge and skills of the population that lets people make informed and efficient decisions is of utmost importance. Considering high social importance of financial education, it is necessary to develop a knowledge platform to increase the level of financial literacy. The results obtained in the process of assessment of the level of individual's financial literacy provide information on the factors, which reduce financial efficiency and cause unnecessary costs. Despite a vast body of international experience in the field of financial literacy assessment, one of the main problems is to develop a measuring instrument, which can ensure valid results and can be adapted to the socio-economic and demographic conditions of a definite country. Therefore, in 2015, academic personnel of the Department of Finance, Faculty of Engineering Economics and Management of Riga Technical University conducted research within the project «Enhancing Latvian Citizens' Securitability through Development of the Financial Literacy» and developed an instrument for assessment of the level of financial literacy, which can be used to evaluate financial knowledge of the Latvian citizens taking into consideration all components of financial literacy. The results are briefly described in the current paper.

  19. The Latvian Legion (1943-1945) and Its Role in Latvia’s History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    initiative Thanks to the historians like Timothy Snyder , today the Western world has access to a variety of information on the actual events...and Thomas Lane. The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London: Routledge, 2002. Snyder , Timothy . Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and...by EDMUNDS SVENCS, MAJOR, LATVIAN ARMED FORCES B.A., Latvian National Defense Academy, Riga, 2000 M.A., Riga Teacher Training and Educational

  20. Neuro-fuzzy modeling in bankruptcy prediction

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    Vlachos D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 30 years the problem of bankruptcy prediction had been thoroughly studied. From the paper of Altman in 1968 to the recent papers in the '90s, the progress of prediction accuracy was not satisfactory. This paper investigates an alternative modeling of the system (firm, combining neural networks and fuzzy controllers, i.e. using neuro-fuzzy models. Classical modeling is based on mathematical models that describe the behavior of the firm under consideration. The main idea of fuzzy control, on the other hand, is to build a model of a human control expert who is capable of controlling the process without thinking in a mathematical model. This control expert specifies his control action in the form of linguistic rules. These control rules are translated into the framework of fuzzy set theory providing a calculus, which can stimulate the behavior of the control expert and enhance its performance. The accuracy of the model is studied using datasets from previous research papers.

  1. The Lehman Brothers effect and bankruptcy cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieczka, P.; Sornette, D.; Holyst, J. A.

    2011-08-01

    Inspired by the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers and its consequences on the global financial system, we develop a simple model in which the Lehman default event is quantified as having an almost immediate effect in worsening the credit worthiness of all financial institutions in the economic network. In our stylized description, all properties of a given firm are captured by its effective credit rating, which follows a simple dynamics of co-evolution with the credit ratings of the other firms in our economic network. The dynamics resembles the evolution of Potts spin-glass with external global field corresponding to a panic effect in the economy. The existence of a global phase transition, between paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, explains the large susceptibility of the system to negative shocks. We show that bailing out the first few defaulting firms does not solve the problem, but does have the effect of alleviating considerably the global shock, as measured by the fraction of firms that are not defaulting as a consequence. This beneficial effect is the counterpart of the large vulnerability of the system of coupled firms, which are both the direct consequences of the collective self-organized endogenous behaviors of the credit ratings of the firms in our economic network.

  2. SCORING ASSESSMENT AND FORECASTING MODELS BANKRUPTCY RISK OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSU Stefanita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bankruptcy risk made the subject of many research studies that aim at identifying the time of the bankruptcy, the factors that compete to achieve this state, the indicators that best express this orientation (the bankruptcy. The threats to enterprises require the managers knowledge of continually economic and financial situations, and vulnerable areas with development potential. Managers need to identify and properly manage the threats that would prevent achieving the targets. In terms of methods known in the literature of assessment and evaluation of bankruptcy risk they are static, functional, strategic, and scoring nonfinancial models. This article addresses Altman and Conan-Holder-known internationally as the model developed at national level by two teachers from prestigious universities in our country-the Robu-Mironiuc model. Those models are applied to data released by the profit and loss account and balance sheet Turism Covasna company over which bankruptcy risk analysis is performed. The results of the analysis are interpreted while trying to formulate solutions to the economic and financial viability of the entity.

  3. PROFITABILITY RATIO AS A TOOL FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the potential of the profitability ratio in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The research is focused on Romanian companies, with the targeted event being represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were conducted over 2 paired samples of 1176 Romanian companies. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the profitability ratio was based on the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.663 and the general accuracy ensured by the ratio (62.6% out-of-sample accuracy. The results confirm the practical utility of the profitability ratio in the prediction of bankruptcy and thus validate the need for further research focused on developing a methodology of analysis.

  4. SOLVENCY RATIO AS A TOOL FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

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    Daniel BRÎNDESCU–OLARIU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the potential of the solvency ratio in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The research is focused on Romania and, in particular, on Timis County. The interest for the solvency ratio was based on the recommendations of the scientific literature, as well as on the availability of information concerning its values to all stakeholders. The event on which the research was focused was represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were performed over 2 paired samples of 1176 companies in total. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the solvency ratio was based on the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.646 and the general accuracy ensured by the ratio (64.5% out-of-sample accuracy. The results confirm the practical utility of the solvency ratio in the prediction of bankruptcy.

  5. Multicriteria Early Warning System of Enterprises against the Bankruptcy Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Korol

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issue of forecasting the bankruptcy risk of the enterprises. In the article author compares the effectiveness of multicriteria early warning system with the traditional discriminant analysis model of forecasting the risks of bankruptcy of companies. In the conducted research author has used data on 185 companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange Market. This population of firms was divided into learning and testing setdata. Each company has been analyzed using the absolute values of 14 financial ratios and the dynamics of change of these ratios. Additionally, author has used the macroeconomic variables in developed multicriteria system. The author’s developed models are characterized by high efficiency. These studies are the first attempt to use fuzzy logic to predict the bankruptcy of companies in Poland and one of the first in the world. Obtained results demonstrate the great potential of this method.  

  6. Forecasting risk of bankruptcy for machine-building plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telipenko, E.; Zakharova, A.; Sopova, Svetlana

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents an overview of well-known bankruptcy risk forecasting models, elaborated as by Russian so by foreign authors, on the basis of the data about financial and business activities of the biggest machine-building Russian plants. The authors substantiate and confirm appropriateness of a fuzzy set model to the problem of bankruptcy risk forecasting. This model is worked out on the basis of 10 most important factors, which have the greatest influence on sales proceeds as the main financial source for a production plant.

  7. Prediction Model for Bankruptcy in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Gabriela Sánchez Trujillo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to validate and improve the Weighted Ratio Valuation Model (RPV model in micro and small enterprises in Central Mexico, in order to propose an alternative to financial valuation methods to anticipate bankruptcy in this sector of the economy. To achieve this objective, the study proposes the empirical application of Mosqueda 2010. The results shed important information that allowed the identification of variables that lead to bankruptcy, making risk detection more accurate, which, in turn, made it possible to validate and consolidate the model. 1024x768 Normal 0 21 false false false

  8. The Interrelationship of Religion and Magic in the Experience\tof Latvians in Timofeyevka, Siberia

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    Aigars Lielbardis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Groups of texts about seasonal celebrations, family customs and charmers are examined in this article in order to reveal the interrelationship of magic and religion in Latvian traditional culture in Timofeyevka. The recollections and knowledge of informants, recorded in 2004 and 2006, during fieldwork in Timofeyevka, have been supplemented with examples published in the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as recently documented examples of Latvian folklore in Latvia. The entire year of seasonal celebrations, which have become closely associated with the Catholic calendar – Christmas, Epiphany, Easter, Pentecost, Midsummer, and the remembrance of the dead in the autumn – has been examined. Annual festivities celebrated in the Latvian community have merged with Slavic festivals, for example, Easter, Pentecost and Midsummer traditions. In the recollections of family customs descriptions of funeral customs dominate over christenings and weddings. Notions of the supernatural are revealed in the stories of personal experience about healing, as well as in belief legends, which tell about the unusual ability of a person to transform into an animal or object. The experiences of the Latvian community of Timofeyevka concerning religion (official religion and magic (unofficial religion cannot be differentiated, because they represent a unified conceptual system in which one adds to the other. The rich traditional cultural heritage in Timofeyevka has been preserved due to the location of the village far away from large cities and main roads, and also due to the Latvian community’s large population numbers in the past.

  9. INSOLVENCY AND BANKRUPTCY AS AN INDEPENDENT ECONOMIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhminko N. S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to Russia’s current approach to the identity definition of bankruptcy and insolvency, many problems in the identification of reliable financial information about the organizations are revealing. Therefore, in most cases, the assignment of organizations, located in the pre-crisis state, belongs to the crisis bankrupts, rehabilitation of which mistakenly considered impossible and inexpedient

  10. Ethical Considerations in Filing Personal Bankruptcy: A Hypothetical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Robert J., III

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research by legal studies scholars pertains to employment law, international law, and corporate governance, as well as other fields including ethics and international law. The fields typically addressed are very important and rightfully receive considerable attention in the scholarship and textbooks. However, bankruptcy as a…

  11. 7 CFR 1956.111 - Debtors in bankruptcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Debtors in bankruptcy. 1956.111 Section 1956.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) DEBT SETTLEMENT Debt Settlement-Community and Business Programs § 1956.111...

  12. Non-Statistical Methods of Analysing of Bankruptcy Risk

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    Pisula Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on assessing the effectiveness of a non-statistical approach to bankruptcy modelling in enterprises operating in the logistics sector. In order to describe the issue more comprehensively, the aforementioned prediction of the possible negative results of business operations was carried out for companies functioning in the Polish region of Podkarpacie, and in Slovakia. The bankruptcy predictors selected for the assessment of companies operating in the logistics sector included 28 financial indicators characterizing these enterprises in terms of their financial standing and management effectiveness. The purpose of the study was to identify factors (models describing the bankruptcy risk in enterprises in the context of their forecasting effectiveness in a one-year and two-year time horizon. In order to assess their practical applicability the models were carefully analysed and validated. The usefulness of the models was assessed in terms of their classification properties, and the capacity to accurately identify enterprises at risk of bankruptcy and healthy companies as well as proper calibration of the models to the data from training sample sets.

  13. 29 CFR 4043.68 - Bankruptcy or similar settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bankruptcy or similar settlement. 4043.68 Section 4043.68 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Advance Notice of Reportable Events §...

  14. Supply chain downsizing under bankruptcy : A robust optimization approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Ma, N.; Sotirov, R.

    2014-01-01

    Research on supply chain network design has mainly pursued efficiency oriented objectives for boosting service level and profit. However, the priority of an enterprise facing bankruptcy pressure shifts to fulfill debt obligation with limited financial resources and survive downsizing. In this paper,

  15. BANKRUPTCY AND THE ALTMAN MODELS. CASE OF ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numani Eni

    2015-07-01

    To classify bankrupt and non-bankrupt firms, this study is based on the Albanian legislation on bankruptcy (Law no. 8901, according to which bankruptcy proceedings may be opened in case of a state of insolvency, when the firm is overburdened with debts or when the earnings after tax of the firm is negative for a period of 3 years. According to the Albanian legislation on bankruptcy, 24 (from 80 firms involved in the study result legally bankrupt. The first revised model (The 1983 model of Altman predicts accurately these firms by 75%. Regarding the non-bankrupt firms (according to Albanian legislation on bankruptcy inaccuracy in the forecast is even higher than in the case of bankrupt firms. From 56 non-bankrupt firms involved in the study, 23 are classified as insolvent company under the first revised model of Altman, while these firms are not bankrupt. In case of application of the second revised model of Altman (The 1993 model the results are consistent with the results of the first model in terms of bankrupt firms. Meanwhile, what is striking is the significant reduction in the percentage of Type II error (from 41% to 23%.

  16. How Does Personal Bankruptcy Law Affect Start-ups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueiro, G.M.; Penas, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of changes in U.S. state personal exemptions on the financing structure and performance of a representative sample of start-ups. An increase in the amount of borrower’s personal wealth protected in bankruptcy reduces the availability of bank credit to all start-ups. Owners of u

  17. Essays on banking, corporate bankruptcy, and corporate finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Schedvin, E.L.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of four chapters that empirical explore issues related to bank credit supply, corporate bankruptcy risk, and firms’ leverage decisions. The first chapter explores the role of contractual externalities in loan contracts. The second chapter evaluates the extent trade credit chains

  18. Consonant-vowel interactions in Modern Standard Latvian: a representational and constraint-based account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Urek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I provide a representational and a constraint-based analysis of four interacting palatalization processes operative in Modern Standard Latvian: velar affrication, velar palatalization, yod-palatalization and front vowel raising. The main advantage of the representational account developed here is that it treats all of the mentioned Latvian processes as strictly assimilatory, and at the same time avoids purely stipulative mechanisms characteristic of many feature-geometric approaches to cross-category interactions. The article also contributes to the debate on the role of geometric subsegmental representations in constraint-based computational models, by demonstrating that a principled account of locality, transparency and blocking effects in Latvian palatalization requires the reference to hierarchical autosegmental structures.

  19. Art Deco in Estonian and Latvian Graphic Design Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Talvik

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Years of the first independence in Estonia and Latvia involved the second wave of nationalism in art and culture. National theme became a source which had to be treated fashionably. The fashionable European style was art deco that spread in the Baltics, Finland and elsewhere in periphery of Europe from the second half of the 1920s until 1940. The author has examined and analysed a wide variety of Estonian illustrated magazines and journals. The examples of Latvian magazines come from the collections of the Information Centre of Art Academy of Latvia. The article explores common features in the pieces of the following artists: Vabbe – Vidbergs, Vaino – Apsītis, Madernieks – Reindorff, also Luhtein, Siirak, Mugasto, Verny, Triik versus Strunke, Zeberiņš and Kasparsons. The first goal is to prove that graphic design journals in art deco style were very popular in the periphery of Europe in these years. Secondly, the author claims that objects that apparently lie outside the definition of ‘art’ can be subjected to visual analysis in such a way as to open important doors to the understanding of their origin, reception, place in society, and subsequent history. They are reflections of relations of power, aesthetic objectives, changing theories and rituals of art and society. This is the reason why graphic design journals are treated as carriers of culture.

  20. View from Behavioral Economics Theory: Case of Latvian Rural Entrepreneurs

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    Igo Cals

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory of classical economics treats entrepreneurs as subjects who make rational economic decisions. Empirical surveys prove the fact that daily economic decisions made by a separate economic entity can be explained by concepts of behavioral economics rather than classical economics. The economic behavior of entrepreneurs happens to be based on bounded rationality instead of financial justification. The objective of an economic activity presented as economically efficient can turn out to be socially important to a specific entrepreneur and not to national economy as a whole. In the EU countries, agriculture is a subsidised industry of national economy. In this light, status consumption and purchase of positional goods should create a special interest among economists. The objective of this article is to present true reasons of economic decisions made by rural entrepreneurs and to analyse the value hierarchy of Latvian rural entrepreneurs through carrying out a field work and with the help of set of instruments developed by modern economics theory.

  1. Assessment of antibiotic prescribing in Latvian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumpis Uga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though general antibiotic consumption data is available, information on the actual patterns of prescribing antibiotics locally is difficult to obtain. An easy to use methodology was designed to assess ambulatory management of infections by Latvian general practitioners (GPs. Methods GPs were asked to record data in a patient data collection form for every patient that received antibiotics. Study period – (7 days one week in November, 2008. Data recorded included the following details: an antibiotic, the prescribed dose, dosing interval, route of administration combined with the demographic factors of the patient and clinical diagnosis based on a pre-defined list. Results Two hundred forty eight forms out of the 600 (41% were returned by post. Antibiotics were prescribed in 6.4% (1711/26803 of outpatient consultations. In total, 1763 antibiotics were prescribed during the study period. Ninety seven percent of the patients received monotherapy and only 47 (2.7% patients were prescribed two antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (33.9% of prescribed, amoxicillin/clavulanate (18,7% and clarithromycin (7.6%. The most commonly treated indications were pharyngitis (29.8%, acute bronchitis (25.3% and rhinosinusitis (10.2%. Pneumonia was mostly treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate (25,7%, amoxicillin (15.7% and clarithromycin (19.3%. Conclusions Methodology employed provided useful additional information on ambulatory practice of prescribing antibiotics and could be used in further assessment studies. Educational interventions should be focused on treatment of acute pharyngitis and bronchitis in children and unnecessary use of quinolones in adults for uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

  2. Legal Rights of Debtors and Creditors, Bankruptcy for Financially Distressed Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Saxowsky, David M.; Petersen, Gary J.

    1993-01-01

    Bankruptcy is a federal court procedure intended to benefit both debtors and creditors if a debtor is unable to pay all obligations. Filing bankruptcy' stops, or stays, all creditor's debt-collection procedures. The stay is to prevent some creditors from receiving more than their fair share from a financially distressed debtor. A bankruptcy trustee is usually appointed to assist in the fair distribution of the debtor's property. Equitable distribution of the debtor's property also is furthere...

  3. Death or survival. Post-communist bankruptcy law in action. A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Schönfelder, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses some major lessons to be learnt from the application of bankruptcy law in a post-communist environment. Its focus is on East Central Europe because elsewhere bankruptcy law is of rather limited practical relevance. The incentives and the selection of trustees turn out to be key issues if the loss of value typically occuring during bankruptcy procedures is to be contained within reasonable limits. Reorganization is a realistic option only if management has sufficient incent...

  4. PREDICTION OF CORPORATE BANKRUPTCY IN ROMANIA THROUGH THE USE OF LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindescu-Olariu Daniel

    2013-07-01

    As theoretical contributions, the research proves that the companies that filed for bankruptcy during the crisis period showed signs of weaknesses before the beginning of the crisis. Financial ratios that show relevance in the prediction of corporate bankruptcy at local level have been identified and their correlation with the bankruptcy probability has been evaluated. The model is expected to maintain its accuracy with minimal or no additional calibration for companies from the entire Romanian economy that fit the profile of the target population.

  5. Slavic Loanwords in the Terms for Dumplings in Latvian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Bušmane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Slavic Loanwords in the Terms for Dumplings in Latvian Food is an essential part of the material culture of every nation. It frequently preserves national traditions and old names longer than other spheres do, additionally, it lets observe the influence of other cultures. According to dictionary data, dumplings were known in Latvia already in the 18th century. Many names for them have been attested in regional subdialects of Latvian; borrowings usually cover wide areas. In this article, basing on ethnographic and linguistic material notations of different antiquity thus tracing the use of names for dumplings almost a century long and referring to dictionary data from 18th–19th century, the author tried to reveal the use and distribution of names for dumplings of Slavic origin in subdialects of Lat­vian, as well as to offer fragmentary data on the use of particular Slavic borrowings in neighboring languages. The Slavic borrowings kļocka, zacirka alongside variant names are widespread in Eastern Latvia, i.e. in a rather narrow or wide area of the High Latvian dialect. In Eastern Latvia, the names klučki, klučkas derived from the Germanic borrowing kluči, with insertion of the consonant k under influence of Russian, have also been registered. From the semantic angle, the borrowings kļockas, klučkas and their variants are denoting dumplings made of various raw materials (e.g., different kinds of flour, also pea-flour, potatoes. Further references to ingredients of this food and its preparation are included in the explanation of the Slavic borrowing zacirka and its variants most typical for the peasants vocabulary in Latgale. The Slavic borrowings examined in this article have not seldom (even up to the last decades of the 20th century been serving as the only names of the said dish in the speech of representants of the oldest generation in the particular area in Eastern Latvia.   Słowiańskie zapożyczenia wśród nazw pierogów w j

  6. BANKRUPTCY - A POSSIBLE NEW START FOR THE SMALL BUSINESS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA GIURCA VASILESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many factors (internal and external can make a business vulnerable. In the context of the international financial crisis, the firms, and especially the small and mediume enterprises (SMEs have to face new challenges. Smaller businesses are particularly prone to financial difficulties as they often lack resources to adapt to the changing market conditions. Very often the business distress or even business failure is not yet sufficiently understood as a normal economic development and an opportunity for a new start. In order to take the full potential of business in Europe, should be created the background that genuinely talented entrepreneurs have every opportunity to get another second chance. The European Commission lays out proposals to actively help businesses at financial risk and prevent bankruptcy. In the same time, the national insolvency systems should provide more options for restructuring and rescue. Thus, EU supports simpler and faster procedures for bankruptcy and encourages giving a second chance to honest entrepreneurs who have failed.

  7. Business Bankruptcy Prediction Based on Survival Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming - Chang Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sampled companies listed on Taiwan Stock Exchange that examined financial distress between 200 3 and 20 09 . It uses the survival analysis to find the main indicators which can explain the business bankruptcy in Taiwan. This paper use s the Cox P roportional H azard M odel to assess the usefulness of traditional financial ratios and market variables as predictors of the probability of business failure to a given time. This paper presents empirical results of a study regarding 12 financial ratios as predictors of business failure in Taiwan. It showed that it does not need many ratios to be able to anticipate potential business bankruptcy. T he financial distress probability model is constructed using Profitability, Leverage, Efficiency and Valuation ratio variables. In the proposed steps of business failure prediction model , it used detail SAS procedure. The study proves that t he accuracies of classification of the mode in o verall accuracy of classification are 87.93%

  8. Female Leaders in a Radical Right Movement: The Latvian National Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasulane, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Gender is the central axis around which the transformation of radical right forces is taking place: a new type of movement is emerging which is not excessively masculine. Latvia is experiencing an increase in women's participation in the radical right, the Latvian National Front (LNF) being a vivid example. The development of the LNF was…

  9. English-Latvian SMT: the challenge of translating into a free word order language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalilov, M.; Fonollosa, J.A.R.; Skadiņa, I.; Brālītis, E.; Pretkalniņa, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two approaches to statistical machine translation (SMT) and their application to a task of English-to-Latvian translation, which is still an open research line in the field of automatic translation. We consider a state-of-the-art phrase-based SMT and an alt

  10. Service quality in banking: developing and testing measurement instrument with Latvian sample data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Titko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the importance of managing service quality in banking that can positively affect customer satisfaction. The goal of the given study is to develop an instrument for measuring service quality perceived by Latvian banks’ retail customers and to determine the most important contributors to customer satisfaction. To achieve this purpose, randomly selected customers of Latvian banks were surveyed, using the authors’ developed questionnaire. The proposed instrument was tested for reliability and validity, using techniques of confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five service quality dimensions (factors that allowed constructing customer satisfaction factor model EPICA: E – expenses, P – product, I – image, C – competence and emotional intellect, A – access. The subsequent correlation analysis revealed that the strongest relationship is between customer satisfaction and C factor. The results of the current research are crucially important for Latvian banks’ executives because the majority of previous studies in the related field offered measurement scales adequate for measuring service quality in other industries. Besides, the proposed questionnaire is exclusively developed for Latvia and considers Latvian banking sector specifics.

  11. Female Leaders in a Radical Right Movement: The Latvian National Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasulane, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Gender is the central axis around which the transformation of radical right forces is taking place: a new type of movement is emerging which is not excessively masculine. Latvia is experiencing an increase in women's participation in the radical right, the Latvian National Front (LNF) being a vivid example. The development of the LNF was…

  12. Essays on banking, corporate bankruptcy, and corporate finance

    OpenAIRE

    von Schedvin, E.L.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of four chapters that empirical explore issues related to bank credit supply, corporate bankruptcy risk, and firms’ leverage decisions. The first chapter explores the role of contractual externalities in loan contracts. The second chapter evaluates the extent trade credit chains between corporate firms lead to propagation of corporate failures. The third chapter explores non-linear relationships between firm failure and leverage, earnings, and liquidity. The final chapter...

  13. Minimizing Lifetime Poverty with a Penalty for Bankruptcy

    OpenAIRE

    Asaf Cohen; Young, Virginia R.

    2015-01-01

    We provide investment advice for an individual who wishes to minimize her lifetime poverty, with a penalty for bankruptcy or ruin. We measure poverty via a non-negative, non-increasing function of (running) wealth. Thus, the lower wealth falls and the longer wealth stays low, the greater the penalty. This paper generalizes the problems of minimizing the probability of lifetime ruin and minimizing expected lifetime occupation, with the poverty function serving as a bridge between the two. To i...

  14. Comparative study of the qualitative features of the Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juris Grigorjevs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a comparative study of the spectral characteristics and distinctive qualitative features of monophthongs of the contemporary Baltic Standard languages pronounced in isolation is described. On the one hand vowels pronounced in isolation do not represent a pronunciation in everyday speech, while on the other hand their production is probably the closest to the acoustic and auditory monophthong targets determined by our mental prototypes. This type of production represents natural hyper-articulation and differs from production of the cardinal vowels. Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs have been studied and compared using the same methods and equipment that permit a reliable comparison of phonetic inventories (quality similarities and differences of both languages. For this paper recordings of six native Lithuanian and six native Latvian male informants (having faultless articulation were used (1944 items were selected and analyzed in total. All informants are speakers of standard language. In this study the standard language is considered as a standardized language (generally the most formal version of the language used for the needs of public life and culture. Reviewing interrelations between vowels of a single language (Lithuanian or Latvian, the mean data acquired in this study is compared with the data of some previous studies. To compare the general tendencies of the relations between Lithuanian and corresponding Latvian long and short monophthongs pronounced in isolation more precisely, the following acoustic parameters (numeric values were calculated: acuteness (graveness, flatness, compactness, and tenseness. The results of the present study confirm the general tendency that qualitative characteristics of the Lithuanian long and corresponding short vowels differ to a great extent. However the quality of Latvian monophthongs produced in isolation varies very little and statistical analysis of the spectral

  15. Comparative study of the qualitative features of the Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juris Grigorjevs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a comparative study of the spectral characteristics and distinctive qualitative features of monophthongs of the contemporary Baltic Standard languages pronounced in isolation is described. On the one hand vowels pronounced in isolation do not represent a pronunciation in everyday speech, while on the other hand their production is probably the closest to the acoustic and auditory monophthong targets determined by our mental prototypes. This type of production represents natural hyper-articulation and differs from production of the cardinal vowels.Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs have been studied and compared using the same methods and equipment that permit a reliable comparison of phonetic inventories (quality similarities and differences of both languages.For this paper recordings of six native Lithuanian and six native Latvian male informants (having faultless articulation were used (1944 items were selected and analyzed in total. All informants are speakers of standard language. In this study the standard language is considered as a standardized language (generally the most formal version of the language used for the needs of public life and culture.Reviewing interrelations between vowels of a single language (Lithuanian or Latvian, the mean data acquired in this study is compared with the data of some previous studies. To compare the general tendencies of the relations between Lithuanian and corresponding Latvian long and short monophthongs pronounced in isolation more precisely, the following acoustic parameters (numeric values were calculated: acuteness (graveness, flatness, compactness, and tenseness.The results of the present study confirm the general tendency that qualitative characteristics of the Lithuanian long and corresponding short vowels differ to a great extent. However the quality of Latvian monophthongs produced in isolation varies very little and statistical analysis of the spectral characteristics

  16. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF THE OFFENSE OF BANKRUPTCY FRAUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Narcisa Stoicu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bankruptcy is a legal concept that emerged and developed in the business environment, along with other concepts such as: insolvency, debtor, creditor, etc. Simple bankruptcy or bankruptcy fraud do not have a legal definition, but their analysis cannot be made without considering the legal norms governing the procedure of insolvency. The legal regime applicable to insolvent debtors is of general interest, due to the economic and financial effects manifested upon the business environment, with direct influences on the national economy. The insolvency procedure is regulated by Law 85/2006 and aims to establish a collective procedure for covering the liabilities of insolvent debtors. Insolvency is the state of the debtor's assets that is characterized by lack of available funds for the payment of certain, liquid and exigible debt. Therefore, non-payment of debt on maturity must be the effect of the debtor’s incapacity to pay the debt with the available sums of money, incapacity which must be caused by an external and objective situation, namely the cessation of payments.

  17. Financial Distress and Bankruptcy Prediction: Evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon SAMANHYIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequent cases of corporate failures within the financial sector necessitates the need to employ models to predict forehand the financial distressed or bankruptcy state of the financial sector. This study aims at predicting financial distress and bankruptcy on selected listed banks on the stock exchange of a developing West African country, Ghana. Data used for the study spanned from 2008 to 2014. The Altman Z-Score and Boone Indicator were the main means of analysis. The study concluded that poor corporate governance contributes to financial distress and that smaller board size negatively affects corporate performance. The study also concludes that, in a high competitive industry, firms become more efficient and their performance enhanced and thus less likely to be financially distressed. Merging the listed banks indicates financial stability of listed banks albeit one distressed bank. Adoption of best corporate governance standards, enhancing competition through effective corporate strategies and the Central Bank ensuring that banks have enough deposit insurance funds in stock to mitigate the effect of bankruptcy are some of the policy suggestions from the study.

  18. ANALYSIS OF ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES BANKRUPTCY RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulcsar Edina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fundamental role of small and medium enterprises in Romanian economy, this paper aims to quantify the level of their bankruptcy risk for 2009 and 2012 period, after debuting of financial crisis. The main reason of selecting this type of companies is that they represent the backbone of national economy. They have an indispensable role, because they offer jobs for great part of population and their contribution for GDP stimulation is considerable. In this paper it was applied two default risk models, namely the well known Altman’s Z-score model, based on five financial ratios and a bankruptcy predictor model developed by Teti et. al (2012 used firstly exclusively for Italian small and medium-sized enterprise for 2006-2009 period. The model proposed by Teti et. is based on the investigation of financially distressed and financially non-distressed Italian small and medium-sized enterprises during the financial crisis by using a discriminant analysis model. They conclude that there are four financial ratios, which characterized well the small and medium-sized enterprises bankruptcy risk. These variables are financial ratios, like: Debt/Total Assets, Return on Sales (ROS, EBIT/Interest Expenses and Working capital/EBIDTA. They consider that small and medium-sized enterprises require a particular approach in terms of bankruptcy risk analysis. In present study I try to compare the efficiency of traditional bankruptcy risk model with a small and medium-sized specific model. The necessary database for present analysis is ensured by simplified financial reports of 120 small and medium-sized enterprises registered in Bihor County. The selected enterprises are operating in manufacturing industry (21,67% and trading (78,33%. Present investigation has an important value in actual economic background, where the healthiness and sustainability of small and medium-sized enterprises is a great issue. The results of study shows contradictory

  19. Y-Chromosomal Lineages of Latvians in the Context of the Genetic Variation of the Eastern-Baltic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliss, Liana; Timša, Līga; Rootsi, Siiri; Tambets, Kristiina; Pelnena, Inese; Zole, Egija; Puzuka, Agrita; Sabule, Areta; Rozane, Sandra; Lace, Baiba; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Krumina, Astrida; Ranka, Renate; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2015-11-01

    Variations of the nonrecombining Y-chromosomal region were investigated in 159 unrelated Baltic-speaking ethnic Latvians from four different geographic regions, using 28 biallelic markers and 12 short tandem repeats. Eleven different haplogroups (hgs) were detected in a regionally homogeneous Latvian population, among which N1c, R1a, and I1 cover more than 85% of its paternal lineages. When compared its closest geographic neighbors, the composition of the Latvian Y-chromosomal gene pool was found to be very similar to those of Lithuanians and Estonians. Despite the comparable frequency distribution of hg N1c in Latvians and Lithuanians with the Finno-Ugric-speaking populations from the Eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, the observed differences in allelic variances of N1c haplotypes between these two groups are in concordance with the previously stated hypothesis of different dispersal ways of this lineage in the region. More than a third of Latvian paternal lineages belong specifically to a recently defined R1a-M558 hg, indicating an influence from a common source within Eastern Slavic populations on the formation of the present-day Latvian Y-chromosome gene pool. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  20. The prediction of bankruptcy of small- and medium-sized industrial firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, P.P.M.; Bilderbeek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using large amounts of data from small- and medium-sized industrial firms, this study examines several aspects of bankruptcy prediction. We have tested a hypothesis on the predictive power of different ratio categories during the successive phases before bankruptcy, and one on the relationship

  1. The prediction of bankruptcy of small- and medium-sized industrial firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, Paul P.M.; Bilderbeek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Using large amounts of data from small- and medium-sized industrial firms, this study examines several aspects of bankruptcy prediction. We have tested a hypothesis on the predictive power of different ratio categories during the successive phases before bankruptcy, and one on the relationship betwe

  2. Costs and Recovery Rates in the Dutch Liquidation-Based Bankruptcy System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Couwenberg (Oscar); A. de Jong (Abe)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe present evidence on the efficiency of the resolution of financial distress in bankruptcy in The Netherlands. We employ a unique data set based on the files of the trustees and court offices, which includes the characteristics of the firms before and in the bankruptcy procedures, the d

  3. Analytical review on the major Issues of the new bankruptcy (law)legislation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinxin

    2006-01-01

    The bankruptcy law is an integral part of the legal system of societies with market economy.After many years of preparation,the draft of the new bankruptcy law in China was submitted to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress twice and is waiting for the third approval to be enacted.Drawing on the experiences of other countries,the new bankruptcy law tries to carry out the concepts of market economy,eliminate the residual influences of planned economy that existed in the old law,protect lawful rights and interests of creditors and debtors,and maintain the order of socialist market economy.This thesis analyzes and researches on the major and controversial issues that emerged during the legislation of the new bankruptcy law from the aspects such as the principle of the legislation,criteria of bankruptcy,preservation or abolishment of policy-related bankruptcy,protection of the employees' fights and interests of bankrupt enterprises,the creditors' committee system,the trustee system,reorganization system to prevent bankruptcy,and the legal obligations of bankrupt,and so on.It also gives a comprehensive introduction to the innovation and modification of the new bankruptcy law.

  4. The effect of personal bankruptcy exemptions on investment in home equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corradin, Stefano; Gropp, Reint; Huizinga, Harry; Laeven, L.A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Homestead exemptions to personal bankruptcy allow households to retain their home equity up to a limit determined at the state level. Households that may experience bankruptcy thus have an incentive to bias their portfolios toward home equity. Using US household data for the period 1996–2006, we fin

  5. 76 FR 34590 - Bankruptcy Filing Date Treated as Plan Termination Date for Certain Purposes; Guaranteed Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... nonforfeitable as of the bankruptcy filing date are guaranteed. Thus, for example, early retirement subsidies and... guaranteed. Participants who retired under a subsidized early retirement benefit (or a disability or other... retirement benefit or an early retirement subsidy after the bankruptcy filing date but before the...

  6. 22 CFR 213.34 - Debts that have been discharged in bankruptcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Debts that have been discharged in bankruptcy... Suspension or Termination of Collection Action § 213.34 Debts that have been discharged in bankruptcy. USAID... General Counsel's office if he believes that any claims or offsets may have survived the discharge of...

  7. The problems of cross-border personal bankruptcy in russian and chinese legislation and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Kareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is the legal and practical problems of cross-border personal bankruptcyin Russia and China.The main goal of this work is to analyze the major issues and obstacles in recognition andenforcement of Russian individual bankruptcy decisions in China and introduce it to Russianscholars and legal professionals.The methodological basis is analysis of the Russian and Chinese legislation, judicial practiceand special literatureThe results, scope of application. This article discusses the possibility of applying the provisionsof the Federal Law On Insolvency (Bankruptcy to the Chinese nationals registered asindividual entrepreneurs in Russia. The article also reviews the Chinese legal regulation andoffers recommendations on execution of the court judgments on bankruptcy and collectionof debts from the PRC nationals. Existing Russian legislation allows to recognize the foreignnationals as bankrupts. The provisions on the cross-border insolvency also apply to them.The bankruptcy in China is not applied currently to the individuals, although theoretically itmay affect their property sphere during the bankruptcy of an individual private enterprise.Conclusions. The cross-border insolvency of the Chinese nationals encounters obstacles on threelevels. Firstly, the awards of the Russian arbitration courts have not been practically enforced inPRC due to inadequate notification of the Chinese party in the case. Secondly, Chinese courts inprinciple are extremely reluctant in recognizing foreign judgments on bankruptcy, such cases areexceptional. Thirdly, there is no personal bankruptcy institution in the PRC, while similar procedureslike bankruptcy of individual private enterprises are not applied in reality, and there are nolegislative prospects for the personal bankruptcy in the nearest future. Therefore, when conductingthe bankruptcy procedure for the Chinese nationals on the Russian territory, one can onlycount on their property located

  8. Bankruptcy Risk in IFRS Era. Case Study on BSE Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin BURCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The path of international accounting convergence is, unanimously accepted by all decision makers of the international financial reporting environment, as being the best solution towards reducing differences in international accounting. The idea of core standards is embraced by our country, too, the proof being the last legislative changes in Romanian accounting framework. This study aims to highlight a small part of the economic consequences of the decision to extend the mandatory use of IFRS standards to the statutory financial statements, also. More exactly we will underline the changes registered at the level of bankruptcy risk measureson a samples of companies listed on BSE.

  9. Acoustic characteristics of the Latvian diphthongs produced by male and female informants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juris Grigorjevs

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was finding acoustic characteristics of the Latvian diphthongs irrespective of the speaker’s gender. The method designed by the author allowed to compare diphthongs of different duration, thus revealing common tendencies both in the formant structures and in the diphthong paths on the vowel plane. A comparison of the diphthong paths with the location of the long monophthongs on psychophysical F2′ vs. F1 plane showed that the paths begin in the vicinity of the corresponding monophthong but end with an undershoot, i.e., not completely reaching the target frequencies. Dynamics of the formant trajectories of the Latvian diphthongs produced in the zero context in most cases display a two-phase pattern with a relatively short steady state of the first component (the longest in [ie] and [uo]: about 1/3 of the total duration and a long transitionary phase with no steady state of the second component. The duration of the Latvian diphthongs (W is between that of the short (V and the long (Vː monophthongs. The durational ratio of the short monophthongs to the diphthongs and the long monophthongs is V : W :  Vː = 1 : 1.5 : 2.

  10. The Latvian version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumba, I; Ruperto, N; Bikis, E; Remberga, S; Saulite, I; Plotkina, N; Viksna, A; Krauca, M; Breca, I; Vikmanis, U

    2001-01-01

    We report herein the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation into the Latvian language of the parent's version of two health related quality of life instruments. The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) is a disease specific health instrument that measures functional ability in daily living activities in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) is a generic health instrument designed to capture the physical and psychosocial well-being of children independently from the underlying disease. The Latvian CHAQ CHQ were fully validated with 1 forward and 1 backward translations. A total of 141 subjects were enrolled: 80 patients with JIA (16% systemic onset, 32.5% polyarticular onset, 19% extended oligoarticular subtype, and 32.5% persistent oligoarticular subtype) and 61 healthy children. The CHAQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic, polyarticular and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a higher degree of disability, pain, and a lower overall well-being when compared to their healthy peers. Also the CHQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic onset, polyarticular onset and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a lower physical and psychosocial well-being when compared to their healthy peers. In conclusion the Latvian version of the CHAQ-CHQ is a reliable, and valid tool for the functional, physical and psychosocial assessment of children with JIA.

  11. Association of SUMO4 M55V polymorphism with autoimmune diabetes in Latvian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedimbi, Saikiran K; Shastry, Arun; Park, Yongsoo; Rumba, Ingrida; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2006-10-01

    Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO4), located in IDDM5, has been identified as a potential susceptibility gene for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The novel polymorphism M55V, causing an amino acid change in the evolutionarily conserved met55 residue has been shown to activate the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), hence the suspected role of SUMO4 in the pathogenicity of T1DM. The M55V polymorphism has been shown to be associated with susceptibility to T1DM in Asians, but not in Caucasians. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a slowly progressive form of T1DM and SUMO4 M55V has not been studied in LADA to date. The current study aims to test whether Latvians are similar to Caucasians in susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes (T1DM and LADA), with respect to SUMO4 M55V. We studied, age- and sex-matched, Latvian T1DM patients (n = 100) and healthy controls (n = 90) and LADA patients (n = 45) and healthy controls (n = 95). SUMO4 M55V polymorphism was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The allelic frequencies of the A and G alleles were compared with HLA DR3-DR4-positive and HLA DR3-DR4-negative patients to identify any potential relation between HLA DR3-DR4 and SUMO4 M55V. We found no significant association between SUMO4 M55V and T1DM susceptibility in Latvians, the results being in concurrence with the previous studies in Caucasians of British and Canadian origin. Comparison of the A and G alleles with HLA DR3-DR4 did not result in any significant P values. No significant association was found between SUMO4 M55V and LADA. SUMO4 M55V is not associated with susceptibility to T1DM and LADA in Latvians, and Latvians exhibit similarity to other Caucasians with respect to association of SUMO4 M55V with autoimmune diabetes.

  12. The acquisition of the Latvian language as the Second language at preschool age in theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingēra Tomme-Jukēvica

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Latvia there are no substantial studies on bilingual preschool children’s Latvian language as the second language. The article provides an overview of the 20th–21st century linguistic theories in the context of child second language acquisition as well as raises awareness about their influence on and use in the learning of preschoolers whose second language is Latvian, carrying out content analysis of the Minority Preschool Education Program (with instruction in Russian, the Latvian Language Program of X preschool education establishment, teaching resources (teaching aid kits, didactic handouts as well as the Latvian language as the second language study content. The conclusion is drawn that the theory of communicative competence and the systemic functional grammar theory prevail as well as the basic principles of the behavioral theory can be discerned. In the teaching resources and learning process it is advisable to more often incorporate the same language material repetition in different situations and new combinations. Consideration must be given to more positive and negative transfer (interference emphasis. To prevent children’s errors it is advisable to provide and incorporate special exercises in the teaching resources as well as methodological recommendations for the Latvian language teachers.

  13. A nova lei de falências brasileira: primeiros impactos The new Brazilian bankruptcy law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Araujo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to analyze the premiere effects of the New Brazilian Bankruptcy Law, measuring its impact over the amount of bankruptcies and judicial reorganizations, and the firms' access to credit. Making use of econometric models we find that the amount of bankruptcies (requested and decreed suffered a strong and immediate impact, reducing it in a significant way as well as the requirement of judicial reorganizations. Finally, using sectorial aggregated credit data, we find an expansion of the credit market, mainly to commercial, rural and services sectors. Additionally we did not evidence changes at the average interest rate charged to firms.

  14. A Business Intelligence Model to Predict Bankruptcy using Financial Domain Ontology with Association Rule Mining Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A; Venkatesan, Dr V Prasanna

    2011-01-01

    Today in every organization financial analysis provides the basis for understanding and evaluating the results of business operations and delivering how well a business is doing. This means that the organizations can control the operational activities primarily related to corporate finance. One way that doing this is by analysis of bankruptcy prediction. This paper develops an ontological model from financial information of an organization by analyzing the Semantics of the financial statement of a business. One of the best bankruptcy prediction models is Altman Z-score model. Altman Z-score method uses financial rations to predict bankruptcy. From the financial ontological model the relation between financial data is discovered by using data mining algorithm. By combining financial domain ontological model with association rule mining algorithm and Zscore model a new business intelligence model is developed to predict the bankruptcy.

  15. A hybrid model for bankruptcy prediction using genetic algorithm, fuzzy c-means and mars

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A; Saranya, G; Gayathri, P; Venkatesan, Prasanna

    2011-01-01

    Bankruptcy prediction is very important for all the organization since it affects the economy and rise many social problems with high costs. There are large number of techniques have been developed to predict the bankruptcy, which helps the decision makers such as investors and financial analysts. One of the bankruptcy prediction models is the hybrid model using Fuzzy C-means clustering and MARS, which uses static ratios taken from the bank financial statements for prediction, which has its own theoretical advantages. The performance of existing bankruptcy model can be improved by selecting the best features dynamically depend on the nature of the firm. This dynamic selection can be accomplished by Genetic Algorithm and it improves the performance of prediction model.

  16. THE USEFULNESS OF THE AUTONOMY RATIO IN THE PREDICTION OF BANKRUPTCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU-OLARIU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to test the potential of the autonomy ratio in the prediction of bankruptcy. The target population included all the active companies from the Timis County with annual sales of over 10,000 lei. The event the research was focused on is represented by the occurence of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. The bankruptcy was defined in accordance with the Romanian law applicable over the period targeted by the study. The tests were performed over a paired-sample that included all the companies from the target population that went bankrupt during the period 2011-2012. The discrimination power of the autonomy ratio was evaluated for different cut-off values recommended by the existing literature. The research proves the utility of the autonomy ratio in the prediction of bankruptcy two years before its occurence.

  17. Public Company Bankruptcy Cases Opened and Monitored for Fiscal Year 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — This file contains all of the bankruptcy cases for public companies opened and monitored in the fiscal year 2009. The data includes the District Court, the state,...

  18. Debtor education, financial literacy, and pending bankruptcy legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Richard L; Baron-Donovan, Corinne; Gross, Karen; Block-Lieb, Susan

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of a financial education-training program for residents of New York who had filed for bankruptcy. Over 400 individuals divided into three groups (trained debtors, untrained debtors, and non-debtors) completed identical questionnaires approximately three months apart. Trained debtors took the pretest before training and the post-test after training. Results revealed that trained debtors' financial knowledge increased after training compared with untrained and non-debtors. Trained debtors showed more negative attitudes towards unnecessary spending compared with the other two groups and reported less intention to buy than non-debtors reported. Self-reported behaviors showed significant changes in the desired direction for trained debtors' use of credit cards (i.e. number owned, purchases, and balance amount), paying bills, budgeting, and borrowing from predatory lenders. Implications for pending legislation are discussed.

  19. ABOUT POSSIBILITY OF USAGE METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Valentinovich Druzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the most common foreign methods showed that they were designed to analyze enterprises in the sustainable economic development with low-shadowing of the economy. The most appropriate retrospective analysis results were obtained using Springate model, Lis ratio and Beaver ratio. Domestic methods analysis allows us to conclude that they make it difficult to account criterion of insolvency using a number of factors. Ukrainian researchers, as well as foreigners, use indexes for bankruptcy prediction that are based on convolution values of different insolvency signs. However, we believe that usage of a single indicator as a result doesn’t allow us to make an insolvency diagnosis. The reason is high probability of an erroneous calculation because of the unreliability of the data used. Also, one of domestic methods problems is their orientation to the official statistics that increases the error due to significant domestic shadowing economy.

  20. Accounting Ratios and Bankruptcy Prediction: Woolworths Geoup PLC as A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Okuguni, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research attempts to ascertain the predictive ability of accounting ratios using Woolworths Group plc. This was achieved by carrying out Financial Ratio Analysis, Altman Z-score, Robertson R-ratio and Trend Analysis of Woolworths Group plc. In addition, the causes of bankruptcy at Woolworths Group plc would be ascertained. Finally the research would use mathematical models to ascertain the predictability of bankruptcy at Woolworths Group plc. The main findings of this re...

  1. A New Hybrid Algorithm for Bankruptcy Prediction Using Switching Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machines

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bankruptcy prediction has been extensively investigated by data mining techniques since it is a critical issue in the accounting and finance field. In this paper, a new hybrid algorithm combining switching particle swarm optimization (SPSO) and support vector machine (SVM) is proposed to solve the bankruptcy prediction problem. In particular, a recently developed SPSO algorithm is exploited to search the optimal parameter values of radial basis function (RBF) kernel of the SVM. The new algori...

  2. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziukynas V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011 and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023.

  3. Organizational resilience as a human capital strategy for companies in bankruptcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert L

    2016-05-27

    Bankruptcy is a crisis that generates severe stress and anxiety, resulting in maladaptive behavior and inappropriate decision-making at both individual and organizational levels. There is limited research or guidance for management to address the consequences of bankruptcy on an organization's human capital. This study examined the human capital management principle of organizational resilience that was employed by a company that successfully reorganized and emerged from bankruptcy. This study translated seven principles of organizational resilience proposed by Mallak to operationalize a conceptual model of organizational resilience for companies operating in bankruptcy. The model is evaluated using a qualitative research approach comprised of an original case study of Integrated Electrical Services, Inc. The results of the research points to the importance of de-centralized operational decision making, expanding communication channels, ensuring adequate external resources, and engaging external stakeholders in the management of an organization seeking to successfully operate and ultimately emerge from bankruptcy. The research identified the central importance of expanding decision making boundaries in the resilience of organizations and their ability to adapt when under adverse conditions such as bankruptcy. The implications support an organization developing a human resource strategy to develop organizational resilience.

  4. Economic Consciousness and the System of Values of Latvian University Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Viktor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the attitude of a Latvian university’s graduates to wealth and means of its acquisition, as well as their assessment of their own economic status and preferred moves in case of unemployment. The author estimates the university graduates’ personal capabilities; their interests, skills and qualifications, the extent of their reliance on their own initiative and resources, and their confidence about the future. The article defines the graduates’ economic interests forming motivations and approaches to practical economic behavior according to certain types of economic consciousness.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production from Marine Macroalgae: a Latvian Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilicka, Iluta; Blumberga, Dagnija; Romagnoli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    There is potential environmental benefit to be gained from the use of algae because of their ability to fix CO2, no need for direct land use and utilization of bio-waste (rich in potassium, phosphate and nitrogen based compounds) as a nutrients. The aim of the research is to assess the impact of biogas production and the final use in a cogeneration unit system from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in comparison with a similar reference system using a non-renewable source (e.g. natural gas). The paper is intended to be a preliminary study for understanding the implementation of this novel technology in a Latvian context.

  6. THE LATVIAN LANGUAGE IN THE LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPE OF DAUGAVPILS (THE MIDDLE OF THE 19TH CENTURY - TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solvita Pošeiko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the LL of Daugavpils from a diachronic point of view in order to describe the usage of the Latvian language in the public space since the middle of the 19th century until today, as well as the socio-economic and political factors which influence the language situation. Research sources are old photos which depict legible signboards, and photos obtained during LL research 2013. The role of the Latvian language in public information increased during the first period of independence, when ideas of nationalism become widespread and the first normative documents about language usage were approved. However, the stability of Latvian as the main language of the public was only established during the first Latvian Republican period at the end of the 20th century, when the State Language Law was passed and implemented in linguistic practice. Currently, the linguistic landscape reflects the political, socio-pragmatic, and social identity motivations of the owners of public texts, but within the confines of the restrictions imposed by language laws

  7. Associations of HLA DR and DQ molecules with Lyme borreliosis in Latvian patients

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    Kovalchuka Lilija

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many autoimmune diseases are associated with variants of HLA genes such as those encoding the MHC complex. This correlation is not absolute, but may help in understanding of the molecular mechanism of disease. The purpose of this study was to determine HLA-DR,-DQ alleles in Latvian patients with Lyme borreliosis and control (healthy persons. Case patients and control subjects were similar in age, gender and ethnic heritage and differed only as regards the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. The study included 25 patients with clinical stage – erythema migrans and 30 control (healthy persons. HLA genotyping was performed by PCR with sequence-specific primers. Results The results show difference in HLA-DRB1 alleles distribution between patients and control subjects. The frequencies of HLA-DRB1 *04 (OR 11.24; p  Conclusions HLA predisposition to Lyme borreliosis appears not to be limited to HLA molecules, but some HLA-DR alleles also have a significant influence, and, may have implications in our understanding of pathogenesis of this disease. In particular, HLA-DRB1*04 and DRB1 *17 (03 may contribute to the Lyme borreliosis development in Latvian population

  8. Relationship between Personality Types Conceptualized by C. G. Jung and Latvian IT Specialist Preferences

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    Maris Dargis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available General people’s personality types, as well as idiosyncrasies and cognition and perception characteristics specific to each type, are a common research item, especially in such areas as pedagogics, human resource management, etc. Personality traits characteristic for individuals and teams of certain specific avocations (i.e., project teams, however, are a much less explored subject. In this area, the amount of conducted research is congruent with the geopolitical location and directly correlates with the possibility of finding practical applications for the findings of said research. This study presents the initial findings of such research, within the scope of which the idiosyncrasies common for IT specialists were explored using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI model. These initial findings can be used as the foundation for further study on the subject, helping to create a general Latvian IT specialist’s personality profile, and, possibly, identifying the areas that need development, while taking into consideration the tendencies and requirements of the Latvian IT market, as well as those of  the labour market worldwide.

  9. INSOLVENCY VERSUS BANKRUPTCY: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE PROCEDURE

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    PAULINA DINA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the development of the phenomenon in Romania has the role to highlight the trend that has been followed by the number of organisational entities that have been affected by the insolvency phenomenon in Romania, the distribution by counties and regions of the number of insolvency cases as well as the activity sectors that have been most affected by this phenomenon. At the same time, in order to provide an overall picture regarding the size of the insolvency phenomenon in Romania, organisational entities with extremely high turnovers have been given as examples, (legal entities entities which, since 2008 up to the present moment, have been crossing one of the stages of the insolvency procedure. Some of them have been applied the simplified insolvency procedure, since they didn’t have the possibility to reorganise, and others, fewer in number, have used insolvency as a „rescue boat”, following the general insolvency procedure and entering a reorganisation process, in the attempt to avoid bankruptcy.

  10. ANALYSIS MODEL USING ROBU MIRONIUC IN PREDICTING RISK OF BANKRUPTCY ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞTEFĂNIŢĂ ŞUŞU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bankruptcy risk and made the subject of many research studies that aim to identify the time of the bankruptcy, the factors that compete to achieve this state, and the indicators that best expresses this orientation (the bankruptcy. The threats to enterprises require knowledge managers continually economic and financial situations, and vulnerable areas with development potential. Managers need to identify and properly manage the threats that would prevent achieving the targets. In terms of methods known in the literature of assessment and evaluation of bankruptcy risk they are static, functional, strategic and non-scoring. Analysis by scoring methods is usually carried out by banks in the analysis of creditworthiness, when a company asks for a bank loan. Each bank has its own analysis, including a feature-score calculated internally based on indicators defined in its credit manual. To have a national comparability, however, a scoring system should be based on more data in the situation of "public data" or available to all stakeholders. In this article, in order to achieve bankruptcy risk prediction model is used Robu-Mironiuc on the passage benchmarking 2009-2013. The source of information is the profit and loss account and balance sheet of the two companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (Turism Covasna and Dorna Turism companies. The results of the analysis are interpreted while trying to formulate solutions to the economic and financial viability of the entity.

  11. FINANCIAL FUTURE PROSPECT INVESTIGATION USING BANKRUPTCY FORECASTING MODELS IN HUNGARIAN MEAT PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalma Peto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our main research topic is the analysis of leading companies in the Hungarian meat processing industry in terms of liquidity criteria. We examine this scientific subject by application of financial indicators and several important bankruptcy forecasting models. In our thesis the emphasis is placed on the presentation and evaluation of business failure models. The topicality of the research subject is rooted in the economic crisis and recession, which made solvency a key issue. Maintaining the competitive position in the market and the ability to stay in competition depend on the capability to generate an appropriate level of net operative cash flow. The most important research questions are the following. Which financial methods can be used to predict and estimate the situation when a company is facing bankruptcy? Do bankruptcy forecasting models provide accurate forecasts and what conclusions can be drawn based on these results? In our study we present the actual economic situation and the main problems of the sector, select the sample companies, calculate and compare the applied financial ratios and the most relevant bankruptcy forecasting models. On the basis of annual reports concerning 2010-2013 interval we investigate the financial position of leading pork processing companies. We make a comprehensive and comparative analysis concerning capital structure, liquidity, and profitability; consequently identify risky processes and companies having high probability of insolvency. Finally, we demonstrate and evaluate the results of three traditional bankruptcy forecasting models (Altman, Springate, and Fulmer and four modern models (DA, LR, industrial DA and industrial LR.

  12. Bankruptcy Prevention: New Effort to Reflect on Legal and Social Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliestik, Tomas; Misankova, Maria; Valaskova, Katarina; Svabova, Lucia

    2017-04-10

    Every corporation has an economic and moral responsibility to its stockholders to perform well financially. However, the number of bankruptcies in Slovakia has been growing for several years without an apparent macroeconomic cause. To prevent a rapid denigration and to prevent the outflow of foreign capital, various efforts are being zealously implemented. Robust analysis using conventional bankruptcy prediction tools revealed that the existing models are adaptable to local conditions, particularly local legislation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that most of these outdated tools have sufficient capability to warn of impending financial problems several years in advance. A novel bankruptcy prediction tool that outperforms the conventional models was developed. However, it is increasingly challenging to predict bankruptcy risk as corporations have become more global and more complex and as they have developed sophisticated schemes to hide their actual situations under the guise of "optimization" for tax authorities. Nevertheless, scepticism remains because economic engineers have established bankruptcy as a strategy to limit the liability resulting from court-imposed penalties.

  13. Bankruptcy prediction for credit risk using neural networks: a survey and new results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiya, A F

    2001-01-01

    The prediction of corporate bankruptcies is an important and widely studied topic since it can have significant impact on bank lending decisions and profitability. This work presents two contributions. First we review the topic of bankruptcy prediction, with emphasis on neural-network (NN) models. Second, we develop an NN bankruptcy prediction model. Inspired by one of the traditional credit risk models developed by Merton (1974), we propose novel indicators for the NN system. We show that the use of these indicators in addition to traditional financial ratio indicators provides a significant improvement in the (out-of-sample) prediction accuracy (from 81.46% to 85.5% for a three-year-ahead forecast).

  14. The Benefits of Financial Ratios' as the Indocators of Future Bankruptcy on the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setia Mulyawan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that financial ratios can predict future bankruptcy even on high uncertainty conditions such as an economic crisis. The research indicates that the accuracy of prediction is more increasing in line with a coming bankruptcy.The result of the research shows that four years before a corporate becomes bankrupt there have been significant differences of financial ratios between bankrupt company and sustained one. The ratios of liquidity, profitability, activity, and return on investment of sustained company are higher; while the leverage ratio is lower.The dominant influencing financial ratios toward a bankruptcy are liquidity and leverage ratios. The research finds that from ten tested ratios, Current Asset to current liabilities and total liabilities to total asset are the dominant financial ratios. 

  15. Genetic variants in the PSMA6, PSMC6 and PSMA3 genes associated with childhood asthma in Latvian and Taiwanese populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramonova N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteasomes mediate functional realization of signaling proteins implicated in asthma pathogenesis. Aim. To evaluate main and sex-specific association between the PSMA6, PSMC6 and PSMA3 proteasomal genes variations and childhood asthma in Latvians and Taiwanese. Methods. SNPs rs2277460, rs1048990, rs2295826, rs2295827 and rs2348071 were genotyped in 102 Latvian and 159 Taiwanese cases for comparison with genetic diversity in populations (191 and 1097 subjects respectively. Results. Haplotype CGACG showed strong (P < 0.0001 association with asthma risk in both populations. All loci heterozygous genotypes and haplotype CCGTA were identified as asthma risk factors in Latvians; rs1048990 and rs2348071 GG homozygotes and rs2295826 and rs2295827 heterozygotes showed asthma risk and protective effect in Taiwanese females respectively. The multi locus genotypes homozygous for alleles being common in Latvian population were identified as protective in Latvians and disease susceptible in Taiwanese. Conclusions. Our results suggest an association of the 14q13-23 proteasomal genes polymorphisms with the childhood asthma in Latvians and Taiwanese and high-light risk and/or protective factors being the same or different between the populations.

  16. Pre-World War II Romania from Latvian Perspective: An Envoy's views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ēriks Jēkabsons

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The paper approaches the working environment and observations of Latvian envoy Ludvigs Ēķis in Romania from the autumn of 1939 when the Latvian Legation was opened in Bucharest until the summer of 1940 when the State of Latvia was liquidated. The main focus is on the Latvian-Romanian relations in this period of time, the Romanian foreign and economical policy and the reaction of Romanian statesmen and society to the events and processes of the first stage of World War: the policy of Soviet Union, Germany and Hungary, the Soviet-Finnish War and other conflicts in region and in Europe. The article is based on the materials stored in the State Archives of Latvia and particularly on Ludvigs Ekis’ reports. In a time when war was raging in Europe, Romania, too, was subject to considerable international pressure. Some similarities can be detected between the developments in this region and in the Baltic States.Rezumat:Lucrarea abordează mediul de lucru şi observaţiile ministrului leton în România Ludvigs Ēķis începând din toamna anului 1939, cand Legaţia letonă a fost deschisă la Bucureşti, până în vara anului 1940, când statul leton a fost lichidat. Lucrarea se va concentra în principal asupra relaţiilor letono-române în această perioadă de timp, asupra politicii externe şi a celei economice, a reacţiei oamenilor de stat şi a societăţii româneşti faţă de evenimente şi procese desfăşurate în prima etapă a primului război mondial: politicile Uniunii Sovietice, Germaniei şi Ungariei, Războiul sovieto-finlandez şi alte conflicte regionale şi europene. Articolul se bazează pe materiale păstrate în arhivele de stat din Letonia şi în special pe rapoartele lui Ludvigs Ēķis. Într-un moment în care războiul făcea ravagii în Europa, România a fost, de asemenea, supusă unor presiuni internaţionale considerabile. Unele similitudini pot fi detectate între evoluţiile din această regiune

  17. The relationship between anomie and participation of Latvian inhabitants in social activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levina J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate relations between different dimensions of anomie of Latvian inhabitants and their participation in social activities, as well as to find what social activities of Latvian inhabitants best predict their sense of anomie. In this research the secondary data from the third European Quality of Life Survey (European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS, 2012 was used. The Latvian sample consisted of respondents (n = 1009, aged from 18 to 92 years (male – 34.9%, female – 65.1%. To assess anomie three subscales of anomie – Social distrust, Social isolation and Meaninglessness – were used. These subscales [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] were constructed basing on the integrative multidimensional model of anomie, developed by Ļevina, Mārtinsone and Kamerāde [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], and using questions from the third European Quality of Life Survey [7]. To measure social activities, twenty questions of the third European Quality of Life Survey were used. It was found that all three aspects of anomie – social distrust, social isolation and meaninglessness – were negatively associated with such social activities as interaction with others without doing a specific activity with them, doing an activity with others, helping others and contributing to society (civic activities. Contact by phone, the Internet or by post with a brother, sister or other relative best of all predicted social distrust. Contact by phone, the Internet or by post with any of friends or neighbours, as well as with a brother, sister or other relative together with participation in social activities in a club, society, or an association and attending a meeting of a trade union, a political party or political action group best of all predicted social isolation. Meaninglessness best of all could be predicted by contact by phone, the Internet or by post with any of friends or neighbours as well as with brother, sister or other relative and by

  18. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION IN HUNGARIAN DAIRY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozsa Andrea

    2014-07-01

    The preliminary sample for the analysis is framed on the basis of three criteria: amount of the subscribed capital, sales revenues and product structure. Those companies are regarded as competitors that have subscribed capitals in excess of HUF 250 million, consistently high levels of sales revenues and diversified product structures. The preliminary sample consists of 7 companies. In 2012, their total sales revenues were as high as about 50% of the overall amount of sales revenues in the sector. Three of the 7 companies are possessed by foreign owners in full or part, whereas 4 of them belong to Hungarian owners. In 2012, Hungarian-owned companies covered more than one-third of the combined sales revenues of the 7 leading companies. Hence, the competitive positions of these 4 companies based on their financial positions are examined. These calculations have relied on the annual reports for the period of 2008–2012 (balance sheets, income statements, cash flow statements. The research has implemented a comprehensive and comparative financial analysis. The main question is what the key financial characteristics of the Hungarian-owned companies are. Financial indicators are calculated and their time-series analysis is accomplished to describe the sample companies’ capital structures, liquidity and profitability. Using comparative analysis of the applied financial ratios the study determines (1 which company has the most advantageous financial conditions for the successful operation; (2 which companies have disadvantageous financial situation; and (3 which companies are in potential financial distress situation. Potential bankruptcy positions are examined by the applications of Altman and Springate models.

  19. BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION MODEL WITH ZETAc OPTIMAL CUT-OFF SCORE TO CORRECT TYPE I ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Iwan

    2005-06-01

    This research has successfully attained the following results: (1 type I error is in fact 59,83 times more costly compared to type II error, (2 22 ratios distinguish between bankrupt and non-bankrupt groups, (3 2 financial ratios proved to be effective in predicting bankruptcy, (4 prediction using ZETAc optimal cut-off score predicts more companies filing for bankruptcy within one year compared to prediction using Hair et al. optimum cutting score, (5 Although prediction using Hair et al. optimum cutting score is more accurate, prediction using ZETAc optimal cut-off score proved to be able to minimize cost incurred from classification errors.

  20. Using Quantitative Data Analysis Techniques for Bankruptcy Risk Estimation for Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Daniel ARMEANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of methods and techniques for quantification and management of risk has led to the development of many mathematical models, a large part of which focused on measuring bankruptcy risk for businesses. In financial analysis there are many indicators which can be used to assess the risk of bankruptcy of enterprises but to make an assessment it is needed to reduce the number of indicators and this can be achieved through principal component, cluster and discriminant analyses techniques. In this context, the article aims to build a scoring function used to identify bankrupt companies, using a sample of companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange.

  1. Employers’ involvement in the development of professional higher education Latvian experience and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankevics A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to update lately (since the 2009th year changes in educational policy-makers, employers and professional education cooperative institutional framework outlining the involvement of employers in the increasing importance of education development issues in Latvian. The employers are actively involved in the development of professional higher education in Latvia, thus trying to the maximum extent to solve the problems of human resources availability and employment in all the branches of the economy. In general, this creates conditions for the achievement of the aim of the EU strategy “Europe 2020” to raise the importance of education and to correspond to the demands of the labour market in Latvia.

  2. Latvian Security and Defense Policy within the Twenty-First Century Security Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rublovskis Raimonds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze fundamental factors which form and profoundly shape security and defense policy of the Republic of Latvia. One can argue that historical background, geographical location, common institutional history within the former Soviet Union, the Russia factor, the relative smallness of the territory of state and the population, the ethnic composition of the population, the low density of the population and rather limited financial and manpower resources available for the defense of the Republic of Latvia are the key factors of influence on the state security and defense policy. The core principles of the security and defense policy of Latvia are the membership in powerful global military alliance of NATO and bilateral strategic partnership with the United States. However, security and defense cooperation among the three Baltic States as well as enhanced cooperation within the Baltic-Nordic framework is seen as an important supplementary factor for the increased security of the Republic of Latvia. Latvia has developed a sustainable legal and institutional framework in order to contribute to state security and defense; however, security challenges and significant changes within the global security environment of the twenty-first century will further challenge the ability of the Republic of Latvia to sustain its current legal framework, and more importantly, current institutional structure of Latvian security and defense architecture. Significant internal and external challenges will impact the fundamental pillars of Latvian security and defense policy, such as American strategic shift to the Pacific, and lack of political will to increase defense budgets in European part of NATO. It has to be clear that very independence, security and defense of the Republic of Latvia depend on the ability of NATO to remain an effective organization with timely and efficient decision-making, and the ability of the United States to remain

  3. Recovery strategies help faltering hospital pull back from brink of bankruptcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, J

    1992-03-02

    Delaware Valley Medical Center was slipping fast, heading toward bankruptcy or closure. But thanks to a corrective business plan established a year ago, the Langhorne, Pa., osteopathic facility has turned profitable a year ahead of schedule. Physician recruitment, new services and a flexible hospital board have played key roles.

  4. Coping with Medicare overpayments and other cash-flow problems: bankruptcy and nonbankruptcy alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauner, K L; Hedlund, C T

    1991-09-01

    Over the last several years, many home care agencies have encountered serious financial difficulties as a result of, among other reasons, Medicare's attempts to recover alleged overpayments. Depending on the cause of the financial difficulties, a provider, in consultation with accountants and attorneys, may decide to restructure its business through either a nonbankruptcy workout or a Chapter 11 bankruptcy filing.

  5. 75 FR 44890 - Operation, in the Ordinary Course, of a Commodity Broker in Bankruptcy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... unanticipated events. United States futures customers in the Refco \\7\\ and Lehman \\8\\ bankruptcies were well protected: Due to the timing of the filing (late in the day on Friday), and, in Lehman, action by the...\\ See S.I.P.C. v. Lehman Brothers, Inc., No. 08-8119, Docket No. 3 (S.D.N.Y. Sept. 19, 2008); see...

  6. One Debt-Financing Option May Increase Risk of College Bankruptcies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basken, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A common type of variable-rate financing has suddenly increased the risk of bankruptcy for an unknown number of colleges, said two experts at credit-rating agencies. The threat affects mostly less-wealthy colleges that have used variable-rate bonds either to get a better price when borrowing or because they lacked bond ratings and had little other…

  7. Costs and recovery rates in the Dutch liquidation-based bankruptcy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Couwenberg (Oscar); A. de Jong (Abe)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe present evidence on the efficiency of the resolution of financial distress in bankruptcy in The Netherlands. Direct costs average 16%, firm recovery 37% and bank debt recovery 80%. The direct costs are lower in larger firms and in firms with more bank debt. Costs increase with the tim

  8. Tree enterprises and bankruptcy ventures: a game theoretic similarity due to a graph theoretic proof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Theo

    1997-01-01

    In a tree enterprise, users reside at the nodes of the tree and their aim is to connect themselves, directly or indirectly, to the root of the tree. The construction costs of arcs of the tree are given by means of the arc-cost-function associated with the tree. Further the bankruptcy venture is

  9. On the History of Bankruptcy Crime in German%德国破产刑法历史之考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    行江

    2014-01-01

    德国破产罪行规定最早产生于16世纪中期。17世纪和18世纪判例中体现的欺诈破产与简单破产的不同,最终在1794年《普鲁士国家的普通邦法》中得到确认。1851年的《普鲁士刑法典》第一次在刑法典中规定了破产罪行,从而在历史上占有重要地位。1877年德国《破产法》中破产罪行规定,直接把1871年《帝国刑法典》中相应内容移换到其中。1976年第一次经济犯罪对策法改革之后,又将破产罪行规定在刑法典中。此后破产罪行一直规定在刑法典中。1999年《破产法施行法》对破产罪行的修改,奠定了现行破产刑法的基础。%The earliest provisions of bankruptcy offence originated in Germany in the 16th Century. In the 17th and 18th century the differences between the fraudulent bankruptcy and simple bankruptcy in case were confirmed in the Prussian General Land law in 1794. The bankruptcy offenses were first provided in the Prussian Penal Code in 1851 which occupied an important position in Germany history. The bankruptcy crime in the Imperial Penal Code of 1871 was receipted completely by The Imperial Bankruptcy Act of 1877. By the First law to combat economic crime in 1976, the bankruptcy crimes were reintegrated into the Criminal Code and bankruptcy crimes have been specified always in the Criminal Code. Bankruptcy crimes were modified by the Implementation of bankruptcy Act in 1999 which was the foundation of the existing bankruptcy crimes.

  10. Radio Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, John R.; Bittner, Denise A.

    This book, a how-to-do-it guide for the novice and the professional alike, deals with several aspects of radio journalism: producing documentaries, preparing and announcing radio news, ethics and responsibility, regulation of radio journalism, and careers. It traces the history and growth of radio news, shows its impact on the public, and…

  11. Influence of thermal treatment and combustible additives on properties of Latvian clay ceramics pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liga Dabare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous ceramic pellets for possible environmental application were produced from different Latvian clays by sintering at different temperatures. Their characteristics and influence of additives were analysed using X-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry and BET tests. The obtained ceramic pellets from calcareous clays after immersion in distilled water change its pH value, which affects their capability to adsorb ions or molecules on the surface. The sorption capabilities are dependent on the pH level of water solution, composition of clays, and used adsorbate. Porosity of the produced pellets is mostly within range from 15 to 25 % throughout all sintering temperatures with a slight decrease at 1050 °C. The specific surface area has a wide range up to 30 m2/g. The highest surface area has pellets sintered at lower temperatures. The adsorption capability of pellets was evaluated using water solutions with different ions. The most promising results were obtained with iodine sorption. For most pellets the sorption capacity was 12.7 mg/g, although for the pellets sintered at 1050 °C it was lower.

  12. Sovremennye problemy rossijsko-latvijskih otnoshenij [Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current relations between Russia and Latvia are still influenced by a series of mutual claims that appeared after the demise of the USSR. Latvia — as well as Estonia and Lithuania — is both an EU and NATO member state. However, unlike the above mentioned countries, its relations with Russia are developing at a more pragmatic level. Numerous political differences often result in economic losses both for Latvia and Russia. Despite the fact that Latvia has been an independent state for more than 20 years, there are still some unresolved issues in its relations with Russia. Today, relations between the two countries are often viewed through the prism of EU-Russia relations. Nonetheless, they often do not fit this context. Settling differences between Latvia and Russia will contribute to trade relations, which are increasingly important for both parties. In order to prevent and localise emerging conflicts, diplomats, politicians, and experts should interpret Russian-Latvian relations in view of the national features without referring to theoretical models based on the mythological “unity” of the three Baltic States.

  13. HLA-DR and -DQ gene polymorphism in Latvian patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtauvere, A; Rumba, I; Dzivite, I; Sanjeevi, C B

    1998-10-01

    Latvian insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients (n=101) and healthy controls (n=111) were analyzed for HLA-DR and DQ polymorphism. DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8 were positively associated and DR15-DQ6, DR13-DQ6, DR1-DQ5 and DQ7 negatively associated with the disease. The incidence of IDDM in Latvia is very low (6.5 per 100,000) compared to Sweden (24.4 per 100,000), even though Latvia is close to Sweden. The reasons for the decreased incidence are not clear. When the negatively associated DQ were taken together in the healthy controls, more than 75% of the healthy controls were positive for one of the four negatively associated DQ molecules. The excess frequency of the negatively associated DQ molecules in the general population could explain the lower incidence of IDDM in Latvia. Association of HLA-DR and DQ genes with autoantibody markers shows DR3, but not DQ2, to be increased in GAD65 antibody-positive compared to antibody-negative patients. This association was not observed with ICA512 antibodies.

  14. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lulle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.

  15. Latvian dialects in the 21st century: old and new borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stafecka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Latvian dialects in the 21st century: old and new borders Although historical regional dialects are still relatively well preserved in Latvia, nowadays one can no longer speak of dialects and sub-dialects in the traditional sense because, due to changes of administrative borders, the traditional sub-dialects are subject to attrition and gradual loss. In particular, the contact zone of Central and High Latvian dialect has changed markedly. The border of High Latvian dialect has moved to the east. Since 2013, a project “Latvian Dialects in the 21st Century: a Socio­linguistic Aspect” is being carried out in order to gain an insight into contemporary Latvian dialect situation, analyzing at least three sub-dialects in each dialect. However, we can speak of dialect borders in another aspect. For instance, the borders between the preservation of dialectal features and the impact of standard language, as well as the borders of maintenance of sub-dialectal feature among the speakers of different age groups. Attention is also paid to the use of sub-dialects in central and peripheral parts of territories. The first research results showed that people who live further from the centre use the sub-dialect more often – especially in communication with family members (including the younger generation, relatives and neighbours. The preliminary results show a different situation among dialects. In the sub-dialects of the Middle dialect, which is closest to Standard Latvian, the borderline between sub-dialect and standard language has almost disappeared, since the infor­mants practically do not feel any difference between them. In the Livonianized dialect, there are several features that are still more or less present in the speech of all generations – generalization of masculine gender, reduc­tion of word endings, etc. However, in this dialect, too, the language used by younger speakers is gradually losing the dialectal features. The situation differs

  16. Interactions between Corporate Governance, Bankruptcy Law and Firms Debt Financing: the Brazilian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Funchal

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between corporate governance level and the bankruptcy law for such debt variables as firms’ cost of debt and amount (and variation of debt. Our empirical results are consistent with the model's prediction. First, we find that the better the corporate governance, the lower the cost of debt. Second, we find that better corporate governance arrangements relate to firms with higher amounts of debt. Finally we find that better governance and harsher bankruptcy laws have a positive effect on debt. Moreover, this effect is stronger for firms with worse corporate governance, which indicates that the law works as a substitute for governance practices to protect creditors' interests.

  17. THE AUTHORITY TO FILE BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS AFTER THE ESTABLISHMENT OF INDONESIA’S FINANCIAL SERVICES AUTHORITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Defiana Putriyanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The transfer in the functions, duties, and authority for regulation and supervision as stipulated in Article 55 of the Act concerning the Financial Services Authority (OJK does not include the transfer of authority in filing a petition for bankruptcy. The authority to file a bankrupty petition against a debtor in the financial services sector still refers to Article 2 paragraph (3 to (5 Act No. 37 of 2004 concerning Bankruptcy and Suspension of Payment. Peralihan fungsi, tugas dan kewenangan pengaturan dan pengawasan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 55 Undang-undang tentang Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK tidak termasuk peralihan kewenangan pengajuan pailit. Kewenangan untuk mengajukan permohonan pailit terhadap debitor yang bergerak dibidang jasa keuangan tetap mengacu pada Pasal 2 ayat (3 sampai (5 Undang-Undang Nomor 37 Tahun 2004 tentang Kepailitan dan PKPU.

  18. THE AUTHORITY TO FILE BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS AFTER THE ESTABLISHMENT OF INDONESIA’S FINANCIAL SERVICES AUTHORITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Defiana Putriyanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The transfer in the functions, duties, and authority for regulation and supervision as stipulated in Article 55 of the Act concerning the Financial Services Authority (OJK does not include the transfer of authority in filing a petition for bankruptcy. The authority to file a bankrupty petition against a debtor in the financial services sector still refers to Article 2 paragraph (3 to (5 Act No. 37 of 2004 concerning Bankruptcy and Suspension of Payment.   Peralihan fungsi, tugas dan kewenangan pengaturan dan pengawasan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 55 Undang-undang tentang Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK tidak termasuk peralihan kewenangan pengajuan pailit. Kewenangan untuk mengajukan permohonan pailit terhadap debitor yang bergerak dibidang jasa keuangan tetap mengacu pada Pasal 2 ayat (3 sampai (5 Undang-Undang Nomor 37 Tahun 2004 tentang Kepailitan dan PKPU.

  19. The Great Gatsby---A Story of the Bankruptcy of the American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余彦

    2014-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is regarded as one of F.Scott Fitzgerald’smost famous works.This paper concentrate on the bankruptcy of the American dream in the 1920s which is conveyed in this story.This thesis referred to the main experience of the author,studying the bankruptcy of Gatsby’s American dream in The Great Gatsby.This paper also referred the hostorical background of the Jazz Age and peple’ s American dream in the 1920s.Through the analysisof major characters’ s personalites of the novel, wecan draw the conclusion that Gatsby’ s destiny has a great connection with Fitzgerald himself and the death of Gatsby is doomed by the specific money social environment which is full of selfishness, greed and moral degeneration.

  20. A HYBRID MODEL FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION USING GENETIC ALGORITHM, FUZZY C-MEANS AND MARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bankruptcy prediction is very important for all the organization since it affects the economy and rise manysocial problems with high costs. There are large number of techniques have been developed to predict thebankruptcy, which helps the decision makers such as investors and financial analysts. One of thebankruptcy prediction models is the hybrid model using Fuzzy C-means clustering and MARS, which usesstatic ratios taken from the bank financial statements for prediction, which has its own theoreticaladvantages. The performance of existing bankruptcy model can be improved by selecting the best featuresdynamically depend on the nature of the firm. This dynamic selection can be accomplished by GeneticAlgorithm and it improves the performance of prediction model. .

  1. Bankruptcy and loans in Puerto Rico:an exploratory overview of their relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Álvarez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Puerto Rico has been going through a period of economic downturn since 2006, beginning a little before the global economic recession. This paper examines the behavior of loans granted by the commercial banking sector and their relationship with the number of business bankruptcies filed in Puerto Rico between 1999 and 2011. Findings draw attention to the fact that from 2006, there has been a steady decline in the number of personal, commercial and mortgage loans approved by the commercial banking sector, as well as in their value. An increase in the filing of bankruptcy is also observed. The number of loans approved by banks in Puerto Rico show a strong correlation with the economic activity index (EAI and other economic indicators that help to explain the island’s employment situation (total employment, labor force participation rate and unemployment rate.

  2. Bankruptcy of the company as a consequence of manipulative financial reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešlić Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Business of companies in terms of financial instability and market uncertainty can lead to a significant increase in bankruptcy risk and the risk of financial statements manipulation. A creative accounting practice has led many companies in the world to bankruptcy. Creative accounting means all accounting practices that deliberately deviate from the standardized ones, in order for the external users to be presented with the desired, not the actual yield and the financial strength of the company. Numerous corporate accounting scandals were the cause for initiatives to strengthen the protection of shareholders and all other interested users of financial statements (investors, creditors, tax authorities, etc. from manipulative financial reporting in countries around the world. In such circumstances, responsibility for the detection and prevention of possible manipulation with the data presented in the financial statements have: external and forensic audit, internal control and management of the company, accountants - forensics and state.

  3. MODELING OF A STRUCTURED PLAN OF ACCOUNTS IN PROCEDURES OF INSOLVENCY AND BANKRUPTCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalenko R. V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article details the problems of constructing a structured plan of accounts in bankruptcy and insolvency proceedings. The proposed model is based on two principal positions, first structured chart of accounts has its own dimension, and secondly, it is built on the principles of architectonics. Architectonics constructing structured chart of accounts allows you to integrate managerial, strategic, transactional accounting and making accounting transparent and efficient

  4. Bankruptcy Reorganization in China and the United States:Cautions for the Comparativist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William J.Woodward

    2010-01-01

    <正>In the late 1930’s Americans developed their first comprehensive law of bankruptcy reorganization.In larger cases,that law provided for the appointment of a trustee and seizure of control of the business from the business’s prior control group.In 1978,that was all changed;the prototype in the United States now leaves the "debtor in possession" charged with operating the business for the benefit of the business’s creditors.In this and many other ways,America’s law differs substantially from China’s relatively-new bankruptcy law.This article briefly looks at some of the stronger differences between the two systems and gives some background to how and why the American system evolved from the older model to the newer one.While we might easily identify many fundamental differences between the American and Chinese systems,drawing normative policy recommendations from those differences is a much more challenging task.One might,of course,be tempted to do so anyway.But the differing cultural,legal,and economic contexts within which bankruptcy reorganization exists suggests that one so tempted should proceed very cautiously and,perhaps,with an extra measure of modesty as well.

  5. Self-adaptive MOEA feature selection for classification of bankruptcy prediction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Cunha, A; Recio, G; Costa, L; Estébanez, C

    2014-01-01

    Bankruptcy prediction is a vast area of finance and accounting whose importance lies in the relevance for creditors and investors in evaluating the likelihood of getting into bankrupt. As companies become complex, they develop sophisticated schemes to hide their real situation. In turn, making an estimation of the credit risks associated with counterparts or predicting bankruptcy becomes harder. Evolutionary algorithms have shown to be an excellent tool to deal with complex problems in finances and economics where a large number of irrelevant features are involved. This paper provides a methodology for feature selection in classification of bankruptcy data sets using an evolutionary multiobjective approach that simultaneously minimise the number of features and maximise the classifier quality measure (e.g., accuracy). The proposed methodology makes use of self-adaptation by applying the feature selection algorithm while simultaneously optimising the parameters of the classifier used. The methodology was applied to four different sets of data. The obtained results showed the utility of using the self-adaptation of the classifier.

  6. USE OF CHOSEN DISCRIMINATION MODELS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF BANKRUPTCY RISK IN MEAT PROCESSING ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zielińska-Chmielewska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the fi nancial situation from the point of view of the bankruptcy risk of selected meat processing enterprises in Poland, such as: PKM Duda S.A., Indykpol S.A., Pamapol S.A. and Tarczyński S.A. For the analysis, 750 fi nancial data were collected, by means of which fi ve fi nancial variables in the fi rst model, four variables – in the second, the fourth and the fi fth model and six variables in the second model, were generated. The main criteria for the selection of the companies for testing were: carrying out the main business in the area of meat processing (companies belonging to group 15.11 according to the PKD classifi cation, legal status: limited liability company or joint stock company, which employs more than 50 people, and the availability of fi nancial data. The analysis shows that all surveyed meat industry companies were in a very good fi nancial situation. In 2008–2009 and 2012–2013 the most diffi cult fi nancial situation and, consequently, the greatest threat of bankruptcy, was faced by Pamapol S.A. Extremely sensitive to the deteriorating situation of surveyed companies, and thus to the most common threat of bankruptcy, proved to be: D. Wierzby model (for all companies, in 2009 and Pamapol S.A. (in 2008 and D. Hadasik model (Pamapol S.A. in the years 2008–2009

  7. Trademark Protection in Bankruptcy Proceedings: A Closer Look at Lubrizol and its Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endia Vereen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When the worlds of bankruptcy and intellectual property licenses converge, licensees are placed in potentially dangerous positions. The seminal case on this issue, Lubrizol Enterprises, Inc. v. Richmond Metal Finishers, Inc., stands for the proposition that when a licensor rejects an intellectual property license as "executory," the licensee no longer has the right to rely on provisions within the agreement with the debtor for continued use of the technology. To countermand the negative effects of Lubrizol, Congress amended the Bankruptcy Code, but intentionally omitted trademarks from the definition of intellectual property. This omission has produced a string of conflicting case law, leaving trademark licensees in a precarious position with few options for recourse. This Note discusses the Intellectual Property Bankruptcy Protection Act and trademark protection specifically, and details the circuit split created by Sunbeam Products, Inc. v. Chicago American Manufacturing. This Note focuses on the implications of the circuit split, and concludes by providing some suggestions for how courts can resolve this issue in the future.

  8. A Bankruptcy Problem Approach to Load-shedding in Multiagent-based Microgrid Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Man; Kinoshita, Tetsuo; Lim, Yujin; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A microgrid is composed of distributed power generation systems (DGs), distributed energy storage devices (DSs), and loads. To maintain a specific frequency in the islanded mode as an important requirement, the control of DGs’ output and charge action of DSs are used in supply surplus conditions and load-shedding and discharge action of DSs are used in supply shortage conditions. Recently, multiagent systems for autonomous microgrid operation have been studied. Especially, load-shedding, which is intentional reduction of electricity use, is a critical problem in islanded microgrid operation based on the multiagent system. Therefore, effective schemes for load-shedding are required. Meanwhile, the bankruptcy problem deals with dividing short resources among multiple agents. In order to solve the bankruptcy problem, division rules, such as the constrained equal awards rule (CEA), the constrained equal losses rule (CEL), and the random arrival rule (RA), have been used. In this paper, we approach load-shedding as a bankruptcy problem. We compare load-shedding results by above-mentioned rules in islanded microgrid operation based on wireless sensor network (WSN) as the communication link for an agent’s interactions. PMID:22163386

  9. Self-Adaptive MOEA Feature Selection for Classification of Bankruptcy Prediction Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gaspar-Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bankruptcy prediction is a vast area of finance and accounting whose importance lies in the relevance for creditors and investors in evaluating the likelihood of getting into bankrupt. As companies become complex, they develop sophisticated schemes to hide their real situation. In turn, making an estimation of the credit risks associated with counterparts or predicting bankruptcy becomes harder. Evolutionary algorithms have shown to be an excellent tool to deal with complex problems in finances and economics where a large number of irrelevant features are involved. This paper provides a methodology for feature selection in classification of bankruptcy data sets using an evolutionary multiobjective approach that simultaneously minimise the number of features and maximise the classifier quality measure (e.g., accuracy. The proposed methodology makes use of self-adaptation by applying the feature selection algorithm while simultaneously optimising the parameters of the classifier used. The methodology was applied to four different sets of data. The obtained results showed the utility of using the self-adaptation of the classifier.

  10. A bankruptcy problem approach to load-shedding in multiagent-based microgrid operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Man; Kinoshita, Tetsuo; Lim, Yujin; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A microgrid is composed of distributed power generation systems (DGs), distributed energy storage devices (DSs), and loads. To maintain a specific frequency in the islanded mode as an important requirement, the control of DGs' output and charge action of DSs are used in supply surplus conditions and load-shedding and discharge action of DSs are used in supply shortage conditions. Recently, multiagent systems for autonomous microgrid operation have been studied. Especially, load-shedding, which is intentional reduction of electricity use, is a critical problem in islanded microgrid operation based on the multiagent system. Therefore, effective schemes for load-shedding are required. Meanwhile, the bankruptcy problem deals with dividing short resources among multiple agents. In order to solve the bankruptcy problem, division rules, such as the constrained equal awards rule (CEA), the constrained equal losses rule (CEL), and the random arrival rule (RA), have been used. In this paper, we approach load-shedding as a bankruptcy problem. We compare load-shedding results by above-mentioned rules in islanded microgrid operation based on wireless sensor network (WSN) as the communication link for an agent's interactions.

  11. Sostojanie jekonomicheskogo soznanija i cennostnye orientacii vypusknikov latvijskih vuzov [Economic Consciousness and the System of Values of Latvian University Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Victor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the attitude of a Latvian university’s graduates to wealth and means of its acquisition, as well as their assessment of their own economic status and preferred moves in case of unemployment. The author estimates the university graduates’ personal capabilities; their interests, skills and qualifications, the extent of their reliance on their own initiative and resources, and their confidence about the future. The article defines the graduates’ economic interests forming motivations and approaches to practical economic behavior according to certain types of economic consciousness.

  12. Dynamics of telomere length in different age groups in a Latvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zole, Egija; Pliss, Liana; Ranka, Renate; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2013-12-01

    The shortening of telomeres with ageing is a well-documented observation; however, the reported number of nucleotides in telomeres varies between different laboratories and studies. Such variability is likely caused by ethnic differences between the populations studied. Until now, there were no studies that investigated the variability of telomere length in a senescent Latvian population of the most common mitochondrial haplogroups, defined as H (45%), U (25%), Y chromosomal N1c (40%) and R1a1 (40%). Telomere length was determined in 121 individuals in different age groups, including a control group containing individuals of 20-40 years old and groups of individuals between 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, 81-90 years old, and above 90 years old. Telomere length was determined using the Southern blot telomeric restriction fragment assay (TRF). Decreased telomere length with ageing was confirmed, but a comparison of centenarians and individuals between 60-90 years of age did not demonstrate a significant difference in telomere length. However, significant variability in telomere length was observed in the control group, indicating probable rapid telomere shortening in some individuals that could lead up to development of health status decline appearing with ageing. Telomere length measured in mononuclear blood cells (MNC) was compared with the telomere length measured in whole peripheral white blood cells (WBC) using TRF. Telomere length in MNC was longer than in WBC for the control group with individuals 20 to 40 years old; in contrast, for the group of individuals aged 65 to 85 years old, measured telomere length was shorter in MNC when compared to WBC.

  13. Drumlins and related glaciogenic landforms of the Madliena Tilted Plain, Central Latvian Lowland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristaps Lamsters

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new results on the morphometry and spatial distribution of the glaciogenic landforms and ice flow directions in the Madliena Tilted Plain that occupies the eastern part of the Central Latvian Lowland. Landforms were investigated by usingtopographic maps at scales of 1:25 000 and 1:10 000. There were identified and mapped 1461 glaciogenic landforms such as drumlins, end moraine ridges, eskers, ribbed moraines, marginal ridges, lateral shear margin moraines and recessional formations. Particular attention is given to the morphometry, spatial distribution, and the internal structure of drumlins. Glacial landscape of the study area was formed by the Zemgale ice lobe in course of deglaciation of the Late Weichselian Fennoscandian Ice Sheet, when the ice decay was interrupted by the reactivation of the Middle Lithuanian and the NorthLithuanian glacial phases at the end of the Oldest Dryas (18–15 ka BP. The detailed study of the internal structure of the Brenceni drumlin suggests that it consists of glaciotectonically disturbed glacio-aquatic sediments and of a single till thrust sheet between sand sediments on the flank of the drumlin. Morphometric analysis of the drumlin field shows that the mean length of drumlins is about 850 m; the mean width indicates the average size 280 m, and the mean elongation ratio is 3.0. The obtained statistics compared to the morphometry of drumlins worldwide, show close similarity, so it coincides with the concept that in general morphometry of drumlins is mostly independent of their location and the characteristics of the ice streams.

  14. Use of discriminant analysis in estimating the risk of bankruptcy of meat industry enterprises Wykorzystanie analizy dyskryminacyjnej w ocenie ryzyka upadłości przedsiębiorstw przemysłu mięsnego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliks Wysocki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the financial situation and risk of bankruptcy enterprises in the meat in-dustry. To assess the risk of bankruptcy meat industry companies discriminatory models analysis was applied. Studies have shown that not all of the selected Polish discriminatory models effectively indicate companies bankruptcy in meat industry. Therefore a model was built to assess the risk of bankruptcy for those companies.

  15. On constitutional doubts about New Croatian Bankruptcy Law: Initiation of criminal proceedings as an obstacle to exercising the labor law status of the bankruptcy trustee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodul Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of regulations prescribe general and specific requirements that a person (exempli causa, the bankruptcy trustee, lawyers, judges, notary public, sports staff must observe in order to perform its function. This becomes even more important because the Bankruptcy Act (OG, 71/15 states that one of specific conditions for performing the function of a bankruptcy trustee is that he has to be worthy of public trust, and he is not considered worthy if criminal proceedings are initiated against the trustee. The thesis of this paper is whether such a solution is in accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia (OG, 56/90,135/97, 8/98,113/00, 124/00, 28/01, 41/01, 55/01, 76/10, 85/10 and 05/14 and the EU Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (OG-IT, 18/97, 6/99, 14/02,13/03, 9/05,1/06 and 2/10, given that everyone is presumed innocent and is not to be found guilty of any criminal offense until proven otherwise by a final court judgment (Art. 28 of the Constitution of Croatia and Art. 6. par. 2. of the Convention. The complexity of the research subject and set tasks have dictated the choice of method so that we used a methodological approach that encompasses the study of domestic and foreign literature, the relevant legal provisions, and analysis of domestic and foreign legal practices. In the paper, we shall also analyze the practice of the European Court of Human Rights in proceedings under Art. 6 (Right to a fair trial and Art. 14 (Prohibition of discrimination of the Convention, because we assume that it can be crucial for understanding the thesis which is based on the case law of the European Court of Human Rights and the European positive law. In that sense, this work is intended to point out the vagueness of the existing legal provisions, by focusing on certain de legeferenda solutions.

  16. The risk-shifting effect of business bankruptcy: a statutory solution to provide additional protections for personal guarantors of debts by closely-held business ventures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Jason; Landry, Robert J., III

    2015-01-01

    ... of a closely-held business in bankruptcy and makes a statutory proposal to remedy the inequitable risk-shifting effect of the bankruptcy of the closely-held business. INTRODUCTION Entrepreneurship and policies encouraging entrepreneurial activity are vital to the United States' economy.1 An antecedent to the decision to pursue a new venture is the ava...

  17. Long-term Predictive Ability of Bankruptcy Models in the Czech Republic: Evidence from 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Machek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bankruptcy models are a common tool of financial analysis to predict the financial distress of companies. However, in the recent years, the instability and risk of the overall economic environment have underlined the need for accurate tools to predict bankruptcy and assess the overall performance of companies. In this article, we analyze the ex-ante predictive ability of selected bankruptcy and solvency models commonly used in financial analysis: Kralicek quick test, Taffler model, the IN99 and IN05 indexes, and Altman Z’-score models in the case of Czech companies from 2007 to 2012. We determined the percentage of cases when these models correctly predicted failures of companies up to five years in advance, and found that the IN05 and IN99 credibility indexes provided the best results, as well as the Altman Z’-score model. However, the predictive ability of the Taffler model and Kralicek quicktest has only been limited.

  18. ESTIMATION OF CHAIN REACTION BANKRUPTCY STRUCTURE BY CHANCE DISCOVERY METHOD- WITH TIME ORDER METHOD AND DIRECTED KEYGRAPH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinichi GODA; Yukio OHSAWA

    2007-01-01

    Chain reaction bankruptcy is regarded as common phenomenon and its effect is to be taken into account when credit risk portfolio is analyzed. But consideration and modeling of its effect leave much room for improvement. That is mainly because method for grasping relations among companies with limited data is underdeveloped. In this article, chance discovery method is applied to estimate industrial relations that are to include companies' relations that transmit chain reaction of bankruptcy.Time order method and directed KeyGraph are newly introduced to distinguish and express the time order among defaults that is essential information for the analysis of chain reaction bankruptcy. The steps for the data analysis are introduced and result of example analysis with default data in Kyushu,Japan, 2005 is presented. The structure estimated by the new method is compared with the structure of actual account receivable holders of bankrupted companies for evaluation.

  19. Self-Organized Criticality in a Model of Collective Bank Bankruptcies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksiejuk, Agata; HoŁyst, Janusz A.; Kossinets, Gueorgi

    The question we address here is of whether phenomena of collective bankruptcies are related to self-organized criticality. In order to answer it we propose a simple model of banking networks based on the random directed percolation. We study effects of one bank failure on the nucleation of contagion phase in a financial market. We recognize the power law distribution of contagion sizes in 3d- and 4d-networks as an indicator of SOC behavior. The SOC dynamics was not detected in 2d-lattices. The difference between 2d- and 3d- or 4d-systems is explained due to the percolation theory.

  20. An Early Warning System for Bankruptcy Prediction: lessons from the Venezuelan Bank Crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigo, Loren; Gonzalez, Felix; Llamozas, Jose

    2007-01-01

    During 1993-94 Venezuela experienced a severe banking crisis which ended up with 18 commercial banks intervened by the government. Here we develop an early warning system for detecting credit related bankruptcy through discriminant functions developed on financial and macroeconomic data predating the crisis. A robustness test performed on these functions shows high precision in error estimation. The model calibrated on pre-crisis data could detect abnormal financial tension in the late Banco Capital many months before it was intervened and liquidated.

  1. On the Predictability of Risk Box Approach by Genetic Programming Method for Bankruptcy Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Bahiraie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Theoretical based data representation is an important tool for model selection and interpretations in bankruptcy analysis since the numerical representation are much less transparent. Some methodological problems concerning financial ratios such as non-proportionality, non-asymetricity, non-scalicity are solved in this study and we presented a complementary technique for empirical analysis of financial ratios and bankruptcy risk. Approach: This study presented new geometric technique for empirical analysis of bankruptcy risk using financial ratios. Within this framework, we proposed the use of a new ratio representation which named Risk Box measure (RB. We demonstrated the application of this geometric approach for variable representation, data visualization and financial ratios at different stages of corporate bankruptcy prediction models based on financial balance sheet ratios. These stages were the selection of variables (predictors, accuracy of each estimation model and the representation of each model for transformed and common ratios. Results: We provided evidence of extent to which changes in values of this index were associated with changes in each axis values and how this may alter our economic interpretation of changes in the patterns and direction of risk components. Results of Genetic Programming (GP models were compared as different classification models and results showed the classifiers outperform by modified ratios. Conclusion/Recommendations: In this study, a new dimension to risk measurement and data representation with the advent of the Share Risk method (SR was proposed. Genetic programming method is substantially superior to the traditional methods such as MDA or Logistic method. It was strongly suggested the use of SR methodology for ratio analysis, which provided a conceptual and complimentary methodological solution to many problems associated with the use of ratios. Respectively, GP will provide

  2. Bankruptcy fraud to protect the legal interests%虚假破产罪保护的法益探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇佳

    2015-01-01

    In order to punish bankruptcy fraud behavior, bankruptcy fraud is published. But the Legal interest of it is not clear. We should judge its legal interests from illegal considering logic, crime essence, etc.%虚假破产罪为惩罚破产诈欺行为,其保护法益众说纷纭.有个人法益说也有社会法益说,然虚假破产罪究竟保护的何种法益,需从违法逻辑、犯罪实质等方面综合考虑.

  3. LM-research opportunities and activities at the Latvian Academy of Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lielausis, O.

    1996-06-01

    In this presentation selected examples will be considered characterizing the breadth of their interests in LM applications. So, InGaSn eutectic was used as a modeling liquid for investigation of MHD effects typical to some LM-blanket configurations. LM coatings proposed for the protection of divertor plates were considered too. Experiments were performed on a superconducting magnet providing a 5.6 T magnetic field in a 30 liters bore. In a large vacuum chamber (12 m{sup 3}; 6.65 10{sup {minus}4} Pa) lithium cooling system for high temperature reactors was examined. Electromagnetic pumps and flowmeters able to work at lithium temperatures up to 960{degrees}C were tested. A Na loop, where two mounted in line electromagnetic pumps are delivering a 25 atm. pressure. The main Na loop equipped with em. pumps is based on a d=10 cm tubing. LM devices were installed in the Latvian 500 MW nuclear research reactor IRT-5000 too. First, a equipped with conductive e.m. pumps loop, where InGaSn serves as a {gamma}-carrier from activity generator (placed close to the core) to two outer 20 Mrad/h irradiators. Second, a LM system for rector control, where contained in InGaSn indium is used for neutron absorption and reactivity control. A closed cylindrical LM container was installed in the core instead of a traditional control rod. The container is divided in two chambers by means of elastic membranes. The one chamber contains InGaSn, the second GaSn (without In). By means of e.m. pumps the proportion between InGaSn and GaSn in the active zone can be changed ensuring a possibility to control the amount of introduced in the core absorbing material. Long term tests of the system were performed on a zero-power assembly. But for a shorter time the system was inserted in the core of the acting main reactor too and the efficiency of the control was confirmed.

  4. Performance Analysis of Air-to-Water Heat Pump in Latvian Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazjonovs, Janis; Sipkevics, Andrejs; Jakovics, Andris; Dancigs, Andris; Bajare, Diana; Dancigs, Leonards

    2014-12-01

    Strategy of the European Union in efficient energy usage demands to have a higher proportion of renewable energy in the energy market. Since heat pumps are considered to be one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems, they will play an important role in the energy consumption reduction in buildings aimed to meet the target of nearly zero energy buildings set out in the EU Directive 2010/31/EU. Unfortunately, the declared heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) corresponds to a certain outdoor temperature (+7 °C), therefore different climate conditions, building characteristics and settings result in different COP values during the year. The aim of this research is to investigate the Seasonal Performance factor (SPF) values of air-to-water heat pump which better characterize the effectiveness of heat pump in a longer selected period of time, especially during the winter season, in different types of residential buildings in Latvian climate conditions. Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Latvia is characterized by cold, maritime climate (duration of the average heating period being 203 days, the average outdoor air temperature during the heating period being 0.0 °C, the coldest five-day average temperature being -20.7 °C, the average annual air temperature being +6.2 °C, the daily average relative humidity being 79 %). The first part of this research consists of operational air-towater heat pump energy performance monitoring in different residential buildings during the winter season. The second part of the research takes place under natural conditions in an experimental construction stand which is located in an urban environment in Riga, Latvia. The inner area of this test stand, where air-to-water heat pump performance is analyzed, is 9 m2. The ceiling height is 3 m, all external wall constructions (U = 0.16 W/(m2K)) have ventilated facades. To calculate SPF, the

  5. Radio archive

    OpenAIRE

    Street, Sean

    2008-01-01

    The Centre for Broadcasting History Research, in association with the\\ud British Universities Film and Video Council, is developing an online\\ud audio archive of UK commercial radio, from 1973 to 1992. Work produced\\ud before the Broadcasting Act 1990 represents a different ethos to the role\\ud commercial radio played, and subsequently,continues to play, in the UK.\\ud The change in commercial radio since this period is extraordinary. It is\\ud impossible for the young student of radio, born si...

  6. The Improvement Project in Postponement of Bankruptcy Process: An Evaluation from the Business Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Ozdevecioglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It is inevitable for the capital companies and cooperatives in Turkey to go bankrupt in case the assets of the company are insufficient to meet the obligations. However, the law enacted in 2004 has enabled the bankruptcy to be postponed. The company requesting the adjournment of bankruptcy should not only fulfill the legal requirements but also present the court a convincing and serious improvement project. The main objective of this study is to discuss how to prepare such a plan from the point of view of business manager. The improvement project is a financial project based on objective and solid data which contains precautionary measures envisaged to rescue the company. In general the project should incorporate financial and administrative measures. Financial measures include direct and indirect cash inflows from sources like finding new partners, selling personal assets of existing partners and focusing on high profit margin products to ensure that the assets can cover the liabilities. The administrative measures in the field of accounting, finance and human resources contribute to the healing process indirectly. This paper explains the financial and administrative measures in detail.

  7. Genotype and allele frequencies of isoniazid-metabolizing enzymes NAT2 and GSTM1 in Latvian tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumnova, Viktorija; Capligina, Valentina; Krams, Alvils; Cirule, Andra; Elferts, Didzis; Pole, Ilva; Jansone, Inta; Bandere, Dace; Ranka, Renate

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacogenomic testing of tuberculosis drug-metabolizing enzyme genes was proposed as a strategy to identify patients at risk for suboptimal responses to medications. However, variations of the genotype frequencies among ethnic groups exist and new alleles are been identified. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms of genes encoding metabolic enzymes NAT2 and GSTM1 in tuberculosis patients in Latvia and to estimate the frequency of NAT2 slow acetylator and GSTM1 null genotypes. In total, 85 DNA samples were genotyped, all individuals were Caucasian. An ethnic heterogeneity reflecting the multiethnic population of the country was observed. 49 patients were Latvians, 30 were Russians and 6 of other ethnicity. In total, 7 NAT2 alleles were identified: *4, *5, *6, *7, *11, *12, * and *13. The most frequent was the slow acetylation allele NAT2*6 (frequency 0.388) followed by the slow acetylation allele NAT2*5 and the rapid acetylation allele NAT2*4 (frequencies 0.306 and 0.194, respectively). The predominance of slow (51.8%) and intermediate (43.5%) acetylators compared with rapid acetylators (4.7%) was observed. The GSTM1 null genotype was detected in 48.2% of tuberculosis patients. When subgroup analysis was performed according to ethnicity, the results showed that neither NAT2 allele frequencies nor GSTM1 null genotype frequency did not differ significantly in TB patients of Latvian or Russian ethnicity. Overall, genotyping results were similar with previous reports of a NAT2 gene variation and GSTM1 null genotype frequency in Caucasians. Our findings have a contribution for the pharmacogenetics-based tuberculosis therapy in Latvia in future.

  8. Different KIRs confer susceptibility and protection to adults with latent autoimmune diabetes in Latvian and Asian Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Arun; Sedimbi, Saikiran K; Rajalingam, Raja; Rumba, Ingrida; Kanungo, Alok; Sanjeevi, C B

    2008-12-01

    KIRs (killer Ig-like receptors) expressed on natural killer (NK) cells are an important component of innate (and adaptive) immunity. They are either activatory or inhibitory, and certain KIRs are known to interact with specific motifs of HLA Class I molecules, which is very crucial in determining whether a cell is targeted to lysis or otherwise. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a slowly progressive form of autoimmune diabetes, with an adult onset (>30 years). Because autoantibodies and autoimmunity involved are involved in the etiology of LADA, KIRs might play an important role in conferring susceptibility to or protection against the disease. The purpose of this study was to identify killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes, which are associated with susceptibility to and protection against type 1 diabetes in Latvian and Asian Indian patients with LADA. KIR and HLA-C ligand genotyping was performed using PCR-SSP in LADA patients from Latvia (n= 45) with age- and sex-matched controls (n= 92) and from India (n= 86) with controls (n= 98). Results showed that in Latvian patients with LADA, KIRs 2DL1, 2DS2, and 2DS4 were associated with susceptibility and KIR 2DS5 with protection. In Asian Indian LADA patients, KIRs 2DL5 and 3DL1 were associated with susceptibility and KIRs 2DS1 and 2DS3 with protection. Stratification analyses for KIRs that bind to HLA-C1 and C2 were performed. We concluded that KIRs are important in conferring susceptibility (or protection) to adult patients with LADA in both our study populations. However the KIR genes (and their HLA-C ligands) conferring susceptibility or protection in these two populations differ, showing a role of ethnicity in disease susceptibility.

  9. Association between the PSMB5 and PSMC6 genetic variations and children obesity in the Latvian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramonova N.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent data the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Aim of our study was to evaluate a possible association between genetic variations in the PSMB5 and PSMC6 genes and childhood obesity in the Latvian population. Methods. The rs11543947 (PSMB5, rs2295826 and rs2295827 (PSMC6 were genotyped in 94 overweight children versus 191 controls. Stratification was made by family history and sex. Results. Heterozygous genotype at rs11543947 (PSMB5 manifested association with the disease (P < 0.01 in total group and in patients with family history (OR = 2.445 [95 % CI 1.378–4.339] and OR = 2.746 [95 % CI 1.427–5.283], respectively. This genotype was observed more frequently (P < 0.05 in males with family obesity and in females without family history (P < 0.01.The heterozygotes at rs2295826 and rs2295827 showed association (P < 0.01 in obesity (OB, in patients with family history (OR = 2.119 [95 % CI 1.207–3.718] and OR = 2.379 [95 % CI 1.249–4.533], respectively and in males group. The rs11543947/ rs2295826-rs2295827 multi locus genotype heterozygous at all the studied loci and the haplotype represented by the rare alleles were more frequent in obese children when compared to controls (P < 0.001 and P = 0.0001 respectively. Conclusions. Genetic variations of the PSMB5 (rs11543947 and PSMC6 (rs2295826 and rs2295827 genes can influence childhood obesity in Latvians.

  10. The analysis of ranges of variability of selected ratios from a group of assets productivity ratios three years before the declaration of bankruptcy by companies in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Antonowicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the research results concerning the development of the variability of five selected ratios from the group of assets productivity in companies with extremely different financial and economic positions. The research was conducted on a test sample of 380 business entities: 190 companies subject to bankruptcy in the years 2007-2011 and 190 “healthy” companies. The research shows a different usefulness of various ratios of the financial analysis considered as one-dimensional bankruptcy predictors used to predict and early detect symptoms of companies threatened with bankruptcy.

  11. Radio Eska Lodz, Commercial Radio As a Local Radio

    OpenAIRE

    Szews, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses aspects of network-based local radio using the example of Radio Eska Lodz. The author responds to questions about whether a commercial network radio station can fulfill the functions of local radio and on what this locality is actually based. In this respect, Radio Eska Lodz is characterized as part of the most popular commercial radio network in Poland. The introduction focuses on the process of transformation that local radio stations are undergoing, along with its gen...

  12. Implementation of the EU directive on the energy performance of buildings: Development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of buildings and inspection of boilers. Project document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    'Development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of buildings and inspection of boilers' includes major steps in implementing the EU EPB directive in Latvia. The EPB directive includes a number of efforts: 1. A methodology for calculation of the integrated energy performance of buildings 2. Application of minimum requirements on the energy performance for new buildings 3. Application of minimum requirements on the energy performance for larger existing buildings subject to major renovation 4. Energy performance certification (energy labelling) of buildings 5. Regular inspection of boilers and of air-conditioning systems in buildings, and assessment of heating installations in older systems. The present project includes activities connected to point 4 and point 5. The results will include 4 steps in implementing the EU EPB directive: 1) A Latvian training of certified independent energy auditors to be active conducting energy audits and issuing energy performance certificates. Including a handbook in energy auditing. 2) A Latvian training of certified independent experts for inspection of boilers, air-con systems and assessing older heating systems. Including a handbook in boiler inspection. 3) A proposal for the institutional set-up for a connected scheme for energy auditing and a scheme for boiler inspection 4) Initial information on the scheme of energy auditors and of the boiler inspection. (au)

  13. Solar Radio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  14. Evaluating and comparing the ability to predict the bankruptcy prediction models of Zavgren and Springate in companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodratollah Talebnia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent bankruptcy of large companies at international level and volatilities of securities in Iran have highlighted the necessity of evaluating the financial power of companies. One of the evaluating tools is using bankruptcy prediction models. Bankruptcy prediction models are one of the tools for estimating the future condition of companies. The aim of this research is to present theoretical foundations and compare the results of investigating two models of Zavgren (1985 and Springate (1978 in Iran’s exchange market through main and adjusted coefficients according to statistical techniques of Logit and Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA. The data was gathered and tested from 2009 to 2013. The results indicated that the adjusted Springate Model was more efficient than other models in the bankruptcy year.

  15. JURISTIC OBSTACLE IN DECLARING BANKRUPTCY AGAINST INSURANCE COMPANY WHICH FAIL TO SETTLE ITS DEBT LIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Imron

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal obligation to pay compensation of an insurance company arise immediatelyafter the evenement occurred, if this obligation not being settled right away it can becategorized as “fall due debt” and “claimable”, and this can be used as a reason to proposebankruptcy application. The creditor’s fundamental rights practically impeded by Section 2article (5 of Insolvency Act, which give absolute authority to Minister of Finance in proposingbankruptcy application for insurance company. This authority is attached to the status of Ministerof Finance as the guider and supervisor of insurance institution in Indonesia, but this authorityoften might reduce people’s trust to insurance institution itself if it is not used carefully andwisely. For the sake of law and justice, Minister of Finance should acts proportionally if thebankruptcy application doesn’t have enough reason, according to Minister’s authority in thecase of bankruptcy application for insurance company against their insured and other creditors.

  16. Radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Alder, Berni

    1975-01-01

    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 14: Radio Astronomy is devoted to the role of the digital computer both as a control device and as a calculator in addressing problems related to galactic radio noise. This volume contains four chapters and begins with a technical description of the hardware and the special data-handling problems of using radioheliography, with an emphasis on a selection of observational results obtained with the Culgoora radioheliograph and their significance to solar physics and to astrophysics in general. The subsequent chapter examines interstellar dispersion, i

  17. Considerations on the Application of Blue Ocean Strategy to Avoid the Risk of Bankruptcy to Small Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe NEGOESCU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, SMEs are facing with great financial problems, which led, during 2008 - 2011, to about 60.000 bankruptcies, 200.000 firm suspension and to an increased number of unemployed from 568.000 at 31.12.2008 to 711 000 unemployed at the half-year of 2011. Professors W. Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne, authors of Blue Ocean Strategy concept, have identified two working-tools, namely:Strategic Sail and EDDC matrix, which can be used to reduce the risk of bankruptcy of small and medium enterprises. The article presents an example of using these workink- tools for a small enterprise, specialized in financial and economical consulting.

  18. Digitale radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roel; Zondervan, L.

    2007-01-01

    Als eerste in Europa heeft Nederland begin december 2006 de omschakeling van analoge naar digitale ethertelevisie gemaakt. Voor de analoge FM-radio is er ook een digitale variant, T-DAB. T-DAB staat voor 'Terrestrial Digital Audio Broadcasting'. Dit artikel gaat verder in op deze techniek en de veld

  19. THE EFFECTS OF BANKRUPTCY ON THE PREDICTABILITY OF PRICE FORMATION PROCESSES ON WARSAW’S STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Fiedor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate how bankruptcy affects the market behaviour of prices of stocks on Warsaw’s Stock Exchange. As the behaviour of prices can be seen in a myriad of ways, we investigate a particular aspect of this behaviour, namely the predictability of these price formation processes. We approximate their predictability as the structural complexity of logarithmic returns. This method of analysing predictability of price formation processes using information theory follows closely the mathematical definition of predictability, and is equal to the degree to which redundancy is present in the time series describing stock returns. We use Shannon’s entropy rate (approximating Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy to measure this redundancy, and estimate it using the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, computing it with a running window approach over the entire price history of 50 companies listed on the Warsaw market which have gone bankrupt in the last few years. This enables us not only to compare the differences between predictability of price formation processes before and after their filing for bankruptcy, but also to compare the changes in predictability over time, as well as divided into different categories of companies and bankruptcies. There exists a large body of research analysing the efficiency of the whole market and the predictability of price changes enlarge, but only a few detailed studies analysing the influence of external stimulion the efficiency of price formation processes. This study fills this gap in the knowledge of financial markets, and their response to extreme external events.

  20. Stability of sterigmatocystin during the bread making process and its occurrence in bread from the Latvian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veršilovskis, Aleksandrs; Bartkevičs, Vadims

    2012-05-01

    Sterigmatocystin (STC) is a carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxin produced by fungi of many Aspergillus species. The aim of this research was to test the stability of STC during the bread making process and to check bread samples from the Latvian market for STC contamination, using a previously developed electrospray positive ionisation (ESI(+)) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Wheat grain naturally contaminated with STC was used for bread baking. STC was found to be stable during the bread-making process. In the food survey 17% of the analysed breads were positive for STC, with concentration levels of 2-7 μg kg(-1). One out of six rye bread samples, one out of nine rye-wheat bread samples and three out of 14 wheat bread samples were contaminated with STC. Four out of five contaminated samples contained whole grains as the main ingredient. We conclude that whole grain bread may be a possible source of STC, although even STC-positive bread samples identified in this study contained quite low toxin levels.

  1. Validation of a Latvian and a Russian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile for use among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugaca, Jolanta; Urtane, Ilga; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Rogovska, Irena

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The need for appraisal of oral health-related quality of life has been increasingly recognized over the last decades. The aim of this study was to develope a Latvian and a Russian version and test the validity of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) for use among adults in Latvia. METHODS. The original English version of the OHIP-49 was translated using the forward-backward technique, pilot-tested, and then applied to 60 adults aged 18 years and above. The questionnaire was filled out during face-to-face interviews conducted by one specialist. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha (α) coefficient and inter-item and item-total correlations. Discriminant and convergent validities were assessed. RESULTS. Cronbach's α was estimated to be 0.96. Inter-item correlations coefficients ranged from 0.19 to 0.91, with averige value 0.35, while item-total correlations coefficients from 0.14 to 0.86. CONCLUSIONS. The OHIP-49 is a reliable and valid questionnaire for the assessment of OHRQoL among adults in Latvia.

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha allele 2 shows an association with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Latvians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtauvere-Brameus, A; Dabadghao, P; Rumba, I; Sanjeevi, C B

    2002-04-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is one of the most common chronic diseases. It is an autoimmune disease. Genes contributing the most for development of IDDM are located on chromosome 6p21.3 in the region called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). HLA-DQ8/DR4 and DQ2/DR3 have shown positive association with IDDM, while DQ6 has negative association with IDDM in most Caucasian populations. The location of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene in the MHC suggests the role of TNF in the etiology of IDDM as an autoimmune disease. The TNF region contains several polymorphisms that are associated with different levels of TNF-alpha production and susceptibility to autoimmune and infectious diseases. Ninety-two Latvian IDDM patients corresponding to WHO diagnostic criteria and 107 unrelated age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analyzed for the frequency of TNF-alpha alleles to test the hypothesis that TNF-alpha is associated with IDDM. We found that TNF-alpha microsatellite allele 2 is associated with IDDM, 29/92 (32%), versus 14/107 (13%) in healthy controls. The test of the strongest association of the MICA A5 allele and TNF-alpha allele 2 with IDDM showed that both are independently associated with the disease.

  3. Body fat in children and adolescents participating in organized sports: Descriptive epidemiological study of 6048 Latvian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnina, Liga; Sauka, Melita; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Nylander, Eva; Selga, Guntars; Ligere, Renate; Karklina, Helena; Priedite, Ilga S; Larins, Viesturs

    2015-08-01

    Pressure among young athletes to meet body composition goals may lead to poor nutrition and affect growth. To examine the proportion of body fat (%BF), measured by bioimpedance analysis, among Latvian children and adolescents participating in organized sports. Our study had a nationally representative sample of 6048 young athletes, aged 10-17 years. Their %BF was measured using a multifrequency, 8-pole, bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyzer. About 19.2% (CI 14.4-20.0) of boys and 15.1% (CI 14.0-16.3) of girls had a %BF value below the recommended levels. The %BF in young female athletes participating in aesthetic sports was lower than among their peers participating in other sports. Young male athletes participating in aesthetic sports had lower %BF levels at 10 and 12 years of age, compared with participants in weight-class sports; and lower levels of %BF from age 10-14 years, compared with participants in non-weight-sensitive sports. Almost every fifth child and adolescent participating in organized sports displayed critically low body fat levels. Body fat needs to be assessed regularly in young athletes, to prevent negative consequences on health. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  4. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  5. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  6. The Prediction of Bankruptcy Using Backpropagation Algorithm for “IO” Model Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Dragota

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic question which every bank it putswhen a client or a future client whishes to take a bank loanis: “The future debtor it’s capable to refund the loan atmaturity? (Installments plus the interest“. To answer atthis question the bank makes an assessment in which assetsand liabilities are analyze. There is also assessed the creditrating, the cash flow, the securities and, very important,bankrupt risk analysis.For the last one, to calculate bankrupt risk analysis,banks use some models (knows as “Z” score. Few of themare financials methods (like Altman, Canon & Holder,Yves Colonques etc. Nevertheless, these models are beendevelop for a specific situation and for a western economywhich is functional and very articulated. For our economy,we propose a new model that is been build with the specificeconomic dates and inputs, the model we called “IO”model.Without pretending to be able to penetrate over thecomplexity of the phenomenon, this study is trying to do apractical and experimental analysis of bankruptcy usingback propagation algorithm applied to the ”IO” model.

  7. CORPORATE FINANCIAL DISTRESS AND BANKRUPTCY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS IN FRANCE, ITALY AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Amendola

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a competing-risks approach for investigating the determinants of corporate financial distress. In particular a comparative analysis of three European markets-France, Italy and Spain–is performed in order to find out the similarities and the differences in the determinants of distress.By using the AMADEUS dataset, two possible causes of exit from the market are considered:bankruptcy and liquidation. For identifying the variables that influence the risk of leaving the market,a competing-risks model for each country is estimated and is compared with a pooled model including all the three countries. In addition, the performance of the competing-risks approach is evaluated versus the single-risk model, in which all states are considered without any distinctions.The reached results show that the competing risks approach leads to a saving in the number of selected variables that becomes more significant when the model is estimated for each country separately. Moreover, the selected variables for each country enable to identify similarities between the different exit routes across the markets. Some of the differences between Spain and the other two countries may be related to the dissimilar definition of the distress states.

  8. BANKRUPTCY RISK – CENTRAL POINT IN THE FINANCIAL – ACCOUNTING DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe HOLT

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In an competitional economy, the existence and the viability of an affair are tied up by risk in the measure in how the present and the futures results are unther the influence of unespected events. This explain and justify the interes of the financial analists in elaborating an valuation and estimate diagnosis of this inerent phenomen. The most important utilization of the bankruptcy point analysis refers to the business operating and financial risks evaluation. For this reason it is necessarly to approach the problems involving the estimation mode of the risks degree in order to discover the facts that generate them. The operating risk is evaluated through the degree operating leverage, calculated as the sensitivity of operating profit to the sales variability. It is demonstrated that the level of this risk is determined by the expenses structure in fixed costs and variable costs. It is greater when the fixed costs weight is more important. Secondly, the financial risk is evaluated through the financial coefficient leverage, calculated as the sensitivity of net profit to the operating profit variability. The level of risk is determined by the financial expenses. It is greater when the business is financed by debts and smaller when the equity is more important.

  9. A Rule-Based Model for Bankruptcy Prediction Based on an Improved Genetic Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a hybrid system to predict corporate bankruptcy. The whole procedure consists of the following four stages: first, sequential forward selection was used to extract the most important features; second, a rule-based model was chosen to fit the given dataset since it can present physical meaning; third, a genetic ant colony algorithm (GACA was introduced; the fitness scaling strategy and the chaotic operator were incorporated with GACA, forming a new algorithm—fitness-scaling chaotic GACA (FSCGACA, which was used to seek the optimal parameters of the rule-based model; and finally, the stratified K-fold cross-validation technique was used to enhance the generalization of the model. Simulation experiments of 1000 corporations’ data collected from 2006 to 2009 demonstrated that the proposed model was effective. It selected the 5 most important factors as “net income to stock broker’s equality,” “quick ratio,” “retained earnings to total assets,” “stockholders’ equity to total assets,” and “financial expenses to sales.” The total misclassification error of the proposed FSCGACA was only 7.9%, exceeding the results of genetic algorithm (GA, ant colony algorithm (ACA, and GACA. The average computation time of the model is 2.02 s.

  10. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  11. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in Latvian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Rajalingham, Raja; Rumba, Ingrida; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2004-12-01

    T1DM is very common in Sweden and is positively associated with HLA class II genes. Approximately 89% of the newly diagnosed patients carry the high-risk HLA DR4-DQ8 and DR3-DQ2. The remaining 11% develop T1DM without them. This can be due to involvement of other genes and environmental factors. Natural killer (NK) cells of the innate immune system are important in antiviral and antitumor immunity. They are implicated in the etiology of autoimmune T1DM. Human NK cells express killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) that belong to the polymorphic multigene family in chromosome 19q3.4. They modulate NK cell response by interacting with HLA class I. In addition, polymorphic MICA in HLA class I interacts with non-polymorphic NKG2D receptor on NK cells. We have studied, in addition to HLA-DR and -DQ, genes of the innate immune system MICA and KIR in Latvian patients (n = 98) with T1DM and controls (n = 100). They were genotyped using standard PCR-based typing methods. MICA allele 5 is positively associated with T1DM. KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2 were both positively associated. Combined association of MICA4 and KIR2DL2 gave an odds ration (OR) of 26.7. However, the combined risk of KIR2DL2 and HLA class II genes, HLADR3 (OR = 73.4), DR4 (OR = 66.8), and DR3 and DR4 (OR = 88.3), was higher. The maximum risk was when KIR2DL2, MICA5, and DR3/DR4 were in combination. In conclusion, our results suggest that a balance between innate and acquired immunity is important, and an imbalance coud lead to T1DM.

  12. The Impact of Metal Age® Training Programme on the Well-Being of Latvian Office Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprūdža Dagmāra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that affect the well-being and health of employees and the productivity of organisations. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Metal Age training programme (MA® on the well-being of office workers, including investigation of work ability, the stress-causing factors and role of leadership. The study was carried out using questions from four international questionnaires about stress, leadership, and work ability. The intervention group had a training course between the surveys using the ME® method. Several employee stress-causing factors were identified: bad relationship with their workmates was mentioned by 94% of workers; competitive and strenuous atmosphere — by more than 80%; psychological violence or bullying at the workplace by more than 80%, and more than 75% of employee’s could not relax after work. Wellness and microclimate in the workplaces were on a relatively high level: the average rating of seven Kiva questions was 7.5. The respondent attitude after ME® did not change significantly. Latvian office workers displayed moderate and good work ability (Work Ability Index, WAI 34.5–38.6. The best work ability was shown in the age group from 20 to 49 (WAI 34.8–39.4; work ability decreased with age. The best correlation was observed between Work Ability Index and “get into situations, that invoke negative feelings” (r = 0.26 and “carrying out ongoing tasks because of other intervening or more urgent matters” (r = −0.24. After ME® the reaction to some stress-causing factors was improved.

  13. FALÊNCIA E RECUPERAÇÃO DE EMPRESAS: CONTRIBUIÇÃO PARA A MATERIALIZAÇÃO DA FUNÇÃO SOCIAL / BANKRUPTCY AND BUSINESS RECOVERY: CONTRIBUTION TO THE SOCIAL FUNCTION MATERIALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonabio Barbosa Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the Law of Bankruptcy and Enterprise Preservation connected to the principle of the social function of the company seeking to determine the effectiveness of its work in protecting the social function of the enterprise. From the theoretical analysis on the evolution of the topic, the social importance of the company and the negative results of its extinction, a comparative study between the aforementioned statute, Bankruptcy Act and the Concordat was held regarding the preservation of function business. With the analysis of data related to the amount of requirement of bankruptcy and recovery from 1991 to 2014, and the use of simple regression, this study demonstrates the influence of the new legislation to reduce the requirements of bankruptcy and bankruptcy protection. Leading us to consider the claim of social function company protection, sought by the legislature, is being achieved

  14. Immunity, infectious diseases and the knowledge of 100 Latvian pregnant women of the impact of infectious diseases on the pregnancy and its prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Abramova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Infection diseases may adversely affect the pregnancy, lead to the development of foetal abnormalities, foetal death, congenital infections and preterm birth. Infection is possible in antenatal, postnatal and intranatal way. CMV, adenovirus, enterovirus are the most common viruses which are found during the examination of amniotic fluid. Hundred Latvian pregnant women were offered to fill in the questionnaire with the help of which it will be possible to study their knowledge on infectious diseases during pregnancy and preventive options. The obtained data were compared with foreign literature and foreign studies. Respondents' age was from 19 to 43 years. Only 65% of women are aware that the risk of contracting infectious diseases during pregnancy is higher. Only 7% of women know about all possible ways of infection during pregnancy. 68% of women note that bacterial vaginosis may harm foetus and adversely affect pregnancy. Compared to the study conducted in Japan, Latvian pregnant women know about toxoplasmosis 4% more often than in Japan. Knowledge of pregnant women about the impact of infectious diseases on the foetus and pregnancy, potential infection and prevention ways is insufficient. Women want to know and receive understandable information from health care professionals. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 954-958

  15. Study of association between polymorphisms in the PSMB5 (rs11543947 and PSMA3 (rs2348071 genes and multiple sclerosis in Latvians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalnina J.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional realization of many signalling proteins and transcription factors implicated in the development and progression of multiple sclerosis is mediated by proteasomes. Aim of this case-control study was to evaluate genetic variations in the PSMB5 and PSMA3 genes encoding proteasomal subunits on the susceptibility to multiple sclerosis in Latvians. Methods. The rs11543947 (PSMB5 and rs2348071 (PSMA3 loci were genotyped in 291 multiple sclerosis patients and 305 healthy individuals and analysed general, subtype and sex-specific associations with the disease. Results. Loci rs11543947 and rs2348071 were identified as disease neutral and susceptible respectively. The rs2348071 heterozygous genotype GA showed strong main effect (P < 0.001; OR = 1.891, 95 % CI [1.360–2.628], and moderate (P < 0.01; OR = 1.663, 95 % CI [1.152– 2.402] and strong (P < 0.001; OR = 2.459, 95 % CI [1.534–3.943] association with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive phases of disease respectively. No genotype-sex interaction associated with multiple sclerosis has been detected. Conclusions. Our results suggest susceptibility of the rs2348071 heterozygous genotype to multiple sclerosis in Latvians.

  16. ASPECTS CONCERNING THE DETERMINATION OF BANKRUPTCY RISK BY SOLVENCY AND LIQUIDITY RATIOS IN THE COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Hada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues related to determining the bankruptcy risk for 64 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange.The purpose of this paper is to determine the percentage of companies falling within the normal range. In the introduction, we set the goal, the research methodology, and the novelty value of this work. Hereinafter, we presented different views of risk concepts, bankruptcy, solvency and liquidity. After that, based on theoretical presentations, a case study was conducted to determine the solvency and liquidity ratios. In the end, on the basis of the above considerations, the conclusions were established and some proposals were listed.

  17. Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

    2013-04-01

    Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected

  18. Association between the transition from unemployment to re-employment after abrupt bankruptcy and the depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomi, Kaori; Ishitake, Tatsuya; Hara, Kunio; Shigemoto, Akira; Hoshiko, Michiko; Tsuji, Yoshiyasu; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Tamaki, Hideki; Furumura, Mitsuyo; Muramoto, Junko

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effects of long-term unemployment and the transition from unemployment to re-employment after abrupt bankruptcy on the mental health of unemployed Japanese. The cases of 96 men and 54 women who were laid off by a large shoemaking company because of sudden bankruptcy in 1998, were examined for one year. The mental health of these individuals was evaluated using a 'self-rating questionnaire for depression (SRQ-D)'. The respondents were categorized by employment transition status into four groups: (1) still employed full-time, (2) unemployment to full-time employment, (3) unemployment to part-time employment, and (4) still unemployed. The prevalence rate of depressive symptoms in the 'still unemployed' group was significantly higher (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 4.33) than in the still employed group. Moreover, high levels of depressive symptoms were observed in the individuals in the 'unemployment to part-time employment' group (adjusted OR = 4.93). There was no significant risk of depressive tendency among individuals in the 'unemployment to full-time employment' group. The results suggest that the negative effect of re-employment to part-time employment on depressive symptoms is similar to that in long-term unemployment.

  19. Results of research on development of an intellectual information system of bankruptcy risk assessment of the enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telipenko, E.; Chernysheva, T.; Zakharova, A.; Dumchev, A.

    2015-10-01

    The article represents research results about the knowledge base development for the intellectual information system for the bankruptcy risk assessment of the enterprise. It is described the process analysis of the knowledge base development; the main process stages, some problems and their solutions are given. The article introduces the connectionist model for the bankruptcy risk assessment based on the analysis of industrial enterprise financial accounting. The basis for this connectionist model is a three-layer perceptron with the back propagation of error algorithm. The knowledge base for the intellectual information system consists of processed information and the processing operation method represented as the connectionist model. The article represents the structure of the intellectual information system, the knowledge base, and the information processing algorithm for neural network training. The paper shows mean values of 10 indexes for industrial enterprises; with the help of them it is possible to carry out a financial analysis of industrial enterprises and identify correctly the current situation for well-timed managerial decisions. Results are given about neural network testing on the data of both bankrupt and financially strong enterprises, which were not included into training and test sets.

  20. Bankruptcy prediction: The influence of the year prior to failure selected for model building and the effects in a period of economic decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, P.P.M.; Bilderbeek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using large amounts of data from small and medium-sized industrial firms, this study examines two aspects of bankruptcy prediction: the influence of the year prior to failure selected for model building and the effects in a period of economic decline. The results show that especially models

  1. 26 CFR 301.6871(b)-1 - Claims for income, estate, and gift taxes in proceedings under the Bankruptcy Act and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims for income, estate, and gift taxes in proceedings under the Bankruptcy Act and receivership proceedings; claim filed despite pendency of Tax Court... Receiverships Jeopardy § 301.6871(b)-1 Claims for income, estate, and gift taxes in proceedings under the...

  2. Bankruptcy prediction: The influence of the year prior to failure selected for model building and the effects in a period of economic decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, P.P.M.; Bilderbeek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using large amounts of data from small and medium-sized industrial firms, this study examines two aspects of bankruptcy prediction: the influence of the year prior to failure selected for model building and the effects in a period of economic decline. The results show that especially models generate

  3. 考虑破产风险约束的多项目投资组合决策模型%Multi-project Portfolio Model with Bankruptcy Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐维军; 罗伟强; 张卫国

    2013-01-01

    The premise of the expected returns for investors is the investment decision does not lead to bankruptcy . So controlling the probability of bankruptcy is essential .According to the credibility measure theory and the Roy’ s definition, we obtain the mathematic equation of bankruptcy risk control when the future cash flow is being the fuzzy variables .Under the effect of the bankruptcy factors in the investment process , we propose a multi-project portfolio decision model with bankruptcy risk control .Finally, we use the genetic algorithm to solve our proposed model , and a numerical example of project portfolio is given to illustrate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed approaches .%项目投资决策不导致破产事件的发生,是投资者获得预期收益的前提,故控制破产事件发生的概率至关重要。鉴于此,本文基于可信性测度理论,根据Roy的定义给出了未来现金流量隶属三角模糊变量的控制破产风险的数学表达式,并构建了项目投资过程中受到破产风险因素影响的具有破产风险约束的多项目投资组合决策模型。最后,运用遗传算法对模型进行求解,并给出算例演示本文模型的实用性和有效性。

  4. Assessment of the present and future offshore wind power potential: a case study in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizuma, Lita; Avotniece, Zanita; Rupainis, Sergejs; Teilans, Artis

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century.

  5. Sustainable Use Of Macro-Algae For Biogas Production In Latvian Conditions: A Preliminary Study Through An Integrated Mca And Lca Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastare, Laura; Romagnoli, Francesco; Lauka, Dace; Dzene, Ilze; Kuznecova, Tatjana

    2014-12-01

    The study focuses on sustainability evaluation of an algae-based energy system in Latvia with a holistic and integrated approach of multi-criteria analysis combined with life cycle assessment (including a practical side - biogas yield experiments of locally available algae). The study shows potential for sustainable use of algae in Latvian conditions and thus that algal biomass can be utilized for the production of biogas. The most sustainable and feasible scenario of using algae for biogas energy production foresees the collection of algae biomass from natural water bodies. Important beneficial effects through the use of algae are related to avoiding global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication impacts. Biogas batch experiments carried out with the local macrophyte C.demersum have shown a methane yield of 554 l CH4/kg VS.

  6. Assessment of the Present and Future Offshore Wind Power Potential: A Case Study in a Target Territory of the Baltic Sea Near the Latvian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lita Lizuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century.

  7. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren

    2010-03-16

    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  8. ADVERTISING WITH SOCIAL DISCOURSE AS A BRAND POSITIONING TECHNIQUE: REVIEW OF RESEARCH WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE LATVIAN MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aivars Helde

    2015-09-01

    gender stereotypes we looked at notions about the supposedly traditional behaviors of men and women, and the characteristics and standards of these behaviors, which are grounded in our culture and society. Producers use these ideas to make customers feel they belong in the society, and become psychologically involved, in the story presented by the advertisement. Culture involves human values, actions, patterns, ideas, and material and artificial surroundings that enable interaction among people. The content of culture determines the particular qualities of certain groups of people, which potentially governs their consumer characteristics. This indicates the importance of understanding the way in which culture affects individuals. In today’s information area, the media are the primary means of transmitting and reproducing cultural information. Today’s media shape the image of culture in people’s consciousness.Finally, this study provides an analysis of varying ads, using different means of interpretation. All materials are taken from Latvian media.

  9. The Power of the Bankruptcy Court to Enjoin Creditor Claims Against Nondebtor Parties in Light of 11 U.S.C. § 524(e): In re Dow Corning Corp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jason J Jardine

    2004-01-01

    ...) to issue third-party injunctions in favor of nondebtor parties. The Sixth Circuit's reasoning, in approving a reorganization plan for Dow Corning Corp, correctly limits a bankruptcy court's power through its use of an "unusual circumstances" test...

  10. Selected Ratio and Bankruptcy Early-Warning Method Analysis of Competitiveness of Wood Sector Companies Listed on Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Biernacka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of economic conditions of wood sector companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Among many measures of ratio analysis, the three most frequently used groups of indicators - profitability, debt and liquidity were selected. For a comprehensive presentation of the situation of each company, the Mączyńska & Zawadzki’s model was used as the bankruptcy early warning method. Two furniture industry companies, two wood-based panel industry companies, two pulp and paper industry entities, a representative of sawmilling industry and a company of wood-based panels and furniture industry were analyzed. The analysis showed that companies with stabile position in the market have the best economic conditions, and these were namely the pulp and paper industry and furniture industry.

  11. Impact of cognitive radio on radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, M.J.; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of new communication techniques requires an increase in the efficiency of spectrum usage. Cognitive radio is one of the new techniques that fosters spectrum efficiency by using unoccupied frequency spectrum for communications. However, cognitive radio will increase the transmission

  12. Resonance and Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, Malin J.

    2008-01-01

    The science and technology of radio receives little attention in contemporary education. This article discusses ways to explore the basic operating principles of radio. (Contains 4 figures, 3 footnotes, and 2 notes.)

  13. Enefit gaining Latvian customers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    3. märtsil toimunud Riia linnapea Nils Usakovsi ja Enefiti esindajate kohtumisel räägiti firma tariifidest, mida nad võiks munitsipaalettevõtetele ja -organisatsioonidele pakkuda. Latvenergo tõstab hindu 1. aprillil

  14. Latvian Law Briefs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Läti parlament võttis 2. oktoobril vastu ÜRO 1951. a. pagulaste konventsiooni ratifitseerimise seaduse parandused. Läti põhiseaduse parandusettepanekutest. Endise NLi võimudega koostööd teinud Läti kodanike kohta käinud seaduseelnõu tagasilükkamisest

  15. Enefit gaining Latvian customers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    3. märtsil toimunud Riia linnapea Nils Usakovsi ja Enefiti esindajate kohtumisel räägiti firma tariifidest, mida nad võiks munitsipaalettevõtetele ja -organisatsioonidele pakkuda. Latvenergo tõstab hindu 1. aprillil

  16. Educational Radio in India

    OpenAIRE

    VYAS, R. V.; R. C. Sharma; Kumar, Ashwini

    2002-01-01

    There are a good number of research studies, which indicate that radio has been a good medium of education delivery. Many experiments have been conducted in different countries on the use of radio in education. Radio has been used in conventional education, non-formal education, for agricultural education, for community development, in distance education, so on and so forth. This paper explains various educational radio projects undertaken in India

  17. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  18. Ham radio for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, H Ward

    2013-01-01

    An ideal first step for learning about ham radio Beyond operating wirelessly, today's ham radio operators can transmit data and pictures; use the Internet, laser, and microwave transmitters; and travel to places high and low to make contact. This hands-on beginner guide reflects the operational and technical changes to amateur radio over the past decade and provides you with updated licensing requirements and information, changes in digital communication (such as the Internet, social media, and GPS), and how to use e-mail via radio. Addresses the critical use of ham radio for replacing downe

  19. Radiography of Spanish Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Emma Rodero Antón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In its eighty years of existence, radio has been always characterized to adapt to the social, cultural and technological transformations. Thus it has been until this moment. Nevertheless, some years ago, the authors and professionals of this medium have been detecting a stagnation that affects to its structure. At a time in continuous technological evolution, radio demands a deep transformation. For that reason, from the conviction of which the future radio, public and commercial, will necessarily have to renew itself, in this paper we establish ten problems and their possible solutions to the radio crisis in order to draw an x-ray of radio in Spain. Radio has future, but it is necessary to work actively by it. That the radio continues being part of sound of our life, it will depend on the work of all: companies, advertisers, professionals, students, investigators and listeners.

  20. An analysis on the bankruptcy legal system of commercial bank of our country%我国商业银行破产法律制度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖霄

    2009-01-01

    伴随着中国市场经济的发展,金融市场化改革的不断深化和金融市场的日益开放,我国的商业银行确实存在破产的现实可能性,完善我国商业银行破产法律制度有着很强的紧迫性.本文在对商业银行破产的可能性和特殊性进行分析的基础上,深入探讨了我国目前商业银行破产制度存在的缺陷,并尝试性地提出了完善我国商业银行破产法律制度的对策,以期对我国商业银行破产法律制度的构建提供一些帮助.%With the development of market economy in our country,the deeping of the financial market reform and the opening of the financial market,the possibility of the bankruptcy of commercial bank in our country is existent,the perfection of the bankruptcy leal system of commercial bank of our country is very important.Based on the possibility and the particularity analysis of this prob-lem,this paper discussed the defects of bankruptcy legal system of commercial bank of our country at present,proposed some mea-sures to fulfill the relevant laws and rules,accelerates the construction of the bankruptcy legal system of commercial bank of our country.

  1. Is bankruptcy failure? The case of the Associação dos Produtores Alternativos de Ouro Preto do Oeste, State of Rondônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Kohler

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the bankruptcy of the Alternative Producers Association (APA in Ouro Preto do Oeste, State of Rondônia, Brazil, by identifying the relations between the territory actors and analyzing their own interpretive frame. After a brief history of the Integrated Colonization Project (PIC in Ouro Preto do Oeste, we describe the social origin of the settlers, their political culture and social capital as well as the logic of the institutions engaged in the projects' management. The relations between the different institutional actors are presented as a connection of multilevel social-ecological systems (local, regional, national and international. The paper intends to show the discrepancy between the mere economic logic of the supporting institutions and the APA producers' aspirations. Our conclusion is that the bankruptcy may have been caused by two interconnected factors: the lack of trust of APA's farmers towards agricultural support agencies (Comissão Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira, Agência de Defesa Sanitária Agrosilvopastoril do Estado de Rondônia, Empresa de Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural and the failure of the State and the Municipality to act in the multi-level network above mentioned, which could have been a mediator amongst the different aspirations. Finally, our paper discusses the notion of 'failure' associated to bankruptcy.

  2. Analisis Kendala Perizinan Spektrum Frekuensi Radio untuk Radio Komunitas

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Wahyuningsih

    2014-01-01

    Izin penggunaan spektrum frekuensi radio diatur dalam Undang-undang No.36 tahun 1999 tentang Telekomunikasi. Saat ini masih ditemukan Radio Komunitas yang belum memiliki Izin Stasiun Radio (ISR). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemu kenali kendala-kendala yang dihadapi Radio Komunitas pada proses pengajuan Izin Stasiun Radio (ISR). Teknik pengumpulan data melalui wawancara dengan penanggungjawab Radio Komunitas dan pejabat di lingkungan Balai Monitor Frekuensi Radio (Balmon) di Jakarta, Sema...

  3. Analisis Kendala Perizinan Spektrum Frekuensi Radio untuk Radio Komunitas

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Izin penggunaan spektrum frekuensi radio diatur dalam Undang-undang No.36 tahun 1999 tentang Telekomunikasi. Saat ini masih ditemukan Radio Komunitas yang belum memiliki Izin Stasiun Radio (ISR). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemu kenali kendala-kendala yang dihadapi Radio Komunitas pada proses pengajuan Izin Stasiun Radio (ISR). Teknik pengumpulan data melalui wawancara dengan penanggungjawab Radio Komunitas dan pejabat di lingkungan Balai Monitor Frekuensi Radio (Balmon) di Jakarta, Sema...

  4. Senior radio listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora

    Radiobroadcasting and the hardware materialization of radio have during the 20th century changed significantly, which means that senior radio listeners have travelled along with this evolution from large, impressive radio furnitures to DAB and small, wireless, mobile devices, and from grave...... and solemn radio voices to lightharted, laughing and chatting speakers. Senior radio listerners have experienced the development and refinements of technique, content and genres. It is now expected of all media users that they are capable of crossing media, combining, juggling and jumping between various...... media platforms, not the least when listening to radio. The elder generation is no exception from this. Recently, for instance, the Danish public broadcast DR has carried out an exodus of programmes targeted for the senior segment. These programmes are removed from regular FM and sent to DAB receivers...

  5. Fast Radio Bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akshaya Rane; Duncan Lorimer

    2017-09-01

    We summarize our current state of knowledge of fast radio bursts (FRBs) which were first discovered a decade ago. Following an introduction to radio transients in general, including pulsars and rotating radio transients, we discuss the discovery of FRBs. We then discuss FRB follow-up observations in the context of repeat bursts before moving on to review propagation effects on FRB signals, FRB progenitor models and an outlook on FRBs as potential cosmological tools.

  6. Cross-infection prevention, basic hygiene practices and education within nursing and health care in Latvia: a Swedish-Latvian practice development project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunberg Sjöström, Harrieth; Skyman, Eva; Hellström, Lisbeth; Kula, Marite; Grinevika, Valentina

    2003-08-01

    The primary aim of this practice development project was to explore the level of knowledge of nursing and medical staff at the Infection Clinic at Liepaja regarding the spread of infectious diseases. Arrangements were also made for some of the Latvian health care staff to visit the Infection Clinic in Gothenburg to increase their knowledge about basic hygiene and to enable them to study the research in this area. Later we were able to formulate this new knowledge into written guidelines. The theoretical education started with questions regarding staffs expertise in preventing the spread of infections. Areas covered were handwashing, hand disinfection, use of disposable gloves and protective clothing. This revealed a need for development of both theoretical and practical knowledge in this area. However, hygiene practices improved after the theoretical education and the visits to the Infection Clinic in Gothenburg. On our return visit to Liepaja dispensers of liquid soap together with hand disinfectants were evident at every wash basin on the unit. Disposable gloves were also routinely used for the dressing of wounds and invasive procedures. Furthermore, disposable coats and masks were used when caring for highly infectious patients. The key cultural differences were the lack of nursing documentation and the relative absence of a dialogue directly between the nurse and the patient.

  7. Development of the Latvian scheme for energy auditing of buildings and inspection of boilers and air-conditioning systems. Final report institutional set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    To implement EU directive 93/76/EEC on reduction of carbon dioxide emission by increasing energy efficiency and EU directive 2002/91/EC on building energy efficiency, Latvia must establish and institutional scheme and define all the organisations involved. From a general perspective the institutional scheme must as a minimum include the following four key players: the administrator, the operating unit, the auditors or independent experts, and finally the client. Furthermore, institutions dealing with financing of energy efficiency improvement activities, training and certification of experts, information about auditing and energy efficiency etc. need to be involved. At present there is no governmental or private Latvian organisation that could fully rearrange and assume the duties of an energy audit scheme secretariat. It is therefore recommended initially to place the secretariat as a separate, new unit within the Ministry of Economy, financed by the Ministry of Economy, with the intention of establishing at a later stage (after e.g. 5 years) a separate, new agency, an Energy Efficiency Agency partly financed by the incomes from the energy audit and boiler inspection schemes. The Secretariat should, both in its initial phase and later, assign the tasks of training, information campaigns, quality assurance and evaluation to external organisations. (BA)

  8. Combination of KIR 2DL2 and HLA-C1 (Asn 80) confers susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in Latvians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, A; Sedimbi, S K; Rajalingam, R; Nikitina-Zake, L; Rumba, I; Wigzell, H; Sanjeevi, C B

    2008-12-01

    Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are known to modulate natural killer (NK) and NK T-cell function by interacting with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands on target cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of KIR2D genes with their HLA-C ligands in susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. A total of 98 type 1 diabetes patients and 70 healthy subjects from Latvia were typed for KIR genes and HLA-C ligands using polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping. The HLA C1+/C2+ combination was positively, and C1-/C2+ combination was negatively, associated with type 1 diabetes. Stratification analysis of KIR/HLA-C ligand combinations showed 2DL2+/C1+, 2DL3+/C1+, and 2DS2+ /C1+ to be positively, and 2DL2-/C1- and 2DS2-/ C1- to be negatively, associated. The presence of 2DL2-HLA-C1 in the absence of 2DS1, 2DS2 confers maximum susceptibility. Absence of 2DL2 and HLA-C1 along with absence of 2DS1 and 2DS2 confer maximum protection. A hypothetical model of KIR/ligand combinations on immune responses and type 1 diabetes susceptibility is proposed. Our results suggest that a combination KIR2DL2- HLA-C1 plays a critical role in susceptibility or protection in Latvians against type 1 diabetes.

  9. Microsatellite allele 5 of MHC class I chain-related gene a increases the risk for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in latvians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtauvere-Brameus, A; Ghaderi, M; Rumba, I; Sanjeevi, C B

    2002-04-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is one of the most common chronic diseases. It is an autoimmune, polygenic disease, associated with several genes on different chromosomes. The most important gene is human leukocyte antigen (HLA), also known as major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is located on chromosome 6p21.3. HLA-DQ8/DR4 and DQ2/DR3 are positively associated with IDDM and DQ6 is negatively associated with IDDM in most Caucasian populations. The MICA gene is located in the MHC class I region and is expressed by monocytes, keratinocytes, and endothelial cells. Sequence determination of the MICA gene identifies 5 alleles with 4, 5, 6, and 9 repetitions of GCT or 5 repetitions of GCT with 1 additional insertion (GGCT), and the alleles are referred to as A4, A5, A5.1, A6, and A9. Analysis of allele distribution among 93 Latvian IDDM patients and 108 healthy controls showed that allele A5 of MICA is significantly increased in IDDM patients [33/93 (35%)] compared to healthy controls [22/108 (20%)] (OR = 2.15; P = 0.016). In conclusion, we believe that MICA may play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of IDDM.

  10. A Zynq-based Cluster Cognitive Radio

    OpenAIRE

    Rooks, Kurtis M.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional hardware radios provide very rigid solutions to radio problems. Intelligent software defined radios, also known as cognitive radios, provide flexibility and agility compared to hardware radio systems. Cognitive radios are well suited for radio applications in a changing radio frequency environment, such as dynamic spectrum access. In this thesis, a cognitive radio is demonstrated where the system self reconfigures to dem...

  11. Transformations of Radio Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Stachyra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some remarks upon the nature of contemporary radio communications in the context of the terms “aesthetics” and “aesthetisation”. The latter, denoting a process of turning aesthetic phenomena into unaesthetic ones, becomes the dominant strategy of formatted radio. The “surface aesthetisation,” which provides mainly pleasure and entertainment, transcends the simple styling of objects or environment and appears to be a more significant strand of contemporary culture. The article shows several examples of “surface” modelling of radio programming and explains their purpose in radio communication.

  12. STEM on the radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-10-01

    Looking for an Internet radio station focusing on programing about science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)? The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) announced on 26 September the launch of Science360 Radio, which it says is the first Internet radio stream dedicated to STEM programing. Science360 includes more than 100 radio shows and podcasts that are available on the Web as well as on iPhone and Android devices. The shows originate from a variety of sources, including NSF, other U.S. government agencies, science organizations, universities, and media outlets. For more information, see http://science360.gov/files/.

  13. Analysis of auditor`s reports and bankruptcy risk in banking sector in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Stanisic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to point out the significance of external audit and auditor’s reports. The stability of banks and its operations are vital not only for efficient financial system functioning, but also for overall industry. The banking sector, both in developed and undeveloped countries, experienced financial crisis in the last few years. Considering these circumstances and the fact that demands of financial statements users grow in complexity, their control is essential. We provide the empirical evidence on the banking sector auditor’s reports in the Republic of Serbia, with particular reference to auditor’s opinions and audit agencies that had conducted banks audits. The review of the audit legislation and professional standards will be presented, as well as the notion of bankruptcy risk and its relevance for baking sector. Our research results indicate that special attention should be paid to banks which auditor’s report had some explanatory paragraphs or even qualification. In conclusion we highlight the red flags that may damage banks operations and emphasize the importance of keeping the high level of auditor’s independence with the intention to provide confidence to stakeholders who form their decisions based on their reports.

  14. Fixing the “Undue Hardship” Hardship: Solutions for the Problem of Discharging Educational Loans Through Bankruptcy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Williams

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Imagine John Smith, soon to be John Smith, Esquire. He has completed his last round of finals and is anxiously awaiting graduation from law school. In the time between finals and graduation, when many third-year law students are taking a brief mental vacation before bar exam preparation gets into full swing, John thinks he has found the ultimate loophole. John files a bankruptcy petition, which shows his non-existent current income, minimal assets, and education loans totaling over $100,000. Given John’s apparent insolvency, the court discharges his student loans so that John can have a fresh start and attempt to get back on his feet. John is pleased because he has a great job lined up for after graduation, and getting rid of this debt will make his life better. Luckily for the taxpayers who would then be responsible for John’s federally guaranteed student loans, Congress essentially eliminated such a possibility decades ago, and college students across the country can rest easy knowing that their loans will be fully intact upon graduation.

  15. Enhancing GNU Radio for Hardware Accelerated Radio Design

    OpenAIRE

    Irick, Charles Robert

    2010-01-01

    As technology evolves and new methods for designing radios arise, it becomes necessary to continue the search for fast and flexible development environments. Some of these new technologies include software defined radio (SDR), Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), and the open source project GNU Radio. Software defined radio is a concept that GNU Radio has harnessed to allow developers to quickly create flexible radio designs. In terms of hardware, the maturity of FPGAs give ...

  16. Analisis Kendala Perizinan Spektrum Frekuensi Radio untuk Radio Komunitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuningsih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Izin penggunaan spektrum frekuensi radio diatur dalam Undang-undang No.36 tahun 1999 tentang Telekomunikasi. Saat ini masih ditemukan Radio Komunitas yang belum memiliki Izin Stasiun Radio (ISR. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemu kenali kendala-kendala yang dihadapi Radio Komunitas pada proses pengajuan Izin Stasiun Radio (ISR. Teknik pengumpulan data melalui wawancara dengan penanggungjawab Radio Komunitas dan pejabat di lingkungan Balai Monitor Frekuensi Radio (Balmon di Jakarta, Semarang dan Yogyakarta. Analisis data mengacu pada model Matthew B Miles dan A Michael Huberman. Hasil penelitian menyatakan kendala yang dihadapi terutama pada sertifikasi perangkat Radio Komunitas.

  17. Radio Graceful Hamming Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedzialomski Amanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For k ∈ ℤ+ and G a simple, connected graph, a k-radio labeling f : V (G → ℤ+ of G requires all pairs of distinct vertices u and v to satisfy |f(u − f(v| ≥ k + 1 − d(u, v. We consider k-radio labelings of G when k = diam(G. In this setting, f is injective; if f is also surjective onto {1, 2, . . . , |V (G|}, then f is a consecutive radio labeling. Graphs that can be labeled with such a labeling are called radio graceful. In this paper, we give two results on the existence of radio graceful Hamming graphs. The main result shows that the Cartesian product of t copies of a complete graph is radio graceful for certain t. Graphs of this form provide infinitely many examples of radio graceful graphs of arbitrary diameter. We also show that these graphs are not radio graceful for large t.

  18. Radio Emission from Exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    George, Samuel J.; Stevens, Ian R.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from new low frequency observations of two extrasolar planetary systems (Epsilon Eridani and HD128311) taken at 150 MHz with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We do not detect either system, but are able to place tight upper limits on their low frequency radio emission.

  19. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2015-01-01

    Within the EU regulatory framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. While radio licence renewal occurs in many EU countries, an objective, model-based approach for setting licence f

  20. JA ES BŪTU SMUKS, ES GRIBĒTU BŪT MEITENE! (‘If I Were Pretty, I Would Like To Be A Girl!’. Debating Transsexualism In The Latvian Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHOJNICKA JOANNA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates a debate on the issues of legal recognition of gender which took place in the Latvian Parliament in 2009 and which is considered a rich source of material for a two-fold analysis. As an example of gendered discourse, it shows the differences between female and male MPs’ ways of tackling this uncomfortable subject. As a discourse about gender, which allows one to study the speakers’ arguments and attitudes, it reveals prejudice, lack of knowledge and conservative thinking. The analysis thus illustrates the language and arguments employed in the public sphere when discussing face-threatening, taboo topics.

  1. 破产法中法院审判职能的理性回归与改革路径探析%Bankruptcy Court Judge in the Function of the Rational Return and Reform Path in this Pape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义华

    2012-01-01

    本文认为,新破产法对法院的职能定位存在着公权越位和私权错位的立法失误。当前破产法中法院职能应向"去行政化"与"去民事化"方向改革,以实现破产审判职能的理性回归。在"去行政化"改革方面,可以在现行司法行政体系内设置破产管理人监管处(科)的司法行政管理部门,并推行破产管理人执业许可制度;在"去民事化"改革方面,在破产管理人的选任和报酬确定上,则应实行以债权人会议决定为主、人民法院指定为辅的立法模式。%The functional orientation of new bankruptcy law exists offside public rights and proprietary dislocation of legislative faults. The current in the law the function of the bankruptcy court should be Toward reform to "go administration is changed" and "to the civil",in order to realize the bankruptcy reform trial function the rational return.In terms of reform to "go administration is changed" , should be in judicial administrative system installed in bankruptcy administrator supervision (division) in the judicial ad- ministrative departments,and promote bankruptcy administrator practice license system;In terms of reform to "to the civil" ,should determine the creditors" meeting decided to give priority to,the people's court to designate as the auxiliary legislation mode in bankruptcy administrator of the selection and reward.

  2. Radio source evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Perucho, Manel

    2015-01-01

    Baldwin (1982) wrote that "the distribution of sources in the radio luminosity, P, overall physical size, D, diagram" could be considered as "the radio astronomer's H-R diagram". However, unlike the case of stars, not only the intrinsic properties of the jets, but also those of the host galaxy and the intergalactic medium are relevant to explain the evolutionary tracks of radio radio sources. In this contribution I review the current status of our understanding of the evolution of radio sources from a theoretical and numerical perspective, using the P-D diagram as a framework. An excess of compact (linear size < 10 kpc) sources could be explained by low-power jets being decelerated within the host galaxy, as shown by recent numerical simulations. These decelerated jets could also explain the population of the radio sources that have been recently classified as FR0. I will discuss the possible tracks that radio sources may follow within this diagram, and some of the physical processes that can explain the d...

  3. Deposit Insurance Pricing Method Considering Bankruptcy Externalities%考虑银行破产外部效应的存款保险定价模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕筱宁; 秦学志

    2014-01-01

    运用存款保险的期望损失定价方法和Shapley值法,建立了考虑银行违约/破产外部效应的存款保险定价模型。模型中度量的破产成本不仅考虑了银行破产清算过程中其自身资产价值的损失,还考虑了银行违约/破产的负外部效应---可能增加其他银行的破产损失,据此确定的存款保险保费反映了各银行对系统总破产成本的边际贡献。为验证模型效果,构造了三种情景进行模拟分析,结果表明:存款保险保费与银行系统对破产银行资产的收购能力负相关,且负相关程度随经济形势的恶化而加剧;保费与整个银行系统参保银行数目之间也呈负相关关系。%It is generally considered that the overall costs of bank failures are higher than those in other indus-tries.This is due to the existence of negative externalities of bank failures , which may lead to additional loss of the default banks ’ assets .This paper establishes a pricing model of deposit insurance with consideration of bank -ruptcy externalities .It is taken into account that each default bank ’ s bankruptcy cost involves not only its assets loss caused by liquidation but also the externalities that may increase other banks ’ bankruptcy cost .Expected loss pricing method is used to calculate the net premium of deposit insurance while the additional premium is de -termined utilizing Shapley value .The total premium accordingly reflects each bank ’ s marginal contribution to the total bankruptcy cost of the whole banking system .Three scenarios are constructed to test the model .The results show that it is negatively correlated between the premium and the banking system ’ s acquisition ability of the bankruptcy assets , and this correlation becomes more significant when the economic situation deteriorates .Mean-while, the number of insured banks in the banking system impacts the premium negatively .

  4. EL PROBLEMA TEMPORAL EN EL INICIO DE LOS PROCEDIMIENTOS CONCURSALES: The timing problem in the opening of a bankruptcy proceeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L Goldenberg Serrano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La definición del momento en que los interesados pueden dar inicio a un procedimiento concursal es un asunto de la mayor trascendencia para su éxito como mecanismo de solución al dilema de la insolvencia. El legislador, tomando en cuenta los diversos intereses involucrados, no sólo debe precisar el o los hechos que desencadenan tal apertura, sino configurar una serie de incentivos (positivos y negativos para ajustar la decisión del deudor y de los acreedores, a fin de que el concurso no sea abierto cuando ya no existan bienes suficientes para el reparto, como para que tampoco sea utilizado como una herramienta de amenaza y cobro cuando aún no es evidente su utilidad. El presente trabajo pretende dar algunas ideas sobre las razones de este "problema temporal", su magnitud e implicancias, y los medios que se han tenido a la vista para resolverlo en nuestro ordenamiento y en el Derecho comparado.The definition of the moment in which the stakeholders may initiate a bankruptcy proceeding is a matter of great importance for its success as a mechanism for resolving the insolvency dilemma. The lawmaker, considering the different interests that are involved in this issue, not only must specify the fact or facts that trigger such opening, but also must create a series of (positive and negative incentives to adjust the decision of the debtor and the creditors to ensure that the proceeding is not opened when there are no longer enough assets to be distributed, but it is not used as a threat or collection tool when its utility is not evident. This article aims to give some ideas for the reasons of this "timing problem", its magnitude and implications, and the means that have been considered in order to solve it in our system and in comparative law.

  5. Ohlson´s Model and its Prediction Ability in Comparison with Selected Bankruptcy Models in Conditions of Czech SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Kubíčková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of a study examining the ability of Ohlson’s Logit model assessing and predicting the financial condition development of SMEs in comparison with the other models outcomes. Ohlson´s model was created using logit regression, which allows in the evaluation of the financial situation involve qualitative and discrete variables. The aim of the study is to determine whether the method used to derive the model influences the final assessment of the financial condition and indication of bankruptcy. The solution is based on the comparison of the resulting assessment of these four models, value of which were calculated on the same sample of Czech firms. As compared models were selected Z-score model, derived in the terms of US enterprises, IN05 model, which was derived in the conditions of Czech companies and Taffer´s model, derived in the conditions of UK firms. The sample consisted of 1996 small and medium firms in the manufacturing industry in Czech Republic. Data were obtained from the database of Albertina for the period of the years 2012 and 2013. It was found that the assessment of the firm´s financial situation matches in case of the results of Ohlson´s model and Taffler´s model, greater differences were found between the resulting values of Ohlson´s and Taffler´s model on one side and IN05 and Altman's model on the other side. Ohlson´s model and the Taffler´s model confirmed a good financial situation of companies in about 90 per cent of firms, Altman´s model and IN05 model in about 40 per cent of firms. The influence of the method used to derive the model on the assessment of the financial condition of companies was not proven.

  6. Islet autoantibodies in Latvian subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: slow-onset type 1 diabetes or polyendocrine autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtauvere-Brameus, A; Falorni, A; Rumba, I; Sanjeevi, C B

    2002-04-01

    In Latvia diabetes mellitus is diagnosed using the WHO's clinical criteria; assays for the detection of autoantibodies are not available, and hence slowly progressive autoimmune diabetes is likely to be missed. Autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (IA-2) among patients with clinically diagnosed NIDDM identify group of patients with slow-onset type 1 diabetes or LADA. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of polyendocrine autoimmunity among clinically diagnosed NIDDM patients from Latvia. One hundred NIDDM patients and 100 healthy controls were tested for GAD65 and IA-2 autoantibodies as well as 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) and tissue transglutaminase (TTG) antibodies by RIA assay. Age at onset was >or= 30 years, and duration of disease less than 5 years. Of 100 patients, 85 were on oral hypoglycemic agents and 15 were on insulin. Body mass index (BMI) under 19 was recorded in 1% (1 of 100 cases), while overweight (BMI > 25.5 in females and 27 in males) was documented in 45% (45 of 100 cases). GAD65 antibodies were found in 30 of 100 (30%) and IA-2 antibodies in 40 of 100 (40%) patients. Either GAD65 or IA-2 antibodies were found in 55 of 100 (55%). None of the patients carried antibodies against 21-OH and only 1 of 100 (1%) carried antibodies against TTG. From the results obtained in our study we conclude that in Latvian adult NIDDM subjects, islet autoantibodies identify groups of slow-onset type 1 diabetes but not polyendocrine autoimmunity.

  7. Insurance Calculation of Bankruptcy Probability of Constant Interest Rate Model under Dependent Negative%负相依下带常数利率模型的破产概率的保险计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明倩

    2014-01-01

    本文研究了负相依索赔条件下带常数利率的风险模型在随机区间上的破产问题,最终得到了该模型破产概率的渐进表达式。%This paper studies the risk model under conditions of constant interest rates negatively correlated claims in the bankruptcy issue random intervals, and finally get the asymptotic expression of the model the probability of bankruptcy.

  8. The impact of investments and changes in the production regime on the results of creditworthiness assessment and bankruptcy prediction models: Case study: Company Bulgari Filati d.o.o.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muminović Saša

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although they can be a subject of criticism and have been challenged from its beginnings, bankruptcy prediction models have often been used in practice for more than four decades. The following models for predicting bankruptcy are applied in this issue: Altman's Z'-Score, Zmijewski model, Taffler's model and Sandin and Porporato model. Out of the creditworthiness assessment models (solvency analysis, the following models have been applied: Z''-Score (Altman, Hartzell and Peck and the BEX model. A significant shortcoming of the observed models is their failure to take investment into account. Beside, some models have inadequately assessed the transition of operations to lohn production, while others have not.

  9. Radio broadcasting via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Neil R.; Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    1990-10-01

    Market areas offering potential for future narrowband broadcast satellites are examined, including international public diplomacy, government- and advertising-supported, and business-application usages. Technical issues such as frequency allocation, spacecraft types, transmission parameters, and radio receiver characteristics are outlined. Service and system requirements, advertising revenue, and business communications services are among the economic issues discussed. The institutional framework required to provide an operational radio broadcast service is studied, and new initiatives in direct broadcast audio radio systems, encompassing studies, tests, in-orbit demonstrations of, and proposals for national and international commercial broadcast services are considered.

  10. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary.......Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study...

  11. Shoestring Budget Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoot, John E.

    2017-06-01

    The commercial exploitation of microwave frequencies for cellular, WiFi, Bluetooth, HDTV, and satellite digital media transmission has brought down the cost of the components required to build an effective radio telescope to the point where, for the cost of a good eyepiece, you can construct and operate a radio telescope. This paper sets forth a family of designs for 1421 MHz telescopes. It also proposes a method by which operators of such instruments can aggregate and archive data via the Internet. With 90 or so instruments it will be possible to survey the entire radio sky for transients with a 24 hour cadence.

  12. Unlocking radio broadcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Skov, Mette

    2012-01-01

    This poster reports the preliminary results of a user study uncovering the information seeking behaviour of humanities scholars dedicated to radio research. The study is part of an interdisciplinary research project on radio culture and auditory resources. The purpose of the study is to inform...... the design of information architecture and interaction design of a research infrastructure that will enable future radio and audio based research. Results from a questionnaire survey on humanities scholars’ research interest and information needs, preferred access points, and indexing levels are reported...

  13. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saradi Bora

    2017-02-01

    The Earth's ionosphere consists of plasma produced by thephotoionization of thin upper atmospheric gases by UV raysand photons of short wavelength from the sun. The upperionosphere is used for radio communication and navigationas it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Sincesolar radiation is the main cause of the existence of ionosphere,any variation in the radiations can affect the entireradio communication system. This article attempts to brieflyintroduce the readers to the study of ionosphere in the contextof its use as a radio reflector, with particular reference toIndia.

  14. Radio y elecciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Rosa Alva de la Selva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el comportamiento de la radio en México ante la contienda electoral de julio de 2000. Se examina el papel de la radio como espacio para la discusión política, así como el tratamiento informativo que hizo del tema. Asimismo, se analiza la posible repercusión de factores de reciente surgimiento en el panorama radiofónico para un manejo más autónomo de la información política en la radio

  15. Unlocking radio broadcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette; Lykke, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This poster reports the preliminary results of a user study uncovering the information seeking behaviour of humanities scholars dedicated to radio research. The study is part of an interdisciplinary research project on radio culture and auditory resources. The purpose of the study is to inform...... the design of information architecture and interaction design of a research infrastructure that will enable future radio and audio based research. Results from a questionnaire survey on humanities scholars‟ research interest and information needs, preferred access points, and indexing levels are reported...

  16. The digital sport radio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario José ROMERO BEJARANO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio has been immersed in recent years in a phase of technological integration and business of multimedia, as well as diversification of systems and channels for broadcasting. In addition, Internet has been consolidated as the platform of digital radio that more has evolved as a result of its continued expansion. However, the merger radio-Internet must be understood as a new form of communication, and not solely as a new complementary medium. In this context, it is of great interest to analyze that transformations in the way of reception, contents, languages, programs and schedules, has brought with it for the radio that integration. To this end is taken as main reference the sports areas, a key aspect and broadly representative of the current broadcasting landscape.

  17. Music, Radio, and Mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Mads; Michelsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Mediatization has become a key concept for understanding the relations between media and other cultural and social fields. Contributing to the discussions related to the concept of mediatization, this article discusses how practices of radio and music(al life) influence each other. We follow Deacon......’s and Stanyer’s advice to supplement the concept of mediatization with ‘a series of additional concepts at lower levels of abstraction’ and suggest, in this respect, the notion of heterogeneous milieus of music– radio. Hereby, we turn away from the all-encompassing perspectives related to the concept...... of mediatization where media as such seem to be ascribed agency. Instead, we consider historical accounts of music–radio in order to address the complex non- linearity of concrete processes of mediatization as they take place in the multiple meetings between a decentred notion of radio and musical life....

  18. Unveiling the radio cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinde, Keith

    2017-02-01

    Using a radio telescope with no moving parts, the dark energy speeding up the expansion of the Universe can be probed in unprecedented detail, says Keith Vanderlinde, on behalf of the CHIME collaboration.

  19. Everyday Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Pranshu; Kumar, Pratik; Yelikar, Anjali; Soni, Kanchan; T, Vineeth Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an affordable, portable college level radio telescope for amateur radio astronomy which can be used to provide hands-on experience with the fundamentals of a radio telescope and an insight into the realm of radio astronomy. With our set-up one can measure brightness temperature and flux of the Sun at 11.2 GHz and calculate the beam width of the antenna. The set-up uses commercially available satellite television receiving system and parabolic dish antenna. We report the detection of point sources like Saturn and extended sources like the galactic arm of the Milky way. We have also developed python pipeline, which are available for free download, for data acquisition and visualization.

  20. Division x: Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Russ; Chapman, Jessica; Rendong, Nan; Carilli, Christopher; Giovannini, Gabriele; Hills, Richard; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Jonas, Justin; Lazio, Joseph; Morganti, Raffaella; Rubio, Monica; Shastri, Prajval

    2012-04-01

    This triennium has seen a phenomenal investment in development of observational radio astronomy facilities in all parts of the globe at a scale that significantly impacts the international community. This includes both major enhancements such as the transition from the VLA to the EVLA in North America, and the development of new facilities such as LOFAR, ALMA, FAST, and Square Kilometre Array precursor telescopes in Australia and South Africa. These developments are driven by advances in radio-frequency, digital and information technologies that tremendously enhance the capabilities in radio astronomy. These new developments foreshadow major scientific advances driven by radio observations in the next triennium. We highlight these facility developments in section 3 of this report. A selection of science highlight from this triennium are summarized in section 2.

  1. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study of an exi......Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study...... of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  2. Social cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  3. Smart Radio Spectrum Management for Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Bhattacharya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s wireless networks are characterized by fixed spectrum assignment policy. The limited availablespectrum and the inefficiency in the spectrum usage necessitate a new communication paradigm toexploit the existing wireless spectrum opportunistically. Cognitive radio is a paradigm for wirelesscommunication in which either a network or a wireless node changes its transmission or receptionparameters to communicate efficiently avoiding interference with licensed or unlicensed users. It cancapture best available spectrum to meet user communication requirements (spectrum management. Inthis work, a fuzzy logic based system for spectrum management is proposed where the radio can shareunused spectrum depending on parameters like distance, signal strength, node velocity and availabilityof unused spectrum. The system is simulated and is found to give satisfactory results.

  4. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  5. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  6. A study on the risk warning of internal control in enterprise bankruptcy liquidation%企业破产清算内部控制的风险预警研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁帅

    2012-01-01

    破产清算是企业的特殊状态。本文在研究企业破产清算内部控制的基础上,利用风险管理的理论和方法,尝试构建了集风险识别、风险评估、风险应对和风险监控于一体的企业破产清算内部控制的风险预警机制。%Bankruptcy liquidation is a special status of the enterprise operation,but now,there are few researches on the risk warning of internal control in bankruptcy liquidation.Based on a study on the internal control of the bankruptcy liquidation,this paper constructed risk warning mechanism for internal control in bankruptcy liquidation integrated with risk identification,risk assessment,risk response and risk monitoring by risk management theories and methods.

  7. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This 6th edition of “Tools of Radio Astronomy”, the most used introductory text in radio astronomy, has been revised to reflect the current state of this important branch of astronomy. This includes the use of satellites, low radio frequencies, the millimeter/sub-mm universe, the Cosmic Microwave Background and the increased importance of mm/sub-mm dust emission. Several derivations and presentations of technical aspects of radio astronomy and receivers, such as receiver noise, the Hertz dipole and  beam forming have been updated, expanded, re-worked or complemented by alternative derivations. These reflect advances in technology. The wider bandwidths of the Jansky-VLA and long wave arrays such as LOFAR and mm/sub-mm arrays such as ALMA required an expansion of the discussion of interferometers and aperture synthesis. Developments in data reduction algorithms have been included. As a result of the large amount of data collected in the past 20 years, the discussion of solar system radio astronomy, dust em...

  8. Radio data archiving system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapic, C.; Zanichelli, A.; Dovgan, E.; Nanni, M.; Stagni, M.; Righini, S.; Sponza, M.; Bedosti, F.; Orlati, A.; Smareglia, R.

    2016-07-01

    Radio Astronomical Data models are becoming very complex since the huge possible range of instrumental configurations available with the modern Radio Telescopes. What in the past was the last frontiers of data formats in terms of efficiency and flexibility is now evolving with new strategies and methodologies enabling the persistence of a very complex, hierarchical and multi-purpose information. Such an evolution of data models and data formats require new data archiving techniques in order to guarantee data preservation following the directives of Open Archival Information System and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance for data sharing and publication. Currently, various formats (FITS, MBFITS, VLBI's XML description files and ancillary files) of data acquired with the Medicina and Noto Radio Telescopes can be stored and handled by a common Radio Archive, that is planned to be released to the (inter)national community by the end of 2016. This state-of-the-art archiving system for radio astronomical data aims at delegating as much as possible to the software setting how and where the descriptors (metadata) are saved, while the users perform user-friendly queries translated by the web interface into complex interrogations on the database to retrieve data. In such a way, the Archive is ready to be Virtual Observatory compliant and as much as possible user-friendly.

  9. Galactic radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is a concise primer on galactic radio astronomy for undergraduate and graduate students, and provides wide coverage of galactic astronomy and astrophysics such as the physics of interstellar matter and the dynamics and structure of the Milky Way Galaxy and galaxies. Radio astronomy and its technological development have led to significant progress in galactic astronomy and contributed to understanding interstellar matter and galactic structures. The book begins with the fundamental physics of radio-wave radiation, i.e., black body radiation, thermal emission, synchrotron radiation, and HI and molecular line emissions. The author then gives overviews of ingredients of galactic physics, including interstellar matter such as the neutral (HI), molecular hydrogen, and ionized gases, as well as magnetic fields in galaxies. In addition, more advanced topics relevant to the Galaxy and galaxies are also contained here: star formation, supernova remnants, the Galactic Center and black holes, galactic dynamics...

  10. ANTENNA OF RADIO CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Ilnytskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to current issues in the field of radio monitoring. In this article was considered the antenna of radio control, which represents a grid from three vibrators. Threelement antenna array provides simultaneous control of two radio electronic devices that radiates at frequencies that are close to each other. Antenna system using simple technical means provides noise suppression, even if noise will have the same frequency as useful signal. This makes it possible to use the antenna system in conditions of multibeam wave propagation under the adjustment on the most intense by the power beam. Antenna system makes it possible to measure the electromagnetic field intensity, congestion of the frequency spectrum, direction of noise electromagnetic waves incidence, noise electric field intensity.

  11. Comets at radio wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Crovisier, Jacques; Colom, Pierre; Biver, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Comets are considered as the most primitive objects in the Solar System. Their composition provides information on the composition of the primitive solar nebula, 4.6 Gyr ago. The radio domain is a privileged tool to study the composition of cometary ices. Observations of the OH radical at 18 cm wavelength allow us to measure the water production rate. A wealth of molecules (and some of their isotopologues) coming from the sublimation of ices in the nucleus have been identified by observations in the millimetre and submillimetre domains. We present an historical review on radio observations of comets, focusing on the results from our group, and including recent observations with the Nan\\c{c}ay radio telescope, the IRAM antennas, the Odin satellite, the Herschel space observatory, ALMA, and the MIRO instrument aboard the Rosetta space probe.

  12. Mobile radio channels

    CERN Document Server

    Pätzold, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the modelling, analysis and simulation of mobile radio channels, this book gives a detailed understanding of fundamental issues and examines state-of-the-art techniques in mobile radio channel modelling. It analyses several mobile fading channels, including terrestrial and satellite flat-fading channels, various types of wideband channels and advanced MIMO channels, providing a fundamental understanding of the issues currently being investigated in the field. Important classes of narrowband, wideband, and space-time wireless channels are explored in deta

  13. Saber sobre la radio

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, María Cristina; Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Argentina

    1998-01-01

    La autora propone en este artículo repensar los fundamentos sobre los cuales se estructuran las asignaturas y talleres de radio en las escuelas de Comunicación Social en Latinoamérica, con el proposito de romper la escisión  entre teoría/práctica y de no violentar su complejidad: en la radio, entendida como práctica comunicativa, se juega en primer lugar una "red de vinculaciones e intercambios" en condiciones privilegiadas para la dialoguicidad. En un segundo lugar, asociado al desarrollo de...

  14. e-POP Radio Science Using Amateur Radio Transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissell, N. A.; Perry, G. W.; Miller, E. S.; Shovkoplyas, A.; Moses, M. L.; James, H. G.; Yau, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    A major component of the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) mission is to utilize artificially generated radio emissions to study High Frequency (HF) radio wave propagation in the ionosphere. In the North American and European sectors, communications between amateur radio operators are a persistent and abundant source source of HF transmissions. We present the results of HF radio wave propagation experiments using amateur radio transmissions as an HF source for e-POP RRI. We detail how a distributed and autonomously operated amateur radio network can be leveraged to study HF radio wave propagation as well as the structuring and dynamics of the ionosphere over a large geographic region. In one case, the sudden disappearance of nearly two-dozen amateur radio HF sources located in the midwestern United States was used to detect a enhancement in foF2 in that same region. We compare our results to those from other more conventional radio instruments and models of the ionosphere to demonstrate the scientific merit of incorporating amateur radio networks for radio science at HF.

  15. A reconfigurable radio architecture for Cognitive Radio in emergency networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive Radio has been proposed as a promising technology to solve today’s spectrum scarcity problem. Cognitive Radio is able to sense the spectrum to find the free spectrum, which can be optimally used by Cognitive Radio without causing interference to the licensed user. In the scope of the

  16. A reconfigurable radio architecture for Cognitive Radio in emergency networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive Radio has been proposed as a promising technology to solve today’s spectrum scarcity problem. Cognitive Radio is able to sense the spectrum to find the free spectrum, which can be optimally used by Cognitive Radio without causing interference to the licensed user. In the scope of the Adapt

  17. A Reconfigurable Radio Architecture for Cognitive Radio in Emergency Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Qiwei; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive Radio has been proposed as a promising technology to solve today's spectrum scarcity problem. Cognitive Radio is able to sense the spectrum to find the free spectrum, which can be optimally used by Cognitive Radio without causing interference to the licensed user. In the scope of the Adapt

  18. Spectrum management and radio resource management considering cognitive radio systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haartsen, Jaap C.; Wieweg, Lasse; Huschke, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    International fora and some national administrations define a cognitive radio (CR) as a pioneering radio communication system that would be capable of altering and adapting its transmitter and receiver parameters based on communication and the exchange of information with related detectable radio co

  19. Radio Fatwa : Islamic Tanya-Jawab Programmes on Radio Dakwah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunarwoto,

    2012-01-01

    The present article is a study of radio fatwa in Indonesia with special reference to the Tanya-Jawab genres in radio dakwah.The concept of fatwa has changed over time. Such Islamic Tanya-Jawab programmes broadcast on radio dakwah are important to understand how fatwa is disseminated by means of medi

  20. The LOFAR radio environment

    CERN Document Server

    Offringa, A R; Zaroubi, S; van Diepen, G; Martinez-Ruby, O; Labropoulos, P; Brentjens, M A; Ciardi, B; Daiboo, S; Harker, G; Jelic, V; Kazemi, S; Koopmans, L V E; Mellema, G; Pandey, V N; Pizzo, R F; Schaye, J; Vedantham, H; Veligatla, V; Wijnholds, S J; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P; Alexov, A; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, M; Beck, R; Bell, M; Bell, M R; Bentum, M; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Birzan, L; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Bruggen, M; Butcher, H; Conway, J; de Vos, M; Dettmar, R J; Eisloeffel, J; Falcke, H; Fender, R; Frieswijk, W; Gerbers, M; Griessmeier, J M; Gunst, A W; Hassall, T E; Heald, G; Hessels, J; Hoeft, M; Horneffer, A; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V; Koopman, Y; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Mann, G; McKean, J; Meulman, H; Mevius, M; Mol, J D; Nijboer, R; Noordam, J; Norden, M; Paas, H; Pandey, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A; Rafferty, D; Rawlings, S; Reich, W; Rottgering, H J A; Schoenmakers, A P; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Sobey, C; Stappers, B; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; van Ardenne, A; van Cappellen, W; van Duin, A P; van Haarlem, M; van Leeuwen, J; van Weeren, R J; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wijers, R A M J; Wise, M; Wucknitz, O

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This paper discusses the spectral occupancy for performing radio astronomy with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), with a focus on imaging observations. Methods: We have analysed the radio-frequency interference (RFI) situation in two 24-h surveys with Dutch LOFAR stations, covering 30-78 MHz with low-band antennas and 115-163 MHz with high-band antennas. This is a subset of the full frequency range of LOFAR. The surveys have been observed with a 0.76 kHz / 1 s resolution. Results: We measured the RFI occupancy in the low and high frequency sets to be 1.8% and 3.2% respectively. These values are found to be representative values for the LOFAR radio environment. Between day and night, there is no significant difference in the radio environment. We find that lowering the current observational time and frequency resolutions of LOFAR results in a slight loss of flagging accuracy. At LOFAR's nominal resolution of 0.76 kHz and 1 s, the false-positives rate is about 0.5%. This rate increases approximately linear...

  1. Division x: Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Russ; Chapman, Jessica; Rendong, Nan; Carilli, Christopher; Giovannini, Gabriele; Hills, Richard; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Jonas, Justin; Lazio, Joseph; Morganti, Raffaella; Rubio, Monica; Shastri, Prajval

    This triennium has seen a phenomenal investment in development of observational radio astronomy facilities in all parts of the globe at a scale that significantly impacts the international community. This includes both major enhancements such as the transition from the VLA to the EVLA in North

  2. Educational Broadcasting--Radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Uvais; Grimmett, George

    This manual is intended for those who must conduct educational radio broadcasting training courses in Asia-Pacific countries without the resources of experienced personnel, as well as for individuals to use in self-learning situations. The selection of material has been influenced by the need to use broadcasting resources effectively in programs…

  3. Albanian: Basic Radio Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume has been designed as a supplement to a course in Albanian developed by the Defense Language Institute. The emphasis in this text is placed on radio communications instruction. The volume is divided into five exercises, each of which contains a vocabulary, dictation, and an air-to-ground communications procedure conducted in Albanian…

  4. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU Regulatory Framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. In this paper, it is described how such a fee can be determined for the purpose of licence renewal or extension.

  5. Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Dyakov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to the required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  6. Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Rahimov, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about the Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year, a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to their required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  7. Dust tori in radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wolk, G.; Barthel, P. D.; Peletier, R. F.; Pel, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the quasar - radio galaxy unification scenario and detect dust tori within radio galaxies of various types. Methods: Using VISIR on the VLT, we acquired sub-arcsecond (~0.40 arcsec) resolution N-band images, at a wavelength of 11.85 μm, of the nuclei of a sample of 27 radio gala

  8. Extragalactic radio continuum surveys and the transformation of radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.

    2017-10-01

    Next-generation radio surveys are about to transform radio astronomy by discovering and studying tens of millions of previously unknown radio sources. These surveys will provide fresh insights for understanding the evolution of galaxies, measuring the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate, and rivalling traditional techniques in the measurement of fundamental cosmological parameters. By observing a new volume of observational parameter space, they are also likely to discover unexpected phenomena. This Review traces the evolution of extragalactic radio continuum surveys from the earliest days of radio astronomy to the present, and identifies the challenges that must be overcome to achieve this transformational change.

  9. INOVASI RADIO KAMPUS (RANCANG BANGUN RADIO UDINUS DENGAN INOVASI TEKNOLOGI @RADIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellia Shinta Sari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK memaksa industri penyiaran untuk ikut menyesuaikan diri. Radio konvensional bisa jadi akan tertinggal jika tidak melakukan inovasi teknologi yang ada. Begitu juga dengan radio kampus, yang keberadaannya sangat dibutuhkan sebagai wadah kreativitas dan sarana pembelajaran di sebuah universitas, apalagi yang memiliki program studi penyiaran. Radio kampus Suara Dian yang masih konvensional sehingga hampir kehilangan eksistensinya harus segera dibenahi dan dihidupkan kembali dengan mengikuti perkembangan teknologi di era konvergensi. Metode Inovasi teknologi yang bisa dilakukan adalah dengan menggunakan teknologi @Radio Streaming, yang bukan sekedar streaming, tapi juga optimalisasi teknologi yang terintegrasi dinamis melalui RISE (Radio Broadcasting Integrated System. Dengan berbagai fitur unggul dari inovasi teknologi tersebut, maka diharapkan Radio kampus Udinus ”Suara Dian” dapat kembali hidup, berkembang dan lebih kompetitif ditengah industri penyiaran Radio. Kata kunci : radio, kampus, konvergensi, streaming.

  10. The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2013-05-01

    Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

  11. Internal Model of Commercial Bank as an Instrument for Measuring Credit Risk of the Borrower in Relation to Financial Performance (Credit Scoring and Bankruptcy Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belás Jaroslav

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks generally use different methods and procedures for managing credit risk. The internal rating method in which the client has an important position in the process of granting credit provides a comprehensive assessment of client creditworthiness. The aim of this article is to analyze selected theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of internal rating models of commercial banks within the context of models that measures financial performance and to make a comparison of results of real - rating models which are used in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The results of the chosen credit scoring and bankruptcy methods on selected companies from segments of small and medium-sized companies are presented.

  12. Bankruptcy Proceedings and the Violation of Shareholders’ Rights in the Context of Special Legal Protection Conferred by Copyright Law in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Popescu-Cruceru

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Insolvency law creates a privileged position of the creditor, which is provided with a lever to manipulate the property while the debtor can deprive shareholders of the wording of any application or appeal, and thus violating the management of property rights, arising from the right ownership’ on the social shares. The lack of Romanian legislation gives no possibility of the shareholder to protect his property rights in case the company loses its legal personality while it still has assets with a non-concluded legal regime until the bankruptcy procedure is closed. Therefore, as the same problem appears in case a company which acts as a shareholder in another legal entity lose its legal personality, it has to give effectiveness to the related civil norms of inheritance, other than the remaining assets will remain without owner.

  13. Study of a cohort of Latvian workers having participated to the decontamination of the nuclear site of Chernobyl; Etude d`une cohorte de travailleurs lettons ayant participe a la decontamination du site nucleaire de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viel, J.F. [Faculte de Medecine de Besancon, 25 (France)

    1999-11-01

    In the consequences attributable to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, it is debated whether post-disaster psycho-pathology is related to the perception of the level of contamination or the level of contamination itself. To address this issue, the authors have assessed the association of various exposure mental and psychosomatic distress, on a sample of 1,1412 Latvian liquidators drawn from the State Latvian Chernobyl clean-up workers registry. The outcome considered was a mixed mental/psychosomatic disorder occurring during the time period 1986-1995. Comparisons between subgroups of the cohort, classified according to exposure type or level, were based on the proportional hazards model. Length of work ({>=} 28 days) in a 10 km radius from the reactor (relative risk (RR) = 1.39, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.70), work (> 1 time) on the damaged reactor roof (RR 1.46, 95 percent CI 1.02-2.09), forest work (RR 1.41,95 percent CI 1.19-1.68), and fresh fruits consumption ({>=} 1 time/day) (RR 1.72,95 percent CI 1.12-2.65) are risk factors for mixed mental/ psychosomatic disorder. Construction of the sarcophagus (RR 1.82, 95 percent CI 0.89-3.72), is also associated with this outcome, although non significantly. These findings confirm that some exposure variables represent risk factors for mental disorders and suggest some radiation-induced consequences although surely overweight by stress-related effects. (author)

  14. 最小化破产概率的最优投资%Optimal investment for minimizing the probability of bankruptcy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗琰; 杨招军

    2011-01-01

    本文研究基于最小化破产概率准则的最优投资问题.不同于Merton问题中消费是内生决策变量,本文假设投资者单位时间内必须消费不少于一个固定数量的财富,因而投资者有可能最终破产.在三类不同存贷约束条件下,通过求解模型相对应的Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmen (HJB)方程,都获得了最优投资策略及最优值函数(破产概率)的闭式解.结果表明,最优投资策略为财富的分段线性函数,而存贷约束特别是不允许贷款约束增加了投资者的破产风险.%In this paper we study the problem of optimal investment based on the criteria of minimizing probability of bankruptcy. Different from Merton problem which consumption is a decision variable, there is a positive probability of ruin because investor is forced to pay more than a fixed quantity of money per unit time. Under three different saving and borrowing constraints we get closed-form expressions of the optimal strategy and the optimal value function (ruin probability) by solving the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmen (HJB) equation in each case. The results indicate that the optimal strategy is a piecewise linear function, and Saving-Borrowing constraints, especially borrowing constraints, will increase bankruptcy risk to investor.

  15. Thermal and Nonthermal Radio Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Antonucci, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Radio galaxies were discovered and mapped in the 1950s. The optical spectra showed little or no nuclear continuum light. Some also revealed powerful high ionization emission lines, while others showed at most weak low-ionization emission lines. Quasars were found in the 1960s, and their spectra were dominated by powerful continuum radiation which was subsequently identified with optically thick thermal radiation from copious accretion flows, as well as high ionization narrow emission lines, and powerful broad permitted lines. By the 1980s, data from optical polarization and statistics of the radio properties required that many radio galaxies contain hidden quasar nuclei, hidden from the line of sight by dusty, roughly toroidal gas distributions. The radio galaxies with hidden quasars are referred to as "thermal." Do all radio galaxies have powerful hidden quasars? We now know the answer using arguments based on radio, infrared, optical and X-ray properties. Near the top of the radio luminosity function, for F...

  16. THE AUGER ENGINEERING RADIO ARRAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Weidenhaupt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Auger Engineering Radio Array currently measures MHz radio emission from extensive air showers induced by high energy cosmic rays with 24 self-triggered radio detector stations. Its unique site, embedded into the baseline detectors and extensions of the Pierre Auger Observatory, allows to study air showers in great detail and to calibrate the radio emission. In its final stage AERA will expand to an area of approximately 20km2 to explore the feasibility of the radio-detection technique for future cosmic-ray detectors. The concept and hardware design of AERA as well as strategies to enable self-triggered radio detection are presented. Radio emission mechanisms are discussed based on polarization analysis of the first AERA data.

  17. Radio observations of Planck clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Ruta

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a number of new galaxy clusters have been detected by the ESA-Planck satellite, the South Pole Telescope and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Several of the newly detected clusters are massive, merging systems with disturbed morphology in the X-ray surface brightness. Diffuse radio sources in clusters, called giant radio halos and relics, are direct probes of cosmic rays and magnetic fields in the intra-cluster medium. These radio sources are found to occur mainly in massive merging clusters. Thus, the new SZ-discovered clusters are good candidates to search for new radio halos and relics. We have initiated radio observations of the clusters detected by Planck with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. These observations have already led to the detection of a radio halo in PLCKG171.9-40.7, the first giant halo discovered in one of the new Planck clusters.

  18. Distributed Radio Interferometric Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Yatawatta, Sarod

    2015-01-01

    Increasing data volumes delivered by a new generation of radio interferometers require computationally efficient and robust calibration algorithms. In this paper, we propose distributed calibration as a way of improving both computational cost as well as robustness in calibration. We exploit the data parallelism across frequency that is inherent in radio astronomical observations that are recorded as multiple channels at different frequencies. Moreover, we also exploit the smoothness of the variation of calibration parameters across frequency. Data parallelism enables us to distribute the computing load across a network of compute agents. Smoothness in frequency enables us reformulate calibration as a consensus optimization problem. With this formulation, we enable flow of information between compute agents calibrating data at different frequencies, without actually passing the data, and thereby improving robustness. We present simulation results to show the feasibility as well as the advantages of distribute...

  19. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The recent years have seen breathtaking progress in technology, especially in the receiver and digital technologies relevant for radio astronomy, which has at the same time advanced to shorter wavelengths. This is the updated and completely revised 5th edition of the most used introductory text in radio astronomy. It presents a unified treatment of the entire field from centimeter to sub-millimeter wavelengths. Topics covered include instruments, sensitivity considerations, observational methods and interpretations of the data recorded with both single dishes and interferometers. This text is useful to both students and experienced practicing astronomers. Besides making major updates and additions throughout the book, the authors have re-organized a number of chapters to more clearly separate basic theory from rapidly evolving practical aspects. Further, problem sets have been added at the end of each chapter.

  20. Searches for radio transients

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, N D R

    2011-01-01

    Exploration of the transient Universe is an exciting and fast-emerging area within radio astronomy. Known transient phenomena range in time scales from sub-nanoseconds to years or longer, thus spanning a huge range in time domain and hinting a rich diversity in their underlying physical processes. Transient phenomena are likely locations of explosive or dynamic events and they offer tremendous potential to uncover new physics and astrophysics. A number of upcoming next-generation radio facilities and recent advances in computing and instrumentation have provided a much needed impetus for this field which has remained a relatively uncharted territory for the past several decades. In this paper we focus mainly on the class of phenomena that occur on very short time scales (i.e. from $\\sim$ milliseconds to $\\sim$ nanoseconds), known as {\\it fast transients}, the detections of which involve considerable signal processing and data management challenges, given the high time and frequency resolutions required in the...

  1. Die radio in Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Villiers

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Omvang van radio-uitsendings in en na Afrika. — Redes vir die versnelde tempo van uitbreiding. — Radio as die geskikste massa-kommunikasiemiddel vir Afrika. — Faktore wat die verspreiding bemoeilik. — Skouspelagtige toename in luistertalle.Toe Plinius, wat in die jaar 79 oorlede is, in sy „Historia Naturalis” verklaar het dat daar altyd iets nuuts uit Afrika afkomstig is, kon hy nouliks voorsien het dat die „iets" negentien eeue later in die lug sou setel wat hierdie reuse-vasteland oorspan — ’n Babelse spraakverwarring en ’n ongekende, verbete woorde-oorlog in die etergolwe, onder meer daarop bereken om die harte en hoofde van derduisendes te verower.

  2. Radio frequency ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Shen Guan Ren; Gao Fu; LiuNaiYi

    2001-01-01

    The study on Radio Frequency Ion Source is mainly introduced, which is used for CIAE 600kV ns Pulse Neutron Generator; and obtained result is also presented. The RF ion source consists of a diameter phi 25 mm, length 200 mm, coefficient of expansion =3.5 mA, beam current on target >=1.5 mA, beam spot =100 h.

  3. Analysis of the Evolution for the Main Economic and Financial Indicators and the Risk of Bankruptcy for a Company who is the most Modern Maritime - River Port on the Danube, in the Period 2009-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Pripoaie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the evolution for the main economic and financial indicators and the risk of bankruptcy for a company who is the most modern maritime - river port on the Danube, in the period 2009-2013. The evolution of the main economic and financial indicators in the last years 2009- 2013 is very dramatic, because Net profit margin (% decreased from 65.76% in 2009 at 9.93% in 2013 and after tax ROE (Return on Equity decreased from 6.69% in 2009 at 2.93% in 2013, so less than half. Bankruptcy risk has always been very important both for investors, for company managers, and for banking institutions and if this intensifies then it becomes a warning for them. Regression models can be used to explain relationships among economic and financial indicators.

  4. Compact radio cores in radio-quiet AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Alessandro; Norris, Ray P; Giovannini, Gabriele; Spitler, Lee R

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of radio emission in radio-quiet (RQ) active galactic nuclei (AGN) is still debated and might arise from the central AGN, from star formation activity in the host, or from either of these sources. A direct detection of compact and bright radio cores embedded in sources that are classified as RQ can unambiguously determine whether a central AGN significantly contributes to the radio emission. We search for compact, high-surface-brightness radio cores in RQ AGNs that are caused unambiguously by AGN activity. We used the Australian Long Baseline Array to search for compact radio cores in four RQ AGNs located in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS). We also targeted four radio-loud (RL) AGNs as a control sample. We detected compact and bright radio cores in two AGNs that are classified as RQ and in one that is classified as RL. Two RL AGNs were not imaged because the quality of the observations was too poor. We report on a first direct evidence of radio cores in RQ AGNs at cosmological reds...

  5. Latvian advertising industry expects growth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Läti Reklaami Assotsiatsiooni (LRA) aastakonverentsil arutati reklaamitööstuse arengusuundi. Balti reklaamiturule prognoositakse suurt kasvu, kuna praegu kulutatakse kõigest 33 eurot inimese kohta, mis on kümme korda vähem kui näiteks Suurbritannias või Iirimaal

  6. Latvian advertising industry expects growth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Läti Reklaami Assotsiatsiooni (LRA) aastakonverentsil arutati reklaamitööstuse arengusuundi. Balti reklaamiturule prognoositakse suurt kasvu, kuna praegu kulutatakse kõigest 33 eurot inimese kohta, mis on kümme korda vähem kui näiteks Suurbritannias või Iirimaal

  7. Radio emision from supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubner, G.

    2016-06-01

    The vast majority of supernova remnants (SNRs) in our Galaxy and nearby galaxies have been discovered through radio observations, and only a very small number of the SNRs catalogued in the Milky Way have not been detected in the radio band, or are poorly defined by current radio observations. The study of the radio emission from SNRs is an excellent tool to investigate morphological characteristics, marking the location of shock fronts and contact discontinuities; the presence, orientation and intensity of the magnetic field; the energy spectrum of the emitting particles; and the dynamical consequences of the interaction with the circumstellar and interstellar medium. I will review the present knowledge of different important aspects of radio remnants and their impact on the interstellar gas. Also, new radio studies of the Crab Nebula carried out with the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 3 GHz and with ALMA at 100 GHz, will be presented.

  8. Flexible Adaptation in Cognitive Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shujun

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to software-defined radio and cognitive radio, along with methodologies for applying knowledge representation, semantic web, logic reasoning and artificial intelligence to cognitive radio, enabling autonomous adaptation and flexible signaling. Readers from the wireless communications and software-defined radio communities will use this book as a reference to extend software-defined radio to cognitive radio, using the semantic technology described. Readers with a background in semantic web and artificial intelligence will find in this book the application of semantic web and artificial intelligence technologies to wireless communications. For readers in networks and network management, this book presents a new approach to enable interoperability, collaborative optimization and flexible adaptation of network components. Provides a comprehensive ontology covering the core concepts of wireless communications using a formal language; Presents the technical realization of using a ...

  9. Software defined radio architectures evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Palomo, Alvaro; Villing, Rudi; Farrell, Ronan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an performance evaluation of GNU Radio and OSSIE, two open source Software Defined Radio (SDR) architectures. The two architectures were compared by running implementations of a BPSK waveform utilising a software loopback channel on each. The upper bound full duplex throughput was found to be around 700kbps in both cases, though OSSIE was slightly faster than GNU Radio. CPU and memory loads did not differ significantly.

  10. Uzaybimer Radio Telescope Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbay, R.; Öz, G. K.; Arslan, Ö.; Özeren, F. F.; Küçük, İ.

    2016-12-01

    A 13 meters former NATO radar is being converted into a radio telescope. The radio telescope is controlled by a system which has been developed at UZAYBİMER. The Telescope Control System(TCS) has been designed using modern industrial systems. TCS has been developed in LabView platform in which works Windows embedded OS. The position feedback used on radio telescopes is an industrial EtherCAT standard. ASCOM library is used for astronomical calculations.

  11. LA QUIEBRA SIN BIENES: UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDE EL ANÁLISIS ECONÓMICO DEL DERECHO Bankruptcy with no assets: An approximation from the economic analysis of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Núñez Ojeda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata de la quiebra sin bienes, esto es, de aquellos juicios en donde hay inexistencia o insuficiencia del patrimonio del fallido para afrontar los costos que supone la quiebra. En ambos supuestos, no se justifica económicamente dicho proceso. Sin embargo, nuestra legislación no contempla mecanismos apropiados para impedir el inicio o continuación de un juicio de quiebras en donde se acredite la inexistencia o insuficiencias de activos, los que se promueven, a pesar de sus altos costos, con la única finalidad de satisfacer la venganza de los acreedores, incentivados, estos últimos, por la posibilidad de perseguir criminalmente al deudor.The present paper is about the bankruptcy with no assets, that is, those trials where there is lack or insufficiency of the assets of bankrupt to face the costs of bankruptcy has involved. In both cases, no such process is economically justified. However, our legislation does not provide appropriate mechanisms to prevent the beginning or continuation of a bankruptcies trial in which it is established the absence or insufficiency of assets, which are promoted despite their high costs, with the only purpose of satisfying the revenge of creditors, motivated the latest by the possibility of prosecuting the debtor criminally.

  12. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  13. Internet Resources for Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andernach, H.

    A subjective overview of Internet resources for radio-astronomical information is presented. Basic observing techniques and their implications for the interpretation of publicly available radio data are described, followed by a discussion of existing radio surveys, their level of optical identification, and nomenclature of radio sources. Various collections of source catalogues and databases for integrated radio source parameters are reviewed and compared, as well as the web interfaces to interrogate the current and ongoing large-area surveys. Links to radio observatories with archives of raw (uv-) data are presented, as well as services providing images, both of individual objects or extracts (``cutouts'') from large-scale surveys. While the emphasis is on radio continuum data, a brief list of sites providing spectral line data, and atomic or molecular information is included. The major radio telescopes and surveys under construction or planning are outlined. A summary is given of a search for previously unknown optically bright radio sources, as performed by the students as an exercise, using Internet resources only. Over 200 different links are mentioned and were verified, but despite the attempt to make this report up-to-date, it can only provide a snapshot of the situation as of mid-1998.

  14. Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the design, manufacture, and test of antenna systems. The facility is also used as an electromagnetic compatibility/radio frequency interference...

  15. Military Mail Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bîlbîie Răduţ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural and scientific personalities from the army, military experts and creators of the doctrine have collaborated with the radio from the beginnings of radiophony, the educational role of this new, persuasive communication channel being evident not only for Romania or the Romanian army but also for all the countries that had radiophony services. This happens in the context of the end of the crisis and the start of economic and social development, promoting culture, creating a solid class of peasants with a certain social status, in villages, together with the priest, teacher and gendarme, increasing of the number of subscriptions and development of the Romanian radiophony.

  16. Radio Frequency Identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Rajaraman

    2017-06-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been around sinceearly 2000. Its use has currently become commonplace as thecost of RFID tags has rapidly decreased. RFID tags have alsobecome more ‘intelligent’ with the incorporation of processorsand sensors in them. They are widely used now in manyinnovative ways. RFIDs are an integral part of Internet ofThings (IOT) and IT systems of smart cities. In this article,we introduce the technology used by RFID systems, illustratetheir use in several applications, and discuss problems of privacyand security when they are used.

  17. Evaluation of GNU Radio Platform Enhanced for Hardware Accelerated Radio Design

    OpenAIRE

    Karve, Mrudula Prabhakar

    2010-01-01

    The advent of software radio technology has enabled radio developers to design and imple- ment radios with great ease and flexibility. Software radios are effective in experimentation and development of radio designs. However, they have limitations when it comes to high- speed, high-throughput designs. This limitation can be overcome by introducing a hardware element to the software radio platform. Enhancing GNU Radio for Hardware Accelerated Radio Design project implements suc...

  18. The coexistence of cognitive radio and radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    An increase of the efficiency of spectrum usage requires the development of new communication techniques. Cognitive radio may be one of those new technique, which uses unoccupied frequency bands for communications. This will lead to more power in the bands and therefore an increasing level of Radio

  19. The coexistence of cognitive radio and radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, M.J.; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    An increase of the efficiency of spectrum usage requires the development of new communication techniques. Cognitive radio may be one of those new technique, which uses unoccupied frequency bands for communications. This will lead to more power in the bands and therefore an increasing level of Radio

  20. Actively Exploration on the Effective Way of Humanistic Care in Corporate Bankruptcy:Discussion on the Direction of Public Opinion of Crisis Communication in Sudden Mass Incidents of Corporate Bankruptcy%积极探索人文关怀在企业破产工作中的有效途径——兼论企业破产突发群体性事件中危机传播的舆论导向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪伟; 陈硕

    2012-01-01

    Doing a good job in state-owned enterprises has been paid attention by society, and many state-owned enterprises have embarked on the road of bankruptcy reorganization in northeast old industrial base. For staff, enterprise bankruptcy leads to problems, such as thought fluctuations and antagonism, even causes employees collectively appeal to authorities. Insolvent enterprises should focus on humanistic care and help workers enhance their understanding to ensure the smooth progress of the enterprise bankruptcy.%搞好搞活国有企业一直备受社会瞩目,在东北老工业基地,很多国有企业都走上了破产重组的道路.企业破产对职工来说在不同程度地存在思想波动和对抗情绪等问题,破产工作稍有不慎,就容易引发职工群体上访等事件.本文主要是从破产企业注重人文关怀,帮助职工提高思想认识,确保企业破产的顺利进行.

  1. Radio Quiet AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Czerny, B; Karas, V; Ponti, G

    2005-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei are powered by accretion onto massive black holes. Although radio-quiet objects are not as spectacular sources of very high energy photons as radio-loud ones this class of objects also represents a challenge for modeling high energy processes close to a black hole. Both a hot optically thin plasma and a cooler optically thick accretion disk are usually thought to be present in the vicinity of a black hole although the details of the accretion flow are still under discussion. The role of the disk seems to decrease with a drop in the Eddington ratio: in sources like quasars and Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies disk flow dominates while in Seyfert galaxies the disk retreats, and in sources like LINERS or Sgr A* a disk is most likely absent. Shocks and reconnections are possibly taking place in an inner hot flow and in the magnetic corona above the cold disk. Uncollimated outflow is also present and it may carry significant fraction of available mass and energy.

  2. Radio astronomy from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woan, G.

    2011-04-01

    At frequencies below about 30 MHz, radio astronomy becomes increasingly difficult from the Earth's surface, mainly due to a combination of poor ionospheric seeing and strong terrestrial interference. The obvious move is to space, either as free-flying spacecraft or with a telescope located somewhere on the Moon. All the major space agencies have a renewed interest in the Moon as a site for exploration and science, and low-frequency radio astronomy is probably the strongest of the astronomical objectives put forward in these programmes. Although the Sun is a strong source of interference in extra-solar system work, it is also a prime target for study in itself. A constellation of satellites (as proposed for the SIRA mission) would be able to image both the Sun and the inner heliosphere over the entire low-frequency band. Here we investigate some of the advantages and limitations of astronomy at these very low frequencies, using space- and lunar-based antennas.

  3. 78 FR 32165 - Commercial Radio Operators; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 0 Commercial Radio Operators; Correction AGENCY: Federal Communication Commission...) Administers the Commission's commercial radio operator program (part 13 of this chapter); the Commission's... rules concerning radio operator licenses for maritime and aviation in order to reduce...

  4. Radio Relics in Cosmological Simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Hoeft; S. E. Nuza; S. Gottlöber; R. J. van Weeren; H. J. A. Röttgering; M. Brüggen

    2011-12-01

    Radio relics have been discovered in many galaxy clusters. They are believed to trace shock fronts induced by cluster mergers. Cosmological simulations allow us to study merger shocks in detail since the intra-cluster medium is heated by shock dissipation. Using high resolution cosmological simulations, identifying shock fronts and applying a parametric model for the radio emission allows us to simulate the formation of radio relics. We analyze a simulated shock front in detail. We find a rather broad Mach number distribution. The Mach number affects strongly the number density of relativistic electrons in the downstream area, hence, the radio luminosity varies significantly across the shock surface. The abundance of radio relics can be modeled with the help of the radio power probability distribution which aims at predicting radio relic number counts. Since the actual electron acceleration efficiency is not known, predictions for the number counts need to be normalized by the observed number of radio relics. For the characteristics of upcoming low frequency surveys we find that about thousand relics are awaiting discovery.

  5. Tuning in to pavement radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a phenomenon known all over Africa, for which there is no really satisfactory term in English but which is summed up in the French term 'radio trottoir', literally 'pavement radio'. It may be defined as the popular and unofficial discussion of current affairs in Africa,

  6. Cognitive Radio for Emergency Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2006-01-01

    In the scope of the Adaptive Ad-hoc Freeband (AAF) project, an emergency network built on top of Cognitive Radio is proposed to alleviate the spectrum shortage problem which is the major limitation for emergency networks. Cognitive Radio has been proposed as a promising technology to solve todayâ?~B

  7. Radio Loud AGNs are Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaberge, Marco; Lotz, Jennifer; Norman, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We measure the merger fraction of Type 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei at z>1 using new samples. The objects have HST images taken with WFC3 in the IR channel. These samples are compared to the 3CR sample of radio galaxies at z>1 and to a sample of non-active galaxies. We also consider lower redshift radio galaxies with HST observations and previous generation instruments (NICMOS and WFPC2). The full sample spans an unprecedented range in both redshift and AGN luminosity. We perform statistical tests to determine whether the different samples are differently associated with mergers. We find that all (92%) radio-loud galaxies at z>1 are associated with recent or ongoing merger events. Among the radio-loud population there is no evidence for any dependence of the merger fraction on either redshift or AGN power. For the matched radio-quiet samples, only 38% are merging systems. The merger fraction for the sample of non-active galaxies at z>1 is indistinguishable from radio-quiet objects. This...

  8. Relics of Double Radio Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Dwarakanath, K S

    2009-01-01

    We have formed a new sample which consists of extended extragalactic radio sources without obvious active galactic nuclei (AGN) in them. Most of these sources appear to be dead double radio sources. These sources with steep spectra ($\\alpha < $ -1.8; S $\\propto \

  9. Cognitive Radio for Emergency Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Qiwei; Kokkeler, A.B.J.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the scope of the Adaptive Ad-hoc Freeband (AAF) project, an emergency network built on top of Cognitive Radio is proposed to alleviate the spectrum shortage problem which is the major limitation for emergency networks. Cognitive Radio has been proposed as a promising technology to solve todayâ?~B

  10. The Radio Phenomenon in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faenza, Roberto

    One in a series of studies of experiments in new audiovisual techniques in Europe and the situations in some member countries, this paper traces the development of radio in Italy. Opposing views about radio broadcasting (public monopoly vs. freedom of broadcasting) are examined, and the various political and legal aspects of communications in…

  11. Radio outburst of BL Lacertae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, C. S.; Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Giroletti, M.; Orienti, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Bach, U.

    2013-04-01

    We report on extremely high radio flux of BL Lacertae at 43 and 8 GHz. Observations at 43 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Noto (Italy) revealed a flux density of 10.5 +/- 0.2 Jy on 2013 April 10.65, while observations at 8 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Medicina (Italy) detected a flux density of 8.2 +/- 0.7 Jy on April 12.22. These extremely high radio fluxes show that the radio activity likely correlated to the strong optical, near-infrared, and gamma-ray activity of 2011-2012 (see ATels #4028, #4031, #4155, #4271, #4277, #4349, #4565, #4600), and X-ray activity of late 2012 (ATels #4557, #4627), is far to be exhausted.

  12. Radio Emission from Globular Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Radio emission of globular clusters is studied by analyzing the VLA radio survey data of the NVSS and FIRST. We find that 13 clusters have radio sources within their half-mass radii of clusters. Sources detected previously in NGC 7078and NGC 6440 are identified. Pulsars in NGC 6121, NGC 6440 and NGC 7078cannot be detected because of the insufficient survey sensitivity and resolution.There may be a pulsar in the core of Terzan 1. The nature of the extended radio source near the core of NGC 6440 remains unclear. In the core of a globular cluster,there may be many neutron stars or an intermediate mass black hole, but this cannot be clarified with the current radio observations.

  13. CONSTRAINING RADIO EMISSION FROM MAGNETARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, P.; Kaspi, V. M.; Dib, R. [Department of Physics, Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Champion, D. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Hessels, J. W. T., E-mail: plazar@physics.mcgill.ca [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2012-01-10

    We report on radio observations of five magnetars and two magnetar candidates carried out at 1950 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope in 2006-2007. The data from these observations were searched for periodic emission and bright single pulses. Also, monitoring observations of magnetar 4U 0142+61 following its 2006 X-ray bursts were obtained. No radio emission was detected for any of our targets. The non-detections allow us to place luminosity upper limits of L{sub 1950} {approx}< 1.60 mJy kpc{sup 2} for periodic emission and L{sub 1950,single} {approx}< 7.6 Jy kpc{sup 2} for single pulse emission. These are the most stringent limits yet for the magnetars observed. The resulting luminosity upper limits together with previous results are discussed, as is the importance of further radio observations of radio-loud and radio-quiet magnetars.

  14. Constraining Radio Emission from Magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarus, Patrick; Champion, David J; Hessels, Jason W T; Dib, Rim

    2011-01-01

    We report on radio observations of five magnetars and two magnetar candidates carried out at 1950 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope in 2006-2007. The data from these observations were searched for periodic emission and bright single pulses. Also, monitoring observations of magnetar 4U0142+61 following its 2006 X-ray bursts were obtained. No radio emission was detected was detected for any of our targets. The non-detections allow us to place luminosity upper limits (at 1950 MHz) of approximately L < 1.60 mJy kpc^2 for periodic emission and L < 7.6 Jy kpc^2 for single pulse emission. These are the most stringent limits yet for the magnetars observed. The resulting luminosity upper limits together with previous results are discussed, as is the importance of further radio observations of radio-loud and radio-quiet magnetars.

  15. Radio propagation measurement and channel modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Salous, Sana

    2013-01-01

    While there are numerous books describing modern wireless communication systems that contain overviews of radio propagation and radio channel modelling, there are none that contain detailed information on the design, implementation and calibration of radio channel measurement equipment, the planning of experiments and the in depth analysis of measured data. The book would begin with an explanation of the fundamentals of radio wave propagation and progress through a series of topics, including the measurement of radio channel characteristics, radio channel sounders, measurement strategies

  16. CURIE: Cubesat Radio Interferometry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundkvist, D. J.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Bain, H. M.; Bale, S. D.; Bonnell, J. W.; Hurford, G. J.; Maruca, B.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Pulupa, M.

    2016-12-01

    The CUbesat Radio Interferometry Experiment (CURIE) is a proposed two-element radio interferometer, based on proven and developed digital radio receivers and designed to fit within a Cubesat platform. CURIE will launch as a 6U Cubesat and then separate into two 3U Cubesats once in orbit. CURIE measures radio waves from 0.1-19MHz, which must be measured from space, as those frequencies fall below the cutoff imposed by Earth's ionosphere. The principal science objective for CURIE is to use radio interferometry to study radio burst emissions from solar eruptive events such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the inner heliosphere, providing observations important for our understanding of the heliospheric space weather environment. The influence of space weather can be felt at Earth and other planets, as radiation levels increase and lead to auroral activity and geomagnetic effects. CURIE will be able to determine the location and size of radio burst source regions and then to track their movement outward from the Sun. In addition to the primary objective CURIE will measure the gradients of the local ionospheric density and electron temperature on the spatial scale of a few kilometers, as well as create an improved map of the radio sky at these unexplored frequencies. A space based radio interferometry observatory has long been envisioned, in orbit around the Earth or the Moon, or on the far side of the Moon. Beyond its important science objectives, CURIE will prove that the concept of a dedicated space-based interferometer can be realized by using relatively cheap Cubesats. CURIE will therefore not only provide new important science results but also serve as a pathfinder in the development of new space-based radio observation techniques for helio- and astro-physics.

  17. The faint radio sky: radio astronomy becomes mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Radio astronomy has changed. For years it studied relatively rare sources, which emit mostly non-thermal radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. radio quasars and radio galaxies. Now, it is reaching such faint flux densities that it detects mainly star-forming galaxies and the more common radio-quiet active galactic nuclei. These sources make up the bulk of the extragalactic sky, which has been studied for decades in the infrared, optical, and X-ray bands. I follow the transformation of radio astronomy by reviewing the main components of the radio sky at the bright and faint ends, the issue of their proper classification, their number counts, luminosity functions, and evolution. The overall "big picture" astrophysical implications of these results, and their relevance for a number of hot topics in extragalactic astronomy, are also discussed. The future prospects of the faint radio sky are very bright, as we will soon be flooded with survey data. This review should be useful to all extragalactic astronomers, irrespective of their favourite electromagnetic band(s), and even stellar astronomers might find it somewhat gratifying.

  18. A Radio Astronomy Science Education Partnership - GAVRT and Radio JOVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C. A.; Thieman, J. R.; Bunnell, K.; Soholt, G.

    2009-12-01

    The planet Jupiter provides an excellent subject to educate, engage, and inspire students and teachers to learn science. The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http://www.lewiscenter.org/gavrt) and The Radio JOVE project (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) each have a long history of allowing students and teachers to interact with scientists and real radio telescopes. The upcoming Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) allows both GAVRT and Radio JOVE to combine efforts and engage with the NASA Juno mission, thus increasing the excitement and learning potential for teachers, students, and the general public. Teachers can attend workshops for training to operate a 34-meter radio telescope and/or build their own simple radio telescope, both of which can be used directly in the classroom. We will overview some classroom activities and highlight some teacher-student experiences. In addition, we will update our efforts on greater Web-based control of the radio telescopes, as well as highlight our upcoming workshops to allow better access for teachers in different parts of the Country.

  19. The faint radio sky: radio astronomy becomes mainstream

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Radio astronomy has changed. For years it studied relatively rare sources, which emit mostly non-thermal radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. radio quasars and radio galaxies. Now it is reaching such faint flux densities that it detects mainly star-forming galaxies and the more common radio-quiet active galactic nuclei. These sources make up the bulk of the extragalactic sky, which has been studied for decades in the infrared, optical, and X-ray bands. I follow the transformation of radio astronomy by reviewing the main components of the radio sky at the bright and faint ends, the issue of their proper classification, their number counts, luminosity functions, and evolution. The overall "big picture" astrophysical implications of these results, and their relevance for a number of hot topics in extragalactic astronomy, are also discussed. The future prospects of the faint radio sky are very bright, as we will soon be flooded with survey data. This review should be useful to all extragalac...

  20. The Radio Language Arts Project: adapting the radio mathematics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P R

    1985-01-01

    Kenya's Radio Language Arts Project, directed by the Academy for Educational Development in cooperation with the Kenya Institute of Education in 1980-85, sought to teach English to rural school children in grades 1-3 through use of an intensive, radio-based instructional system. Daily 1/2 hour lessons are broadcast throughout the school year and supported by teachers and print materials. The project further was aimed at testing the feasibility of adaptation of the successful Nicaraguan Radio Math Project to a new subject area. Difficulties were encountered in articulating a language curriculum with the precision required for a media-based instructional system. Also a challenge was defining the acceptable regional standard for pronunciation and grammar; British English was finally selected. An important modification of the Radio Math model concerned the role of the teacher. While Radio Math sought to reduce the teacher's responsibilities during the broadcast, Radio Language Arts teachers played an important instructional role during the English lesson broadcasts by providing translation and checks on work. Evaluations of the Radio language Arts Project suggest significant gains in speaking, listening, and reading skills as well as high levels of satisfaction on the part of parents and teachers.

  1. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  2. Correlation radio range finder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorochan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In work widely known methods of range measuring are short characterized. The basic attention is given features of signal processing in a correlation method of range measuring. The signal with angular modulation with one-voice-frequency fluctuation is used as a probing signal. The absence of Doppler effect on the formation of the correlation integral, the frequency instability of the transmitter, the phase change on reflection from the target is presented. It is noticed that the result of signal processing in the range measuring instrument is reduced to formation on an exit one-voice-frequency harmonious fluctuation equal to modulating frequency that provides high characteristics of a radio range finder.

  3. MUSIC RADIO-JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubovtceva Ludmila I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on years of practical experience, the author highlights the main radio genres in which music correspondent, music reviewer, music commentator, and music leading and a disc jockey work. Theoretical principles of their creative activities are analyzed in common journalistic genres, such as interview, reportage, talk show, live broadcast, radiofilm, as well as specialized genres like concert on demand and music competition. Journalist’ speech is seen as a logical element, the incoming with music in art-structural relationships. However, it does not become the predominant sound layer and aims to harmonious correlation or local penetration into music opus. In addition, important links in music journalism are defined the auxiliary "offscreen" editor's job and keeping the original sound archive. The author cites a number of own work examples on the air.

  4. Teaching radio astronomy with Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bhal Chandra

    A simple, easy to build and portable radio telescope, called Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT), has been developed by the Radio Physics Laboratory (RPL), a radio astronomy teaching unit associated with the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (TIFR) and Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), which are two premier astronomy institutes in India. ASRT consists of off-the-shelf available Direct to Home television dishes and is easy to assemble. Our design is scalable from simple very low cost telescope to more complex yet moderately costing instrument. ASRT provides a platform for demonstrating radio physics concepts through simple hands-on experiment as well as for carrying out solar monitoring by college/University students. The presentation will highlight the concept of ASRT and the different experiments that can be carried out using it. The solar monitoring observations will be discussed along-with details of methods for calibrating these measurements. The pedagogical usefulness of ASRT in introducing undergraduatephysics students to astrophysics, measurements and analysis methods used in radio astronomy will also be discussed. Use of ASRT in the last three years in the programs of RPL, namely the annual Radio Astronomy Winter School for College students (RAWSC) and Pulsar Observing for Students (POS) is also presented. This year a new program was initiated to form a virtual group of an ASRT community, which will not only share their measurements, but also think of improving the pedagogical usefulness of ASRT by innovative experiments. This initiative is presented with the best practices drawn from our experience in using ASRT as a tool for student training in space sciences. The talk will also point out future ideas in involving a larger body of students in simple radio astronomy experiments with the ASRT, which RPL is likely to nucleate as part of its mandate.

  5. South African Radio League Introduction to Amateur Radio: A study guide for the Radio Amateur Examination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available recognition of amateur radio licences. South African radio amateurs can exercise their privileges in more than 80 countries and territories with minimal paperwork. In exchange, we have an obligation to ensure that all licence holders possess a minimum level...

  6. Bankruptcy Prediction Using the Altman Z-score Model in Oman: A Case Study of Raysut Cement Company SAOG and its subsidiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial health is of great concern for a business firm. For measuring the financial health of a business firm, there are lots of techniques available. However, Altman’s Z-score has been proven to be a reliable tool. This model envisages predicting the possibilities of bankruptcy of manufacturing organization. Multiple discriminate analyses (MDA are useful tools in such situations. The use of MDA helps to consolidate the effect of all ratios. Keeping the above view in mind, the “Z score” analysis has been adopted to monitor the financial health of the company. The current study has been conducted to assess the financial health of a firm namely Raysut Cement Company SAOG and its subsidiaries in Oman. This study was based on the secondary data which was obtained from the published sources i.e. Annual report for the period of 8 years (2007 to 2014. The study revealed that the Company Raysut Cement Company SAOG and its subsidiaries are financially sound as they have higher Z score than the benchmark (2.99 except in some years of study. The findings of the study may be useful for the managers to take financial decision, the stockholders to choose investment options and others to look after their interest in the concerned cement manufacturers of the country.

  7. 破产重整中出资人权益调整之思考%Consideration of Equity Adjustments of Investors in Bankruptcy Reorganization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋琪

    2012-01-01

    破产重整中,出资人的股东权利和正常运营状态下有所不同,应适当保护中小股东的股权,尊重出资人和债权人的意思自治。赋予出资人在重整程序中享有重整申请权,重整计划草案表决权,重整相关事宜知情权和重整监督权。%In bankruptcy reorganization,the rights of shareholders of investors are different from those in normal operating condition,so the equity of minority shareholders should be protected appropriately,and autonomy should be respected according to investors and creditors.The investors should be given the application rights to restructure,the vote rights for restructuring draft plan,the right to know related matters of restructuring,and the right of supervision for restructuring.

  8. A Study on the Factoring Decisions When Bankruptcy Costs Exist%存在破产成本的保理决策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓建; 沈厚才; 李娟; 陈一凡

    2013-01-01

    基于由供应商、保理商和零售商组成的供应链,建立了无追索权保理和有追索权保理的决策模型.在这些模型的基础上,求解最优的保理折扣率,并给出分散决策和集中决策模式下的保理选择算法.最后,通过算例和数值分析研究了零售商的破产管理成本和运作资金对保理折扣率的影响,以及供应商和保理商对保理的选择.%In this paper,decision models of non-recourse factoring and recourse factoring are developed respectively in a supply chain which includes a supplier,a factor and a retailer.Base on the models,the optimal discount rate of factoring is found,and then the factoring choice scenarios in the decentralized decision-making mode and the centralized decision-making mode are given.Finally,it studies the influence of the retailer's administrative cost of bankruptcy and the retailer's working capital on the discount rate of factoring as well as the factoring choice of the supplier and the factor by numerical example and sensitivity analysis.

  9. Radio Astronomy Explorer /RAE/. I - Observations of terrestrial radio noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.; Stone, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial radio noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 dB and more above cosmic noise background, on frequencies above the F-layer critical frequency.

  10. Dust tori in radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    van der Wolk, G; Peletier, R F; Pel, J W

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the quasar - radio galaxy unification scenario and determine the presence of dust tori among radio galaxies of various types. Actively accreting supermassive black holes in the centres of radio galaxies may be uncovered through their dust tori reradiating the optical and ultraviolet continuum in mid-infrared bands. Using VISIR on the VLT, we have obtained sub-arcsecond (~0.40") resolution N-band images, at a wavelength of 11.85 micron, of the nuclei of a sample of 27 radio galaxies of four types in the redshift range z=0.006-0.156. The sample consists of 8 edge-darkened, low-power Fanaroff-Riley class I (FR-I) radio galaxies, 6 edge-brightened, class II (FR-II) radio galaxies displaying low-excitation optical emission, 7 FR-IIs displaying high-excitation optical emission, and 6 FR-II broad emission line radio galaxies. Out of the sample of 27 objects, 10 nuclei are detected and several have constraining non-detections at 10 sigma sensitivities of 7 mJy. On the basis of the core ...

  11. Radio emission in Mercury magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, J.; Reville, V.; Brun, A. S.; Pantellini, F.; Zarka, P.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Active stars possess magnetized wind that has a direct impact on planets that can lead to radio emission. Mercury is a good test case to study the effect of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on radio emission driven in the planet magnetosphere. Such studies could be used as proxies to characterize the magnetic field topology and intensity of exoplanets. Aims: The aim of this study is to quantify the radio emission in the Hermean magnetosphere. Methods: We use the magnetohydrodynamic code PLUTO in spherical coordinates with an axisymmetric multipolar expansion for the Hermean magnetic field, to analyze the effect of the IMF orientation and intensity, as well as the hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density and temperature), on the net power dissipated on the Hermean day and night side. We apply the formalism derived by Zarka et al. (2001, Astrophys. Space Sci., 277, 293), Zarka (2007, Planet. Space Sci., 55, 598) to infer the radio emission level from the net dissipated power. We perform a set of simulations with different hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind, IMF orientations and intensities, that allow us to calculate the dissipated power distribution and infer the existence of radio emission hot spots on the planet day side, and to calculate the integrated radio emission of the Hermean magnetosphere. Results: The obtained radio emission distribution of dissipated power is determined by the IMF orientation (associated with the reconnection regions in the magnetosphere), although the radio emission strength is dependent on the IMF intensity and solar wind hydro parameters. The calculated total radio emission level is in agreement with the one estimated in Zarka et al. (2001, Astrophys. Space Sci., 277, 293) , between 5 × 105 and 2 × 106 W.

  12. Technology, Empowerment and Community Radio

    OpenAIRE

    Scifo, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    This article will provide an overview of the conceptual contours of community media and community radio, highlighting some of the key questions shaping the debate and, with the help of a case study, show how digital media in the context of community radio can help local groups to get a voice in their local media systems, and how a university-based radio station, and its students and volunteers, play an important role for a more diverse and vibrant media content available in their area.

  13. Radio Search For Extrasolar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarka, P.

    Theoretical justification and ongoing observational efforts in view of detecting radio emissions from extrasolar planets will be presented. On the "prediction" side, a heuris- tic scaling law has been established relating the radio output of any magnetized flow- obstacle system to the incident magnetic energy flux on the obstacle. Its confirmation by the observation of radio emission from extrasolar planets would help to understand the energy budget of such a system. On the "detection" side, specific procedures have been developed for interference mitigation and weak burst detection.

  14. Advanced Radio Resource Management for Multi Antenna Packet Radio Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Nonchev; Mikko Valkama

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose fairness-oriented packet scheduling (PS) schemes with power-efficientcontrol mechanism for future packet radio systems. In general, the radio resource managementfunctionality plays an important role in new OFDMA based networks. The control of the networkresource division among the users is performed by packet scheduling functionality based on maximizingcell coverage and capacity satisfying, and certain quality of service requirements. Moreover, multiantennatransmit-r...

  15. Recent Radio Monitoring of Microquasars with RATAN-600 Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Trushkin, S A; Kotani, T; Nizhelskij, N A; Namiki, M; Tsuboi, M; Voitsik, P A

    2007-01-01

    We report about the multi-frequency (1-30 GHz) daily monitoring of the radio flux variability of the three microquasars: SS433, GRS1915+105 and Cyg X-3 during the period from September 2005 to May 2006. 1. We detected clear correlation of the flaring radio fluxes and X-rays 'spikes' at 2-12 keV emission detected in RXTE ASM from GRS1915+105 during eight relatively bright (200-600 mJy) radio flares in October 2005. The 1-22 GHz spectra of these flares in maximum were optically thick at frequencies lower 2.3 GHz and optically thin at the higher frequencies. During the radio flares the spectra of the X-ray spikes become softer than those of the quiescent phase. Thus these data indicated the transitions from very high/hard states to high/soft ones during which massive ejections are probably happened. These ejections are visible as the detected radio flares. 2. After of the quiescent radio emission we have detected a drop down of the fluxes (~20 mJy) from Cyg X-3. That is a sign of the following bright flare. Inde...

  16. Radio frequency integrated circuit design for cognitive radio systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fahim, Amr

    2015-01-01

    This book fills a disconnect in the literature between Cognitive Radio systems and a detailed account of the circuit implementation and architectures required to implement such systems.  Throughout the book, requirements and constraints imposed by cognitive radio systems are emphasized when discussing the circuit implementation details.  In addition, this book details several novel concepts that advance state-of-the-art cognitive radio systems.  This is a valuable reference for anybody with background in analog and radio frequency (RF) integrated circuit design, needing to learn more about integrated circuits requirements and implementation for cognitive radio systems. ·         Describes in detail cognitive radio systems, as well as the circuit implementation and architectures required to implement them; ·         Serves as an excellent reference to state-of-the-art wideband transceiver design; ·         Emphasizes practical requirements and constraints imposed by cognitive radi...

  17. Innovativeness and the Public Radio Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wenmouth, Jr.; Krugman, Dean M.

    1981-01-01

    A public radio audience was surveyed to test the hypothesis that a relationship exists between innovativeness and public radio listening. Rather than supporting the hypothesis, findings indicate that the entertainment and information elements of public radio are the primary attractions for the public radio audience. (MER)

  18. On the evaluation of Web Radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, A.N.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    We develop an evaluation method for Web radio, and perform it to see what we can be learnt about seven prominent Web radio sites. We also evaluate a commercial FM radio station for control purposes. We present a taxonomy of Web radio, and we give our observations and conclusions on this evaluation.

  19. On the evaluation of Web Radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, A.N.; Hartel, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    We develop an evaluation method for Web radio, and perform it to see what we can be learnt about seven prominent Web radio sites. We also evaluate a commercial FM radio station for control purposes. We present a taxonomy of Web radio, and we give our observations and conclusions on this evaluation.

  20. On the evaluation of Web Radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, A.N.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2001-01-01

    We develop an evaluation method for Web radio, and perform it to see what we can be learnt about seven prominent Web radio sites. We also evaluate a commercial FM radio station for control purposes. We present a taxonomy of Web radio, and we give our observations and conclusions on this evaluation.

  1. Reconfigurable, Digital EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The nature of human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars demands a frequency-agile, reconfigurable, durable digital radio delivering telemetry, ranging, voice,...

  2. Reconfigurable, Digital EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AeroAstro proposes to develop a low-power, low-volume and lightweight, state-of-the-art digital radio capable of operating in a wide variety of bands, from VHF...

  3. The Concept of 'Radio Music'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1920s, young composers and musicians turned towards new fields of activity and new media in order to reach a larger audience. In Germany, this effort was part of the movement of Neue Sachlichkeit, and for a short period of time, Radiomusik was considered the ideal means for a democratic......, as discussed by Kurt Weill and Paul Hindemith, was at first greeted with great expectations, but soon a more realistic attitude prevailed. Weill, himself a radio critic as well, composed Der Lindberghflug (1929) as a piece of ‘radio music theatre’, but then changed some of its features in order to turn...... it into a didactical play for amateurs, a so-called Lehrstück. The article will present the concept of ‘radio music’ developed within German Neue Sachlichkeit and discuss the relevance of such a concept for current research in the field of radio and music....

  4. Miniaturized Digital EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bennett Aerospace and Team Partners propose to develop a small, lightweight, and very power-efficient mobile radio for use on the Lunar surface. Our Team will...

  5. RADIO NOISE ADVANCES SEXUAL MATURITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ansistf-lewis

    Supplementary radio noise advances sexual maturity in domestic pullets exposed .... non-stimulatory photoperiod in some way provides a stimulus for initiating rapid gonadal development. However, the ..... Congress, New Delhi, India. Vol II ...

  6. Coherent Radio Emission from Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Dipanjan; Gil, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    We review a physical model where the high brightness temperature of 10$^{25}-10^{30}$ K observed in pulsar radio emission is explained by coherent curvature radiation excited in the relativistic electron-positron plasma in the pulsar magnetosphere.

  7. SETI and International Radio Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, F.

    2010-04-01

    The use of radio in SETI is subject to international rules agreed through the International Telecommunication Union. These are summarised. An opportunity for their revision will arise in 2012. Suggestions may be made.

  8. Radio Implementation of a Testbed For Cognitive Radio Source Localization Using USRPS and GNU Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    pp. 116–130, 2009. [4] R.A. Rashid , M.A. Sarijari, N. Fisal, S.K.S. Yusof and N.H. Mahalin, “Spectrum sensing measurement using GNU Radio and...USRP software radio platform,” in Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Wireless and Mobile Commun., Luxembourg, 2011. [5] R.A. Rashid , M.A. Sarijari, N. Fisal...Sarijari, A. Marwanto, N. Fisal, S.K.S. Yusof and R.A Rashid , “Energy detection sensing based on GNU Radio and USRP: An analysis study,” in Proc

  9. Radio and line transmission 2

    CERN Document Server

    Roddy, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Radio and Line Transmission, Volume 2 gives a detailed treatment of the subject as well as an introduction to additional advanced subject matter. Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins by explaining the radio wave propagation, signal frequencies, and bandwidth. Subsequent chapters describe the transmission lines and cables; the aerials; tuned and coupled circuits; bipolar transistor amplifiers; field-effect transistors and circuits; thermionic valve amplifiers; LC oscillators; the diode detectors and modulators; and the superheterodyne receiver. Other chapters explore noise and interfere

  10. Radio interferometry and satellite tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Kawase, Seiichiro

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide growth of space communications has caused a rapid increase in the number of satellites operating in geostationary orbits, causing overcrowded orbits. This practical resource is designed to help professionals overcome this problem. This timely book provides a solid understanding of the use of radio interferometers for tracking and monitoring satellites in overcrowded environments. Practitioners learn the fundamentals of radio interferometer hardware, including antennas, receiving equipment, signal processing and phase detection, and measurement accuracies. This in-depth volume describ

  11. A zero-power radio receiver.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2004-09-01

    This report describes both a general methodology and some specific examples of passive radio receivers. A passive radio receiver uses no direct electrical power but makes sole use of the power available in the radio spectrum. These radio receivers are suitable as low data-rate receivers or passive alerting devices for standard, high power radio receivers. Some zero-power radio architectures exhibit significant improvements in range with the addition of very low power amplifiers or signal processing electronics. These ultra-low power radios are also discussed and compared to the purely zero-power approaches.

  12. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Hales, C. A.; Seymour, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Huynh, M. T.; Lenc, E.; Mao, M. Y.

    2011-02-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects that have flux densities of several mJy at 1.4 GHz, but that are invisible at 3.6 μm when using sensitive Spitzer observations with μJy sensitivities. Their nature is unclear and difficult to investigate since they are only visible in the radio. Aims: High-resolution radio images and comprehensive spectral coverage can yield constraints on the emission mechanisms of IFRS and can give hints to similarities with known objects. Methods: We imaged a sample of 17 IFRS at 4.8 GHz and 8.6 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to determine the structures on arcsecond scales. We added radio data from other observing projects and from the literature to obtain broad-band radio spectra. Results: We find that the sources in our sample are either resolved out at the higher frequencies or are compact at resolutions of a few arcsec, which implies that they are smaller than a typical galaxy. The spectra of IFRS are remarkably steep, with a median spectral index of -1.4 and a prominent lack of spectral indices larger than -0.7. We also find that, given the IR non-detections, the ratio of 1.4 GHz flux density to 3.6 μm flux density is very high, and this puts them into the same regime as high-redshift radio galaxies. Conclusions: The evidence that IFRS are predominantly high-redshift sources driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) is strong, even though not all IFRS may be caused by the same phenomenon. Compared to the rare and painstakingly collected high-redshift radio galaxies, IFRS appear to be much more abundant, but less luminous, AGN-driven galaxies at similar cosmological distances.

  13. 论破产法上债务人高管人员民事责任的追究%On prosecution of civil liabilities of debtor's senior managers in bankruptcy law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘培忠; 赵文贵

    2009-01-01

    The Enterprise Bankruptcy Law has designed the regime for debtor's senior managers to bear civil liabilities, while the framework design concerning the prosecution mechanism of civil liabilities is still unclear. How to establish a prosecution mechanism of civil liabilities of debtor's senior managers in line with the purposes of the bankruptcy regime is a substantial issue during the implementation of Enterprise Bankruptcy Law. The realization of the civil liabilities regime of debtor's senior managers depends on the establishment and operation of a relatively well-developed prosecution mechanism of civil liabilities. The focus of the prosecution mechanism of civil liabilities is to determine the subject of prosecution of civil liabilities, the way to realize civil liabilities, and the special hearing proceedings and authorities of the court. Taking steps to clarify and improve the prosecution mechanism of civil liabilities focusing on the subjects of prosecution (debtor's senior managers) and authorities of the court, is the essence and systematic safeguard of realizing the civil liabilities regime of debtor's senior managers in the Enterprise Bankruptcy Law.%设计了债务人高管人员承担民事责任的制度,但有关责任追究机构的框架设计尚不甚清晰.如何建立一个符合破产制度目的的债务人高管人员民事责任追究机制,是在实施过程中所面临的一个现实问题.破产债务人高管人员的民事责任制度的实现有赖于一个较为完善的民事责任追究机制的确立和运行.民事责任追究机制的中心是确定民事责任的追究主体和实现方式以及法院的特殊审理程序与职权.逐步明确和完善以债务人高管人员民事责任追究主体和法院职权为核心的责任追究机制,是实现所设计的债务人高管人员的民事责任制度的核心与制度保障.

  14. On the Shareholders Protection Mechanisms in the Non-bankruptcy Liquidation%非破产清算中股东权利保护的不足与完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏思宇

    2014-01-01

    随着公司制度的日益完善,传统的公司非破产清算中注重对债权人利益保护,兼顾对股东权益进行保护的理念受到挑战。这种“重债权人,轻股东”的观念,既不利于各方利益的平衡制约,也不利于市场经济的蓬勃发展。因此,如何完善公司非破产清算制度,适当弱化对债权人利益的关注,强化对股东,尤其是中小股东权益的关怀,是我们目前更应当去研究的问题。本文通过对我国现行非破产清算法律制度所存在的问题的分析,从解释论层面对股东权利进行了完善和明确,并从立法论层面试图赋予股东在清算阶段的某些权利,以期能更好地保护股东的权利,实现非破产清算过程中各方利益主体的平衡保护。%As the company system has improved steadily, the traditional non-bankruptcy liquidation focuses on the protection of the interests of the creditors, taking into account the concept of protection of shareholders' equity to be challenged. The concept of "creditors, light shareholders" is detrimental to the constraints of the balance of interests, is not conducive to the rapid development of the market economy. Therefore, as to how to improve the company non-bankruptcy liquidation system, the appropriate weakening of concern for the interests of creditors, and how to strengthen the shareholders, especially the care of the interests of minority shareholders, we should study the problem. In this paper, the analysis of the problems in our current legal system of non-bankruptcy liquidation, the shareholders' rights were perfected and clearly explained on the theory level, and attempt to confer certain rights of shareholders in the liquidation phase of the Legislation of level, to better to protect the rights of shareholders, to achieve non-bankruptcy the main balance protection of the interests of all parties in the process of liquidation.

  15. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Middelberg, Enno; Hales, Christopher A; Seymour, Nick; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Huynh, Minh T; Lenc, Emil; Mao, Minnie Y

    2010-01-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects that have flux densities of several mJy at 1.4GHz, but that are invisible at 3.6um when using sensitive Spitzer observations with uJy sensitivities. Their nature is unclear and difficult to investigate since they are only visible in the radio. High-resolution radio images and comprehensive spectral coverage can yield constraints on the emission mechanisms of IFRS and can give hints to similarities with known objects. We imaged a sample of 17 IFRS at 4.8GHz and 8.6GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to determine the structures on arcsecond scales. We added radio data from other observing projects and from the literature to obtain broad-band radio spectra. We find that the sources in our sample are either resolved out at the higher frequencies or are compact at resolutions of a few arcsec, which implies that they are smaller than a typical galaxy. The spectra of IFRS are remarkably steep, with a median spectral index of -1.4 and a prominent lack of spec...

  16. The Excess Radio Background and Fast Radio Transients

    CERN Document Server

    Kehayias, John; Weiler, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years ARCADE 2, combined with older experiments, has detected an additional radio background, measured as a temperature and ranging in frequency from 22 MHz to 10 GHz, not accounted for by known radio sources and the cosmic microwave background. One type of source which has not been considered in the radio background is that of fast transients (those with event times much less than the observing time). We present a simple estimate, and a more detailed calculation, for the contribution of radio transients to the diffuse background. As a timely example, we estimate the contribution from the recently-discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs). Although their contribution is likely 6 or 7 orders of magnitude too small (though there are large uncertainties in FRB parameters) to account for the ARCADE~2 excess, our development is general and so can be applied to any fast transient sources, discovered or yet to be discovered. We estimate parameter values necessary for transient sources to noticeably contrib...

  17. Solar Imaging Radio Array (SIRA): Radio Aperture Synthesis from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowall, R.; Kaiser, M.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2003-05-01

    SIRA, the Solar Imaging Radio Array, will be a constellation of about 16 microsats designed to image radio sources in the solar corona and heliosphere using aperture synthesis techniques. These images will permit the mapping and tracking of CME-driven shocks (type II radio bursts) and solar flare electrons (type III radio bursts) as a function of time from near the sun to 1 AU. Two dimensional imaging of the CME-driven shock front is important for determination of space weather effects of CMEs, whereas imaging of the ubiquitous type III bursts will permit the derivation of density maps in the outer corona and solar wind. This will be the first mission to image the heliosphere (and the celestial sphere) with good angular resolution at frequencies below the ionospheric cutoff ( 10 MHz). The radio images are intrinsically complementary to white-light coronograph data, such as those of SDO, and can play a valuable role in the NASA Living with a Star program.

  18. Radio Halos in future surveys in the radio continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Cassano, R; Norris, Ray P; Roettgering, H J A; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Trasatti, M

    2012-01-01

    Giant radio halos (RH) are Mpc-scale synchrotron sources detected in a significant fraction of massive and merging galaxy clusters.Their statistical properties can be used to discriminate among various models for their origin. Theoretical predictions are important as new radio telescopes are about to begin to survey the sky at low and high frequencies with unprecedented sensitivity. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations to model the formation and evolution of RH in a cosmological framework by assuming that RH are either generated in turbulent merging clusters, or are purely hadronic sources generated in more relaxed clusters, "off-state" halos. The models predict that the luminosity function of RH at high radio luminosities is dominated by the contribution of RH generated in turbulent clusters. The generation of these RH becomes less efficient in less massive systems causing a flattening of the luminosity function at lower luminosities. This flattening is compensated by the contribution of "off-state" RH that ...

  19. IA-Regional-Radio - Social Network for Radio Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziczkowski, Grzegorz; Bougueroua, Lamine; Wegrzyn-Wolska, Katarzyna

    This chapter describes the functions of a system proposed for the music hit recommendation from social network data base. This system carries out the automatic collection, evaluation and rating of music reviewers and the possibility for listeners to rate musical hits and recommendations deduced from auditor's profiles in the form of regional Internet radio. First, the system searches and retrieves probable music reviews from the Internet. Subsequently, the system carries out an evaluation and rating of those reviews. From this list of music hits, the system directly allows notation from our application. Finally, the system automatically creates the record list diffused each day depending on the region, the year season, the day hours and the age of listeners. Our system uses linguistics and statistic methods for classifying music opinions and data mining techniques for recommendation part needed for recorded list creation. The principal task is the creation of popular intelligent radio adaptive on auditor's age and region - IA-Regional-Radio.

  20. Reconfigurable radio systems network architectures and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobucci, Maria Stella

    2013-01-01

    This timely book provides a standards-based view of the development, evolution, techniques and potential future scenarios for the deployment of reconfigurable radio systems.  After an introduction to radiomobile and radio systems deployed in the access network, the book describes cognitive radio concepts and capabilities, which are the basis for reconfigurable radio systems.  The self-organizing network features introduced in 3GPP standards are discussed and IEEE 802.22, the first standard based on cognitive radio, is described. Then the ETSI reconfigurable radio systems functional ar

  1. Unseen cosmos the universe in radio

    CERN Document Server

    Graham-Smith, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Radio telescopes have transformed our understanding of the Universe. Pulsars, quasars, Big Bang cosmology: all are discoveries of the new science of radio astronomy. Here, Francis Graham-Smith describes the birth, development, and maturity of radio astronomy, from the first discovery of cosmic radio waves to its present role as a major part of modern astronomy. Radio is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, covering infra-red, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays, and Graham-Smith explains why it is that radio waves give us a unique view of the Universe. Tracing the development o

  2. The radio properties of bright Seyfert galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuricin, G.; Mardirossian, F.; Mezzetti, M.; Bertotti, G. (Centro Interuniversitario Regionale per l' Astrofisica e la Cosmologia (Italy) Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics (Italy))

    1990-03-01

    The radio properties of a sample of 69 bright spectroscopically selected Seyfert galaxies, which suffers from little bias toward Markarian galaxies with strong UV excess. At variance with most of the earlier results, generally based on galaxy samples which are strongly biased toward the inclusion of Markarian objects, there is no clear evidence of a significant difference in the major radio properties (radio power, radio-to-optical luminosity ratio, radio spectral index and radio size) of type 1 and type 2 Seyferts. The resulting observational scenario appears now to be more consistent than before with the idea that Seyfert 2 galaxies are simply Seyfert 1 obscured objects. 70 refs.

  3. Expected Number Counts of Radio Galaxy Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies may contain radio sources if they still experience successive mergers at present. This has been confirmed by radio observations that about 30% of nearby clusters possess radio halos. We present a theoretical prediction of radio cluster counts using a semi-analytic approach which incorporates the empirical correlation between radio power and dynamical mass of clusters, and the cluster mass function described by the Press-Schechter formalism. The total population of radio clusters over the whole sky and their redshift distribution are given.

  4. Radio-Optical Imaging of ATLBS Survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kshitij Thorat

    2011-12-01

    We present the radio-optical imaging of ATLBS, a sensitive radio survey (Subrahmanyan et al. 2010). The primary aim of the ATLBS survey is to image low-power radio sources which form the bulk of the radio source population to moderately high red-shifts ( ∼ 1.0). The accompanying multiband optical and near infra-red observations provide information about the hosts and environments of the radio sources. We give here details of the imaging of the radio data and optical data for the ATLBS survey.

  5. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  6. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  7. Phenomenology of magnetospheric radio emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T. D.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    Jupiter has now been observed over 24 octaves of the radio spectrum, from about 0.01 MHz to 300,000 MHz. Its radio emissions fill the entire spectral region where interplanetary electromagnetic propagation is possible at wavelengths longer than infrared. Three distinct types of radiation are responsible for this radio spectrum. Thermal emission from the atmosphere accounts for virtually all the radiation at the high frequency end. Synchrotron emission from the trapped high-energy particle belt deep within the inner magnetosphere is the dominant spectral component from about 4000 to 40 MHz. The third class of radiation consists of several distinct components of sporadic low frequency emission below 40 MHz. The decimeter wavelength emission is considered, taking into account the discovery of synchrotron emission, radiation by high-energy electrons in a magnetic field, and the present status of Jovian synchrotron phenomenology. Attention is also given to the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, and emissions at kilometric wavelengths.

  8. An Update on Radio Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Sramek, Richard A.; Weiler, Kurt W.; Montes, Marcos J.; Panagia, Nino

    The radio emission from supernovae (SNe) is nonthermal synchrotron radiation of high brightness temperature, with a ``turn-on'' delay at longer wavelengths, power-law decline after maximum with index beta, and spectral index alpha asymptotically decreasing with time to a final, optically thin value. Radio supernovae (RSNe) are best described by the Chevalier (1982) ``mini-shell'' model, with modifications by Weiler \\etal\\ (1990). RSNe observations provide a valuable probe of the SN circumstellar environment and constraints on progenitor masses. We present a progress report on a number of recent RSNe, as well as on new behavior from RSNe 1979C and 1980K, and on RSNe as potential distance indicators. In particular, we present updated radio light curves for SN 1993J in M81.

  9. Radio Context Awareness and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Reggiani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The context refers to “any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity, where an entity can be a person, place, or physical object.” Radio context awareness is defined as the ability of detecting and estimating a system state or parameter, either globally or concerning one of its components, in a radio system for enhancing performance at the physical, network, or application layers. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of context awareness and the recent advances in the main radio techniques that increase the context awareness and smartness, posing challenges and renewed opportunities to added-value applications in the context of the next generation of wireless networks.

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken Meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Origin at Estonian Retail Level and from Patients with Severe Enteric Infections in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäesaar, M; Kramarenko, T; Meremäe, K; Sõgel, J; Lillenberg, M; Häkkinen, L; Ivanova, M; Kovalenko, K; Hörman, A; Hänninen, M-L; Roasto, M

    2016-03-01

    The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance.

  11. Microsatellite genotyping of chromosome 14q13.2-14q13 in the vicinity of proteasomal gene PSMA6 and association with Graves' disease in the Latvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjakste, Tatjana; Eglite, Jelena; Sochnevs, Arturs; Marga, Mara; Pirags, Valdis; Collan, Yrjö; Sjakste, Nikolajs

    2004-07-01

    The 270-kb chromosome 14q13.2-14q13 region harboring the proteasomal alpha subunit 6 gene PSMA6 was analyzed for polymorphism of five microsatellite repeats in cases/controls and association with Graves' disease. Four novel microsatellite markers were localized to the 14q13.2 region upstream of PSMA6. Dinucleotide repeats HSMS801, HSMS702, HSMS701 were identified in two introns of the gene KIAA0391; the most upstream trinucleotide HSMS602 marker was found in an intron of the C14orf24 gene. A polymorphism study performed on the Latvian population revealed 13 and 14 alleles for HSMS801 and HSMS702, respectively, seven alleles for HSMS701, and four alleles for HSMS602. Heterozygosity analysis revealed that all the four markers obey Hardy-Weinberg distribution. The previously described HSMS006 marker, represented by 12 alleles, is localized in intron 6 of the PSMA6 gene. No significant differences were observed between patients and controls in allele distribution of the HSMS702 and HSMS701 microsatellite repeats. However, the allele frequencies of HSMS006 and HSMS801 were significantly different between Graves' disease and control subjects. The 181- and 185-bp alleles of HSMS006 and the 133-, 143-, and 149-bp alleles of HSMS801 were found more often, but the 189- and 191-bp alleles of HSMS006 were much less frequent in Graves' disease patients compared with the controls. An additional 174-bp allele of the HSMS602 marker, absent in healthy subjects, was found in Graves' disease patients.

  12. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  13. Microwave radio transmission design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    This newly revised second edition provides a current, comprehensive treatment of the subject with a focus on applying practical knowledge to real-world networks. It includes a wealth of important updates, including discussions on backhaul capacity limitations, ethernet over radio, details on the latest cellular radio standards (2.5G, 3G, and 4G). You also learn about recent changes in spectrum management, including the availability of unlicensed bands and new mm band frequencies between 70 and 90 GHz. Additionally, you find more details on the fundamentals of antennas, especially at VHF/UHF le

  14. Intelligent Cognitive Radio Models for Enhancing Future Radio Astronomy Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Abiola Periola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio astronomy organisations desire to optimise the terrestrial radio astronomy observations by mitigating against interference and enhancing angular resolution. Ground telescopes (GTs experience interference from intersatellite links (ISLs. Astronomy source radio signals received by GTs are analysed at the high performance computing (HPC infrastructure. Furthermore, observation limitation conditions prevent GTs from conducting radio astronomy observations all the time, thereby causing low HPC utilisation. This paper proposes mechanisms that protect GTs from ISL interference without permanent prevention of ISL data transmission and enhance angular resolution. The ISL transmits data by taking advantage of similarities in the sequence of observed astronomy sources to increase ISL connection duration. In addition, the paper proposes a mechanism that enhances angular resolution by using reconfigurable earth stations. Furthermore, the paper presents the opportunistic computing scheme (OCS to enhance HPC utilisation. OCS enables the underutilised HPC to be used to train learning algorithms of a cognitive base station. The performances of the three mechanisms are evaluated. Simulations show that the proposed mechanisms protect GTs from ISL interference, enhance angular resolution, and improve HPC utilisation.

  15. Radio access selection in multi-radio access systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgušeski, L.; Litjens, R.; Zhiyi, C.; Nikookar, H.

    2007-01-01

    Future wireless access systems will be characterized by their heterogeneity from technological point of view. It is envisaged that in certain areas end-users will have a choice between various radio accesses (RAs) such as e.g. classical cellular networks (GSM, UMTS, WiMAX, etc), WLAN hot-spots, or o

  16. Cosmic downsizing of powerful radio galaxies to low radio luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Rigby, E E; Best, P N; Rosario, D; Röttgering, H J A

    2015-01-01

    At bright radio powers ($P_{\\rm 1.4 GHz} > 10^{25}$ W/Hz) the space density of the most powerful sources peaks at higher redshift than that of their weaker counterparts. This paper establishes whether this luminosity-dependent evolution persists for sources an order of magnitude fainter than those previously studied, by measuring the steep--spectrum radio luminosity function (RLF) across the range $10^{24} 10^{26}$ W/Hz the redshift of the peak space density increases with luminosity, whilst at lower radio luminosities the position of the peak remains constant within the uncertainties. This `cosmic downsizing' behaviour is found to be similar to that seen at optical wavelengths for quasars, and is interpreted as representing the transition from radiatively efficient to inefficient accretion modes in the steep-spectrum population. This conclusion is supported by constructing simple models for the space density evolution of these two different radio galaxy classes; these are able to successfully reproduce the ...

  17. RADIO FATWA Islamic Tanya-Jawab Programmes on Radio Dakwah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarwoto S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a study of radio fatwa in Indonesia with special referenceto the Tanya-Jawab genres in radio dakwah.The concept of fatwa haschanged over time. Such Islamic Tanya-Jawab programmes broadcast onradio dakwah are important to understand how fatwa is disseminated bymeans of media, since Islamic Tanya-Jawab programmes can be consideredas part of fatwa. These programmes give not only information about Islam,but also become a forum in which interpretation of Islam takes place. Thiscan be seen in the discussion on the Islamic ruling on eating “dog meat”, inwhich interpretation of Islamic law is highly contested.[Artikel ini mendisukusikan radio fatwa di Indonesia, utamanya tentangprogram tanya-jawab yang disiarkan radio dakwah. Konsep fatwa terusberubah dan program tanya-jawab merupakan salah satu cara bagaimanafatwa disebarluaskan melalui berbagai media. Penulis berpendapat bahwaprogram Tanya-Jawab dapat disebut sebagai salah satu bentuk fatwa. Inikarena program tersebut tidak saja mengetengahkan informasi mengenaiIslam, namun juga interpretasi mengenai Islam. Pedebatan mengenai hukummemakan daging anjing merupakan salah satu contoh isu kontrovesial yang akan dijelaskan melalui artikel ini.

  18. 75 FR 10439 - Cognitive Radio Technologies and Software Defined Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... clarification filed by Cisco Systems, Inc. (``Cisco'') requesting that the Commission clarify: (1) The... of software that controls security measures in software defined radios. 3. In responding to the Cisco... response to the Cisco petition for reconsideration that raised the issue of using open source software...

  19. Analysis on the Bankruptcy Risk of Chinese Commercial Banks Based on ZSCORE Index%基于ZSCORE指数的中国商业银行破产风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静娴

    2014-01-01

    随着金融市场的开放,银行业竞争的加大,以及存款保险制度即将推出的可能性,提高我国商业银行的风险管理水平,保障其破产风险尤为重要。为分析我国商业银行破产风险与绩效及资本结构的关系,为破产风险管理提供建议,以我国2000年到2012年21家商业银行为样本面板数据,引入ZSCORE指数衡量商业银行破产风险的大小,ZSCORE值越大,破产风险越小。然后建立破产风险-资本结构绩效固定效应模型。通过回归分析发现,模型剔除了效率比率,仅核心资本充足率,资产收益率和资产结构比率与银行破产风险显著相关,且均正相关。即保持银行经营绩效,负债比率不变时,不能通过优化资本结构而提高银行稳定性水平;或是资本结构及负债比率不变时,银行的高收益暗示着高风险。%With the open of financial market, the cruel competition in banking, and the launching possibility of deposit insurance system, improving the level of risk management in commercial banks especially the bankruptcy risk becomes more and more important. In order to analysis the relationship between bankruptcy risk, performing and capital structure and to offer suggestion to bankruptcy risk management, this paper adopted the sample of 21 commercial banks in China over the period 2000 to 2012 and applied the ZSCORE index in order to weigh how much risk do the banks bankruptcy. Then built the fixed effect model of bankruptcy risk-capital structure and performance model. Empirical results found that the model rejected the efficiency ratio, while the core capital adequacy ratio, ROA, asset structure ratio were all have negative correlation with the stability of banks.Which meaned if we remained the ROA and the ratio of liability unchanged, we could not improve the banks’ stability degree by optimizing the capital structure;Or if we remained the capital structure and the ratio of

  20. Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raccanelli, A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available -correlation between radio sources and cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps (the integrated Sachs–Wolfe effect), the crosscorrelation of radio sources with foreground objects resulting from cosmic magnification, and a joint analysis together with the CMB power...

  1. Newnes radio and electronics engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Moorshead, H W; Perry, J

    1978-01-01

    Newnes Radio and Electronics Engineer's Pocket Book, Fifteenth Edition provides reference of the information relevant in radio and electronics engineering. The book presents tables, illustrations, and diagrams of various data used in radio and electronics engineering. The coverage of the text includes abbreviations and symbols, electrical equations, and code conversions. The text will be useful to engineers, technicians, and other professionals who require a reference about the different aspects of radio and electronics.

  2. Sensitive Radio Survey of Obscured Quasar Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandroff, Rachael M; van Velzen, Sjoert; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We study the radio properties of moderately obscured quasars over a range of redshifts to understand the role of radio activity in accretion using the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 6.0GHz and 1.4GHz. Our z~2.5 sample consists of optically-selected obscured quasar candidates, all of which are radio-quiet, with typical radio luminosities of $\

  3. Low Frequency Radio Experiment (LORE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, P. K.; Naidu, Arun; Joshi, B. C.; Roy, Jayashree; Kate, G.; Pethe, Kaiwalya; Galande, Shridhar; Jamadar, Sachin; Mahajan, S. P.; Patil, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a case study of Low Frequency Radio Experiment (LORE) payload to probe the corona and the solar disturbances at solar offsets greater than 2 solar radii, i.e., at frequencies below 30 MHz. The LORE can be complimentary to the planned Indian solar mission, “Aditya-L1” and its other payloads as well as synergistic to ground-based interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations, which are routinely carried out by the Ooty Radio Telescope. We discuss the baseline design and technical details of the proposed LORE and its particular suitability for providing measurements on the detailed time and frequency structure of fast drifting type-III and slow drifting type-II radio bursts with unprecedented time and frequency resolutions. We also brief the gonio-polarimetry, which is possible with better-designed antennas and state-of-the-art electronics, employing FPGAs and an intelligent data management system. These would enable us to make a wide range of studies, such as nonlinear plasma processes in the Sun-Earth distance, in-situ radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs), interplanetary CME driven shocks, nature of ICMEs driving decelerating IP shocks and space weather effects of solar wind interaction regions.

  4. Radio properties of local AGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagar, NM; Falcke, H; Wilson, AS; Mujica, R; Maiolino, R

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the radio properties of the similar to 470 nearby bright (northern) galaxies of the Palomar spectroscopic sample. Almost half the sample's galaxies have nuclei with emission-lines characteristic of AGN but with L-H alpha = 50% of all LLAGNs; there is no evidence against all L

  5. Radio observations of massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Blomme, Ronny

    2011-01-01

    Detectable radio emission occurs during almost all phases of massive star evolution. I will concentrate on the thermal and non-thermal continuum emission from early-type stars. The thermal radio emission is due to free-free interactions in the ionized stellar wind material. Early ideas that this would lead to an easy and straightforward way of measuring the mass-loss rates were thwarted by the presence of clumping in the stellar wind. Multi-wavelength observations provide important constraints on this clumping, but do not allow its full determination. Non-thermal radio emission is associated with binarity. This conclusion was already known for some time for Wolf-Rayet stars and in recent years it has become clear that it is also true for O-type stars. In a massive-star binary, the two stellar winds collide and around the shocks a fraction of the electrons are accelerated to relativistic speeds. Spiralling in the magnetic field these electrons emit synchrotron radiation, which we detect as non-thermal radio em...

  6. Radio emission in Mercury magnetosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Varela, J; Brun, A S; Pantellini, F; Zarka, P

    2016-01-01

    Context: Active stars possess magnetized wind that has a direct impact on planets that can lead to radio emission. Mercury is a good test case to study the effect of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field on radio emission driven in the planet magnetosphere. Such studies could be used as proxies to characterize the magnetic field topology and intensity of exoplanets. Aims: The aim of this study is to quantify the radio emission in the Hermean magnetosphere. Methods: We use the MHD code PLUTO in spherical coordinates with an axisymmetric multipolar expansion for the Hermean magnetic field, to analyze the effect of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation and intensity, as well as the hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density and temperature), on the net power dissipated on the Hermean day and night side. We apply the formalism derived by Zarka [2001, 2007] to infer the radio emission level from the net dissipated power. We perform a set of simulations with different hydr...

  7. Radio frequency propagation made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Faruque, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces Radio Frequency Propagation to a broad audience.  The author blends theory and practice to bring readers up-to-date in key concepts, underlying principles and practical applications of wireless communications.  The presentation is designed to be easily accessible, minimizing mathematics and maximizing visuals.

  8. Radio Frequency Solid State Amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, J

    2015-01-01

    Solid state amplifiers are being increasingly used instead of electronic vacuum tubes to feed accelerating cavities with radio frequency power in the 100 kW range. Power is obtained from the combination of hundreds of transistor amplifier modules. This paper summarizes a one hour lecture on solid state amplifiers for accelerator applications.

  9. LEP radio-frequency cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    One of the copper radio-frequency accelerating cavities installed for the first phase of LEP (1989-1995). Bunches of electrons and positrons circulated in LEP in opposite directions and were accelerated in eight different sets of 16 cavities (situated on either side of the four experiments), gaining 400 million volts of accelerating power per turn.

  10. Utrecht and Galactic Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerden, H.

    Important roles in early Dutch Galactic radio astronomy were played by several Utrecht astronomers: Van de Hulst, Minnaert and Houtgast. The poster announcing the conference contained a number of pictures referring to scientific achievements of the Astronomical Institute Utrecht. One of these

  11. The Highest Redshift Radio Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Van Breugel, W

    2000-01-01

    At low redshifts powerful radio sources are uniquely associated with massive galaxies, and are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes. Modern 8m -- 10m telescopes may be used used to find their likely progenitors at very high redshifts to study their formation and evolution.

  12. Young Radio Amateurs Speak English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Bilha

    1997-01-01

    In an Israeli elementary school program to stimulate students' development of oral English skills, students write dialogs and conversation themes in areas of interest, then practice and conduct the conversations with amateur radio operators around the world. Challenges and successes are detailed. (MSE)

  13. Public safety and cognitive radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskamp, Marnix; Schiphorst, Roel; Slump, Kees; Wyglinsk, Alexander M.; Nekovee, Maziar; Hou, Y. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This book gives comprehensive and balanced coverage of the principles of cognitive radio communications, cognitive networks, and details of their implementation, including the latest developments in the standards and spectrum policy. Case studies, end-of-chapter questions, and descriptions of variou

  14. Radio Monitoring of Protoplanetary Discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubach, C.; Maddison, S. T.; Wright, C. M.; Wilner, D. J.; Lommen, D. J. P.; Koribalski, B.

    2017-01-01

    Protoplanetary disc systems observed at radio wavelengths often show excess emission above that expected from a simple extrapolation of thermal dust emission observed at short millimetre wavelengths. Monitoring the emission at radio wavelengths can be used to help disentangle the physical mechanisms responsible for this excess, including free-free emission from a wind or jet, and chromospheric emission associated with stellar activity. We present new results from a radio monitoring survey conducted with Australia Telescope Compact Array over the course of several years with observation intervals spanning days, months and years, where the flux variability of 11 T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon and Lupus star forming regions was measured at 7 and 15 mm and 3 and 6 cm. Results show that for most sources are variable to some degree at 7 mm, indicating the presence of emission mechanisms other than thermal dust in some sources. Additionally, evidence of grain growth to cm-sized pebbles was found for some sources that also have signs of variable flux at 7 mm. We conclude that multiple processes contributing to the emission are common in T Tauri stars at 7 mm and beyond, and that a detection at a single epoch at radio wavelengths should not be used to determine all processes contributing to the emission.

  15. Radio frequency modulation made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Faruque, Saleh

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces Radio Frequency Modulation to a broad audience. The author blends theory and practice to bring readers up-to-date in key concepts, underlying principles and practical applications of wireless communications. The presentation is designed to be easily accessible, minimizing mathematics and maximizing visuals.

  16. China's Largest Radio Antenna System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ After three-and-half-year efforts, the National Astronomical Observatories at CAS (NAOC) has constructed two arrays of radio antennae: a 50m antenna at Miyun Station in Beijing and a 40m antenna in Kunming, capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province.

  17. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  18. Constraining Radio Emission from Magnetars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazarus, P.; Kaspi, V.M.; Champion, D.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Dib, R.

    2012-01-01

    We report on radio observations of five magnetars and two magnetar candidates carried out at 1950 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope in 2006-2007. The data from these observations were searched for periodic emission and bright single pulses. Also, monitoring observations of magnetar 4U 0142+61 follow

  19. Radio Properties of Pinwheel Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Monnier, J D; Tuthill, P G; Danchi, W C

    2002-01-01

    A small number of dusty Wolf-Rayet stars have been resolved into pinwheel nebulae, defined by their ``rotating'' spiral dust shells observed in the infrared. This morphology is naturally explained by dust formation associated with colliding winds in a binary system. In order to confirm and further explore this hypothesis, we have observed the known pinwheel nebulae (WR 104 and WR 98a) as well as the suspected binary WR 112 at multiple radio wavelengths with the Very Large Array to search for non-thermal radio emission from colliding winds. The spectrum of each target is nearly flat between 5 and 22 GHz, consistent with the presence of non-thermal emission that is reduced at low frequencies by free-free absorption. This emission must lie outside the radio ``photosphere,'' leading us to estimate a lower limit to the physical size of the non-thermal emitting region that is larger than expected from current theory. Based on a radio and infrared comparison to WR 104 and 98a, we conclude that WR 112 is a likely can...

  20. 47 CFR 90.185 - Multiple licensing of radio transmitting equipment in the mobile radio service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple licensing of radio transmitting equipment in the mobile radio service. 90.185 Section 90.185 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES...

  1. 62. The Return of Educational Radio?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Sally D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines one of the traditional technologies of distance education, radio, and presents examples of educational and community radio usage in Asia and Africa. Instead of merely transposing western approaches to distance education in developing countries, it is suggested that the developed world can learn from uses of radio in developing…

  2. Radio Broadcasting and Public Education in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, Hilary

    1981-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of radio for distance learning in the Third World are determined through an examination of its use for upgrading teachers, to support education and development broadly, for mass education through radio campaigns, and through the radio schools of Latin America. Eighteen references are listed. (CHC)

  3. Radio labeling with pre-assigned frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Broersma, H.J.; Fomin, F.V.; Pyatkin, A.V.; Woeginer, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph G is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of G such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least 2. The radio labeling problem (RL) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label that is used (the so

  4. Classic Radio Theatre in Contemporary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Keith

    Radio theater production has been a component of secondary and post-secondary education since the late 1920s. Since the reduction in radio theater in the 1950s, such courses have been used to prepare students for other fields--television, film, etc. Radio theater production can be approached in two ways: classic production and modern production.…

  5. Fast radio flashes observed with LOFAR prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigl, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis consists of a detailed analysis of several observations with prototype stations of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR). Chapter 1 introduces the field of radio astronomy, briefly describes the radio telescopes which were used and discusses radio frequency interference (RFI) and important too

  6. New trends in meteor radio receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Recent progresses in low cost—but performing—SDR (software defined radio) technology presents a major breakthrough in the domain of meteor radio observations. Their performances are now good enough for meteor work and should therefore encourage newcomers to join the meteor radio community.

  7. 78 FR 23150 - Commercial Radio Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0, 1, 13, 80 and 87 Commercial Radio Operators AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document amends our rules concerning commercial radio operator... hold an appropriate commercial radio operator license. The Commission initiated this proceeding...

  8. 46 CFR 169.715 - Radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio. 169.715 Section 169.715 Shipping COAST GUARD..., Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.715 Radio. (a) Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone installations are... Regulations, part 83. (b) A valid certificate issued by the FCC is evidence that the radio installation is...

  9. Radio labeling with pre-assigned frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Broersma, H.J.; Fomin, F.V.; Pyatkin, A.V.; Woeginer, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph G is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of G such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least 2. The radio labeling problem (RL) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label that is used (the

  10. Radio labeling with pre-assigned frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Broersma, Haitze J.; Fomin, F.V.; Pyatkin, A.V.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph $G$ is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of $G$ such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least $2$. The radio labeling problem (\\mbox{\\sc RL}) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label

  11. The Dynamics of Radio Galaxies and Double–Double Radio Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. Konar; M. Jamrozy; M. J. Hardcastle; J. H. Croston; S. Nandi; D. J. Saikia; J. Machalski

    2011-12-01

    Relativistic and magnetized plasma ejected by radio loud AGNs through jets form the diffuse lobes of radio galaxies. The radiating particles (electron/electron–positron) in lobes emit in radio via the synchrotron process and X-ray via inverse-Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons. The thermal environment around radio galaxies emits X-rays via the thermal bremsstrahlung process. By combining information from these processes we can measure physical conditions in and around the radio lobes and thus study the dynamics of radio galaxies, including double–double radio galaxies.

  12. Radio responding media. Prosumers, media innovation in web-based radio

    OpenAIRE

    Brundu, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    After a century of traditional broadcasting, this is the history of how the radio as a medium entered the web world, becoming web-based radios. Our case is based on an Italian web-radio, Radio Casa Bertallot, which started to make radio programmes using the possibilities of new media technology and the internet to create a platform for interacting with the users. The founder Alessio Bertallot, expressed his view on the radio production by describing the radio as, a place, as a home, a room, ...

  13. The Role of Alternative Programming in College Radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauls, Samuel J.

    College radio is quite often viewed as the true alternative to commercial radio. However, what is alternative radio and how does college radio factor into the ideal? To further understand this concept, this paper focuses on the role of alternative programming in college radio. Areas discussed include alternative radio as a non-mainstream form of…

  14. De radio en radio: el escenario radiofónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Dulce María García Dávila

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discierne sobre concepciones modernas de programación radiofónica y presenta los resultados que arrojó el estudio del escenario radiofónico de la ciudad de Maracaibo, con el uso de la técnica de la audiografía. Nos ofrece una descripción de los tipos de programación, la música, los programas informativos y de opinión, las estrategias de promoción y publicitarias más utilizadas por las emisoras de amplitud modulada en la ciudad. Este estudio forma parte de una primera etapa del proyecto de investigación titulado "Hacia un modelo de radio educativa y popular para el Occidente del país, a partir de la experiencia de Radio Fe y Alegría 850 AM".

  15. Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) 1 observations of terrestrial radio noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Radio Astonomy Explorer (RAE) 1 data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 or more db higher than cosmic noise background. Maximum terrestrial noise is observed when RAE is over the dark side of the Earth in the neighborhood of equatorial continental land masses where thunderstorms occur most frequently. The observed noise level is 30-40 db lower with RAE over oceans.

  16. Advanced Radio Resource Management for Multi Antenna Packet Radio Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nonchev, Stanislav; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2201

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose fairness-oriented packet scheduling (PS) schemes with power-efficient control mechanism for future packet radio systems. In general, the radio resource management functionality plays an important role in new OFDMA based networks. The control of the network resource division among the users is performed by packet scheduling functionality based on maximizing cell coverage and capacity satisfying, and certain quality of service requirements. Moreover, multiantenna transmit-receive schemes provide additional flexibility to packet scheduler functionality. In order to mitigate inter-cell and co-channel interference problems in OFDMA cellular networks soft frequency reuse with different power masks patterns is used. Stemming from the earlier enhanced proportional fair scheduler studies for single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) systems, we extend the development of efficient packet scheduling algorithms by adding transmit power considerations in the ove...

  17. K. C. Yeh: Radio Science Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in satellite technology and computer science have had the greatest impact on radio science in the last quarter century, according to Kung Chie Yeh, the new editor of Radio Science. Yeh, whose term began July 1 (Eos, April 12, 1983, p. 137, February 22, 1983, p. 73), is a professor in the electrical engineering department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.An international authority on ionospheric radio physics, Yeh also is known for his work on trans-ionospheric radio wave propagation as it affects earth-space communications and satellite navigation. Hehas been studying radio science for nearly 30 years.

  18. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation at the WSRT

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, P A; Millenaar, R P

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity of radio astronomical stations is often limited by man-made radio frequency interference (RFI) due to a variety of terrestrial activities. An RFI mitigation subsystem (RFIMS) based on real-time digital signalprocessing is proposed here for the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope based on a powerful field programmable gate array processor. In this system the radio astronomy signals polluted by RFI are "cleaned" with the RFIMS before routine back-end correlation processing takes place. The high temporal and frequency resolution of RFIMS allows the detection and excision of RFI better than do standard radio telescope back-end configurations.

  19. Fast Radio Bursts and Radio Transients from Black Hole Batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Mingarelli, Chiara M F; Lazio, T Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    Most black holes (BHs) will absorb a neutron star (NS) companion fully intact, without tidal disruption, suggesting the pair will remain dark to telescopes. Even without tidal disruption, electromagnetic luminosity is generated from the battery phase of the binary when the BH interacts with the NS magnetic field. Originally the luminosity was expected in high-energy X-rays or gamma-rays, however we conjecture that some of the battery power is emitted in the radio bandwidth. While the luminosity and timescale are suggestive of fast radio bursts (FRBs; millisecond-scale radio transients) NS--BH coalescence rates are too low to make these a primary FRB source. Instead, we propose the transients form a FRB sub-population, distinguishable by a double peak with a precursor. The rapid ramp-up in luminosity manifests as a precursor to the burst which is $20\\%-80\\%$ as luminous, given 0.5~ms timing resolution. The main burst is from the peak luminosity before merger. The post-merger burst follows from the NS magnetic ...

  20. 47 CFR 95.201 - (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service? 95.201 Section 95.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service...

  1. Radio-quiet Fast Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Kaiser, M. L.; Howard, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) drive shocks in the interplanetary medium that produce type II radio emission. These CMEs are faster and wider on the average, than the general population of CMEs. However, when we start from fast (speed > 900 km/s) and wide (angular width > 60 degrees), more than half of them are not associated with radio bursts. In order to understand why these CMEs are radio quiet, we collected all the fast and wide (FW) CMEs detected by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and isolated those without associated type II radio bursts. The radio bursts were identified in the dynamic spectra of the Radio and Plasma Wave (WAVES) Experiment on board the Wind spacecraft. We also checked the list against metric type II radio bursts reported in Solar Geophysical Data and isolated those without any radio emission. This exercise resulted in about 140 radio-quiet FW CMEs. We identified the source regions of these CMEs using the Solar Geophysical Data listings, cross-checked against the eruption regions in the SOHO/EIT movies. We explored a number of possibilities for the radio-quietness: (i) Source region being too far behind the limb, (ii) flare size, (iii) brightness of the CME, and (iv) the density of the ambient medium. We suggest that a combination of CME energy and the Alfven speed profile of the ambient medium is primarily responsible for the radio-quietness of these FW CMEs.

  2. Relic Radio Bubbles and Cluster Cooling Flows

    CERN Document Server

    De Young, D S

    2003-01-01

    Recent suggestions that buoyant radio emitting cavities in the intracluster medium can cause significant reheating of cooling flows are re-examined when the effects of the intracluster magnetic field are included. Expansion of the cavity creates a tangential magnetic field in the ICM around the radio source, and this field can suppress instabilities that mix the ICM and the radio source. The onset of instability can be delayed for ~100 million years, and calculation of the actual reheating time shows that this may not occur until about 1Gy after creation of the cavity. These results may explain why the relic radio bubbles are still intact at such late times, and it may imply that the role of radio sources in reheating the ICM should be re-examined. In addition, the existence of relic radio cavities may also imply that the particle content of radio source lobes is primarily electrons and protons rather than electrons and positrons.

  3. Propagation engineering in radio links design

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Propagation Engineering in Radio Link Design covers the basic principles of radiowaves propagation in a practical manner.  This fundamental understanding enables the readers to design radio links efficiently. This book elaborates on new achievements as well as recently developed propagation models.  This is in addition to a comprehensive overview of fundamentals of propagation in various scenarios. It examines theoretical calculations, approaches and applied procedures needed for radio links design. The authors study and analysis of the main propagation phenomena and its mechanisms based on the recommendations of International Telecommunications Union, (ITU). The book has been organized in 9 chapters and examines the role of antennas and passive reflectors in radio services, propagation mechanisms related to radar, satellite, short distance, broadcasting and trans-horizon radio links, with two chapters devoted to radio noise and main  parameters of radio link design. The book presents some 278 illustration...

  4. Curved Radio Spectra of Weak Cluster Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyesung

    2015-01-01

    We explore a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) model for radio relics in which a spherical shock impinges on a magnetized cloud of fossil relativistic electrons in the cluster periphery. Such a scenario could explain uniformity of the surface brightness and spectral curvature in the integrated spectra of thin arc-like radio relics. Toward this end, we perform DSA simulations of spherical shocks with the parameters relevant for the Sausage radio relic in cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, and calculate the ensuing radio synchrotron emission from re-accelerated electrons. The surface brightness profile of radio-emitting postshock region and the volume-integrated radio spectrum are calculated as well. We find that the observed width of the Sausage relic can be explained reasonably well by shocks with speed $u_s \\sim 3,000 \\kms$ and sonic Mach number $M_s \\sim 3$. These shocks produce curved radio spectra that steepen gradually over $(0.1-10) \

  5. KARAKTERISTIK BAHASA PENYIAR RADIO JPI FM SOLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rohmadi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bahasa adalah alat komunikasi yang digunakan penyiar Radio JPI FM Solo untuk berkomunikasi dengan para pendengarnya. Bahasa penyiar radio memiliki berbagai variasi dan karakter tersendiri dibandingkan bahasa-bahasa yang digunakan dalam ranah pendidikan, pemerintahan, dan keluarga. Karakteristik ragam bahasa penyiar Radio JPI FM Solo diwarnal campur kode, alih kode, dan nuansa humor dalam siarannya. Tujuan utama penyiar Radio JPI FM Solo adalah untuk menarik simpati pendengar dan berinteraksi dengan para pendengar Radio JPI FM Solo secara kreatif. Selain itu, ragam bahasa penyiar Radio JPI FM Solo memanfatkan beberapa fungsi utama ketika berkomunikasi dengan pendengarnya. Fungsi-fungsi tersebut adalah fungsi puitik, fungsi direktif, fungsi fatis, fungsi ekspresif, dan fungsi referensial dalam siaran Radio JPI FM Solo.

  6. Radio Frequency Power Load and Associated Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. Karthik (Inventor); Freestone, Todd M. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A radio frequency power load and associated method. A radio frequency power load apparatus may include a container with an ionized fluid therein. The apparatus may include one conductor immersed in a fluid and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A radio frequency transmission system may include a radio frequency transmitter, a radio frequency amplifier connected to the transmitter and a radio frequency power load apparatus connected to the amplifier. The apparatus may include a fluid having an ion source therein, one conductor immersed in a fluid, and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A method of dissipating power generated by a radio frequency transmission system may include constructing a waveguide with ionized fluid in a container and connecting the waveguide to an amplifier of the transmission system.

  7. Judicial protection of the rights of the victim (bank-creditor after the conclusion of the agreement of assignment of the right (requirements in the conditions of the intentional bankruptcy of the debtor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Truntsevsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of analysis in the paper is Russian insolvency legislation? As well as rules ofRussian Criminal Code about insolvency crimes.The purpose of the article is to analyze methods of the judicial protection of the rights ofthe victim (creditor-bank after the conclusion of the contract of cession of rights (claimsin the context of deliberate bankruptcy of the debtor.The methodology of research includes: analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, survey,and statistical method.The results, scope of application. Intentional bankruptcy (Art. 196 of the Russian CriminalCode violates the legitimate property interests of creditors. In particular, the Bank has theright to appeal to law enforcement agencies with a statement about criminal acts committedagainst the Bank that caused damage to the Bank. The creditor has the right to applyfor recognition as an injured person. Such a creditor is harmed by a crime. In the event thatthe Bank deliberately bankruptcy of the debtor harmed, and there is a causal relationshipbetween such actions and the socially dangerous consequences that have occurred, then,as follows from Part 1 of Art. 44 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, this circumstance is aprerequisite for the recognition of the Bank as a civil plaintiff. Such a bank has the right todeclare in the criminal case a civil claim for damages to the bank. The purpose of this articleis to provide judicial protection of the rights of the victim (creditor bank after concludingthe contract of assignment of the right (claims in the circumstances of the debtor's deliberatebankruptcy. The research methods are: analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction,questioning and statistical method. The conclusion is drawn that the assignment of claimsunder a civil law contract is not grounds for refusing to recognize the Bank as a victim anda civil plaintiff in a criminal case under Art. 196 of the Criminal Code.Conclusions. The assignment of claims under civil contract is not

  8. Radio Recombination Lines of Hydrogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Peach

    2015-12-01

    The impact theory of spectral line broadening is used to obtain complete profiles for radio recombination lines perturbed by electron and proton impact. The collisions can be divided into two types: inelastic, where transitions take place between hydrogen levels with different principal quantum number and elastic, where the transitions are only between degenerate levels for a particular value of . The widths of the radio lines are essentially determined by inelastic electron collisions and elastic proton collisions with the emitting hydrogen atom occupying either the upper or lower levels of the line. Here, earlier work is extended to examine the contribution from proton collisions to the line width in more detail, and it is shown that the trends in the behaviour of the widths again confirm previous results.

  9. The radio-frequency quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerators appeared on the accelerator scene in the late 1970s and have since revolutionized the domain of low-energy proton and ion acceleration. The RFQ makes the reliable production of unprecedented ion beam intensities possible within a compact radio-frequency (RF) resonator which concentrates the three main functions of the low-energy linac section: focusing, bunching and accelerating. Its sophisticated electrode structure and strict beam dynamics and RF requirements, however, impose severe constraints on the mechanical and RF layout, making the construction of RFQs particularly challenging. This lecture will introduce the main beam optics, RF and mechanical features of a RFQ emphasizing how these three aspects are interrelated and how they contribute to the final performance of the RFQ.

  10. Exploration of the Radio-Loud/Radio Quiet Dichotomy for QSO: Using Radio Morphology and 4D Eigenvector 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamfir, Sebastian; Sulentic, J. W.; Marziani, P.; Dultzin, D.

    2007-12-01

    The reality of a RL/RQ Dichotomy for QSO remains an open problem. Recent studies not only provide us with contradictory results, but also display the confusion of comparing conclusions drawn on the basis of different views on "what means radio-loud"? We propose a definition of radio loudness based on three criteria (simultaneously applied): radio morphology, radio luminosity and radio-optical flux density ratio. Fanaroff-Riley II radio sources (FRIIs) are assumed to be the parent population of RL quasars, while the core dominated RL quasars are assumed to be preferentially aligned FRIIs. Orientation-unification then suggests the RQ-RL boundary is set by the least radio luminous FRII and by the lowest radio-optical ratio for an FRII. We also consider RL and RQ quasars in the context of a 4D Eigenvector 1 (4DE1) Parameter Space that is defined independently of any radio measure. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic data for 400+ QSO (z<0.7 and brighter than psf g =17.5), coupled with FIRST and NVSS radio surveys (1.4GHz), we show that classical RL sources distribute very differently from the RQ majority of QSO.

  11. LEP Radio Frequency Copper Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  12. Very high redshift radio galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Breugel, W.J.M., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    High redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) provide unique targets for the study of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters at very high redshifts. We discuss how efficient HzRG samples ae selected, the evidence for strong morphological evolution at near-infracd wavelengths, and for jet-induced star formation in the z = 3 800 HzRG 4C41 17

  13. The most luminous radio galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm S. Longair

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se discuten las propiedades de las fuentes de radio extragal acticas m as brillantes y de sus galaxias an trionas. Estas fuentes est an asociadas con las galaxias m as masivas conocidas hasta el corrimiento al rojo de al menos 2. Resultan ser una clase unica de objetos para estudiar los n ucleos gal acticos extremadamente activos y sus galaxias an trionas, y representan retos para entender la formaci on de las galaxias m as masivas.

  14. TEACHING ENGLISH LISTENING BY RADIO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    After noting the difficulty of teaching the skill of listening in China, the paper reports on an English by radio project at the author’s university, and suggests the reasons for its success. Problems in the teaching of listening in China THE development of listening skills for non-English majors receives some emphasis in Chinese universities nowadays. More authentic British and American recorded materials are being included. But listening is

  15. Workshop on Radio Recombination Lines

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    Since their first detection 15 years ago, radio recombination lines from several elements have been observed in a wide variety of objects including HII regions, planetary nebulae, molecular clouds, the diffuse interstellar medium, and recently, other galaxies. The observations span almost the entire range from 0.1 to 100 GHz, and employ both single­ djsh and aperture synthesis techniques. The theory of radio recombination lines has also advanced strongly, to the point where it is perhaps one of the best-understood in astro­ physics. In a parallel development, it has become possible over the last decade to study these same highly-excited atoms in the laboratory; this work provides further confirmation of the theoretical framework. However there has been continuing controversy over the astrophysical interpre­ tation of radio recombination line observations, especially regarding the role of stimulated emission. A workshop was held in Ottawa on 24-25 August, 1979, bringing together many of the active scientist...

  16. Insurance bankruptcy creates political storm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Hoolimata peaminister Algirdas Brazauskase nõudmisest, keeldus Leedu kindlustusinspektsiooni juht Edvinas Vasilis-Vasiliauskas oma kohalt tagasi astumast, kuna soovib viia lõpule kindlustusseltsi Ingo Baltic pankrotiprotsessi

  17. Insurance bankruptcy creates political storm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Hoolimata peaminister Algirdas Brazauskase nõudmisest, keeldus Leedu kindlustusinspektsiooni juht Edvinas Vasilis-Vasiliauskas oma kohalt tagasi astumast, kuna soovib viia lõpule kindlustusseltsi Ingo Baltic pankrotiprotsessi

  18. GT Advanced Technologies Inc. Bankruptcy

    OpenAIRE

    Souply-Pierard, Fernand

    2014-01-01

    GT Advanced Technologies (GTAT), une société américaine de haute technologie produisant du saphir synthétique (fournisseur d’Apple), a fait faillite ce lundi 6 octobre 2014 et s’est placée sous la protection du chapitre 11 de la loi américaine sur la faillite. Cette faillite était-elle prévisible ?

  19. The AGN content of deep radio surveys and radio emission in radio-quiet AGN. Why every astronomer should care about deep radio fields

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, P; Miller, N; Kellermann, K I; Mainieri, V; Rosati, P; Tozzi, P; Vattakunnel, S

    2014-01-01

    We present our very recent results on the sub-mJy radio source populations at 1.4 GHz based on the Extended Chandra Deep Field South VLA survey, which reaches ~ 30 {\\mu}Jy, with details on their number counts, evolution, and luminosity functions. The sub-mJy radio sky turns out to be a complex mix of star-forming galaxies and radio-quiet AGN evolving at a similar, strong rate and declining radio-loud AGN. While the well-known flattening of the radio number counts below 1 mJy is mostly due to star-forming galaxies, these sources and AGN make up an approximately equal fraction of the sub-mJy sky. Our results shed also light on a fifty-year-old issue, namely radio emission from radio-quiet AGN, and suggest that it is closely related to star formation, at least at z ~ 1.5 - 2. The implications of our findings for future, deeper radio surveys, including those with the Square Kilometre Array, are also discussed. One of the main messages, especially to non-radio astronomers, is that radio surveys are reaching such f...

  20. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  1. Design Space Decomposition for Cognitive and Software Defined Radios

    OpenAIRE

    Fayez, Almohanad Samir

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radios (SDRs) lend themselves to flexibility and extensibility because theydepend on software to implement radio functionality. Cognitive Engines (CEs) introduceintelligence to radio by monitoring radio performance through a set of meters and configuringthe underlying radio design by modifying its knobs. In Cognitive Radio (CR) applications,CEs intelligently monitor radio performance and reconfigure them to meet it applicationand RF channel needs. While the issue of introduci...

  2. Computation of Interval Probability for Bankruptcy Procedure in Term Life Insurance With Uncertain Environment%不确定环境下定期人寿保险的破产概率区间的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万中; 胡朝明; 尹伟

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new model is constructed by taking uncertain environment into consideration for the bankruptcy risk problems in term life insurance, where the mortality rate is regarded as an interval parameter and the net insurance policy is a random parameter. Formula for computing the interval probability of bankruptcy is obtained, an approximation method owing to Poisson distribution is studied. Since some important aspects have been taken into consideration in the new formulation, such as the accumulating interest of initial reserve, the entry of new customers at any time, the design of new grouping fashion and the uncertain environment, the result obtained in this paper is more practical than the existing models.%针对实际问题存在的不确定因素,研究了含不确定参数的定期人寿保险的破产模型,其中死亡率和净年保单数分别用区间数和随机参数刻画.推导了破产概率区间的计算公式,且用泊松分布近似时得到其近似计算方法.该模型的建立既考虑了初始准备金的利息积累和任何时刻的新投保人的加入,并采用了新的分组方式,又考虑了实际问题中的不确定因素,因而能够更加真实地刻画了实际过程,比传统模型更具实用性.

  3. 关于银行业金融机构破产的相关问题研究%A research of Related Issues of Banking Financial Institution Bankruptcy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳大巍

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the global financial crisis triggered by the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis brought the world economy into the abyss. And the Bank bankruptcy issues become a hot topic in financial circles at home and abroad. With the continuous development of financial innovation, deepening of the banking sector openness and of China's economic restructuring, the bank will face a more complex environment and more severe challenges. Risk and crisis may come at any time, therefore, the importance of bank failures become more prominent. This paper intends to do some research of the relevant issues of bank bankruptcy.%2008年美国次贷危机引发的全球金融危机将世界经济带入了谷底,银行破产问题成为国内外金融界热议的话题,备受瞩目。随着金融创新的不断发展,银行业开放程度的加深以及我国经济转型的深入,银行将面对更加复杂的环境,面临更加严峻的挑战,风险和危机需要重点关注,因此,银行破产问题的重要性愈发凸显。本文拟就银行破产有关问题做简单探讨。

  4. Radio y cultura: una propuesta de radio ciudadana en Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Andrés Álvarez-Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es resultado de la investigación para optar a título de magíster “La Peña Cultural: modelo de radio ciudadana en Internet”, realizada durante los años 2013 y 2014 para la Universidad de Medellín. En ella se realiza una exploración de la radio en Internet como plataforma con herramientas multimediales que podrían afianzar la formación de ciudadanía reflexiva por medio de contenidos de promoción cultural. De la misma manera, identifica, a partir de un rastreo de emisoras en Colombia, cómo esas herramientas –las redes sociales, podcasts, chats, canales de video y nuevas formas comunicativas– permiten la participación activa de los ciudadanos en su producción. Rescatar el uso de tecnologías que facilitan la comunicación, como la radio en Internet, para reconocer y recuperar el valor de la promoción cultural propia de un estado en aras de la formación de una ciudadanía reflexiva, es el acercamiento que se hizo a partir de la etnografía y la investigación aplicada y que ahora se expone en este artículo. Es la forma en que los ciudadanos podrían converger en un medio de comunicación para producir contenidos que fortalezcan su identidad cultural o, si se quiere, su visión de nación. Es la apuesta por establecer una alternativa a los ya tradicionales modelos, una guía para la comunidad interesada en promover una ciudadanía reflexiva del patrimonio cultural. Palabras clave

  5. Radio Galaxy Zoo: host galaxies and radio morphologies derived from visual inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, J. K.; Wong, O. I.; Willett, K. W.; Norris, R. P.; Rudnick, L.; Shabala, S. S.; Simmons, B. D.; Snyder, C.; Garon, A.; Seymour, N.; Middelberg, E.; Andernach, H.; Lintott, C. J.; Jacob, K.; Kapińska, A. D.; Mao, M. Y.; Masters, K. L.; Jarvis, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Paget, E.; Simpson, R.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Bamford, S.; Burchell, T.; Chow, K. E.; Cotter, G.; Fortson, L.; Heywood, I.; Jones, T. W.; Kaviraj, S.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Maksym, W. P.; Polsterer, K.; Borden, K.; Hollow, R. P.; Whyte, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from the first 12 months of operation of Radio Galaxy Zoo, which upon completion will enable visual inspection of over 170 000 radio sources to determine the host galaxy of the radio emission and the radio morphology. Radio Galaxy Zoo uses 1.4 GHz radio images from both the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) and the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) in combination with mid-infrared images at 3.4 μm from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and at 3.6 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present the early analysis of the WISE mid-infrared colours of the host galaxies. For images in which there is >75 per cent consensus among the Radio Galaxy Zoo cross-identifications, the project participants are as effective as the science experts at identifying the host galaxies. The majority of the identified host galaxies reside in the mid-infrared colour space dominated by elliptical galaxies, quasi-stellar objects and luminous infrared radio galaxies. We also find a distinct population of Radio Galaxy Zoo host galaxies residing in a redder mid-infrared colour space consisting of star-forming galaxies and/or dust-enhanced non-star-forming galaxies consistent with a scenario of merger-driven active galactic nuclei (AGN) formation. The completion of the full Radio Galaxy Zoo project will measure the relative populations of these hosts as a function of radio morphology and power while providing an avenue for the identification of rare and extreme radio structures. Currently, we are investigating candidates for radio galaxies with extreme morphologies, such as giant radio galaxies, late-type host galaxies with extended radio emission and hybrid morphology radio sources.

  6. The consequences of the proposed amendment of the Dutch Bankruptcy Code for the supply and transport of natural gas and electricity in a liberalized market; De gevolgen van de voorgenomen wijziging van de Faillisementswet voor de levering en transport van gas en elektriciteit in een geliberaliseerde markt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keijsers, P.; Hartendorp, R.C. [Sectie Energy and Utilities, Clifford Chance LLP, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2003-06-01

    Pursuant to the legislative proposal to amend the Bankruptcy Act, suppliers of energy can no longer terminate or suspend agreements for the supply of energy in case of bankruptcy of such customer. In addition, default under such an agreement relating to the period prior to bankruptcy is no ground to dissolve such an agreement. Furthermore, (a request for) bankruptcy or seizure of assets may no longer lead to termination by operation of law, unless approved by the receiver. The above applies as well to moratorium of payment. This legislative proposal will probably enter into force at some point during this year. The background of the legislative proposal is that suppliers of energy are 'essential suppliers' who should not be able to abuse their monopolistic position to suspend delivery of energy in order to force payment of unpaid bills relating to the period prior to bankruptcy. There is no justification for such a restriction to only apply to energy companies instead of to all 'essential suppliers'. If the regime were to apply to energy companies, it should only apply to network managers: these parties are the only energy-related parties who remain essential suppliers. In principle, the gas and electricity itself can also be obtained from other parties than the current supplier, although certain problems may arise in relation to switching supplier. In addition, the legislative proposal will probably lead to a situation where energy companies will require security or terminate the agreement in an earlier stage, as soon as they realise that there are problems with the payment of invoices for the supply/transport of electricity. The costs in relation thereto and in relation to the obligation to continue the supply during bankruptcy, may lead to higher costs of energy distribution companies which will probably be included in the terms for the supply of electricity. [Dutch] Onlangs heeft de Tweede Kamer het wetvoorstel met betrekking tot de

  7. Interference Cancellation System Design Using GNU Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ARL-TR-7546 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Interference Cancellation System Design Using GNU Radio by Jan Paolo...Interference Cancellation System Design Using GNU Radio by Jan Paolo Acosta Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...Design Using GNU Radio 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jan Paolo Acosta 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  8. Local radio, public opinion and citizen participation

    OpenAIRE

    BUENDÍA ASTUDILLO, ALEXANDER; Doctor Educación Univ. Del Cauca; Pino Correa, Juan Carlos; Universidad del Cauca, Popayán - Cauca

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows how local radio stations that foster citizen participation and public opinion can develop into agents of social mobilization, as long they hold a broad notion of democracy. The article gives an account of the involvement that the ECCO research group (Universidad del Cauca, Colombia) has had in the project “Citizen radio: Room for democracy”, where researchers have given support to local radio stations and have sought to understand how these media conceive, assume and work tow...

  9. Radio continuum jet in NGC 7479

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Seppo; Beck, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    The barred galaxy NGC 7479 hosts a remarkable jet-like radio continuum feature: bright, 12-kpc long in projection, and hosting an aligned magnetic field. The degree of polarization is 6%-8% along the jet, and remarkably constant, which is consistent with helical field models. The radio brightness of the jet suggests strong interaction with the ISM and hence a location near the disk plane. We observed NGC 7479 at four wavelengths with the VLA and Effelsberg radio telescopes. The equipartition ...

  10. Millisecond extragalactic radio bursts as magnetar flares

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, S B

    2013-01-01

    Properties of the population of millisecond extragalactic radio bursts discovered by Thornton et al. (2013) are in good correspondence with the hypothesis that such events are related to hyperflares of magnetars, as was proposed by us after the first observation of an extragalactic millisecond radio burst by Lorimer et al. (2007). We also point that some of multiple millisecond radio bursts from M31 discovered by Rubio-Herrera et al. (2013) also can be related to weaker magnetar bursts.

  11. "Bonne Route"...avec Radio France Internationale ("Have a Good Trip"...with Radio France Internationale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saivre, Denyse

    1989-01-01

    Radio France International, the Alliance Francaise, and the Hachette publishing company have collaborated to develop an instructional radio series linking the broadcasts with published instructional materials. Considerations addressed in the program's development are discussed. (MSE)

  12. Fast Radio Bursts and Radio Transients from Black Hole Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingarelli, Chiara; Levin, Janna; Lazio, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Most black holes (BHs) will absorb a neutron star (NS) companion fully intact, without tidal disruption, suggesting the pair will remain dark to telescopes. Even without tidal disruption, electromagnetic (EM) luminosity is generated from the battery phase of the binary when the BH interacts with the NS magnetic field. Originally the luminosity was expected in high-energy X-rays or gamma-rays, however we conjecture that some of the battery power is emitted in the radio bandwidth. While the luminosity and timescale are suggestive of fast radio bursts (FRBs), NS-BH coalescence rates are too low to make these a primary FRB source. Instead, we propose the transients form a FRB sub-population, distinguishable by a double peak. The main burst is from the peak luminosity before merger, while the post-merger burst follows from the NS magnetic field migration to the BH, causing a shock. NS-BH pairs are desirable for ground-based gravitational wave (GW) observatories since the pair might not be detected any other way, with EM counterparts augmenting the scientific leverage beyond the GW signal. Valuably, EM signal can break degeneracies in the parameters encoded in the GW as well as probe the NS magnetic field strength, yielding insights into open problems in NS magnetic field decay.

  13. Air shower radio detection with LOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemer, J; Apel, W D; Arteaga, J C; Badea, F; Bekk, K; Bozdog, H; Daumiller, K [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T [Inst. Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Auffenberg, J [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany); Baehren, L; Butcher, H [ASTRON, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bertaina, M; Chiavassa, A [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Biermann, P L [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie Bonn (Germany); Brancus, I M [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M; Buchholz, P [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Buitink, S [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Cossavella, F; Souza, V de [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: Johannes.Bluemer@ik.fzk.de (and others)

    2008-07-15

    LOPES is an array of 30 radio antenna co-located with the KASCADE-Grande extensive air shower detector in Karlsruhe, Germany. It is designed as a digital radio interferometer for the detection of radio emission from extensive air showers. LOPES features high bandwidth and fast data processing. A unique asset is the concurrent operation with KASCADE-Grande. We report about the progress in understanding the radio signals measured by LOPES. In addition, the status and further perspectives of LOPES and the large scale application of this novel detection technique are sketched.

  14. GNU Based Security in Software Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Bhadka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Various new technologies are explored for radio communication toward the 21st century. Among them the technology of "software defined radio" attracts large attention. Software Defined Radio (SDR technology implements some of the functional modules of a radio system in software enabling highly flexible handsets. SDR devices may be reconfigured dynamically via the download of new software modules. Malicious or malfunctioning downloaded software present serious security risks to SDR devices and networks in which they operate. Together with the use of software downloading, future terminals will become a platform to support the deployment of yet unspecified services and applications.

  15. Radio communications with extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Communications between civilizations within our galaxy at the present level of radio engineering is possible, although civilizations must begin to search for each other to achieve this. If an extra-terrestrial civilization possessing a technology at our level wishes to make itself known and will transmit special radio signals to do this, then it can be picked up by us at a distance of several hundreds of light years using already existing radio telescopes and specially built radio receivers. If it wishes, this civilization can also send us information without awaiting our answer.

  16. Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raccanelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available –819 (2012) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20634.x Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys Alvise Raccanelli,1� Gong-Bo Zhao,1 David J. Bacon,1 Matt J. Jarvis,2,3 Will J. Percival,1 Ray P. Norris,4 Huub Ro¨ttgering,5 Filipe B. Abdalla... of Universe – radio continuum: galaxies. 1 IN T RO D U C T I O N Radio surveys for cosmology are entering a new phase with the construction of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) for radio �E-mail: alvise.raccanelli@port.ac.uk astronomy (Ro¨ttgering 2003...

  17. Radio systems engineering a tutorial approach

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Héctor J De Los; Ponte, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for readers who already have knowledge of devices and circuits for radio-frequency (RF) and microwave communication and are ready to study the systems engineering-level aspects of modern radio communications systems. The authors provide a general overview of radio systems with their components, focusing on the analog parts of the system and their non-idealities. Based on the physical functionality of the various building blocks of a modern radio system, block parameters are derived, which allows the examination of their influence on the overall system performance. The dis

  18. Radio emission of the sun and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleznyakov, V V

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 25: Radio Emission of the Sun and Planets presents the origin of the radio emission of the planets. This book examines the outstanding triumphs achieved by radio astronomy of the solar system. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the physical conditions in the upper layers of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets. This text then examines the three characteristics of radio emission, namely, the frequency spectrum, the polarization, and the angular spectrum. Other chapters consider the measurements of the i

  19. Signal processing for cognitive radios

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaweera, Sudharman K

    2014-01-01

    This book covers power electronics, in depth, by presenting the basic principles and application details, and it can be used both as a textbook and reference book.  Introduces the specific type of CR that has gained the most research attention in recent years: the CR for Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). Provides signal processing solutions to each task by relating the tasks to materials covered in Part II. Specialized chapters then discuss specific signal processing algorithms required for DSA and DSS cognitive radios  

  20. Radio frequency integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, John W M

    2010-01-01

    This newly revised and expanded edition of the 2003 Artech House classic, Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Design, serves as an up-to-date, practical reference for complete RFIC know-how. The second edition includes numerous updates, including greater coverage of CMOS PA design, RFIC design with on-chip components, and more worked examples with simulation results. By emphasizing working designs, this book practically transports you into the authors' own RFIC lab so you can fully understand the function of each design detailed in this book. Among the RFIC designs examined are RF integrated LC