WorldWideScience

Sample records for bank atoll netherlands

  1. Biodiversity assessment of the fishes of Saba Bank atoll, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T Williams

    Full Text Available Biodiversity surveys were conducted on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles, to assess ichthyofaunal richness and to compare with published surveys of other Caribbean localities. The primary objective was to estimate the total species richness of the Saba Bank ichthyofauna. A variety of sampling techniques was utilized to survey the fish species of both the visually accessible megafauna and the camouflaged and small-sized species comprising the cryptic ichthyofauna.Based on results presented herein, the number of species known on Saba Bank is increased from 42 previously known species to 270 species. Expected species-accumulation curves demonstrate that the current estimate of species richness of fishes for Saba Bank under represents the actual richness, and our knowledge of the ichthyofauna has not plateaued. The total expected fish-species richness may be somewhere between 320 and 411 species.The Saba Bank ichthyofaunal assemblage is compared to fish assemblages found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Despite the absence of shallow or emergent shore habitats like mangroves, Saba Bank ranks as having the eighth highest ichthyofaunal richness of surveyed localities in the Greater Caribbean. Some degree of habitat heterogeneity was evident. Fore-reef, patch-reef, and lagoonal habitats were sampled. Fish assemblages were significantly different between habitats. Species richness was highest on the fore reef, but 11 species were found only at lagoonal sites.A comprehensive, annotated list of the fishes currently known to occur on Saba Bank, Netherland Antilles, is provided and color photographs of freshly collected specimens are presented for 165 of the listed species of Saba Bank fishes to facilitate identification and taxonomic comparison with similar taxa at other localities. Coloration of some species is shown for the first time. Preliminary analysis indicates that at least six undescribed new species were collected during the survey and these are

  2. Preliminary Assessment of Sponge Biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Thacker; M.C. Díaz; N.J. de Voogd; R.W.M. van Soest; C.J. Freeman; A.S. Mobley; J. LaPietra; K. Cope; S. McKenna

    2010-01-01

    Background Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishe

  3. Preliminary Assessment of Sponge Biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Robert W.; Díaz, M. Cristina; de Voogd, Nicole J.; van Soest, Rob W. M.; Freeman, Christopher J.; Mobley, Andrew S.; LaPietra, Jessica; Cope, Kevin; McKenna, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Background Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. Methodology/Principal Findings A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. Conclusions/Significance This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity. PMID:20502643

  4. Preliminary assessment of sponge biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Thacker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity.

  5. Reef fishes of Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles: assemblage structure across a gradient of habitat types

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, W; Debrot, A.O.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Hoetjes, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Saba Bank is a 2,200 km2 submerged carbonate platform in the northeastern Caribbean Sea off Saba Island, Netherlands Antilles. The presence of reef-like geomorphic features and significant shelf edge coral development on Saba Bank have led to the conclusion that it is an actively growing, though wholly submerged, coral reef atoll. However, little information exists on the composition of benthic communities or associated reef fish assemblages of Saba Bank. We selected a 40 km2 area of the bank...

  6. Monetary transmission and bank lending in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakes, Jan

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in the Netherlands. We observe significant differences between the responses of corporate and household lending following a monetary shock. We also find that banks hold a buffer stock of securities which they use t

  7. Monetary transmission and bank lending in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kakes, Jan

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in the Netherlands. We observe significant differences between the responses of corporate and household lending following a monetary shock. We also find that banks hold a buffer stock of securities which they use to offset monetary shocks. The main implication of our study is that a bank lending channel is not likely to be an important transmission mechanism of monetary policy.

  8. The "dark side" of food banks? Exploring emotional responses of food bank receivers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, van der H.M.; Pascucci, S.; Bol, W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address how food, social status as well as the interactions at the food bank induce emotions in receivers, such as shame, gratitude and anger. Since early 2000s a steadily growing number of low-income and/or over-indebted households in the Netherlands allevi

  9. Marine macroalgal diversity assessment of Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark M Littler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Located in the Dutch Windward Islands, Saba Bank is a flat-topped seamount (20-45 m deep in the shallower regions. The primary goals of the survey were to improve knowledge of biodiversity for one of the world's most significant, but little-known, seamounts and to increase basic data and analyses to promote the development of an improved management plan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our team of three divers used scuba to collect algal samples to depths of 50 m at 17 dive sites. Over 360 macrophyte specimens (12 putative new species were collected, more than 1,000 photographs were taken in truly exceptional habitats, and three astonishing new seaweed community types were discovered. These included: (1 "Field of Greens" (N 17 degrees 30.620', W 63 degrees 27.707' dominated by green seaweeds as well as some filamentous reds, (2 "Brown Town" (N 17 degrees 28.027', W 63 degrees 14.944' dominated by large brown algae, and (3 "Seaweed City" (N 17 degrees 26.485', W 63 degrees 16.850' with a diversity of spectacular fleshy red algae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Dives to 30 m in the more two-dimensional interior habitats revealed particularly robust specimens of algae typical of shallower seagrass beds, but here in the total absence of any seagrasses (seagrasses generally do not grow below 20 m. Our preliminary estimate of the number of total seaweed species on Saba Bank ranges from a minimum of 150 to 200. Few filamentous and thin sheet forms indicative of stressed or physically disturbed environments were observed. A more precise number still awaits further microscopic and molecular examinations in the laboratory. The expedition, while intensive, has only scratched the surface of this unique submerged seamount/atoll.

  10. Identifying the mechanism : is there a bank lending channel of monetary transmission in the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakes, J

    2000-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in the Netherlands. The Johansen approach is used to identify supply and demand relationships in the credit market, and it is concluded from the short-run dynamics that this market is demand-determined. In this way,

  11. Population Genetic Structure, Abundance, and Health Status of Two Dominant BenthicSpecies in the Saba Bank National Park, Caribbean Netherlands:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, D.M.; Meesters, E.H.W.G.; van Bleijswijk, Judith D. L.; Luttikhuizen, P.C.; Breeuwer, H.J.A.J.; Becking, L.E.

    2016-01-01

    Saba Bank, a submerged atoll in the Caribbean Sea with an area of 2,200 km2, has attainedinternational conservation status due to the rich diversity of species that reside on the bank.In order to assess the role of Saba Bank as a potential reservoir of diversity for the surroundingreefs, we examined

  12. Population genetic structure, abundance and health status of two dominant benthic species in the Saba Bank National Park, Caribbean Netherlands: Montastraea cavernosa and Xestospongia muta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, de D.M.; Meesters, H.W.G.; Bleijswijk, van J.D.L.; Luttikhuizen, P.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.; Becking, L.E.

    2016-01-01

    Saba Bank, a submerged atoll in the Caribbean Sea with an area of 2,200 km2, has attained international conservation status due to the rich diversity of species that reside on the bank. In order to assess the role of Saba Bank as a potential reservoir of diversity for the surrounding reefs, we exami

  13. The Impact of New Technologies on Occupational Profiles in the Banking Sector. Case Studies in Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and France. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Laurence; Freiche, Jeanine; Matthews, Alison; Warmerdam, John

    The impact of new technologies on occupational profiles in the banking sector was examined through case studies in four European countries: Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and France. In each country, three types of banking institutions were studied: merchant (Eurobank); "counter" (universal) bank; and telebank (bank operating…

  14. Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in the Netherlands for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  15. Some evidence on the relevance of bank behaviour for the lending channel in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ees, H.; Sterken, E.; Garretsen, Harry

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the behaviour of Dutch banks. We test the adjustment of banks' balance sheets in times of monetary policy changes during the period 1957-1991. As a reaction to a policy change, banks basically have two alternatives to adjust their net money creation: (1) sell securities in public

  16. CRED Simrad EM300 multibeam backscatter data from portions of the banktop and bank edge environments at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA with 30 meter resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. These data provide coverage between 0...

  17. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from portions of the banktop and bank edge environments at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA with 1 meter resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. These data provide coverage between 0...

  18. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from portions of the banktop and bank edge environments at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA with 30 meter resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. These data provide coverage between 0...

  19. Rapid assessment of stony coral richness and condition on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A McKenna

    Full Text Available The benthic habitats of Saba Bank (17 degrees 25'N, 63 degrees 30'W are at risk from maritime traffic, especially oil tankers (e.g., anchoring. To mitigate this risk, information is needed on the biodiversity and location of habitats to develop a zone use plan. A rapid survey to document the biodiversity of macro-algae, sponges, corals and fishes was conducted. Here we report on the richness and condition of stony coral species at 18 select sites, and we test for the effects of bottom type, depth, and distance from platform edge. Species richness was visually assessed by roving scuba diver with voucher specimens of each species collected. Coral tissue was examined for bleaching and diseases. Thirty-three coral species were documented. There were no significant differences in coral composition among bottom types or depth classes (ANOSIM, P>0.05. There was a significant difference between sites (ANOSIM, P<0.05 near and far from the platform edge. The number of coral species observed ranged from zero and one in algal dominated habitats to 23 at a reef habitat on the southern edge of the Bank. Five reef sites had stands of Acropora cervicornis, a critically endangered species on the IUCN redlist. Bleaching was evident at 82% of the sites assessed with 43 colonies bleached. Only three coral colonies were observed to have disease. Combining our findings with that of other studies, a total of 43 species have been documented from Saba Bank. The coral assemblage on the bank is representative and typical of those found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Although our findings will help develop effective protection, more information is needed on Saba Bank to create a comprehensive zone use plan. Nevertheless, immediate action is warranted to protect the diverse coral reef habitats documented here, especially those containing A. cervicornis.

  20. Population Genetic Structure, Abundance, and Health Status of Two Dominant Benthic Species in the Saba Bank National Park, Caribbean Netherlands: Montastraea cavernosa and Xestospongia muta

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Didier M.; Meesters, Erik H. W. G.; van Bleijswijk, Judith D. L.; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C.; Breeuwer, Hans J. A. J.; Becking, Leontine E.

    2016-01-01

    Saba Bank, a submerged atoll in the Caribbean Sea with an area of 2,200 km2, has attained international conservation status due to the rich diversity of species that reside on the bank. In order to assess the role of Saba Bank as a potential reservoir of diversity for the surrounding reefs, we examined the population genetic structure, abundance and health status of two prominent benthic species, the coral Montastraea cavernosa and the sponge Xestospongia muta. Sequence data were collected from 34 colonies of M. cavernosa (nDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2; 892 bp) and 68 X. muta sponges (mtDNA I3-M11 partition of COI; 544 bp) on Saba Bank and around Saba Island, and compared with published data across the wider Caribbean. Our data indicate that there is genetic connectivity between populations on Saba Bank and the nearby Saba Island as well as multiple locations in the wider Caribbean, ranging in distance from 100s–1000s km. The genetic diversity of Saba Bank populations of M. cavernosa (π = 0.055) and X. muta (π = 0.0010) was comparable to those in other regions in the western Atlantic. Densities and health status were determined along 11 transects of 50 m2 along the south-eastern rim of Saba Bank. The densities of M. cavernosa (0.27 ind. m-2, 95% CI: 0.12–0.52) were average, while the densities of X. muta (0.09 ind. m-2, 95% CI: 0.02–0.32) were generally higher with respect to other Caribbean locations. No disease or bleaching was present in any of the specimens of the coral M. cavernosa, however, we did observe partial tissue loss (77.9% of samples) as well as overgrowth (48.1%), predominantly by cyanobacteria. In contrast, the majority of observed X. muta (83.5%) showed signs of presumed bleaching. The combined results of apparent gene flow among populations on Saba Bank and surrounding reefs, the high abundance and unique genetic diversity, indicate that Saba Bank could function as an important buffer for the region. Either as a natural source of larvae to

  1. Population Genetic Structure, Abundance, and Health Status of Two Dominant Benthic Species in the Saba Bank National Park, Caribbean Netherlands: Montastraea cavernosa and Xestospongia muta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier M de Bakker

    Full Text Available Saba Bank, a submerged atoll in the Caribbean Sea with an area of 2,200 km2, has attained international conservation status due to the rich diversity of species that reside on the bank. In order to assess the role of Saba Bank as a potential reservoir of diversity for the surrounding reefs, we examined the population genetic structure, abundance and health status of two prominent benthic species, the coral Montastraea cavernosa and the sponge Xestospongia muta. Sequence data were collected from 34 colonies of M. cavernosa (nDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2; 892 bp and 68 X. muta sponges (mtDNA I3-M11 partition of COI; 544 bp on Saba Bank and around Saba Island, and compared with published data across the wider Caribbean. Our data indicate that there is genetic connectivity between populations on Saba Bank and the nearby Saba Island as well as multiple locations in the wider Caribbean, ranging in distance from 100s-1000s km. The genetic diversity of Saba Bank populations of M. cavernosa (π = 0.055 and X. muta (π = 0.0010 was comparable to those in other regions in the western Atlantic. Densities and health status were determined along 11 transects of 50 m2 along the south-eastern rim of Saba Bank. The densities of M. cavernosa (0.27 ind. m-2, 95% CI: 0.12-0.52 were average, while the densities of X. muta (0.09 ind. m-2, 95% CI: 0.02-0.32 were generally higher with respect to other Caribbean locations. No disease or bleaching was present in any of the specimens of the coral M. cavernosa, however, we did observe partial tissue loss (77.9% of samples as well as overgrowth (48.1%, predominantly by cyanobacteria. In contrast, the majority of observed X. muta (83.5% showed signs of presumed bleaching. The combined results of apparent gene flow among populations on Saba Bank and surrounding reefs, the high abundance and unique genetic diversity, indicate that Saba Bank could function as an important buffer for the region. Either as a natural source of larvae to

  2. Population Genetic Structure, Abundance, and Health Status of Two Dominant Benthic Species in the Saba Bank National Park, Caribbean Netherlands: Montastraea cavernosa and Xestospongia muta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Didier M; Meesters, Erik H W G; van Bleijswijk, Judith D L; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C; Breeuwer, Hans J A J; Becking, Leontine E

    2016-01-01

    Saba Bank, a submerged atoll in the Caribbean Sea with an area of 2,200 km2, has attained international conservation status due to the rich diversity of species that reside on the bank. In order to assess the role of Saba Bank as a potential reservoir of diversity for the surrounding reefs, we examined the population genetic structure, abundance and health status of two prominent benthic species, the coral Montastraea cavernosa and the sponge Xestospongia muta. Sequence data were collected from 34 colonies of M. cavernosa (nDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2; 892 bp) and 68 X. muta sponges (mtDNA I3-M11 partition of COI; 544 bp) on Saba Bank and around Saba Island, and compared with published data across the wider Caribbean. Our data indicate that there is genetic connectivity between populations on Saba Bank and the nearby Saba Island as well as multiple locations in the wider Caribbean, ranging in distance from 100s-1000s km. The genetic diversity of Saba Bank populations of M. cavernosa (π = 0.055) and X. muta (π = 0.0010) was comparable to those in other regions in the western Atlantic. Densities and health status were determined along 11 transects of 50 m2 along the south-eastern rim of Saba Bank. The densities of M. cavernosa (0.27 ind. m-2, 95% CI: 0.12-0.52) were average, while the densities of X. muta (0.09 ind. m-2, 95% CI: 0.02-0.32) were generally higher with respect to other Caribbean locations. No disease or bleaching was present in any of the specimens of the coral M. cavernosa, however, we did observe partial tissue loss (77.9% of samples) as well as overgrowth (48.1%), predominantly by cyanobacteria. In contrast, the majority of observed X. muta (83.5%) showed signs of presumed bleaching. The combined results of apparent gene flow among populations on Saba Bank and surrounding reefs, the high abundance and unique genetic diversity, indicate that Saba Bank could function as an important buffer for the region. Either as a natural source of larvae to replenish

  3. HARP PRIA- Palmyra Atoll

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This HARP was first deployed off of Palmyra Atoll in 2006. Recording at this site ended in 2010. The HARP was recovered and redeployed multiple times (see time...

  4. Bikini Atoll groundwater development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear weapons testing during the 1950's has left the soil and ground water on Bikini Atoll contaminated with cesium-137, and to a lesser extent, strontium-90. Plans currently are underway for the clean-up and resettlement of the atoll by removal of approximately the upper 30 cm of soil. Any large-scale resettlement program must include provisions for water supply. This will be achieved principally by catchment and storage of rain water, however, since rainfall in Bikini is highly seasonal and droughts occur frequently, ground water development must also be considered. The quantity of potable ground water that can be developed is limited by its salinity and radiological quality. The few ground water samples available from Bikini, which have been collected from only about the top meter of the groundwater body, indicate that small bodies of potable ground water exist on Bikini and Eneu, the two principal living islands, but that cesium and strontium in the Bikioni ground water exceed drinking water standards. In order to make a reasonable estimate of the ground water development potential for the atoll, some 40 test boreholes will be drilled during July/August 1985, and a program of water quality monitoring initiated. This paper will describe preliminary results of the drilling and monitoring work

  5. The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Anthon K.

    1975-01-01

    Examines early childhood education in the Netherlands: its history, general conceptions of child upbringing and developmental psychology, organizational patterns, main research projects, and goals. (JH)

  6. Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

    1999-10-06

    On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other

  7. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote...

  8. Rose Atoll Coral Monitoring Narrative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Narrative report summarizes the results of coral monitoring at 11 georeferenced sites at Rose Atoll, American Samoa, undertaken by Dr. James Maragos, USFWS Coral...

  9. Growing plants on atoll soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  10. The Vascular Plants of Losap Atoll

    OpenAIRE

    MANNER, Harley I.; SANA, Dickson

    1995-01-01

    Prior to 1988, studies and observations on Losap Atoll (Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia) indicated a vascular flora of 43 species. A recent collection and observations of the flora of Losap Atoll indicated the presence of 101 species of vascular plants, of which 70 are indigenous and 31 are introduced species. Of these, 34 indigenous and 22 introduced species can be considered new records. An implication of these increases in numbers of species is that the floras of most atolls in the P...

  11. Johnston Atoll - Eradication of Yellow Crazy Ants

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — While on a research and monitoring cruise that visited Johnston Atoll in late January 2010, USFWS employees found an infestation of Anoplolepis gracilipes, or...

  12. Rose Atoll - Eradication of Invasive Ants

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There are at least 9 species of ants introduced to Rose Atoll, including species that tend to scale insects that are devastating the Pisonia grandis trees on the 15...

  13. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Johnston Atoll 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 17 sites at Johnston Atoll in...

  14. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote...

  15. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Species Management 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We initiated management of 3 species of plants that are introduced and invasive at Palmyra Atoll NWR. The work consisted of describing the distributions of these...

  16. CRED REA Algal Assessments Wake Atoll, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Wake Atoll in April...

  17. Johnston Atoll -Eradication of Yellow Crazy Ants

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — While on a research and monitoring cruise that visited Johnston Atoll in late January 2010, USFWS employees found an infestation of Anoplolepis gracilipes, or...

  18. CRED REA Algal Assessments Wake Atoll, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Wake Atoll in October...

  19. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Palmyra Atoll 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 13 sites at Palmyra Atoll in the...

  20. Rose Atoll 1993 Shipwreck Restoration Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summarizes efforts undertaken to remove grounded shipwreck at Rose Atoll and monitor impacts to community composition between 1993 and 2012.

  1. Investment in sustainable electricity production by Dutch banks. A case study for the Fair Bank Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of the second case study commissioned by the Fair Bank Guide on the financing practices of twelve investigated banks in the Netherlands. It has been examined which part of the investments in electricity generation by Dutch banks involves electricity generation from sustainable sources (sustainable electricity generation)

  2. Resettlement of Bikini Atoll U.S. Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US conducted a nuclear testing program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands from 1946 through 1958. Several atolls, including Bikini, were contaminated as a result of the nuclear detonations. Since 1974 the authors have conducted an extensive research and monitoring program to determine the radiological conditions at the atolls, identify the critical radionuclides and pathways, estimate the radiological dose to current or resettling populations, and develop remedial measures to reduce the dose to atoll populations. This paper describes exposure pathways and radionuclides; composition of atoll soils; radionuclide transport and dose estimates; remedial measures; and reduction in dose from a combined option

  3. Business use of Internet in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Vinig, Tsvi; Mevissen, Hein

    1997-01-01

    In this article we present results of a research we have done on the business use of Internet in The Netherlands during the period of January-October 1996. We have studied three industries: Banks & insurance, Tourism and Consultancy organizations. We have looked at the following three aspects: Internet presence, business use of Internet, and the process of setting up Internet activity. The Results of our research suggest that much of the Internet activity of companies setting up a Web site in...

  4. The two atolls (Mururoa and Fangataufa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After three decades of testing nuclear devices on the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa, France stopped the tests in 1996. The International Atomic Energy Agency was requested to carry out an independent study of the radiological situation on the atolls. The study covers a wide range of disciplines of science and aims to establish whether any residual radioactive material could represent a health hazard. The video shows the first stages of the study: sampling the environment and chemical analysis of plant and fish specimen in order to test the distribution and migration of radioisotopes in the lagoon

  5. Resuspension studies at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following experiments were conducted on Bikini Atoll to provide key parameters for an assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols: (1) a characterization of background (plutonium activity, dust, plutonium, sea spray, and organic aerosol concentrations); (2) a study of plutonium resuspension from a bare field; (3) a study of plutonium resuspension by traffic; and (4) a study of personal inhalation exposure. Dust concentrations of 21 μg m-3 and sea spray of 34 μg m-3 were the background throughout the Bikini Island except within 50 m of the windward beach. Background concentrations of 239+240Pu were 60 aCi m-3 in the coconut grove and 264 aCi m-3 over rain-stabilized bare soil. The ratio of plutonium activity in aerosols relative to the activity in underlying soil, defined as the enhancement factor, EF, was typically less than one. Enhancement factors increased about 3.8 as a result of tilling. Plutonium resuspension flux was estimated at 0.49 pCi m-2 year-1 over most of Bikini Island. Aerosol size distributions associated with mass and with plutonium activity were typically log-normal with median aerodynamic diameter 2.44 μm, which decreased to 2.0 μm above freshly tilled soil. The Pu concentration in aerosols collected over disturbed soil increased by a factor of 19.1. Vehicular traffic produced dust pulses typically of 10 s duration, 28 μg m-3 average concentration, and plutonium enhancement factor 2.5. Personal dosimetry showed that enhancement of dust by a worker was a factor of 2.64 for heavy work outdoors and 1.86 for light work in and around houses. Pulmonary deposition of plutonium was calculated for various exposure conditions. The pulmonary deposition ranged from 1476 aCi h-1 to 12 aCi h-1

  6. Terrestrial forest management plan for Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; McEachern, Kathryn; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    This 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. It is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' focuses on ecosystem integrity and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to assessing the status and distribution of resources, as well as the pressures acting upon them, most specifically nonnative and potentially invasive species. The plan, which presents strategies for increasing ecosystem integrity, provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to terrestrial resources on Palmyra Atoll. The report in its present form is intended to be an overview of what is known about historical and current forest resources; it is not an exhaustive review of all available literature relevant to forest management but an attempt to assemble as much information specific to Palmyra Atoll as possible. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. The terrestrial ecosystem consists of three primary native vegetation types: Pisonia grandis forest, coastal strand forest, and grassland. Among these vegetation types, the health and extent of Pisonia grandis forest is of particular concern. Overall, the three vegetation types support 25 native plant species (two of which may be extirpated), 14 species of sea birds, six shore birds, at least one native reptile, at least seven native insects, and six native land crabs. Green and hawksbill turtles forage at Palmyra Atoll

  7. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  8. Islamic Banking

    OpenAIRE

    BLÁHA, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to introduce the Islamic banking. Describing historical and religious background of Islam, the Islamic banking and Shari'ah law. Then presenting financing techniques used in the Islamic banking. Eventually describing and analysing the Islamic banking in Malaysia. Comparison between the Islamic banking and the conventional banking is given throughout the bachelor thesis.

  9. Biology of the rodents of Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roof rats and Polynesian rats, introduced to the atoll by 20th Century commerce and the Micronesians, respectively, were present allopatrically on the larger islets. Of necessity, they were largely vegetarians. Reproductive cycles were keyed to rainfall patterns. High density populations had high stress indices, including high parasite loads. The rats, at the top of the terrestrial food pyramid, constituted a bioenvironmental monitor that was rarely utilized during the several test programs. Bioconcentration of radioisotopes, especially 137Cs and 60Co, occurred; rats implanted with dosimeters were determined to function as environmental radiation monitors. They hypothesized that roof rats on Enjebi survived the nearby nuclear detonation. Analysis of plasma transferrins indicated greater heterozygosity in the northern atoll rat populations. The incidence of oral palatal ridge deformations also was positively correlated with environmental radiation levels, but other gross indications of radiation effect were not found

  10. Euthanasia in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Wal, G. van der; Dillmann, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The practice of euthanasia in the Netherlands is often used as an argument in debates outside the Netherlands--hence a clear description of the Dutch situation is important. This article summarises recent data and discusses conceptual issues and relevant characteristics of the system of health care. Special emphasis is put on regulation, including relevant data on notification and prosecution. Besides the practice of euthanasia the Dutch are confronted with the gaps in reporting of cases to t...

  11. Ascidians from Rocas Atoll, northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Vieira Paiva; Ronaldo Ruy Oliveira-Filho; Tito Monteiro Da Cruz Lotufo

    2015-01-01

    Rocas Atoll is the only one of its kind in the South Atlantic—and the first Brazilian marine biological reserve. This is the first report about the ascidians from Rocas. A total of 12 species were found, 5 of them not hitherto described: Ascidia viridina sp. nov., Didemnum rochai sp. nov., Leptoclinides crocotulus sp. nov., Polysyncraton maurizeliae sp. nov., and Trididemnum rocasensis sp. nov.). One Caribbean species, Didemnum halimedae, was also discovered in the region for the first time. ...

  12. Ascidians from Rocas Atoll, northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, Sandra V.; Oliveira Filho, Ronaldo R. de; Lotufo, Tito M. da Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Rocas Atoll is the only one of its kind in the South Atlantic—and the first Brazilian marine biological reserve. This is the first report about the ascidians from Rocas. A total of 12 species were found, 5 of them not hitherto described: Ascidia viridina sp. nov., Didemnum rochai sp. nov., Leptoclinides crocotulus sp. nov., Polysyncraton maurizeliae sp. nov., and Trididemnum rocasensis sp. nov. One Caribbean species, Didemnum halimedae, was also discovered in the region for the first time. Fu...

  13. Astronomy in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Wilfried; Habing, Harm

    2013-01-01

    We describe the state of astronomical research in the Netherlands per early 2012. We add some notes on its history of this research and on the strategic choices for the future. Compared to the size of the country (16 million people) the Netherlands is maintaining a high profile in astronomical research over a period of more than one century. The professional research community consists of about 650 people. This includes research staff, postdocs, PhD students, technical staff working on instrumentation projects and people involved in the operations of ground-based telescopes and astronomical space missions. We do not take into account staff working for international organizations based in the Netherlands. Astronomical research in the Netherlands is carried out at four university institutes and two national research institutes that fall under the umbrella of the national funding agency NWO. The Netherlands is the host of two international organizations: ESTEC, the technology division of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE). The Netherlands are one of the founding members of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and of ESA. This paper will address a number of significant multilateral collaborations.

  14. Geochemistry of transuranic elements at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of transuranic and other radionuclides in the marine environment at Bikini Atoll was studied to better understand the geochemical cycling of radionuclides produced by nuclear testing between 1946 and 1958. The reef areas, which are washed continually by clean ocean water, have low levels of radionuclide concentrations. Radionuclides are contained in fallout particles of pulverized coral. In the water these particles may dissolve, be transported by currents within the Atoll, or enter the North Equatorial Current by tidal exchange of water in the lagoon. The transuranic elements are distributed widely in sediments over the northwest quadrant of the Atoll, which suggests that this area serves as a settling basin for particles. The distribution of plutonium in the water column indicates that plutonium in the sediments is released to the bottom waters and then is transported and diluted by the prevailing currents. Upon interaction with the lagoon environment, plutonium occurs in several physicochemical states. Laboratory tests and field studies at Bikini show that approximately 15% of the plutonium is associated with the colloidal fraction

  15. Model for the Establishment of Modern Atolls during the Mid Brunhes MIS 12 to MIS 11 Sea Level Transgression in the Maldive Archipelago (Equatorial Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droxler, A. W.; Belopolsky, A. V.

    2003-12-01

    The Maldive archipelago consists of 22 main atolls characterized by a marginal rim surrounding a lagoon commonly less than 50-60 m deep, though some lagoons reach depths of more than 80 m. The overall evolution of the carbonate system in the Maldive Archipelago clearly shows that the slow subsidence of hypothetical volcanic edifices buried under the atolls cannot explain their typical ringed morphology. On the contrary, the atolls in the Maldives, as most likely the majority of the modern atolls, are probably young (less than 0.5 My old) carbonate edifices. Our research in the Maldives was developed based upon the interpretation of two Elf-Aquitaine and Royal Dutch Shell MCS grids, groundtruthed by ODP Site 716 and two deep exploration wells. Several seismic profiles across the modern atoll margins clearly illustrate a shift from middle Miocene-early Pliocene sigmoid lateral margin progradation of flat-topped carbonate banks to late Quaternary bank top vertical aggradation evolving into the modern atoll physiography. This well-marked transition is first illustrated by a regionally observed initial downward shift of the depositional system dated at 3.0-2.5 Ma. This downward shift of onlap and subsequent deposition in sedimentary wedges below the early Pliocene bank margins are explained by a late Pliocene-early Pleistocene (3.0-0.5 My) gradual sea level regression tied to the onset and successive expansions of major continental ice sheets in the northern Hemisphere. This regression is clearly defined in several Pliocene-Quaternary high resolution benthic isotope records, best proxy for ice volume variations in the past 5 My, at ODP sites such as 659, 677, 846, and 849.The early Pliocene flat-topped carbonate banks, exposed for about 2.5 My in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, were fully re-flooded for the first time at the glacial MIS 12 to interglacial MIS 11 transition. This sea level transgression is unique by its highest amplitude among the multiple sea

  16. Retail Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2008-01-01

    The retail banking plays more and more important role in polish banking sector. There are several targets of this article. First of all is retail banking identification, both in Euroland and Poland. The next one – trends, especially household deposits and credits and last – retail banking in particular banks.

  17. Internet Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Banking (known also as online banking allows performing transactions and payments over the internet through a bank's secure website. This can be very useful, especially for banking outside bank hours (which tend to be very short and banking from anywhere where internet access is available. In most cases a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox is utilized and any normal internet connection is suitable. No special software or hardware is usually needed.

  18. Kingdom of the Netherlands-Netherlands; Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation: Detailed Assessment of Observance on IOSCO Principles and Objectives of Securities Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands Authority for Financial Markets (AFM) has developed a robust supervisory framework, which exhibits high levels of implementation of the International Organization of Securities Commissions Principles. The AFM’s efforts are complemented by The NetherlandsCentral bank's (DNB) program of prudential supervision, which is reasonable and credible. Gaps in the legal framework for issuers, and on management of collective investment schemes, in the case of the DNB, have imposed limit...

  19. The wind energy in Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study take stock on the wind energy situation in Netherlands in terms of installed capacity, in comparison with other developed countries. The study presents also this energy source costs in Netherlands and the financial incentives policy implemented by the Netherlands organizations. The research programs and the enterprises of the sector are then presented. (A.L.B.)

  20. Migration from atolls as climate change adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Thomas Ladegaard Kümmel; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    that migration currently improves access to financial and social capital, reduces pressure on natural resources and makes island communities less vulnerable to extreme weather events and other shocks — all factors that contribute positively to adaptive capacity. It also shows that there are major barriers...... in the two atoll communities, Reef Islands and Ontong Java, which are located in the periphery of Solomon Islands. The paper will outline current migration patterns in the two island groups and discuss how some of this migration may contribute to adaptation to climate change and other stresses. It shows...

  1. Netherlands status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently one nuclear power plant is in operation in the Netherlands (Borssele PWR 480 MW). It is owned by EPZ Joint Venture (2001), 50% shares owned by an electricity distributors and 50% owned by an electricity producer and located in the south- west part of the Netherlands. One nuclear power station (Dodewaard BWR) is in decommissioning phase. Existing training facilities are: ECN (Energie Centrum Nederland) Initial reactor physics; Borssele training centrum (initial employee training, rehearsal training for all employees); GFS/KSG Germany Simulator training. The regulation of the nuclear industry in the Netherlands is the responsibility of the Kernfische dienst (KFD part of the environment and health department of the government). The mandate of the KFD is to regulate the use of nuclear energy in the Netherlands in a manner that prevents unreasonable risk to health, safety, security and environment. Developments in the training area are found in the following areas; Simulator training; Implementation of competencies due to the new organization; Enhanced training on reducing human factors

  2. Out in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saskia Keuzenkamp; David Bos

    2007-01-01

    The Netherlands is generally regarded as a gay-friendly country. It was the first country in the world where partners of the same sex were allowed to marry. Any number of famous Dutch figures openly profess their homosexuality, including one of the ministers in the present  Dutch cabinet. And a

  3. The Netherlands: [national report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Rodenhuis

    2009-01-01

    The article offers updates related to the activities of the Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation (IAML) in 2009 the Netherlands. It notes that the Muziekcentrum Nederland (MCN) for professional music life was opened. It states that Dutch IAML's board has organized a marketing a

  4. Morocco and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritschy, W.; Bos, P. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This book on aspects of society, economy and culture in Morocco and the Netherlands contains contributions of 28 Moroccan and Dutch authors on religion, family and marriage law, local government and PJD, Abdelkrim, Morocco and the EU, drug trafficking, migration, youth, Dutch-Moroccan writers, and a

  5. Media in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, Franca

    This 2-part report summarizes Dutch policy on mass media and reviews the status of cable television in the Netherlands. The first part defines the underlying principles of a national policy on mass media in relation to the press, commercial and educational television broadcasting, radio, cable television, and media research. Parliamentary debate…

  6. About Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieslak, Raymond F.

    The student manual for high school level special needs students was prepared to provide deaf students with the basic fundamentals of banking. Five units are presented covering the topics of banks and banking services, checking accounts, other services of banks, savings accounts, and other investments. Each lesson was carefully written for easy…

  7. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Wake Atoll, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 1 or 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Wake Atoll in...

  8. Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Rose Atoll NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  9. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Managment: Eradicate/Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote...

  10. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management: Eradicate/Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote...

  11. Public Use Plan for Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Public Use Plan has been developed to guide management of public use activities after the Navy and its contractor personnel leave the atoll on June 30, 1997....

  12. Palmyra Atoll Quickbird II Seafloor Mosaic (1.8m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Pamyra Atoll were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of this...

  13. Palmyra Atoll Quickbird II Terrestrial Mosaic (1.8m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Pamyra Atoll were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of this...

  14. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Pearl & Hermes Atoll, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for , Pearl & Hermes, Atoll, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical...

  15. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management: Eradicate/Control 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote...

  16. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management: Eradicate/Control 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote...

  17. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management: Eradicate/Control 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote...

  18. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Palmyra Atoll 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Palmyra Atoll in the...

  19. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Johnston Atoll 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Johnston Atoll in...

  20. Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge Station Plan [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is currently an overlay refuge managed through cooperative agreement with the U.S. Navy. The refuge is located near the...

  1. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Johnston Atoll, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Johnston Atoll in...

  2. Radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll: Prospects for resettlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international Advisory Group met at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna on 11-15 December 1995 for the purpose of reviewing the current radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and advising on the prospects for rehabilitation of the atoll and resettlement of its indigenous population. The Advisory Group was convened by the IAEA in response to a request for technical assistance from the Government of the Marshall Islands within the framework of IAEA technical co-operation project MHL/9/003, 'Radiological Monitoring in Bikini Atoll'. The primary aim of this review was to assist the Bikinian people to form their own judgement on the radiological conditions at their atoll and on the prospects for resettling there, should they so desire. At the meeting, the Advisory Group benefited greatly from the participation of a delegation from the Marshall Islands. At the request of the Government of the Marshall Islands, the international review was limited to Bikini Atoll and did not extend to other atolls, islands and isles affected by radioactive fallout from the testing. Moreover, within Bikini Atoll, it was concentrated on Bikini Island, where the Bikinian population formerly resided. The review relates to the prevailing radiological circumstances and their implications for the future habitability of the atoll. It is not intended to include the retrospective assessment of the past radiological impact of nuclear testing. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has routinely estimated, and reported to the United Nations General Assembly, radiation levels and effects attributable to nuclear weapon testing, including the tests carried out in the territory of the Marshall Islands. Some of the UNSCEAR estimates have been included in the report, but only for the sake of completeness

  3. Mousepox in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Osterhaus, Ab; Teppema, J.S.; Wirahadiredja, R.M.S.; Steenis, Bert

    1981-01-01

    textabstractTwo independent outbreaks of ectromelia in mice occurred in The Netherlands. In both cases, the causative virus was isolated and identified as ectromelia virus on the basis of serology, demonstration of antigen by indirect immunofluorescence, negative contrast electron microscopy, morphology of lesions on chorioallantoic membranes of embryonated chicken eggs, and cytopathogenicity for mouse cells. Inoculation of the virus into the dermis of rabbits demonstrated a low virulence for...

  4. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk

  5. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk].

  6. Netherlands; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1997-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines Netherlands’ experience with macroeconomic and structural reforms. The reforms, which were introduced gradually and in a consultative manner, were comprehensive in their coverage. They included a credible monetary policy, based on a tight link to the deutsche mark; expenditure-based fiscal consolidation, which allowed reduction of the tax burden as well as the fiscal deficit; and measures to stimulate both the supply and the demand side of the labor marke...

  7. Mechatronics in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Amerongen, van, W.E.; Jongkind, Wim

    1996-01-01

    This article assesses the present situation of mechatronics in the Netherlands. After a short historical survey, it describes the postgraduate ¿mechatronic designer course¿, introduced in 1991. It deals with the principles of this course and how these principles have been implemented. Also, the activities of the Dutch government in cooperation with the industrial mechatronics community to enhance the awareness of mechatronics, especially directed toward small and medium-sized enterprises (SME...

  8. Shareholders’ Voting at General Meetings: Evidence from the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Abe; Mertens, Gerard; Roosenboom, Peter

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe study annual general meetings of shareholders in the Netherlands. The Dutch corporate governance system is characterized by relatively concentrated shareholdings and large stakes owned by pension funds, banks and insurance companies. The legal protection of shareholders is poor due to takeover defenses, such as certificates, which deprive shareholders from their voting rights. An analysis of the minutes of 245 general meetings in the period 1998-2002 reveals that about 30% of t...

  9. The Netherlands: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of the Netherlands covers the country's cities and regions, population growth, households and families, housing, contruction, and spatial planning; ethnicity and religion; education; labor force and income; consumption; and transport and communications. As a small and mineral poor nation with a seafaring tradition, the Netherlands survives on foreign trade. In 1983, total export earnings amounted to nearly 62% of the entire national income. Over 72% of Dutch exports go to other member countries of the European Economic Community (EEC), but imports are more diversified, with 47% originating outside the EEC. Since 1848, the Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government. As such, it is one of the most stable democracies in the world. The main administrative units are the 11 provinces, of which Noord-Holland and Zuid-Holland are the most populous and economically most important. Amsterdam remains the commercial center of the country, but its role as the principal port city has been taken over by Rotterdam. No community has more than 700,000 inhabitants, but the country as a whole is highly urbanized because of the large numbers of medium-sized cities. In 1983 the population of the Netherlands totaled 14.34 million, compared to 5.10 million at the turn of the century. In 1965, the total fertility rate was 3.0. The death rate has virtually stabilized at 8/1000. The Dutch life expectancy stands at 72.7 years for men and 79.4 for women (1983). Natural increase has already dropped to 0.4% a year. Apart from the slight impact of net immigration, the positive growth rate reflects the large proportion (53%) of the population in its reproductive years. Mean household sizes in the 11 provinces vary from 2.5 in Noord-Holland (in 1981) to nearly 3 in Overijssel and Noord-Brabant, whereas the proportion of 1 person households ranges from 16% in Drenthe and 17% in the somewhat traditionalist southern provinces of Limburg and

  10. Isotopic signature of plutonium at Bikini atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atom ratios of the isotopes 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 244Pu were determined in sediments and soils from Bikini atoll using low energy Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. All samples had been contaminated by local fallout from nuclear weapon testing between 1946 and 1958 and show significant variations in the isotopic composition, which are ascribed to the different yields of single tests and to the mixture of material from various devices. Differences in the 244Pu/239Pu ratio (2.8-5.7x10-4) are more pronounced than in the 240Pu/239Pu ratio of the same samples and provide complementary information to distinguish the sources of contamination.

  11. Examination of Algal Diversity and Benthic Community Structure at Palmyra Atoll, U.S. Line Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge is the second largest atoll under U.S. jurisdiction in the Pacific Ocean. Until recently, little was known about benthic...

  12. Shadow banking

    OpenAIRE

    Pozsar, Zoltan; Adrian,Tobias; Ashcraft, Adam; Boesky, Hayley

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of the market-based financial system since the mid-1980s changed the nature of financial intermediation in the United States profoundly. Within the market-based financial system, "shadow banks" are particularly important institutions. Shadow banks are financial intermediaries that conduct maturity, credit, and liquidity transformation without access to central bank liquidity or public sector credit guarantees. Examples of shadow banks include finance companies, asset-backed c...

  13. Investment banks

    OpenAIRE

    Lejot, P

    2013-01-01

    Investment banking is a generic term for transactional activities involving financial intermediation conducted through open markets. It was long associated with a legal demarcation in the US and Japan that separated banks that made loans and took deposits from those that traded in securities, but now denotes risk-based activities in banks of any kind. This paper explains investment banking practices in terms of reputational capital, and contrasts the transactional skills and innovation found ...

  14. Banking Bank Charge Debates Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ The saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch" is one that can be applied to the charges increasingly being imposed on savers by Chinese banks.Ranging from managementfees for small deposit accounts to charges for withdrawals of large amounts of cash, from ATM cross-bank withdrawal charges to annual fees for bank payment cards, charges by banks are becoming a unstoppable trend. But it is not a trend the general public is so keen to accept.

  15. Netherlands Interuniversity Reactor Institut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report of the Interuniversity Reactor Institute in the Netherlands for the Academic Year 1977-78. Activities of the general committee, the daily committee and the scientific advice board are presented. Detailed reports of the scientific studies performed are given under five subjects - radiation physics, reactor physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and radiation hygiene and dosimetry. Summarised reports of the various industrial groups are also presented. Training and education, publications and reports, courses, visits and cooperation with other institutes in the area of scientific research are mentioned. (C.F.)

  16. Is shadow banking really banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.

  17. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  18. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne E. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers.

  19. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands. Utrok Atoll (2010-2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kehl, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martinelli, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tumey, S. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Langston, R. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tamblin, M. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tibon, S. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Chee, L. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Aisek, Jr., A. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); DeDrum, Z. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Mettao, M. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Henson, J. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands)

    2014-12-15

    As a hard copy supplement to the Marshall Islands Program website (https://marshallislands.llnl.gov), this document provides an overview of the individual radiological surveillance monitoring program established in support of residents of Utrōk Atoll and nonresident citizens of the Utrōk Atoll population group, along with full disclosure of verified measurement data (2010-2012). The Utrōk Atoll Whole Body Counting Facility has been temporarily stationed on Majuro Atoll and, in cooperation with the Utrōk Atoll Local Government, serves as a national radiological facility open to the general public.

  20. Review at Bikini Atoll. Assessing radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll and the prospects for resettlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some testing during the development of the atomic bomb was done in countries that do not have the infrastructure and expertise for evaluating any associated radiation risks. In such cases, outside expertise is needed to obtain independent advice about the radiological situation caused by residual radioactive material from nuclear testing. The IAEA has been requested by the governments of a number of its Member States to provide assistance in this context. Among the former nuclear test sites which the IAEA has reviewed is the Bikini Atoll of the Marshall Islands. Based on its review, the IAEA Advisory Group determined that no further corroboration of the measurements and assessments of the radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll is necessary. The data that have been collected are of sufficient quality to allow an appropriate evaluation to be performed. The limited IAEA monitoring of the area provided a good quality assurance verification of the previously collected data. It was recommended that Bikini Island should not be permanently resettled under the present radiological conditions. This recommendation was based on the assumption that persons resettling on the island would consume a diet of entirely locally produced food. The radiological data support that if a diet of this type were permitted, it could lead to an annual effective dose of about 15 mSv. This level was judged to require intervention of some type for radiation protection purposes

  1. Banks Sparkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that China’s banking system is a calm port in the global financial storm. Moreover, a great regulatory firewall and an easing monetary environment have enabled Chinese banks to increase lending and help shrug off the economic downturn. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed this topic in a recent article in the Shanghai Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow:

  2. Shadow banking

    OpenAIRE

    Rahm, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    In my bachelor paper I focus on the issue of shadow banking. The paper is theoretically oriented. Its main goal is to provide overview on the shadow banking system. The text is divided into four parts. The first part includes the definition of shadow banking and the description of its characteristics. The credit intermediation in shadow banking and the process of securitization is explained in the second part. The third part is aimed at mapping of situation in the area of implementation of re...

  3. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-01-01

    In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...

  4. Road fatalities in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This fact sheet outlines the development of the number of road fatalities in the Netherlands since 1950. After a rise in the 1950s and 1960s, the number of road deaths in the Netherlands has shown a gradual decline since 1973. As was the case in 2013, the Netherlands counted 570 road fatalities in 2014. Nearly a third of the fatalities are car occupants (187), another near third are cyclists (185). Measured by the population size, relatively many fatalities occur among young people and young ...

  5. Downstream changes of meandering styles in the lower reaches of the River Vecht, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfert, H.P.; Maas, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The morphodynamics of the lower River Vecht, the Netherlands, and the influence of geomorphological setting and bank composition on meandermigration were studied by means of reconstructing the pre-channelization landform configuration on a scale of 1 : 25,000, using historical mapsfrom 1720, 1850 an

  6. BANK GUARANTEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE NEMES

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of financial - banking commitments with various practical issues which are occurred by the use of those. From the legal point of view, the bank guarantees are not under an own legal regulation and are based on the common law, used in the guarantees domain. Through the new aspects of the actual Civil Code it are the legal regulation of the letter of bank guarantee and of the comfort letter, which shall constitute the main regulation in the negotiation and conclusion of a letter of bank guarantee or a bank comfort letter. For the legal reports with foreign elements, the parties can also use the Uniform Rules regarding the Guarantees at Request (URGR Publish no.758/2010.

  7. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.

  8. Surge ammonium uptake in macroalgae from a coral atoll

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, V.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    (Phaeophyta)) from Kavaratti atoll (Lakshadweep, India). Addition of ammonium (up to 20 mmol L-1) led to pronounced uptake within 4–6 min, with the amount of ammonium taken up during surge phase (<4 min) accounting for from about half to 10 times that taken up...

  9. A Practical Toolkit for Banks. Towards an Effective Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change affects us all. Citizens, companies, governments and other organisations must all work to find solutions for this problem. Banks and financial institutions share this responsibility, as their loans and investments can have a strong influence on the development of polluting and clean industries, on climate friendly products and on other possibilities to reduce climate change. The good news is that more and more banks are acknowledging their responsibility. Several banks in the Netherlands and elsewhere have been trying to reduce their contribution to climate change in the past few years. Milieudefensie (Friends of the Earth Netherlands) urges Dutch banks to learn from these experiences and to take rapid and profound action in all the fields described in this climate policy toolkit. It is possible to sufficiently slow down climate change, but only if all concerned parties act fast

  10. BANK GUARANTEES

    OpenAIRE

    VASILE NEMES

    2012-01-01

    The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...

  11. ADS National Programmes: Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ADS related activities within the Netherlands are concentrated at NRG. From 2000 to 2006, NRG supported SCK•CEN in their development of MYRRHA. The support was mainly devoted to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for the windowless target option. This collaboration was prolonged within the framework of the EU FP6 EUROTRANS project. Eventually this lead to a solution strategy for the hydraulic (without heat transfer) evaluation of a windowless target with one free surface using an Eulerian-Eulerian modeling approach. As a second free surface was added to the target design later, this approach would need to be revisited. The developed approach was applied to an assess the feasibility of a three feeder windowless target design. This preliminary assessment confirmed that there were no serious show stoppers for a three feeder design. Another study undertaken using related to the windowless target was a preliminary assessment of the risk of lead-bismuth splashing in case of a sudden heat deposition by the beam, e.g. at beam startup or beam interuptions. Within the framework of the EU FP7 CDT project, a window target is currently being assessed thermalhydraulicly in collaboration with SCK•CEN. Within the EU FP5 ASCHLIM project, the state of the art with regard to turbulence modelling for CFD approaches was determined. It was concluded that accurate simulation of heat transport in HLM was not feasible, especially in natural or mixed convection regimes. Within the EU FP7 THINS project this issue is currently being treated. NRG assists the commercial CFD code vendor CD adapco in implementing and testing a promising, academically tested, algebraic heat flux model

  12. External radiation survey and dose predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External radiation measurements were made at several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands, which are known or suspected to have been the recipients of tropospheric fallout during the Pacific Testing Programs. Sufficient data were available to ascertain realistic dose predictions for the inhabitants of Rongelap and Utirik Atolls where the 30 year integral doses from external sources exclusive of background radiation were 0.65 and 0.06 rem respectively. These estimates are based on realistic life-style models based on observations of each atoll community. Ailuk and Wotje Atolls were found to be represenatives of regional background radiation levels

  13. Gall's visit to The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eling, Paul; Draaisma, Douwe; Conradi, Matthijs

    2011-04-01

    In March 1805, Franz Joseph Gall left Vienna to start what has become known as his cranioscopic tour. He traveled through Germany, Denmark, and The Netherlands. In this article, we will describe his visit to The Netherlands in greater detail, as it has not yet received due attention. Gall was eager to go to Amsterdam because he was interested in the large collection of skulls of Petrus Camper. Gall presented a series of lectures, reports of which can be found in a local newspaper and in a few books, published at that time. We will summarize this material. We will first outline developments in the area of physiognomy, in particular in The Netherlands, and what the Dutch knew about Gall's doctrine prior to his arrival. We will then present a reconstruction of the contents of the lectures. Finally, we will discuss the reception of his ideas in the scientific community. PMID:21480037

  14. Netherlands looses leading role for solar electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of the market for solar energy in the Netherlands. Budgets for research and development and marketing of solar energy in the Netherlands are declining, while budgets in other countries increase

  15. Wind energy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind energy is a 'winning reality' in the Netherlands. This is apparent from the results by researchers, industry and the market. During recent years the market has acquired confidence in wind energy. At the start of 1987 there was about 15 MW of installed wind power in the Netherlands. Halfway through 1990 this has almost quadrupled, with 45 MW in operation and 35 MW under construction. The power companies have specific capital expenditure plans for further growth to approximately 400 MW by 1995. This investment scheme will consist of existing turbines (< 600 kW). (Author)

  16. ADS activities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of long-lived nuclear waste was under consideration in the Netherlands during a number of years. Within this framework different reactor concepts have been considered. One of the most promising concepts appears to be the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) or Fast Energy Amplifier (FEA), as it has been proposed by C. Rubbia of CERN. To unite the effort on accelerator driven reactor concepts in the Netherlands, KEMA, NIKHEF, ECN, KVI, and IRI have joined their forces in a co-operative program since 1996. Cupertino covers the technical fields of nuclear data, reactor physics, and innovative fuels. (author)

  17. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

  18. Primary productivity and its correlation with rainfall on Aldabra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekeine, J.; Turnbull, L. A.; Cherubini, P.; de Jong, R.; Baxter, R.; Hansen, D.; Bunbury, N.; Fleischer-Dogley, F.; Schaepman-Strub, G.

    2015-01-01

    Aldabra Atoll, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1982, hosts the world's largest population of giant tortoises. In view of recent rainfall declines in the East African region, it is important to assess the implications of local rainfall trends on the atoll's ecosystem and evaluate potential threats to the food resources of the giant tortoises. However, building an accurate picture of the effects of climate change requires detailed context-specific case-studies, an approach often hindered by data deficiencies in remote areas. Here, we present and analyse a new historical rainfall record of Aldabra atoll together with two potential measures of primary productivity: (1) tree-ring measurements of the deciduous tree species Ochna ciliata and, (2) satellite-derived NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) data for the period 2001-2012. Rainfall declined by about 6 mm yr-1 in the last four decades, in agreement with general regional declines, and this decline could mostly be attributed to changes in wet-season rainfall. We were unable to cross-date samples of O. ciliata with sufficient precision to deduce long-term patterns of productivity. However, satellite data were used to derive Aldabra's land surface phenology (LSP) for the period 2001-2012 which was then linked to rainfall seasonality. This relationship was strongest in the eastern parts of the atoll (with a time-lag of about six weeks between rainfall changes and LSP responses), an area dominated by deciduous grasses that supports high densities of tortoises. While the seasonality in productivity, as reflected in the satellite record, is correlated with rainfall, we did not find any change in mean rainfall or productivity for the shorter period 2001-2012. The sensitivity of Aldabra's vegetation to rainfall highlights the potential impact of increasing water stress in East Africa on the region's endemic ecosystems.

  19. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Arne E.; Bailey, Ryan T.; Jenson, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state ...

  20. Marine radioactivity assessment of Mururoa and Fangataufa atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) carried out an international project 'The Study of the Radiological Situation at the Atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa' with the aim of assessing the present and future radiological situation at the atolls and making recommendations for either monitoring or remedial actions if they are deemed necessary. The paper concentrates on marine radioactivity aspects and gives an estimation of present radionuclide concentrations in water, sediment and biota of the Mururoa and Fangataufa lagoons and the surrounding ocean. The dominant radionuclide in both lagoons is Pu in sediments (the total inventory is approximately 30 TBq). A decline in radionuclide concentrations has been observed in recent years in lagoon water, with the exception of 3H and 90Sr, for which a contribution from underground sources is to be expected. Radionuclide concentrations in biota from the lagoons and the surrounding ocean are low and consistent with previous measurements. The observed radionuclide concentrations in both lagoons imply that no radiological risk exists for hypothetical inhabitants of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls

  1. Radionuclides in sediments and seawater at Rongelap Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    The present concentrations and distributions of long-lived, man-made radionuclides in Rongelap Atoll lagoon surface sediments, based on samples collected and analyzed in this report. The radionuclides were associated with debris generated with the 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test at Bikini Atoll. Presently, only {sup 90}Sr and the transuranic radionuclides are found associated with the surface sediments in any quantity. Other radionuclides, including {sup 60}Co and {sup 137} Cs, are virtually absent and have either decayed or migrated from the deposits to the overlying seawater. Present inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 249+240}Pu in the surface layer at Rongelap are estimated to be 3% of the respective inventories in surface sediments from Bikini Atoll. There is a continuous slow release of the transuranics from the sediments back to the water column. The inventories will only slowly change with time unless the chemical-physical processes that now regulate this release to the water column are changed or altered.

  2. The atoll source states of 4U 1608-52

    CERN Document Server

    Van Straaten, S; Méndez, M; Straaten, Steve van; Klis, Michiel van der; Mendez, Mariano

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the atoll source 4U 1608-52 using a large data set obtained with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We find that the timing properties of 4U 1608-52 are almost exactly identical to those of the atoll sources 4U 0614+09 and 4U 1728-34 despite the fact that contrary to these sources 4U 1608-52 is a transient covering two orders of magnitude in luminosity. The frequencies of the variability components of these three sources follow a universal scheme when plotted versus the frequency of the upper kilohertz QPO, suggesting a very similar accretion flow configuration. If we plot the Z sources on this scheme only the lower kilohertz QPO and HBO follow identical relations. Using the mutual relations between the frequencies of the variability components we tested several models; the transition layer model, the sonic point beat frequency model, and the relativistic precession model. None of these models described the data satisfactory. Recently, it has been suggested that the atoll sources (among them 4U ...

  3. Organisational innovations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F. den; Verbruggen, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Netherlands have shown some major technological and economical changes in the field of new production forms and organisation and labour-related innovations. As in other European countries, some autonomous developments like economic developments partly determine the work organisation and the type

  4. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van Eijk

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  5. Work life in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den; Dhondt, S.; Genabeek, J. van; Goudswaard, A.; Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.; Klein Hesselink, J.; Korte, E. de; Kraan, K.; Oeij, P.; Pot, F.; Smulders, P.G.W.; Vaas, F.; Wevers, C.; Willems, D.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of work is changing, not only in the Netherlands but throughout Europe. There is a growing demand for different types of products and services. These demands are influenced by technological developments and innovations, but also by globalization, which indicates the integration of nationa

  6. Informal learning in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caniëls, Marjolein; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Caniëls, M. C., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Informal learning in the Netherlands. In S. Halley, C. Birch, D. Tempelaar, M. McCuddy, N. Hérnandez Nanclares, S. Reeb Grube, W. Gijselaers, B. Rienties, & N. Nelissen (Eds), Proceedings of the 17th EDINEB Conference: Crossing Borders in Education and Work

  7. Kjeller's impact in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture is an attempt to assess the impact in the Netherlands of the bilateral co-operation with Norway in the field of nuclear energy during the fifties and sixties. The story about the establishment, development and abolishment of the Joint Establishment for Nuclear Energy Research (JENER) at Kjeller Norway is told

  8. Coastal maintenance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    The government of The Netherlands has decided in the summer of 1990 to maintai.n the coastline at the position of 1990. This will be done mainly by artificial beach nourishment. The costs will be paid by the national government. The purpose of this coastal maintenance is to maintain a sufficient lev

  9. Performance Budgeting in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Debets

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the reforms introduced in the Netherlands since the 1980s to improve the transparency and efficiency of government programmes: programme budgeting, policy orientation, and interdepartmental policy reviews. The impact on the budget structure and process is described. An annex explains some typical characteristics of the Dutch budgetary process.

  10. Sustainable safety in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The recent stagnation in further reduction of road accidents, insufficient results of existing policies to improve road safety and its rather curative nature of these policies induced the wish to renew and to improve road safety policy in the Netherlands. This new approach is called : a sustainable

  11. European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Heide, van der R.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kramps, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and

  12. The Bank of England Bank Liabilities Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Venetia; Butt, Nick; Talbot, James

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve understanding of the role of bank liabilities in driving credit and monetary conditions, the Bank of England began conducting a formal Bank Liabilities Survey last year. This survey is intended to supplement the data collected on the asset side of bank balance sheets by the Bank of England’s quarterly survey of credit conditions, which was introduced in 2007. The first results of the Bank Liabilities Survey will be published on 26 March. This article introduces the survey.

  13. Lithuania : Banking System Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The Bank of Lithuania (BoL), the Central Bank, was established in 1990. BoL has the exclusive right to grant and revoke licenses to local and foreign banks and to supervise their activities. Private commercial banking boomed from 1991 to 1994 while bank regulation was lax. In late 1995, a bank crisis caused failures of most of the Lithuanian banks, and the remaining banks resulted in better ...

  14. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  15. 2006 Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise AHI-06-09 - Kure Atoll, Pearl and Hermes Atoll and Kauai Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected from 23 June to 19 July 2006 aboard NOAA Survey Launch Acoustic Habitat Investigator (AHI) at Kure Atoll, Pearl and...

  16. Assessment of coastal erosion and quantification of land loss on Western Pacific atolls during the last 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborosi, Danko; Zega, Mojca; Jenson, John W.

    2010-05-01

    others, and that land is not always eroding but in some cases accreting. We are currently engaged in a systematic survey of islands across the region in order to differentiate local problems from wide-ranging phenomena and gain insight into the temporal and geospatial "big picture." The direct aim is to comprehensively and more precisely assess coastal erosion and quantify changes in land area of different islands over the past 50 years. The project consists of fieldwork and GIS analyses, and it is the first to employ such methods to evaluate shoreline transformation in the western Pacific. We visit each island, interview local people regarding recent land changes and events, and carry out site investigations and mapping. Each inhabited island is circumambulated on foot, and beach slopes and scarps are measured, sediments examined, human activities and vegetation damage noted, etc. More importantly, the entire coast of each island is mapped using MobileMapper PRO portable units capable of generating GIS shapefiles in the field. Created coverages include the actual shoreline, sandy banks, vegetated areas, coastal engineering, control points, etc. Data collected on the ground is imported into ArcGIS and rectified using remote sensing imagery. It is then compared to all available historical maps, notably US Army Corps of Engineers 1960s topographic charts, which were previously assembled, digitized, and georeferenced for the purposes of this project. Any discrepancies in island outline and land area would have occurred over the past half a century. Due to the vastness of western Pacific region and logistical obstacles to working on remote islands, data are accumulated gradually. Ultimately, this island-by-island approach will allow documentation of historical and regional erosion patterns, contribute to understanding of local and global components of recent coastal changes, and deliver recommendations for environmental management and emergency avoidance on atolls and other

  17. Between-Habitat Variation of Benthic Cover, Reef Fish Assemblage and Feeding Pressure on the Benthos at the Only Atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas Atoll, NE Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, G. O.; Morais, R. A.; C D L Martins; Mendes, T. C.; Aued, A. W.; Cândido, D. V.; Oliveira, J. C.; L T Nunes; Fontoura, L.; M N Sissini; Teschima, M. M.; M. B. Silva; Ramlov, F.; Gouvea, L. P.; Ferreira, C. E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Southwestern Atlantic harbors unique and relatively understudied reef systems, including the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas atoll. Located 230 km off the NE Brazilian coast, Rocas is formed by coralline red algae and vermetid mollusks, and is potentially one of the most "pristine" areas in Southwestern Atlantic. We provide the first comprehensive and integrative description of the fish and benthic communities inhabiting different shallow reef habitats of Rocas. We studied two contras...

  18. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  19. Merger and Acquisition Activity as Driver of Spatial Clustering : The Spatial Evolution of the Dutch Banking Industry, 1850-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Hartog, Matté

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which merger and acquisition (M&A) activity contributed to the spatial clustering of the Dutch banking industry in Amsterdam. This analysis is based on a unique database of all banks in the Netherlands that existed in the period 1850-1993. We found that spatia

  20. Informal learning in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Caniëls, Marjolein; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Caniëls, M. C., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Informal learning in the Netherlands. In S. Halley, C. Birch, D. Tempelaar, M. McCuddy, N. Hérnandez Nanclares, S. Reeb Grube, W. Gijselaers, B. Rienties, & N. Nelissen (Eds), Proceedings of the 17th EDINEB Conference: Crossing Borders in Education and Work-Based Learning (pp. 339-348). Maastricht: FEBA ERD Press.

  1. Housing commissioning in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    S. Maussen; Smits, M.

    2011-01-01

    Property developers in the Netherlands are responsible for 83% of de housing production in the profit and non-profit sector. At this moment the housing shortage is neutralized but there is still a quality mismatch between demand and supply on the Dutch housing market. In recent years, a new organizer of housing projects is becoming more popular within the development sector, the end users of the houses themselves. The Dutch government has taken initiative to expand housing production commissi...

  2. Restructuring in SMEs: The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Winnubst, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for the Netherlands.

  3. The Netherlands' School Building Prize

    OpenAIRE

    OECD

    1999-01-01

    The School Building Prize has been awarded every two years since 1992 to Dutch school boards that have proved able to embrace new directions in school building design while keeping within their available budget. The Prize, which has drawn acclaim for the development of high quality educational architecture in the Netherlands, provides publicity for successful projects so that other schools can benefit from the designs and information. The 1998 School Building Prize was awarded to the British ...

  4. Patient education in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bensing, J.M.; Visser, S.; Saan, H.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the development of patient education (PE) in The Netherlands from a historical perspective. A description is given of the first pioneering years from the 70s till the late 80s, in which early topics like the organization of PE, the orchestration of PE between different disciplines, the role of the social environment, the provision of PE in difficult patient groups and -most of all- the technical development of educational materials took the time and attention of the grow...

  5. Ist die Bank der Zukunft eine Bank?

    OpenAIRE

    Spremann, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Ist die Bank der Zukunft noch eine Bank? Ist sie noch eine Bank mit Menschen, oder wird die virtuelle Bank das Modell der Zukunft sein? Haben die Filialen noch eine Chance, oder werden künftig alle Bankgeschäfte über Computer abgewickelt? Umfragen unter Kreditinstituten bestätigen, dass die gegenwärtig drängendste Frage ist, auf welchem Weg die Bank und der Mensch zusammenkommen.

  6. Banking Efficiency in European Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelidou, Vasiliki

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to unveil whether the tremendous banking sector reforms within the dynamic nature of the EU economic environment have achieved one of the catalyst EU goals, increase financial institutions’ cost efficiency. Using a single stage stochastic frontier approach, cost efficiency of the enlarged EU is estimated and evaluated for the period 2005-2011. The results suggest that EU pursuits have been successful but that stronger controls are needed.

  7. Resettlement of Bikini Atoll: US nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikini Atoll was one of two sites in the Marshall Islands that were used in the 1950's by the United States for testing nuclear weapons. The testing produced widespread radioactive contamination in Bikini and much of the Northern Marshall Islands. The Bikini people, relocated in 1946 before the test program began, have long desired to return to their homeland. Coral soil on Bikini Island makes cesium-137 (137Cs) much more available for plant uptake than do soils of North America and Europe. Hence, when locally grown crops mature and become available for consumption, the resulting body burden of 137Cs and the associated doses to humans exceeds federal guidelines. The dose from the terrestrial food ingestion pathway dominates all other pathways and contributes about 90% of the total dose to returning residents. We are, therefore, involved in cost-effective efforts to reduce the dose associated with resettlement. We have evaluated several measures, in addition to soil removal, to eliminate 137Cs from the soil and to reduce its uptake into food crops. The most effective, and the easiest to implement, is the application of potassium to the atoll soils. A dramatic reduction in 137Cs occurs in tropical fruits after applications of potassium-rich fertilizer to experimental soil plots. This treatment reduces the associated ingestion dose to about 5% of the pre-treatment levels, and this option avoids removal of the organic-rich surface soils. In addition, the added potassium increases plant productivity. We are now focusing on determining the duration of the effects of potassium treatment on 137Cs uptake into plants, and the rate of environmental loss of 137Cs in the atoll ecosystem. (author)

  8. Population pressure on coral atolls: trends and approaching limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, M

    1990-09-01

    Trends and approaching limits of population pressure on coral atolls is discussed by examining the atoll environment in terms of the physical geography, the production systems, and resource distribution. Atoll populations are grouped as dependent and independent, and demographic trends in population growth, migraiton, urbanization, and political dependency are reviewed. Examination of the carrying capacity includes a dynamic model, the influences of the West, and philopsophical considerations. The carrying capacity is the "maximal population supportable in a given area". Traditional models are criticized because of a lack in accounting for external linkages. The proposed model is dynamic and considers perceived needs and overseas linkages. It also explains regional disparities in population distribution, and provides a continuing model for population movement from outer islands to district centers and mainland areas. Because of increased expectations and perceived needs, there is a lower carrying capacity for outlying areas, and expanded capacity in district centers. This leads to urbanization, emigration, and carrying capacity overshot in regional and mainland areas. Policy intervention is necessary at the regional and island community level. Atolls, which are islands surrounding deep lagoons, exist in archipelagoes across the oceans, and are rich in aquatic life. The balance in this small land area with a vulnerable ecosystem may be easily disturbed by scarce water supplies, barren soils, rising sea levels in the future, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Traditionally, fisheries and horticulture (pit-taro, coconuts, and breadfruit) have sustained populations, but modern influences such as blasting, reef mining, new industrial technologies, population pressure, and urbanization threaten the balance. Population pressure, which has lead to pollution, epidemics, malnutrition, crime, social disintegration, and foreign dependence, is evidenced in the areas of Tuvalu, Kiribati

  9. Taxation of income in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe the current state of tax system in the Netherlands. This system is interesting because it combines elements of high progressive taxation of income of individuals with large tax savings for a holding company based in the Netherlands. The paper describes the design of income tax of individuals and legal persons in the Netherlands and compares them with the Czech legislation. Description of these two taxes is held according to design of tax in this order: ...

  10. Disability in the Netherlands: another dutch disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Muysken, J.; Rutten, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Netherlands is well known for its high employment growth and corresponding low unemployment rate. At various occasions the so-called Dutch miracle has been applauded, together with the underlying ‘Polder model’. A feature that initially was less recognised in the international debate, but has been a long-debated topic in the Netherlands, is the vast amount of persons in disability schemes. From the outset of the introduction of the first scheme (WAO) in 1969, disability in the Netherlands...

  11. Plutonium and americium behavior in coral atoll environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inventories of 239+240Pu and 241Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. Quantities of 239+240Pu and lesser amounts of 241Am are continuously mobilizing from these sedimentary reservoirs. The amount of 239+240Pu mobilized to solution at any time represents 0.08 to 0.09% of the sediment inventories to a depth of 16 cm. The mobilized 239+240Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Further, any characteristics of 239+240Pu described at one location may not necessarily be relevant in describing its behavior elsewhere following mobilization and migration. The relative amounts of 241Am to 239+240Pu in the sedimentary deposits at Enewetak and Bikini may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay. Mobilization of 239+240Pu is not a process unique to these atolls, and quantities in solution derived from sedimentary deposits can be found at other global sites. These studies in the equatorial Pacific have significance in assessing the long-term behavior of the transuranics in any marine environment. 22 references, 1 figure, 13 tables

  12. Biogeochemistry of transuranic elements in Bikini Atoll lagoon. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of transuranic and other radionuclides in the marine environment at Bikini Atoll was studied to better understand the biogeochemical cycling of radionuclides produced during testing of some 23 nuclear and thermonuclear devices between 1946 and 1958. The radionuclides are primarily associated with the coralline sediments. However, the highest radionuclide concentrations are not found at the detonation craters but with the fine particles which have been washed out of the craters in the reef by the currents and deposited downstream. The transuranic elements are distributed widely in sediments over the northwest quadrant of the atoll suggesting that this area serves as a settling basin for particles. The transuranic elements associated with these sediment particles do not remain fixed but are remobilized and distributed asymmetrically in the water column throughout the lagoon. The physico-chemical states of plutonium, measured using dialysis and sorption techniques include approx. 15% colloidal and varying amounts in the soluble and particulate fractions depending on sample location. Uptake of these physicochemical states is extensive on plankton with distribution coefficients measured at Bikini between water and plankton of 104 - 106. The uptake of plutonium in higher organisms decreases with trophic level and low concentrations (approx. .001 pCi/g for 239240Pu) are found in the edible muscle of fish. The half-time for cleansing the reef of contaminant radionuclides has been estimated near the Bravo Crater using measurements made on the viscera of mullet

  13. Bikini Atoll coral biodiversity resilience five decades after nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five decades after a series of nuclear tests began, we provide evidence that 70% of the Bikini Atoll zooxanthellate coral assemblage is resilient to large-scale anthropogenic disturbance. Species composition in 2002 was assessed and compared to that seen prior to nuclear testing. A total of 183 scleractinian coral species was recorded, compared to 126 species recorded in the previous study (excluding synonomies, 148 including synonomies). We found that 42 coral species may be locally extinct at Bikini. Fourteen of these losses may be pseudo-losses due to inconsistent taxonomy between the two studies or insufficient sampling in the second study, however 28 species appear to represent genuine losses. Of these losses, 16 species are obligate lagoonal specialists and 12 have wider habitat compatibility. Twelve species are recorded from Bikini for the first time. We suggest the highly diverse Rongelap Atoll to the east of Bikini may have contributed larval propagules to facilitate the partial resilience of coral biodiversity in the absence of additional anthropogenic threats

  14. Coastal maintenance in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    The government of The Netherlands has decided in the summer of 1990 to maintai.n the coastline at the position of 1990. This will be done mainly by artificial beach nourishment. The costs will be paid by the national government. The purpose of this coastal maintenance is to maintain a sufficient level of safety and to maintain the various functions of beach and dune areas. As a criterion for coastal erosion the movement of the "coastline" is used. In this paper the definition of coastline is ...

  15. Aerial radiological and photographic survey of eleven atolls and two islands within the Northern Marshall Islands. Dates of surveys, July-November 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over eleven atolls and two islands within the northern Marshall Islands between September and November 1978. This survey was part of a comprehensive radiological survey, which included extensive terrestrial and marine sampling, to determine possible residual contamination which might remain as a result of the United States nuclear testing program conducted at Bikini Enewetak Atolls between 1946 and 1958. A similar survey was conducted at Enewetak Atoll in 1972. The present survey covered those atolls known to have received direct fallout from the Bravo event, conducted in March 1954 at Bikini Atoll. These included Bikini, Rongelap, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Bikar, Taka, and Utirik Atolls. In addition, several atolls and islands which might have been at the fringes of the Bravo fallout were also surveyed, including Likiep and Ailuk Atolls, Jemo and Mejit Islands, and Wotho Atoll. Ujelang Atoll, which lies approximately 200 km southwest of Enewetak, was also surveyed. Island-averaged terrestrial exposure rates in the range of 30 to 50 μR/h were observed over parts of Bikini Atoll, including Bikini Island, and over the northern part of Rongelap Atoll. Levels over southern Rongelap and over Rongerik Atoll ranged from 4 to 7 μR/h. Levels were somewhat lower at Ailinginae Atoll (approximately 2 μR/h) and at Utirik Atoll (approximately 0.7 μR/h). The variations observed were consistent with what might be expected from the fallout pattern of the Bravo event. Levels at Ailuk, Likiep, Wotho and Ujelang Atolls and at Mejit and Jemo Islands were consistent with 137Cs activity, due to worldwide fallout, observed within the United States and at other locations in the central Pacific. These four atolls and the two islands, therefore, do not appear to have recieved any significant direct contamination from the Bravo event or the other tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls

  16. Banking reform in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Mercan, Metin

    2006-01-01

    Georgia's banking system restructure began in 1991 when Soviet Union collopsed.This paper tries to compare and constract the performance of banks and banking system between 1999 and 2004 with banks in other transition countries. Although Georgia banking system showed a long processing in banking sector, it is still lags behind other transition countries Central and Eastern Europe. Neverthless.An efficient financial institution and performance will not come without further economic development...

  17. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  18. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  19. Internet Banking System Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Alnaqeib, Rami; Jalab, Hamid A; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K

    2010-01-01

    Internet Banking System refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include detailed account information for corporate customers as well as account summery and transfer money. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet Banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. In this paper, Internet Banking System Prototype has been proposed in order to illustrate the services which is provided by the Bank online services.

  20. Internet Banking integration within the banking system

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Marian MATEI; Catalin Ionut SILVESTRU; Dragos Stefan SILVESTRU

    2008-01-01

    Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture). SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system....

  1. The Opilionida (Arachnida) of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoek, G.L.

    1963-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Until now very little has been published on the harvestmen of The Netherlands. The earliest paper known to me is by Goedaert (1669), who mentions Phalangium opilio from The Netherlands and gives the following "biological" information: "The animals originate from mush-rooms; they eat sal

  2. The Social State of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rob Bijl; Jeroen Boelhouwer; Evert Pommer

    2007-01-01

    Original title: De sociale staat van Nederland 2007. How is the Dutch population faring? That is the central question addressed in The Social State of the Netherlands 2007. To answer this question, the report describes the position of the Netherlands and the Dutch in a number of key areas of life t

  3. Human Hantavirus Infections in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Sane, Jussi; Reimerink, Johan; Harms, Margriet; Bakker, Jacinta; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Schimmer, Barbara; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    We report the recent epidemiology and estimated seroprevalence of human hantavirus infections in the Netherlands. Sixty-two cases were reported during December 2008–December 2013. The estimated seroprevalence in the screened municipalities in 2006–2007 was 1.7% (95% CI 1.3%–2.3%). Findings suggest that hantavirus infections are underdiagnosed in the Netherlands.

  4. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure

  5. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2002 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Midway Atoll in the...

  6. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiiian Islands, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Midway Atoll in the...

  7. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2002 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the...

  8. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at the Midway Atoll, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Midway Atoll in...

  9. CRED REA Algal Assessment at Rose Atoll, American Samoa, 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Rose Atoll in...

  10. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Rose Atoll, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites around Rose Atoll in...

  11. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the NW...

  12. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2003 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the...

  13. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 13 sites at Palmyra Atoll in the...

  14. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 18 sites at Johnston Atoll in the...

  15. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Rose Atoll, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Rose Atoll in American...

  16. 2007 Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise AHI0701 - Wake Atoll

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected between 19 April - 9 May 2007 aboard NOAA Survey Launch Acoustic Habitat Investigator (AHI) at Wake Atoll, Western...

  17. Eradication of Polynesian Rats (rattus exulans) from Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A 38-day poison and trap campaign was conducted on Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge to eradicate Polynesian rats in order to reduce their impact of seabird eggs...

  18. Marine species survey of Johnson Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean June 2000 (NODC Accession 0000697)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine biota of Johnston atoll was surveyed for nonindigenous species in June, 2000 with observations and collections made by investigators using Scuba. Eleven...

  19. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Midway Atoll in the...

  20. Marine Species Survey of Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean, June 2000 (NODC Accession 0000679)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine biota of Johnston atoll was surveyed for non-indigenous species in June, 2000 with observations and collections made by investigators using Scuba. Eleven...

  1. Developing tools to eradicate ecologically destructive ants on Rose Atoll: effectiveness and attractiveness of formicidal baits

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A key factor contributing to the decline in the population of Pisonia grandis on Rose Atoll is an infestation of the non-native scale, Pulvinaria urbicola...

  2. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the NW...

  3. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Palmyra Atoll in the...

  4. Final Restoration Plan for Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, including Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Restoration Plan for Rose Atoll NWR consists of removing the metal debris remaining from the grounding of a Taiwanese fishing vessel in 1993, and monitoring the...

  5. Morphological Assessment of Reconstructed Lowland Streams in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, T.; Eekhout, J.; de Brouwer, J.; Verdonschot, P.

    2014-12-01

    Channelisation measures taken halfway the 20th century have had destructive consequences for the diversity of the ecology in the majority of the lowland streams in countries such as the Netherlands. Re-meandering is the common practice in restoring these lowland streams. Three lowland streams were monitored during the initial two years after construction of a new channel. The monitoring program included morphological surveys, sediment sampling, habitat pattern surveys, and discharge and water level measurements. Adjustments of the longitudinal bed profile formed the main morphological response. These adjustments were most likely caused by a lack of longitudinal connectivity of the streams as a whole, interrupting transport of sediment at locations of weirs and culverts. Bank erosion was observed only in a limited number of channel bends, and was often related to floodplain heterogeneity. Longitudinal channel bed adjustments and bank erosion were mainly caused by exogenous influences. In channel bends, the cross-sectional shape transformed from trapezoidal to the typical asymmetrical shape as found in meandering rivers. This behaviour can be attributed to an autogenous response to the prevailing flow conditions. Due to the prevailing fine sediment characteristics, bed material is readily set in motion and is being transported during the entire year. The existing design principles fail to address the initial morphological development after reconstruction. An evaluation of pre-set targets to realize water depth and flow velocity ranges shows the current procedures to be deficient. Based on this unfavourable evaluation, and the two-dimensional nature of habitat patterns needed to improve the conditions for stream organisms, we recommend to predict morphological developments as part of the design procedures for lowland stream restoration in the Netherlands.

  6. Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Guibault; K. van 't Klooster

    2012-01-01

    Generally speaking, Dutch copyright law does not differentiate in terms of the effects of copyright law according to various work categories. The Dutch Copyright Act protects "works of literature, science or art", as exemplified in the non-exhaustive list of work categories of Article 10(1) which is

  7. Denying Foreign Bank Entry: Implications For Bank Interest Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Levine

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...

  8. Transuranium radionuclides in components of the benthic environment of Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the concentrations and distributions of transuranium radionuclides in the marine environment of Enewetak Atoll are reviewed. The distributions of the transuranics in the lagoon are very heterogeneous. The quantities of transuranics generated during the nuclear-test years at the Atoll and now associated with various sediment components are discussed. Whenever possible, concentrations of 241Am and /sup 239+240/Pu are compared

  9. Nature et fonctionnement des atolls des Tuamotu (Polynésie Française)

    OpenAIRE

    Rougerie, Francis (collab.)

    1995-01-01

    The 77 atolls of the Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia) constitute bio-geomorphological singularities in the oligotrophic oceanic field of the South Pacific. These open-ocean atoll reefs are locally overlaid by sandy islets (motu) and encompass lagoons with hydrological properties that are different from oceanic water, according to their degree of enclosure. Lagoonal waters may be more or less saline and eutrophic than oceanic water. In eutrophic lagoons, corals are replaced by macro-alga...

  10. Meiobenthic and Macrobenthic Community Structure in Carbonate Sediments of Rocas Atoll (North-east, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, S. A.; Warwick, R. M.; Attrill, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rocas is the only atoll of the South Atlantic and it is built almost exclusively by coralline red algae, vermetid gastropods and encrusting foraminiferans. Patterns in the community structure of meiofauna and macrofauna, particularly nematodes and polychaetes, at Rocas Atoll, north-east Brazil, are determined and compared for different habitats: sublittoral, tidal flat, reef pools and lagoon. Nematodes and copepods were the most abundant meiofaunal taxa. In all studied habitats at Rocas Atoll, oligochaetes, nematodes and polychaetes numerically dominate the macrofauna. Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal clear differences in community structure between the habitats of the atoll, especially between the sublittoral and the inner habitats. The number of species, total density, diversity (H') and trophic structure vary significantly between the habitats, but the differences are dependent on which faunistic category (meiobenthic or macrobenthic) is analysed. Nematodes belonging to the Epsilonematidae and Draconematidae, together with a diverse community of meiobenthic polychaetes, characterize the sublittoral habitat of Rocas Atoll. Both meiofauna and macrofauna are depressed in the tidal flat, and the local sediment instability particularly affects the polychaete abundance. Reef pools and lagoons support a very dense aggregation of invertebrates, particularly the macrofauna, when compared with other carbonate reef sediments. However, differences in the structure of meiofauna and macrofauna communities between reef pools and lagoons are not significant. Changes in meiobenthic and macrobenthic community structure are related to the gradation in the physical environment of the atoll.

  11. Essays on Financing and Performance: The role of firms, banks and boards

    OpenAIRE

    Fliers, Philip

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe way firms and their boards interact with their shareholders or financiers is a difficult balancing act. How firms, banks and board fulfil their role has a significant impact on corporate financing decisions and performance. In three studies, this dissertation combines studies in economic history with contemporary research in corporate finance. The first study investigate the determinants of this bank distress in the Netherlands during the 1920s. During this period the Dutc...

  12. Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan Mobile Banking (M-Banking) Terhadap Kepuasan Nasabah di Indonesia [Effect of Mobile Banking (M-Banking) Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Wardhana

    2015-01-01

    The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking) against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking) were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking ...

  13. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure...

  14. What is Shadow Banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Stijn Claessens; Lev Ratnovski

    2014-01-01

    There is much confusion about what shadow banking is. Some equate it with securitization, others with non-traditional bank activities, and yet others with non-bank lending. Regardless, most think of shadow banking as activities that can create systemic risk. This paper proposes to describe shadow banking as “all financial activities, except traditional banking, which require a private or public backstop to operateâ€. Backstops can come in the form of franchise value of a bank or insurance c...

  15. Primary productivity and its correlation with rainfall on Aldabra Atoll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shekeine

    2015-01-01

    O. ciliata with sufficient precision to deduce long-term patterns of productivity. However, satellite data were used to derive Aldabra's land surface phenology (LSP for the period 2001–2012 which was then linked to rainfall seasonality. This relationship was strongest in the eastern parts of the atoll (with a time-lag of about six weeks between rainfall changes and LSP responses, an area dominated by deciduous grasses that supports high densities of tortoises. While the seasonality in productivity, as reflected in the satellite record, is correlated with rainfall, we did not find any change in mean rainfall or productivity for the shorter period 2001–2012. The sensitivity of Aldabra's vegetation to rainfall highlights the potential impact of increasing water stress in East Africa on the region's endemic ecosystems.

  16. Bikini Atoll ionizing radiation survey - May 1985 - May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted 23 nuclear tests at the Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands. The single largest detonation was the Bravo test, which resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of a number of islands and prevented the timely resettlement of the native population. Since 1958, many studies have been conducted to assess clean up options and the internal and external radiation doses the Bikinians would likely receive, should they resettle the islands. Although the external dose rates from β and γ radiation have been previously determined by aerial and ground measurement techniques, technical constraints limited the assessment of external β dose rates from the Cs-137 and Sr-90/Y-90 contamination on the islands. Now, because of the recent development of very thin thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), these external β dose rates can be measured

  17. Nucnet experience in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Energy is a highly debated issue in the Netherlands. Public opposition has caused many delays in political decision making in relation with the expansion of new power plants. Recently the need for new reactor designs like the inherently safe reactors has become stronger. This is important for the communicators working in the nuclear field. Therefore it is needed to have a communication policy in which the main goal is building community relations focusing to public concerns and needs to gain acceptance. The public needs to be informed on options and benefits. Positive messages can influence attention and understanding, for example newspaper articles and television programs. Nucnet is an important instrument in building these relations

  18. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  19. Oman; Banking Sector Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Ananthakrishnan Prasad; Pierluigi Bologna

    2010-01-01

    This note assesses the impact of the global financial risks on Oman's banking system and highlights the remaining risks. It concludes that the liquidity and prudential measures introduced by the authorities mitigated the adverse effects of the crisis on the banking system. Banks continue to make profits despite higher provisioning. Stress tests confirm the resilience of the banking system to credit and market risks. Banks have limited exposure to derivatives and the majority of the off-balanc...

  20. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  1. Essays on banking

    OpenAIRE

    Tumer-Alkan, G.

    2008-01-01

    The banking literature documents various roles for banks in financial systems. Banks are both ‘liquidity providers’ and ‘information producers’. Banks are especially important for small and medium-size enterprises and represent these firms' principal source of external finance. Hence, the banks’ role is relevant for the smooth functioning and growth of an economy as well. Moreover, when banks and firms enter into a relationship, they are able to overcome problems of asymmetric information and...

  2. Shadow bank monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian,Tobias; Adam B. Ashcraft; Cetorelli, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    We provide a framework for monitoring the shadow banking system. The shadow banking system consists of a web of specialized financial institutions that conduct credit, maturity, and liquidity transformation without direct, explicit access to public backstops. The lack of such access to sources of government liquidity and credit backstops makes shadow banks inherently fragile. Shadow banking activities are often intertwined with core regulated institutions such as bank holding companies, secur...

  3. Banking Around the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese banks expands its "going out" strategy but faces challenges in establishing a presence in foreign markets The world’s biggest lender by market value, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), and the Hong Kong-based Bank of East Asia signed an agreement in which ICBC would pay $140.23 million to buy an 80-percent inter- est in Bank of East Asia USA, the Hong Kong bank said on January 23.

  4. Banking service in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璐

    2014-01-01

    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  5. Bank branches in supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence J. Radecki; John Wenninger; Daniel Orlow

    1996-01-01

    The largest U.S. commercial banks are restructuring their retail operations to reduce the cost disadvantage resulting from a stagnant deposit base and stiffer competition. As part of this effort, some banks are opening "supermarket," or "in-store," branches: a new type of banking office within a large retail outlet. An alternative to the traditional bank office, the supermarket branch enables banks to improve the efficiency of the branch network and offer greater convenience to customers.

  6. Bank Profitability during Recessions

    OpenAIRE

    Wilko Bolt; Leo de Haan; Marco Hoeberichts; Maarten van Oordt; Job Swank

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the relation between bank profitability and economic downturns using a theoretical model that takes into account the bank's lending history as well as amortization and losses on outstanding loans. We focus on total bank profits and its components: net interest income, other income, and net provisioning plus other costs. Using both aggregate and individual bank panel datasets, our results confirm that pro-cyclicality of bank profits is stronger for deep recessions than dur...

  7. Norges Bank Watch 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Juel, Steinar; Molnar, Krisztina Molnar; Røed, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Norges Bank has gone a long way in being open about its decisions and it is one of the most transparent central banks; this report makes a few recommendations about further improving the bank in this respect. Since Norges Bank already has a history of many years of transparency about its decisions and the principles used to make these decisions, it is possible to make a retrospective analysis and evaluate the bank. We think that evaluating and discussing the monetary policy of ...

  8. Selling Failed Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Joao Granja; Gregor Matvos; Amit Seru

    2014-01-01

    We study the recent episode of bank failures and provide simple facts to better understand who acquires failed banks and which forces drive the losses that the FDIC realizes from these sales. We document three distinct forces related to the allocation of failed banks to potential acquirers. First, a geographically proximate bank is significantly more likely to acquire a failed bank: only 15% of acquirers do not have branches within the state. Sales are more local in regions with more soft inf...

  9. Outsourcing central banking

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg , Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervision can be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI) in the banking sector if political nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could...

  10. Understanding Banking Sector Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Linda S. Goldberg

    2009-01-01

    This article profiles the recent evolution and consequences of banking sector globalization. After presenting trends in international banking, the article overviews macroeconomic consequences of banking sector globalization, including the role of banks in the international transmission of shocks, comovements of business cycles, financial crises, and economic growth. Other consequences of banking globalization have parallels with the effects of real-side foreign direct investment, including te...

  11. Marine biological survey of ROI-NAMUR outfall at the United States Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, May 2000 (NODC Accession 0000653)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Roi-Namur is located at the northernmost tip of Kwajalein Atoll, approximately 64 kilometers north of the U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) central command post on...

  12. Baseline marine biological survey at Roi-Namur sewage outfall, United States Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1997 (NODC Accession 0000630)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Roi-Namur is located at the northernmost tip of Kwajalein Atoll, approximately 64 kilometers north of the U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) central command post on...

  13. Marine Biological Survey ROI-NAMUR Outfall, United States Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, May 2000 (NODC Accession 0000653)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Roi-Namur is located at the northernmost tip of Kwajalein Atoll,approximately 64 kilometers north of the U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll(USAKA) central command post on...

  14. Baseline Marine Biological Survey ROI-NAMUR Outfall United States Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1997(NODC Accession 0000630)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Roi-Namur is located at the northernmost tip of Kwajalein Atoll, approximately 64 kilometers north of the U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll(USAKA) central command post on...

  15. Mosquitoes of the Netherlands Antilles and their hygienic importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyp, van der Edwin

    1954-01-01

    The Netherlands Antilles may be divided into: (1) The Curaçao Group (or Netherlands Leeward Islands): Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire. (2) The St. Martin Group (or Netherlands Windward Islands): (Netherlands) St. Maarten, Saba and St. Eustatius. The latter islands are very small, forming together only 8.

  16. Netherlands' national communication on climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Communication was produced to fulfil the Netherlands' commitments to the Framework Convention on Climate Change which was ratified by the Netherlands' Government on 21 December 1993. It gives a broad overview of the country's climate change policies and a summary of the inventory of greenhouse gas emissions. It discusses projection of emissions to 2000 and effect of measures on emissions. The vulnerability of the Netherlands to sea level rise is discussed and adaptations outlined. Initiatives on joint implementation are summarised. Finance of mitigation/adaptation, international cooperation, research programs and education and training programs on climate change and its mitigation are briefly discussed. 63 refs., 40 figs., 36 tabs

  17. Impacts of climate change in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main conclusion of the study on the title subject is that the impacts of climatic change in the Netherlands are still limited. However, the impacts will be stronger in the next decades and will be even problematic at the end of this century. In this book an overview is given of probable changes in the climate for the Netherlands, danger for flooding in specific areas of the Netherlands, changes of the nature, impacts for agriculture, tourism and recreation, and industry and businesses, and risks for public health

  18. Wave energy gradients across a Maldivian atoll: Implications for island geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kench, Paul S.; Brander, Robert W.; Parnell, Kevin E.; McLean, Roger F.

    2006-11-01

    Exposure to wave energy has been used to account for a range of ecological, geological and geomorphic processes in coral reef systems, but few attempts have been made to quantify spatial variations in energy at the atoll scale. This study presents results of measurements of wave energy on reef platforms across South Maalhosmadulu Atoll, Maldives and their implications for island geomorphology. The atoll has a perforated rim (37% effective aperture) and experiences predictable shifts in monsoon winds from the west (8 months) and northeast (4 months). Results show that wave energy affecting the atoll is considerably greater during the westerly monsoon. Atoll structure promotes significant changes in wave energy and wave characteristics across the atoll. Short period (3-8 s) monsoon-driven wave energy, which is significant on windward reefs, is dissipated on the peripheral reef network and the density of lagoonal patch reefs limits development of locally generated wind-wave energy across the lagoon. However, longer period swell (8-20 s) propagates through the lagoon to leeward reefs. A windward to leeward decay in wave energy is evident in the westerly monsoon, but not in the northeast monsoon, when long period swell (from the southwest) remains significant on western reefs. Net energy calculations that account for seasonal changes in wave energy across the atoll identify a steep west-east gradient that has geomorphic significance for island building. Western reefs are dominated by westerly flowing energy that is 4.5-7 times the total energy input elsewhere in the atoll. Wave energy on central reefs is balanced, whereas net energy on eastern reef platforms is dominated by eastward propagating waves. This steep energy gradient provides a physical explanation for the presence and distribution of islands on reef platforms across the atoll and provides quantitative support for the theory of Gardiner [Gardiner, J.S., 1903. The Fauna and Geography of the Maldives and

  19. Mobile banking: near future of banking

    OpenAIRE

    Gentiana Gjino; Orkida Ilollari (Findiku)

    2014-01-01

    Banks are now being prepared to take advantage of another profit opportunity which is another product usable by all of us, the 'Mobile phone'. The interest over 'Mobile Banking' product is becoming increasingly intense. Applications and new technologies are spreading through European banks mobilized to embrace this profitable product. It is common knowledge that many users of mobile telephony are actively shifted from PC to mobile devices. It still remains to understand: to what extent this n...

  20. Microbial ecology of four coral atolls in the Northern Line Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Dinsdale

    Full Text Available Microbes are key players in both healthy and degraded coral reefs. A combination of metagenomics, microscopy, culturing, and water chemistry were used to characterize microbial communities on four coral atolls in the Northern Line Islands, central Pacific. Kingman, a small uninhabited atoll which lies most northerly in the chain, had microbial and water chemistry characteristic of an open ocean ecosystem. On this atoll the microbial community was equally divided between autotrophs (mostly Prochlorococcus spp. and heterotrophs. In contrast, Kiritimati, a large and populated ( approximately 5500 people atoll, which is most southerly in the chain, had microbial and water chemistry characteristic of a near-shore environment. On Kiritimati, there were 10 times more microbial cells and virus-like particles in the water column and these microbes were dominated by heterotrophs, including a large percentage of potential pathogens. Culturable Vibrios were common only on Kiritimati. The benthic community on Kiritimati had the highest prevalence of coral disease and lowest coral cover. The middle atolls, Palmyra and Tabuaeran, had intermediate densities of microbes and viruses and higher percentages of autotrophic microbes than either Kingman or Kiritimati. The differences in microbial communities across atolls could reflect variation in 1 oceaonographic and/or hydrographic conditions or 2 human impacts associated with land-use and fishing. The fact that historically Kingman and Kiritimati did not differ strongly in their fish or benthic communities (both had large numbers of sharks and high coral cover suggest an anthropogenic component in the differences in the microbial communities. Kingman is one of the world's most pristine coral reefs, and this dataset should serve as a baseline for future studies of coral reef microbes. Obtaining the microbial data set, from atolls is particularly important given the association of microbes in the ongoing degradation

  1. Ethnicity, schooling, and merit in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Werfhorst, Herman G. van de; Van Tubergen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We examine to what extent ethnicity affects academic ability measured in the first year of secondary school and secondary school type in the Netherlands. We focus on second-generation immigrants. The empirical results indicate that academic ability (both in mathematics and language) is not affected by ethnicity, independent of parents’ occupation, education, and resources. On a bivariate level, children of Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands are found relatively often in lower ...

  2. Early yaws, imported in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Engelkens, H J; Oranje, A P; Stolz, E

    1989-01-01

    Early yaws in a 9 year old girl from Ghana, diagnosed as imported disease in The Netherlands is reported. She had lived in The Netherlands for six months. Tropical non-venereal treponematoses are rarely seen in Europe, and only a few case reports have been published. Migration and travelling may confront the medical profession with cases of tropical diseases such as yaws. Positive serological reactions in non-venereal tropical or venereal treponematoses cannot be distinguished at present.

  3. INLAND DUNE VEGETATION OF THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HAVEMAN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Drifting sands in the Netherlands are the result of human over-exploitation (sod-cutting, over-grazing of woodlands and heathlands. The most important association of inland sand dune areas is the Spergulo-Corynephoretum (Corynephorion canescentis, which is poor in vascular plants, but in it older stager rich in mosses and especially lichens. In the Netherlands, the area of drifting sand is reduced dramatically in the last 70 years. mainly by afforestation and spontaneous succession.

  4. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch government wishes to promote the social acceptance of homosexuality. To gain an impression of the current status and the progress in achieving this objective, the government asked the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP to carry out a study of the current statistics and trends in this regard. This report shows that the Netherlands is still the most gay-tolerant country in Europe. Nonetheless, there are limits to that tolerance and there are some groups in Dutch society whi...

  5. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lisette Kuyper; Floor Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Original title: De houding ten opzichte van homoseksualiteit. To date, relatively little systematic research has been carried out on public attitudes to homosexual men and women in the Netherlands - far less than in the United States, for example. SCP has recently carried out a large-scale survey of the attitudes of the Dutch public to homosexuality; this was published earlier this year under the title Just doing what comes naturally. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands (Gewoon doe...

  6. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    M.T.G. Meulenberg; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure attention is paid to the structure of agriculture, the food consumer, food retailing, government policies, competition and marketing channels. Afterwards market conduct with respect to product, pri...

  7. Were Universal Banks More Vulnerable to Banking Failures? Evidence From the 1931 German Banking Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Adalet, Müge

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the 1931 German banking crisis using a bank-level data set. It specifically focuses on the link between banking structure and financial stability. The universality of banks, a key characteristic of the German banking system, is shown to increase the probability of bank failure after controlling for other bank-level characteristics and macroeconomic variables.

  8. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 1. Radionuclide concentrations measured in the terrestrial environment of the atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides technical details of the terrestrial sampling and measurement campaign undertaken as part of the Study of the Radiological Situation at the Atolls of Mururoa, Fangataufa by the Terrestrial Working Group. The primary objective of this group was to evaluate existing French data on the presence of environmental radionuclides on the atolls of Mururoa, Fangataufa and Tureia in French Polynesia. All aspects of the terrestrial environments of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls - the sites of atmospheric and underground nuclear tests - were included in the sampling programme. Tureia Atoll - the nearest inhabited island - was also included in the sampling programme, in order to determine whether deposits from atmospheric testing are detectable there. The task required the co-operation of many different parties in order to provide the supporting logistics for the sampling campaign and the expertise for analysing the different radionuclides of interest in the samples collected. Samples were analysed by members of the IAEA's co-ordinated international network of Analytical Laboratories for Measuring Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) and the Agency's laboratories, Seibersdorf. Samples were also sent to the French Service Mixte de Surveillance Radiologique et Biologique (SMSRB)

  9. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 2. Radionuclide concentrations measured in the aquatic environment of the atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A marine monitoring programme was carried out within the framework of the IAEA's project entitled ''Study of the Radiological Situation at Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls'' with the aim of assessing present radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls. The terms of reference of the marine working group (WG2) included a review of the data provided by the French authorities on radionuclide distributions in the littoral and sub-littoral environments at the atolls. Further, using accredited international laboratories, it was decided to carry out sufficient and new independent monitoring work at and around the atolls in order to validate existing French data and, the same time, to provide a representative and high quality data set on current radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment, with particular reference to the requirement of Task Group A for radiological assessment purposes. This work included measurements of the current radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment, and estimation of concentration factors and Kd values appropriate for the region. The variations in activity concentrations in the lagoons over the past few years are discussed, and the likely sources of activity implied by these data are identified where possible

  10. Methods of Payment to Banks:e- Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Petronella VLAD; Mariana Rodica TIRLEA

    2012-01-01

    E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accoun...

  11. Internet Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Felician ALECU

    2009-01-01

    Σκοπός της εργασίας είναι η μελέτη της Τραπεζικής του Διαδικτύου. Ειδικότερα η διερεύνηση των μελλοντικών εξελίξεων του Internet Banking αλλά και των επιπτώσεων που αναμένεται να επιφέρει η περαιτέρω ανάπτυξή του στην παραδοσιακή Τραπεζική και τον ευρύτερο Τραπεζικό και χρηματοοικονομικό τομέα. Η εργασία είναι οργανωμένη σε τρεις θεματικές ενότητες-κεφάλαια. Στο πρώτο κεφάλαιο γίνεται αναφορά σε θεμελιώδη θέματα που αφορούν την Τραπεζική του Διαδικτύου. Πέρα από τους ορισμούς των Τραπεζικ...

  12. 3 CFR 8337 - Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... abundant marine life, deep sea coral forests, and several new fish and invertebrate species. Rose Atoll supports most of the seabird population of American Samoa, including 12 federally protected migratory... the seabird and turtle species of the Central Pacific. Threatened Pisonia atoll forest trees are...

  13. Methane emissions in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane is the most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Detailed national emission estimates are needed to narrow the gap between world emission estimates and budget results from atmospheric chemistry. These estimates have to be based on sound emission factors and better extrapolation of methane measurement results. The article identifies the most important sources of methane in the Netherlands as landfills, ruminants, manure and the production, distribution and combustion of gas. It explains that emissions from landfills will decrease as a result of policies to reduce landfilling. The encouragement of increased internal use of otherwise vented gas on oil and gas production platforms and the planned extra maintenance of destribution networks should further decrease emissions. Policies to reduce milk and beef surplus and the introduction of new types of stabling and manure handling systems will reduce emissions in the agriculture sector. These measures should produce a total reduction of methane of 20% in 2000 with respect to 1990 levels. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Modern microbialites and their environmental significance, Meiji reef atoll, Nansha (Spratly) Islands, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN JianWei; WANG Yue

    2008-01-01

    Meiji (Mischief) coral atoll, in Nansha (Spratly) Islands, South China Sea, consists of an annular reef rim surrounding a central lagoon. On the atoll rim there are either protuberant 'motu' (small coral patch reefs on the rim of atoll) islets or lower sandy cays that contain modern microbialite deposits on the corals in pinnacles and surrounding bottoms of the atoll. Microbialites, including villiform, hairy, and thin spine growth forms, as well as gelatinous masses, mats and encruststion, developed on coral colonies and atoll rim sediments between 0 and 15 m deep-water settings. The microbialites were produced by natural populations of filamentous cyanobacteria and grew on (1) bulbous corals together with Acropora sp., (2) on massive colonies of Galaxea fascicularis, (3) on dead Montipora digitata, and (4) on dead Acropora teres, some hairy microbialite growing around broken coral branches. This study demonstrates that microbial carbonates are developed in coral reefs of South China Sea and indicates that microbial processes may be important in the construction of modern reef systems. The results have significance in the determination of nature and composition in microorganisms implied in the formation ancient microbialites, and permit evaluation of the importance of microbial deposits in modern coral reefs and of 'microbialites' in biogeochemical cycles of modern coral reef systems. The results also provide evidence of modern analogues for ancient microbialites in shallow-water settings, and combine with sedimentological studies of ancient microbialites to understand their controls.

  15. Impact of Electronic Banking Innovations on Bank Deposit Market Share

    OpenAIRE

    Kashmari A; Nejad AHG; Nayebyazdi A

    2016-01-01

    Development and diversity of electronic banking services is one of the aspects of financial innovation of banks. In Iran’s banking system, the development of multiple channels representing electronic banking services such as SWIFT system, ATM, POS, PIN pads, internet banking, mobile banking and telephone banking are made for more facility in paying money, so today, the development of this channels is one of the most competitive areas between banks for attracting resources. The main purpose of...

  16. Banking Postal Savings Bank in Sight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Nine years of controversy regarding a national postal savings bank is expected to finally conclude this year. In April, the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC)announced the establishment of a new department, one of the main functions of which will be to supervise postal savings.

  17. Kewenangan Bank Indonesia Dalam Likuiditas Bank Umum

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana R

    2008-01-01

    Perbankan merupakan pokok dari sistem keuangan setiap negara, karena perbankan merupakan salah satu motor penggerak pembangunan seluruh bangsa. Krisis perbankan berdampak pada turunnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan. Berbagai masalah di sektor perbankan yang tidak terdeteksi secara dini akan mengakibatkan runtuhnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan, Skripsi mi mengemukakan bagaimana penilaian kesehatan bank umum yang dilakukan oleh Bank Indonesia, bagai...

  18. FOREIGN BANKS WELCOMED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Honoring its WTO commitments, China has begun to allow local incorporation by foreign banks, endowing them with the same status as their Chinese counterparts in an attempt to encourage diversified development in the Chinese banking sector On March 18, Wi

  19. GenBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...

  20. Bank Funding Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart I. Greenbaum; Anjan V. Thakor

    2004-01-01

    We examine a bank's choice of whether to fund the loans it originates by emitting deposits or to sell the loans to investors. With common knowledge of loan quality and laissez faire banking, we find that the choice is irrelevant. With asymmetric information but without government intervention, we find that better quality assets will be sold (securitized) and poorer quality assets will be funded with deposits. Public regulation can influence the bank's choice; subsidies can cause a bank to fav...

  1. Framing a Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Danish bank, Danske Bank, during the 2008 financial crisis and hence in shaping its image projected to the public. Through the study of a number of semantic frames adopted by the Danish print press and those adopted by the Bank, this article will argue for the constructions of the press putting...... considerable strain on the Bank and its image, leading it to reconsider its previous strategy of denial of responsibility...

  2. Securitization and Bank Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Casu, B; Clare, A; Sarkisyan, A.; Thomas, S.

    2013-01-01

    Using predominantly precrisis U.S. commercial bank data, this paper employs a propensity score matching approach to analyze whether individual banks did improve their performance through securitization. On average, our results show that securitizing banks tend to be more profitable institutions, with higher credit risk exposure. Despite a more diversified funding structure, they face higher funding costs. We also find that securitizing banks tend to hold larger and less diversified loan portf...

  3. The Shanxi Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Morck; Fan Yang

    2010-01-01

    The remote inland province of Shanxi was late Qing dynasty China's paramount banking center. Its remoteness and China's almost complete isolation from foreign influence at the time lead historians to posit a Chinese invention of modern banking. However, Shanxi merchants ran a tea trade north into Siberia, travelled to Moscow and St. Petersburg, and may well have observed Western banking there. Nonetheless, the Shanxi banks were unique. Their dual class shares let owners vote only on insiders'...

  4. Early public banks

    OpenAIRE

    Roberds, William; Velde, François R.

    2014-01-01

    Publicly owned or commissioned banks were common in Europe from the fifteenth century. This survey argues that while the early public banks were characterized by great experimentation in their design, a common goal was to create a liquid and reliable monetary asset in environments where such assets were rare or unavailable. The success of these banks was however never guaranteed, and even well-run banks could become unstable over time as their success made them susceptible to fiscal exploitat...

  5. Audit of a bank

    OpenAIRE

    Ambros, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my thesis "Audit of a bank" is to identify and describe the area of external and internal audit in banking and to focus on specifics of bank audit in comparison to external audit of commercial enterprise. The first part is focused on audit of financial statements. In the second part are described the specifics of banking segment. Third part describes internal audit and cooperation between external and internal audit. In the last part there are described methods applied during the ...

  6. Boards of Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ferreira; Tom Kirchmaier; Daniel Metzger

    2011-01-01

    We show that country characteristics explain most of the cross-sectional variation in bank board independence. In contrast, country characteristics have little explanatory power for the fraction of outside bank directors with experience in the banking industry. Exploiting the time-series dimension of the sample, we show that changes in bank characteristics are not robustly associated with changes in board independence, while changes in board experience are positively related to changes in ban...

  7. Mobile banking in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Ho

    2010-01-01

    Technology has transformed the banking industry with the introduction of mobile banking services that offer unprecedented convenience and accessibility to customers. This Asia Focus report describes the various approaches to mobile banking in Asia, and examines how particular countries have addressed regulatory issues.

  8. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  9. Banks on Notice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Regulators issue policies to guide China’s banks as massive loans compromise the banking sector’s ability to contain future risks R egulatory departments are strengthening their supervision over financial institutions to prevent an incomprehensible financial scenario from unfolding: the failure of the Chinese banking

  10. A BANK MANAGER SPEAKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    My name is Jane Carson and I'm the manager of savings bank in Portland,Oregon,My bank is open every day from8:30 in the moming until 4:00 in the aftermoon.On Fridays the bank remains oper until 6:30 in the evening.

  11. Banking on Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The opening up of China’s banking sector took another giant step forward on March 20 when the first four foreign banks gained approval to incorporate locally. After going through commercial registration formalities, the banks will be able to con- duc

  12. Polymer bank notes

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Lang; John Barry

    1999-01-01

    On 3 May 1999 the Bank issued a new $20 bank note into circulation that had been printed on a polymer substrate. This article traces the history of polymer, briefly describes the process of production, and highlights the benefits of the substrate and the implications for the future of bank note handling within the country.

  13. Banking on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internet Research, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…

  14. More Localized Foreign Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The country's banking watchdog says that to engage in the retail renminbi business, foreign banks must become Chinese legal entities According to China's commitment at its accession to the WTO, as of December 11 this year, it will fully open renminbi business to foreign-funded banks. However, this does not mean that the 103 China branches of foreign

  15. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if politica...

  16. Environmental assessment for the resettlement of Eneu Island on Bikini Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This environmental assessment evaluates various alternatives to return the Bikini people to their homeland on Bikini Atoll. Eneu Island was spared the heavy nuclear contamination that rendered Bikini Island, the largest and main inhabitable island on the atoll, presently unsuitable for resettlement. The economic, social, technical and environmental consequences of all alternatives were compared, and alternative sites, purposes and scales for resettlement were included in the analysis. This environmental assessment explores these alternatives in detail and concludes that the resettlement of Eneu Island by some of the Bikini people at this time will not result in significant adverse effects to the environment nor will it foreclose any other full scale resettlement option involving the cleanup of Bikini Atoll. In addition, it concludes that the resettlement of Eneu can be accomplished independently from the planned cleanup and resettlement of Bikini Island. Plans and combination of plans involving the early resettlement of Eneu are fully feasible and implementable at this time. (author)

  17. Some statistical aspects of the cleanup of Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaning up the radionuclide contamination at Enewetak Atoll has involved a number of statistical design problems. Theoretical considerations led to choosing a grid sampling pattern; practical problems sometimes lead to resampling on a finer grid. Other problems associated with using grids have been both physical and statistical. The standard sampling system is an in situ intrinsic gamma detector which measures americium concentration. The cleanup guidelines include plutonium concentration, so additional sampling of soil is required to establish Pu/Am ratios. The soil sampling design included both guidelines for location of the samples and also a special pattern of subsamples making up composite samples. The large variance of the soil, sample results makes comparison between the two types difficult anyway, but this is compounded by vegetation attenuation of the in situ readings, soil disturbance influences, and differences in devegetation methods. The constraints inherent in doing what amounts to a research and development project, on a limited budget of time and money, in a field engineering environment are also considered

  18. Wave transformation and shoreline water level on Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetham, Edward; Kench, Paul S.; O'Callaghan, Joanne; Popinet, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The influence of sea swell (SS) waves, infragravity (IG) waves, and wave setup on maximum runup (Rmax) is investigated across different tidal stages on Fatato Island, Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu. Field results illustrate that SS waves are tidally modulated at the shoreline, with comparatively greater wave attenuation and setup occurring at low tide versus high tide. A shoreward increase in IG wave height is observed across the 100 m wide reef flat at all tidal elevations, with no tidal modulation of IG wave height at the reef flat or island shoreline. A 1-D shock-capturing Green-Naghdi solver is used to replicate the field deployment and analyze Rmax. Model outputs for SS wave height, IG wave height and setup at the shoreline match field results with model skill >0.96. Model outputs for Rmax are used to identify the temporal window when geomorphic activity can occur on the beach face. During periods of moderate swell energy, waves can impact the beach face at spring low tide, due to a combination of wave setup and strong IG wave activity. Under mean wave conditions, the combined influence of setup, IG waves and SS waves results in interaction with island sediment at midtide. At high tide, SS and IG waves directly impact the beach face. Overall, wave activity is present on the beach face for 71% of the study period, a significantly longer duration than is calculated using mean water level and topographic data.

  19. Developing tools to eradicate ecologically destructive ants on Rose Atoll: effectiveness and attractiveness of formicidal baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert; Banko, Paul; Pendleton, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A key factor contributing to the decline in the population of Pisonia grandis on Rose Atoll is an infestation of the non-native scale, Pulvinaria urbicola (Homoptera: Coccidae). Ants, in facultative relationships with scale insects, may facilitate scale population growth and increase their effect on plant hosts. Three ant species found on Rose Atoll, Tetramorium bicarinatum, T. simillimum, and Pheidole oceanica, are capable of tending Pulvinaria on Pisonia and may have contributed to the demise of the trees on the atoll. Replicated trials conducted on Rose Atoll during 17–21 March 2013 tested the effectiveness and relative attractiveness of five formicidal baits potentially to be used to eradicate these ants on the atoll. Three baits contained toxins (hydramethylnon in Amdro® and Maxforce®, indoxacarb in Provaunt®) and two baits contained an insect growth regulator (IGR; pyriproxyfen in Distance® and s-methoprene in Tango®). Amdro, Distance, and Maxforce are granular baits while Provaunt and Tango were mixed with adjuvants to form a gel-like matrix. Results varied among ant species and baits, but Provaunt was highly effective against workers of both Tetramorium species while Amdro and Maxforce were highly effective against T. simillimum and P. oceanica. Limited time on the island prevented the evaluation of the effectiveness of the IGR baits. The relative attractiveness of the baits generally mirrored their ability to kill worker ants. Tetramorium simillimum was attracted to all five baits; T. bicarinatum was attracted to Provaunt, Distance, and Tango; and P. oceanica was attracted to the three granular baits. These results and the small area of Rose Atoll suggest that island-wide application of formicidal baits may result in eradication of these ants, but an application strategy targeting all three species would more likely succeed with the use of multiple baits.

  20. Euthanasia in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Each of the Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands) has enacted legislation that partially decriminalises euthanasia, defined as an act that intentionally terminates someone's life at their request. In the Netherlands and Luxembourg, but not in Belgium, the legislation partially decriminalised assisted suicide at the same time. In all three countries, euthanasia can only be performed by a doctor, in response to the patient's voluntary and well-considered request, and for patients who have an incurable disease that causes unbearable suffering, without any prospect of relief. In the Netherlands, minors can request euthanasia as of the age of 12 years. In 2011, reported euthanasia accounted for about 1% of deaths in Belgium and 3% in the Netherlands. In 75% of cases, cancer was the disease leading to a request for euthanasia. In the Netherlands, the number of cases of euthanasia reported by doctors in surveys matches the number that is officially declared. In Belgium, it is thought that there are as many unreported as reported cases of euthanasia. Since the enactment of euthanasia legislation, fewer deaths involve the intentional administration of lethal drugs without an explicit request from the patient. PMID:24427846

  1. Better borrowers, fewer banks?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe J. Godlewski; Frédéric Lobez; Jean-Christophe Statnik

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between borrower quality and the structure of the pool of banks. First, we develop a theoretical model where the size of the banking pool is a credible signal of firm quality. We argue that better borrowers seek to disclose their quality in a credible way through the structure of the banking pool involving fewer banks. Second, we test our prediction using a sample of more than 3,000 loans from 19 European countries. We perform regressions of the number of bank ...

  2. Extreme Spillover Between Shadow Banking and Regular Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Paraschiv, Florentina; Qin, Minzi

    2013-01-01

    The current financial crisis brought light to a large banking sector that existed for decades within the "darkness" of the financial system - the shadow banking sector. Shadow bank assets are widely traded in the financial markets and shadow banking activities are intertwined with the daily business of regular banks. This unregulated banking sector has become systematically important. Its failure affected the entire banking system. We present a model based on multivariate extreme value theory...

  3. THE BANKING SECTOR - INFLUENCE FACTORS OF BANKING PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela CIOCAN

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines how the banking system is organised in Romania. By comparing the organization of the banking system in Romania with banking systems of certain countries in the European Union, banks typology is highlighted at the international level. The aim of this paper is to highlight the factors influencing the Romanian banking system, the banking system role in the economy as well as the objectives of Romanian banking system. This paper examines indicators as: return on equity, return ...

  4. Central bank capital, financial strength, and the Bank of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Cargill, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    This Economic Letter addresses central bank capital and financial strength in the context of Bank of Japan policy (Cargill 2005). Specifically, it reviews general considerations about central bank capital and financial strength, discusses recent Bank of Japan policy in the context of capital structure, evaluates the Bank of Japan's concern in the context of the broader issue of central bank independence, and draws some lessons from recent Bank of Japan policy.

  5. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure....... The FDIC's experience teaches us three important lessons: First, systemically important financial institutions need to have in their liability structure sufficient unsecured (or otherwise subordinated) term debt so that in the event of bank failure, the conversion of debt into equity will be...

  6. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure....... The FDIC’s experience teaches us three important lessons: first, systemically important institutions need to have in their liability structure sufficient unsecured (or otherwise subordinated) term debt so that in the event of bank failure, the conversion of debt into equity will be sufficient to...

  7. Green growth in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009 the Ministerial Council Meeting of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) committed itself to a green growth strategy. Such a strategy fosters economic growth and development while ensuring that natural resources can continue to provide the ecosystem services on which our well-being relies. It also endorses investment, competition and innovation which will underpin sustained growth and give rise to new economic opportunities. Green growth provides both a policy strategy for implementing this economic transformation and a monitoring framework with a proposed set of indicators. This report presents an overview of the state of green growth in the Netherlands. It should be regarded as a benchmark for a more thorough and comprehensive assessment of green growth in the future. It is based on the set of indicators proposed by the OECD in their intermediate report of February 2011. Data relevant to the Dutch situation are presented for twenty of these indicators, illustrating the observed trends. The indicators are grouped in four themes. For the first theme, environmental efficiency of production, on the whole the indicators show increased efficiency. However, indicators such as greenhouse gas intensity, energy efficiency and material intensity show only relative decoupling, which on its own is not enough to ensure green growth. In addition, the increase in environmental efficiency is partly explained by substitution of imports for domestic production, which is not conducive to green growth on a global scale: the efficiency gains in domestic production, for example, are offset by increases in foreign greenhouse gas emissions. Water use and agricultural nutrient surpluses are the only indicators where absolute decoupling has occurred. The second theme contains indicators regarding the natural assets base. This group of indicators provides a mixed picture. Natural gas reserves are decreasing and the overall level of threat to animal

  8. The Social State of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Rob Bijl; Jeroen Boelhouwer; Evert Pommer

    2007-01-01

    Original title: De sociale staat van Nederland 2007. How is the Dutch population faring? That is the central question addressed in The Social State of the Netherlands 2007. To answer this question, the report describes the position of the Netherlands and the Dutch in a number of key areas of life today and explores whether any changes have taken place in that situation over the last ten years. Have people's incomes improved? Are there more people in work? Are people less troubled by crime? Ha...

  9. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  10. Strategic Plan for Astronomy in the Netherlands 2011-2020

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, P.J.; Kuijken, K.; Stark, R.

    2012-01-01

    Strategic Plan for Astronomy in the Netherlands 2011 - 2020, written by the Netherlands Committee for Astronomy (NCA), on behalf of the excellence research school in astronomy NOVA, (combining the university astronomy institutes of the universities of Amsterdam, Groningen, Leiden and Nijmegen), the NWO division of Physical Sciences, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy ASTRON and the Netherlands Institute for Space Research SRON. The Strategic plan outlines the scientific priorities ...

  11. Report from the NEA Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NEA Data Bank services celebrate its 40th anniversary in 2004. During all these years, the Data Bank's primary role has been to provide scientists in member countries with reliable nuclear data and computer programs for use in different nuclear applications. The services include also Thermochemical data for radioactive waste management applications. The Data Bank organises seminars and workshops to present information on computer programs or groups of programs that are considered to be of special interest to users. Training courses on widely used computer programs are organised a few times a year to ensure a correct and effective use of these programs. The Data Bank member countries are: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and United Kingdom. Users of the Data Bank services include governmental research institutes, industry and universities. By arrangement with IAEA, the Data Bank computer program service covers both Data Bank countries and member states of IAEA, except USA and Canada where a separate agreement covers nuclear data and computer program exchanges. The NEA Data Bank also maintains a close cooperation with the NEA Nuclear Science Section, which provides useful feedback on the performance of computer programs and nuclear data through a number of benchmark studies, especially in the areas of reactor and fuel cycle physics, criticality safety, and radiation shielding. This report describes the Organisation, Nuclear Data Services (EXFOR and CINDA, JANIS-2 and the Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion (JEFF) Project and JEFF-3.1). The computer program services have during its 40 years of existence distributed in total about 67 000 programs upon request. In 2003, the Data Bank acquired 70 new or revised versions of computer codes. During the same period, the NEA distributed more than 1

  12. Banking system in Kyrgyz Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Sagbansu, Lutfu

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the overall banking system and the basic banking system development factors such as internet banking and deposit insurance in the world and particularly in Kyrgyzstan. The analyses show that progress in banking reform, introduction of deposit insurance and internet banking concepts are essential for avoiding harmful problems, development stable and solvent banking system. These developments include the more effective regulation of the entry and exit of banks, removal of ob...

  13. Adopting Internet Banking in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; Betty A. Dankwah

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the benefits, challenges and barriers in adopting Internet banking at a major bank in Ghana. The development of the Internet is changing the way financial services are provided in Ghana. The Internet banking facility has resulted in new ways of delivering banking services. The research is a case study based on the staffs that has worked with the bank for more than three years. In evaluating benefits, challenges and barriers to the bank in adopting Internet banking, intervi...

  14. Customer Experience in Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Michálková, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the field of Customer Experience. The goal is to apply these issues to the banking market and understand what role has the relationship between the bank and the customer due to the prosperity of the bank. The paper describes the current Czech banking market, its trends in recent years and segmentation of bank clients. One of the major changes on the Czech banking market concerns ever increasing competition between banks and increase competition for consumers. Customer Exp...

  15. Do Foreign Banks Lead in Internet Banking Services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooi Guan CHEAH

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet banking has been increasingly used as a delivery channel in retail consumer banking. As far as the provision of internet banking services in developing countries is concerned, foreign banks definitely enjoy distinct advantages over domestic banks due to their experiences in other, more advanced financial markets. This paper reports a study that examined the levels of retail internet banking services provided by foreign and domestic commercial banks in Malaysia over a period of two years. The study found that while foreign banks are marginally more sophisticated at information provision level, domestic banks offer a significantly higher level of transactional facilities in both years.

  16. Missing in action: inclusion and exclusion in the first days of AIDS in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijstelbloem, Huub

    2014-11-01

    Approaches combining social and political theory with ontology have rarely been utilised in the evaluation of decision-making processes. Drawing on such an approach clarifies the questions that still need to be asked about the policy response to HIV/AIDS in The Netherlands in the early 1980s. The initial response in The Netherlands is internationally regarded as an example of successful cooperation between public authorities, health organisations, blood banks and the gay movement. In comparison with other countries, deeply dividing social conflicts as well as dramatic medical disasters were avoided. This image, however, is misleading. Although it was on a smaller scale than the disasters with contaminated blood products in other countries, The Netherlands had their blood scandal too. A reconstruction of this episode offers the opportunity to evaluate the role objects are granted in theories of institutionalisation and to critically examine the procedural notion of politics in actor network theory. The aim of the article is to show that analyses of decision-making processes under conditions of uncertainty ought to engage more carefully with processes of exclusion and the transformative role of objects. PMID:25040626

  17. Radiological conditions at the Southern Islands of Rongelap Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data presented in the following tables is the total available for each southern island; they include both the data from the 1978 Northern Marshall Island Radiological Survey (NMIRS) and trips to Rongelap Atoll from 1986 through 1991. There are additional samples that were taken at Rongelap Island in 1990 and 1991, and the data are unavailable for this report. In one table we present the number of vegetation samples collected in the 1978 NMIRS and from 1986 through 1991. Again, the majority of the 137Cs is from the 1986-1991 trips. We have not made additional analyses of 239+240Pu, 241Am and 90Sr because the concentrations are very low and these radionuclides contribute less than 5% of an already very small dose. In another table we show the number of soil samples collected at each island in 1978 and the number collected since 1986. Most of the data are from 1986 through 1991. The major exception is 90Sr where all of the data are from the 1978 NMIRS. We have done some additional Pu analyses of soils from Rongelap Eniaetok, and Borukka Island but none of the other southern islands. A significant amount of new data for 137Cs and 241Am have been generated from the samples collected from 1986 through 1991. The data are presented in the form of summary tables, graphics, detailed appendices and aerial photographs of the islands with the sample locations marked. The identified sample locations from the 1978 NMIRS will be added later

  18. Characterization studies of actinide contamination on Johnston Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results that indicates that plutonium and americium contamination of Johnson Atoll soil and sludge from the cleanup plant settling pond is dispersed. The 241Am/239Pu ratio was essentially identical for all analyzed material. Except for one ''hot particle,'' no discrete Pu particles were located in untreated coral soil by SEM even though our sample contained both 241Am and 239Pu activity measurable by gammaray spectrometry. Alpha particle spectrometry analysis of sequentially filtered sludge showed small that activity is associated with particles as 0.4 μm in diameter. Thin section analysis revealed that the ''hot particle'' was a fragment of stainless steel with a layer of oxidized Pu, U, and other metals deposited on the outside. This Pu-containing layer was covered with a layer of coral soil that formed on the oxidized Pu/U phase during the process of weathering on JA. Analyses of all samples except the ''hot particle'' with SEM or TEM coupled with EDS did not reveal the presence of any distinct Pu phases, despite measurable activity in these samples. Together, these findings are consistent with the Pu and Am being highly dispersed throughout the contaminated soil and sludge. Direct evidence for association of Pu with coral was observed in the thin section of the ''hot particle.'' A possible mechanism for the dispersal of contamination is that weathering of fragments from the aborted missile leads to complexation of Pu with calcium carbonate followed by adsorption onto the coral soil surface. This process has not led to measurable fractionation of Am from its Pu parent

  19. Banks, regions and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.

  20. Radiological survey of plants, animals, and soil at Christmas Island and seven atolls in the Marshall Islands. Progress report for 1974--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Division of Operational Safety or DOS (now Safety Standards and Compliance) portion of the Laboratory of Radiation Ecology (LRE) Pacific Radiocology Program (formerly Johnston Atoll Program) began on 1 July 1974 and is continuing. The purpose of this program is to determine the kinds and amounts of radionuclides distributed in the foods, plants, animals, and soil of the Central Pacific, especially the Marshall Islands. Five field trips were conducted for this program between April 1974 and August 1975, and about 600 samples were collected. Results of the analyses indicate that 90Sr and 137Cs are dominant in the terrestrial environment and, in addition, 241Am and /sup 239,240/Pu are also important in the soil from Bikini and Rongelap atolls. Cobalt-60 and 55Fe are predominant in the marine environment together with naturally occurring 40K. Amounts of radioactivity vary between atolls and between islands within an atoll in relation to the distance from the nuclear weapons test sites. Bikini atoll has the highest amounts of radioactivity, but the northern islands of Rongelap Atoll have only slightly lower amounts. Rongerik and Ailinginae atolls and the southern islands of Rongelap Atoll have similar amounts of radioactivity which are lower than Bikini by factors of 5 to 10 or more. Values at Utirik Atoll are lower still, but are higher than amounts at Wotho and Kwajalein atolls. Christmas Island in the Line Islands has the least amount of radioactivity of the areas surveyed for this report

  1. Johnston Atoll Site 3A-P 7/1/2000 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 3AP 16 45.260N, 169 31.039W, between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Midway Atoll Site P2C 9/21/2002 20-21M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P2C 28.260 N, 177.345 W, between 20 and 21 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Rose Atoll Site 26P 6/22/2005 (2)M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P (14 32.465S, 168 09.472W), at meter 2 along a permanent transect.

  4. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P9 9/28/2002 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P9 (27.794 N, 175.859 W), between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent...

  5. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 30-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 25P 7/30/1999 15-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 25P (14 32.297S, 168 09.327W), between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P12 9/29/2002 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P12 (27.763 N, 175.973 W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent...

  8. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P9 9/28/2002 42-43M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P9 (27.794 N, 175.859 W), between 42 and 43 meters along a permanent...

  9. Rose Atoll Site 25P 7/30/1999 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 25P (14 32.297S, 168 09.327W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P12 9/29/2002 56-57M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P12 (27.763 N, 175.973 W), between 56 and 57 meters along a permanent...

  11. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P12 9/29/2002 59-60M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P12 (27.763 N, 175.973 W), between 59 and 60 meters along a permanent...

  12. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P12 9/29/2002 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P12 (27.763 N, 175.973 W), between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent...

  13. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P12 9/29/2002 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P12 (27.763 N, 175.973 W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent...

  14. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/20/2002 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280S, 168 09.878W), between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 10-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/29/1999 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P (14 32.282S, 168 09.218W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/29/1999 23-24M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P (14 32.282S, 168 09.218W), between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 47-46M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 47 and 48 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Rose Atoll Site 29P 3/9/2006 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P 14 32.227S, 168 09.122W, between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/28/2004 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P 14 32.282S, 168 09.218W, between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 1/23/2006 9-10M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1AP 16 46.909N, 169 27.757W, between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Rose Atoll Site 27P 2/21/2012 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 27P 14 33.038S, 168 09.251W, between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/31/1999 9-10.5M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-B 9/6/2006 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30PB 05 52.907N, 162 07.218W, between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 26-27M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 26 and 27 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 30-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 29-30M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 29 and 30 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 48-49M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 48 and 49 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 0-1M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 0 and 1 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 8-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 8 and 9 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 9-10M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 49-50M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 49 and 50 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 1-2M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 1 and 2 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 40-41M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 40 and 41 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 4-5M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 4 and 5 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 45-46M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 45 and 46 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 19-20M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 19 and 20 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 27-28M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 27 and 28 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 31-32M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 22-23M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 47-48M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 47 and 48 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 50-51M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 50 and 51 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 24-25M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 24 and 25 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 20-21M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 20 and 21 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 42-43M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 42 and 43 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 39-40M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 39 and 40 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 14-15M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 14 and 15 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 15-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 41-42M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 41 and 42 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 43-44M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 43 and 44 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 3-4M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 3 and 4 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 23-24M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 36-37M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-B 9/6/2006 23-24M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30P-B (05 52.907N, 162 07.218W), between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 7-8M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 27-28M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P 05 52.291N, 162 06.738W, between 27 and 28 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 29-30M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P 05 52.291N, 162 06.738W, between 29 and 30 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Palmyra Atoll Site 27P 9/21/2004 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 27P 05 52.868N, 162 02.529W, between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Midway Atoll Site P18 12/4/2002 12-13M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P18 28.263 N, 177.337 W, between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P1 6/13/2000 66-67M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Pearl Hermes Atoll, site P1 27.831N, 175.751 W, between 66 and 67 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Midway Atoll Site P16 12/3/2002 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P16 (28.277 N, 177.368 W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/28/2004 29-30M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P 14 32.282S, 168 09.218W, between 29 and 30 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Rose Atoll Site 26P 3/6/2006 44-45M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P 14 32.465S, 168 09.472W, between 44 and 45 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Rose Atoll Site 26P 2/23/2012 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P 14 32.465S, 168 09.472S, between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Midway Atoll Site P17 12/4/2002 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P17 (28.231 N, 177.318 W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Palmyra Atoll Site 27P 9/21/2004 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 27P 05 52.868N, 162 02.529W, between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P 05 52.291N, 162 06.738W, between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Palmyra Atoll Site 27P 9/21/2004 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 27P 05 52.868N, 162 02.529W, between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P 05 52.291N, 162 06.738W, between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 1/23/2006 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1AP 16 46.909N, 169 27.757W, between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P 05 52.291N, 162 06.738W, between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of 137Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff

  10. Rose Atoll Site 10P 2/19/2012 19-20M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 19 and 20 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Rose Atoll Site 14P 2/21/2012 31-32M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 14P (14 33.071S, 168 09.421W), between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 3/15/2002 22-23M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P 05 52.221N, 162 02.697W, between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Midway Atoll Site P16 12/3/2002 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P16 (28.277 N, 177.368 W), between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Midway Atoll Site P17 12/4/2002 39-40M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P17 (28.231 N, 177.318 W), between 39 and 40 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Midway Atoll Site P17 12/4/2002 14-15M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P17 (28.231 N, 177.318 W), between 14 and 15 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/30/2004 4-5M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 4 and 5 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Rose Atoll Site 10P 2/19/2012 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Midway Atoll Site P16 12/3/2002 31-32M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P16 28.277 N, 177.368 W, between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Rose Atoll Site 29P 7/31/2004 51-52M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P 14 32.227S, 168 09.122W, between 51 and 52 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 44-45M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P 05 52.291N, 162 06.738W, between 44 and 45 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 1/23/2006 46-47M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1AP 16 46.909N, 169 27.757W, between 46 and 47 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Midway Atoll Site P20 12/6/2002 49-50M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P20 28.271 N, 177.385 W, between 49 and 50 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/30/2004 46-47M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 46 and 47 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Midway Atoll Site P17 12/4/2002 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P17 28.231 N, 177.318 W, between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/28/2004 36-37M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P 14 32.282S, 168 09.218W, between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 26P 7/29/2004 36-37M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P 14 32.465S, 168 09.472S, between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 6/29/2000 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1AP 16 47.170N, 169 27.908W, between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Midway Atoll Site P14 9/24/2002 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P14 28.241 N, 177.371 W, between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Midway Atoll Site P19 12/5/2002 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P19 28.193 N, 177.401 W, between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Johnston Atoll Site 1B-P 6/29/2000 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1BP 16 47.147N, 169 27.695W, between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Rose Atoll Site 14P 2/21/2012 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 14P 14 33.071S, 168 09.421W, between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Midway Atoll Site P2 9/21/2002 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P2 28.260 N, 177.345 W, between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 9-10M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 59-60M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 59 and 60 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 84-85M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 84 and 85 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 3-4M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 3 and 4 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 64-65M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 64 and 65 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 77-78M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 77 and 78 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 52-53M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 52 and 53 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 58-59M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 58 and 59 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 83-84M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 83 and 84 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 58-59M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 58 and 59 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 0-1M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 0 and 1 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 50-51M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 50 and 51 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 75-76M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 75 and 76 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 90-91M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 90 and 91 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 85-86M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 85 and 86 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 54-55M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 54 and 55 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 57-58M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 57 and 58 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 29-30M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 29 and 30 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 61-62M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 61 and 62 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 57-58M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 57 and 58 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 63-64M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 63 and 64 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 81-82M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 81 and 82 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 79-80M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 79 and 80 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 75-76M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 75 and 76 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 86-87M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 86 and 87 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 19-20M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 19 and 20 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 80-81M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 80 and 81 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 36-37M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 6-7M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 6 and 7 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 83-84M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 83 and 84 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 67-68M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 67 and 68 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 89-90M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 89 and 90 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 30-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 76-77M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 76 and 77 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 81-82M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 81 and 82 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 82-83M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 82 and 83 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 24-25M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 24 and 25 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 76-77M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 76 and 77 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 7-8M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 55-56M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 55 and 56 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 79-80M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 79 and 80 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 66-67M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 66 and 67 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 53-54M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 53 and 54 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 61-62M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 61 and 62 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 14-15M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 14 and 15 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 15-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 26-27M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 26 and 27 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 80-81M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 80 and 81 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 15-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 24-25M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 24 and 25 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 74-75M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 74 and 75 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 27-28M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 27 and 28 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 60-61M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 60 and 61 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 77-78M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 77 and 78 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 20-21M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 20 and 21 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 12-13M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 74-75M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 74 and 75 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 78-79M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 78 and 79 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 87-88M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 87 and 88 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 8-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 8 and 9 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 62-63M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 62 and 63 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 91-92M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 91 and 92 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 1-2M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 1 and 2 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 84-85M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 84 and 85 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 82-83M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 82 and 83 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 56-57M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 56 and 57 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 31-32M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 51-52M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 51 and 52 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 60-61M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 60 and 61 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 88-89M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 88 and 89 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 59-60M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 59 and 60 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 78-79M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 78 and 79 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 22-23M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Rose Atoll Site 7P 2/20/2012 9-10M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 7P 14 32.967S, 168 10.086W, between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Rose Atoll Site 10P 2/19/2012 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 6/29/2000 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1AP 16 47.170N, 169 27.908W, between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 10P 7/30/2004 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Rose Atoll Site 10P 2/19/2012 36-37M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 7-8M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P 05 52.291N, 162 06.738W, between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Rose Atoll Site 10P 2/19/2012 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Palmyra Atoll Site 27P 9/21/2004 46-47M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 27P (05 52.868N, 162 02.529W), between 46 and 47 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Midway Atoll Site P17 12/4/2002 22-23M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P17 (28.231 N, 177.318 W), between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Midway Atoll Site P16 12/3/2002 47-48M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P16 (28.277 N, 177.368 W), between 47 and 48 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Johnston Atoll Site 2A-P 6/30/2000 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2A-P (16 45.815N, 169 30.706W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Rose Atoll Site 10P 2/19/2012 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/28/2004 51-52M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P 14 32.282S, 168 09.218W, between 51 and 52 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  17. Rose Atoll Site 13P 2/19/2012 0-1M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 0 and 1 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Rose Atoll Site 9P 3/9/2006 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Rose Atoll Site 28P 7/29/2004 46-47M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 28P 14 32.300S, 168 09.401W, between 46 and 47 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 3/31/2004 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P 05 52.219N, 162 02.697W, between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.