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Sample records for bangladeshi population results

  1. Validity of mathematical proportions in maxillary anterior teeth among Bangladeshi population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monwarul Aziz; Md Zakir Hossain

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the existence and suitability of mathematical proportions between the widths of maxillary anterior teeth in Bangladeshi population having an esthetic smile, with the aid of digital...

  2. Validity of mathematical proportions in maxillary anterior teeth among Bangladeshi population

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    Monwarul Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the existence and suitability of mathematical proportions between the widths of maxillary anterior teeth in Bangladeshi population having an esthetic smile, with the aid of digital photographs and computer analysis. Place of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics of Dhaka Dental College and Hospital, Dhaka. Period of Study: The study was conducted from April 2016 to September 2016. Sample Selection: The study samples collected from Students of Dhaka Dental College, Mirpur-14, Dhaka, Bangladesh, with age limit 18–35 years. Materials and Methods: Standardized frontal images of 100 dental students of Dhaka Dental College were captured. All the images were downloaded to a personal computer, and width of each tooth was measured by the scale tool of Photoshop CS version 8.0. All the data were analyzed (through standard statistical method using Statistical Package for Social Science Software version 20 (IBM Corp., USA. Results: The golden proportion existed in 17% of the perceived width ratios of lateral incisor to central incisor and 4% of the width ratios of canine to lateral incisor in natural dentition. Sixty-six percent lateral incisors are following the golden percentage, but only 7% central incisors and 21% canines are following the golden percentage. The recurring esthetic dental (RED proportion existed in only 4% of participants. Conclusions: The golden proportion, golden percentage, and the RED proportion cannot be used as constant proportions to create a harmonious proportion throughout the width of maxillary anterior teeth. The adjusted golden percentage might serve as a guideline to create harmonious proportions in maxillary anterior teeth for Bangladeshi population.

  3. Validity of mathematical proportions in maxillary anterior teeth among Bangladeshi population

    OpenAIRE

    Monwarul Aziz; Md. Zakir Hossain

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the existence and suitability of mathematical proportions between the widths of maxillary anterior teeth in Bangladeshi population having an esthetic smile, with the aid of digital photographs and computer analysis. Place of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics of Dhaka Dental College and Hospital, Dhaka. Period of Study: The study was conducted from April 2016 to September 2016. Sample Selection: The study samp...

  4. Cigarette smoking causes hearing impairment among Bangladeshi population.

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    Ahmed Faisal Sumit

    Full Text Available Lifestyle including smoking, noise exposure with MP3 player and drinking alcohol are considered as risk factors for affecting hearing synergistically. However, little is known about the association of cigarette smoking with hearing impairment among subjects who carry a lifestyle without using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. We showed here the influence of smoking on hearing among Bangladeshi subjects who maintain a lifestyle devoid of using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. A total of 184 subjects (smokers: 90; non-smokers: 94 were included considering their duration and frequency of smoking for conducting this study. The mean hearing thresholds of non-smoker subjects at 1, 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were 5.63 ± 2.10, 8.56±5.75, 21.06 ± 11.06, 40.79 ± 20.36 decibel (dB, respectively and that of the smokers were 7 ± 3.8, 13.27 ± 8.4, 30.66 ± 12.50 and 56.88 ± 21.58 dB, respectively. The hearing thresholds of the smokers at 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were significantly (p5 years showed higher level of auditory threshold (62.16 ± 19.87 dB at 12 kHz frequency compared with that (41.52 ± 19.21 dB of the subjects smoked for 1-5 years and the difference in auditory thresholds was statistically significant (p<0.0002. In this study, the Brinkman Index (BI of smokers was from 6 to 440 and the adjusted odds ratio showed a positive correlation between hearing loss and smoking when adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI. In addition, age, but not BMI, also played positive role on hearing impairment at all frequencies. Thus, these findings suggested that cigarette smoking affects hearing level at all the frequencies tested but most significantly at extra higher frequencies.

  5. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus in Bangladeshi general population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamun-Al Mahtab; Salimur Rahman; Md. Fazal Karim; Mobin Khan; Graham Foster; Susannah Solaiman; Shahrin Afroz

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is encountered sporadically the year round in Bangladesh. It results in a wide range of liver diseases, with asymptomatic acute hepatitis at one end to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the other end of the spectrum. METHODS: All 1018 individuals of different age groups and sex with varied religious, educational and social backgrounds were tested for HBsAg by ELISA. The positive samples were further tested by ELISA for HBeAg. Before testing, blood samples were preserved at-20℃. The study was conducted in a semi-urban location on the outskirts of Dhaka. RESULTS: Of the 1018 individuals, 5.5%tested positive for HBsAg. None were tested positive for anti-HCV. Among the HBsAg-positive population, 58.93% were HBeAg-positive and the rest 41.07% HBeAg-negative. There was a male predominance and those who were tested positive were mostly between 16 and 50 years of age. Major risk factors for exposure to HBV appeared to be injudicious use of injectable medications, treatment by unqualiifed, traditional practitioners, mass-vaccination against cholera and smallpox, barbers and body piercing. CONCLUSION: HBV remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh and we have a long way to go before we may bid farewell to this deadly menace.

  6. Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Bangladeshi General Population

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    Mamun Al-Mahtab

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C virus is encountered sporadically in Bangladesh. It results in a wide range liver diseases, with asymptomatic acute hepatitis rarely at one end to HCC at the other end of the spectrum. Methods: 1018 individuals of different age groups and sex with varied religious, educational and social backgrounds were tested for anti-HCV by ELISA. Before testing, blood samples were preserved at -20°C. The study was conducted in a semi-urban location on the outskirts of Dhaka. Results: 0.88% tested positive for anti HCV. None of them tested positive for HBsAg. There was a male predominance and those who tested positive were mostly between 17 and 50 years of age. Major risk factors for exposure to HBV appeared to be injudicious use of injectable medications, treatment by unqualified, traditional practitioners, mass-vaccination against cholera and smallpox, barbers and body piercing. Conclusion: HCV remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. Key words: HCV; prevalence; general population; Bangladesh.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i1.3705 BSMMU J 2009; 2(1: 14-17

  7. Healthcare worker and family caregiver hand hygiene in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities: results from the Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, L M; Unicomb, L; Alam, M-U; Halder, A K; Shoab, A K; Ghosh, P K; Opel, A; Islam, M K; Luby, S P

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities. We used probability proportional to size sampling to select 100 rural and urban population clusters, and then surveyed hand hygiene infrastructure in 875 inpatient healthcare facilities, observing behaviour in 100 facilities. More than 96% of facilities had 'improved' water sources, but environmental contamination occurred frequently around water sources. Soap was available at 78-92% of handwashing locations for doctors and nurses, but just 4-30% for patients and family. Only 2% of 4676 hand hygiene opportunities resulted in recommended actions: using alcohol sanitizer or washing both hands with soap, then drying by air or clean cloth. Healthcare workers performed recommended hand hygiene in 9% of 919 opportunities: more after patient contact (26%) than before (11%). Family caregivers frequently washed hands with only water (48% of 2751 opportunities), but with little soap (3%). Healthcare workers had more access to hand hygiene materials and performed better hand hygiene than family, but still had low adherence. Increasing hand hygiene materials and behaviour could improve infection control in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic diversity study on 12 X-STR loci of investigator® Argus X STR kit in Bangladeshi population.

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    Sufian, Abu; Hosen, Md Ismail; Fatema, Kaniz; Hossain, Tania; Hasan, Md Mahamud; Mazumder, Ashish Kumar; Akhteruzzaman, Sharif

    2016-12-08

    The X-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) loci are of particular interest for solving complex kinship and paternity cases. Here, we report the genetic data from 209 unrelated Bangladeshi individuals (102 males and 107 females) that were genotyped using the 12 X-chromosomal STR markers included in the Investigator® Argus X-12 kit (Qiagen). The 12 X-STR markers are located in four linkage groups (linkage group I: DXS10135, DXS10148, and DXS8378; linkage group II: DXS7132, DXS10079, and DXS10074; linkage group III: DXS10103, HPRTB, and DXS10101; and linkage group IV: DXS10146, DXS10134, and DXS7423). Allelic frequencies of the 12 X-STR loci and haplotype frequencies of the four linkage groups were investigated. No significant difference was observed in the allele frequencies of males and females. Distributions of heterozygosity were observed from 64.5 to 92.5% among the studied 12 X STR loci. DXS10135 and DXS10101 loci were found to be most polymorphic. For all the four linkage groups, the haplotype diversity was found to be greater than 0.986. A total of 95, 73, 66, and 74 haplotypes were observed in linkage groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests showed no significant deviation from expected values for all 12 loci (p > 0.05). The exact test for pairwise linkage disequilibrium for the 12 loci in the male samples did not show any significant linkage disequilibrium except the DXS10103 and DXS10101 loci after the p values were corrected by Bonferroni's correction for multiple testing (p > 0.05/66). A combined power of discrimination in male and female individuals were 0.999999998159791 and 0.999999999999993, respectively. The combined mean exclusion chance were 0.999997635 in deficiency cases, 0.999999996 in normal trio cases, and 0.999999178 in duo cases. The currently investigated Bangladeshi population showed significant differences when compared with previously reported X-STR data from other 12 populations. The results of the

  9. Panoramic radiological study to identify locally displaced maxillary canines in Bangladeshi population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alif, Sheikh Mohammad [Northern University, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haque, Sejuty [Bangladesh Dental College, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Nimmi, Naima; Ashraf, Ali [AIKO Dental Clinic and Implant Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Khan, Saeed Hossain; Khan, Mahfujul Haq [WHO Collaborating Centre and Ibrahim Medical College, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2011-12-15

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of maxillary canine impaction on a basis of a single panoramic radiograph in Bangladeshi population. A random sample of seven hundred panoramic radiographs was collected from the patient record of a dental clinic. All the selected panoramic radiographs were taken from January 2009 to August 2010 by a single panoramic radiograph machine with the same exposure time (19 seconds) for all radiographs. One hundred and twenty panoramic radiographs were excluded to minimize the selection bias. In a dim lit room, an observer assessed the radiographs on a standard radiographic light box. The position of the impacted maxillary canine was recorded in line with the longitudinal axis of a tooth using the edge of a metal ruler. Data were subsequently put on SPSS 11.5 software and chi-square (x{sup 2}) tests were applied to find out the association. Among 580 panoramic radiographs it was found that impacted maxillary canines were present in only 7 (1.2%) radiographs. A statistical significant difference was found between the age of the patients and the vertical position of the impacted canines (p=0.000) and between the age of the patients and the horizontal position of the impacted canines (p=0.003). The prevalence was found to be low compared with the present study from the limitation of panoramic image. Further study needs to include three-dimensional imaging modality.

  10. Adolescents’ Level of Perceived Stress and its Relationship with Body Mass Index in a Bangladeshi Population

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    Sarker Shamima Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several behavioral factors, specially stress, eating behavior, and physical activity have been linked with adolescent obesity. In our country, mental health of adolescents is often neglected. So, we designed this study to describe the current perception of stress in Bangladeshi adolescent students. Objective: Aim of this study was to assess association between stress and body mass index of adolescents while controlling for physical activity and examining stress associated eating behavior. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 278 adolescent students during the period from January to December 2013. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire which included physical activity questions, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ, Adolescent stress questionnaire (ASQ and standard anthropometric measurements and were analyzed statistically using SPSS version 21.0. Results: In this study majority of the respondents were males. Among the female respondents, about 12.23% were overweight and obese compared to their male peers (4.1%. The normal and high BMI adolescents in the study showed significantly different proportions regarding gender (p<0.001, father’s education (p=0.036 and smoking status (p=0.22. Findings in this study reveals negative correlation between physical activity score and body mass index (ρ=−0.15, p<0.05. Body mass index was found significantly correlated with all three DEBQ eating subscales the restraint score, emotional eating score (ρ=0.58 p<0.001, and external eating score (ρ=0.55, p<0.001. Based on sample data, the mean stress scores were due to home life (3.40±0.54, school performance (3.31±0.63, school attendance (2.42±0.87, romantic relationship (3.02±0.92, peer pressure (2.85±0.72, due to teacher interaction (2.89±0.56, future uncertainty (3.83±0.90, school/leisure conflict (3.55±0.68, financial pressure (2.99±0.79 and emerging adult responsibility (3

  11. Overjet, overbite and dental midline shift as predictors of tooth size discrepancy in a Bangladeshi population and a graphical overview of global tooth size ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Iida, Junichiro

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to measure and compare tooth size ratios in a Bangladeshi population across the following groups: those with normal occlusion, crowding or spacing; those with normal, increased or decreased overjet; those with normal, increased or decreased overbite; those with or without dental mid-line discrepancy; and those with or without lip competence. It also presents a graphical overview of the anterior and overall ratios from the study and using available global data. This study was performed on dental casts of 260 Bangladeshi individuals, comprising 114 males and 146 females (age range, 18-24 years, mean age = 20). The Bolton anterior ratio and overall ratio were determined for the following groups: those with normal occlusion, crowding or spacing; those with normal, increased or decreased overjet; those with normal, increased or decreased overbite; those with or without dental mid-line discrepancy; and those with or without lip competence. There were statistically significant differences in the anterior tooth size ratios between those with or without dental mid-line discrepancy, with a mean value of 78.83% and 80.05%, respectively. Statistically significant differences were also found in overall tooth size ratios between those with normal, increased or decreased overjet and also between those with normal, increased or decreased overbite. Graphical presentations of anterior and overall ratios from the present study and using global data showed variations between populations. In the Bangladeshi population, increased tooth size ratios in subjects with dental mid-line discrepancy (anterior ratio) and also in those with decreased overjet or decreased overbite (overall ratio) may be predictors of tooth size discrepancies. The graphical overview also suggests that different international ethnic groups display unique Bolton ratios.

  12. Genetic diversity and maternal origin of Bangladeshi chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M S A; Chen, Shanyuan; Faruque, S; Bhuiyan, A K F H; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2013-06-01

    Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenous chickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (ΦST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenous chicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of

  13. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Rubina Khan; Tazin Aziz Chaudhury

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as a...

  14. Association of periodontal disease with lifestyle, diabetes mellitus and oral health care practices in an indigenous Bangladeshi population

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    K Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the potential association of periodontal diseases among the indigenous "Garo" population in Bangladesh with their lifestyle, diabetes mellitus and routine oral health care practices. Adult males and females of the community were selected for the study. Data were recorded through one to one, face-to-face interview using a set of standard questionnaire. All teeth except the third molars were examined at 6 sites for gingival colour and swelling, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depths (PPD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Gingival Index (GI was recorded according to Loe and Silness. The greatest score for each of the 6 sites was used for assessing the PPD and CAL. Of 240 subjects, 64% were female. The mean number of teeth present was 26, and the mean number of affected teeth was 8.9 (PPD ≥3 mm. The mean ± standard deviations of GI, PPD and CAL of the community were 0.43±0.70, 2.34±0.47 and 2.70±0.77 respectively. Betel-leaf was chewed by 75%, 57.5% were tooth brush user and remaining 42.5% used traditional ways. A statistically significant difference in PPD and CAL was found between smokers and non-smokers; tooth-brush users and non-users; diabetics and non-diabetics. PPD and CAL were significantly high among frequent betel-leaf chewers and in older age-group. Without having an access to a professional dentist or part of any oral health care awareness programme, the relatively low prevalence of periodontal diseases can possibly be attributed, in part, to the traditional eating habits of the indigenous "Garo" population.

  15. Work stress and hair cortisol levels among workers in a Bangladeshi ready-made garment factory - Results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinisch, Maria; Yusuf, Rita; Li, Jian; Stalder, Tobias; Bosch, Jos A; Rahman, Omar; Strümpell, Christian; Ashraf, Hasan; Fischer, Joachim E; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    that job promotion may result in poorer mental well-being. Moreover, being promoted in the Bangladeshi RMG industry may represent a stressful experience: job promotions are rare in this setting and are associated with the need to meet exceptional job-related demands. Further research from ethnic and culturally diverse occupational settings is needed to test this hypothesis, to shed light on the reproducibility of our findings and to improve our understanding of the psychobiological implications of psychosocial working conditions across cultures and contexts.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genes and lung cancer susceptibility in the Bangladeshi population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin; Maizbha Uddin Ahmed; Mohammad Safiqul Islam; Mohammad Siddiqul Islam; Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed; Yearul Kabir; Abul Hasnat

    2014-01-01

    To verify possible associations between polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase Mu (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase θ (GSTT1) and glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP1) genes and susceptibility to lung cancer. Methods: A total of 106 lung cancer patients and 116 controls were enrolled in a case-control study. The GSTM1 and GSTT1 were analyzed using PCR while GSTP1 was analyzed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Risk of lung cancer was estimated as odds ratio at 95% confidence interval using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, and tobacco use. Results: GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null genotypes did not show a significant risk for developing lung cancer. A significantly elevated lung cancer risk was associated with GSTP1 heterozygous, mutant and combined heterozygous+mutant variants of rs1695. When classified by tobacco consumption status, no association with risk of lung cancer was found in case of tobacco smokers and nonsmokers carrying null and present genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1. There is a three-fold (approximately) increase in the risk of lung cancer in case of both heterozygous (AG) and heterozygous+mutant homozygous (AG+GG) genotypes whereas there is an eight-fold increase in risk of lung cancer in cases of GG with respect to AA genotype in smokers. Conclusions: Carrying the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype is not a risk factor for lung cancer and GSTP1Ile105Val is associated with elevated risk of lung cancer.

  17. Genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1,GSTP1 and GSTT1 genes and lung cancer susceptibility in the Bangladeshi population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mir; Muhammad; Nasir; Uddin; Maizbha; Uddin; Ahmed; Mohammad; Safiqul; Islam; Mohammad; Siddiqul; Islam; Muhammad; Shahdaat; Bin; Sayeed; Yearul; Kabir; Abul; Hasnat

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To verify possible associations between polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase Mu(GSTM1),glutathione S-transferase θ(GSTT1) and glutathione S-transferase Pi(GSTP1)genes and susceptibility to lung cancer.Methods:A total of 106 lung cancer patients and 116 controls were enrolled in a case-control study.The GSTM1 and GSTT1 were analyzed using PCR while GSTP1 was analyzed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism.Risk of lung cancer was estimated as odds ratio at 95%confidence interval using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for age,sex,and tobacco use.Results:GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null genotypes did not show a significant risk for developing lung cancer.A significandy elevated lung cancer risk was associated with GSTP1 heterozygous,mutant and combined heterozygous+mutant variants of rs1695.When classified by tobacco consumption status,no association with risk of lung cancer was found in case of tobacco smokers and nonsmokers carrying null and present genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTTL There is a three-fold(approximately) increase in the risk of lung cancer in case of both heterozygous(AG) and heterozygous+mutant homozygous(AG+GG) genotypes whereas there is an eightfold increase in risk of lung cancer in cases of GG with respect to AA genotype in smokers.Conclusions:Carrying the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype is not a risk factor for lung cancer and GSTP1Ile105 Val is associated with elevated risk of lung cancer.

  18. Respiratory burst enzymes, pro-oxidants and antioxidants status in Bangladeshi population with β-thalassemia major

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    Md. Faruk Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including β-thalassemia. Aim: The study was to estimate the status of respiratory burst enzymes, pro-oxidants, and antioxidants in β-thalassemia major patients in Bangladesh and to compare with apparently healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 49 subjects were recruited which included 25 patients (age range 5 to 40 years with β-thalassemia major and 24 controls (age and sex matched. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT represented respiratory burst enzymes; malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid hydroperoxide (LHP, and xanthine oxidase (XO were measured as pro-oxidants; and glutathione S transferase (GST, vitamin C (Vit.C, and glutathione (GSH were the measured antioxidants. Results: The activity of SOD was significantly (P < 0.001 increased by about 79% and the activity of CAT was significantly (P < 0.001 decreased by more than 34% in the blood of β-thalassemia major patients compared to the control group. The content of pro-oxidants such as MDA, LHP, and XO was significantly (P < 0.001 higher in patients by about 228%, 241.3% and 148.1% respectively compared to control group. The level of GSH and Vit.C were significantly (P = 0.000 decreased in patients by about 59% and 81% versus the healthy group, respectively; and GST activity was significantly (P < 0.001 declined by 44.25% in patients group. Conclusion: β-thalassemia major patients demonstrate raised oxidative stress compared to healthy subjects.

  19. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

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    Rubina Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills

  20. Comprehensive assessment of metabolic syndrome among rural Bangladeshi women

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    Jesmin Subrina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MS, defined as a constellation of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, is one of the fastest growing public health burdens in the Asia-Pacific region. This trend is despite the fact that people in this region are no more overweight than Europeans and Americans. Unfortunately, in South Asia, MS screening has only been performed in a few countries other than Bangladesh. Therefore the present study is designed to conduct a comprehensive screening of MS in Bangladeshi rural women, which includes estimation of prevalence and assessment of risk factor. Methods A total of 1535 rural Bangladesh women aged ≥ 15 years were studied using a population based cross-sectional survey. The prevalence of MS was estimated using NCEP ATP III, modified NCEP ATP III and IDF criteria. Results The prevalence rates of MS were 25.60% (NCEP ATP III, 36.68% (modified NCEP ATP III, and 19.80% (IDF, as revealed by the present study. Furthermore, based on the NCEP ATP III criteria, 11.60% of the subjects were found to have excess waist circumference; 29.12% had elevated blood pressure, 30.42% had elevated fasting plasma glucose level, 85.47% had low HDL values and 26.91% had increased triglyceride values. Low plasma HDL level was found to be the most common abnormality in the target population and elevated waist circumference was the least frequent component. Conclusions The present study reveals a high prevalence of MS and its associated risk factors in rural Bangladeshi women. These findings are important in that they provide insights that will be helpful in formulating effective public health policy, notably the development of future health prevention strategies in Bangladesh.

  1. Bacteriuria in pregnancy: a comparison of Bangladeshi and Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versi, E; Chia, P; Griffiths, D J; Harlow, B L

    1997-01-01

    During a 5-year period all urine culture results from pregnant Caucasian and Bangladeshi women booked for confinement at the Royal London Hospital, London, UK, were reviewed to determine race-specific rates of bacteriuria. The results showed that the overall prevalence of bacteriuria in the Caucasian group was 6.3% compared to 2.0% for the Bangladeshi women. Caucasian women were found to be at significantly greater risk across all pregnancy outcome and history categories, with the greatest risk observed in grand multiparous women (RR: 4.7, 95% CI: 2.8-8.3). Pregnancies that resulted in preterm delivery showed a strong association of bacteriuria in Caucasian women which was not seen in the Bangladeshi women (RR: 4.4, 95% CI: 2.0-8.7). The data suggest that Caucasian women have a significantly higher prevalence of bacteriuria in pregnancy than their Bangladeshi neighbors. Differences in hygiene practices and clothing may explain the observed differences in the bacteriuria rates.

  2. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

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    Shaikh J. Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3 and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1. Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1 against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1 against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1 against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.

  3. A business plan for establishing a Bangladeshi restaurant in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Hosen, Zobayer

    2015-01-01

    The field of ethnic food industry is growing day by day due to increased ethnic population, popularity of ethnic food, health consciousness, changes in the eating habit and increased multiculturalism. The main objective of the study is to make a practical business plan for an ethnic Bangladeshi restaurant in Helsinki, Finland. The business plan explains the products and services which will be provided, location, logistics, employee training and education, food production, management structure...

  4. THE RATIONALE BEHIND WEAKLY TIED NETWORKING OF THE BANGLADESHI DIASPORA IN MALAYSIA

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    S. Nayeem

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an exploration of the survival strategies of the Bangladeshi Diaspora in Malaysia. To cope with the realities, Bangladeshi migrants develop different forms of survival strategies. As a result intra and inter-ethnic strong and weak ties are formed in the receiving country. Empirical analysis depicts that respondents with weak ties have higher income mobility than those with strong ties. It also demonstrates that the Bangladeshi migrants of the study areas do not restrict themselves only to their close social networks; rather they develop distant networks for higher social mobility. Or in other words, though the ideal socio-cultural model emphasizes community cohesion (something that can be conceptualized as an example of a tightly structured social system, the actual behavior of the Bangladeshi migrants indicates a loosely or disintegrated social system. Migrant's embeddedness in the ongoing social relations and power structures regulates the nature and strength of these ties.

  5. Health beliefs and folk models of diabetes in British Bangladeshis: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Helman, Cecil; Chowdhury, A Mu’min

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To explore the experience of diabetes in British Bangladeshis, since successful management of diabetes requires attention not just to observable behaviour but to the underlying attitudes and belief systems which drive that behaviour. Design: Qualitative study of subjects’ experience of diabetes using narratives, semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and pile sorting exercises. A new qualitative method, the structured vignette, was developed for validating researchers’ understanding of primary level culture. Subjects: 40 British Bangladeshi patients with diabetes, and 10 non-Bangladeshi controls, recruited from primary care. Result: Several constructs were detected in relation to body image, cause and nature of diabetes, food classification, and knowledge of complications. In some areas, the similarities between Bangladeshi and non-Bangladeshi subjects were as striking as their differences. There was little evidence of a fatalistic or deterministic attitude to prognosis, and most informants seemed highly motivated to alter their diet and comply with treatment. Structural and material barriers to behaviour change were at least as important as “cultural” ones. Conclusion: Bangladeshi culture is neither seamless nor static, but some widely held beliefs and behaviours have been identified. Some of these have a potentially beneficial effect on health and should be used as the starting point for culturally sensitive diabetes education. PMID:9550958

  6. Study of Mean Diameter of Superior Cerebellar Peduncles in Bangladeshi Cadavers

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    AQM Ataul Haque

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The neuronal organisation of the cerebellum has been studied in details by many researchers. But most of these have been performed on animals and diameter of superior cerebellar peduncle in humans remains inadequately studied. It has been observed by various workers that dimensions of different organs in Bangladeshi population vary from those of Western population. Objective: Aim of the present work was to measure diameter of superior cerebellar peduncle to make a standard for Bangladeshi population. Materials and Methods: This observational study was done by using nonprobability sampling technique and performed by examining 63 cerebellum. Out of them 40 postmortem human cerebellums were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of both sexes (male 25 and female 15 aged 5 to 60 years and 23 cerebellums from caesarian section of intrauterine death cases of both sexes (male 14 and female 9 aged 34 to 41 weeks of gestation. Specimens were collected from dead bodies autopsied on different dates from April to September 2009 at the autopsy laboratory of Department of Forensic Medicine and prenatal cases from Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department of Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital, Mymensingh. The collected specimens were grouped into three age groups - Group A (28 to 42 weeks of gestation, Group B (5 to 30 years and Group C (31 to 60 years. The diameters of the superior cerebellar peduncles of both cerebellar hemispheres were measured by using slide calipers and expressed in millimeter (mm. The measurement was taken after fixation into 10% formol saline. Results: The mean (± SD diameters of right superior cerebellar peduncle in Group A was 4.96 ± lAO, in Group B 6.83 ± 1046 and in Group C was 6.61 ± 1.34 mm. The mean (± SD diameters of left superior cerebellar peduncle in GroupA was 4.87 ± 1.25, in Group B 6.79 ± 1045 and in Group C 6048 ± 1.37 mm. Conclusion: No significant difference was observed between mean diameters ofright

  7. Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

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    Amina Khatun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50=2.93 µg/mL and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50=114.71 µg/mL in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50=2.04 µg/mL. Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action.

  8. Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Tania; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

    2014-01-01

    Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action. PMID:25431796

  9. Bangladeshis madistab kaks naist / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Sisepoliitilised pinged Bangladeshis, kus kehtib maailmas küllaltki ainulaadne süsteem, mis näeb ette mõni kuu enne üldvalimisi valitud valitsuse lahkumist ning võimu üleandmist ajutisele üleminekukabinetile

  10. Bangladeshis madistab kaks naist / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Sisepoliitilised pinged Bangladeshis, kus kehtib maailmas küllaltki ainulaadne süsteem, mis näeb ette mõni kuu enne üldvalimisi valitud valitsuse lahkumist ning võimu üleandmist ajutisele üleminekukabinetile

  11. Daily health concerns in Kakabo: anthropological explorations in a Bangladeshi village

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Geest; N. Selin; S. Zaman

    2008-01-01

    Daily health concerns in Kakabo: Anthropological explorations in a Bangladeshi village is a collection of essays written by students of BRAC James P Grant School of Public Health in 2005, 2006 and 2007. These essays are the results of exploratory studies conducted in a village named Kakabo, about tw

  12. The Political Exclusion of (Illegal Bangladeshi Immigrants in Assam

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    Jeemut Pratim Das

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this paper lies in explaining the hypothesis that the exclusion of the (illegal Bangladeshi immigrants in Assam has been the outcome of a continuous historical process undertaken by the political leaders of the state, rather than as a result of any particular mass uprising from ‘below’. This push from a top-down perspective changed the issue from one of economic consequences to a more religious nature, also culminating in a failed project to assert a unique indigenous ‘Assamese’ identity in relation to the ‘other’, all the while relegating the more usual aspects of open versus closed borders that figure in immigration discourses to the background.

  13. MULTILEVEL LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING BODY MASS INDEX AMONG BANGLADESHI MARRIED NON-PREGNANT WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Md; Mamun, A S M A; Bakar, Sheikh Muhammad Abu; Saw, Aik; Kamarul, T; Islam, Md Nurul; Hossain, Md Golam

    2016-11-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing the body mass index (BMI) of non-pregnant married Bangladeshi women of reproductive age. Secondary (Hierarchy) data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, collected using two-stage stratified cluster sampling, were used. Two-level linear regression analysis was performed to remove the cluster effect of the variables. The mean BMI of married non-pregnant Bangladeshi women was 21.60±3.86 kg/m2, and the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 22.8%, 14.9% and 3.2%, respectively. After removing the cluster effect, age and age at first marriage were found to be positively (pchildren was negatively related with women's BMI. Lower BMI was especially found among women from rural areas and poor families, with an uneducated husband, with no television at home and who were currently breast-feeding. Age, total children ever born, age at first marriage, type of residence, education level, level of husband's education, wealth index, having a television at home and practising breast-feeding were found to be important predictors for the BMI of married Bangladeshi non-pregnant women of reproductive age. This information could be used to identify sections of the Bangladeshi population that require special attention, and to develop more effective strategies to resolve the problem of malnutrition.

  14. Competition and Concentration in Bangladeshi Banking Sector: An Application of Panzar-Rosse Model

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    Md. Anwar Hossain Repon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the market structure and degree of concentration of Bangladeshi banking industry. The study measured market concentration by using widely recognized measures like k-bank concentration ratio and Herfindahl-Hirchman Index (HHI. It evaluates market structure by applying Panzar-Rosse Model over 8 years period from 2006 to 2013. The result of concentration measures indicates a decreasing trend and low level of market concentration in Bangladeshi banking industry over the sample period. The panzer-Rosse “H-Statistic” suggests that banks in Bangladesh are operating under monopolistic competition. Present paper contributes to a burgeoning literature on banking competition that has evolved significantly over the past periods on a developing country perspective like Bangladesh.

  15. Assessment of deoxynivalenol exposure among Bangladeshi and German adults by a biomarker-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-09-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent mycotoxin contaminant in cereal crops worldwide and can cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. Since DON contamination in Bangladeshi food is unexplored, we conducted a biomonitoring study to assess DON exposure in the Bangladeshi population and compare it with that of German adults. In total 214 urines were collected, n=164 in Bangladesh and n=50 in Germany. In Bangladesh rural and urban residents of Rajshahi district provided urines in two seasons (n=69 in summer, n=95 in winter, with 62 participants enrolled in both periods). Urinary DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1 were measured by a previously validated sensitive LC-MS/MS method. In Bangladeshi urines, DON was detectable in 27% (range 0.16-1.78ng/mL) in summer and 31% (range 0.16-1.21ng/mL) in winter season. There was no significant difference at the mean DON level between season (summer 0.17±0.25ng/mL and winter 0.16±0.18ng/mL) and region (rural or urban residents). The metabolite DOM-1 was not detected in any urine from Bangladesh. In contrast, DON and DOM-1 were detected in 100% (range 0.16-38.44ng/mL) and 40% (range 0.10-0.73ng/mL), respectively, of the German urines. The mean DON level in German urines (9.02±6.84ng/mL) was about 53-fold higher than that found in Bangladeshi samples. This indicates a low and high dietary DON exposure among the adult population in Bangladesh and Germany, respectively. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON then served to calculate the daily mycotoxin intake in both cohorts: the mean DON intake in Bangladesh being 6ng/kg b.w., and in Germany a mean of 268 and maximum intake of 975ng/kg b.w., values lower than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 1μg/kg b.w. set by the WHO/JECFA.

  16. Vulnerability of Bangladeshi street-children to HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Wahed, Tasnuva; Ali, Md Wazed; Koehlmoos, Tracey Perez; Nahar, Quamrun; Azim, Tasnim

    2014-11-06

    Children living on the streets are an underprivileged population of Bangladesh and are likely to be more vulnerable to STIs/HIV for their day-to-day risky behaviours and lifestyles. This study assessed the vulnerability of Bangladeshi street-children to HIV/AIDS using qualitative participatory methods. This ethnographic participatory, qualitative study was conducted during February 2010- December 2011 among children aged 5-12 years, who live and/or work on the streets in Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. Data were collected in three phases: (a) social mapping (n = 493), (b) participatory group discussions (n = 119), and (c) individual interviews (n = 36). Results showed that street-children were engaged in behaviour that entails risk of exposure to HIV/AIDS. They possessed poor knowledge of the transmission of disease and of the benefits of using condoms; most of them reported never using a condom. The experience of selling sex for money and a variety of sexual activities, like anal, vaginal and oral sex, were commonly reported. The children also reported that they were regular users of one or more types of drugs, including those taken by injection. The deplorable living conditions of street children, with no obvious rights or way out, make them highly vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Urgent attention of the policy- makers to implement services addressing issues relating to social conditions, sexual health, and drug-use is warranted to prevent the possible epidemic of HIV/AIDS among this group of population.

  17. Bangladeshi immigrants in Italy: from geopolitics to micropolitics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, M

    1996-01-01

    "Bangladeshis are one of a wide variety of recently established immigrant groups in Italy, analysed here as an example of the interaction of geopolitics, employment and survival strategies, and the micropolitics of the community's organization in Italy. The geopolitics involves events in Bangladesh (change of government), Italy (the Martelli Law and other legislation), Europe (EU and other European policies, and the opening of eastern Europe as a routeway) and the Gulf. The micropolitics concerns mechanisms of immigration, migration sponsorship, connections to Italian political groups and clientelistic relationships within the community. Micropolitics also governs to a large extent the types of mostly informal work done by Bangladeshis in Rome."

  18. Bangladeshi Teachers' Perceptions about Student Behaviour in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak, Saiful; Deppeler, Joanne M.; Sharma, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of Bangladeshi teachers' perceptions of student behaviour. Semi-structured, one-on-one interviews were conducted with 22 teachers from six primary schools in one district in Bangladesh. Thematic analysis technique was used to analyse the data. The findings indicated that teachers conceptualized students' inappropriate…

  19. Bangladeshi Teachers' Perceptions about Student Behaviour in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak, Saiful; Deppeler, Joanne M.; Sharma, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of Bangladeshi teachers' perceptions of student behaviour. Semi-structured, one-on-one interviews were conducted with 22 teachers from six primary schools in one district in Bangladesh. Thematic analysis technique was used to analyse the data. The findings indicated that teachers conceptualized students' inappropriate…

  20. Sex differences in obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Juliann; Saquib, Nazmus; Stefanick, Marcia L; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Anand, Shuchi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Chertow, Glenn M; Barry, Michele; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    The sustained economic growth in Bangladesh during the previous decade has created a substantial middle-class population, who have adequate income to spend on food, clothing, and lifestyle management. Along with the improvements in living standards, has also come negative impact on health for the middle class. The study objective was to assess sex differences in obesity prevalence, diet, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshi. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, we randomly selected 402 adults from Mohammedpur, Dhaka. The sampling technique was multi-stage random sampling. We used standardized questionnaires for data collection and measured height, weight, and waist circumference. Mean age (standard deviation) was 49.4 (12.7) years. The prevalence of both generalized (79% vs. 53%) and central obesity (85% vs. 42%) were significantly higher in women than men. Women reported spending more time watching TV and spending less time walking than men (pmiddle-class Bangladeshis than previous urban estimates, and the burden of obesity disproportionately affects women. Future research and public health efforts are needed to address this severe obesity problem and to promote active lifestyles.

  1. QUALITY COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BANGLADESHI AND CHINA GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSC.

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    Sudam Nandi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Zingiber officinale Rosc. was extracted from China and Bangladeshi varieties and yielded 0.21% and 0.23 % by hydro-distillation method on fresh weight basis respectively. Fifteen compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The major constituents of China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oils were zingiberene 38.10 % and 41.49%, β-phellandrene 12.0% and 9.92%, α-citral 11.48% and 9.76 %, α-curcumene 9.22% and 11.58%, camphene 5.94% and 4.60% , β-bisabolene 4.39% and 5.0% respectively. The IC50 (DPPH method values were found 61.18 µg/mL and 56.71 µg/mL with the highest inhibition of 78.49 % and 80.77% and the LC50 values in the brine shrimp lethality cytotoxicity bioassay were found 0.4842 µg/mL and 0.7151 µg/mL in China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oil respectively. Both the essential oils showed significant activities against some gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. The proximate composition of the China and Bangladeshi variety showed the ash (7.12±0.151, 8.15±0.18%, protein (5.47±0.19, 6.60±0.16%, crude fibre (4.32±0.10, 4.61±0.12%, carbohydrate (16..06±0.35, 18.38±0.41 and food energy (70.50±0.89, 81.74±1.01 kcal/100g. respectively. The elemental compositions of the both varieties were found rich in Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Se, Na and K. These results indicate the quality composition of the two varieties may find interest in spice and culinary industries as well as in medicinal preparation.

  2. Promotion of scientific literacy: Bangladeshi teachers' perspectives and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mahbub; Corrigan, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    Background: In Bangladesh, a common science curriculum caters for all students at the junior secondary level. Since this curriculum is for all students, its aims are both to build a strong foundation in science while still providing students with the opportunities to use science in everyday life - an aim consistent with the notion of scientific literacy. Purpose: This paper reports Bangladeshi science teachers' perspectives and practices in regard to the promotion of scientific literacy. Sample: Six science teachers representing a range of geographical locations, school types with different class sizes, lengths of teaching experience and educational qualifications. Design and method: This study employed a case study approach. The six teachers and their associated science classes (including students) were considered as six cases. Data were gathered through observing the teachers' science lessons, interviewing them twice - once before and once after the lesson observation, and interviewing their students in focus groups. Results: This study reveals that participating teachers held a range of perspectives on scientific literacy, including some naïve perspectives. In addition, their perspectives were often not seen to be realised in the classroom as for teachers the emphasis of learning science was more traditional in nature. Many of their teaching practices promoted a culture of academic science that resulted in students' difficulty in finding connections between the science they study in school and their everyday lives. This research also identified the tension which teachers encountered between their religious values and science values while they were teaching science in a culture with a religious tradition. Conclusions: The professional development practice for science teachers in Bangladesh with its emphasis on developing science content knowledge may limit the scope for promoting the concepts of scientific literacy. Opportunities for developing pedagogic

  3. Factors Determinants the Choice of Mobile Service Providers: Structural Equation Modeling Approach on Bangladeshi Consumers

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    Ahasanul Haque

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to find out what were the factors that may have played significant role to select the telecommunication service providers. In general this research has an intention to develop a research framework grounded on a strong theoretical and literature review background. The survey instruments employed on Bangladeshi consumers included demographic background, price, service quality, product quality and availability and promotional offers for consumer perception. Thus the structural equation modeling approach was necessary in order to examine the variables. The data analysis was conducted using SPSS and AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structure with the software package for windows. From the result it is revealed that paths are related to the casual processes significantly. Among all the significant variables, from our result, Price is the most important among our respondents followed by Service quality, product quality and promotion. Further research should be considered to gather more information regarding the service quality and customers’ satisfaction dimensions in context of the Bangladeshi mobile phone operators. It is hoped that the findings of this study may assist mobile phone industry in Bangladesh about their services and promotion of their services. However, the findings of this study may provide needed feedback and contribute to the improvement of players’ strategy and their marketing program

  4. Bayesian Evidence for Two Populations of White Dwarfs: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim, R.; Romero, A. D.; Kepler, S. O.; Horvath, J. E.; Rangel, E. M.

    2017-03-01

    White dwarf (WD) populations are analyzed using Bayesian tools, which allows inferring possible evolutionary paths through the study of the mass values. We employed a sample of 2761 DA white dwarf stars from the SDSS, and obtained the central mass values and their corresponding standard deviations using a bimodal population as an ansatz. The results indicate a population with M1 = 0.60 M⊙ and σ1 = 0.06 M⊙, corresponding to a single stellar evolution, and a second population with M2 = 1.00 M⊙ and σ1 = 0.11 M⊙ possibly due to binary evolution resulting from mergers.

  5. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in Bangladeshi adults: Data from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin; Garnett, Sarah P; Pervin, Sonia; Rawal, Lal B

    2017-01-01

    Over the two last decades Bangladesh, a low-income country, has experienced a rapid demographic and epidemiological transition. The population has increased substantially with rapid urbanization and changing pattern of disease, which at least in part, can be explained by nutritional changes. However, the nutritional status of the adult population has not been previously described. Hence, the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and explore socio-demographic determinants of underweight, overweight and obesity among the Bangladeshi adult population. This study is a secondary data analysis of the national 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. We determined the nutritional status of adults aged ≥35 years of age, who had a measured weight and height, using the Asian body mass index (BMI) cut-offs for underweight (BMI overweight (BMI 23 to obesity (BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2). Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the association between socio-demographic factors and nutritional status. Of total sample (n = 5495), 30.4% were underweight, 18.9% were overweight and 4.6% were obese. Underweight was associated with age, education and wealth. The adjusted odd ratios for underweight were higher for older people (≥70 years) compared to younger, the least educated compared to the most educated and the poorest compared to the wealthiest were 2.51 (95%CI: 1.95-3.23, poverweight/obesity with adjusted odds ratios of 1.73 (95%CI: 1.24-2.41, poverweight/obesity are prevalent in Bangladeshi adults. Both conditions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality and increase the risk of developing non-communicable diseases. Effective public health intervention approaches are necessary to address both these conditions.

  6. Comparative study of hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir; Shabbir Ahmad; Md. Sofi Mahamoud; Nishan Chakrabarty; Md.Akramul Hoque; Mohammed Munawar Hossain; Md.Nazim Uddin Chy; Mohammed Shoibe

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To examine hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants. Methods:Anin vivo hypoglycemic effect on mice model was used to check the hypoglycemic effect of four Bangladeshi herbal organic extractsviz., roots ofCurculigo recurvata W. T. Aiton (Satipata) (C. recurvata), leaf ofAmorphophallus bulbiferRoxb. (Olkachu) (A. bulbifer), whole plant ofThunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata) (T. grandiflora) and leaf ofSteudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (Yunnan) (S. colocasiifolia) using glibenclamide as a positive control and water as a negative control. They were also tested for antibacterial activity on three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria by disk diffusion method.C. recurvata,A. bulbifer andT. grandiflora were extracted with methanol andS. colocasiifolia was extracted with ethanol. Results:Among all the plant extract, only ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/kg dose significantly (P Conclusions: Through our study, it was found thatS. colocasiifolia could be considered as very promising and beneficial hypoglycemic agent. AlthoughC. recurvata andS. colocasiifolia showed comparable high antibacterial activity, further studies should be needed to develop new antibacterial agent from them.S. colocasiifolia may be a potential source for the development of new oral hypoglycemic agent.

  7. Ten-year population education programme reaps good results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A study, which was undertaken by the National Education Committee to determine differences in knowledge and behavior regarding population issues between those who had taken population education courses from 1981-1986 at Tai An No. 1 Middle School and those who had graduated in 1983 and 1984 without the benefit of population education from Tai An No. 4 Middle School, demonstrated that those students exposed to population education in 1983 and 1984 had better knowledge on population issues, and married and began producing children later than the others. 26.1% of those who attended population courses in 1983, and 13.3% of those who attended in 1984, married. In comparison, 66.7% of those who did not attend population courses in 1983, and 53.3% of those who did not attend in 1984, married. Population education was introduced at Tai An No. 1 Middle School in 1981; the forms it has taken include curriculum development, teaching programmes, examinations, social investigations, knowledge competitions, research and thesis writing, and after-class activities. Teaching methodologies have included lecture and practicum, audio-visual aids, discussion, self-learning methods, and social investigations. Since 1980, 5391 students from 94 classes in the first term of grade 2 in senior level have received population education. Results of examinations indicate that a large majority of these students perform well in terms of knowledge and attitude and have a better understanding of the interrelationships among population problems, environmental and ecological balance, and economic and social development. Social investigations and community visits have strengthened the commitment and social responsibility of the students, who form a voluntary propaganda team for the government's population programme. The Tai An No. 1 Middle School has also used an exhibit hall for population education of the public.

  8. Dual use of tobacco among Bangladeshi men

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    M M Zaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dual use of tobacco (using smoking and smokeless forms in Bangladesh is uncommon in women but common in men. Dual users are at additional risk of cancers and heart diseases compared with a single form of tobacco use. Knowledge about their socioeconomic background is necessary for planning appropriate interventions. We report here socioeconomic background of the dual users of tobacco from a nationally representative survey. Methods: The study adopted a probability proportionate to size sampling technic of divisional population stratified into urban and rural areas to recruit men aged 25 years or older from their households. A total of 4312 men were recruited. Variables included questions on 20 household assets, tobacco use and other behavioral risk factors, and measurement of body weight and height. Results: The average age of dual users was 46.7 years old compared to 43.4 and 52.3 years for smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Prevalence of "smoking only," "smokeless only" and "dual use" of tobacco was 40.6%, 15.2%, and 14.2%, respectively. Among all tobacco users, dual users constituted 20%. These dual users had lower educational achievement, rural residence, lower intake of fruit, and higher intake of alcohol. They were more undernourished as indicated by a thin body mass index compared to nonusers and smokers. Dual users were of socioeconomically deprived as measured by wealth quartiles constructed out of household assets. Conclusion: Dual use of tobacco is common in Bangladesh, and it is intimately linked with socioeconomic deprivation. Poverty reduction strategy and campaigns should address tobacco control not only tobacco in general, but its dual use in particular.

  9. Craniofacial Anthropometric Profile of Adult Bangladeshi Buddhist Chakma Females

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    Asma Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study was designed to establish the baseline measurements of the craniofacial anthropometrical parameters and indices of 100 adult Bangladeshi Buddhist Chakma females aged between 25 and 45 years, residing at different locations of Chittagong and Rangamati cities. A total of ten craniofacial variables were measured using physical and photographic procedures. Craniofacial indices were calculated from those craniofacial variables. The craniofacial indices showed that Chakma females are mostly hyperbrachycephalic, hypereuryprosopic, and mesorrhine, with intermediate eyes and long narrow ears.

  10. Bangladeshi EFL Learners' Approach towards Learning English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathema, Fawzia

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh is a poverty stricken country with a huge population "unemployed' in respect of the definition of Economics including both male and female. Government is striving hard to make the people well-equipped with necessary skills and learning in order that they can prove themselves fit for the upcoming challenges of the global economy and…

  11. Genetic Variation A mong European Lophodermium piceae Populations - Preliminary Results

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    MÜLLER, Michael M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lophodermium piceae is a common needle endophyte of Norway spruce (Picea abies. The aim of the present study was to examine the degree of differentiation within and among European populations separated by various distances and geographical obstacles. For this purpose, populations (including > 10 isolates/subpopulation were collected along a north-south transect stretching from the northern timberline in Finnish Lapland to the southern border of the distribution area of Norway spruce in northern Italy. Differentiation between L. piceae populations was determined from DNA sequences of three genetic markers. One of the markers was the internal transcribed spacer (ITS of the ribosomal DNA and the other two (LP1 and LP2 were based on sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR designed for L. piceae. Preliminary results including sequences of Finnish, Swiss and Italian isolates show low differentiation among populations. According to analysis of molecular variance the among population variation was 1%, 5% and 0% in ITS, LP1 and LP2 markers, respectively.

  12. Stature estimation from craniofacial anthropometry in Bangladeshi Garo adult females.

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    Akhter, Z; Banu, L A; Alam, M M; Rahman, M F

    2012-07-01

    Estimation of stature is an important tool in forensic examination especially in unknown, highly decomposed, fragmentary and mutilated human remains. When the evidences are skeletal remains; forensic anthropology has put forward means to estimate the stature from the skeletal and even from fragmentary bones. Sometimes, craniofacial remains are brought in for forensic and postmortem examination. In such a situation, estimation of stature becomes equally important along with other parameters like age, sex, race, etc. Today, anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design, ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. It is well established that a single standard of craniofacial aesthetics is not appropriate for application to diverse racial and ethnic groups. Bangladesh is a country not only for the Bengalis; the country harbours many cultures and people of different races because of the colonial rules of the past regimes. Like other ethnic groups, the Garos (study subjects) have their own set of language, social structure, cultures and economic activities and religious values. In the above context, the present study was attempted to establish ethnic specific anthropometric data for the Bangladeshi Garo adult females. The study also attempted to find out the correlation of the craniofacial dimensions with stature and to determine multiplication factors. The study was an observational, cross-sectional and primarily descriptive in nature with some analytical components. The study was carried out with a total number of one hundred Garo adult females, aged between 25-45 years. Craniofacial dimension such as head circumference, head length, facial height from 'nasion' to 'gnathion', bizygomatic breadth and stature were measured using a measuring tape, spreading caliper, steel plate and steel tape and sliding caliper. The data were then statistically

  13. Macroscopic Study of the Isthmus of the Thyroid Gland in Bangladeshi People: A Postmortem Study

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    Fakhrul Amin Mohammad Hasanul Banna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The position and size of isthmus of thyroid gland varies considerably in human with age, sex, physiologic state, race and geographical location and sometimes the isthmus may be absent. So this study was designed to find out the macroscopic differences in isthmus of thyroid gland of different age and sex groups in Bangladeshi people. Objective: To record the macroscopic characteristics of isthmus of thyroid gland with advancing age in both sexes with a view to help establishing normal standard of Bangladeshi people. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 54 autopsied human thyroid glands aged 5 to 65 years. Thyroid glands were collected from unclaimed dead bodies autopsied in the morgue of Sylhet M. A. G. Osmani Medical College, Sylhet. The collected specimens were divided into groups –– A (20 years and below, B (21 to 50 years and C (50 years and above. All specimens were examined morphologically by careful gross dissection method. Results: The isthmus was absent in 5.56% cases. In most of the cases (35.29% it was against the 1st–4th tracheal rings. There was significant difference in length between Group A and Group C (p<0.05 and in breadth between Group A and Group C and between Group B and Group C (p<0.05. No significant difference was found in length, breadth and thickness of isthmus of the thyroid gland between males and females. Conclusion: The presence or absence, positional change and variation in gross dimension of isthmus of thyroid gland were evident in human. The macroscopic difference was found with increasing age but not with sex.

  14. Genome-wide association studies and heritability estimates of body mass index related phenotypes in Bangladeshi adults.

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    Molly Scannell Bryan

    Full Text Available Many health outcomes are influenced by a person's body mass index, as well as by the trajectory of body mass index through a lifetime. Although previous research has established that body mass index related traits are influenced by genetics, the relationship between these traits and genetics has not been well characterized in people of South Asian ancestry. To begin to characterize this relationship, we analyzed the association between common genetic variation and five phenotypes related to body mass index in a population-based sample of 5,354 Bangladeshi adults. We discovered a significant association between SNV rs347313 (intron of NOS1AP and change in body mass index in women over two years. In a linear mixed-model, the G allele was associated with an increase of 0.25 kg/m2 in body mass index over two years (p-value of 2.3·10-8. We also estimated the heritability of these phenotypes from our genotype data. We found significant estimates of heritability for all of the body mass index-related phenotypes. Our study evaluated the genetic determinants of body mass index related phenotypes for the first time in South Asians. The results suggest that these phenotypes are heritable and some of this heritability is driven by variation that differs from those previously reported. We also provide evidence that the genetic etiology of body mass index related traits may differ by ancestry, sex, and environment, and consequently that these factors should be considered when assessing the genetic determinants of the risk of body mass index-related disease.

  15. Does gender inequity increase the risk of intimate partner violence among women? Evidence from a national Bangladeshi sample.

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    Mosiur Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from developing countries regarding the association between gender inequity and intimate partner violence (IPV victimization in women has been suggestive but inconclusive. Using nationally representative population-based data from Bangladesh, we examined the association between multidimensional aspects of gender inequity and the risk of IPV. METHODS: We used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 4,467 married women. The main explanatory variable was gender inequity, which reflects the multidimensional aspects of women's autonomy and the relationship inequality between women and their partner. The experience of physical and/or sexual IPV was the main outcome variable of interest. RESULTS: Over 53% of married Bangladeshi women experienced physical and/or sexual violence from their husbands. In the adjusted models, women who had a higher level of autonomy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.48; 99% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.61, a particularly high level of economic-decision-making autonomy (AOR 0.12; 99% CI 0.08-0.17, and a higher level of non-supportive attitudes towards wife beating or raping (AOR 0.61; 99% CI 0.47-0.83 were less likely to report having experienced IPV. Education level, age at marriage, and occupational discrepancy between spouses were also found to be significant predictors of IPV. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, dimensions of gender inequities were significant predictors of IPV among married women in Bangladesh. An investigation of the causal link between multidimensional aspects of gender inequity and IPV will be critical to developing interventions to reduce the risk of IPV and should be considered a public health research priority.

  16. Serum levels of high sensitivity C-Reactive protein and its association with lipidemic status in Bangladeshi healthy adults

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    B Rehnuma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic diseases are affecting human health all over the world. These chronic disease states are associated with high sensitive CRP. The present study aims to measure hsCRP and lipid levels in a group of healthy adults to work out the normal hsCRP levels and explore its relationship to lipidemic and anthropometric variables.Materials and Methods: A total of 149 adults, age 30-60 yrs, healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Vital statistics were taken along with measurement of blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and hsCRP levels. Data were analyzed using statistical Package for Social Program (SPSS for Windows version 10.Results: Mean (±SD hsCRP was 2.46±1.89 (mg/l with a cut off value of 3mg/l. Of the total 149 subjects 102 (66.4% and 47 (31.5% subjects had hsCRP level below and above the cutoff respectively. Triglyceride was significantly higher (p=0.033 and HDL was lower in subjects with high hsCRP. Total cholesterol and LDL was almost similar in both groups. Binary logistic regression showed significant negative association between hsCRP and HDLc (p=0.029 and but the model excluding HDL-c showed significant positive association (p=0.03 with triglyceride.Conclusion: About one-third of healthy Bangladeshi adults may have chronic subclinical inflammation and thus may have a risk of cardiovascular disorders. More than one-third healthy Bangladeshi adults have one or more type of dyslipidemia and the subclinical chronic inflammation in healthy Bangladeshi adults has a positive association with their serum triglyceride and negative association with their HDL-cholesterol levels.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11591 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 644-648

  17. Effects in Plant Populations Resulting from Chronic Radiation Exposure

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    Geras' kin, Stanislav A.; Volkova, Polina Yu.; Vasiliyev, Denis V.; Dikareva, Nina S.; Oudalova, Alla A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Human industrial activities have left behind a legacy of ecosystems strongly impacted by a wide range of contaminants, including radionuclides. Phyto-toxic effects of acute impact are well known, but the consequences of long-term chronic exposure to low pollutant concentrations is neither well understood nor adequately included in risk assessments. To understand effects of real-world contaminant exposure properly we must pay attention to what is actually going on in the field. However, for many wildlife groups and endpoints, there are no, or very few, studies that link accumulation, chronic exposure and biological effects in natural settings. To fill the gaps, results of field studies carried out on different plant species (winter rye and wheat, spring barley, oats, Scots pine, wild vetch, crested hair-grass) in various radioecological situations (nuclear weapon testing, the Chernobyl accident, uranium and radium processing) to investigate effects of long-term chronic exposure to radionuclides are discussed. Because each impacted site developed in its own way due to a unique history of events, the experience from one case study is rarely directly applicable to another situation. In spite of high heterogeneity in response, we have detected several general patterns. Plant populations growing in areas with relatively low levels of pollution are characterized by the increased level of both cytogenetic alterations and genetic diversity. Accumulation of cellular alterations may afterward influence biological parameters important for populations such as health and reproduction. Presented data provide evidence that in plant populations inhabiting heavily contaminated territories cytogenetic damage were accompanied by decrease in reproductive ability. In less contaminated sites, because of the scarcity of data available, it is impossible to establish exactly the relationship between cytogenetic effects and reproductive ability. Radioactive contamination of the plants

  18. Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth and Environmental Enteropathy in Bangladeshi Children

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    Jeffrey R. Donowitz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is common among developing world children. SIBO’s pathogenesis and effect in the developing world are unclear. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of SIBO in Bangladeshi children and its association with malnutrition. Secondary objectives included determination of SIBO’s association with sanitation, diarrheal disease, and environmental enteropathy. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 90 Bangladeshi 2-year-olds monitored since birth from an impoverished neighborhood. SIBO was diagnosed via glucose hydrogen breath testing, with a cutoff of a 12-ppm increase over baseline used for SIBO positivity. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate SIBO predictors. Differences in concomitant inflammation and permeability between SIBO-positive and -negative children were compared with multiple comparison adjustment. A total of 16.7% (15/90 of the children had SIBO. The strongest predictors of SIBO were decreased length-for-age Z score since birth (odds ratio [OR], 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03 to 0.60 and an open sewer outside the home (OR, 4.78; 95% CI, 1.06 to 21.62. Recent or frequent diarrheal disease did not predict SIBO. The markers of intestinal inflammation fecal Reg 1β (116.8 versus 65.6 µg/ml; P = 0.02 and fecal calprotectin (1,834.6 versus 766.7 µg/g; P = 0.004 were elevated in SIBO-positive children. Measures of intestinal permeability and systemic inflammation did not differ between the groups. These findings suggest linear growth faltering and poor sanitation are associated with SIBO independently of recent or frequent diarrheal disease. SIBO is associated with intestinal inflammation but not increased permeability or systemic inflammation.

  19. Applying research in nutrition education planning: a dietary intervention for Bangladeshi chronic kidney disease patients.

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    de Brito-Ashurst, I; Perry, L; Sanders, T A B; Thomas, J E; Dobbie, H; Yaqoob, M M

    2013-08-01

    Effective nutrition health interventions are theory-based, as well as being drawn from practice and research, aiming to successfully accomplish dietary behavioural changes. However, the integration of theory, research and practice to develop community dietary educational programmes is a challenge that many interventionists feel ill equipped to achieve. In the present study, a community-based education programme was designed for Bangladeshi patients with chronic kidney disease and hypertension. The goal of this programme was to reduce dietary salt intake in this population group, with a view to reducing their blood pressure and slowing kidney disease progression. The present study sets out the first four steps of a six-step model for creating a behaviour change programme. These four steps were concerned with the translation of theory and evidence into intervention objectives, and illustrate how a practical, community-based intervention was developed from behavioural theory, relevant research, knowledge of practice and the target patient group. Steps 5 and 6, which are concerned with implementation and evaluation, will be reported separately. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Histomorphological study of germinal centre of vermiform appendix in Bangladeshi cadaver.

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    Rahman, M M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Ara, Z G; Chowdhury, A I; Ara, A; Mukta, T B

    2013-01-01

    The study was done to find out the number of germinal centre in human vermiform appendix of Bangladeshi people to magnify the knowledge regarding the diverse number of germinal centre of human vermiform appendix in our population in the department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh from July 2006 to June 2007. Total 40 appendices were collected for histological study of different age and sex during postmortem examination in the autopsy laboratory of department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College. This cross sectional study was done by convenient sampling technique. For convenience of differentiating the changes in number of germinal centre of vermiform appendix in relation to age and sex, findings were classified in four groups, Group A up to 20 years, Group B 21-35 years, Group C 36-55 years and Group D 56-70 years. In the present study the number of germinal centre was highest in Group B (52.38%) but in Group D it was nil. Here mean number of germinal centre in male (1.05) were more than in female (0.8).

  1. Pakistani and Bangladeshi Young Men: Re-Racialization, Class and Masculinity within the Neo-Liberal School

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    Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin; Haywood, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Pakistani and Bangladeshi young men's experiences of schooling to examine what inclusion/exclusion means to them. Qualitative research was undertaken with 48 Pakistani and Bangladeshi young men living in areas of the West Midlands, England. The young men highlighted three key areas: the emergence of a schooling regime…

  2. Breast cancer risk in relation to TP53 codon 72 and CDH1 gene polymorphisms in the Bangladeshi women.

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    Shabnaz, Samia; Ahmed, Maizbha Uddin; Islam, Md Siddiqul; Islam, Md Reazul; Al-Mamun, Mir Md Abdullah; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Hasnat, Abul

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacogenomic studies play a significant role in understanding the risk of breast cancer where genetic abnormalities are implicated as the etiology of cancer. Various polymorphisms of tumor suppressor gene TP53 and E-cadherin (CDH1) have been found to be associated with increased breast cancer risk worldwide. This study aimed to analyze the contribution of TP53 and CDH1 gene anomalies in breast cancer risk in the Bangladeshi breast cancer patients. For risk determination, 310 patients with breast cancer and 250 controls from Bangladeshi women were recruited who are matched up with age and use of contraceptives with patients. Genetic polymorphisms were detected by using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. A significant association was found between TP53Arg72Pro (rs1042522) and CDH1 -160 C/A (rs16260) polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. In case of P53rs1042522 polymorphism, Arg/Pro (P = 0.0053, odds ratio (OR) = 1.69) and Pro/Pro (P = 0.018, OR = 1.83) genotypes were associated with increased risk of breast cancer in comparison to the Arg/Arg genotype. Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro genotype and Pro allele also increased the risk of breast cancer (P = 0.002, OR = 1.73; P = 0.004, OR = 1.43, respectively). In case of CDH1rs16260 polymorphism, C/A heterozygote and combined C/A + A/A genotypes were found to be strongly associated (P = 0.005, OR = 1.67; P = 0.0037, OR = 1.68) with increased risk of breast cancer. The variant A allele also increased the breast cancer risk (P = 0.0058, OR = 1.52). The present study demonstrates that P53Arg72Pro and CDH1rs16260 polymorphisms are associated with elevated breast cancer risk in the Bangladeshi population.

  3. Comparative study of hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants

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    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants. Methods: An in vivo hypoglycemic effect on mice model was used to check the hypoglycemic effect of four Bangladeshi herbal organic extracts viz., roots of Curculigo recurvata W. T. Aiton (Satipata (C. recurvata, leaf of Amorphophallus bulbifer Roxb. (Olkachu (A. bulbifer, whole plant of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata (T. grandiflora and leaf of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (Yunnan (S. colocasiifolia using glibenclamide as a positive control and water as a negative control. They were also tested for antibacterial activity on three Grampositive and four Gram-negative bacteria by disk diffusion method. C. recurvata, A. bulbifer and T. grandiflora were extracted with methanol and S. colocasiifolia was extracted with ethanol. Results: Among all the plant extract, only ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/ kg dose significantly (P < 0.01 reduced fasting glucose level in normal mice as compared to standard drug glibenclamide (5 mg/kg. Ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/ kg dose decreased 20.28% of blood glucose level after 2 h of administration in normal mice, where glibenclamide decreased 39.63%. Methanol extract of T. grandiflra didn’t show any zone of inhibition against the tested bacteria, but other three extracts showed a wide range of zone of inhibition. However, none of the extract showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. Methanol extract of C. recurvata showed maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus cereus [(10.50 ± 0.50 mm], Salmonella typhi [(16.20 ± 1.26 mm], Escherichia coli [(13.00 ± 1.00 mm] and ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia showed maximum zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus [(11.20 ± 1.26 (mm], Bacillus subtilis [(12.00 ± 0.50 (mm], Salmonella paratyphi [(10.80 ± 0.29 (mm

  4. Childhood environment influences adrenarcheal timing among first-generation Bangladeshi migrant girls to the UK.

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    Lauren C Houghton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adrenarche is a key early life event that marks middle childhood at approximately 7 years of age. Earlier work with British-Bangladeshi migrant women suggested that environmental conditions experienced before adrenarche influence adult reproductive function. We therefore investigated whether Bangladeshi children who migrate to the United Kingdom (UK reach adrenarche earlier than non-migrants in Bangladesh or the United Kingdom. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Healthy girls, aged 5-16 years, were recruited from schools in Sylhet, Bangladesh and London, England comprising four groups: Sylhetis (n = 165, first-generation migrants to the United Kingdom (n = 42, second-generation girls (n = 162, and British girls of European origin (n = 50. Anthropometric measurements were collected together with questionnaire data for migration and socioeconomic characteristics. Saliva samples were assayed for dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Multiple linear regressions tested for group differences in anthropometric and socioeconomic variables and DHEAS levels. Median ages at adrenarche (DHEAS>400 pg/ml were estimated using Weibull regression models for parametric survival analysis. Hazard ratios for reaching adrenarche earlier and 95% confidence intervals (CI, both unadjusted and adjusted for anthropometric variables, were estimated from the survival analyses. First-generation migrants had a median age at adrenarche (5.3 years that was significantly earlier than Sylheti (7.2, second-generation (7.4, and European (7.1 girls. In univariate analyses, first-generation girls reached adrenarche significantly earlier than Sylhetis [HR (CI: 2.8 (1.4-5.5]. In multivariate models, first generation girls still reached adrenarche earlier than Sylhetis after adjusting for height [HR(CI: 1.9 (0.9-4.1] and weight [HR(CI:1.7 (0.8-3.8], but these results were attenuated. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that rapid catch-up growth

  5. Score based risk assessment of lung cancer and its evaluation for Bangladeshi people.

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    Mukti, Roushney Fatima; Samadder, Pratul Dipta; Al Emran, Abdullah; Ahmed, Farzana; Bin Imran, Iqbal; Malaker, Anyanna; Yeasmin, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    The problem of cancer, especially lung cancer, is very acute in Bangladesh. The present study was conducted to evaluate the risk of lung cancer among Bangladeshi people based on hereditary, socio-economic and demographic factors. This study was carried out in 208 people (patients-104, controls-104) from January 2012 to September 2013 using a structured questionnaire containing details of lung cancer risk factors including smoking, secondhand smoke, tobacco leaf intake, age, gender, family history, chronic lung diseases, radiotherapy in the chest area, diet, obesity, physical activity, alcohol consumption, occupation, education, and income. Descriptive statistics and testing of hypotheses were used for the analysis using SPSS software (version 20). According to this study, lung cancer was more prevalent in males than females. Smoking was the highest risk factor (OR=9.707; RR=3.924; sensitivity=0.8872 and Plung disease (asthma, tuberculosis etc.) (OR=7.095; RR=1.508; sensitivity=0.316 and Plung cancer as risk factors after these two and alcohol consumption was not prevalent. On the other hand, for female patients, tobacco leaf intake represented the highest risk (OR=2.00; RR=1.429; sensitivity= 0.667 and P=0.5603) while genetic inheritance and highly cooked food also correlate with lung cancer but not so significantly. Socio- economic status and education level also play important roles in causing lung cancer. Some 78.5% male and 83.3% of female cancer patients were rural residents, while 58.2% lived at the margin or below the poverty line. Most male (39.8%) and female (50.0%) patients had completed only primary level education, and 27.6% male and 33.3% female patients were illiterate. Smoking was found to be more prevalent among the less educated persons. The results obtained in this study indicate the importance of creating awareness about lung cancer risk factors among Bangladeshi people and making appropriate access to health services for the illiterate, poor

  6. Prevalence of obesity among Bangladeshi pregnant women at their first trimester of pregnancy

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    Shatabdi Goon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paradoxically, the escalating global epidemic of maternal obesity coexists with malnutrion in many areas of Bangladesh. This proves a major challenge to obstetric practice from preconception to postpartum due to related comorbid conditions including: maternal death or severe morbidity, gestational diabetes and hypertension, increased risk of early and recurrent miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, thromboembolism, post-caesarean wound infection, postpartum haemorrhage, and low breastfeeding rates. A dramatic increase in birth defects and other pregnancy-induced disorders related to maternal obesity has added millions of dollars to health care costs leading great economical loss to the country. OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to determine the prevalence of obesity among Bangladeshi pregnant women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: 426 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal care until of Azimpur maternity hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh were randomly selected for this cross sectional study to determine their weight status using body mass index (BMI, kg/m2. RESULT: 90 (21.2% pregnant women were reported as obese with pregnancy BMI of >30 kg/m2. 171 (40.1% and 140 (32.8% pregnant women were reported as overweight and healthy with pregnancy BMI of 25-29.9 kg/m2 and 18.5-24.9 kg/ m2, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed obesity and overweight status were found to be significantly associated with age; women aged 31 or above were more likely to be obese (OR=2.5; 95% CI 1.53–3.96 and overweight (OR=3.3; 95% CI 2.15–4.99. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of increasing trends in obesity among Bangladeshi pregnant women, which poses possible health risks both for mother and child. The findings of this study may act as baseline data for monitoring the effectiveness of national programs for the prevention and control of maternal obesity. Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  7. Prevalence and associated factors of contraceptive discontinuation and switching among Bangladeshi married women of reproductive age

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    Mahumud RA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rashidul Alam Mahumud,1 Md Golam Hossain,2 Abdur Razzaque Sarkar,1 Md Nurul Islam,2 Md Ripter Hossain,2 Aik Saw,3 Jahangir AM Khan1,4 1Health Economics and Financing Research Group, Center for Equity and Health Systems, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Statistics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National Orthopaedic Centre of Excellence for Research and Learning, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4Adjunct Faculty, Health Economics Unit, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Introduction: Contraceptive discontinuation is a worldwide incident that may be connected with low incentive to avoid pregnancy. Contraceptive discontinuation highly contributes to unplanned pregnancy and unwanted births.Objectives: The objective of this study was to observe the prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive methods among Bangladeshi married women. In addition, the sociodemographic factors associated with contraceptive discontinuation and switching were assessed.Methods: Secondary cross-sectional data was used in this study. A total of 16,273 married Bangladeshi women of reproductive age (15–49 years were considered in the present study, from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. Logistic regression models were used to determine the relationships between key sociodemographic factors and user status.Results: The prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive method among women were 38.4% and 15.4%, respectively. The logistic regression model demonstrated that women in early reproductive years (25–29 years and 30–34 years significantly more often (odds ratio [OR] =0.84 and 0.71, respectively discontinued use of contraceptives. Significantly higher rates of discontinuation were pronounced among women who

  8. Morphometry of purkinje cell body of cerebellum in bangladeshi cadaver.

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    Haque, M A; Khalil, M; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Rahman, M; Ara, A; Begum, T; Choudhury, S; Haque, N

    2010-10-01

    This cross sectional descriptive study was performed by examining 30 (thirty) relatively fresh cerebellum. Out of them 20 postmortem human cerebellum collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of both sexes (male 10 and female 10) age ranging from 5 to 60 years and 10 cerebellums from caesarian section of dead fetuses of both sexes (male 6 and female 4) age ranging from 34 weeks to 41 weeks. Specimen containing cerebellum was collected from dead bodies autopsied on different dates from April'2009 to September'2009 at the autopsy laboratory of department of Forensic Medicine and Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Samples were collected by using nonprobability sampling technique. The collected sample was grouped in to three age groups like Group A (34 to 41 weeks of gestation), Group B (5 to 30 years) and Group C (31 to 60 years) and two sex groups (male and female). Ten cerebellums were studied from each age group for this histological study. Sections were processed following standard histological procedure and were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Slides were examined under 15X40 magnifications and measurement of vertical and transverse diameter of the cell body were taken with the help of ocular micrometer. In this study, the mean difference of mean vertical and transverse diameter of Purkinje cell body between Groups A & B and Groups A & C was statistically highly significant (p<0.001) but differences between Groups B & C was statistically significant only in case of transverse diameter.

  9. The Normalization of Cannabis Use Among Bangladeshi and Pakistani Youth: A New Frontier for the Normalization Thesis?

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    Williams, Lisa; Ralphs, Rob; Gray, Paul

    2017-03-21

    The Asian population in Britain has grown, representing the second largest ethnic group; Bangladeshi, Pakistani, and Indian nationalities are prevalent (Jivraj, 2012 ; Office for National Statistics, 2013 ). Yet, we know relatively little about the nature and extent of their substance use. Jayakody et al. ( 2006 ) argue ethnic minority groups may be influenced by the norms and values of the dominant culture. Given recreational drug use has undergone a process of normalization in Britain (Aldridge et al., 2011 ; Parker et al., 1998 , 2002 ), we explore the degree to which this is occurring in a Bangladeshi and Pakistani community of Muslim faith in Northern England; a group typically assumed to reject substance use because of robust religious and cultural values. To examine the extent, frequency, and nature of substance use, and associated attitudes. A cross-sectional study collecting qualitative data from a sample (N = 43) of adolescents accessing a drug service and a range of professionals working with them during 2014. We also present analyses of routinely collected quantitative client data. Adolescent interviewees reported extensive personal experience smoking skunk cannabis, and professionals working in the community confirmed many young Asians smoked it. Its consumption appeared to be accommodated into the daily lives of young people and the supply of it also showed signs of acceptance. Skunk cannabis may be undergoing a process of normalization within some Asian communities in Britain. Our study has significant implications for the normalization thesis, finding evidence for normalization within a subpopulation that is typically perceived to resist this trend.

  10. Eldercare in the transnational setting: insights from Bangladeshi transnational families in the United States.

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    Amin, Iftekhar; Ingman, Stan

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the emotional impact of caregiving for elderly parents on migrant child in the transnational setting. To address this gap in the literature, this study examines the stressors, mediators, and outcomes of eldercare in the transnational context. Data were collected from 21 Bangladeshi immigrant men and women living in the United States who had living parents in Bangladesh over 60 years old. Despite the geographic distance, the migrants provide care to their parents such as emotional support, financial assistance, and arranging for care. While the health status of the care recipients contributed to primary objective stressors, none of the transnational caregivers' narratives reflected the presence of any subjective stressors such as role overload, role captivity, and relational deprivation. Distance and depending on others for hands-on caregiving resulted in feelings of loss of control over the caregiving process. Caregivers experienced a range of emotions from guilt, excessive worrying, and distress over the unpredictability and uncertainty of their circumstances. Kin networks, communicative technologies, and a cultural norm of filial piety contributed to mediating stress. The findings underscore the importance of supportive institutional policies such as visa and travel policies, employment leave, and counseling services for caregivers who provide care for their elderly parents transnationally.

  11. Screening of Bangladeshi winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for sensitivity to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitanis, Costas J; Bari, Shafiqul M; Burkey, Kent O; Stamatelopoulos, Dimitris; Agathokleous, Evgenios

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity to ozone of ten Bangladeshi wheat cultivars was tested by exposing plants to eight ozone exposure regimes (50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 135, 150, and 200 ppb for 14, 11, 8, 6, 5, 4, 3, and 1 days, respectively, for 8 h/day) in controlled environment chambers. Visible leaf injury, dry weight, chlorophyll, carotenoid content, leaf greenness (SPAD value), quantum yield of photosynthesis, and stomatal resistance were measured to evaluate response. Shoot biomass, total chlorophyll, leaf greenness, and carotenoid content were reduced in ozone-exposed plants. Based on the results of principal component analysis (PCA)-biplot analysis, the order of sensitivity to ozone was: Akbar > Sufi ≥ Bijoy ≥ Shatabdi > Bari-26 ≥ Gourab > Bari-25 ≥ Prodip ≥ Sourav > Kanchan. The most important parameters to discriminate cultivars with respect to ozone sensitivity were visible injury and chlorophyll b/a ratio, whereas quantum yield of photosynthesis was less important. Differences in stomatal resistance were not a significant factor in ozone response. Regression of cultivars' PCA scores against year of release revealed no trend, suggesting that ozone tolerance was not incorporated during cultivar breeding.

  12. Morphometric study of dentate nucleus of cerebellum in Bangladeshi cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M A; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Uddin, M M; Hossain, M; Ara, A; Choudhury, S; Shammi, N J

    2015-01-01

    This cross sectional descriptive study was done by using nonprobability sampling technique and performed by examining 63 (sixty three) cerebellum. Out of them 40 postmortem human cerebellum collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of both sexes (male 25 and female 15) age ranging from 5 to 60 years and 23 cerebellums from caesarian section of intrauterine death cases of both sexes (male 14 and female 9) age ranging from 34 to 41 weeks of gestation. Specimens were collected from dead bodies autopsied on different dates from April' 2009 to September' 2009 at the autopsy laboratory of department of Forensic Medicine and prenatal cases from Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. The collected specimens were grouped into three age groups like Group A (28 to 42 weeks of gestation), Group B (5 to 30 years) and Group C (31 to 60 years) and, two sex groups (male and female) and two sides (right and left). A transverse section was made at the level of horizontal fissure, and length and breadth of dentate nucleus were measured by divider and scale. The mean (±SD) length and breadth of dentate nucleus was 8.619±2.995mm and 14.770±3.604mm respectively and it was observed that length and breadth of dentate nucleus increased with age upto certain level then slightly decreased in the late age Group C. In this study, differences of the mean length of dentate nucleus on both right and left sides were statistically moderately significant between age Groups A&B. The differences of mean breadth of dentate nucleus on both right and left side were statistically highly significant between age Groups A&B and moderately significant between age Groups A&C on right side and only significant on left side. The differences between male & female were statistically insignificant in length and breadth of dentate nucleus.

  13. Stochastic Frontier Approach and Data Envelopment Analysis to Total Factor Productivity and Efficiency Measurement of Bangladeshi Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Kamrul; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Baten, Md. Azizul; Mustafa, Adli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply the Translog Stochastic Frontier production model (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate efficiencies over time and the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth rate for Bangladeshi rice crops (Aus, Aman and Boro) throughout the most recent data available comprising the period 1989–2008. Results indicate that technical efficiency was observed as higher for Boro among the three types of rice, but the overall technical efficiency of rice production was found around 50%. Although positive changes exist in TFP for the sample analyzed, the average growth rate of TFP for rice production was estimated at almost the same levels for both Translog SFA with half normal distribution and DEA. Estimated TFP from SFA is forecasted with ARIMA (2, 0, 0) model. ARIMA (1, 0, 0) model is used to forecast TFP of Aman from DEA estimation. PMID:23077500

  14. Diversity in Adoption of Linguistic Features of London English by Chinese and Bangladeshi Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Martha C.; Lau, Lawrence; Sachdev, Itesh

    2011-01-01

    This comparative study, conducted in multicultural London, investigates the occurrence in interviews with a researcher and in constructed same-sex peer conversations of five linguistic features characteristic of London English in the speech of two groups of British-born adolescents: ethnic Bangladeshis and ethnic Chinese of Cantonese heritage. The…

  15. Nature and periodicity of growth rings in two Bangladeshi mangrove species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Q.; Schmitz, N.; Verheyden, A.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koedam, N.; Beeckman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Nature and periodicity of growth rings were investigated in Sonneratia opetala and Heritiera fomes, two Bangladeshi mangrove species. From both species we collected three stem discs in the natural forest reserve of the Sundarbans. In addition, three discs were sampled from plantation-grown S. apetal

  16. An ‘infiltration’ of time? Hindu Chauvinism and Bangladeshi migration in/to Kolkata, India

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    Gautam Ghosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the growth of Hindu chauvinism (Hindutva in India, this article explores the ways Bengali middle-class caste-Hindus have become increasingly anti-Bangladeshi and, in particular, increasingly hostile to immigrants into India from Bangladesh. The aim is two-fold. First, to show that a main reason for the increasingly anti-Bangladeshi sentiment is these Bengali Hindus’ particular experience of or, more precisely, their particular interpretation of, their own location in Indian history. This group, at times referred to as the bhadralok, had once seen itself, not without reason, as India’s national elite and has sought to re-establish that status. Second, it is suggested that the Bangladeshi immigrants represent an “infiltration” or “interruption” of time as much as territory, providing the temporal backdrop for anti-Bangladeshi resentment. In this case the temporality at issue is the postcolonial imperative of progress. The paper suggests that attention to issues of temporality can shed light on key aspects of nationalism — postcolonial nationalism and perhaps more broadly liberal nationalism — in relation to, among other matters, the legitimation of leadership.

  17. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities – particularly amongst older individuals. PMID:25076835

  18. Analysis of colorectal cancers in British Bangladeshi identifies early onset, frequent mucinous histotype and a high prevalence of RBFOX1 deletion

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    Sengupta Neel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC in the British Bangladeshi population (BAN is low compared to British Caucasians (CAU. Genetic background may influence mutations and disease features. Methods We characterized the clinicopathological features of BAN CRCs and interrogated their genomes using mutation profiling and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays and compared findings to CAU CRCs. Results Age of onset of BAN CRC was significantly lower than for CAU patients (p=3.0 x 10-5 and this difference was not due to Lynch syndrome or the polyposis syndromes. KRAS mutations in BAN microsatellite stable (MSS CRCs were comparatively rare (5.4% compared to CAU MSS CRCs (25%; p=0.04, which correlates with the high percentage of mucinous histotype observed (31% in the BAN samples. No BRAF mutations was seen in our BAN MSS CRCs (CAU CRCs, 12%; p=0.08. Array data revealed similar patterns of gains (chromosome 7 and 8q, losses (8p, 17p and 18q and LOH (4q, 17p and 18q in BAN and CAU CRCs. A small deletion on chromosome 16p13.2 involving the alternative splicing factor RBFOX1 only was found in significantly more BAN (50% than CAU CRCs (15% cases (p=0.04. Focal deletions targeting the 5’ end of the gene were also identified. Novel RBFOX1 mutations were found in CRC cell lines and tumours; mRNA and protein expression was reduced in tumours. Conclusions KRAS mutations were rare in BAN MSS CRC and a mucinous histotype common. Loss of RBFOX1 may explain the anomalous splicing activity associated with CRC.

  19. A cross sectional study of anemia and iron deficiency as risk factors for arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kile, Molly L; Faraj, Joycelyn M; Ronnenberg, Alayne G; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmudar; Mostofa, Golam; Afroz, Sakila; Christiani, David C

    2016-02-16

    In the Ganges Delta, chronic arsenic poisoning is a health concern affecting millions of people who rely on groundwater as their potable water source. The prevalence of anemia is also high in this region, particularly among women. Moreover, arsenic is known to affect heme synthesis and erythrocytes and the risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions appears to differ by sex. We conducted a case-control study in 147 arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi women to assess the association between anemia and arsenic-induced skin lesions. We observed that the odds of arsenic-related skin lesions were approximately three times higher among women who were anemic (hemoglobin arsenic levels in drinking water and other covariates. Furthermore, 75% of the women with anemia had adequate iron stores (serum ferritin ≥ 12 μg/L), suggesting that the majority of anemia detected in this population was unrelated to iron depletion. Considering the magnitude of arsenic exposure and prevalence of anemia in Bangladeshi women, additional research is warranted that identifies the causes of anemia so that effective interventions can be implemented while arsenic remediation efforts continue.

  20. New population synthesis model: Preliminary results for close double white dwarf populations

    CERN Document Server

    Toonen, Silvia; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2011-01-01

    An update is presented to the software package SeBa for simulating single star and binary evolution in which new stellar evolution tracks have been implemented. SeBa is applied to study the population of close double white dwarf and the delay time distribution of double white dwarf mergers that may lead to Supernovae Type Ia.

  1. Physical activity levels and associated socio-demographic factors in Bangladeshi adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; Ahmed, M S A Mansur; Zaman, Mohammad Mostafa

    2017-01-11

    Low level of physical activity (PA) has become an important public health problem even in low-income countries. The objectives of this study were to measure PA levels, determine the prevalence of low PA and identify socio-demographic factors associated with it in Bangladeshi adults. Data from 792 (urban, 395; rural, 397) Bangladeshi adults (25-64 years) were included in this population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2011. Global Physical Activity Questionnaire version 2 (GPAQ-2) was used to measure PA. The metabolic equivalent task (MET) in minutes per week was calculated to determine total PA. Participants were categorized into low, moderate and high PA groups. Logistic regression was used to assess socio-demographic factors associated with low level of PA. Median MET-minute of total PA per week was almost double in the rural area (1720) than the urban area (960). The overall prevalence of low PA was 50.3% (95% CI: 46.8-53.8), urban 59.5% (54.7-64.3) and rural 41.9% (37.0-46.8). Women in general were more inactive (women 63.1% [58.3-67.9], men 39.3% [34.6-44.0]). The main contributions to total PA were from work (urban 40.0%, rural 77.0%) and active commute (57.0%, 21.0%). Leisure-time PA represented a very small proportion (<3.0%). Multiple logistic regressions found a significant association of urban residence (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.5-3.2), women (2.1; 1.4-3.9), oldest age group 55-64 years (15.6; 7.5-32.2) compared to youngest age group 25-34 years, graduation or further education (8.6; 4.1-17.7), and higher socio-economic class (2.4; 1.4-4.2) compared to poor with insufficient PA. This study identifies low PA in a rural and urban population in Bangladesh and that further large-scale population studies are warranted.

  2. Results of cataract surgery in the very elderly population

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    Michalska-Małecka K

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Katarzyna Michalska-Małecka,1 Mariusz Nowak,2 Piotr Gościniewicz,1 Jacek Karpe,3 Ludmiła Słowińska-Łożyńska,4 Agnieszka Łypaczewska,1 Dorota Romaniuk11Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital No 5, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, 2Pathophysiology Division, Department of Pathophysiology and Endocrinology, Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze, 4Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Silesia, PolandAim: The aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness and safety of cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation (IOL for patients aged 90 years or older, whom we define as “very elderly.”Methods: The study involved a total number of 122 patients (122 eyes with senile cataracts. The mean age of patients was 91.2 ± 2.3 years (range 90–100 years old. Phacoemulsification (phaco was done on 113 of 122 eyes, and 9 of 122 eyes had extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE. Postoperative visual acuity and intraocular pressure (IOP were analyzed on the first postoperative day, 3 months after surgery, and 6 months after surgery.Results: Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved in 100 of 122 eyes (82.0%. BCVA remained the same in 20 of 122 eyes (16.4% and decreased in 2 of 122 eyes (1.6%, mainly because of coexisting age-related macular degeneration (AMD. The BCVA 3 months after surgery was ≥0.8 in 23 of 122 eyes (18.9%, between 0.5 and 0.7 in 28 of 122 eyes (22.3%, and between 0.2 and 0.4 in 33 of 122 eyes (27.1%. We found significant implications of cataract surgery on decreasing IOP in the studied group of patients suffering from glaucoma compared to the patients without glaucoma.Conclusion: Advanced age is not a contraindication for cataract surgery. The results of the study showed that when systemic conditions are stable, both phaco and ECCE with

  3. New population synthesis model Preliminary results for close double white dwarf populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs; Portegies Zwart, Simon F.

    2010-11-01

    An update is presented to the software package SeBa (Portegies Zwart and Verbunt [1], Nelemans et al. [2]) for simulating single star and binary evolution in which new stellar evolution tracks (Hurley et al. [3]) have been implemented. SeBa is applied to study the population of close double white dwarf and the delay time distribution of double white dwarf mergers that may lead to Supernovae Type Ia.

  4. A New Population Synthesis Model: Preliminary Results for Close Double White Dwarf Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs; Portegies Zwart, Simon F.

    2010-12-01

    An update is presented to the software package SeBa (Portegies Zwart and Verbunt [1], Nelemans et al. [2]) for simulating single star and binary evolution in which new stellar evolution tracks (Hurley et al. [3]) have been implemented. SeBa is applied to study the population of close double white dwarf and the delay time distribution of double white dwarf mergers that may lead to Supernovae Type Ia.

  5. Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism among Bangladeshi pregnant women and its effect on fetomaternal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmeen, M; Shamsunnahar, P A; Laita, T R; Chowdhury, S B

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid disorders are among the common endocrine problems in pregnant women. It is now well established that not only overt but subclinical thyroid dysfunction also has adverse effects on maternal and fetal outcome. There are few data from Bangladesh about the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy. With this background, this study aims to find out thyroid dysfunction (both overt and subclinical hypothyroidism) in pregnancy and its impact on obstetrical outcome. We studied the evaluation of 50 admitted pregnancies corresponding to 29 women with subclinical hypothyroidism and rest 21 was overt hypothyroidism. Detailed history and examination were performed. Apart from routine obstetrical investigations, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) estimation was done. Their obstetrical and perinatal outcomes were noted. Overt hypothyroidism was significantly (p hypothyroidism patients. In sub clinical hypothyroidism 86.2% conceived firstly within 2 years and 66.7% in overt hypothyroidism patients conceived firstly in between 3 to 5 years after marriage. Overt hypothyroids were prone to have pregnancy-induced hypertension 42.9%, intrauterine growth restriction (P = 0.001) and gestational diabetes (38.1%) as compared to subclinical cases. Neonatal complications were significantly more in overt hypothyroidism group. Mean TSH level was significantly (p hypothyroidism patients but mean FT4 level was almost similar in both groups. Majority of the patient underwent caesarean section in both groups due to associated medical and obstetrical complications. None of the babies showed hypothyroidism by cord blood tests. In this analysis our results showed that overt hypothyroidism among Bangladeshi pregnant women are associated with more maternal complication & adverse parental outcome than subclinical hypothyroidism. The adequate treatment of hypothyroidism during gestation minimizes risks and generally, makes it possible for pregnancies to be carried to term without complications

  6. Socioeconomic Determinants of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella Infections in Bangladeshi Children

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    Randon J. Gruninger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shigella species (spp. are a leading cause of moderate to severe diarrhea in children worldwide. The recent emergence of quinolone-resistant Shigella spp. gives cause for concern, and South Asia has been identified as a reservoir for global spread. The influence of socioeconomic status on antimicrobial resistance in developing countries, such as those in South Asia, remains unknown. Methods: We used data collected from 2009 to 2014 from a hospital specializing in the treatment of diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to determine the relationship between ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella spp. isolates and measures of socioeconomic status in Bangladeshi children less than 5 years of age. Results: We found 2.7% (230/8, 672 of children who presented with diarrhea had Shigella spp. isolated from their stool, and 50% (115/230 had resistance to ciprofloxacin. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found that children from families where the father’s income was in the highest quintile had significantly higher odds of having ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella spp. compared to children in the lowest quintile (OR = 6.1, CI 1.9-19. Factors protective against the development of resistance included access to improved sanitation (OR = 0.27, CI 0.11-0.7, and improved water sources (OR = 0.48, CI 0.25-0.92. We did not find a relationship between ciprofloxacin resistance and other proxies for socioeconomic status, including the presence of animals in the home, nutritional status, paternal education level, and the number of family members in the home. Conclusions: Although the associations between wealth and antimicrobial resistance are not fully understood, possible explanations include increased access and use of antibiotics, greater access to healthcare facilities and thus resistant pathogens, or greater consumption of commercially produced foods prepared with antibiotics.

  7. Infrastructure and contamination of the physical environment in three Bangladeshi hospitals: putting infection control into context.

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    Nadia Ali Rimi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the physical structure and environmental contamination in selected hospital wards in three government hospitals in Bangladesh. METHODS: The qualitative research team conducted 48 hours of observation in six wards from three Bangladeshi tertiary hospitals in 2007. They recorded environmental contamination with body secretions and excretions and medical waste and observed ward occupant handwashing and use of personal protective equipment. They recorded number of persons, number of open doors and windows, and use of fans. They measured the ward area and informally observed waste disposal outside the wards. They conducted nine focus group discussions with doctors, nurses and support staff. RESULTS: A median of 3.7 persons were present per 10 m(2 of floor space in the wards. A median of 4.9 uncovered coughs or sneezes were recorded per 10 m(2 per hour per ward. Floors in the wards were soiled with saliva, spit, mucous, vomitus, feces and blood 125 times in 48 hours. Only two of the 12 patient handwashing stations had running water and none had soap. No disinfection was observed before or after using medical instruments. Used medical supplies were often discarded in open containers under the beds. Handwashing with soap was observed in only 32 of 3,373 handwashing opportunities noted during 48 hours. Mosquitoes and feral cats were commonly observed in the wards. CONCLUSIONS: The physical structure and environment of our study hospitals are conducive to the spread of infection to people in the wards. Low-cost interventions on hand hygiene and cleaning procedures for rooms and medical equipment should be developed and evaluated for their practicality and effectiveness.

  8. Association of age at menarche with metabolic syndrome and its components in rural Bangladeshi women

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    Akter Shamima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early age at menarche is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in both China and the West. However, little is known about the impact of age at menarche and metabolic syndrome in South Asian women, including those from low-income country, where age at menarche is also falling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether age at menarche is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Bangladeshi women, who are mostly poor and have limited access to and or poor health care facilities. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study was performed using 1423 women aged between 15–75 years from rural Bangladesh in 2009 and 2010. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to standard NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between age at menarche and metabolic syndrome, with adjustment of potential confounding variables, including age, education, marital status, tobacco users, use of contraceptives and number of pregnancies. Results Early onset of menarche (13 years was found to be associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio=1.55; 95 % confidence interval =1.05-2.30. Age at onset of menarche was also inversely associated with prevalence of high triglycerides (P for trend P for trend = 0.01, but positively associated with prevalence of high fasting blood glucose (P for trend =0.02. However, no significant association was found between age at menarche, high blood pressure and elevated waist circumference. Conclusion Early onset of menarche might promote or trigger development of metabolic syndrome. Thus, knowledge of the history of age at onset of menarche may be critical in identifying women at risk of developing metabolic syndrome and those likely to benefit the most from early interventions.

  9. Early Life Inflammation and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Bangladeshi Infants Growing Up in Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nona M; Tofail, Fahmida; Ma, Jennie Z; Haque, Rashidul; Kirkpatrick, Beth; Nelson, Charles A; Petri, William A

    2017-07-17

    Exposure to profound adversity can negatively affect the neurodevelopment of children, but biologic mechanisms that underlie this association remain unknown. We sought to determine whether elevated levels of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in Bangladeshi children. A total of 422 infant-mother pairs from an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, were enrolled at birth and followed prospectively. Inflammation was measured with sCD14, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 at 18 weeks, and CRP at 6, 18, 40, and 53 weeks. Psychologists assessed cognitive, language, motor, and social emotional development using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development at 78 and 104 weeks of age. We tested for the association of inflammatory markers with developmental outcomes, independent of previously identified associations such as malnutrition, family income, and maternal education. Every 10 pg/mL increase in sCD14 was associated with a 1.1-2.0 decrement in cognitive and motor scores at 78 weeks and in all domains at 104 weeks. The cumulative number of CRP elevations that a child experienced in the first year of life, as well as IL-1β and IL-6 at 18 weeks of age, were also negatively associated with Bayley Scales results. CRP, sCD14, IL-1β, and IL-6 were associated with lower neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our findings implicate a role of inflammation in the neurodevelopment of children growing up in adversity.

  10. Infrastructure and Contamination of the Physical Environment in Three Bangladeshi Hospitals: Putting Infection Control into Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimi, Nadia Ali; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P.; Islam, Mohammed Saiful; Uddin, Main; Hossain, Mohammad Jahangir; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Nahar, Nazmun; Gurley, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the physical structure and environmental contamination in selected hospital wards in three government hospitals in Bangladesh. Methods The qualitative research team conducted 48 hours of observation in six wards from three Bangladeshi tertiary hospitals in 2007. They recorded environmental contamination with body secretions and excretions and medical waste and observed ward occupant handwashing and use of personal protective equipment. They recorded number of persons, number of open doors and windows, and use of fans. They measured the ward area and informally observed waste disposal outside the wards. They conducted nine focus group discussions with doctors, nurses and support staff. Results A median of 3.7 persons were present per 10 m2 of floor space in the wards. A median of 4.9 uncovered coughs or sneezes were recorded per 10 m2 per hour per ward. Floors in the wards were soiled with saliva, spit, mucous, vomitus, feces and blood 125 times in 48 hours. Only two of the 12 patient handwashing stations had running water and none had soap. No disinfection was observed before or after using medical instruments. Used medical supplies were often discarded in open containers under the beds. Handwashing with soap was observed in only 32 of 3,373 handwashing opportunities noted during 48 hours. Mosquitoes and feral cats were commonly observed in the wards. Conclusions The physical structure and environment of our study hospitals are conducive to the spread of infection to people in the wards. Low-cost interventions on hand hygiene and cleaning procedures for rooms and medical equipment should be developed and evaluated for their practicality and effectiveness. PMID:24586516

  11. The effect of microwave roasting on the antioxidant properties of the Bangladeshi groundnut cultivar

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    Abbas Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Groundnut seeds are an important source of bioactive phenolic compounds with noteworthy antioxidant capacity, which may be enhanced by the microwave roasting process. The aim of this work is   to study the changes in antioxidant activity in groundnut seeds during microwave roasting, as a function of roasting time and extract concentration, in order to maximise the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of roasted seeds. Material and methods. The study was conducted to evaluate total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and antioxidative activity of methanolic (GME, ethanolic (GEE, and chloroform (GCE extracts and methanolic extract of oil (GMO from groundnut seeds exposed to microwaves. The antioxidant activity was investigated using several assays, namely phosphomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity, H2O2 scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Results. The microwave roasting process significantly increased the TPC, whilst the TFC decreased with roasting time. Antioxidant activity increased with increased roasting time and extract concentration in all extracts. Antioxidant activity increased significantly at lower concentrations; however, the rate of increment decreased gradually as the concentration of the solvent extract increased. Thus, among all the extracts, methanol extracts at all roasting times and extract concentrations appeared to display the highest effectiveness. The various scavenging activities of the samples are ranked in the following order: GME > GEE > GCE > GMO, in both raw and roasted samples. Conclusions. Both roasting time and extract concentration were found to be critical factors in determining the overall quality of the product. This investigation is important to determine optimum roasting conditions, in order to maximise the anti-oxidative health benefits of the Bangladeshi groundnut cultivar.

  12. Prevalence of tobacco use and its contributing factors among adolescents in Bangladesh: Results from a population-based study

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    Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is an alarming public health problem worldwide and causes significant morbidity and mortality. In many developing countries tobacco use starts at a relative younger age. However, data on tobacco use among adolescents in Bangladesh is scarce. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and its contributing factors among adolescents in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS Bangladesh 2007 which was a school-based survey of 2,135 students aged 13-15 years in grades 7-10. Analysis: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for Bangladesh. At the first stage, schools were selected with probability proportional to enrollment size. At the second stage, classes were randomly selected and all students in selected classes were eligible to participate. The GYTS sample design produced representative, independent, cross-sectional estimates for Bangladesh. Results: The overall prevalence of ever cigarette smokers in Bangladeshi students was about 9%, which was more than 3 times higher in boys compared to girls (15.8% versus 4.8%. Almost 4 in 10 students start smoking before the age of 10 in Bangladesh. In addition to current cigarette smoking, another 6% also reported to use other tobacco products currently. Nine in 10 current smokers reported that they had ever received help to stop smoking. More than 4 in 10 students were exposed to smoke from other people in public places. Among current smokers, 38.3% reported that they usually buy tobacco in a store and of which 97.8% reported that they were not refused cigarette purchase because of their age. Conclusion: Implementation and enforcement of tobacco control act is an urgent public health priority in Bangladesh.

  13. Iron Polymerization and Arsenic Removal During In-Situ Iron Electrocoagulation in Synthetic Bangladeshi Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genuchten, C. M.; Pena, J.; Addy, S.; Gadgil, A.

    2010-12-01

    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contamination in groundwater drinking supplies. The majority of affected people live in rural Bangladesh. Electrocoagulation (EC) using iron electrodes is a promising arsenic removal strategy that is based on the generation of iron precipitates with a high affinity for arsenic through the electrochemical dissolution of a sacrificial iron anode. Many studies of iron hydrolysis in the presence of co-occurring ions in groundwater such as PO43-, SiO44-, and AsO43- suggest that these ions influence the polymerization and formation of iron oxide phases. However, the combined impact of these ions on precipitates generated by EC is not well understood. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to examine EC precipitates generated in synthetic Bangladeshi groundwater (SBGW). The iron oxide structure and arsenic binding geometry were investigated as a function of EC operating conditions. As and Fe k-edge spectra were similar between samples regardless of the large range of current density (0.02, 1.1, 5.0, 100 mA/cm2) used during sample generation. This result suggests that current density does not play a large role in the formation EC precipitates in SBGW. Shell-by-shell fits of Fe K-edge data revealed the presence of a single Fe-Fe interatomic distance at approximately 3.06 Å. The absence of longer ranged Fe-Fe correlations suggests that EC precipitates consist of nano-scale chains (polymers) of FeO6 octahedra sharing equatorial edges. Shell-by-shell fits of As K-edge spectra show arsenic bound in primarily bidentate, binuclear corner sharing complexes. In this coordination geometry, arsenic prevents the formation of FeO6 corner-sharing linkages, which are necessary for 3-dimensional crystal growth. The individual and combined effects of other anions, such as PO43- and SiO44- present in SBGW are currently being investigated to determine the role of these ions in stunting crystal growth. The results provided by this

  14. Adiposity and response to an obesity prevention intervention in Pakistani and Bangladeshi primary school boys and girls: a secondary analysis using the BEACHeS feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezard, Geneviève; Bansal, Narinder; Bhopal, Raj; Pallan, Miranda; Gill, Paramjit; Barrett, Timothy; Adab, Peymane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives As a secondary analysis of the BEACHeS study, we hypothesised there would be sex differences in Pakistani and Bangladeshi school children when examining adiposity and their response to an obesity intervention. Design The Birmingham healthy Eating and Active lifestyle for CHildren Study (BEACHeS) was designed as a Phase II feasibility study of a complex intervention. Setting 8 primary schools with predominantly South Asian children in Birmingham, UK Participants 1090 pupils (aged 5–7 years old) from school year 1 and 2 were allocated at school level to receive an intervention. A total of 574 were enrolled in the study with consent. We focused on the 466 children of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin (50.6% boys). Intervention Delivered between 2007 and 2009, the 1-year obesity prevention intervention targeted school and family-based dietary and physical activities. Primary and secondary outcome measures and analysis Adiposity measures including skinfold thickness were compared by sex at baseline and follow-up. Gains in adiposity measures were compared between control and intervention arms in boys and in girls. Measures were compared using two-sample t tests and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank sum tests according to normality distribution. Results At baseline, girls had larger skinfold measures at all sites compared to boys although body mass index (BMI) was similar (eg, median subscapular skinfold 6.6 mm vs 5.7 mm; p<0.001). At follow-up, girls in the intervention group gained less weight and adiposity compared to respective controls (p<0.05 for weight, BMI, waist circumference, central and thigh skinfold) with a median total skinfold gain of 7.0 mm in the control group compared to 0.3 mm in the intervention group. Conclusions Our secondary analysis suggests differences in adiposity in Pakistani and Bangladeshi girls and boys and in the effect of the intervention reducing adiposity in girls. These preliminary findings indicate that including sex

  15. Disaggregating measurement uncertainty from population variability and Bayesian treatment of uncensored results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Daniel J; Joyce, Kevin E; MacLellan, Jay A; Watson, David J; Lynch, Timothy P; Antonio, Cheryl L; Birchall, Alan; Anderson, Kevin K; Zharov, Peter A

    2012-04-01

    In making low-level radioactivity measurements of populations, it is commonly observed that a substantial portion of net results is negative. Furthermore, the observed variance of the measurement results arises from a combination of measurement uncertainty and population variability. This paper presents a method for disaggregating measurement uncertainty from population variability to produce a probability density function (PDF) of possibly true results. To do this, simple, justifiable and reasonable assumptions are made about the relationship of the measurements to the measurands (the 'true values'). The measurements are assumed to be unbiased, that is, that their average value is the average of the measurands. Using traditional estimates of each measurement's uncertainty, a likelihood PDF for each individual's measurand is produced. Then using the same assumptions and all the data from the population of individuals, a prior PDF of measurands for the population is produced. The prior PDF is non-negative, and the average is equal to the average of the measurement results for the population. Using Bayes's theorem, posterior PDFs of each individual measurand are calculated. The uncertainty in these bayesian posterior PDFs appears to be all Berkson with no remaining classical component. The method is applied to baseline bioassay data from the Hanford site. The data include (90)Sr urinalysis measurements of 128 people, (137)Cs in vivo measurements of 5337 people and (239)Pu urinalysis measurements of 3270 people. The method produces excellent results for the (90)Sr and (137)Cs measurements, since there are non-zero concentrations of these global fallout radionuclides in people who have not been occupationally exposed. The method does not work for the (239)Pu measurements in non-occupationally exposed people because the population average is essentially zero relative to the sensitivity of the measurement technique. The method is shown to give results similar to

  16. Genetic diversity and association mapping for salinity tolerance in Bangladeshi rice landraces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza M Emon; Mirza M Islam; Jyotirmoy Halder; Yeyang Fan

    2015-01-01

    Breeding for salinity tolerance using Bangladeshi rice landraces and understand genetic diversity has been limited by the complex and polygenic nature of salt tolerance in rice genotypes. A genetic diversity and association mapping analysis was conducted using 96 germplasm accessions with variable response to salt stress at the seedling stage. These included 86 landraces and 10 indica varieties and lines including Nona Bokra, from southern Bangladesh. A total of 220 alleles were detected at 58 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) marker loci randomly distributed on all 12 rice chromosomes and 8 Sequence Tagged Site (STS) markers developed for genes SKC1, DST, and SalT. The average gene diversity was 0.5075 and polymorphism information content value was 0.4426, respectively. Cluster analysis revealed that 68 and 21 accessions were clustered into 2 distinct groups, possibly corresponding to indica and japonica groups, respectively and the remaining 7 landraces were classified as an admixed group. In addition to Wn11463, the STS marker for SKC1, RM22418 on Chr. 8 was significantly associated with salinity tolerance, at the location of a QTL detected in previous studies. Our findings of favorable alleles associated with salinity tolerance in Bangladeshi rice landraces, as well as the development of STS markers for salt tolerance genes, will be helpful in future efforts to breed salinity tolerance in rice.

  17. Genetic diversity and association mapping for salinity tolerance in Bangladeshi rice landraces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza; M.Emon; Mirza; M.Islam; Jyotirmoy; Halder; Yeyang; Fan

    2015-01-01

    Breeding for salinity tolerance using Bangladeshi rice landraces and understand genetic diversity has been limited by the complex and polygenic nature of salt tolerance in rice genotypes. A genetic diversity and association mapping analysis was conducted using 96 germplasm accessions with variable response to salt stress at the seedling stage. These included86 landraces and 10 indica varieties and lines including Nona Bokra, from southern Bangladesh. A total of 220 alleles were detected at 58 Simple Sequence Repeat(SSR) marker loci randomly distributed on all 12 rice chromosomes and 8 Sequence Tagged Site(STS) markers developed for genes SKC1, DST, and SalT. The average gene diversity was 0.5075 and polymorphism information content value was 0.4426, respectively. Cluster analysis revealed that 68 and 21 accessions were clustered into 2 distinct groups, possibly corresponding to indica and japonica groups, respectively and the remaining 7 landraces were classified as an admixed group. In addition to Wn11463, the STS marker for SKC1, RM22418 on Chr. 8 was significantly associated with salinity tolerance, at the location of a QTL detected in previous studies. Our findings of favorable alleles associated with salinity tolerance in Bangladeshi rice landraces, as well as the development of STS markers for salt tolerance genes, will be helpful in future efforts to breed salinity tolerance in rice.

  18. Glycemic index determination of vegetable and fruits in healthy Bangladeshi subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatema, K; Sumi, N; Rahman, F; Kobura, K; Ali, L

    2011-12-01

    Fruits and vegetables are an important part of the diet especially for their complex carbohydrates, dietary fibre and micronutrients. The present study investigated the glycemic index (GI) of a vegetable [carrot (Daucas carota)] and fruits [banana (Chapa kola) Musa Sp. and plum (Bau kul) Zizyphus mauritiana] of Bangladeshi origin. Fourteen healthy Bangladeshi subjects, comprising 7 males and, 7 females, with mean age of 26 +/- 3 years, BMI 22 +/- 3 kg/m2, waist-hip ratio of 0.89 +/- 0.01 and 0.84 +/- 0.04 respectively for males and females. Under a cross-over design, they consumed equi-carbohydrate amounts (25 g of total available carbohydrate) of the test foods and two times glucose as reference food (25 g of total carbohydrate), with a run in period of 7 days between the consecutive items. Serum glucose levels were determined at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. The GIs was calculated. The carrot, banana and plum samples showed significantly lower serum glucose values (incremental area under the curve 30.4 +/- 12.6, 37.3 +/- 19.2 and 41.8 +/- 20.7 respectively) than glucose (132.7 +/- 36.0). The carrot showed a lower GI value than banana and plum respectively (23 +/- 9, 30 +/- 18 and 32 +/- 15). The vegetable and fruit samples tested of Bangladesh origin were shown to have comparatively low GI values.

  19. Inter-Ethnic Marital Practice of Bangladeshi Diaspora - An Example of Diaspora Adaptation at this Age of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeem SULTANA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available During this period of globalization, international labor migration is a common reality. Attaining economic solvency and better future are the major causes among many that motivate people for migration at this moment. Current paper is an initiative to explore the rights, realities and survival strategies of Bangladeshi migrants working in Peninsular Malaysia from the perspectives of social networking. In this context Bangladeshi Diaspora formation and settlement practices in the multi-cultural social setting of the host country will be explored, where migrants’ integration and assimilation is strictly prohibited by the anti-integration migration policies. For this, sojourns’ complex coping mechanisms andsurvival strategies will be presented here that were scrutinized through an intensive fieldwork among the Bangladeshi migrants of Peninsular Malaysia. How inter and intraethnic networking enabled migrant Bangladeshis to find a way of settlement and survive aswell and the likelihood of the existence of a hybrid trans-national identity within the migrants and their newly developed inter-ethnic strong ties, will be presented in this paper.

  20. Population studies: return of research results and incidental findings Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Deschênes, Mylène; Zawati, Ma'n H; Tassé, Anne Marie

    2013-03-01

    The Public Population Project in Genomics and Society (P³G) is a not-for profit international consortium with members from more than 40 countries. Its objective is to lead, catalyze, and co-ordinate international efforts and expertise in order to optimize the use of population studies, biobanks, research databases, and other similar health and social science research infrastructures. The year 2011-2012 witnessed a plethora of special issues of journals on the return of results but few discussed the particular situation of population studies that serve as resources for future unspecified research. P³G considers it important to propose a policy that distinguishes between the contexts of population research and disease (clinical) research involving patients and then delineates actual and future obligations. The objectives of this Policy Statement are to: (1) delineate the particular characteristics of population studies, (2) distinguish the circumstances surrounding access by researchers to such studies, and (3) develop a framework for the return of research results and incidental findings.

  1. Population Development of Baltic Bird Species: Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) - Update with results from 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Christof; Bregnballe, Thomas; Larsson, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    pairs (bp) only, of which Germany and Poland hosted more than the half. During the following two decades, the population development apparently has also been affected by the harmful effects of DDT and PCB. As a result of protection measures, and seemingly also due to the ban of DDT and PCB, breeding...

  2. Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman M Atiar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombus formed in blood vessels lead to atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs sometimes cause serious and fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases although they show little toxicity in some cases. Aqueous extracts of herbs used in thrombolysis have been reported before with cytotoxic data, however, the organic extracts of herbs have not been documented. This study aims to investigate whether organic extracts possess thrombolytic properties with minimal or no toxicity. Methods An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of six Bangladeshi herbal extracts viz., Ageratum conyzoides L., Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica (Burm.f. Merr., Leucas aspera Willd., Senna sophera L. Roxb., and Solanum torvum Swartz. using streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. Briefly, venous blood drawn from twenty healthy volunteers was allowed to form clots which were weighed and treated with the test plant materials to disrupt the clots. Weight of clot after and before treatment provided a percentage of clot lysis. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as positive control. Results Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed 18.12 ± 2.34%, 48.9 ± 2.44%, 39.30 ± 0.96%, 37.32 ± 2.00%, 31.61 ± 2.97% and 31.51 ± 0.57% and clot lysis respectively. Among the herbs studied Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera showed very significant (p Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed LC50 values 508.86 ± 6.62,41.16 ± 1.26, 2.65 ± 0.16, 181.67 ± 1.65, 233

  3. Results of long-term genetic monitoring of animal populations chronically irradiated in the radiocontaminated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharova, R.; Riabokon, N. [Institute of Genetics and Cytology, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The artificial geochemical land where all organisms lived and will live under the conditions of increased level of radiation was set up due to the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. An urgent necessity for studying the various biological effects of chronic influence of low intensity radiation on both individual organisms and populations arose. Combined cytogenetic and radioecological investigations in wild populations of terrestrial small mammals (bank vole = Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber and yellow-necked mouse = Apodemus flavicollus, Melchior) and in laboratory mice have been carried out by our laboratory since 1986. Our test organisms have contacted closely with low intensity radiation in the radiocontaminated areas of Belarus and absorbed low whole-body dose. We study the following problems: dynamics of radionuclide concentration in wild populations of small rodents; dynamics of mutation process in somatic and germ cells over many generations as well as embryonal lethality; dynamics of population density, age and sex structure of mammalian populations. The large part of results obtained are presented here. (J.P.N.)

  4. Population sinks resulting from degraded habitats of an obligate life-history pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickford, Michael J H; Schiel, David R

    2011-05-01

    Many species traverse multiple habitats across ecosystems to complete their life histories. Degradation of critical, life stage-specific habitats can therefore lead to population bottlenecks and demographic deficits in sub-populations. The riparian zone of waterways is one of the most impacted areas of the coastal zone because of urbanisation, deforestation, farming and livestock grazing. We hypothesised that sink populations can result from alterations of habitats critical to the early life stages of diadromous fish that use this zone, and tested this with field-based sampling and experiments. We found that for Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, obligate riparian spawning habitat was very limited and highly vulnerable to disturbance across 14 rivers in New Zealand. Eggs were laid only during spring tides, in the highest tidally influenced vegetation of waterways. Egg survival increased to >90% when laid in three riparian plant species and where stem densities were great enough to prevent desiccation, compared to no survival where vegetation was comprised of other species or was less dense. Experimental exclusion of livestock, one of the major sources of riparian degradation in rural waterways, resulted in quick regeneration, a tenfold increase in egg laying by fish and a threefold increase in survival, compared to adjacent controls. Overall, there was an inverse relationship between river size and egg production. Some of the largest rivers had little or no spawning habitat and very little egg production, effectively becoming sink populations despite supporting large adult populations, whereas some of the smallest pristine streams produced millions of eggs. We demonstrate that even a wide-ranging species with many robust adult populations can be compromised if a stage-specific habitat required to complete a life history is degraded by localised or more diffuse impacts.

  5. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  6. Evidence that the heterogeneity of a T4 population is the result of heritable traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Zachary J; Sauvageau, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteriophage populations display heterogeneity in their adsorption characteristics; a portion of the phage population remains free in solution throughout adsorption experiments (residual fraction). This residual fraction generally constitutes a minority of phages that exhibit significantly slower adsorption kinetics than the main phage stock (main fraction). While this phenomenon is likely the result of evolutionary driving forces, the present study demonstrates that the residual fraction is not always the result of phenotypic variations within a single genotype, as is generally thought. Experiments with phage T4 showed that two subgroups with distinct adsorption traits that were passed on to their progeny could be isolated from the original phage stock. Sequencing of genes involved in adsorption revealed two point mutations in gene 37 of residual fraction isolates, which resulted in modifications to the long tail-fiber, the organelle of attachment and host cell recognition. Adsorption studies consistently showed that T4 phage stocks amplified from residual fraction isolates had significantly lower adsorption efficiencies than those amplified from main fractions. The conducted experiments provide convincing evidence that the observed heterogeneity in T4 adsorption behavior is the result of conserved mutations to the phage genome and is not exclusively the result of phenotypic variations within the population. While it is believed high mutation rates exist to hasten phage adaptation, this study shows that this bet hedging strategy can also, in the short term, inadvertently handicap the phage's adsorption capabilities to a given host under normal infection conditions, resulting in the residual fraction observed in adsorption experiments.

  7. Evaluation of observation-fused regional air quality model results for population air pollution exposure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Perkins, Neil; Rajeshwari, Sundaram; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-07-01

    In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were located. Although the raw CMAQ model is capable of producing satisfying results for O3 and PM2.5 based on EPA guidelines, using the observation data fusing technique to correct CMAQ predictions leads to significant improvement of model performance for all gaseous and particulate pollutants. Regional average concentrations were calculated using five different methods: 1) inverse distance weighting of observation data alone, 2) raw CMAQ results, 3) observation-fused CMAQ results, 4) population-averaged raw CMAQ results and 5) population-averaged fused CMAQ results. It shows that while O3 (as well as NOx) monitoring networks in the HRRs are dense enough to provide consistent regional average exposure estimation based on monitoring data alone, PM2.5 observation sites (as well as monitors for CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 components) are usually sparse and the difference between the average concentrations estimated by the inverse distance interpolated observations, raw CMAQ and fused CMAQ results can be significantly different. Population-weighted average should be used to account for spatial variation in pollutant concentration and population density. Using raw CMAQ results or observations alone might lead to significant biases in health outcome analyses.

  8. Evaluation of Observation-Fused Regional Air Quality Model Results for Population Air Pollution Exposure Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Perkins, Neil; Rajeshwari, Sundaram; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were located. Although the raw CMAQ model is capable of producing satisfying results for O3 and PM2.5 based on EPA guidelines, using the observation data fusing technique to correct CMAQ predictions leads to significant improvement of model performance for all gaseous and particulate pollutants. Regional average concentrations were calculated using five different methods: 1) inverse distance weighting of observation data alone, 2) raw CMAQ results, 3) observation-fused CMAQ results, 4) population-averaged raw CMAQ results and 5) population-averaged fused CMAQ results. It shows that while O3 (as well as NOx) monitoring networks in the HRR regions are dense enough to provide consistent regional average exposure estimation based on monitoring data alone, PM2.5 observation sites (as well as monitors for CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 components) are usually sparse and the difference between the average concentrations estimated by the inverse distance interpolated observations, raw CMAQ and fused CMAQ results can be significantly different. Population-weighted average should be used to account spatial variation in pollutant concentration and population density. Using raw CMAQ results or observations alone might lead to significant biases in health outcome analyses. PMID:24747248

  9. Estimating the Error in Statistical HAMR Object Populations Resulting from Simplified Radiation Pressure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, S.; Vörsmann, P.; Wiedemann, C.; Kebschull, C.; Braun, V.; Möckel, M.; Gelhaus, J.; Krag, H.; Klinkrad, H.

    2012-09-01

    The high-area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) object population in ESA's MASTER-2009 software (Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Environment Reference) is dominated by Multi-Layer Insulation debris at large sizes. The underlying model employs two independent mechanisms whereby Multi-Layer Insulation debris is created. These mechanisms are fragmentation events on the one hand and a deterioration process leading to the continuous release of larger objects on the other hand. All debris source models used to create the MASTER debris population rely on a semi-analytical propagator to model the major secular and long periodic orbit perturbations. The orbit parameters of HAMR objects are highly susceptive to radiation pressure effects which can result in fast secular and periodic changes for area-to-mass ratios above about 1 square meter per kilogram. The implementation of radiation pressure in this propagator is limited to the effects of solar irradiation on a spherical object and using a cylindrical Earth shadow. The current paper discusses the applicability of such a simplified theory to large statistical HAMR object populations where the main objective is not to predict the exact future location of a single object but rather to give a correct representation of the overall distribution of all HAMR objects. The basis for the current study is given by a numerical propagator which is supported by published observation results. Initially, the effects of object orientation, Earth albedo and thermal radiation on the orbit evolution are discussed. Results from published observations and simulation results give insight into the validity of the implemented model. Fundamental differences between the orbit prediction of this refined numerical propagator and the semi-analytical propagator are looked at with a view towards large statistical populations. To this end, a plausible, statistical, population of HAMR objects is propagated over an extended time period using both propagation

  10. Migration and Health in the Construction Industry: Culturally Centering Voices of Bangladeshi Workers in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mohan J.

    2017-01-01

    Construction workers globally face disproportionate threats to health and wellbeing, constituted by the nature of the work they perform. The workplace fatalities and lost-time injuries experienced by construction workers are significantly greater than in other forms of work. This paper draws on the culture-centered approach (CCA) to dialogically articulate meanings of workplace risks and injuries, voiced by Bangladeshi migrant construction workers in Singapore. The narratives voiced by the participants suggest an ecological approach to workplace injuries in the construction industries, attending to food insecurity, lack of sleep, transportation, etc. as contextual features of work that shape the risks experienced at work. Moreover, participant voices point to the barriers in communication, lack of understanding, and experiences of incivility as features of work that constitute the ways in which they experience injury risks. The overarching discourses of productivity and efficiency constitute a broader climate of threats to worker safety and health. PMID:28146056

  11. The pragmatics of "madness": performance analysis of a Bangladeshi woman's "aberrant" lament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilce, J M

    1998-03-01

    A fine-grained analysis of the transcript of a Bangladeshi woman's lament is used to argue for an anthropology of "madness" that attends closely to performance and performativity. The emergent, interactive production of wept speech, together with the conflicting use to which it is put by the performer and her relatives, is linked problematically to performance genres and to ethnopsychiatric indexes of madness. Tuneful weeping is taken by relatives to be performative of madness, in a sense something like Austin's. Yet, exploration of the divergent linguistic ideologies which are brought to bear on the lament not only enables more nuanced ethnographic treatment but also has reflexive ramifications for medical and psychological anthropology. This leads to a critique of the referentialism in our own treatment of language. The role played by transparent reference is overshadowed by indexicality and by dialogical processes of proposing and resisting labels for speech genres attributed to the "mad."

  12. Hand- and Object-Mouthing of Rural Bangladeshi Children 3–18 Months Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H. Kwong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models in other socio-cultural contexts. We conducted a five-hour structured observation of the mouthing behaviors of 148 rural Bangladeshi children aged 3–18 months. We modeled mouthing frequencies using 2-parameter Weibull distributions to compare the modeled medians with those of U.S. children. In Bangladesh the median frequency of hand-mouthing was 37.3 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 34.4 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 29.7 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. The median frequency of object-mouthing was 23.1 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 29.6 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 15.2 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. At all ages both hand- and object-mouthing frequencies were higher than those of U.S. children. Mouthing frequencies were not associated with child location (indoor/outdoor. Using hand- and object-mouthing exposure models from U.S. and other high-income countries might not accurately estimate children’s exposure to environmental contaminants via mouthing in low- and middle-income countries.

  13. Violence against wives, sexual risk and sexually transmitted infection among Bangladeshi men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Kapur, Nitin A; Gupta, Jhumka; Raj, Anita

    2007-06-01

    To assess the relationship between men's reported violence against wives and their sexual risk behaviours and sexual health. Cross-sectional analyses of a survey of a nationally representative household-based sample of married men in Bangladesh (n = 3096). Physical and sexual violence against wives during the previous 12 months was assessed and examined for relations to men's extramarital sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms or diagnosis during this same period, as well as to men's disclosure of such infection to wives and condom use while infected. More than 1 in 3 (36.84%) married Bangladeshi men reported physically and/or sexually abusing their wives in the past year. Men perpetrating such violence were more likely to report both premarital and extramarital sex partners (OR(adj)s 1.80-3.45; 95% CI 1.20 to 8.23); those reporting physical violence were more likely to report STI symptoms or diagnosis in the past year (OR(adj)s 1.68-2.52; 95% CI 1.24 to 3.73). Men perpetrating physical violence and contracting an STI were somewhat more likely to fail to disclose infection status to wives (OR(adj) 1.58; 95% CI 0.93 to 2.70) than infected men not reporting such abuse. Violence against wives is common among Bangladeshi men. Men who perpetrate such abuse represent increased risk regarding their wives' sexual health because they are more likely to both participate in extramarital sexual behaviour and contract an STI compared with non-abusive husbands. Given the growing epidemic of HIV infection among monogamous South Asian women based on intercourse with infected non-monogamous husbands, research and intervention regarding men's violence in marriage and implications of such behaviour for women's sexual health should be prioritised.

  14. Tracing X-ray Binary Population Evolution By Galaxy Dissection: First Results from M51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, Bret; Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Markwardt, Larissa; Zezas, Andreas; Basu-Zych, Antara; Fragos, Tassos; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Ptak, Andrew; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Yukita, Mihoko

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we have found, in the Chandra Deep Field-South, that the emission from X-ray binary (XRB) populations in galaxies evolves significantly with cosmic time, most likely due to changes in the physical properties of galaxies like star-formation rate, stellar mass, stellar age, and metallicity. However, it has been challenging to directly show that these same physical properties are connected to XRB populations using data from nearby galaxies. We present a new technique for empirically calibrating how X-ray binary (XRB) populations evolve following their formation in a variety of environments. We first utilize detailed stellar population synthesis modeling of far-UV to far-IR broadband data of nearby (face-on spiral galaxies to construct maps of the star-formation histories on subgalactic scales. Using Chandra data, we then identify the locations of the XRBs within these galaxies and correlate their formation frequencies with local galaxy properties. In this talk, I will show promising first results for the Whirlpool galaxy (M51), and will discuss how expanding our sample to an archival sample of 20 face-on spirals will lead to a detailed empirical timeline for how XRBs form and evolve in various environments.

  15. Population Dynamics in Cold Gases Resulting from the Long-Range Dipole-Dipole Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mandilara, A; Pillet, P

    2009-01-01

    We consider the effect of the long range dipole-dipole interaction on the excitation exchange dynamics of cold two-level atomic gase in the conditions where the size of the atomic cloud is large as compared to the wavelength of the dipole transition. We show that this interaction results in population redistribution across the atomic cloud and in specific spectra of the spontaneous photons emitted at different angles with respect to the direction of atomic polarization.

  16. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nury Abu Taher MS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. Methods A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Results Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434, whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190 of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684 and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919 for teenage marital pregnancy. Conclusions Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should

  17. Persistent Gut Microbiota Immaturity in Malnourished Bangladeshi Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sathish; Huq, Sayeeda; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Haque, Rashidul; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Alam, Mohammed A.; Benezra, Amber; DeStefano, Joseph; Meier, Martin F.; Muegge, Brian D.; Barratt, Michael J.; VanArendonk, Laura G.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Province, Michael A.; Petri, William A.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic food interventions have reduced mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) but incomplete restoration of healthy growth remains a major problem1,2. The relationships between the type of nutritional intervention, the gut microbiota, and therapeutic responses are unclear. In the current study, bacterial species whose proportional representation define a healthy gut microbiota as it assembles during the first two postnatal years were identified by applying a machine-learning-based approach to 16S rRNA datasets generated from monthly fecal samples obtained from a birth-cohort of children, living in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh, who exhibited consistently healthy growth. These age-discriminatory bacterial species were incorporated into a model that computes a ‘relative microbiota maturity index’ and ‘microbiota-for-age Z-score’ that compare development (defined here as maturation) of a child’s fecal microbiota relative to healthy children of similar chronologic age. The model was applied to twins and triplets (to test for associations of these indices with genetic and environmental factors including diarrhea), children with SAM enrolled in a randomized trial of two food interventions, and children with moderate acute malnutrition. Our results indicate that SAM is associated with significant relative microbiota immaturity that is only partially ameliorated following two widely used nutritional interventions. Immaturity is also evident in less severe forms of malnutrition and correlates with anthropometric measurements. Microbiota maturity indices provide a microbial measure of human postnatal development, a way of classifying malnourished states, and a parameter for judging therapeutic efficacy. More prolonged interventions with existing or new therapeutic foods and/or addition of gut microbes may be needed to achieve enduring repair of gut microbiota immaturity in childhood malnutrition and improve clinical outcomes. PMID

  18. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayem, Amir M; Nury, Abu Taher Ms

    2011-05-20

    Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434), whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190) of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684) and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919) for teenage marital pregnancy. Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should be given on women's desired number of children and birth place

  19. Varying performance in mammographic interpretation across two countries: Do results indicate reader or population variances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, BaoLin P.; Lee, Warwick B.; Wong, Jill; Sim, Llewellyn; Hillis, Stephen L.; Tapia, Kriscia A.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2016-03-01

    Aim: To compare the performance of Australian and Singapore breast readers interpreting a single test-set that consisted of mammographic examinations collected from the Australian population. Background: In the teleradiology era, breast readers are interpreting mammographic examinations from different populations. The question arises whether two groups of readers with similar training backgrounds, demonstrate the same level of performance when presented with a population familiar only to one of the groups. Methods: Fifty-three Australian and 15 Singaporean breast radiologists participated in this study. All radiologists were trained in mammogram interpretation and had a median of 9 and 15 years of experience in reading mammograms respectively. Each reader interpreted the same BREAST test-set consisting of sixty de-identified mammographic examinations arising from an Australian population. Performance parameters including JAFROC, ROC, case sensitivity as well as specificity were compared between Australian and Singaporean readers using a Mann Whitney U test. Results: A significant difference (P=0.036) was demonstrated between the JAFROC scores of the Australian and Singaporean breast radiologists. No other significant differences were observed. Conclusion: JAFROC scores for Australian radiologists were higher than those obtained by the Singaporean counterparts. Whilst it is tempting to suggest this is down to reader expertise, this may be a simplistic explanation considering the very similar training and audit backgrounds of the two populations of radiologists. The influence of reading images that are different from those that radiologists normally encounter cannot be ruled out and requires further investigation, particularly in the light of increasing international outsourcing of radiologic reporting.

  20. Evidence that the heterogeneity of a T4 population is the result of heritable traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J Storms

    Full Text Available Many bacteriophage populations display heterogeneity in their adsorption characteristics; a portion of the phage population remains free in solution throughout adsorption experiments (residual fraction. This residual fraction generally constitutes a minority of phages that exhibit significantly slower adsorption kinetics than the main phage stock (main fraction. While this phenomenon is likely the result of evolutionary driving forces, the present study demonstrates that the residual fraction is not always the result of phenotypic variations within a single genotype, as is generally thought. Experiments with phage T4 showed that two subgroups with distinct adsorption traits that were passed on to their progeny could be isolated from the original phage stock. Sequencing of genes involved in adsorption revealed two point mutations in gene 37 of residual fraction isolates, which resulted in modifications to the long tail-fiber, the organelle of attachment and host cell recognition. Adsorption studies consistently showed that T4 phage stocks amplified from residual fraction isolates had significantly lower adsorption efficiencies than those amplified from main fractions. The conducted experiments provide convincing evidence that the observed heterogeneity in T4 adsorption behavior is the result of conserved mutations to the phage genome and is not exclusively the result of phenotypic variations within the population. While it is believed high mutation rates exist to hasten phage adaptation, this study shows that this bet hedging strategy can also, in the short term, inadvertently handicap the phage's adsorption capabilities to a given host under normal infection conditions, resulting in the residual fraction observed in adsorption experiments.

  1. Pregnancy is not a risk factor for gallstone disease: Results of a randomly selected population sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Walcher; Bernhard Otto Boehm; Wolfgang Kratzer; Mark Martin Haenle; Martina Kron; Birgit Hay; Richard Andrew Mason; Alexa Friederike Alice von Schmiesing; Armin Imhof; Wolfgang Koenig; Peter Kern

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence, risk factors, and selection of the study population for cholecystolithiasis in an urban population in Germany, in relation to our own findings and to the results in the international literature.METHODS: A total of 2 147 persons (1 111 females,age 42.8±12.7 years; 1 036 males, age 42.3±13.1 years)participating in an investigation on the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis were studied for risk factors and prevalence of gallbladder stone disease.Risk factors were assessed by means of a standardized interview and calculation of body mass index (BMI). A diagnostic ultrasound examination of the gallbladder was performed. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, using the SAS statistical software package.RESULTS: Gallbladder stones were detected in 171study participants (8.0%, n = 2 147). Risk factors for the development of gallbladder stone disease included age, sex, BMI, and positive family history. In a separate analysis of female study participants, pregnancy (yes/no)and number of pregnancies did not exert any influence.CONCLUSION: Findings of the present study confirm that age, female sex, BMI, and positive family history are risk factors for the development of gallbladder stone disease. Pregnancy and the number of pregnancies,however, could not be shown to be risk factors. There seem to be no differences in the respective prevalence for gallbladder stone disease in urban and rural populations.

  2. [Epidemiological basis and results of the National Survey 2001 conducted in the Swiss pig population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadorn, D; Hauser, R; Stärk, K D C

    2002-10-01

    Free trade with animals and animal products requires transparency concerning health information of animal populations. On the basis of the bilateral agreement with the European Union (EU), Switzerland is obliged to document freedom from Aujeszky's disease (AD) in its pig population by conducting surveys on a regular basis. Such a survey was planned for the first time for the year 2001. In this context, it was evaluated whether additional pig diseases should be included in the survey. This article describes the evaluation procedure for the selection of pig diseases integrated in the survey 2001. Additionally, it reports and interprets the results of this survey. All of the 2537 farms and 41,719 blood samples were tested negative. Therefore, it could be documented with a confidence of 99.98% that the AD-prevalence in Switzerland is below 1%.

  3. Recession of Tussilago farfara (L. population from the agro coenose as a result of cultivation abandonment. I The effect of fallowing on population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Namura-Ochalska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the effect of fallowing on seasonal and multiyear dynamics, as well as on the spatial structure of Tussilago farfara population. In four years turfing and rapid increase in the size of grass populations - those of Agropyron repens (L. PB. and Dactylis glomerata caused the elimination of Tussilago farfara population. The studies have showed that a decrease in the population size resulted from hampering of both vegetative and generative reproduction. The interspecific competition for available space seems to be a crucial factor limiting emergence of new shoots. In the agrocoenose big population size of Tussilago farfara remained throughout the studies.

  4. Divergence Effect at Alaska's Treelines a Result of Sub-Population Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmking, M.; Singh, J.

    2007-12-01

    The "divergence effect" (off-set between tree-ring based temperature reconstruction and measured temperatures) in northern forest poses a serious question to tree-ring based climate reconstructions, since it seems to violate the uniformitarian principle of dendroclimatology. Several possible reasons emerge, among them false assumptions about 1) climate data (e.g. which climate parameter can be modeled most effectively), 2) tree-ring data (e.g. shift in climate sensitivity of tree growth) or 3) a truly new and unprecedented phenomenon (e.g. rapid climate warming exceeding the adaptive capacity of trees). Here we test, if undetected emergent sub-population behavior at Alaska's treelines might result in a divergence effect. We reanalyzed seven data sets spanning the entire northern treeline in the Brooks Range, Alaska, which showed populations of trees responding positively, non-significant and negatively to recent warming. There is no effect of standardization (i.e. conventional versus RCS) technique on the grouping and we thus used RCS for the following analysis. Without grouping into sub- populations, a clear divergence between tree-ring based temperature reconstruction and actual climate data emerged. However, if only those trees were used for the climate reconstruction, which showed a consistent positive response to the target temperatures (June/July), tree growth modeled climate data extremely well following the rise in temperature during the last decades (actual climate data 0.53°/decade versus tree-ring based reconstruction 0.44°/decade over 1970-2000 period). This result hints at the possibility that some of the reported divergence might be eliminated (at least at Alaska's treelines) through careful test of sub-population behavior.

  5. Impact of different study populations on reader behavior and performance metrics: initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Brandon D.; Pisano, Etta; Cole, Elodia; Myers, Kyle

    2017-03-01

    The FDA recently completed a study on design methodologies surrounding the Validation of Imaging Premarket Evaluation and Regulation called VIPER. VIPER consisted of five large reader sub-studies to compare the impact of different study populations on reader behavior as seen by sensitivity, specificity, and AUC, the area under the ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic curve). The study investigated different prevalence levels and two kinds of sampling of non-cancer patients: a screening population and a challenge population. The VIPER study compared full-field digital mammography (FFDM) to screenfilm mammography (SFM) for women with heterogeneously dense or extremely dense breasts. All cases and corresponding images were sampled from Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) archives. There were 20 readers (American Board Certified radiologists) for each sub-study, and instead of every reader reading every case (fully-crossed study), readers and cases were split into groups to reduce reader workload and the total number of observations (split-plot study). For data collection, readers first decided whether or not they would recall a patient. Following that decision, they provided an ROC score for how close or far that patient was from the recall decision threshold. Performance results for FFDM show that as prevalence increases to 50%, there is a moderate increase in sensitivity and decrease in specificity, whereas AUC is mainly flat. Regarding precision, the statistical efficiency (ratio of variances) of sensitivity and specificity relative to AUC are 0.66 at best and decrease with prevalence. Analyses comparing modalities and the study populations (screening vs. challenge) are still ongoing.

  6. Impact of Different Study Populations on Reader Behavior and Performance Metrics: Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Brandon D; Pisano, Etta; Cole, Elodia; Myers, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    The FDA recently completed a study on design methodologies surrounding the Validation of Imaging Premarket Evaluation and Regulation called VIPER. VIPER consisted of five large reader sub-studies to compare the impact of different study populations on reader behavior as seen by sensitivity, specificity, and AUC, the area under the ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic curve). The study investigated different prevalence levels and two kinds of sampling of non-cancer patients: a screening population and a challenge population. The VIPER study compared full-field digital mammography (FFDM) to screen-film mammography (SFM) for women with heterogeneously dense or extremely dense breasts. All cases and corresponding images were sampled from Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) archives. There were 20 readers (American Board Certified radiologists) for each sub-study, and instead of every reader reading every case (fully-crossed study), readers and cases were split into groups to reduce reader workload and the total number of observations (split-plot study). For data collection, readers first decided whether or not they would recall a patient. Following that decision, they provided an ROC score for how close or far that patient was from the recall decision threshold. Performance results for FFDM show that as prevalence increases to 50%, there is a moderate increase in sensitivity and decrease in specificity, whereas AUC is mainly flat. Regarding precision, the statistical efficiency (ratio of variances) of sensitivity and specificity relative to AUC are 0.66 at best and decrease with prevalence. Analyses comparing modalities and the study populations (screening vs. challenge) are still ongoing.

  7. Lower Levels of Vitamin D Among Bangladeshi Immigrants with Diabetes in Greece Compared to Indigenous Greek Patients with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios; Zambelis, Thomas; Villiotou, Vassiliki; Dogkas, Nikolaos; Pappas, Anastasios; Keramidas, Ioannis; Kakava, Kassiani; Michalopoulou, Maria; Rosenberg, Theofilos; Konstantopoulos, Kostas; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is thought to impair insulin action and glucose metabolism; however, previous studies have not examined ethnic differences. We investigated a cohort of predominantly white Greek Caucasian and Bangladeshi immigrant patients with diabetes mellitus in order assess the association between diabetes mellitus and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)VitD]. A total of 165 patients from Bangladesh and 118 patients from Greece with diabetes were assessed for diabetes and 25(OH)VitD status. The 25(OH)VitD levels of Bangladeshi patients were significantly lower compared to Greek patients (12.42±5.86 ng/ml vs. 23.06±12.36 ng/ml, p<0.001). Only 1.2% of Bangladeshi patients vs. 24.57% of Greek patients had sufficient levels of 25(OH)VitD (≥30 ng/ml) The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is very high amongst patients with diabetes but immigrants are at greater risk. Vitamin D supplementation could be valuable in the prevention or treatment of diabetes. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Blood lead levels in the adult Victorian population: results from the Victorian Health Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsall, Liza M; de Gooyer, Tanyth E; Carey, Marion; Vaughan, Loretta; Ansari, Zahid

    2013-06-01

    To estimate blood lead levels (BLLs) in the adult Victorian population and compare the distribution of BLLs with the current national reference level to better inform public health prevention and management of lead toxicity. Population-based cross-sectional health measurement survey of 50 randomly selected Census Collection Districts (CDs) throughout Victoria. The Victorian Health Monitor (VHM) was conducted over 12 months from May 2009 to April 2010. One eligible person (aged 18-75 years) from each household selected within each CD was randomly selected to participate. Persons with an intellectual disability and pregnant women were excluded from the sampling frame. BLLs were obtained from 3,622 of the 3,653 (99%) VHM participants. The geometric mean and median BLLs from the adult sample were 0.070 μmol/L (95%CI, 0.068-0.073) and 0.05 μmol/L (range: 0.05 to 1.22 μmol/L), respectively. Elevated BLLs (≥0.483 μmol/L or ≥10 μg/dL) were identified in 19 participants (0.7%; 95%CI, 0.3-1.6). Additionally, 86 participants (1.8%; 95%CI, 1.3-2.4) were identified with BLLs between 0.242 and <0.483 μmol/L (5 to <10 μg/dL). The geometric mean BLL was significantly higher for males, compared with females (0.077 μmol/L vs 0.064 μmol/L; p<0.001). BLLs increased significantly with age for both sexes. The first population estimates of BLLs in Victorian adults indicate the average adult BLL to be well below the current national reference level. However, some groups of the population have BLLs at which adverse effects may occur. Implications : The results provide baseline estimates for future population health surveillance and comparison with studies of at-risk groups. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. LABORATORY TESTING RESULTS ANALYSIS OF GIARDIASIS PREVALENCE AMONG DIFFERENT POPULATION GROUPS IN THE NENETS AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Bobyreva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nenets Autonomous District (NAD refers to the territories of the Russia’s Far North. The country is the only region of Russia, where there are still no roads. The extreme weather conditions, as well as residential patterns in the NAD reduce the availability of specialized medical care, as indigenous people and other nationalities living in the district, which requires the use of health care management specific forms. The article presents data on giardiasis studies amongst different categories of the NAD population, obtained as a result of the population surveys in remote regions of the Russian Federation Arctic zone. Samples studied were serum and faecal emulsion. The study used the following laboratory methods: for serum — Giardia lamblia antibody screening method using ELISA kit, emulsion stool — native smear microscopy analysis, the method of enrichment using disposable concentrators «Parasep» immunological diagnostic methods based on the detection of specific lamblia antigen in faeces using ELISA kits. For statistics was used descriptive statistics analysis (mean values, the percentage error of the mean, the construction of the trend line with program SPSS 20.00, Excel 2010, the method of analysis of official statistical reporting hospitals survey on giardiasis, data of Rospotrebnadzor (Russian Sanitary service for NAD and data from own research from 2002 to 2013. Just in the process of research carried out research on the 10 356 giardiasis, registered diseases by 3470 cases of giardiasis, accounting for 99.14% of the total number of protozoonosises registered and 37.4% of all registered in the NAD parasitosis. The comparison was made among the population of the county towns, home to both the indigenous people, nomadic, and representatives of other ethnic groups, sedentary with urban population of the city of Naryan-Mar. The article analyzes the incidence rates for giardiasis according to district official statistical reporting

  10. Epidemiology of chronic renal disease in the Galician population: results of the pilot Spanish EPIRCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Alfonso; Gayoso, Pilar; Garcia, Fernando; de Francisco, Angel L

    2005-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major social health problem because of the aging of the population, the high incidence of diabetes mellitus, and the epidemic of silent CKD resulting from inadequate diagnosis of early chronic renal insufficiency The sociodemographic, baseline characteristics and CKD prevalence measured by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula were studied in a randomly selected sample of people aged 20 years or older in the general population. We report the results of the analysis of the EPIRCE (Estudio Epidemiológico de la Insuficiencia Renal en España) pilot study performed in Galicia, Spain, in the last quarter of 2004. Baseline characteristics, sociodemographic characteristics, and results of a clinical examination and blood variables were collected from 237 patients who fulfilled the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean age of the sample was 49.58 years (95% confidence interval, 47.39-51.76). The prevalence of Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative grade 3 CKD was 5.1%, but the coexistence of an albumin/creatinine ratio>30 mg/g with grade 1 to 2 CKD raised the final rate to 12.7% in this population. We found a high prevalence of hypertension (31.5%), isolated systolic hypertension (20.1%), diabetes mellitus (8%), obesity (13.1%), smoking habit (22.7%), high atherogenic index (30.8%), and high alcohol intake (24%). Risk factors significantly associated with renal disease were age [P=0.018; odds ratio (OR) 2.7], hypertension (P=0.023; OR 2.13), pulse pressure (P=0.04; OR 0.10), diabetes mellitus (P=0.08; OR 4.48), obesity (P=0.000; OR 7.7), and insulin resistance index (P=0.04; OR 4.95). The prevalence of CKD and conventional cardiovascular risk factors is high in this randomly selected sample of the general population. Secondary preventive measures are needed to detect chronic kidney impairment as early as possible and to reduce the incidence and mortality arising from the associated comorbidities.

  11. Mortality in ankylosing spondylitis: results from a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchou, Sofia; Lie, Elisabeth; Lindström, Ulf; Askling, Johan; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena; Turesson, Carl; Kristensen, Lars Erik; Jacobsson, Lennart Th

    2016-08-01

    Information on mortality in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is scarce. Our study therefore aimed to assess: (1) mortality in AS versus the general population, and (2) predictors of death in the AS population. Nationwide cohorts of patients with AS diagnosed at rheumatology or internal medicine outpatient clinics (n=8600) and age-matched, sex-matched and county-matched general population comparators (n=40 460) were identified from the National Patient Register and the census register, respectively. The follow-up period began on 1 January 2006 or at the first date of registered diagnosis thereafter and extended until death, emigration or 31 December 2012, whichever occurred first. Socioeconomic variables, AS-related clinical manifestations, joint surgery, comorbidities and medication were identified from other national registers. Cox regression models were used to determine mortality and predictors for death in the AS cohort. There were 496 deaths in the AS cohort and 1533 deaths in the control cohort resulting in an age-adjusted and sex-adjusted HR of 1.60 (95% CI 1.44 to 1.77), with increased mortality for men (age-adjusted HR=1.53, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.72) and women (age-adjusted HR=1.83, 95% CI 1.50 to 2.22). Within the AS cohort, statistically significant predictors for death were a lower level of education, general comorbidities (diabetes, infections, cardiovascular, pulmonary and malignant diseases) and previous hip replacement surgery. Mortality was increased for male and female patients with AS. Predictors of death within the AS cohort included socioeconomic status, general comorbidities and hip replacement surgery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Use and perceived helpfulness of smoking cessation methods: results from a population survey of recent quitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Donna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing rates of smoking cessation is one of the most effective measures available to improve population health. To advance the goal of increasing successful cessation at the population level, it is imperative that we understand more about smokers' use of cessation methods, as well as the helpfulness of those methods in real-world experiences of quitting. In this survey of recent quitters, we simultaneously examined rates of use and perceived helpfulness of various cessation methods. Methods Recent quitters (within 12 months; n = 1097 completed a telephone survey including questions relating to 13 cessation methods. Indices of use and perceived helpfulness for each method were plotted in a quadrant analysis. Socio-demographic differences were explored using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results From the quadrant analysis, cold turkey, NRT and gradual reduction before quitting had high use and helpfulness; GP advice had high use and lower helpfulness. Prescribed medication and online programs had low use but high helpfulness. Remaining methods had low use and helpfulness. Younger quitters were more likely to use unassisted methods such as cold turkey; older or less educated quitters were more likely to use assisted methods such as prescribed medication or advice from a general practitioner. Conclusions The majority of recent quitters quit cold turkey or cut down before quitting, and reported that these methods were helpful. Efforts to influence population smoking prevalence should attempt to provide support and motivation for smokers choosing these methods, in addition to assessing the effectiveness and accessibility of other methods for smokers who need or choose them.

  13. Fatty acids intake in the Mexican population. Results of the National Nutrition Survey 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal-Medina Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006, collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ≈ 25%E fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA among all age-groups (45-60% and of trans fatty acids (TrFA in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk.

  14. Accounting for vulnerable populations in rural hazard mitigation plans: results of a survey of emergency managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Mai; Cooper, John; Simon, Matthew; Ricchetti-Masterson, Kristen; Grabich, Shannon; Salvesen, David; Berke, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States are uniquely vulnerable to the impacts of natural disasters. One possible way to mitigate vulnerability to disasters in rural communities is to have a high-quality hazard mitigation plan in place. To understand the resources available for hazard mitigation planning and determine how well hazard mitigation plans in rural counties meet the needs of vulnerable populations, we surveyed the lead planning or emergency management official responsible for hazard mitigation plans in 96 rural counties in eight states in the Southeastern United States. In most counties, emergency management was responsible for implementing the county's hazard mitigation plan and the majority of counties had experienced a presidentially declared disaster in the last 5 years. Our research findings demonstrated that there were differences in subjective measures of vulnerability (as reported by survey respondents) and objective measures of vulnerability (as determined by US Census data). In addition, although few counties surveyed included outreach to vulnerable groups as a part of their hazard mitigation planning process, a majority felt that their hazard mitigation plan addressed the needs of vulnerable populations "well" or "very well." These differences could result in increased vulnerabilities in rural areas, particularly for certain vulnerable groups.

  15. The interrelation between premenstrual syndrome and major depression: Results from a population-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Carine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research about the relationship between premenstrual syndrome (PMS and major depression is limited. This study examined the relationship between moderate to severe PMS and major depression in a population-based sample of women of reproductive age. The objectives of the study were to assess the association between premenstrual syndrome and major depression, to analyse how PMS and major depression differ and to characterise the group of women who report both PMS and major depression. Methods Data were obtained from the Swiss Health Survey 2007. Included in the analysis was data from women under the age of 55 without hysterectomy and who answered the questions on PMS symptoms. The population-based sample consisted of 3518 women. Weighted prevalence rates were calculated and relative risk ratios for PMS, major depression and women who reported both PMS and major depression, were calculated with logistic multinominal logit regression. Results The prevalence of major depression was 11.3% in women screening positive for moderate PMS and 24.6% in women screening positive for severe PMS. Compared to women without any of these conditions, women who reported moderate to severe alcohol consumption had a lower risk for PMS. Women reporting use of antidepressants, and use of oral contraceptives had a higher risk for major depression compared to women without any of these conditions. Women reporting work dissatisfaction had a higher risk for PMS. A higher relative risk to report both PMS and major depression compared to women without PMS or major depression was related to factors such as high psychological distress, low mastery, psychotropic drug consumption, and low self-rated health. Conclusions The results suggested that women who suffer from both PMS and major depression are more impaired compared to women with only one disorder. The results further indicated that PMS and major depression are different disorders that can, however, co-occur.

  16. RESULTS REGARDING THE REPRODUCTION PERFORMANCES OF FOUR GOATS POPULATIONS IN THE SOUTHERN

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    Horia PRISECEANU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The researches in the present paper were carried out upon four goat populations in the southern Romania, on 718 adult goats, in two breeds, reared in different production systems, with different mating season and activity. There were recorded primary data about the reproduction activity and there were calculated the reproduction indices, by the classic formulas in the special literature. The results were compared by breed and reproductive category, and there were calculated the main statistically parameters. The main conclusion reveals the fact that the reproduction activity in Carpathian breed farms is placed on an acceptable to good level; this breed could be continuously improved by a more careful monitoring of the factors affecting the reproduction function.

  17. Visuospatial characteristics of an elderly Chinese population: results from the WAIS-R block design test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shufei; Zhu, Xinyi; Huang, Xin; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Visuospatial deficits have long been recognized as a potential predictor of dementia, with visuospatial ability decline having been found to accelerate in later stages of dementia. We, therefore, believe that the visuospatial performance of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia (Dem) might change with varying visuospatial task difficulties. This study administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Block Design Test (BDT) to determine whether visuospatial ability can help discriminate between MCI patients from Dem patients and normal controls (NC). Results showed that the BDT could contribute to the discrimination between MCI and Dem. Specifically, simple BDT task scores could best distinguish MCI from Dem patients, while difficult BDT task scores could contribute to discriminating between MCI and NC. Given the potential clinical value of the BDT in the diagnosis of Dem and MCI, normative data stratified by age and education for the Chinese elderly population are presented for use in research and clinical settings.

  18. Visuospatial characteristics of an elderly Chinese population: results from the WAIS-R Block Design Test

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    Shufei eYin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial deficits have long been recognized as a potential predictor of dementia, with visuospatial ability decline having been found to accelerate in later stages of dementia. We, therefore, believe that the visuospatial performance of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia (Dem might change with varying visuospatial task difficulties. This study administered the WAIS-R Block Design Test (BDT to determine whether visuospatial ability can help discriminate between MCI patients from Dem patients and normal controls (NC. Results showed that the BDT could contribute to the discrimination between MCI and Dem. Specifically, simple BDT task scores could best distinguish MCI from Dem patients, while difficult BDT task scores could contribute to discriminating between MCI and NC. Given the potential clinical value of the BDT in the diagnosis of Dem and MCI, normative data stratified by age and education for the Chinese elderly population are presented for use in research and clinical settings.

  19. Lithium and renal and upper urinary tract tumors - results from a nationwide population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    for lithium, anticonvulsants, and other psychotropic agents used for bipolar disorder, and among unexposed individuals. METHODS: This was a nationwide, population-based longitudinal study including time-specific data from all individuals exposed to lithium (n = 24,272) or anticonvulsants (n = 386,255), all......) benign. Analyses were adjusted for the number of prescriptions for lithium/anticonvulsants, antipsychotic agents, antidepressants, and use of all other types of medication; age; gender; employment status; calendar year; and a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. RESULTS: Continued treatment with lithium...... [adjusted HR malignant or benign: 0.97-1.18, p (trend) = 0.10; adjusted HR malignant: 0.82-1.15, p (trend) = 0.80; adjusted HR benign: 0.94-1.36, p (trend) = 0.20]. The associations were confirmed among the 9,651 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with lithium...

  20. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism in lead exposed Bangladeshi children and its effect on urinary aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasmin, Saira, E-mail: rimzim1612@yahoo.com [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Furusawa, Hana [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ahmad, Sk. Akhtar [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences, 125/1, Darus Salam, Mirpur, Dhaka 1216 (Bangladesh); Faruquee, M.H. [Department of Public Health, State University of Bangladesh, 77 Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Watanabe, Chiho [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Background and objective: Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. People in developing countries like Bangladesh still have a higher risk of lead exposure. Previous research has suggested that the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) genotype can modify lead toxicity and individual susceptibility. As children are more susceptible to lead-induced toxicity, this study investigated whether the ALAD genotype influenced urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA) among children exposed to environmental lead in Bangladesh. Methods: Subjects were elementary schoolchildren from a semi-urban industrialized area in Bangladesh. A total of 222 children were studied. Blood and urine were collected to determine ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels and urinary aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA). Results: The mean BPb level was 9.7 µg/dl for the study children. BPb was significantly positively correlated with hemoglobin (p<0.01). In total, allele frequency for ALAD 1 and 2 was 0.83 and 0.17 respectively. The mean U-ALA concentration was lower in ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers than ALAD1-1 carriers for boys (p=0.001). But for girls, U-ALA did not differ significantly by genotype (p=0.26). When U-ALA was compared by genotype at the same exposure level in a multiple linear regression analysis, boys who were ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers still had a lower level of U-ALA compared to ALAD1-1carriers. Conclusion: This study provides information about the influence of ALAD polymorphism and its association with U-ALA in Bangladeshi children. Our results indicate that the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype may have a protective effect in terms of U-ALA for environmentally lead exposed boys. - Highlights: • High blood lead level for the environmentally exposed schoolchildren. • BPb was significantly correlated with U-ALA and Hb. • Effect of ALAD genotype on U-ALA is differed by sex. • Lower U-ALA in ALAD2 than ALAD1 carriers only for boys at same exposure.

  1. Comparison of diabetes management status between cancer survivors and the general population: results from a Korean population-based survey.

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    Ji-Yeon Shin

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine and compare the prevalences of diabetes awareness, treatment, and adequate glycemic control among cancer survivors in a Korean population and two non-cancer control groups, comprising individuals without a history of cancer but with other chronic diseases (non-cancer, chronic disease controls and individuals without a history of cancer or any other chronic disease (non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls.We analyzed data from 2,660 subjects with prevalent diabetes (aged ≥30 years, who had participated in the 2007-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Awareness was defined as a subject having been diagnosed with diabetes by a clinician. Treatment was defined as a subject who was taking anti-diabetic medicine. Adequate glycemic control was defined as a hemoglobin A1c level of <7%. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive margins were used to evaluate whether awareness, treatment, or adequate glycemic control differed among cancer survivors and the two non-cancer control groups.Cancer survivors had greater awareness compared with the non-cancer, chronic disease and non-cancer, non-chronic disease control groups (85.1%, 80.4%, and 60.4%, respectively. Although the prevalences of treatment and adequate glycemic control were higher for survivors compared with the non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls, they were lower compared with the non-cancer, chronic disease controls. The prevalence of diabetes treatment was 67.5% for cancer survivors, 69.5% for non-cancer, chronic disease controls, and 46.7% for non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls; the prevalences of adequate glycemic control in these three groups were 31.7%, 34.6%, and 17.8%, respectively.Cancer survivors were less likely than the non-cancer chronic disease subjects to receive diabetes management and to achieve adequate glycemic targets. Special attention and education are required to ensure that this population receives

  2. Bangladeshi parental ethnotheories in the United Kingdom: Towards cultural collaborations in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Ruma

    2016-07-01

    Parental meaning systems (ethnotheories) constitute a very important part of the context in which children live and develop. Parental ethnotheories are in turn shaped by implicit cultural ideals that organize parental beliefs and actions and frame child-rearing practices. The article presents a qualitative research into Bangladeshi parental ethnotheories in the United Kingdom, which illustrates both the rich cultural meanings that orientate parental action and also demonstrates how parents generate new meanings following migration and culture change. Professional understandings about children's developmental needs, of child rearing and parenting, are not culture free and an examination of the cultural frames of professional theories is important as parenting is often taught as a universal technique that takes little account of the cultural context and of what parents think. An engagement with other cultural theories about child development can enhance critical reflexivity in clinical practice by provoking reflection on the cultural constructions of professional theories. Creating a context for the expression of parental ethnotheories is necessary for developing cross-cultural collaborations in clinical practice as it empowers families and redresses the power relationship between the therapist and the parent.

  3. Safe delivery practices: experience from cross-sectional data of Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M A; Goh, Kim-Leng; Khan, M M H; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Azam, Mohammad Nurul

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the safe delivery practices of Bangladeshi women using data on 4905 ever-married women aged 15 to 49 years from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Variables that included age, region of origin, education level of respondent and spouse, residence, working status, religion, involvement in NGOs, mass media exposure, and wealth index were analyzed to find correlates of safe delivery practices. More than 80% of the deliveries took place at home, and only 18% were under safe and hygienic conditions. The likelihood of safe deliveries was significantly lower among younger and older mothers than middle-aged mothers and higher among educated mothers and those living in urban areas. Economically better-off mothers and those with greater exposure to mass media had a significantly higher incidence of safe delivery practices. A significant association with religion and safe delivery practices was revealed. Demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and programmatic factors that are strongly associated with safe delivery practices should be considered in the formulation of reproductive health policy.

  4. A right to live: girl workers in the Bangladeshi garment industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahra, G N; Rahman, F

    1995-06-01

    According to a survey conducted in 1989, there are 772 approved and registered garment factories in Bangladesh. These factories employ approximately 300,000 individuals, 90% of whom are women. A more recent estimate in a Bangladeshi newspaper, however, posits that up to five million people are directly or indirectly dependent upon the garment industry. Many of the women who work in Bangladesh's garment factories are under age 15 years. In some countries, such as the US, the employment of such young individuals constitutes a violation of child labor laws. Therefore, under the Harkin Bill, the US will no longer import garments produced by children younger than age 15 years. Many garment workers under age 15 years have already been put out of work or will soon be terminated. The authors explain that while the intent of the Harkin Bill may be to protect children, it is difficult to adopt the moral high ground in a poor country like Bangladesh. Regardless of one's age in Bangladesh, having a job may be the only way to survive. No job often means no food or shelter. The authors discuss women in the garment industry, one girl's case, alternative employment opportunities, and the future.

  5. Why Bangladeshi nurses avoid 'nursing': social and structural factors on hospital wards in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary B; Blum, Lauren S; Mujaddid, Saraana; Parveen, Shahana; Nuremowla, Sadid; Haque, Mohammad Enamul; Ullah, Mohammad

    2007-03-01

    In response to concerns that nurses spend less than 6% of their time on direct patient care, this study explored factors that influence nurses' behaviour in the provision of 'hands on' care in hospitals in Bangladesh. Through in-depth interviews with female nurses and patients and their co-workers in six hospitals, we identified conflicts between the inherited British model of nursing and Bangladeshi societal norms. This was most evident in the areas of night duty, contact with strangers, and involvement in 'dirty' work. The public was said to associate nursing activities with commercial sex work. As a consequence, their value on the 'bride market' decreases. To minimise the stigma associated with their profession, nurses in government hospitals distance themselves from patients, using nurse surrogates in the form of patients' relatives and hospital support workers to carry out their work. These adaptations are supported and sustained through unofficial activities developed over time within hospitals. In contrast nurses in NGO hospitals give more direct patient care themselves and do not rely on carers as much because of tight supervision and limited visitor hours. Initiatives undertaken to improve the quality of patient care, such as enlarging the nursing workforce or providing clinical instruction, which do not take into account the prevailing culture in hospitals and social conflicts faced by nurses, are unlikely to succeed. Fundamental decisions on how to care for the sick in Bangladesh are required. If the present nursing curriculum is followed, adequate supplies, supervision and accountability are prerequisites for its implementation.

  6. Meaning of death: an exploration of perception of elderly in a Bangladeshi village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, Taufique; Cooper, Alicia; Zaman, Shahaduz

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of meaning of death among the elderly in a Bangladeshi community, and to understand how the meaning of death affects one's overall well-being. Understandings of death were explored through the explanations respondents provided on the journey of the soul during lifetime and the afterlife, concepts of body-soul duality, and perceived "good" and "bad" deaths. The relationship to well-being was expressed in terms of longevity, anxiety/acceptance of death, and preferred circumstances for death. Seven in-depth interviews and one informal discussion session provided the bulk of the data, while Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) tools, including daily routines and body mapping, supplemented our findings. Elderly members of the community had very specific ideas about the meaning of death, and provided clear explanations regarding the journey of the soul, drawing on ideas of body-soul duality to substantiate claims. Due to long coexistence fusion of Hindu and Muslim ideas around death was found. Anxiety/fear of death was associated with some secular issues, on the contrary the perception of longevity was found linked with spirituality. Insights revealed from this study of subtle differences in the perceptions regarding issues around death may aid the policy makers develop effective end-of-life interventions.

  7. ‘CULTURE’ AS A SKILL IN UNDERGRADUATE EFL CLASSROOMS: THE BANGLADESHI REALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Hasan Shahed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As regards the status of English in today’s globalization era, ‘cul- ture’ has turned out to be an essential component in the teaching and learn- ing of English. Some Applied Linguists have even described it as the fifth skill—after listening, speaking, reading and writing—which must be han- dled adequately in EFL classrooms. By appreciating and acquiring the cultural knowledge, values and skills associated with the different varieties of English, EFL students could develop their cultural sensitivities using English as the medium of instruction despite their resentment motivation. Eventually, students would be able to identify and respond to both culturally significant and inappropriate information and think positively about being a part of international environment. Given the growing importance of EFL teaching in Bangladesh, this study investigated the roles of ‘culture’ in the under- graduate EFL classrooms. That is, the study carefully evaluated the effort and capabilities of the teachers in dealing with culturally sensitive issues in their materials, and the influences of cultural items of English on students’ learning. The study made constructive recommendations for English teachers to have successful implementation of cultural skills in their ELT activities regarding Bangladeshi socio-cultural realities which would make students become effective workforce in this challenging era.

  8. The Internet Addiction Test: assessing its psychometric properties in Bangladeshi culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaul Karim, A K M; Nigar, Naima

    2014-08-01

    There is growing importance of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in Internet addiction research around the world. Since the development of the IAT (Young, 1996, 1998), a number of validation studies have been done in various cultures. The aim of this study was to translate the instrument into Bangla and validate in Bangladeshi culture, a culture vulnerable to Internet addiction. A total of 177 Internet users (77 females and 100 males) participated in the study. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the data from 172 participants (who provided complete responses) identified a four factor structure of the IAT with 18 items. The four factors namely 'Neglect of duty', 'Online dependence', 'Virtual fantasies', and 'Privacy and self-defense' together explained 55.68% of the total variance. Problematic (moderate/excessive) users on the IAT scored, on average, higher on each of the four IAT factors as compared to average or non-problematic (minimal) users consistently across genders. The IAT and its factors showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α=.89 for the IAT, and .60-.84 for the factors), strong convergent and discriminant validity. Thus, the Bangla version IAT appears to be valid and reliable and therefore may be used in further research on Internet addiction in the country.

  9. English language proficiency and employment: A case study of Bangladeshi graduates in Australian employment market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raqib Chowdhury

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature has suggested that the relationship between globalisation and the English language implicates employability in the job market. Although the effects are uneven in different occupational groups and in different countries, such relationship is growing in significance to policy makers. This paper has explored the hitherto unstudied relationship between English language proficiency and employment and the success of Bangladeshi graduates in Australia to establish how English language skills influence the employment mechanism in the Australian job market for graduates from a non-English speaking South East Asian country. The study was carried out following an interpretive approach as its overall aim was to understand the role of English language skills of university graduates in determining their employment opportunities and career prospects in Australia. It was found that in various ways one’s English language skills influence prospects of employment, especially in contributing to the possibility of “secure” and “better” jobs. The research findings may inform educational policy planners, teacher educators, employers and career advisers to optimise English language learning programs that support increased employability through English.

  10. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, psmoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden.

  11. Mouthwash Use in General Population: Results from Adult Dental Health Survey in Grampian, Scotland

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    Kirstin Rhodes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population.Material and Methods: An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%. Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors.Results: The majority of participants (38.1% have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily.Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001. Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004. Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001. Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3% compared to smokers (53.1% or those who stopped smoking (46.5% (P < 0.001. Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%, than by abstainers (42.2% (P = 0.012.There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009.When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001, ulcers (P = 0.001, oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002 or other problems (P = 0.025.Conclusions: Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors.

  12. Democratic population decisions result in robust policy-gradient learning: a parametric study with GPU simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Richmond

    Full Text Available High performance computing on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU is an emerging field driven by the promise of high computational power at a low cost. However, GPU programming is a non-trivial task and moreover architectural limitations raise the question of whether investing effort in this direction may be worthwhile. In this work, we use GPU programming to simulate a two-layer network of Integrate-and-Fire neurons with varying degrees of recurrent connectivity and investigate its ability to learn a simplified navigation task using a policy-gradient learning rule stemming from Reinforcement Learning. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we want to support the use of GPUs in the field of Computational Neuroscience. Second, using GPU computing power, we investigate the conditions under which the said architecture and learning rule demonstrate best performance. Our work indicates that networks featuring strong Mexican-Hat-shaped recurrent connections in the top layer, where decision making is governed by the formation of a stable activity bump in the neural population (a "non-democratic" mechanism, achieve mediocre learning results at best. In absence of recurrent connections, where all neurons "vote" independently ("democratic" for a decision via population vector readout, the task is generally learned better and more robustly. Our study would have been extremely difficult on a desktop computer without the use of GPU programming. We present the routines developed for this purpose and show that a speed improvement of 5x up to 42x is provided versus optimised Python code. The higher speed is achieved when we exploit the parallelism of the GPU in the search of learning parameters. This suggests that efficient GPU programming can significantly reduce the time needed for simulating networks of spiking neurons, particularly when multiple parameter configurations are investigated.

  13. Democratic population decisions result in robust policy-gradient learning: a parametric study with GPU simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Paul; Buesing, Lars; Giugliano, Michele; Vasilaki, Eleni

    2011-05-04

    High performance computing on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is an emerging field driven by the promise of high computational power at a low cost. However, GPU programming is a non-trivial task and moreover architectural limitations raise the question of whether investing effort in this direction may be worthwhile. In this work, we use GPU programming to simulate a two-layer network of Integrate-and-Fire neurons with varying degrees of recurrent connectivity and investigate its ability to learn a simplified navigation task using a policy-gradient learning rule stemming from Reinforcement Learning. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we want to support the use of GPUs in the field of Computational Neuroscience. Second, using GPU computing power, we investigate the conditions under which the said architecture and learning rule demonstrate best performance. Our work indicates that networks featuring strong Mexican-Hat-shaped recurrent connections in the top layer, where decision making is governed by the formation of a stable activity bump in the neural population (a "non-democratic" mechanism), achieve mediocre learning results at best. In absence of recurrent connections, where all neurons "vote" independently ("democratic") for a decision via population vector readout, the task is generally learned better and more robustly. Our study would have been extremely difficult on a desktop computer without the use of GPU programming. We present the routines developed for this purpose and show that a speed improvement of 5x up to 42x is provided versus optimised Python code. The higher speed is achieved when we exploit the parallelism of the GPU in the search of learning parameters. This suggests that efficient GPU programming can significantly reduce the time needed for simulating networks of spiking neurons, particularly when multiple parameter configurations are investigated.

  14. Dynamics of nanoparticle-protein corona complex formation: analytical results from population balance equations.

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    Faryad Darabi Sahneh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nanoparticle-protein corona complex formation involves absorption of protein molecules onto nanoparticle surfaces in a physiological environment. Understanding the corona formation process is crucial in predicting nanoparticle behavior in biological systems, including applications of nanotoxicology and development of nano drug delivery platforms. METHOD: This paper extends the modeling work in to derive a mathematical model describing the dynamics of nanoparticle corona complex formation from population balance equations. We apply nonlinear dynamics techniques to derive analytical results for the composition of nanoparticle-protein corona complex, and validate our results through numerical simulations. RESULTS: The model presented in this paper exhibits two phases of corona complex dynamics. In the first phase, proteins rapidly bind to the free surface of nanoparticles, leading to a metastable composition. During the second phase, continuous association and dissociation of protein molecules with nanoparticles slowly changes the composition of the corona complex. Given sufficient time, composition of the corona complex reaches an equilibrium state of stable composition. We find analytical approximate formulae for metastable and stable compositions of corona complex. Our formulae are very well-structured to clearly identify important parameters determining corona composition. CONCLUSION: The dynamics of biocorona formation constitute vital aspect of interactions between nanoparticles and living organisms. Our results further understanding of these dynamics through quantitation of experimental conditions, modeling results for in vitro systems to better predict behavior for in vivo systems. One potential application would involve a single cell culture medium related to a complex protein medium, such as blood or tissue fluid.

  15. Polar Fixation of Plasmids during Recombinant Protein Production in Bacillus megaterium Results in Population Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Karin M; Müller, Johannes; Wienecke, Sarah; Bergmann, Simone; Heyber, Steffi; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Münch, Richard; Jahn, Dieter

    2015-09-01

    During the past 2 decades, Bacillus megaterium has been systematically developed for the gram-per-liter scale production of recombinant proteins. The plasmid-based expression systems employed use a xylose-controlled promoter. Protein production analyses at the single-cell level using green fluorescent protein as a model product revealed cell culture heterogeneity characterized by a significant proportion of less productive bacteria. Due to the enormous size of B. megaterium, such bistable behavior seen in subpopulations was readily analyzed by time lapse microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell culture heterogeneity was not caused simply by plasmid loss: instead, an asymmetric distribution of plasmids during cell division was detected during the exponential-growth phase. Multicopy plasmids are generally randomly distributed between daughter cells. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that under conditions of strong protein production, plasmids are retained at one of the cell poles. Furthermore, it was found that cells with accumulated plasmids and high protein production ceased cell division. As a consequence, the overall protein production of the culture was achieved mainly by the subpopulation with a sufficient plasmid copy number. Based on our experimental data, we propose a model whereby the distribution of multicopy plasmids is controlled by polar fixation under protein production conditions. Thereby, cell lines with fluctuating plasmid abundance arise, which results in population heterogeneity. Our results provide initial insights into the mechanism of cellular heterogeneity during plasmid-based recombinant protein production in a Bacillus species.

  16. Functional results after cholesteatoma surgery in an adult population using the retrograde mastoidectomy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minovi, Amir; Venjacob, Johanna; Volkenstein, Stefan; Dornhoffer, John; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    In this retrospective study, we analyzed the functional results after using the retrograde mastoidectomy technique for cholesteatoma removal in an adult patient population. The described technique was used at a tertiary referral center for cholesteatoma removal in 218 adult patients, representing 242 operated ears, with an average follow-up time of 20.3 months. With the retrograde mastoidectomy technique, the cholesteatoma is removed posteriorly through the canal wall, from the epitympanic region toward the mastoid, with the option to reconstruct the posterior bony canal wall or create an open mastoid cavity, depending on the size of the defect. Primary surgery was carried out in 58.7 % ears, with the remaining 41.3 % representing revision surgery. In 151 cases, the posterior canal wall was reconstructed, and in 91 cases a classical CWD with an open mastoid cavity was created. In the majority of the cases (n = 213, 88.0 %), a primary hearing restoration was performed. There were 18 recurrences (12.7 %) in primary cases and 22 recurrences (22 %) in revision surgeries. Ninety percent of the recurrences (36 of 40 cases) occurred within 5 years. A postoperative air-bone gap of less than 20 dB was achieved in 61.6 % of the operated ears. Ears with a reconstructed posterior canal wall had significantly better hearing results than those cases in which a CWD procedure was used (air-bone gap of 17.6 versus 22.5 dB, p < 0.05). The retrograde mastoidectomy technique for cholesteatoma removal resulted in satisfying hearing results in the majority of the cases, with a recurrence rate comparable to the current literature.

  17. Globular Cluster Populations: Results Including S$^4$G Late-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Aravena, Manuel; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, Albert; Comerón, Sébastien; Courtois, Helene M; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Elmegreen, Debra M; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Gadotti, Dimitri A; Hinz, Joannah L; Ho, Luis C; Holwerda, Benne; Kim, Taehyun; Knapen, Johan H; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Salo, Heikki; Sheth, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Using 3.6 and 4.5$\\mu$m images of 73 late-type, edge-on galaxies from the S$^4$G survey, we compare the richness of the globular cluster populations of these galaxies to those of early type galaxies that we measured previously. In general, the galaxies presented here fill in the distribution for galaxies with lower stellar mass, M$_*$, specifically $\\log({\\rm M}_*/{\\rm M}_\\odot) < 10$, overlap the results for early-type galaxies of similar masses, and, by doing so, strengthen the case for a dependence of the number of globular clusters per $10^9\\ {\\rm M}_\\odot$ of galaxy stellar mass, T$_{\\rm N}$, on M$_*$. For $8.5 < \\log ({\\rm M}_*/{\\rm M}_\\odot) < 10.5$ we find the relationship can be satisfactorily described as T$_{\\rm N} = ({\\rm M}_*/10^{6.7})^{-0.56}$ when M$_*$ is expressed in solar masses. The functional form of the relationship is only weakly constrained and extrapolation outside this range is not advised. Our late-type galaxies, in contrast to our early-types, do not show the tendency for l...

  18. Mercury concentration trend as a possible result of changes in cod population demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruus, Anders; Hjermann, Dag Ø; Beylich, Bjørnar; Schøyen, Merete; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Green, Norman W

    2017-07-20

    Mercury (Hg) in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is one of many parameters that are monitored through OSPAR's Joint Assessment and Monitoring Programme. Time series for cod in the Inner Oslofjord (Norway) go back to 1984. Until 2014, annual median Hg-concentrations in cod from the Inner Oslofjord showed both significant upward long-term (whole time series) and short-term (recent 10 years) trends (when 2015 was included, the short-term trend was not significant). However, the median length of the cod sampled also showed upward trends. This may have been caused by low cod recruitment in the area since the start of the 2000s, as indicated by beach seine surveys. To investigate how length would impact the trend analysis, the Hg-concentrations in the cod were normalised to 50 cm. No significant short-term trend in Hg-concentrations could be detected for length-normalised concentrations. The results indicated that most of the upward trend in Hg-concentrations could be attributed to the sampling of larger fish. The reasons for the apparent change in the cod population demography are not conclusive, however, sampling bias must also be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Globular Cluster Populations: First Results from S$^4$G Early-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, Albert; Comerón, Sébastien; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Gadotti, Dimitri A; Hinz, Joannah L; Ho, Luis C; Holwerda, Benne; Knapen, Johan H; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Salo, Heikki; Sheth, Kartik

    2014-01-01

    Using 3.6$\\mu$m images of 97 early-type galaxies, we develop and verify methodology to measure globular cluster populations from the S$^4$G survey images. We find that 1) the ratio, T$_{\\rm N}$, of the number of clusters, N$_{\\rm CL}$, to parent galaxy stellar mass, M$_*$, rises weakly with M$_*$ for early-type galaxies with M$_* > 10^{10}$ M$_\\odot$ when we calculate galaxy masses using a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF), but that the dependence of T$_{\\rm N}$ on M$_*$ is removed entirely once we correct for the recently uncovered systematic variation of IMF with M$_*$, and 2) for M$_* 10^{10}$ M$_\\odot$ and can be as large as $\\sim 0.02$ for less massive galaxies. These are the first results from the S$^4$G sample of galaxies, and will be enhanced by the sample of early-type galaxies now being added to S$^4$G and complemented by the study of later type galaxies within S$^4$G.

  20. [Results of the treatment of nonlymphoblastic acute leukemia in a pediatric population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Luna, R; Ajuria Gottwald, E; Silva Sosa, M; González Chirinos, P

    1977-01-01

    On a prospective fashion during approximately two years, 22 pediatric patients with acute non lymphocytic leukemia were evaluated. Of this population the majority had acute mielocytic leukemia, followed by acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Absolutely all patients at the time of diagnosis and subsequently every 4 to 6 weeks had a bone marrow aspiration test. When the patients were first seen, 54% of them presented fever; lymph node enlargement was not a common finding. Only few of this patients presented splenomegaly and/or hepatomegaly. In regards to complete blood counts the most outstanding of its was the presence of leukocyte count above 20000/mm.3 in 8 of this patients. From the 22 patients studied only 21 are evaluable. All 21 patients were treated with a 4 drug combination (modified COAP). Sixteen patients (76%) achieved bone marrow remission, of which only 15 patients (71%) achieved complete remission. The median duration remission was of 9.2 months with a range of 2 to 26 months. At the present time only 7 patients (33%) are alive and on remission. Two more patients are alive but in full relapse. The mortality rate of this study is of 59%. The review of recent chemotherapy reports is presented and the need for further trials is emphasized especially in view of recent papers published in which it appears that better results are being obtained at last in children's acute non lymphocitic leukemia.

  1. Induced abortion and breast cancer: results from a population-based case control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Ren, Jing-Chao; Zhao, Rui; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Er-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether induced abortion (IA) increases breast cancer (BC) risk. A population-based case-control study was performed from Dec, 2000 to November, 2004 in Shanghai, China, where IA could be verified through the family planning network and client medical records. Structured questionnaires were completed by 1,517 cases with primary invasive epithelial breast cancer and 1,573 controls frequency- matched to cases for age group. The information was supplemented and verified by the family planning records. Statistical analysis was conducted with SAS 9.0. After adjusting for potential confounders, induced abortions were not found to be associated with breast cancer with OR=0.94 (95%CI= 0.79-1.11). Compared to parous women without induced abortion, parous women with 3 or more times induced abortion (OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.46 to 0.95) and women with 3 or more times induced abortion after the first live birth (OR=0.66, 95%CI =0.45 to 0.97) showed a lower risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for age, level of education, annual income per capita, age at menarche, menopause, parity times, spontaneous abortion, age at first live birth, breast-feeding, oral contraceptives, hormones drug, breast disease, BMI, drinking alcohol, drinking tea, taking vitamin/calcium tablet, physical activity, vocation, history of breast cancer, eating the bean. The results suggest that a history of induced abortions may not increase the risk of breast cancer.

  2. A collaborative exploration of the reasons for lower satisfaction with services among Bangladeshi and Pakistani social care users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Margaret; Bowes, Alison; Gill, Valdeep; Husain, Fatima; Mir, Ghazala

    2017-05-01

    This study explored underlying reasons for the expression of dissatisfaction with services among Bangladeshi and Pakistani social care users in England and investigated, using a collaborative approach, how these could be addressed. In-depth interviews were conducted in Birmingham, Leeds and London during 2012-2013 with 63 Bangladeshi, Pakistani and white British service users and 24 social care managers, social workers and care workers. A further 34 cognitive interviews were conducted within the same study. Following data analysis, three collaborative workshops involving service users and providers were held to validate the findings and to draw out policy and practice recommendations. Analysis of the cognitive interviews showed that higher dissatisfaction among Bangladeshi and Pakistani service users reported in social care surveys was not due to questionnaire design. Instead in-depth interviews showed that dissatisfaction across all three groups was expressed along the social care journey, including accessing care, communication with social workers and the nature of care received. While many issues were common to all three groups, cultural differences also emerged as affecting experiences of social care. These included misunderstandings about family roles in care; gender issues, especially relating to women; language and communication barriers, alongside the need for a more nuanced approach to ethnic 'matching'; and continuing limited cultural understanding among care workers. The collaborative workshops identified practical actions that could address some of the issues identified. These covered raising awareness of services within communities; improving support for informal carers; service user input to assessments; consistent and ongoing sharing of information; improving access; and more efforts to diversify and appropriately train the social care workforce. In conclusion, the paper presents the reality of dissatisfaction among these groups and argues for more

  3. High survival frequencies at low herbicide use rates in populations of Lolium rigidum result in rapid evolution of herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, P; Powles, S

    2005-12-01

    The frequency of phenotypic resistance to herbicides in previously untreated weed populations and the herbicide dose applied to these populations are key determinants of the dynamics of selection for resistance. In total, 31 Lolium rigidum populations were collected from sites with no previous history of exposure to herbicides and where there was little probability of gene flow from adjacent resistant populations. The mean survival frequency across all 31 populations following two applications of commercial rates (375 g ha(-1)) of the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibiting herbicide, diclofop-methyl was 0.43%. Survivors from five of these populations were grown to maturity and seed was collected. Dose-response experiments compared population level resistance to diclofop-methyl in these selected lines with their original parent populations. A single cycle of herbicide selection significantly increased resistance in all populations (LD(50) R:S ratios ranged from 2.8 to 23.2), confirming the inheritance and genetic basis of phenotypic resistance. In vitro assays of ACCase inhibition by diclofop acid indicated that resistance was due to a non-target-site mechanism. Following selection with diclofop-methyl, the five L. rigidum populations exhibited diverse patterns of cross-resistance to ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides, suggesting that different genes or gene combinations were responsible for resistance. The relevance of these results to the management of herbicide resistance are discussed.

  4. GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATIONS: FIRST RESULTS FROM S{sup 4}G EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aravena, Manuel [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Avenida Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Comerón, Sébastien; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki [Astronomy Division, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Lácteas, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Hinz, Joannah L. [MMT Observatory, P.O. Box 210065, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Holwerda, Benne [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 4, NL-2333 Leiden (Netherlands); Sheth, Kartik, E-mail: dennis.zaritsky@gmail.com [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Using 3.6 μm images of 97 early-type galaxies, we develop and verify methodology to measure globular cluster populations from the S{sup 4}G survey images. We find that (1) the ratio, T {sub N}, of the number of clusters, N {sub CL}, to parent galaxy stellar mass, M {sub *}, rises weakly with M {sub *} for early-type galaxies with M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} when we calculate galaxy masses using a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF) but that the dependence of T {sub N} on M {sub *} is removed entirely once we correct for the recently uncovered systematic variation of IMF with M {sub *}; and (2) for M {sub *} < 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, there is no trend between N {sub CL} and M {sub *}, the scatter in T {sub N} is significantly larger (approaching two orders of magnitude), and there is evidence to support a previous, independent suggestion of two families of galaxies. The behavior of N {sub CL} in the lower-mass systems is more difficult to measure because these systems are inherently cluster-poor, but our results may add to previous evidence that large variations in cluster formation and destruction efficiencies are to be found among low-mass galaxies. The average fraction of stellar mass in clusters is ∼0.0014 for M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and can be as large as ∼0.02 for less massive galaxies. These are the first results from the S{sup 4}G sample of galaxies and will be enhanced by the sample of early-type galaxies now being added to S{sup 4}G and complemented by the study of later-type galaxies within S{sup 4}G.

  5. Long-term results of percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty in pulmonary valve stenosis in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Ingelmo, Raquel; Santos-de Soto, José; Coserria-Sánchez, Félix; Descalzo-Señoran, Alfonso; Valverde-Pérez, Israel

    2014-05-01

    Percutaneous pulmonary valvuloplasty is the preferred interventional procedure for pulmonary valve stenosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique, assess the factors leading to its success, and determine the long-term results in the pediatric population. The study included 53 patients with pulmonary valve stenosis undergoing percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty between December 1985 and December 2000. Right ventricular size and functional echocardiographic parameters, such as pulmonary regurgitation and residual transvalvular gradient, were assessed during long-term follow-up. Peak-to-peak transvalvular gradient decreased from 74 mmHg [interquartile range, 65-100 mmHg] to 20 mmHg [interquartile range, 14-34 mmHg]. The procedure was unsuccessful in 2 patients (3.77%). The immediate success rate was 73.58%. Follow-up ranged from 10 years to 24 years (median, 15 years). During follow-up, all patients developed late pulmonary regurgitation which was assessed as grade II in 58.4% and grade III in 31.2%. There was only 1 case of long-term restenosis (2.1%). Severe right ventricular dilatation was observed in 27.1% of the patients. None of the patients developed significant right ventricular dysfunction. Pulmonary valve replacement was not required in any of the patients. Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is an effective technique in the treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis with good long-term results. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Analytical Results of Steady-State Populations in Multiphoton Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXiao-Xue; LUOJin-Ming

    2004-01-01

    We present the explicit analytical expressions of the steady-state probability amplitudes and populations of atom levels in N-photon electromagnetically induced transparency for an arbitrary positive integer N.

  7. Results for five sets of forensic genetic markers studied in a Greek population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, C; Skitsa, I; Steinmeier, E; Poulsen, L; Ampati, A; Børsting, C; Morling, N

    2015-05-01

    A population sample of 223 Greek individuals was typed for five sets of forensic genetic markers with the kits NGM SElect™, SNPforID 49plex, DIPplex®, Argus X-12 and PowerPlex® Y23. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed for any of the studied markers after Holm-Šidák correction. Statistically significant (Pstudied X-chromosome linkage groups. AMOVA analyses of the five sets of markers did not show population structure when the individuals were grouped according to their geographic origin. The Greek population grouped closely to the other European populations measured by F(ST)(*) distances. The match probability ranged from a value of 1 in 2×10(7) males by using haplotype frequencies of four X-chromosome haplogroups in males to 1 in 1.73×10(21) individuals for 16 autosomal STRs.

  8. Bird populations in coastal habitats, Arctic National Wildlife Range, Alaska: Results of 1978 and 1979 surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Within the coastal zone of the Arctic National Wildlife Range, the highest breeding populations of birds occurred in wet and flooded sedge tundra areas surrounded by...

  9. A 24-hour dietary recall for assessing the intake pattern of choline among Bangladeshi pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatabdi Goon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal choline intake during the third trimester of human pregnancy can modify systemic and local epigenetic marks in fetal-derived tissues, promoting better pregnancy outcomes, increased immunity, as well as improved mental and physical work capacity with proper memory and cognitive development. 103 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal care of Azimpur Maternity Hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh in their third trimester of pregnancy were randomly selected for this cross sectional study exploring dietary intake patterns of choline. A dietary recall form was administered to estimate frequency and amount of food consumption of foods for the previous 24 hours. Most women reported diets that delivered less than the recommended choline intake (mean ± SD; 189.5 ± 98.2 providing only 42.72% of total RDA value. The results of this study may indicate that dietary choline among pregnant, Bangladeshi women may not be adequate to meet the needs of both, the mother and fetus. Further studies are warranted to determine clinical implications. Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  10. Results of kidney function measurement and blood pressure in population from endemic region of Vitina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stašević Zvonimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The analysis of frequency of kidney diseases, causes of terminal renal failure in patients subjected to repeated dialysis in major dialysis centers in the region of Kosovo and Metohija as well as mortality rate in these patients showed a stable number of patients with kidney diseases, evidencing that the populations of Vitina and Gnjilane were the most commonly affected. These towns are designated as regions with the highest incidence of Balkan endemic nephropathy. The present analysis was aimed at: 1. establishing the incidence rate of hypertension and renal function impairment by using clinical and laboratory analyses in individuals from Vitina and neighboring villages, and 2. investigating the correlation between creatinine clearance, age and arterial blood pressure in the studied group. Material and methods. The analysis included 510 individuals (excluding diabetics over the one-month period during 2004 (201 males with their age ranging from 18 to 90 years. Blood pressure measurements were performed in all the individuals, while renal function was determined by glomerular filtration rate (GFR, as calculated according to Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results. Creatinine clearance was lower than 100 ml/min in 237 (46.5% individuals, out of whom 62 (12% had GFR below 60 ml/min. Among the remaining 273 (53.5% individuals with GFR above 100 ml/min, 68 individuals had GFR above 140 ml/min. The distribution of patients depending on their systolic blood pressure values revealed that systolic blood pressure was lower in 44 subjects and higher in 302 subjects (59%. The correlation test revealed significant association between the studied parameters. The positive correlation between patients' age and kidney function means the higher the age of subjects the lower creatinine clearance value (r=-0.622, p<0.001. The negative correlation of the systolic blood pressure value and kidney function was found, meaning that higher the systolic blood

  11. Prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypercholesterolaemia in 32 populations: results from the WHO MONICA Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Keil, Ulrich; Ferrario, Marco; Evans, Alun

    2005-02-01

    Several studies have been conducted to estimate the population prevalence of hypertension, or its diagnosis and treatment. There is no multinationally comparable information on the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia, or its diagnosis and treatment, since individual studies are often not directly comparable. Data from the WHO MONICA Project's final risk factor surveys were used. Data were collected using standardized methods between 1989 and 1997 for the 35-64 year age range in 32 populations, in 19 countries on 3 continents. The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol > or = 6.5 mmol/l or taking lipid-lowering drugs) varied across populations from 3% to 53% in men, and from 4% to 40% in women. Awareness of hypercholesterolaemia varied from 1% to 33% in men, and from 0% to 31% in women. In most populations, over 50% of men and women on lipid-lowering drugs had a cholesterol level < 6.5 mmol/l. There is wide variation in the prevalence, awareness, and treatment of hypercholesterolaemia between populations. For the planning and implementation of primary prevention programmes and for the development of health care systems, monitoring of changes, both within and between populations, is essential. To obtain reliable information on these changes, well-standardized methods must be applied.

  12. Contrasting results from molecular and pedigree-based population diversity measures in captive zebra highlight challenges facing genetic management of zoo populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hideyuki; Ogden, Rob; Langenhorst, Tanya; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2017-01-01

    Zoo conservation breeding programs manage the retention of population genetic diversity through analysis of pedigree records. The range of demographic and genetic indices determined through pedigree analysis programs allows the conservation of diversity to be monitored relative to the particular founder population for a species. Such approaches are based on a number of well-documented founder assumptions, however without knowledge of actual molecular genetic diversity there is a risk that pedigree-based measures will be misinterpreted and population genetic diversity misunderstood. We examined the genetic diversity of the captive populations of Grevy's zebra, Hartmann's mountain zebra and plains zebra in Japan and the United Kingdom through analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences. Very low nucleotide variability was observed in Grevy's zebra. The results were evaluated with respect to current and historic diversity in the wild, and indicate that low genetic diversity in the captive population is likely a result of low founder diversity, which in turn suggests relatively low wild genetic diversity prior to recent population declines. Comparison of molecular genetic diversity measures with analogous diversity indices generated from the studbook data for Grevy's zebra and Hartmann's mountain zebra show contrasting patterns, with Grevy's zebra displaying markedly less molecular diversity than mountain zebra, despite studbook analysis indicating that the Grevy's zebra population has substantially more founders, greater effective population size, lower mean kinship, and has suffered less loss of gene diversity. These findings emphasize the need to validate theoretical estimates of genetic diversity in captive breeding programs with empirical molecular genetic data. Zoo Biol. 36:87-94, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The impact of infection on population health: results of the Ontario burden of infectious diseases study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Kwong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence-based priority setting is increasingly important for rationally distributing scarce health resources and for guiding future health research. We sought to quantify the contribution of a wide range of infectious diseases to the overall infectious disease burden in a high-income setting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used health-adjusted life years (HALYs, a composite measure comprising premature mortality and reduced functioning due to disease, to estimate the burden of 51 infectious diseases and associated syndromes in Ontario using 2005-2007 data. Deaths were estimated from vital statistics data and disease incidence was estimated from reportable disease, healthcare utilization, and cancer registry data, supplemented by local modeling studies and national and international epidemiologic studies. The 51 infectious agents and associated syndromes accounted for 729 lost HALYs, 44.2 deaths, and 58,987 incident cases per 100,000 population annually. The most burdensome infectious agents were: hepatitis C virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Staphylococcus aureus, influenza virus, Clostridium difficile, and rhinovirus. The top five, ten, and 20 pathogens accounted for 46%, 67%, and 75% of the total infectious disease burden, respectively. Marked sex-specific differences in disease burden were observed for some pathogens. The main limitations of this study were the exclusion of certain infectious diseases due to data availability issues, not considering the impact of co-infections and co-morbidity, and the inability to assess the burden of milder infections that do not result in healthcare utilization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Infectious diseases continue to cause a substantial health burden in high-income settings such as Ontario. Most of this burden is attributable to a relatively small number of infectious agents, for which many effective

  14. Characteristics associated with being overweight among the population of Ukraine, results of 2000 survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagarna, Natalia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Being overweight is considered among major risk factors of chronic non-communicable diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate main determinants associated with being overweight and obese among the population of Ukraine in transitional period.METHODS. Data from the survey “Health and Well-being in the Transitions” (2000 were used. Body mass index (BMI was used to estimate the level of overweight. Binary dependent variable was computed by setting BMI of 25 as the borderline between normal weight and overweight. Risk of being overweight was compared by educational groups, demographic characteristics, occupation, level of physical activity, and behavioral and eating habits, after adjustment for age and stratification by gender.RESULTS. Among men, those overweight were less likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio 2,5, while more likely to eat meat more often (AOR=2,3 and to consume more vegetable oil. However, among women being overweight was associated with eating more potatoes (AOR = 0,4 and with frequent vodka intake (AOR = 1,7. Those women who drank beer were less likely to be overweight (AOR = 0,3. Risk of being overweight was related to occupation: those unemployed, housekeepers, and self-employed people were less likely to be overweight than those employed with salaries. Obesity risk was greater in those older than 30. Education and physical activity did not show significant associations with risk of being overweight.CONCLUSION. Eating habits, occupational status, and unhealthy habits were associated with obesity among men and women in different ways. Age was found to be an important factor of being overweight both for males and females. Some of the associated characteristics may be considered causes of being overweight and the others as consequences.

  15. Balancing ecosystem function, services and disservices resulting from expanding goose populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buij, Ralph; Melman, Theodorus C P; Loonen, Maarten J J E; Fox, Anthony D

    2017-03-01

    As goose populations increase in abundance, their influence on ecological processes is increasing. We review the evidence for key ecological functions of wild goose populations in Eurasia and North America, including aquatic invertebrate and plant propagule transport, nutrient deposition in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, the influence of goose populations on vegetation biomass, carbon storage and methane emission, species diversity and disease transmission. To estimate the implications of their growing abundance for humans, we explore how these functions contribute to the provision of ecosystem services and disservices. We assess the weight, extent and trends among such impacts, as well as the balance of their value to society. We examine key unresolved issues to enable a more balanced assessment of the economic costs or benefits of migratory geese along their flyways, including the spatial and temporal variation in services and their contrasting value to different user groups. Many ecological functions of geese are concluded to provide neither services nor disservices and, ecosystem disservices currently appear to outweigh services, although this varies between regions. We consider an improved quantification of ecosystem services and disservices, and how these vary along population flyways with respect to variation in valuing certain cultural services, and under different management scenarios aimed at reducing their disservices, essential for a more balanced management of goose populations.

  16. The effect of microwave roasting on the antioxidant properties of the Bangladeshi groundnut cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Islam, Anowarul; Pal, Tarun K

    2016-01-01

    Groundnut seeds are an important source of bioactive phenolic compounds with noteworthy antioxidant capacity, which may be enhanced by the microwave roasting process. The aim of this work is   to study the changes in antioxidant activity in groundnut seeds during microwave roasting, as a function of roasting time and extract concentration, in order to maximise the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of roasted seeds. The study was conducted to evaluate total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidative activity of methanolic (GME), ethanolic (GEE), and chloroform (GCE) extracts and methanolic extract of oil (GMO) from groundnut seeds exposed to microwaves. The antioxidant activity was investigated using several assays, namely phosphomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity, H2O2 scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The microwave roasting process significantly increased the TPC, whilst the TFC decreased with roasting time. Antioxidant activity increased with increased roasting time and extract concentration in all extracts. Antioxidant activity increased significantly at lower concentrations; however, the rate of increment decreased gradually as the concentration of the solvent extract increased. Thus, among all the extracts, methanol extracts at all roasting times and extract concentrations appeared to display the highest effectiveness. The various scavenging activities of the samples are ranked in the following order: GME > GEE > GCE > GMO, in both raw and roasted samples. Both roasting time and extract concentration were found to be critical factors in determining the overall quality of the product. This investigation is important to determine optimum roasting conditions, in order to maximise the anti-oxidative health benefits of the Bangladeshi groundnut cultivar.

  17. Stunting is associated with blood lead concentration among Bangladeshi children aged 2-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Kelsey M; Valeri, Linda; Shankar, A H; Hasan, Md Omar Sharif Ibne; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rodrigues, Ema G; Christiani, David C; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Mazumdar, Maitreyi

    2016-11-04

    Lead toxicity is of particular public health concern given its near ubiquitous distribution in nature and established neurotoxicant properties. Similar in its ubiquity and ability to inhibit neurodevelopment, early childhood stunting affects an estimated 34 % of children under 5 in low- and middle-income countries. Both lead and stunting have been shown to be associated with decreased neurodevelopment, although the relationship between these childhood burdens is underexplored. The association between lead exposure and stunting has been previously established, yet limited data are available on susceptibility windows. Whole blood lead samples were collected from rural Bangladeshi children at delivery (umbilical cord blood) and at age 20-40 months (fingerstick blood). Stunting was determined using the Child Growth Standards developed from the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study. Children with height for age lead levels were 3.1 (1.6-6.3) μg/dl and 4.2 (1.7-7.6) μg/dl, respectively. In adjusted multivariable regression models, the odds of stunting at 20-40 months increased by 1.12 per μg/dl increase in blood lead level (OR = 1.12, 95 % CI: 1.02-1.22). No association was found between cord blood lead level and risk of stunting (OR = 0.97, 95 % CI: 0.94-1.00). There is a significant association between stunting and concurrent lead exposure at age 20-40 months. This association is slightly attenuated after controlling for study clinic site. Additional research including more precise timing of lead exposure during these critical 20-40 months is needed.

  18. Antigen-specific memory B-cell responses to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in Bangladeshi adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Aktar, Amena; Afrin, Sadia; Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Aktar, Sarmin; Uddin, Taher; Rahman, M Arifur; Al Mahbuba, Deena; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Begum, Yasmin Ara; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Qadri, Firdausi

    2014-04-01

    Multiple infections with diverse enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains lead to broad spectrum protection against ETEC diarrhea. However, the precise mechanism of protection against ETEC infection is still unknown. Therefore, memory B cell responses and affinity maturation of antibodies to the specific ETEC antigens might be important to understand the mechanism of protection. In this study, we investigated the heat labile toxin B subunit (LTB) and colonization factor antigens (CFA/I and CS6) specific IgA and IgG memory B cell responses in Bangladeshi adults (n = 52) who were infected with ETEC. We also investigated the avidity of IgA and IgG antibodies that developed after infection to these antigens. Patients infected with ETEC expressing LT or LT+heat stable toxin (ST) and CFA/I group or CS6 colonization factors developed LTB, CFA/I or CS6 specific memory B cell responses at day 30 after infection. Similarly, these patients developed high avidity IgA and IgG antibodies to LTB, CFA/I or CS6 at day 7 that remained significantly elevated at day 30 when compared to the avidity of these specific antibodies at the acute stage of infection (day 2). The memory B cell responses, antibody avidity and other immune responses to CFA/I not only developed in patients infected with ETEC expressing CFA/I but also in those infected with ETEC expressing CFA/I cross-reacting epitopes. We also detected a significant positive correlation of LTB, CFA/I and CS6 specific memory B cell responses with the corresponding increase in antibody avidity. This study demonstrates that natural infection with ETEC induces memory B cells and high avidity antibodies to LTB and colonization factor CFA/I and CS6 antigens that could mediate anamnestic responses on re-exposure to ETEC and may help in understanding the requirements to design an effective vaccination strategies.

  19. Bangladeshi school-age children's experiences and perceptions on child maltreatment: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiqul Haque, M; Janson, S; Moniruzzaman, S; Rahman, A K M F; Mashreky, S R; Eriksson, U-B

    2017-09-04

    Child maltreatment (CM) is a public health problem and is recognized as a huge barrier for child development. Most of the research and definitions on CM are from the perspective of high-income western countries. Because no major studies have been conducted on CM in Bangladesh, the aim of the current study was to explore the experiences of and perceptions on CM in school-age children in rural and urban Bangladesh in order to understand maltreatment in a local context and from a child perspective. Semistructured individual interviews with 24 children (13 boys and 11 girls), between the ages of 9 and 13 years of which 11 were schoolgoing and 13 non-schoolgoing, were conducted during July 2013 and analysed according to qualitative content analysis. CM was a common and painful experience with serious physical and emotional consequences but highly accepted by the society. Vulnerable groups were especially young children, girls, and poor children. The children's voices were not heard due to their low status and low position in their families, schools, and working places. The main theme that emerged in the analysis was children's subordination, which permeated the five categories: (a) perception of children's situation in society, (b) understanding children's development and needs, (c) CM associated to school achievement, (d) negative impact of CM, and (e) emotional responses. Different kinds of abuse are obviously common in Bangladesh, and the schools do not follow the law from 2011 prohibiting corporal punishment at school. The society has to take further steps to live up to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was ratified already in 1990, to protect the Bangladeshi children from CM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Phthalate Exposure and Allergy in the U.S. Population: Results from NHANES 2005–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Renee; London, Stephanie J.; Bertelsen, Randi J.; Salo, Päivi M.; Sandler, Dale P.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2013-01-01

    , Sandler DP, Zeldin DC. 2013. Phthalate exposure and allergy in the U.S. population: results from NHANES 2005–2006. Environ Health Perspect 121:1129–1134; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206211 [Online 25 June 2013]. PMID:23799650

  1. Ethnic variations of a retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB1) polymorphism in eight Asian populations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priya Kadam-Pai; Xin-Yi Su; Jasmin Jiji Miranda; Agustinus Soemantri; Nilmani Saha; Chew-Kiat Heng; Poh-San Lai

    2003-04-01

    An A → G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 153,104 in the retinoblastoma susceptibility locus (RB1) at 13q14 was previously reported to be present only in Asians. In this study, we determined the distribution of this SNP in normal Southeast Asian populations (Chinese, Malay, Javanese, Thai, Filipino), in South Asian populations (Bangladeshi, Pakistani Pushtun and Indian) and in Chinese retinoblastoma cases and control subjects. The RB1 SNP was present in all populations at an overall frequency of ≤ 0.18. Heterozygosity was higher in the Southeast Asian groups (0.14–0.34) than in the South Asian groups (Bangladeshi and Indian) (0.04–0.06). Significant differences in allele frequencies were found between the two population groups. Interestingly, our Pakistani population comprised of ethnic Pushtuns from northwest Pakistan was significantly different from the neighbouring Bangladeshi and Indian populations. No significant difference was found between Chinese case patients and control subjects. This RB1 SNP appears to be an ethnic variant prevalent in Southeast Asian populations and may be useful for studying RB1 inheritance by pedigree analysis.

  2. HPV DNA testing in population-based cervical screening (VUSA-Screen study) : results and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkaart, D. C.; Berkhof, J.; van Kemenade, F. J.; Coupe, V. M. H.; Rozendaal, L.; Heideman, D. A. M.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Bulk, S.; Verweij, W.; Snijders, P. J. F.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We evaluated the performance of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing in routine screening. METHODS: In all, 25 871 women (29-61) enrolled in our population-based

  3. Results for five sets of forensic genetic markers studied in a Greek population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Mas, Carmen; Skitsa, I; Steinmeier, E;

    2015-01-01

    A population sample of 223 Greek individuals was typed for five sets of forensic genetic markers with the kits NGM SElect™, SNPforID 49plex, DIPplex(®), Argus X-12 and PowerPlex(®) Y23. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed for any of the studied markers after Hol...

  4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

  5. HPV DNA testing in population-based cervical screening (VUSA-Screen study) : results and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkaart, D. C.; Berkhof, J.; van Kemenade, F. J.; Coupe, V. M. H.; Rozendaal, L.; Heideman, D. A. M.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Bulk, S.; Verweij, W.; Snijders, P. J. F.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We evaluated the performance of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing in routine screening. METHODS: In all, 25 871 women (29-61) enrolled in our population-based

  6. Obesity and mental disorders in the general population : results from the world mental health surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.M.; Bruffaerts, R.; Simon, G.E.; Alonso, J.; Angermeyer, M.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Gasquet, I.; Haro, J.M.; Karam, E.; Kessler, R.C.; Levinson, D.; Mora, M.E.M.; Browne, M.A.O.; Ormel, J.; Villa, J.P.; Uda, H.; Von Korff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To investigate whether there is an association between obesity and mental disorders in the general populations of diverse countries, and (2) to establish whether demographic variables (sex, age, education) moderate any associations observed. Design: Thirteen cross-sectional, general

  7. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the Netherlands : Results from a population based registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, ADG; Le Cessie, S; Snijder, S; Kluin-Nelemans, JC; Kluin, PM; Noordijk, EM

    2003-01-01

    The Comprehensive Cancer Centre West (CCCW) population based non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) registry contains information on all newly diagnosed NHL patients living in the region covered by the CCCW. Patients were entered from June 1st 1981 to December 31st 1989. Follow-up is still ongoing, median fol

  8. Recovery potential of a western lowland gorilla population following a major Ebola outbreak: results from a ten year study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Genton

    Full Text Available Investigating the recovery capacity of wildlife populations following demographic crashes is of great interest to ecologists and conservationists. Opportunities to study these aspects are rare due to the difficulty of monitoring populations both before and after a demographic crash. Ebola outbreaks in central Africa have killed up to 95% of the individuals in affected western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla populations. Assessing whether and how fast affected populations recover is essential for the conservation of this critically endangered taxon. The gorilla population visiting Lokoué forest clearing, Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Republic of the Congo, has been monitored before, two years after and six years after Ebola affected it in 2004. This allowed us to describe Ebola's short-term and long-term impacts on the structure of the population. The size of the population, which included around 380 gorillas before the Ebola outbreak, dropped to less than 40 individuals after the outbreak. It then remained stable for six years after the outbreak. However, the demographic structure of this small population has significantly changed. Although several solitary males have disappeared, the immigration of adult females, the formation of new breeding groups, and several birth events suggest that the population is showing potential to recover. During the outbreak, surviving adult and subadult females joined old solitary silverbacks. Those females were subsequently observed joining young silverbacks, forming new breeding groups where they later gave birth. Interestingly, some females were observed joining silverbacks that were unlikely to have sired their infant, but no infanticide was observed. The consequences of the Ebola outbreak on the population structure were different two years and six years after the outbreak. Therefore, our results could be used as demographic indicators to detect and date outbreaks that have happened in other, non

  9. Validity and reproducibility of resting metabolic rate measurements in rural Bangladeshi women: comparison of measurements obtained by Medgem and by Deltatrac device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Roordink, D.; Meltzer, M.; Yunus, M.; Salam, M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To assess reproducibility and validity of resting metabolic rate (RMR) of Bangladeshi women as measured with the MedGem device and using the Deltatrac metabolic monitor as a reference; and (2) to evaluate the FAO/WHO/UNU basal metabolic rate (BMR)-prediction equations. Design:In each of tw

  10. 'A woman's heaven is at her husband's feet'? The dilemmas for a community learning disability team posed by the arranged marriage of a Bangladeshi client with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepper, F

    1999-12-01

    The present case report describes the arranged marriage of a Bangladeshi woman with moderate intellectual disability. It explores some of the social and cultural factors influencing the decision to arrange her marriage, and the dilemmas this presents in terms of bridging cultural differences between professional and lay concerns.

  11. A molecular epidemiologic study of thalassemia using newborns' cord blood in a multiracial Asian population in Singapore: results and recommendations for a population screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kham, S K; Yin, Shirley Kham Kow; Quah, Thuan Chong; Loong, Ai Mei; Tan, Poh Lin; Fraser, Angus; Chong, S S; Chuan, Samuel Chong Siong; Yeoh, A E; Eng-Juh, Allen Yeoh

    2004-12-01

    DNA technology provides a new avenue to perform neonatal screening tests for single-gene diseases in populations of high frequency. Thalassemia is one of the high-frequency single-gene disorders affecting Singapore and many countries in the malaria belt. The authors explored the feasibility of using PCR-based diagnostic screening on 1,116 unselected sequential cord blood samples for neonatal screening. The cord blood samples were screened for the most common reported alpha- and beta-thalassemia mutations in each ethnic group (Chinese, Malays, and Indians) in a multiracial population. The carrier frequency for alpha-thalassemia mutations was about 6.4% in the Chinese (alpha deletions = 3.9%, alpha deletions = 2.5%), 4.8% in Malays, and 5.2% in Indians. Only alpha deletions were observed in the Chinese. The carrier frequency for beta-thalassemia mutations was 2.7% in the Chinese, 6.3% in Malays, and 0.7% in Indians. Extrapolating to the population distribution of Singapore, the authors found a higher overall expected carrier frequency for alpha- and beta-thalassemia mutations of 9% compared with a previous population study of 6% by phenotype. The highly accurate results make this molecular epidemiologic screening an ideal method to screen for and prevent severe thalassemia in high-risk populations.

  12. [Monitoring populations of rodent reservoirs of zoonotic diseases. Projects, aims and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, J; Ulrich, R G; Freise, J; Schmolz, E

    2014-05-01

    Rodents can harbor and transmit pathogens that can cause severe disease in humans, companion animals and livestock. Such zoonotic pathogens comprise more than two thirds of the currently known human pathogens. The epidemiology of some zoonotic pathogens, such as hantaviruses, can be linked to the population dynamics of the rodent host. In this case, during an outbreak of the rodent host population many human infections may occur. In other rodent-borne zoonotic diseases such phenomena are not known and in many cases the rodent host specificity of a given pathogen is unclear. The monitoring of relevant rodent populations and of the rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens is essential to (1) understand the distribution and epidemiology of pathogens and (2) develop forecasting tools to predict outbreaks of zoonoses. Presently, there are no systematic long-term monitoring programs in place for zoonoses in Germany. Rodent monitoring activities are largely restricted to the plant protection sector, such as for the common vole (Microtus arvalis) and forest-damaging rodents. However, during the last 10-15 years a number of specific research projects have been initiated and run for a few years and Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) monitoring has been implemented in Hamburg and Lower Saxony. Based on close cooperation of federal and state authorities and research institutions these efforts could be utilized to gain information about the distribution and importance of rodent-borne zoonoses. Nevertheless, for the integration of rodent population dynamics and zoonotic disease patterns and especially for developing predictive models, long-term monitoring is urgently required. To establish a systematic long-term monitoring program, existing networks and cooperation need to be used, additional collaborators (e.g., pest control operators) should be included and synergetic effects of different scientific fields should be utilized.

  13. Results of the of wintering bird populations monitoring in the region of Nizhnee Prisurye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Preobrazhenskaya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of wintering bird populations in the region of Nizhnee Prisurie on the territory of Chuvash Republic was carried out in 1989–1990. From 2000 censuses were conducted on the territory of the nature reserve "Prisurskiy" and the National Park "Chavash Varmane". These regular censuses were called project "Parus" by the Menzbir Ornithological Society of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The last ten years they were also included in the overall-Russian campaign "Euro-Asian Christmas Bird Counts" project from the Russian Birds Conservation Union. During these 20 years there were 44 bird species registered in the studied area. Eleven of them are marked by single or rare. Four species - Regulus regulus, Aegithalos caudatus, Spinus spinus and Carduelis carduelis – increased their abundance from 1990 till the middle 2000-s and then – decreased. Dendrocopos minor showed the opposite trend. The abundance of 13 species in the 1990-s was higher, sometimes significantly, than in the 2000s and 2010s. The reason may be searched in the differences between the censuses areas in 1990s and 2000s. However, the decreasing of the population densities is typical for other forest species, not only in Nizhnee Prisurie, but also in other model territories. In general, during the last 25 years we can see negative trends in the population dynamics of wintering bird species within the East European plain.

  14. Some results of long-term investigation population exposed as a result of release of radioactive wastes into the Techa River in Southern Urals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Vorobiova, M.I. [Ural research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes results of a long-term investigation of a population exposed to radioactive waste release in 1949-1956 into the Techa River in the Southern Urals. Systematic measurements of radionuclide concentration in the river waters, sediments, and floodplain soils and measurements of exposure gamma dose rates as well as studies of the radionuclide composition in the contaminated areas began in the summer of 1951. As a result of the contamination, 124,000 residents were exposed to radiation and 28,100 received significant doses in terms of health effect potential. Covered results include the following: estimation of external radiation doses; content of strontium-90 in humans and estimation of radionuclide ingestion rates; age-dependent model of strontium metabolism in the human body; evaluation of doses of internal irradiation; distribution of exposed population according to accumulated doses. 11 refs; 15 figs.

  15. [Physical activity in adult working population: results from the European National Health Survey for Spain (2009)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Pérez, Carmen; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2015-11-01

    1) To describe physical activity in the Spanish adult working population aged 16-70 years in 2009, and 2) to describe the prevalence of physical activity according to socio-demographic features, self-perceived health status, co-morbidity, and lifestyle habits. An epidemiological population based descriptive study was conducted using individual data taken from the European Health Survey for Spain. Community. The number of subjects aged 16-70 years included in the study was 10,928 (5,628 women and 5,300 men). None. Physical activity and intensity were assessed from questions included in the interview-survey. An analysis was performed on the socio-demographic characteristics and self-rated physical and mental health, using multivariate logistic regression models. Not having a partner (OR 1.44; P<.001), have university studies (OR 1.62; P<.001), non-smoker (OR 1.50; P<.001), and taking medications (OR 1.22; P<.5) were a predictor of intense physical activity in men. The first 3 factors are equal for intense activity in women. In contrast, obesity (OR 0.58; P<.001), and 36-50 years (OR 0.68; P<.001) were factors related to low activity in men. Aged between 36-50 years (OR 1.26; P<.01), suffering≥2 co-morbid conditions (OR 1.30; P<.001), and non-smoker (OR 1.17; P<.5) were also associated with higher probability of reporting moderate physical activity in women. The positive mental health was significant for physical activity in both sexes (OR 1.01; P<.5). This study identified several factors that appear to influence physical activity in the Spanish adult working population, with potential implications for healthcare providers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels in adult population of Bangladesh: Results from STEPS 2006 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, M Mostafa; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Ahmed, Jasimuddin; Talukder, Md Habibullah; Rahman, A H M Shafiqur

    2016-01-01

    A nationally representative survey was carried out to determine the distribution of blood glucose and cholesterol in adult population of Bangladesh in the absence of existing data. The study adopted a multistage and geographically clustered sampling technique of households. A total of 2610 individuals (1444 men and 1166 women) aged 25-64 years were selected from rural and urban areas. Capillary blood glucose and total cholesterol levels were measured using an overnight fasting state. The mean age of the participants was 41 years [standard deviation (SD), 11 years]. Half of them (49%) were from urban areas. Half of them (51%) had primary or higher education. Mean glucose was 74mg/dL (SD 23mg/dL). Men had higher mean glucose levels (79mg/dL) than women (67mg/dL). Age-standardized prevalence of diabetes (blood glucose level ≥126mg/dL and/or use of anti-diabetic medication) was 5.5%. In men, it was almost two-and-half times (7.6%) compared with women (2.8%). It was also double in urban areas (7.8%) compared with rural areas (3.4%). Mean cholesterol level among all participants was 167mg/dL (SD 26mg/dL). Men and women had almost similar levels (169mg/dL versus 166mg/dL, respectively). Prevalence of high cholesterol level (≥240mg/dL) was very low (1.3%) in both men (2.2%) and women (0.5%). However, the prevalence of borderline high cholesterol was substantial (5.8%) in this sample. The prevalence of high hypercholesterolemia is low, whereas there is a high prevalence of borderline high cholesterol and diabetes in the adult population of Bangladesh. This warrants population-based interventions to tackle this problem. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice.

  18. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-02-15

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  19. House dust mites and their allergens in Danish mattresses -- results from a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the level of house dust mites (HDMs) and their allergens in mattresses, not selected on their owners atopic status, and to find associated factors. Dust was collected from 68 mattresses. The recruitment was population-based and conducted during the screen......The purpose of this study was to identify the level of house dust mites (HDMs) and their allergens in mattresses, not selected on their owners atopic status, and to find associated factors. Dust was collected from 68 mattresses. The recruitment was population-based and conducted during...... the screening phase of a HDM intervention study. The visited persons declared to have had a "cold" bedroom the previous winter. HDMs were counted and dust was analysed by ELISA for Der 1 (= Der f 1+ Der p 1+ Der m 1). Multiple regression analysis was carried out to find housing conditions associated with high...... HDM levels. Type of housing, mattress age and self-assessed winter bedroom-temperature explained 47% of Der 1. Median concentrations were 3.77 microg Der 1/g and 1 HDM/0.1 g dust. Both immunochemically and microscopically Dermatophagoides farinae was dominant; D. pteronyssinus less frequent...

  20. Chronic Airflow Obstruction in a Black African Population: Results of BOLD Study, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaseki, Daniel O; Erhabor, Gregory E; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Adewole, Olufemi O; Buist, Sonia A; Burney, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Global estimates suggest that Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is emerging as a leading cause of death in developing countries but there are few spirometry-based general population data on its prevalence and risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa. We used the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) protocol to select a representative sample of adults aged 40 years and above in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. All the participants underwent spirometry and provided information on smoking history, biomass and occupational exposures as well as diagnosed respiratory diseases and symptoms. Chronic Airflow Obstruction (CAO) was defined as the ratio of post-bronchodilator (BD) one second Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1) to Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) below the lower limit of normal (LLN) of the population distribution for FEV1/FVC. The overall prevalence of obstruction (post-BD FEV1/FVC Ife, Nigeria and unrelated to biomass exposure. The key independent predictors are poor education, and previous diagnosis of tuberculosis or asthma.

  1. Swedish population health-related quality of life results using the EQ-5D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, K; Johannesson, M; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measured on population level may be useful to guide policies for health. This study aims to describe the HRQoL; in EQ-5D dimensions, mean rating scale (RS) scores and mean EQ-5D index values, in the general population, by certain disease and socio......-economic groups, in Stockholm County 1998. The EQ-5D self-classifier and a RS were included in the 1998 cross-sectional postal Stockholm County public health survey to a representative sample (n = 4950, 20-88 years), 63% response rate. Mean RS score ranged from 0.90 (20-29 years) to 0.69 (80-88 years), mean EQ-5D...... index value ranged from 0.89 (20-29 years) to 0.74 (80-88 years). For different diseases mean RS scores ranged from 0.80 (asthma) to 0.69 (angina pectoris), mean EQ-5D index values ranged from 0.79 (asthma) to 0.66 (low back pain). The mean health state scores (RS and EQ-5D index) were 0.06 lower...

  2. Human biomonitoring of multiple mycotoxins in the Belgian population: Results of the BIOMYCO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyndrickx, Ellen; Sioen, Isabelle; Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Saeger, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Mycotoxins are important food contaminants responsible for health effects such as cancer, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity or immunosuppression. The assessment of mycotoxin exposure is often based on calculations combining mycotoxin occurrence data in food with population data on food consumption. Because of limitations inherent to that approach, the direct measurement of biomarkers of exposure in biological fluids has been proposed as a suitable alternative to perform an accurate mycotoxin exposure assessment at individual level. For this reason, the BIOMYCO study was designed to assess mycotoxin exposure in Belgian adults and children using urinary biomarkers of exposure. Morning urine was gathered in a representative part of the Belgian population according to a standardised study protocol, whereby 155 children (3-12 years old) and 239 adults (19-65 years old) were selected based on random cluster sampling. These urine samples were analysed for the presence of 33 potential biomarkers with focus on aflatoxins, citrinin (CIT), fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone and their metabolites using two validated LC-MS/MS methods. Nine out of the 33 analysed mycotoxins were detected whereby deoxynivalenol (DON), OTA, CIT and their metabolites were the most frequently detected. Deoxynivalenol-15-glucuronide was the main urinary DON biomarker and was found in all urine samples in the ng/mL range. Furthermore deoxynivalenol-3-glucuronide was quantified in 91% of the urine samples collected from children and in 77% of the samples collected from adults. Deoxynivalenol was detected in 70% and 37% of the samples of children and adults respectively. For the first time deepoxy-deoxynivalenol-glucuronide was detected in children's urine (17%). In the samples collected by adults, the prevalence was 22%. Whereas all these mycotoxins contaminated the urine samples in the ng/mL range, CIT and OTA were present in much lower concentrations (pg/mL). OTA contaminated 51

  3. Antigen-specific memory B-cell responses to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in Bangladeshi adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Murshid Alam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple infections with diverse enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC strains lead to broad spectrum protection against ETEC diarrhea. However, the precise mechanism of protection against ETEC infection is still unknown. Therefore, memory B cell responses and affinity maturation of antibodies to the specific ETEC antigens might be important to understand the mechanism of protection. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we investigated the heat labile toxin B subunit (LTB and colonization factor antigens (CFA/I and CS6 specific IgA and IgG memory B cell responses in Bangladeshi adults (n = 52 who were infected with ETEC. We also investigated the avidity of IgA and IgG antibodies that developed after infection to these antigens. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients infected with ETEC expressing LT or LT+heat stable toxin (ST and CFA/I group or CS6 colonization factors developed LTB, CFA/I or CS6 specific memory B cell responses at day 30 after infection. Similarly, these patients developed high avidity IgA and IgG antibodies to LTB, CFA/I or CS6 at day 7 that remained significantly elevated at day 30 when compared to the avidity of these specific antibodies at the acute stage of infection (day 2. The memory B cell responses, antibody avidity and other immune responses to CFA/I not only developed in patients infected with ETEC expressing CFA/I but also in those infected with ETEC expressing CFA/I cross-reacting epitopes. We also detected a significant positive correlation of LTB, CFA/I and CS6 specific memory B cell responses with the corresponding increase in antibody avidity. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that natural infection with ETEC induces memory B cells and high avidity antibodies to LTB and colonization factor CFA/I and CS6 antigens that could mediate anamnestic responses on re-exposure to ETEC and may help in understanding the requirements to design an effective vaccination strategies.

  4. Homologous and cross-reactive immune responses to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli colonization factors in Bangladeshi children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Firdausi; Ahmed, Firoz; Ahmed, Tanvir; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2006-08-01

    We have studied homologous (HoM) and cross-reacting (CR) immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody responses to colonization factors (CFs) in Bangladeshi children with diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains of the CF antigen I (CFA/I) group (CFA/I, n = 25; coli surface antigen 4 [CS4], n = 8; CS14, n = 11) and the CS5 group (CS5, n = 15; CS7, n = 8), respectively. The responses to the HoM, CR, and heterologous (HeT) CF antigens in each group of patient were studied and compared to that seen in healthy children (n = 20). In the CFA/I group (CFA/I and CS14), patients responded with antibody-secreting cell (ASC) responses to HoM CFs (geometric mean, 156 to 329 ASCs/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs]) and to CR CFs ( approximately 15 to 38 ASCs/10(6) PBMCs) but least of all to the HeT CS5 antigen (2 to 4 ASCs/10(6) PBMCs). For the CS5 group of patients with ETEC (CS5 and CS7), likewise, responses to HoM CFs (230 to 372 ASCs/10(6) PBMCs) and CR CFs (27 to 676 ASCs/10(6) PBMCs) were seen, along with lower responses to the HeT CFA/I antigen (9 to 38 ASCs/10(6) PBMCs). Both groups of patients responded with CF-specific IgA antibodies to HoM and CR antigens in plasma but responded less to the HeT CFs. The responses in patients were seen very soon after the onset of diarrhea and peaked around 1 week after onset. Vaccinees who had received two doses of the oral, killed whole-cell ETEC vaccine (CF-BS-ETEC) responded with plasma IgA antibodies to CFA/I, a component of the vaccine, but also to the CR CS14 antigen, which was not included in the vaccine, showing that antibody responses can be stimulated by a CFA/I-containing ETEC vaccine to a CR-reacting antigen in individuals in countries where ETEC is endemic.

  5. The 2005 census and mapping of slums in Bangladesh: design, select results and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeles Gustavo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concentration of poverty and adverse environmental circumstances within slums, particularly those in the cities of developing countries, are an increasingly important concern for both public health policy initiatives and related programs in other sectors. However, there is a dearth of information on the population-level implications of slum life for human health. This manuscript describes the 2005 Census and Mapping of Slums (CMS, which used geographic information systems (GIS tools and digital satellite imagery combined with more traditional fieldwork methodologies, to obtain detailed, up-to-date and new information about slum life in all slums of six major cities in Bangladesh (including Dhaka. Results The CMS found that Bangladeshi slums are very diverse: there are wide intra- and inter-city variations in population size, density, the percent of urban populations living in slums, and sanitation conditions. Findings also show that common beliefs about slums may be outdated; of note, tenure insecurity was found to be an issue in only a small minority of slums. Conclusion The methodology used in the 2005 Bangladesh CMS provides a useful approach to mapping slums that could be applied to urban areas in other low income societies. This methodology may become an increasingly important analytic tool to inform policy, as cities in developing countries are forecasted to continue increasing their share of total global population in the coming years, with slum populations more than doubling in size during the same period.

  6. Help-seeking in people with exceptional experiences: Results from a general population sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eLandolt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Exceptional Experiences (EE are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE.Almost all participants (91% experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6% than in persons with a disorder (35.1% (OR = 5.7. Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE.Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other persons with EE, but preferred

  7. ["What is a bipolar disorder?" Results of a representative survey of the German population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeyer, Matthias C; Matschinger, Herbert

    2005-09-01

    To explore to what extent the lay public knows that the term bipolar disorder denotes a mental disorder. In January 2005, a telephone survey was conducted among a random sample of the German population (n = 1006). Out of four options given, respondents were asked to select the one they considered to be the correct explanation of what is meant by bipolar disorder. Most of the respondents (61%) believed that bipolar disorder is just another term for the melting of the polar ice caps, only 4.6 % associated it with mental illness. The question arises as to whether it makes sense to use a diagnosis which the lay public associates with everything but a mental illness. Since it is impossible to erase the term bipolar disorder from the psychiatric terminology, it seems necessary to increasingly propagate this term among the lay public.

  8. Testing spectral models for stellar populations with star clusters: II. Results

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, Rosa M Gonzalez

    2009-01-01

    High spectral resolution evolutionary synthesis models have become a routinely used ingredient in extragalactic work, and as such deserve thorough testing. Star clusters are ideal laboratories for such tests. This paper applies the spectral fitting methodology outlined in Paper I to a sample of clusters, mainly from the Magellanic Clouds and spanning a wide range in age and metallicity, fitting their integrated light spectra with a suite of modern evolutionary synthesis models for single stellar population. The combinations of model plus spectral library employed in this investigation are Galaxev/STELIB, Vazdekis/MILES, SED@/GRANADA, and Galaxev/MILES+GRANADA, which provide a representative sample of models currently available for spectral fitting work. A series of empirical tests are performed with these models, comparing the quality of the spectral fits and the values of age, metallicity and extinction obtained with each of them. A comparison is also made between the properties derived from these spectral f...

  9. Balancing ecosystem function, services and disservices resulting from expanding goose populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buij, Ralph; Melman, Theodorus C. P.; Loonen, Maarten J. J. E.

    2017-01-01

    in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, the influence of goose populations on vegetation biomass, carbon storage and methane emission, species diversity and disease transmission. To estimate the implications of their growing abundance for humans, we explore how these functions contribute to the provision...... of ecosystem services and disservices. We assess the weight, extent and trends among such impacts, as well as the balance of their value to society. We examine key unresolved issues to enable a more balanced assessment of the economic costs or benefits of migratory geese along their flyways, including...... the spatial and temporal variation in services and their contrasting value to different user groups. Many ecological functions of geese are concluded to provide neither services nor disservices and, ecosystem disservices currently appear to outweigh services, although this varies between regions. We consider...

  10. Renal cell carcinoma in the pediatric population: Results from the California Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Jonathan; Grabowski, Julia; Saltzstein, Sidney L; Kane, Christopher J

    2009-02-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare disease in children and adolescents. This study aimed to review epidemiologic characteristics and survival for pediatric RCC patients using a large, population-based database. The California Cancer Registry (CCR) was reviewed from 1988 to 2004. All cases of RCC in patients younger than 21 years were identified and annual age-adjusted incidence rates were determined for the overall population and subdivided by ethnicity. Tumors were classified by stage and grade, and actuarial mortality rates were calculated. From 1988 to 2004, 43 cases of RCC were identified in patients younger than 21 years, accounting for 4.3% of all renal tumors in this age group. The overall annual age-adjusted incidence was 0.01/100,000 with the tumor more common in non-Hispanic blacks (0.03/100,000) compared to non-Hispanic whites (0.01/100,000), Hispanics (Pacific Islanders (<0.01/100,000). The mean age at presentation was 15.4 years (SD 4.03, SE 0.615). RCC was identified more frequently in females (58.14%). At the time of presentation, 53.49% of tumors were localized, 20.93% were regionally advanced, and 25.58% were metastatic. The observed actuarial survival at 5 and 10 years was 61% (+/-15.7%). Pediatric RCC is an uncommon and aggressive tumor that occurs most frequently in children in the second decade of life, more often in females and blacks. The epidemiological characteristics of this tumor differ from adult RCC and Wilms tumor, suggesting its distinctive biology and potential need for alternative treatment strategies. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aeken, K.; Turcanu, C.; Bombaerts, G.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.

    2007-01-15

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  12. Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: results from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood.

  13. Self-esteem and body satisfaction among late adolescents with acne: results from a population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgard, Florence; Gieler, Uwe; Holm, Jan Øivind; Bjertness, Espen; Hauser, Stuart

    2008-11-01

    The association of acne and self-evaluation is barely explored among late adolescents in the general population. We sought to explore self-esteem, body satisfaction, and acne among 18-year-old young adults at a community level. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey among 3775 late adolescents. Our response rate was 80%. The prevalence of acne was 13.5%. Girls and boys with acne had significantly more depressive symptoms, lower self-attitude, more feelings of uselessness, fewer feelings of pride, lower self-worth, and lower body satisfaction than those without acne. In a regression model adjusting for body mass index and depressive symptoms, acne explained significantly poor self-attitude for boys only (odds ratio 2.07 [confidence interval 1.10; 3.88]) and poor self-worth for girls only (odds ratio 1.88 [confidence interval 1.23; 2.88]). Not all items of the self-esteem instrument were included. At age 18 years, acne is related to self-evaluation independent of body mass index and depressive symptoms.

  14. Opportunities for improving triple-negative breast cancer outcomes: results of a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapiti, Elisabetta; Pinaud, Kim; Chappuis, Pierre O; Viassolo, Valeria; Ayme, Aurélie; Neyroud-Caspar, Isabelle; Usel, Massimo; Bouchardy, Christine

    2017-03-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with a poor prognosis. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and referral for genetic counseling are the standard of care. We assessed TNBC prevalence, management, and outcome using data from the population-based Geneva cancer registry. 2591 women had a first invasive stage I-III breast cancer diagnosed between 2003 and 2011. We compared TNBC to other breast cancers (OBC) by χ(2) -test and logistic regression. Kaplan-Meier survival curves, up to 31-12-2014, were compared using log-rank test. TNBC risk of mortality overall (OS) and for breast cancer (BCSS) was evaluated through Cox models. Linkage with the Oncogenetics and Cancer Prevention Unit (OCPU) database of the Geneva University Hospitals provided genetic counseling information. TNBC patients (n = 192, 7.4%) were younger, more often born in Africa or Central-South America than OBC, had larger and more advanced tumors. 18% of TNBC patients did not receive chemotherapy. Thirty-one (17%) TNBC women consulted the OCPU, 39% among those aged <40 years. Ten-year survival was lower in TNBC than OBC (72% vs. 82% for BCSS; P < 0.001; 80% vs. 91% for OS; P < 0.001). The mortality risks remained significant after adjustment for other prognostic variables. The strongest determinants of mortality were age, place of birth, and lymph node status. A substantial proportion of TNBC patients in Geneva did not receive optimal care. Over 60% of eligible women did not receive genetic counseling and 18% did not receive chemotherapy. To improve TNBC prognosis, comprehensive care as recommended by standard guidelines should be offered to all patients.

  15. Health status correlates of malnutrition in the polish elderly population - Results of the Polsenior Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyminska-Siemaszko, R; Chudek, J; Suwalska, A; Lewandowicz, M; Mossakowska, M; Kroll-Balcerzak, R; Wizner, B; Tobis, S; Mehr, K; Wieczorowska-Tobis, K

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze health-related factors associated with poor nutritional status (PNS) of a representative group of Polish older people, based on data from the PolSenior project (the first nation-wide study of Polish senior citizens). Nutritional status was assessed in 3751 community-dwelling older people (1770 females, mean age: 77.4±8.0 years) using the Mini Nutritional Assessment - Short Form. Elements of comprehensive geriatric assessment (cognitive and mood screening), selected medical data were analyzed in relation to the nutritional status. These were: the number of medications, the number of chronic diseases, selected diseases potentially related to malnutrition (anaemia, stroke, peptic ulcer, Parkinson's disease, cancer - past or present), total edentulism, use of dentures, and chronic pain. PNS was observed in 44.2% of participants. Female sex [OR 1.72, 95% Cl (1.45-2.04)], advanced age [OR 2.16 (1.80-2.58)], symptoms of depression [OR 11.52 (9.24-14.38)], cognitive impairment [OR 1.52 (1.20-1.93], multimorbidity [OR 1.27 (1.04-1.57)], anaemia [OR 1.80 (1.41-2.29)] and total edentulism [OR 1.26 (1.06-1.49)] were independently correlated with PNS. PNS in Polish elderly population is strongly related to the occurrence of symptoms of depression. People in advanced age with symptoms of depression, cognitive impairment, multimorbidity, anaemia and total edentulism should be screened and monitored for early symptoms of malnutrition.

  16. Sociodemographic Correlates and Morbidity in Lottery Gamblers: Results from a Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Tang, Benjamin; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Picco, Louisa; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the socio-demographic correlates, the association of mental and physical illness, and the prevalence of pathological gambling among three groups (1) those with lottery gambling only (2) those with lottery and other types of gambling and (3) those with other types of gambling only-such as playing cards, sports betting, horse racing, casino gambling etc. Data was used from a nationwide cross-sectional epidemiological nationally representative survey of the resident (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents) population in Singapore of 6616 Singaporean adults aged 18 years and older. All respondents were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen to screen for pathological gambling. The diagnoses of mental disorders were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and relevant socio-demographic data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Lottery gambling was by far the most popular form of gambling in Singapore, with 83.5 % of those who had ever gambled indicating that they had participated in lottery gambling. Those who participated in lottery gambling alone were more likely to belong to the older age group (as compared to the 18-35 years age group), be of Indian ethnicity, have a secondary or vocational education, and earn a lower income as compared to the other two groups. Our findings that those with pure lottery gambling were significantly less likely to be pathological gamblers and had significantly lower odds of psychiatric and physical morbidity as compared to the other two groups are unique and need further research.

  17. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin--a valid marker of alcoholism in population studies? Results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, M; Becker, U; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) was analyzed by a modified radioimmunoassay test in a random population sample of 400 individuals, and results were compared with reported alcohol intake derived from a structured questionnaire. Among the 180 men, the test was found to be acceptable...

  18. The BDR mutiny in Bangladeshi media. From a ‘proletarian revolution’ to a ‘brutal massacre’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Skare Orgeret

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the media coverage of the BDR mutiny in Bangladesh, February 2009. In examining journalistic processes and how the Bangladeshi media reported the violent conflict, the article looks at how the approaches of peace journalism can be used in actual conflict reporting. Through a combination of methods the article discusses the dominant trends in the news coverage of the mutiny. Studying three newspapers’ coverage in detail, it was found that nearly two-thirds of the news reports reduced conflicts to force and violence, while one-third had a ‘peace frame’. Interestingly all the editorials analyzed had a ‘peace frame’. Presenting excerpts from interviews with journalists and editors, the article talks to the discussion about how journalists and editors themselves interpret, accept or challenge the process of conflict reporting.

  19. A prospective study of the prevalence of tuberculosis and bacteraemia in Bangladeshi children with severe malnutrition and pneumonia including an evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain. METHODS: We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital. RESULTS: 405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4% children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396 of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16% additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24-94 and 92% (95% CI: 87-95 respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes.

  20. Intakes and breast-milk concentrations of essential fatty acids are low among Bangladeshi women with 24-48-month-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakes, Elizabeth A; Arsenault, Joanne E; Munirul Islam, M; Hossain, Mohammad B; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Bruce German, J; Gillies, Laura A; Shafiqur Rahman, Ahmed; Drake, Christiana; Jamil, Kazi M; Lewis, Bess L; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-06-01

    Maternal fat intake and adipose reserves are major sources of PUFA during lactation. The present study examined the cross-sectional relationship between prolonged breast-feeding and maternal BMI, assessed adequacy of fat intake among lactating and non-lactating mothers of children 24-48 months of age and determined breast-milk fatty acid composition. Multi-stage sampling was used to select a representative sample of mothers from two rural districts in Bangladesh (n 474). Dietary data were collected during two non-consecutive 24 h periods via 12 h in-home daytime observations and recall. The National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods was used to estimate usual intake distributions. Breast milk samples were collected from ninety-eight women, and breast-milk fatty acid methyl esters were quantified using GC. Approximately 42 % of lactating v. 26 % of non-lactating mothers were underweight (BMI < 18·5 kg/m2; P = 0·0003). The maternal diet was low in total fat (approximately 8 % of mean total energy) and food sources of PUFA, including oil and animal source foods, resulting in a low estimated mean total consumption of PUFA (5·1 g/d). Almost all women were estimated to consume less than the recommended intake levels for total fat, total PUFA, α-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA. Median breast-milk linoleic acid (8·5 % weight) and ALA (0·2 %) concentrations were among the lowest reported in the literature, in contrast with arachidonic acid (0·5 %) and DHA (0·3 %) concentrations, which were mid-range. Bangladeshi women in general, and especially those who practise prolonged breast-feeding, may benefit from increased consumption of food sources of PUFA.

  1. Natural History of Cryptosporidiosis in a Longitudinal Study of Slum-Dwelling Bangladeshi Children: Association with Severe Malnutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonum S Korpe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a common cause of infectious diarrhea in young children worldwide, and is a significant contributor to under-five mortality. Current treatment options are limited in young children. In this study, we describe the natural history of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in a birth cohort of children in Bangladesh and evaluate for association with malnutrition.This is a longitudinal birth cohort study of 392 slum-dwelling Bangladeshi children followed over the first two years of life from 2008 to 2014. Children were monitored for diarrheal disease, and stool was tested for intestinal protozoa. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 3-month intervals. A subset of Cryptosporidium positive stools were genotyped for species and revealed that C. hominis was isolated from over 90% of samples. In the first two years of life, 77% of children experienced at least one infection with Cryptosporidium spp. Non-diarrheal infection (67% was more common than diarrheal infection (6.3% although 27% of children had both types of infection. Extreme poverty was associated with higher rates of infection (chi-square, 49.7% vs 33.3%, p = 0.006. Malnutrition was common in this cohort, 56% of children had stunted growth by age two. Children with Cryptosporidium spp. infection had a greater than 2-fold increased risk of severe stunting at age two compared to uninfected children (odds ratio 2.69, 95% CI 1.17, 6.15, p = 0.019 independent of sex, income, maternal body-mass index, maternal education and weight for age adjusted z (WAZ score at birth.Cryptosporidium infection is common (77% in this cohort of slum-dwelling Bangladeshi children, and both non-diarrheal and diarrheal infections are significantly associated with a child's growth at 2 years of age.

  2. A population-based study of cognitive impairment in socially vulnerable adults in Argentina. The Matanza Riachuelo Study. Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bartoloni

    Full Text Available Population aging has taken place intensively worldwide, even in developing countries. These countries have population groups with low resources and basic unmet needs that are frequently omitted from epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI and dementia in an economic and socially vulnerable population from Argentina. METHODS: A door-to-door observational population-based survey among adults over 60 years of cognitive impairment and dementia in the social vulnerable area of the Matanza Riachuelo Basin, in the suburban area of Buenos Aires, Argentina was conducted. Trained psychologists interviewed subjects and a proxy informant. A standardized protocol including a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale and a functional inventory for IADL and ADL was administered. Diagnoses were divided into three general categories: normal cognitive function, cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND and dementia. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of 2437 elderly persons were assessed, of which 73.6% fulfilled inclusion criteria. The prevalence of CI among those over 60 was 26.4% (18.1% CIND and 8.3% dementia with higher prevalence of dementia in younger individuals than rates reported in developed counties, probably due to low control of vascular risk factors. This information can help inform health public decisions in the generation of programs and plans for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment in this type of socially vulnerable population.

  3. Sports, Exercise, and Other Causes of Injuries: Results of a Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitenbroek, Daan G.

    1996-01-01

    Telephone interviews with individuals representing various age and sex groups in Scotland examined how sport and exercise injury rates compared with injury rates for other activities. Results indicated that 46% of male and 14% of female injuries were sport or exercise related. Such injuries decreased with increasing age. (SM)

  4. Results of Surgery for Perforated Gastroduodenal Ulcers in a Dutch Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmer, P. H. J.; de Schipper, J. S.; van Etten, B.; Pierie, J. P. E. N.; Bonenkamp, J. J.; de Graaf, P. W.; Karsten, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Despite improvements in anesthesiology and intensive care medicine, mortality for perforated gastroduodenal ulcer disease remains high. This study was designed to evaluate the results of surgery for perforated ulcer disease and to identify prognostic factors for mortality in order to opti

  5. The Association of Albuminuria With Tubular Reabsorption of Uric Acid : Results From a General Population Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheven, Lieneke; Joosten, Michel M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2014-01-01

    Background-Elevated albuminuria as well as an increased serum uric acid concentration is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome. We questioned whether these 2 variables (albuminuria and serum uric concentration) may be interrelated via tubular uric acid reabsorption. Methods and Results-Include

  6. Short-Range Guiding Can Result in the Formation of Circular Aggregates in Myxobacteria Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janulevicius, A.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Picioreanu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Myxobacteria are social bacteria that upon starvation form multicellular fruiting bodies whose shape in different species can range from simple mounds to elaborate tree-like structures. The formation of fruiting bodies is a result of collective cell movement on a solid surface. In the course of deve

  7. The young stellar population of NGC 4214 as observed with HST. II. Results

    CERN Document Server

    Úbeda, Leonardo; MacKenty, John

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a detailed UV-optical study of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 4214 using multifilter HST/WFPC2+STIS photometry. The stellar extinction is found to be quite patchy, with some areas having values of E(4405-5495)< 0.1 mag and others, associated with star forming regions, much more heavily obscured, a result which is consistent with previous studies of the nebular extinction. We determined the ratio of blue-to-red supergiants and found it to be consistent with theoretical models for the metallicity of the SMC. The stellar IMF of the field in the range 20-100 solar masses is found to be steeper than Salpeter. A number of massive clusters and associations with ages between a few and 200 million years are detected and their properties are discussed.

  8. Field and laboratory testing for amitraz-tolerant varroa populations. How comparable are their results?

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Sância; Pereira, Óscar; Murilhas, António

    2007-01-01

    Portuguese beekeepers have frequently used amitraz (Apivar, Acadrex) in an attempt to cope with Varroa. As a result of beekeepers’ claims of an alarming decrease in amitraz field treatment efficacy, a nation-wide screening project was launched to ascertain the merit of those claims and, eventually, introduce changes in the way state institutions were interacting with beekeeping associations and beekeepers. Approximately 4.000 colonies were field-tested (following a similar approach to the ...

  9. The Economic Burden of Obesity in Germany: Results from the Population-Based KORA Studies

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    Nichola Yates

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the excess costs of obese compared to normal-weight persons in Germany based on self-reported resource utilisation and work absence. Methods: Five cross sectional surveys of cohort studies in southern Germany were pooled resulting in 9,070 observations for 6,731 individuals (31-96 years. BMI was measured in the study centre. Self-reported health care utilisation and work absence was used to estimate direct and indirect costs for the year 2011 based on unit costs. Using regression analyses, adjusted costs for different BMI groups were calculated. Results: Overweight and obese people showed significantly higher odds of health care utilisation and productivity losses compared with normal-weight people in most categories. Total direct/indirect costs were significantly higher with increasing severity of obesity (pre-obese (1.05 (0.90-1.23 / 1.38 (1.11-1.71, obesity level I (1.18 (1.00-1.39 / 1.33 (1.02-1.73, obesity level II (1.46 (1.14-1.87 / 1.77 (1.18-2.65 or level III (2.04 (1.40-2.97 / 1.99 (1.20-3.30 compared to normal-weight participants. In particular, higher obesity classes were significantly associated with increased costs for medication, general practitioner utilisation and work absence. Conclusion: Our results show that overweight and obesity are associated with enormous societal direct and indirect costs in Germany. This supports the evidence from previous top-down studies, but provides important new information based on a large pooled data set and measured BMI.

  10. The results of population neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism reflect the effect of iodine prophylaxes in Belarus

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    N B Gusina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common neonatal metabolic disorder and before the introduction of neonatal screening programs it was one of the most frequent causes of mental retardation. CH has the incidence of about 1:3000 newborns in different populations. In Belarus the population neonatal screening for CH has been performing since 1991. By the beginning of 2010 1320580 newborns were screened, and 201 cases of CH were diagnosed. The frequency of CH was estimated as 1:6570. The most common cause of CH in Belarus is thyroid hypoplasia. Neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level is a sensitive marker of iodine deficiency, so the neonatal screening results can be used for monitoring the population iodine prophylaxes programs. In 90-th, the primary positive rate in neonatal screening for CH was 0.65–5.2% for different regions of Belarus with cut-off level of 25 mIU/L. TSH level >5 mIU/L was noticed in 50% of screened newborns. In the 21-th century the number of primary positives diminished to 0.01–0.02% with cut-off level of 15 mIU/L. TSH level >5 mIU/L is noticed in 8.9% of screened newborns. The results of population neonatal screening for CH reflect the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxes programs run in Belarus in the 21-th century.

  11. Population structuring of the tsetse Glossina tachinoides resulting from landscape fragmentation in the Mouhoun River basin, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kone, N; De Meeûs, T; Bouyer, J; Ravel, S; Guerrini, L; N'Goran, E K; Vial, L

    2010-06-01

    The impact of landscape fragmentation resulting from human- and climate-mediated factors on the structure of a population of Glossina tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Mouhoun River basin, Burkina Faso, was investigated. Allele frequencies at five microsatellite loci were compared in four populations. The average distance between samples was 72 km. The sampling points traversed an ecological cline in terms of rainfall and riverine forest ecotype, along a river loop that enlarged from upstream to downstream. Microsatellite DNA demonstrated no structuring among the groups studied (F(ST) = 0.015, P = 0.07), which is contrary to findings pertaining to Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank in the same geographical area. The populations of G. tachinoides showed complete panmixia (F(IS) = 0, P = 0.5 for the whole sample) and no genetic differentiation among populations or global positioning system trap locations. This is in line with the results of dispersal studies which indicated higher diffusion coefficients for G. tachinoides than for G. p. gambiensis. The impact of these findings is discussed within the framework of control campaigns currently promoted by the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  12. Cancer Incidence in Egypt: Results of the National Population-Based Cancer Registry Program

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    Amal S. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper aims to present cancer incidence rates at national and regional level of Egypt, based upon results of National Cancer Registry Program (NCRP. Methods. NCRP stratified Egypt into 3 geographical strata: lower, middle, and upper. One governorate represented each region. Abstractors collected data from medical records of cancer centers, national tertiary care institutions, Health Insurance Organization, Government-Subsidized Treatment Program, and death records. Data entry was online. Incidence rates were calculated at a regional and a national level. Future projection up to 2050 was also calculated. Results. Age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 were 166.6 (both sexes, 175.9 (males, and 157.0 (females. Commonest sites were liver (23.8%, breast (15.4%, and bladder (6.9% (both sexes: liver (33.6% and bladder (10.7% among men, and breast (32.0% and liver (13.5% among women. By 2050, a 3-fold increase in incident cancer relative to 2013 was estimated. Conclusion. These data are the only available cancer rates at national and regional levels of Egypt. The pattern of cancer indicated the increased burden of liver cancer. Breast cancer occupied the second rank. Study of rates of individual sites of cancer might help in giving clues for preventive programs.

  13. Incongruous consultation behaviour: results from a UK-wide population survey

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    Elliott Alison M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptom characteristics are strong drivers of care seeking. Despite this, incongruous consultation behaviour occurs and has implications for both individuals and health-care services. The aim of this study was to determine how frequently incongruous consultation behaviour occurs, to examine whether it is more common for certain types of symptoms and to identify the factors associated with being an incongruous consulter. Methods An age and sex stratified random sample of 8,000 adults was drawn from twenty UK general practices. A postal questionnaire was used to collect detailed information on the presence and characteristics of 25 physical and psychological symptoms, actions taken to manage the symptoms, general health, attitudes to symptom management and demographic/socio-economic details. Two types of incongruous consultation behaviour were examined: i consultation with a GP for symptoms self-rated as low impact and ii no consultation with a GP for symptoms self-rated as high impact. Results A fifth of all symptoms experienced resulted in consultation behaviour which was incongruous based on respondents' own rating of the symptoms' impact. Low impact consultations were not common, although symptoms indicative of a potentially serious condition resulted in a higher proportion of low impact consultations. High impact non-consultations were more common, although there was no clear pattern in the type of associated symptoms. Just under half of those experiencing symptoms in the previous two weeks were categorised as an incongruous consulter (low impact consulter: 8.3%, high impact non-consulter: 37.1%. Employment status, having a chronic condition, poor health, and feeling that reassurance or advice from a health professional is important were associated with being a low impact consulter. Younger age, employment status, being an ex-smoker, poor health and feeling that not wasting the GPs time is important were associated with

  14. Iron supplementation among pregnant women: results from a population-based survey study

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    Juraci Almeida Cesar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To measure the prevalence and risk factors associated with iron supplementation among pregnant women in the municipality of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. Methods: All mothers living in this municipality who had children in 2007 were surveyed for demographic, socioeconomic and health care received during pregnancy and childbirth. The statistical analysis consisted of Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance, and the measure of effect was prevalence ratio (PR. Results: Among the 2,557 mothers interviewed (99% of total, 59% were supplemented with iron during pregnancy period. After adjusting for various confounding factors, a higher PR to iron supplementation was observed among teenagers, women with black skin color, primigravidae, who had six or more antenatal visits, who performed prenatal care in public sector and received vitamin during pregnancy. Conclusion: There is a clear need to increase the iron supplementation coverage of all pregnant women, especially among those currently considered with low gestational risk.

  15. [Results of the application of a health test in a population of immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacalle Rodríguez-Labajo, M; Gil Juberías, G; Sagardui Villamor, J K; González López, E; Martínez Ruiz, R; Orden Martínez, B

    2000-05-31

    To describe the demographic characteristics and the results of a healthcare exam of immigrants. A retrospective descriptive study. Rural doctor office of Villafranca del Castillo. Madrid. All immigrants (n = 76) that came for care between May of 1996 and May of 1998. History, physical exam and basic laboratory tests. Demographic data: 82% are women with a medium age of 33 years (SD 8.49). Their places of origin are Central America: 70%, Philippines: 20%, Africa: 5% and South America: 3%. 97% of them work as household employees or gardeners. They have been living in Spain for an average time of 56 months. Health data: 21.1% are smokers and 17.1% low risk drinkers. 64.5% lack tetanus vaccine and 11.8% lack both tetanus and rubeola vaccines. Serologic test for HBV are negative in 68.4%. 14.5% have past infection and there are no cases of chronic or active infection. PPD is over 10 mm in 35.5%, and between 5 and 10 mm in 7.9%. Prevalence of active TBC is 0%. Stool culture is positive in 6.5%. Salmonella tiphy is identified in one case. Stool examination for ova and parasites is positive in 42.1% of the patients. Protozoos (88%) are more common than helminths (12%). This study reveals a selective young and healthy immigrant group. The low presence of hepatitis B and tuberculosis infections are notable. The majority present parasites in stool samples.

  16. The Association of Albuminuria With Tubular Reabsorption of Uric Acid: Results From a General Population Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheven, Lieneke; Joosten, Michel M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated albuminuria as well as an increased serum uric acid concentration is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome. We questioned whether these 2 variables (albuminuria and serum uric concentration) may be interrelated via tubular uric acid reabsorption. Methods and Results Included were 7688 participants of the PREVEND Study, an observational, general population‐based cohort study. Linear regression analyses were used to test associations of baseline albuminuria with baseline serum uric acid concentration and tubular uric acid reabsorption (calculated as [100−fractional uric acid excretion]%). Cox regression analyses were used to study the association of baseline serum uric acid and albuminuria with incident cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In cross‐sectional analyses, albuminuria was associated positively with serum uric acid concentration, both crude and after adjustment for potential confounders (both Puric acid reabsorption, again both crude and after adjustment for potential confounders (both Puric acid were associated with incident cardiovascular events (Hazard Ratios 1.09 [1.03 to 1.17], P=0.01 and 1.19 [1.09 to 1.30], Puric acid being less predictive for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the presence of high albuminuria and vice versa. Conclusions Albuminuria is strongly associated with tubular uric acid reabsorption, and consequently with serum uric acid concentration. This phenomenon may explain in part why albuminuria is associated with cardiovascular outcome. PMID:24772520

  17. [Results of arthrodiastasis in postraumatic ankle osteoarthritis in a young population: prospective comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Pérez, M; Pais-Brito, J L; de Bergua-Domingo, J; Aciego de Mendoza, M; Guerra-Ferraz, A; Cortés-García, P; Déniz-Rodríguez, B

    2013-01-01

    The most common cause of osteoarthritis of the ankle is post-traumatic, and although tibiotalar arthrodesis remains the surgical gold standard, a number of techniques have been described to preserve joint mobility, such as joint distraction arthroplasty or arthrodiastasis. To evaluate the functional outcome and changes in Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain after the application of the distraction arthroplasty for post-traumatic ankle osteoarthritis. A prospective comparative study of a group of 10 young patients with post-traumatic ankle osteoarthritis treated by synovectomy and arthrodiastasis, compared to a control group of 10 patients treated by isolated synovectomy. Results were calculated using the AOFAS scale and the VAS for pain before and after treatment. As regards the pain measured by VAS, no difference was observed between the two groups before surgery (P=.99), but there was a difference at 3 months (P<.001), 6 months (P=.005), and 12 months (P=.006). No differences were observed in the AOFAS scale between the two groups before surgery (P=.99), or at 3 months (P<.99), but there was a difference at 6 months (P<.001). Ankle arthrodiastasis is effective in reducing pain in post-traumatic ankle arthropathy, and is superior to isolated synovectomy. © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. HYPERURICEMIA AND ITS CORRELATES IN THE RUSSIAN POPULATION (RESULTS OF ESSE-RF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

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    S. A. Shalnova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the prevalence of hyperuricemia in the Russian regions, depending on the climatic, geographical, socio-demographic characteristics and some cardiometabolic risk factors.Material and methods. Data from the ESSE-RF study from 10 regions of theRussian Federationare presented. All study participants were examined according to a uniform protocol. Measurements were standardized, biochemical tests were carried out in three Federal centers using the same methodology. The study was approved by independent Ethics committees, and all participants signed informed consent.Results. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 16.8% (25.3% in men and 11.3% in women; p<0.0001. Hyperuricemia incidence increases with age, does not depend on education, significantly associates with place of residence, elevated blood pressure, obesity and abdominal obesity, alcohol consumption and diuretics taking. After adjustment for all factors included in the regression analysis, prevalence of hyperuricemia in the Ivanovo Region is 1.4 times higher than this in the reference region (Tyumen, while prevalence of hyperuricemia in the Samara Region and theRepublicofNorth Ossetia-Alaniais 30% and 40 % lower.Conclusion. Prevalence of hyperuricemia inRussiais defined; regions with the highest and lowest prevalence are identified. Associations of hyperuricemia with some social and demographic characteristics as well as cardiovascular risk factors are revealed.

  19. HYPERURICEMIA AND ITS CORRELATES IN THE RUSSIAN POPULATION (RESULTS OF ESSE-RF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

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    S. A. Shalnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the prevalence of hyperuricemia in the Russian regions, depending on the climatic, geographical, socio-demographic characteristics and some cardiometabolic risk factors.Material and methods. Data from the ESSE-RF study from 10 regions of theRussian Federationare presented. All study participants were examined according to a uniform protocol. Measurements were standardized, biochemical tests were carried out in three Federal centers using the same methodology. The study was approved by independent Ethics committees, and all participants signed informed consent.Results. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 16.8% (25.3% in men and 11.3% in women; p<0.0001. Hyperuricemia incidence increases with age, does not depend on education, significantly associates with place of residence, elevated blood pressure, obesity and abdominal obesity, alcohol consumption and diuretics taking. After adjustment for all factors included in the regression analysis, prevalence of hyperuricemia in the Ivanovo Region is 1.4 times higher than this in the reference region (Tyumen, while prevalence of hyperuricemia in the Samara Region and theRepublicofNorth Ossetia-Alaniais 30% and 40 % lower.Conclusion. Prevalence of hyperuricemia inRussiais defined; regions with the highest and lowest prevalence are identified. Associations of hyperuricemia with some social and demographic characteristics as well as cardiovascular risk factors are revealed.

  20. Slurry sampling techniques for the determination of lead in Bangladeshi fish samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with a metal tube atomizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Arifur; Kaneco, Satoshi; Suzuki, Tohru; Katsumata, Hideyuki; Ohta, Kiyohisa

    2005-05-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with a metal tube atomizer has been applied to the determination of lead in Bangladeshi fish samples. The slurry sampling conditions, such as slurry stabilizing agent, slurry concentration, pyrolysis temperature for the slurried fish samples, particle size and ultrasonic agitation time, were optimized for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with the Mo tube atomizer. Thiourea was used as the chemical modifier for the interference of matrix elements. The detection limit was 53 fg (3S/N). The determined amount of lead in Bangladeshi fish samples was consistent with those measured in the dissolved acid-digested samples. The advantages of the proposed methods are easy calibration, simplicity, low cost and rapid analysis.

  1. Putting Factions ‘Back in’ the Civil-Military Relations EquationGenesis, Maturation and Distortion of the Bangladeshi Army

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    Jérémie Codron

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to highlight two characteristics of the Bangladeshi army, namely factionalism and politicization. It shows how they hampered the institutionalization of civil-military relations in this country, and also suggests that the political power’s manoeuvres aggravated the army’s structural instability born of the Independence war. While arguing that the military’s professionalism and the institutionalization of the armed forces’ role were, in fact, encouraged during the 1980s military rule, the main thesis points to the return of civilians to power in 1991, which reintroduced partisan cleavages into the army and threatened the stability of civil-military relations. The trajectory of the Bangladeshi army indeed suggests that democratization does not necessarily lead to a higher degree of professionalism in armed forces.

  2. Causal beliefs about obesity and associated health behaviors: results from a population-based survey

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    Coups Elliot J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several genetic variants are associated with obesity risk. Promoting the notion of genes as a cause for obesity may increase genetically deterministic beliefs and decrease motivation to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors. Little is known about whether causal beliefs about obesity are associated with lifestyle behaviors. Study objectives were as follows: 1 to document the prevalence of various causal beliefs about obesity (i.e., genes versus lifestyle behaviors, and 2 to determine the association between obesity causal beliefs and self-reported dietary and physical activity behaviors. Methods The study data were drawn from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS. A total of 3,534 individuals were included in the present study. Results Overall, 72% of respondents endorsed the belief that lifestyle behaviors have 'a lot' to do with causing obesity, whereas 19% indicated that inheritance has 'a lot' to do with causing obesity. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that the belief that obesity is inherited was associated with lower reported levels of physical activity (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77-0.99 and fruit and vegetable consumption (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76-0.99. In contrast, the belief that obesity is caused by lifestyle behaviors was associated with greater reported levels of physical activity (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.62, but was not associated with fruit and vegetable intake (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.90-1.28. Conclusions Causal beliefs about obesity are associated with some lifestyle behaviors. Additional research is needed to determine whether promoting awareness of the genetic determinants of obesity will decrease the extent to which individuals will engage in the lifestyle behaviors essential to healthy weight management.

  3. Alcohol and Drug Use Among Internationally Adopted Adolescents: Results From a Norwegian Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Sivertsen, Børge; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; La Greca, Annette M; Tell, Grethe S; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Hysing, Mari

    2017-03-02

    Internationally adopted adolescents are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about problematic alcohol and drug use, which are important indicators of maladjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the level of problematic alcohol and drug use in internationally adopted adolescents compared to their nonadopted peers. The study is based on data from the youth@hordaland-survey, which was conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in the spring of 2012. All adolescents born from 1993 to 1995 residing in Hordaland at the time of the study were invited to participate. Information on adoption was obtained from the Central Adoption Registry and linked to self-report data from the youth@hordaland-survey. Among 10,200 participants, 45 were identified as internationally adopted. No significant differences were found between international adoptees and their peers regarding whether or not they had tried alcohol or illicit drugs or their patterns of drinking behavior. However, adopted adolescents had a higher mean score on a measure of problematic alcohol and drug use compared to their nonadopted peers. The difference was attenuated and no longer significant when adjusting for measures of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results from a structural equation model indicated a full mediation effect of mental health problems on the association between adoption status and problematic alcohol and drug use. Our findings indicate that internationally adopted adolescents experience more problematic alcohol and drug use than their nonadopted peers, and the difference can largely be explained by mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) Study: survey methodology and population demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, A L; Gregory, M; Nugent, D; Garrido, C; Pilgaard, T; Cooper, D L; Iorio, A

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors have a significant impact on the quality of life of persons with haemophilia (PWH). The Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative was developed to provide a greater understanding of the psychological components which influence the lives of PWH. This article describes the HERO methodology and the characteristics of respondents. Two online surveys (one for adult PWH ≥18 years and one for parents of children surveys included demographic and treatment characteristics, relationships, sexual intimacy, quality of life, barriers to treatment and sources of information. A total of 675 PWH [age, median (range) 36 (18-86 years)] and 561 parents [39 (23-68 years)] completed the survey. PWH/parents reported haemophilia A (74%/76%), B (13%/16%) or with inhibitors (13%/8%). Spontaneous joint bleeding was reported in 76%/52% of PWH/children with haemophilia A, 67%/47% with haemophilia B and 93%/76% with inhibitors. Median number of bleeds (interquartile range) was 7 (2-20) for PWH and 4 (2-10) for children in the past year. Most PWH and children were treated with factor concentrate. PWH reported arthritis (49%) and HIV/HCV infections (18%/43%) related to haemophilia. Most PWH and parent respondents had received formal education (85%/89%) and were employed full- or part-time (60%/72%). HERO is one of the largest multinational studies focused on psychosocial issues in haemophilia, including historical and treatment information that will allow for multivariate analyses of determinants of health in haemophilia.

  5. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by those with a chronic disease and the general population - results of a national population based survey

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    McChesney Jane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is becoming more common, but population-based descriptions of its patterns of use are lacking. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CAM use in the general population and for those with asthma, diabetes, epilepsy and migraine. Methods Data from cycles 1.1, 2.1 and 3.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS were used for the study. The CCHS is a national cross-sectional survey administered to 400,055 Canadians aged ≥12 between 2001-2005. Self-reported information about professionally diagnosed health conditions was elicited. CCHS surveys use a multistage stratified cluster design to randomly select a representative sample of Canadian household residents. Descriptive data on the utilization of CAM services was calculated and logistic regression was used to determine what sociodemographic factors predict CAM use. Results Weighted estimates show that 12.4% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 12.2-12.5 of Canadians visited a CAM practitioner in the year they were surveyed; this rate was significantly higher for those with asthma 15.1% (95% CI: 14.5-15.7 and migraine 19.0% (95% CI: 18.4-19.6, and significantly lower for those with diabetes 8.0% (95% CI: 7.4-8.6 while the rate in those with epilepsy (10.3%, 95% CI: 8.4-12.2 was not significantly different from the general population. Conclusion A large proportion of Canadians use CAM services. Physicians should be aware that their patients may be accessing other services and should be prepared to ask and answer questions about the risks and benefits of CAM services in conjunction with standard medical care.

  6. Genetic risk factors for BMI and obesity in an ethnically diverse population: results from the population architecture using genomics and epidemiology (PAGE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesinmeyer, Megan D; North, Kari E; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Lim, Unhee; Franceschini, Nora; Wilkens, Lynne R; Gross, Myron D; Bůžková, Petra; Glenn, Kimberly; Quibrera, P Miguel; Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Li, Qiong; Fowke, Jay H; Li, Rongling; Carlson, Christopher S; Prentice, Ross L; Kuller, Lewis H; Manson, Joann E; Matise, Tara C; Cole, Shelley A; Chen, Christina T L; Howard, Barbara V; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Monroe, Kristine R; Crawford, Dana C; Hindorff, Lucia A; Buyske, Steven; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loic; Peters, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have demonstrated that common genetic variants contribute to obesity. However, studies of this complex trait have focused on ancestrally European populations, despite the high prevalence of obesity in some minority groups. As part of the "Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE)" Consortium, we investigated the association between 13 GWAS-identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and BMI and obesity in 69,775 subjects, including 6,149 American Indians, 15,415 African-Americans, 2,438 East Asians, 7,346 Hispanics, 604 Pacific Islanders, and 37,823 European Americans. For the BMI-increasing allele of each SNP, we calculated β coefficients using linear regression (for BMI) and risk estimates using logistic regression (for obesity defined as BMI ≥ 30) followed by fixed-effects meta-analysis to combine results across PAGE sites. Analyses stratified by racial/ethnic group assumed an additive genetic model and were adjusted for age, sex, and current smoking. We defined "replicating SNPs" (in European Americans) and "generalizing SNPs" (in other racial/ethnic groups) as those associated with an allele frequency-specific increase in BMI. By this definition, we replicated 9/13 SNP associations (5 out of 8 loci) in European Americans. We also generalized 8/13 SNP associations (5/8 loci) in East Asians, 7/13 (5/8 loci) in African Americans, 6/13 (4/8 loci) in Hispanics, 5/8 in Pacific Islanders (5/8 loci), and 5/9 (4/8 loci) in American Indians. Linkage disequilibrium patterns suggest that tagSNPs selected for European Americans may not adequately tag causal variants in other ancestry groups. Accordingly, fine-mapping in large samples is needed to comprehensively explore these loci in diverse populations. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  7. Mapping Microbial Populations Relative to Sites of Ongoing Serpentinization: Results from the Tablelands Ophiolite Complex, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrenk, M. O.; Brazelton, W. J.; Woodruff, Q.; Szponar, N.; Morrill, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    assemblages consisting of diverse taxa at neutral pH background sites. Terrestrial serpentinite-hosted microbial ecosystems with their accessibility, their low phylogenetic diversity, and limited range of energetic resources provide an excellent opportunity to explore the interplay between geochemical energy and life and to elucidate the native serpentinite subsurface biosphere. From the perspective of Mars exploration, studies of serpentinite ecosystems provide the opportunity to pinpoint the organisms and physiological adaptations specifically associated with serpentinization and to directly measure their geochemical impacts. Both of these results will inform modeling and life detection efforts of the Martian subsurface environment.

  8. Factors Influencing Quality of Life for Disabled and Nondisabled Elderly Population: The Results of a Multiple Correspondence Analysis

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    M. Avolio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of our study is to examine the role of some factors (sociodemographic patterns, social relationship support, and trust in healthcare actors on structure of quality of life among the Italian elderly population, by stratifying according to presence or absence of disability. Methods. Using data of the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT survey, we obtained a sample of 25,183 Italian people aged 65+ years. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA was used to test such a relationship. Results. By applying the MCA between disabled and nondisabled elderly population, we identified three dimensions: “demographic structure and social contacts,” “social relationships,” “trust in the Italian National Health Services (INHS.” Furthermore, the difference in trust on the INHS and its actors was seen among disabled and non-disabled elderly population. Conclusions. Knowledge on the concept of quality of life and its application to the elderly population either with or without disability should make a difference in both people’s life and policies and practices affecting life. New domains, such as information and trusting relationships both within and towards the care network’s nodes, are likely to play an important role in this relationship.

  9. A cross sectional study of anemia and iron deficiency as risk factors for arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi women

    OpenAIRE

    Kile, Molly L.; Faraj, Joycelyn M.; Ronnenberg, Alayne G.; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmudar; Mostofa, Golam; Afroz, Sakila; Christiani, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Ganges Delta, chronic arsenic poisoning is a health concern affecting millions of people who rely on groundwater as their potable water source. The prevalence of anemia is also high in this region, particularly among women. Moreover, arsenic is known to affect heme synthesis and erythrocytes and the risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions appears to differ by sex. Methods We conducted a case-control study in 147 arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi women to assess the association betwee...

  10. A cross sectional study of anemia and iron deficiency as risk factors for arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi women

    OpenAIRE

    Kile, Molly L; Faraj, Joycelyn M.; Ronnenberg, Alayne G; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmudar; Mostofa, Golam; Afroz, Sakila; Christiani, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the Ganges Delta, chronic arsenic poisoning is a health concern affecting millions of people who rely on groundwater as their potable water source. The prevalence of anemia is also high in this region, particularly among women. Moreover, arsenic is known to affect heme synthesis and erythrocytes and the risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions appears to differ by sex. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in 147 arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi women to assess the association betw...

  11. Paan and Gutka Use in the United States: A Pilot Study in Bangladeshi and Indian-Gujarati Immigrants in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changrani, Jyotsna; Gany, Francesca M; Cruz, Gustavo; Kerr, Ross; Katz, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco and areca nut are popular with South Asians and South Asian immigrants, most commonly used as paan and gutka. Their regular use leads to oral cancer. The South Asian community in the U.S. is rapidly growing, where paan and gutka are readily available. The study was the first exploration of the migration of the paan and gutka habits, and their use in the U.S.A 108-item questionnaire on paan and gutka usage and beliefs was administered to 138 first-generation Bangladeshi and Indian-Gujarati immigrant adults at community sites in the New York metropolitan area. Forty-five percent Indian-Gujaratis reported ever-regular paan use; of which 5% are current users. Thirty-one percent reported ever-regular gutka use; of which 77% are current users. Thirty-five percent Bangladeshis reported ever-regular paan use; of which 70% arc current users. Nine percent reported ever-regular gutka use; of which 67% are current users. Bangladeshis are more likely to identify paan as causing oral cancer. Indian-Gujaratis are more likely to identify gutka as causing oral cancer.Between the two communities, there were significant differences in paan and gutfca usage, migration effects, and oral career risk perception. There is a need for comprehensive migration studies on the determinants of usage, and for community-specific interventions for these carcinogenic products.

  12. The morphological and behavioral analysis of geographically separated Rammeihippus turcicus (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Gomphocerinae) populations: data result in taxonomical conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şirin, Deniz; Mol, Abbas; Akyıldız, Gürkan

    2014-10-15

    Rammeihippus Woznessenskij, 1996 (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Gomphocerinae) is a genus represented by two species. Rammeihippus turcicus (Ramme, 1939) is the only known species of the genus from Anatolia. As for most of the Gomphocerinae species in Anatolia, all populations of the species are intermittently distributed at high altitudes. In this study, three populations of R. turcicus were studied for the first time to determine the song and mating behavior. Males of the species produce typical calling song for Gomphocerinae and complex courtship songs and mating behavior. Thus, an accurate taxonomy requires extensive material and different character sources. In this study, the Anatolian Rammeihippus was re-examined on the basis of qualitative and morphometric morphology, male songs, and behavioral characteristics. There was no agreement between the results of the song and morphology. Acoustic analysis suggested one species and patchy distribution in the area, whereas morphology pointed out that each population was a different taxonomical unit. The results of the study show that the aberrant morphology does not necessarily indicate a new species in the Gomphocerinae genus. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  13. Superiority of Nitinol Piston Over Conventional Prostheses in Stapes Surgery: First Comparative Results in the Chinese Population in Taiwan

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    Chin-Lung Kuo

    2010-05-01

    Conclusion: The Nitinol piston has a distinct advantage over conventional prostheses, providing an easier, safer and more effective treatment option in otosclerosis surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative analysis of hearing results of the Nitinol piston with conventional prostheses in the Chinese population in Taiwan. In this population, there is a much lower prevalence of otosclerosis, leading to a lack of surgical experience in otosclerosis surgery, even at large medical centers. This may explain, in part, the relative lack of studies conducted on stapes prostheses in Asian patients. Therefore, our preliminary research may provide a reference for future investigations on stapes surgery in Asian patients with otosclerosis based on ethnic differences.

  14. A population-based prospective study of energy-providing nutrients in relation to cancer mortality and cancers of digestive organs mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Argos, Maria; Melkonian, Stephanie; Parvez, Faruque; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Ahmed, Alauddin; Chen,Yu; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-01-01

    The effect of dietary composition on mortality in low income countries is largely unknown. We evaluated whether percentages of dietary energy derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrates were associated with all-cause and cancer mortalities in a Bangladeshi population. Data from a prospective population-based cohort study of 17,244 men and women were used. Percentages of dietary energy derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrates, assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire at bas...

  15. Determining barriers to creating an enabling environment in Cambodia: results from a baseline study with key populations and police

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    Mira L Schneiders

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cambodian law enforcement's limited acceptance of harm reduction has hindered HIV program effectiveness. With funding from the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, FHI 360 supported the Ministry of Interior to implement the Police Community Partnership Initiative (PCPI in Cambodia's capital Phnom Penh. To guide this, FHI 360 conducted a baseline study examining police and key populations’ attitudes and practices towards one another, including fear and occurrence of arrest. Methods: Between December 2012 and January 2013, a cross-sectional survey of 199 police post officers, 199 people who use drugs (PWUD including people who inject drugs (PWID, 199 men who have sex with men (MSM, 200 transgender women (TGW and 200 female entertainment workers (FEW was conducted in five Phnom Penh districts. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, members of a key population from selected hotspots or police officers, deputy chiefs or chiefs. Results: Key populations’ median age was 25 years (IQR: 22–30; 40% had completed only primary school. Police were male (99.5%, with median age 43 years (IQR: 30 to 47, and 45 and 25% high school and university completion rates, respectively. Key populations feared arrest for carrying needles and syringes (67%, condoms (23% and 19% felt afraid to access health services. Close to 75% of police reported body searching and 58% arresting key populations in the past six months for using drugs (64%, selling or distributing drugs (36% or being violent (13%. Self-reported arrests (23% PWUD, 6% MSM, 6% TGW, 12% FEW; p<0.05, being verbally threatened (45% PWUD, 21% MSM, 25% TGW, 27% FEW; p<0.001 and body searched (44% PWUD, 28% MSM, 23% TGW, 8% FEW; p<0.001 was significantly higher among PWUD than other key populations. The majority (94% of police believed arrest was an appropriate solution to reduce HIV and drug use and reported selling sex (88% and carrying needles and syringes (55% as valid reasons

  16. Enhancing University Courses and Field Schools through Cross-cultural Exchange: Joint US-Bangladeshi Trips to the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Mississippi Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Lowes, S.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Ahmed, K. M.; Akhter, S. H.; Sousa, D.; Wilson, C.; Datta, D. K.; Roy, K.; Mondal, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF PIRE grant, we have led four field trips for undergraduate, MS and PhD students to large deltaic systems. Three trips took US students to the Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta in Bangladesh and one brought Bangladeshi faculty and students to the Mississippi (Miss.) delta in the US. An essential component in the learning process and overall experience of each trip was that ~2/5 of the participants were students and professors from Bangladesh. In all cases, the involvement of a substantial international cohort greatly broadened perspectives on the topics being covered. For example, in GBD the local geologic and cultural knowledge of the Bangladeshis deepened the learning and engagement of the US students, an outcome that was almost universally noted in student reviews. The trips received similar feedback from Bangladeshi participants, as they had an enthusiastic and engaged audience of peers from the US. Even for the Miss. delta trip, the Bangladeshis added a unique perspective from a nation that faces similar environmental issues. These overwhelmingly positive contributions have been experienced in several different contexts. Three trips were associated with US courses and run over Spring Break. One matched sustainable development undergrads at Columbia U. with geology undergrads from Dhaka U., and two others matched a mixed group of graduate and undergrad students from Vanderbilt U. with cohorts from Bangladesh. The fourth trip was a stand-alone Field School for PhD students from 14 US universities and mostly MS students from 4 Bangladeshi universities. The focus of each trip ranged from broader surveys of tectonic, fluvial and coastal processes to investigations of geology and people affected by tropical storms. Of particular interest was the success of mixing undergrad and graduate students in the Vanderbilt course, which centered on the intersection of social sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. In this case, undergrads engaged in a

  17. [Results of health risk assessment due to exposure to contaminants in drinking water in Russia population (review of literature)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unguryanu, T N; Novikov, S M

    2014-01-01

    With the purpose of the analysis of general trends in the development of risk assessment methodology in Russia the results obtained with the her help, as well as existing methodological problems, there was performed a review of 68 published works concerning the assessment of the health risk for population under the exposure to chemicals in drinking water carried out in 42 cities and regions of the country. There was made the grouping of Russian cities on individual carcinogenic risk level and ranking on the values for the population carcinogenic risk. A list of prioritized carcinogens in tap water has been made. By the values of the risk indices to adverse effects of chemicals tap water there are exposed central nervous system, kidneys, liver, skin and mucous membranes, blood, bone, immune system, hormone homeostasis, blood circulation and digestion organs. There are identified methodological problems leading to an underestimation of the actual risk to public health under exposure of chemicals in drinking water: there are no used regional and age differences in exposure factors, virtually there is no assessed health risk for children population; there is ignored age sensitivity to carcinogens, there is rarely estimated exposure for all the real exposing routes of income and there are no carried out risk calculations at the upper limit (90- 95th percentile) of the exposure.

  18. Multimorbidity and health-related quality of life in the older population: results from the German KORA-Age study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Annette

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimorbidity in the older population is well acknowledged to negatively affect health-related quality of life (HRQL. Several studies have examined the independent effects of single diseases; however, little research has focused on interaction between diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of six self-reported major conditions and their combinations on HRQL measured by the EQ-5D. Methods The EQ-5D was administered in the population-based KORA-Age study of 4,565 Germans aged 65 years or older. A generalised additive regression model was used to assess the effects of chronic conditions on HRQL and to account for the nonlinear associations with age and body mass index (BMI. Disease interactions were identified by a forward variable selection method. Results The conditions with the greatest negative impact on the EQ-5D index were the history of a stroke (regression coefficient -11.3, p 2. Conclusions There are important interactions between coronary problems, diabetes mellitus, and the history of a stroke that negatively affect HRQL in the older German population. Not only high but also low BMI is associated with impairments in health status.

  19. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

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    Daniela Haluza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48% compared to females (46%. Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Sustained reduction of the dengue vector population resulting from an integrated control strategy applied in two Brazilian cities.

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    Lêda N Regis

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti has developed evolution-driven adaptations for surviving in the domestic human habitat. Several trap models have been designed considering these strategies and tested for monitoring this efficient vector of Dengue. Here, we report a real-scale evaluation of a system for monitoring and controlling mosquito populations based on egg sampling coupled with geographic information systems technology. The SMCP-Aedes, a system based on open technology and open data standards, was set up from March/2008 to October/2011 as a pilot trial in two sites of Pernambuco -Brazil: Ipojuca (10,000 residents and Santa Cruz (83,000, in a joint effort of health authorities and staff, and a network of scientists providing scientific support. A widespread infestation by Aedes was found in both sites in 2008-2009, with 96.8%-100% trap positivity. Egg densities were markedly higher in SCC than in Ipojuca. A 90% decrease in egg density was recorded in SCC after two years of sustained control pressure imposed by suppression of >7,500,000 eggs and >3,200 adults, plus larval control by adding fishes to cisterns. In Ipojuca, 1.1 million mosquito eggs were suppressed and a 77% reduction in egg density was achieved. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of a system using GIS and spatial statistic analysis tools for quantitative assessment of mosquito populations. It also provided useful information on the requirements for reducing well-established mosquito populations. Results from two cities led us to conclude that the success in markedly reducing an Aedes population required the appropriate choice of control measures for sustained mass elimination guided by a user-friendly mosquito surveillance system. The system was able to support interventional decisions and to assess the program's success. Additionally, it created a stimulating environment for health staff and residents, which had a positive impact on their commitment to the dengue control program.

  1. Sustained Reduction of the Dengue Vector Population Resulting from an Integrated Control Strategy Applied in Two Brazilian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Lêda N.; Acioli, Ridelane Veiga; Silveira, José Constantino; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Ribeiro, Cândida M. Nogueira.; da Silva, Juliana C. Serafim.; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Oliveira, Cláudia M. F.; Barbosa, Rosângela M. R.; Braga, Cynthia; Rodrigues, Marco Aurélio Benedetti; Silva, Marilú Gomes N. M.; Ribeiro Jr., Paulo Justiniano; Bonat, Wagner Hugo; de Castro Medeiros, Liliam César; Carvalho, Marilia Sa; Furtado, André Freire

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti has developed evolution-driven adaptations for surviving in the domestic human habitat. Several trap models have been designed considering these strategies and tested for monitoring this efficient vector of Dengue. Here, we report a real-scale evaluation of a system for monitoring and controlling mosquito populations based on egg sampling coupled with geographic information systems technology. The SMCP-Aedes, a system based on open technology and open data standards, was set up from March/2008 to October/2011 as a pilot trial in two sites of Pernambuco -Brazil: Ipojuca (10,000 residents) and Santa Cruz (83,000), in a joint effort of health authorities and staff, and a network of scientists providing scientific support. A widespread infestation by Aedes was found in both sites in 2008–2009, with 96.8%–100% trap positivity. Egg densities were markedly higher in SCC than in Ipojuca. A 90% decrease in egg density was recorded in SCC after two years of sustained control pressure imposed by suppression of >7,500,000 eggs and >3,200 adults, plus larval control by adding fishes to cisterns. In Ipojuca, 1.1 million mosquito eggs were suppressed and a 77% reduction in egg density was achieved. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of a system using GIS and spatial statistic analysis tools for quantitative assessment of mosquito populations. It also provided useful information on the requirements for reducing well-established mosquito populations. Results from two cities led us to conclude that the success in markedly reducing an Aedes population required the appropriate choice of control measures for sustained mass elimination guided by a user-friendly mosquito surveillance system. The system was able to support interventional decisions and to assess the program’s success. Additionally, it created a stimulating environment for health staff and residents, which had a positive impact on their commitment to the dengue control program. PMID:23844059

  2. Environmental awareness in Germany 2010. Results of a representative population survey; Umweltbewusstsein in Deutschland 2010. Ergebnisse einer repraesentativen Bevoelkerungsumfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgstedt, Silke; Christ, Tamina [Sinus-Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Reusswig, Fritz [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    In the background paper under consideration, the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the results of a representative population survey on the environmental awareness in Germany. The topics of this paper are: (a) Environmental policy as a organisational task; (b) Environmental quality, health and risk perception; (c) Climatic change as a cultural change?; (d) Technological and cultural innovations; (e) Environment engagement between personal responsibility and delegation; (f) Milieu-specific potentials for environmentally sensitive consumer behaviour.

  3. HIV-1 Adaptation to Antigen Processing Results in Population-Level Immune Evasion and Affects Subtype Diversification

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    Stefan Tenzer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8+ T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when these regions encode epitopes presented by ∼30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ∼60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions at subtype-specific motifs. Multiple HLA variants presenting epitopes situated next to a given subtype-specific motif drive selection at this subtype-specific position, and epitope abundances correlate inversely with the HLA frequency distribution in affected populations. This adaptation reflects the sum of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most people vaccinated with natural HIV-1 sequence constructs. Our results suggest that artificial sequence modifications at subtype-specific positions in vitro could refocus and reverse the poor immunogenicity of HIV proteins.

  4. Screening results correlating to personality disorder traits in a new employee population of People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yan; Liu, Yan; Wu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background Adaptation to a new environment may have an uncertain influence on young employees, whose values are still being formed during early adulthood. To understand the current mental status and further improve the mental health level of the new employee population of People’s Republic of China, we conducted a cross-sectional study to screen the prevalence and correlates of personality disorder (PD) traits in this population. Methods This study included all male participants who were new employees (those who had started working in approximately the last three months) from 12 machinery factories in People’s Republic of China. The Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ was used to evaluate the mental status of all participants. The Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale was used to assess the resilience of the study participants. Results A total of 3,960 male participants were included in the analysis. The mean age of the study participants was 18.7±1.5 years. The mean values of all PD subtypes were scored from 0.74 to 2.90, with a total of 16.85. Of all 10 PD traits, obsessive–compulsive, histrionic, and narcissistic scored the highest. PD traits scored significantly higher among participants who had higher education levels, came from a single-parent (divorced or separated) family, were raised in a neglectful parental rearing pattern, were the only child of the family, were living in city areas, or had a lower family income. All subtype PD traits were significantly and negatively correlated with resilience. Conclusion Education level, single-parent family, parental rearing pattern, only-child status, living place, and family income may influence the development of PD traits. Additional high-quality studies are needed to learn more about the mental health status of new employees. Optimal interventions are warranted to avoid potential adverse events in this population. PMID:27785032

  5. Pathotypic and genotypic characterization of two Bangladeshi isolates of Newcastle disease virus of chicken and pigeon origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooruzzaman, M; Mazumder, A C; Khatun, S; Chowdhury, E H; Das, P M; Islam, M R

    2015-02-01

    Two Bangladeshi isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), one from a chicken and one from a pigeon, were characterized in this study. Pathogenicity of the isolates was evaluated on the basis of intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI). Both the isolates were found to be of velogenic pathotype having ICPI of 1.83 and 1.51 for the chicken and pigeon isolate, respectively. Genotype of the isolates was determined by phylogenetic analysis based on partial F gene sequences. A 766-bp genome fragment spanning partial M and F gene was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. The first 354 bp of the coding region of F gene and corresponding deduced amino acid sequences (residues 1-118) of these two NDV isolates were aligned with that of other NDV strains retrieved from GenBank. A phylogenetic tree constructed from the alignment showed that the chicken isolate (BD-C162) belonged to the newly described genotype XIII and the pigeon isolate (BD-P01) to genotype VI. Both the chicken and pigeon isolates possessed a virulent-like fusion protein cleavage site (112) RRQKRF(117) . © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Increased Morbidity and Mortality in Domestic Animals Eating Dropped and Bitten Fruit in Bangladeshi Villages: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, John J; Hegde, Sonia; Sazzad, Hossain M S; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hossain, M Jahangir; Epstein, Jonathan H; Daszak, Peter; Gurley, Emily S; Luby, Stephen P

    2016-03-01

    We used data on feeding practices and domestic animal health gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to identify any association between grazing dropped fruit found on the ground or owners directly feeding bat- or bird-bitten fruit and animal health. We compared mortality and morbidity in domestic animals using a mixed effects model controlling for village clustering, herd size, and proxy measures of household wealth. Thirty percent of household heads reported that their animals grazed on dropped fruit and 20% reported that they actively fed bitten fruit to their domestic herds. Household heads allowing their cattle to graze on dropped fruit were more likely to report an illness within their herd (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.31). Household heads directly feeding goats bitten fruit were more likely to report illness (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.16-1.57) and deaths (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.13-2.4). Reporting of illnesses and deaths among goats rose as the frequency of feeding bitten fruit increased. One possible explanation for this finding is the transmission of bat pathogens to domestic animals via bitten fruit consumption.

  7. The value of vaccination: results of an Italian survey among Medical Doctors, Policy Makers and General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cadeddu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:

    Background: In the Italian context, evolving toward the abandonment of compulsory vaccination, the
    maintenance of adequate levels of coverage appears as essential. The promotion of a good vaccination
    knowledge, supported by strong scientific evidence, and the collaboration of all the involved stakeholders,
    appears hence fundamental. The aim of this survey was to understand why vaccination is not appreciated
    for its real value by different stakeholders.
    Methods: In collaboration with other Italian Universities and Health Districts, in Summer 2011 we submitted
    a survey of 17 questions to a convenience sample of Italian Medical Doctors, Policy Makers and General
    Population. The main questions analyzed the importance of vaccination for health, actions to attain vaccination
    value and consequences of a free choice policy.
    Results: Of the 173 stakeholders interviewed, 78% of Medical Doctors, 82% Policy Makers and 46%
    General Population believe that vaccination is important for health. The most important actions suggested
    for strengthening vaccination were information about its efficacy and safety and studies on its impact on
    Public Health, according to most of General Population and of Medical Doctors and Policy Makers, respectively.
    According to 60.4% Medical Doctors, 72.8% Policy Makers and 56.3% General Population the abolition
    of compulsory vaccination would lead to a reduction of vaccinees in all the Italian regions.
    Conclusions: Our study confirms the need for a thorough “education in vaccination”. Among stakeholders
    there are still doubts that hinder the decision process about vaccination policies and programmes. On
    the other hand, a call for an “Alliance” for promoting and implementing vaccination to its full potential
    would be favoured, as

  8. Baseline characteristics of an incident haemodialysis population in Spain: results from ANSWER—a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Rafael; Martín-Malo, Alejandro; Fort, Joan; Cuevas, Xavier; Lladós, Fina; Lozano, Javier; García, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Background. The ANSWER study aims to identify risk factors leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a Spanish incident haemodialysis population. This paper summarizes the baseline characteristics of this population. Methods. A prospective, observational, one-cohort study, including all consecutive incident haemodialysis patients from 147 Spanish nephrology services, was conducted. Patients were enrolled between October 2003 and September 2004. Sociodemographic, clinical, laboratory and health care characteristics were collected. Results. Baseline characteristics are described for 2341 incident haemodialysis patients [mean (SD) age 65.2 (14.5) years, 63% males]. The main cause of renal failure was diabetic nephropathy (26%). The majority of patients (57%) had a Karnofsky score of 80–100 and 27% were followed up by a nephrologist for ≤6 months. In total, 86% of the patients had hypertension, 43% had dyslipidaemia and 44% had a history of cardiovascular disease. Initial vascular access was obtained via a temporary catheter in 30% of patients, via a permanent catheter in 16% and via an arteriovenous fistula in 54%. Albumin levels were 500 ng/ml, 41% and saturated transferrin 40%, 50%) despite previous treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in 41% of cases. Conclusions. There is excessive use of temporary catheters and a high prevalence of uraemia-related cardiovascular risk factors among incident haemodialysis patients in Spain. The poor control of hypertension, anaemia, malnutrition and mineral metabolism and late referral to a nephrologist indicate the need for improving the therapeutic management of patients before the onset of haemodialysis. PMID:19028750

  9. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rivaroxaban in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: results from ROCKET AF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, I G; Patel, M R; Peters, G R; Moore, K T; Mahaffey, K W; Nessel, C C; Halperin, J L; Califf, R M; Fox, K A A; Becker, R C

    2014-08-01

    Two once-daily rivaroxaban dosing regimens were compared with warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in ROCKET AF: 20 mg for patients with normal/mildly impaired renal function and 15 mg for patients with moderate renal impairment. Rivaroxaban population pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling data from ROCKET AF patients (n = 161) are reported and are used to confirm established rivaroxaban PK and PK/PD models and to re-estimate values of the models' parameters for the current AF population. An oral one-compartment model with first-order absorption adequately described rivaroxaban PK. Age, renal function, and lean body mass influenced the PK model. Prothrombin time and prothrombinase-induced clotting time exhibited a near-linear relationship with rivaroxaban plasma concentration; inhibitory effects were observed through to 24 hours post-dose. Rivaroxaban plasma concentration and factor Xa activity had an inhibitory maximum-effect (Emax ) relationship. Renal function (on prothrombin time; prothrombinase-induced clotting time) and age (on factor Xa activity) had moderate effects on PK/PD models. PK and PK/PD models were shown to be adequate for describing the current dataset. These findings confirm the modeling and empirical results that led to the selection of doses tested against warfarin in ROCKET AF.

  10. Itch and analgesia resulting from intrathecal application of morphine: contrasting effects on different populations of trigeminothalamic tract neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Hannah R; Giesler, Glenn J

    2013-04-03

    Intrathecal application of morphine is among the most powerful methods used to treat severe chronic pain. However, this approach commonly produces itch sufficiently severe that patients are forced to choose between relief of pain or itch. The neuronal populations responsible for processing and transmitting information underlying itch caused by intrathecal application of morphine have not been identified and characterized. We describe two populations of antidromically identified trigeminothalamic tract (VTT) neurons in anesthetized rats that are differentially affected by morphine and explain several aspects of opioid-induced itch and analgesia. We found that intrathecal application of morphine increased ongoing activity of itch-responsive VTT neurons. In addition, intrathecal application of morphine increased responses to pruritogens injected into the skin and greatly heightened responses to innocuous mechanical stimuli. In contrast, the ongoing activity and responses to noxious pinches in nociceptive VTT neurons were frequently inhibited by the same dose of morphine. These results reveal that i.t. application of morphine affects specific subpopulations of VTT neurons in ways that may produce itch, hyperknesis, alloknesis, and analgesia.

  11. Risk Factors Associated with False Positive HIV Test Results in a Low-Risk Urban Obstetric Population

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    Tamara T. Chao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine risk factors for false positive HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA testing at delivery. Study Design. A review of pregnant women who delivered at Parkland Hospital between 2005 and 2008 was performed. Patients routinely received serum HIV EIA testing at delivery, with positive results confirmed through immunofluorescent testing. Demographics, HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, and rapid plasma reagin (RPR results were obtained. Statistical analyses included Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test. Results. Of 47,794 patients, 47,391 (99% tested negative, 145 (0.3% falsely positive, 172 (0.4% positive, and 86 (0.2% equivocal or missing HIV results. The positive predictive value of EIA was 54.3%. Patients with false positive results were more likely nulliparous (43% versus 31%, <0.001 and younger (23.9±5.7 versus 26.2±5.9 years, <0.001. HIV positive patients were older than false positive patients and more likely positive for HBsAg and RPR. Conclusion. False positive HIV testing at delivery using EIA is associated with young maternal age and nulliparity in this population.

  12. Direct results of recent multidisciplinary ethno-genetic research of the Serbs and the Serbian population (in Aleksandrovac district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Ivica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents immediate results of a multidisciplinary research into ethno genesis, that is, the origin of the Serbs and the Serbian population, based on genetic indicators. The most direct results of the carried out survey are 85 haplotypes with 17 DYS markers/locuses of the respondents from Aleksandrovac district, a representative area as it is in the very centre of Serbian, Kosovo-Resava linguistic and cultural zone. Unlike previous texts that the authors have written on this subject, this paper, for the first time, presents actual results which correlate ethnological facts - starting from older up to latest records on origin - with genetic results obtained owing to the cooperation of the SASA Institute of Ethnography and the Laboratory for DNA analysis of the National forensic centre at the Ministry of Interior, Republic of Serbia. In this way, new findings, which could have been summoned only by parallel use of ethnological and genetic information (and which are given in the paper as clear proofs of necessity and effectiveness of the applied methodological approach, are being obtained and presented. Among other things, the given results of the preliminary survey (compared with the latest relevant surveys by other authors and institutions indicate the dominance of 12a and R1a haplogroups, decisive in the ethnogenesis of the Slavs, which matches common Serbian perception of the Serbs as of a nation of the Slav language and origin.

  13. Effect of vitamin D, calcium and multiple micronutrients supplementation on lipid profile in pre-menopausal Bangladeshi garment factory workers with hypovitaminosis D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Zahirul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad; Kärkkäinen, Merja; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2014-12-01

    Elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in sera are both well-known risk factors of coronary heart disease. Adequate vitamin D status is important for optimal function of many organs and tissues of our body. There is continuing controversy about the effect of adequate vitamin D consumption on serum lipids and lipoproteins. The present study assessed the effect of vitamin D, calcium and multiple micronutrients supplementation on the lipid profile in Bangladeshi young female garment factory workers who have hypovitaminosis D. This placebo-controlled intervention trial conducted over a period of one year randomly assigned a total of 200 apparently healthy subjects aged 16-36 years to 4 groups. The subjects received daily supplements of 400 IU of vitamin D (VD group) or 400 IU of vitamin D+600 mg of calcium lactate (VD-Ca group), or multiple micronutrients with 400 IU of vitamin-D+600 mg of calcium lactate (MMN-VD-Ca group), or the group consuming placebo (PL group). Serum concentrations of lipid and lipoprotein, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured at baseline and after one year of follow-up. No significant changes in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were observed in the supplemented groups compared to the placebo group. Supplementation had a positive effect (p<0.05) on very low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triacylglycerol (TAG). A negative correlation between changes in serum iPTH and HDL-C was observed, which indicated that subjects with the greatest decline in S-iPTH had the greatest increase in HDL-C. The results suggest that consumption of adequate vitamin D with calcium or MMN for one-year may have no impact on serum lipid profile in the subjects studied. Longer-term clinical trials with different doses of supplemental vitamin D are warranted in evaluating the

  14. Intervention, recruitment and evaluation challenges in the Bangladeshi community: Experience from a peer lead educational course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareedi MA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of Type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide and diabetes is four times more common among ethnic minority groups than among the general Caucasian population. This study reflects on the specific issues of engaging people and evaluating interventions through written questionnaires within older ethnic minority groups. Methods The original protocol set out to evaluate an adapted version of the X-PERT® patient program http://www.xpert-diabetes.org.uk/ using questionnaires and interviews. Results Questionnaires, even verbally completed, were unsuccessful and difficult to administer as participants found the questionnaire structure and design difficult to follow and did not perceive any benefit to completing the questionnaires. The benefits of attending the course were also poorly understood by participants and in many cases people participated in coming to the course as a favour to the researcher. Engaging participants required word of mouth and the involvement of active members of the community. Conclusion Peer led courses and their evaluation in older ethnic minority communities needs a very different approach for that in younger Caucasian patients. A structured approached to evaluation (favoured by western educational system is inappropriate. Engaging participants is difficult and the employment of local well known people is essential.

  15. Elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis–Results from a Population-Based 6-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias; Jekauc, Darko; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to contribute to the elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis framework by testing eight hypotheses addressing the direct impact of gross motor coordination problems in elementary-school on selected physical, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in adolescence. Results are based on a longitudinal sample of 940 participants who were (i) recruited as part of a population-based representative survey on health, physical fitness and physical activity in childhood and adolescence, (ii) assessed twice within 6 years, between the ages of 6 and 10 years old as well as between the ages of 12 and 16 years old (Response Rate: 55.9%) and (iii) classified as having gross motor coordination problems (N = 115) or having no gross motor coordination problems (N = 825) at baseline. Motor tests from the Körperkoordinationstest, measures of weight and height, a validated physical activity questionnaire as well as the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were conducted. Data were analyzed by use of binary logistic regressions. Results indicated that elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems show a higher risk of persistent gross motor coordination problems (OR = 7.99, p elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. However, elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems did not show a significantly higher risk of peer problems (OR = 1.35, p = 0.164) or diminished prosocial behavior (OR = 1.90, p = 0.168) in adolescence, respectively in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. This study is the first to provide population-based longitudinal data ranging from childhood to adolescence in the context of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis which can be considered a substantial methodological progress. In summary, gross motor coordination problems represent a serious issue for a healthy transition from childhood to adolescence which

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE RURAL POPULATION TO THE RESULTS OF NATIONAL CENSUS 2002, 2010. IN THE REPUBLICS OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS: GIS APPROACHES AND METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Turun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the dynamics of the rural population of the North Caucasus republics in 1989–2010 analyzes the differences of census data with the results of the current account of the population over two intercensal period. For obtaining the most accurate data in the rural population applies a correction factor the results of the census are considered critical, given the problems of its implementation.

  17. Interactions among Candidate Genes Selected by Meta-Analyses Resulting in Higher Risk of Ischemic Stroke in a Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Luo

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke (IS is a multifactorial disorder caused by both genetic and environmental factors. The combined effects of multiple susceptibility genes might result in a higher risk for IS than a single gene. Therefore, we investigated whether interactions among multiple susceptibility genes were associated with an increased risk of IS by evaluating gene polymorphisms identified in previous meta-analyses, including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T, beta fibrinogen (FGB, β-FG A455G and T148C, apolipoprotein E (APOE ε2-4, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE insertion/deletion (I/D, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS G894T. In order to examine these interactions, 712 patients with IS and 774 controls in a Chinese Han population were genotyped using the SNaPshot method, and multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis was used to detect potential interactions among the candidate genes. The results of this study found that ACE I/D and β-FG T148C were significant synergistic contributors to IS. In particular, the ACE DD + β-FG 148CC, ACE DD + β-FG 148CT, and ACE ID + β-FG 148CC genotype combinations resulted in higher risk of IS. After adjusting for potential confounding IS risk factors (age, gender, family history of IS, hypertension history and history of diabetes mellitus using a logistic analysis, a significant correlation between the genotype combinations and IS patients persisted (overall stroke: adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.02, P < 0.001, large artery atherosclerosis subtype: adjusted OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.08-2.07, P = 0.016, small-artery occlusion subtype: adjusted OR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.43-2.91, P < 0.001. The results of this study indicate that the ACE I/D and β-FG T148C combination may result in significantly higher risk of IS in this Chinese population.

  18. Screening results correlating to personality disorder traits in a new employee population of People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Y

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yan Tan,1,* Yan Liu,2,* Lei Wu3 1Editorial Department, Academic Journal of Chinese People’s Liberation Army Medical School, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, 2Department of Clinical Psychology, Beijing Huilongguan Hospital, 3Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Geriatrics, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Adaptation to a new environment may have an uncertain influence on young employees, whose values are still being formed during early adulthood. To understand the current mental status and further improve the mental health level of the new employee population of People’s Republic of China, we conducted a cross-sectional study to screen the prevalence and correlates of personality disorder (PD traits in this population.Methods: This study included all male participants who were new employees (those who had started working in approximately the last three months from 12 machinery factories in People’s Republic of China. The Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ was used to evaluate the mental status of all participants. The Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale was used to assess the resilience of the study participants.Results: A total of 3,960 male participants were included in the analysis. The mean age of the study participants was 18.7±1.5 years. The mean values of all PD subtypes were scored from 0.74 to 2.90, with a total of 16.85. Of all 10 PD traits, obsessive–compulsive, histrionic, and narcissistic scored the highest. PD traits scored significantly higher among participants who had higher education levels, came from a single-parent (divorced or separated family, were raised in a neglectful parental rearing pattern, were the only child of the family, were living in city areas, or had a lower family income. All subtype PD traits were significantly and negatively correlated with resilience

  19. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Raggi

    Full Text Available To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+.In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately.Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4. The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation, chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6% and a wide and rich social network (4.6%. Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics.Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of

  20. Access to care based on state nurse practitioner practice regulation: secondary data analysis results in the Medicare population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Summer; Kelly, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    To examine access to care in the Medicare population based on state nurse practitioner (NP) practice regulation. Secondary data analysis of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey Access to Care 2011 dataset. Items used to measure access to care were usual source of care, appointment waiting times, and difficulties encountered. States were designated as full, reduced, or restricted NP practice based on data from the American Association of Nurse Practitioners State Regulatory Map. Self-reported usual source of care (N = 1,496,251) was not significantly affected by state regulation (p > .05); however, these results were based on only 3% of the sample answering the question. Significant differences were seen in sites for care across state groups (N = 41,650,566, p ≤ .01). Participants in reduced (B = -1.86) and restricted (B = -2.82) states reported lower waiting times than those in full practice states (N = 371,166, p care than participants in full practice states (N = 5,568,495, p = .01). More participants in restricted and reduced states reported cost as a difficulty (N = 1180, p = .03). Access to care based on state NP practice regulation is an important area of study because of the changing nature of health care and the growing support for full practice. This study examined access to care in states with different levels of NP practice regulation, but did not directly measure outcomes in individuals based on NP care. Additional research is needed to examine the impact of state regulation in different patient populations (self-insured, Medicaid, uninsured), and changes in access to care over time as state regulations change. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. Cancer incidence in North West Algeria (Mascara) 2000-2010: results from a population-based cancer registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarba, Bachir; Meddah, Boumedienne; Hamdani, Houria

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide accounting for 7.4 million deaths. Cancer has become a major public health concern in Algeria. The aim of the present study was to estimate cancer incidence in Mascara Province based on the population-based cancer registry. We analyzed data from the cancer registry of Mascara covering all cancer cases diagnosed by all methods and included in the registry from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2010. The results are presented as incidence rates of cases by site, sex, age, and crude rate. Age-standardized rates per 100,000 person-years (ASRs) were calculated, using the direct method of standardization to the world population. A total of 1875 cases of invasive cancer were recorded. The mean age of diagnosis for all cancers was 52.66 ± 0.5 in men and 59.18 ± 0.6 in women. The ASR for all cancers in females was 27.8 per 100,000, and that for males was 23.6 per 100,000. The most important finding of the present study was the high incidence of liver cancer among males and females in Mascara. Among females, breast cancer was the most frequently reported followed by Cervix uteri, liver and colon. The most frequent cancer types in males were lung, colon, esophagus and stomach and liver. Cancer incidence in Mascara province was lower than that reported in other national and regional registries. Findings of the present study revealed high incidence of liver cancer in the province, the highest in Algeria, suggesting high prevalence of risk factors. PMID:26417294

  2. Correlates of HIV, HBV, and HCV infections in a prison inmate population: results from a multicentre study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babudieri, S; Longo, B; Sarmati, L; Starnini, G; Dori, L; Suligoi, B; Carbonara, S; Monarca, R; Quercia, G; Florenzano, G; Novati, S; Sardu, A; Iovinella, V; Casti, A; Romano, A; Uccella, I; Maida, I; Brunetti, B; Mura, M S; Andreoni, M; Rezza, G

    2005-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken on the correlates of infection for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis viruses B and C (HBV and HCV) in a sample of inmates from eight Italian prisons. A total of 973 inmates were enrolled [87.0% males, median age of 36 years, 30.4% intravenous drug users (IDUs), 0.6% men who have sex with men (MSWM)]. In this sample, high seroprevalence rates were found (HIV: 7.5%; HCV: 38.0%; anti-HBc: 52.7%; HBsAg: 6.7%). HIV and HCV seropositivity were associated strongly with intravenous drug use (OR: 5.9 for HIV; 10.5 for HCV); after excluding IDUs and male homosexuals, the HIV prevalence remained nonetheless relatively high (2.6%). HIV prevalence was higher for persons from Northern Italy and Sardinia. The age effect was U-shaped for HIV and HCV infections; HBV prevalence increased with age. Tattoos were associated with HCV positivity (OR: 2.9). The number of imprisonments was associated with HIV infection, whereas the duration of imprisonment was only associated with anti-HBc. The probability of being HIV-seropositive was higher for HCV-seropositive individuals, especially if IDUs. In conclusion, a high prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HBV infections among inmates was observed: these high rates are in part attributable to the high proportion of IDUs. Frequency of imprisonment and tattoos were associated, respectively, with HIV and HCV positivity. Although it is possible that the study population is not representative of Italy's prison inmate population, the results stress the need to improve infection control measures users was prisons. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Geografias da virtude: "bons" muçulmanos e as políticas da oração entre bangladeshis em lisboa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mapril

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da obra de Marcel Mauss, este artigo pretende argumentar que a oração é uma dimensão cerimonial que, para além dos evidentes aspectos teológicos e doutrinários, permite aos sujeitos refletir sobre as condições sociais, políticas e econômicas cotidianas. Tal argumento será explorado a partir de uma etnografia sobre bangladeshis, que vivem entre Portugal e Bangladesh realizada entre 2003 e 2008, na qual procurarei revelar como os discursos e práticas sobre a salat, as cinco orações do calendário islâmico, revelam diversas dimensões da experiência migratória e o lugar de muitos dos meus interlocutores no Portugal contemporâneo. Mais: a oração não é apenas uma forma de revelar a sua experiência, mas também uma prática ritual através da qual determinados segmentos e atores procuram agir sobre o próprio mundo em que vivem.Inspired by Marcel Mauss, this article argues that prayer, besides its evident theological and doctrinal aspects, is a ceremony that allows subjects to think about their social, political and economic conditions. This argument will be explored through an ethnography about Bangladeshis, that sustain a transnational livelihood between Portugal and Bangladesh, carried out between 2003 e 2008. Through such exercise, I intend to show how discourses and practices around and about salat, the five daily prayers of the Islamic calendar, reveal several aspects of the migratory experience and the place of Bangladeshis in Portugal. It will be further argued that prayer is not only a metaphor but also a key ritual practice through which certain segments and actors act upon the world they live in.

  4. Population estimates and monitoring guidelines for endangered Laysan Teal, Anas Laysanensis, at Midway Atoll: Pilot study results 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Laniawe, Leona

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of population size are often crucial to determining status and planning recovery of endangered species. The ability to detect trends in survival and population size over time enables conservation managers to make effective decisions for species and refuge management. During 2004–2007, the translocated population of endangered Laysan Teal (Anas laysanensis; also Laysan Duck) was fitted with radio transmitters providing known (―gold standard‖) measures of survival and reproduction. However, as the population grew, statistically rigorous monitoring protocols were needed that were less labor intensive than radio telemetry. A population die-off and alarmingly high number of carcasses (181) were recorded during a botulism epizootic in August–October 2008, which further reinforced the need for effective monitoring protocols since this endangered species is vulnerable to catastrophic population declines. In fall 2008, we initiated a pilot study using standardized surveys with uniquely marked birds to monitor abundance and estimate the population growth rate of the reintroduced Laysan Teal. Since few birds carried marks (leg bands) after the 2008 botulism die-off (only about 15% of the population), and standardized surveys were not yet implemented, the magnitude of the die-off on the population size was unknown.

  5. Trends and determinant factors for population blood pressure with 25 years of follow-up: results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate within-population trends in population blood pressure (BP) over 25 years and to identify important determinants for a changing population BP. DESIGN: Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective longitudinal epidemiological study. The study population (15 508...... checked by the technicians. RESULTS: After an initial increase, population systolic BP (SBP) decreased. All risk factors were tested in the longitudinal model by means of a residual likelihood ratio test. The final model included sex, age and body mass index as significant factors and covariates. Two....... Diastolic BP (DBP) increased to a peak value in survey 3 and hereafter decreased. CONCLUSION: SBP decreased. body mass index, sex and age have an effect on population BP. A decreasing trend in SBP among new entrants is responsible for (part of) the observed decrease in population SBP. The decreasing SBP...

  6. Depression and resilience mediate the relationship between traumatic life events and ill physical health: results from a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, Thanos; Jowett, Sally; Yan, Elsie; Raeside, Robert; Howard, Ruth

    2016-11-10

    We set out to investigate the mediating roles of depression, resilience, smoking, and alcohol use, in the relationship between potentially traumatic life events and objective and subjective, physical and mental health in a single study. A face-to-face, population-based survey was conducted in Hong Kong (N = 1147). Information on health conditions and traumatic life events was obtained, and participants completed measures of subjective physical and mental health, depression, and resilience. Smoking and drinking were not significant mediators of the relationship between life events and both objective and subjective health. Depressive symptomatology was found to mediate the relationship between life threatening illness and subjective physical health, the relationship between abuse (physical and sexual) and subjective mental health, and the relationship between the death of a parent/partner and subjective mental health. Resilience was found to mediate the relationships between multiple traumatic life events and subjective physical and mental health. Our results indicate that psychological factors rather than biological are important mediators of the relationship between life events exposure and health. Our findings provide evidence that depressive symptomatology has a mediating role only in the case of specific potentially traumatic life events and that resilience is only a critical factor in the face of exposure to multiple traumatic events, rather than single events. Our results also indicate that behavioural factors, such as smoking and drinking, are not significant mediators of the relationship between life events and health.

  7. Tennessee Valley region study: potential year 2000 radiological dose to population resulting from nuclear facility operations. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A companion report, DOE/ET-0064/1, presents a geographic, cultural, and demographic profile of the Tennessee Valley Region study area. This report describes the calculations of radionuclide release and transport and of the resultant dose to the regional population, assuming a projected installed capacity of 220,000 MW in the year 2000, of which 144,000 MW would be nuclear. All elements of the fuel cycle were assumed to be in operation. The radiological dose was calculated as a one-year dose based on ingestion of 35 different food types as well as for nine non-food pathways, and was reported as dose to the total body and for six specific organs for each of four age groups (infant, child, teen, and adult). Results indicate that the average individual would receive an incremental dose of 7 x 10/sup -4/ millirems in the year 2000 from the operation of nuclear facilities within and adjacent to the region, five orders of magnitude smaller than the dose from naturally occurring radiation in the area. The major contributor to dose was found to be tritium, and the most significant pathways were immersion in air, inhalation of air, transpiration of tritium (absorption through the skin), and exposure radionuclide-containing soil. 60 references.

  8. Duration of major depressive episodes in the general population : results from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J; De Graaf, R; Bijl, RV; Beekman, ATF; Ormel, J; Nolen, WA

    2002-01-01

    Background Data on the duration of major depressive episodes (MDE) in the general population are sparse. Aims To assess the duration of MDE and its clinical and socio-demographic determinants in a study group drawn from the general population with newly originated episodes of major depression. Metho

  9. Duration of major depressive episodes in the general population: results from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.J.A.; de Graaf, R.; Bijl, R.V.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Background Data on the duration of major depressive episodes (MDE) in the general population are sparse. Aims To assess the duration of MDE and its clinical and socio-demographic determinants in a study group drawn from the general population with newly originated episodes of major depression. Metho

  10. Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and triglycerides predict the incidence of chronic kidney disease in the Japanese general population: results from the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Motohiro; Furusyo, Norihiro; Mitsumoto, Fujiko; Takayama, Koji; Ura, Kazuya; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Mukae, Haru; Ogawa, Eiichi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2015-02-01

    To examine whether or not subclinical atherosclerosis independently predicts the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Japanese general population. This study is part of the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS), a survey of vascular events associated with lifestyle-related diseases. Participants who attended both baseline (2004-2007) and follow-up (2009-2012) examinations were eligible. The common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was assessed for each participant at baseline. The end point was the incidence of CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) triglycerides (1.6 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.7 mmol/L, P triglycerides (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.73, P = 0.015) at baseline were independent predictors for the development of CKD. Higher carotid IMT and hypertriglyceridemia were independently associated with the development of CKD in the population studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis – Results from a population-based 6-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wagner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to the elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis framework by testing eight hypotheses addressing the direct impact of gross motor coordination problems in elementary-school on selected physical, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in adolescence. Results are based on a longitudinal sample of 940 participants who were (i recruited as part of a population-based representative survey on health, physical fitness and physical activity in childhood and adolescence, (ii assessed twice within 6 years, between the ages of 6 and 10 years old as well as between the ages of 12 and 16 years old (Response Rate: 55.9% and (iii classified as having gross motor coordination problems (N = 115 or having no gross motor coordination problems (N = 825 at baseline.Motor tests from the Körperkoordinationstest, measures of weight and height, a validated physical activity questionnaire as well as the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were conducted. Data were analyzed by use of binary logistic regressions. Results indicated that elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems show a higher risk of persistent gross motor coordination problems (OR = 7.99, p < .001, avoiding organized physical activities (OR = 1.53, p < .05, an elevated body mass (OR = 1.78, p < .05, bonding with sedentary peers (OR = 1.84, p < .01 as well as emotional (OR = 1.73, p < .05 and conduct (OR = 1.79, p < .05 problems in adolescence in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. However, elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems did not show a significantly higher risk of peer problems (OR = 1.35, p = .164 or diminished prosocial behavior (OR = 1.90, p = .168 in adolescence, respectively in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. This study is the first to provide population-based longitudinal data ranging from

  12. Examination of Huntington's disease with atypical clinical features in a Bangladeshi family tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamun, Md Mahfuz; Sarker, Suprovath Kumar; Qadri, Syeda Kashfi; Shirin, Tahmina; Mohammad, Quazi Deen; LaRocque, Regina; Karlsson, Elinor K; Saha, Narayan; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Qadri, Firdausi; Mannoor, Md Kaiissar

    2016-12-01

    Atypical manifestation of Huntington's disease (HD) could inform ongoing research into HD genetic modifiers not present in the primarily European populations studied to date. This work demonstrates that expanding HD genetic testing into under-resourced healthcare settings can benefit both local communities and ongoing research into HD etiology and new therapies.

  13. The replication of Bangladeshi H9N2 avian influenza viruses carrying genes from H7N3 in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganatham, Karthik K; Jones, Jeremy C; Marathe, Bindumadhav M; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Walker, David; Turner, Jasmine; Rabiul Alam, S M; Kamrul Hasan, M; Akhtar, Sharmin; Seiler, Patrick; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G

    2016-04-20

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses are continuously monitored by the World Health Organization because they are endemic; they continually reassort with H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses; and they periodically cause human infections. We characterized H9N2 influenza viruses carrying internal genes from highly pathogenic H7N3 viruses, which were isolated from chickens or quail from live-bird markets in Bangladesh between 2010 and 2013. All of the H9N2 viruses used in this study carried mammalian host-specific mutations. We studied their replication kinetics in normal human bronchoepithelial cells and swine tracheal and lung explants, which exhibit many features of the mammalian airway epithelium and serve as a mammalian host model. All H9N2 viruses replicated to moderate-to-high titers in the normal human bronchoepithelial cells and swine lung explants, but replication was limited in the swine tracheal explants. In Balb/c mice, the H9N2 viruses were nonlethal, replicated to moderately high titers and the infection was confined to the lungs. In the ferret model of human influenza infection and transmission, H9N2 viruses possessing the Q226L substitution in hemagglutinin replicated well without clinical signs and spread via direct contact but not by aerosol. None of the H9N2 viruses tested were resistant to the neuraminidase inhibitors. Our study shows that the Bangladeshi H9N2 viruses have the potential to infect humans and highlights the importance of monitoring and characterizing this influenza subtype to better understand the potential risk these viruses pose to humans.

  14. Accelerated partial breast irradiation in an Asian population: dosimetric findings and preliminary results of a multicatheter interstitial program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh YV

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yaling Vicky Koh,1 Poh Wee Tan,1 Shaik Ahmad Buhari,2 Philip Iau,2 Ching Wan Chan,2 Liang Shen,3 Sing Huang Tan,4 Johann I-Hsiung Tang1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, National University Cancer Institute Singapore, 2Department of Surgery, National University Hospital, 3Department of Medicine, Biostatistics Unit, National University of Singapore, 4Department of Medical Oncology, National University Cancer Institute Singapore, Singapore Introduction: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI using the multicatheter method has excellent cosmesis and low rates of long-term toxicity. However, there are few studies looking at the feasibility of this procedure and the outcomes in an Asian population. This study aims to look at outcomes at our hospital.Methods: We identified 121 patients treated with APBI at our center between 2008 and 2014. The median follow-up for our patient group was 30 months (range 3.7–66.5. The prescribed dose per fraction was 3.4 Gy in 10 fractions. In this study population, 71% of the patients were Chinese while 15% (n=19 were of other Asian ethnicity.Results: In this study, the median breast volume was 850 cc (range 216–2,108 with 59.5% (n=72 patients with a breast volume of <1,000 cc. The average planning target volume was 134 cc (range 28–324. The number of catheters used ranged from 8 to 25 with an average of 18 catheters used per patient. We achieved an average dose homogeneity index of 0.76 in our patients. The average D90(% was 105% and the average D90(Gy was 3.6 Gy per fraction. The median volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100 was 161.7 cc (range 33.9–330.1, 150% of the prescribed dose (V150 and 200% of the prescribed dose (V200 was 39.4 cc (range 14.6–69.6 and 14.72 cc (range 6.48–22.25, respectively. Our dosimetric outcomes were excellent even in patients with breast volume under 1,000 cc. There were no cases of grade 3 skin toxicity or acute pneumonitis. Two patients had a

  15. Population-based Stroke Atlas for outcome prediction: method and preliminary results for ischemic stroke from CT.

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    Wieslaw L Nowinski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Knowledge of outcome prediction is important in stroke management. We propose a lesion size and location-driven method for stroke outcome prediction using a Population-based Stroke Atlas (PSA linking neurological parameters with neuroimaging in population. The PSA aggregates data from previously treated patients and applies them to currently treated patients. The PSA parameter distribution in the infarct region of a treated patient enables prediction. We introduce a method for PSA calculation, quantify its performance, and use it to illustrate ischemic stroke outcome prediction of modified Rankin Scale (mRS and Barthel Index (BI. METHODS: The preliminary PSA was constructed from 128 ischemic stroke cases calculated for 8 variants (various data aggregation schemes and 3 case selection variables (infarct volume, NIHSS at admission, and NIHSS at day 7, each in 4 ranges. Outcome prediction for 9 parameters (mRS at 7th, and mRS and BI at 30th, 90th, 180th, 360th day was studied using a leave-one-out approach, requiring 589,824 PSA maps to be analyzed. RESULTS: Outcomes predicted for different PSA variants are statistically equivalent, so the simplest and most efficient variant aiming at parameter averaging is employed. This variant allows the PSA to be pre-calculated before prediction. The PSA constrained by infarct volume and NIHSS reduces the average prediction error (absolute difference between the predicted and actual values by a fraction of 0.796; the use of 3 patient-specific variables further lowers it by 0.538. The PSA-based prediction error for mild and severe outcomes (mRS  =  [2]-[5] is (0.5-0.7. Prediction takes about 8 seconds. CONCLUSIONS: PSA-based prediction of individual and group mRS and BI scores over time is feasible, fast and simple, but its clinical usefulness requires further studies. The case selection operation improves PSA predictability. A multiplicity of PSAs can be computed independently for

  16. The Frequency of Alcohol Use in Iranian Urban Population: The Results of a National Network Scale Up Survey

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    Ali Nikfarjam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background In Islamic countries alcohol consumption is considered as against religious values. Therefore, estimation of frequency of alcohol consumptions using direct methods is prone to different biases. In this study, we indirectly estimated the frequency of alcohol use in Iran, in network of a representative sample using network scale up (NSU method. Methods In a national survey, about 400 participants aged above 18 at each province, around 12 000 in total, were recruited. In a gender-match face to face interview, respondents were asked about the number of those who used alcohol (even one episode in previous year in their active social network, classified by age and gender. The results were corrected for the level of visibility of alcohol consumption. Results The relative frequency of alcohol use at least once in previous year, among general population aged above 15, was estimated at 2.31% (95% CI: 2.12%, 2.53%. The relative frequency among males was about 8 times higher than females (4.13% versus 0.56%. The relative frequency among those aged 18 to 30 was 3 times higher than those aged above 30 (3.97% versus 1.36%. The relative frequency among male aged 18 to 30 was about 7%. Conclusion It seems that the NSU is a feasible method to monitor the relative frequency of alcohol use in Iran, and possibly in countries with similar culture. Alcohol use was lower than non-Muslim countries, however, its relative frequency, in particular in young males, was noticeable.

  17. DIETARY SODIUM INTAKE IN A SAMPLE OF ADULT MALE POPULATION IN SOUTHERN ITALY.Results of the Olivetti Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Strazzullo, P; Venezia, Antonella; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Russo, Ornella; Capasso, Clemente; De Luca, Viviana; Farinaro, Eduardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Galletti, Ferruccio; Rossi, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess dietary habitual sodium intake, the association between daily sodium intake and anthropometric indices, food habits and hypertension in the sample of adult male population participating in the Olivetti Heart Study. Design, Setting and Participants: The study population was composed of 940 men participating in the 2002-04 follow-up examination of the Olivetti Heart Study. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, biochemical parameters and sodium excre...

  18. Profound Differences in Virus Population Genetics Correspond to Protection from CD4 Decline Resulting from Feline Lentivirus Coinfection

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    Abinash Padhi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CD4 decline is a hallmark of disease onset in individuals infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1. Cats that are infected with a poorly replicating, apathogenic FIV (PLV prior to exposure to a virulent FIV strain (FIVC maintain CD4 numbers by mechanisms that are not correlated with a measurable adaptive immune response or reduction in circulating viral load. We employed population genetic approaches based on the 3' portion of the viral genome to estimate the population structure of FIVC from single and dual infected cats. In dual infected cats, FIVC effective population size was decreased during the initial viral expansion phase, and after three weeks of infection, the population declined sharply. The FIVC population recovered to pre-bottleneck levels approximately seven weeks post-FIVC infection. However, the population emerging from the bottleneck in dual infected cats was distinct based on estimates of temporal population structure and substitution profiles. The transition to transversion rate ratio (k increased from early to late phases in dual infected cats due primarily to a decrease in transversions whereas in single infected cats, k declined over time. Although one clone with extensive G to A substitutions, indicative of host cytidine deaminase editing, was recovered from a dual infected cat during the bottleneck, the post bottleneck population had an overall reduction in G to A substitutions. These data are consistent with a model of PLV-induced host restriction, putatively involving host DNA editing, that alters the dynamics of FIVC throughout the course of infection leading to disease attenuation.

  19. Modeling effects of cadmium on population growth of Palaemonetes pugio: Results of a full life cycle exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manyin, Teresa [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, PO Box 38, 1 Williams Street, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States)], E-mail: manyin@cbl.umces.edu; Rowe, Christopher L. [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, PO Box 38, 1 Williams Street, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States)

    2008-06-23

    In an 8-month laboratory experiment, Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp) were exposed to aqueous cadmium (free cadmium ion concentrations of 1.51 or 2.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L) for an entire life cycle, from larva to reproductive adult and through to production of second-generation larva. Individual-level effects on survival, life stage duration, and reproduction were measured, and population growth was projected using two models: a stage-based matrix model and a z-transformed life cycle graph analysis. Adult survival was significantly reduced at 2.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L, but cadmium exposure had no effects on survival or stage duration of embryos, larvae, or juveniles. Survival of second-generation larvae was unaffected by maternal exposure. Brood size was reduced by 27% at 1.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L and by 36% at 2.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L. The percent of females in the population that was gravid was approximately 50% lower at 2.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L, compared to controls. Both population models projected a dose-dependent decrease in population growth rate ({lambda}), up to a 12% reduction at 2.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L, which can be attributed mainly to contributions from reproductive effects. Elasticity analysis revealed that population growth rate was most sensitive to changes in survival of juveniles and adults. However, lethal effects of cadmium made only a small contribution to the effect on population growth rate. Even though both models project positive growth ({lambda} > 1) of grass shrimp populations exposed to low concentrations of cadmium, the ability of populations to withstand predation pressure would be compromised.

  20. Population impact of depression on functional disability in elderly: results from "São Paulo Ageing & Health Study" (SPAH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Simone Almeida; Scazufca, Marcia; Menezes, Paulo R

    2013-03-01

    With the fast population aging, functional disability among the elderly is becoming a major public health issue. Depression is highly prevalent in this phase of life and may be associated with a significant proportion of the disability among elderly populations. We investigated the association of depressive symptoms and ICD-10 depression with functional disability in older adults and estimated the corresponding population attributable fractions (PAF). A cross-sectional one-phase population-based study was carried out with 2,072 individuals aged 65 years or over living in a low-income area of São Paulo, Brazil. Depressive symptoms and ICD-10 depression were assessed with the Geriatric Mental State and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. We assessed functional disability with the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Instrument. Prevalence Ratios and PAF were calculated using Poisson regression. The prevalence of depressive symptoms and ICD-10 depression was 21.4 and 4.8 %, respectively. Depression and depressive symptoms were strongly associated with high functional disability, even after adjustment for demographic factors, socioeconomic conditions, physical morbidities, and dementia. The PAFs for depressive symptoms and ICD-10 depression were 12.0 % for each of the psychiatric morbidity. Depressive symptoms contributed as much as ICD-10 depression to the population burden of functional disability in the elderly. Effective management of clinically significant depressive symptoms, delivered mainly at the primary care level, may reduce the total population disability.

  1. Immediate Impact of Uni-nephrectomy among Bangladeshi Healthy Live Kidney Donors: BIRDEM General Hospital Experience

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    Palash Mitra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment option for end stage kidney disease. Live kidney donation is an established form of organ donation; but it carries the risk of an unnecessary surgery in a normal individual. These donors remain at an increased risk of multiple medical problems for the rest of their life. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the immediate impact of uninephrectomy among kidney donors during the period of post-transplant hospital stay. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at BIRDEM General Hospital from January 2006 to June 2014. All kidney donors who had undergone graft nephrectomy during the study period were the study population. All the donors underwent Tc-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA renogram for measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR. GFR was also estimated by different equations in both pre-transplant and post-transplant periods. Pre-uninephrectomy GFR and post-uninephrectomy GFR of donors were compared. Results: Total number of subjects was 81, male 48 and female 33. Mean age was 36.3 ± 9.9 years. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 8.2 ± 2.0 days. The mean pre-operative measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFRDTPA was 99.54 ± 19.06 mL/min/1.73 m2 and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRCKD-EPI was 99.0 ± 18.55 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p=0.855. In post-nephrectomy period mean urine output decreased from 2708.1 ± 842.8 to 2228.4 ± 702.4 mL/day (p=0.000. Mean SBP lowered from 120.3 ± 12.5 to 115.6 ± 9.2 mm of Hg (p=0.000 after nephrectomy. There was significant increase in blood urea (from 19.7 ± 5.7 to 30.4 ± 9.5 mg/dL, p=0.000 and serum creatinine (from 0.90 ± 0.16 to 1.26 ± 0.24 mg/dL, p=0.000 in post-uninephrectomy period. Mean mGFRDTPA of the subjects of non-nephrectomized kidney of the donors was 49.18 ± 9.50 mL/min/1.73 m2 and mean eGFRCKD-EPI of same kidneys was 69.09 ± 16.79 mL/min/1.73m2 (p=0.000 after uni

  2. Dental health and treatment needs among a sample of Bangladeshi medical users aged 40 years and over living in Tower Hamlets, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, N; Croucher, R; Marcenes, W; O'Farrell, M

    2001-02-01

    To assess the dental health status and treatment needs of Bangladeshi medical care users aged 40 years and over and to explore the relationship of oral disease status, tobacco usage and paan (betel quid) chewing. Multi-centre cross-sectional study. General medical practitioners' waiting areas in Tower Hamlets, UK. 185 Bangladeshi adults aged 40 years and over. A clinical examination and an interview schedule. Dental status, periodontal status, dental plaque, calculus and denture status. Tobacco smoking and paan chewing behaviour. The response rate was 74%. 85% of participants were dentate with an average number of 24 (SD +/- 5.4) standing teeth. The mean DMFT score was 5.38, with missing teeth (3.81) being the major component. The decayed component was 0.43 and the filled was 1.14. 46% of participants were assessed as being free from gingivitis. Significant relationships between chewing paan and aspects of dental and periodontal status were found. Impacts of oral health were reported by 45% of the respondents. The normative need for dental treatment was 96% with a perceived need of 48%. There was considerable normative dental need. Whilst caries experience was low, there were high levels of periodontal treatment needs. Paan chewing was related to aspects of dental and periodontal status.

  3. Influence of Adult Knee Height, Age at First Birth, Migration, and Current Age on Adult Physical Function of Bangladeshi Mothers and Daughters in the United Kingdom and Bangladesh

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    Barry Bogin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom, Bangladeshi women have the lowest self-reported levels of physical activity and some of the highest levels of metabolic disease of all ethnic groups. To better understand these risks for poor health we employed life course and intergenerational hypotheses to predict lower body physical function in a sample of 121 Bangladeshi mothers (40–70 years old and one of their adult daughters (17–36 years old living in Bangladesh or in the UK. For the mothers, older age and shorter knee height predicted reduced lower body physical function. Knee height is a biomarker of nutrition and health status between birth and puberty. Age at first birth did not have a significant effect. For daughters, older age and migration to the UK predicted reduced lower body physical function. We controlled for total stature and fatness in all analyses. UK-born daughters were taller than BD-born daughters living in the UK, mostly due to differences in knee height. These new findings support previous research indicating that early life health and adequate nutritional status, along with appropriate adult physical activity and diet, may decrease risks for poor physical function, morbidity, and premature mortality.

  4. Severe stress following bereavement during pregnancy and risk of pregnancy loss: results from a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Parner, Erik; Olsen, Jørn; Li, Jiong

    2016-05-01

    Previous findings on the association between stress during pregnancy and pregnancy loss are inconsistent. We aimed to estimate this association using a large prospective cohort. This population-based study included all 1 303 660 clinically recognised pregnancies in Denmark between 1995 and 2008. We categorised women as exposed to severe stress if they lost a child, sibling or parent during pregnancy. Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to study the association between exposure and rate of fetal death, starting with the follow-up on the day of completion of week 4 of pregnancy. In an attempt to control for unknown potential confounders, we also designed a pregnancy-matched analysis in which each woman had her own baseline risk of pregnancy loss and controls therefore for genetic and time-stable environmental factors. A total of 146 031 pregnancies ended in clinically recognised fetal loss (11.2%) and a total of 10 808 (0.8%) women were categorised as exposed. The overall risk of pregnancy loss was similar in the exposed and unexposed (aHR=1.05, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.15). Results from the pregnancy-matched analysis (performed in 423 women) showed stronger and significant associations (aHR=1.83, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.25). All the analyses indicated a stronger effect of bereavement when the mother lost a child or when the death was unexpected. Our main results suggested no strong association between severe stress during pregnancy and risk of pregnancy loss. Results from the pregnancy-matched analyses considered information from a selected and small group of women for whom there may exist a stronger association between stress during pregnancy and pregnancy loss. The fact that an unexpected death or the loss of a child had a stronger effect in both analyses may indicate that severe stressful situations increase the risk of pregnancy loss. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Basic trends of game mammal population dynamics in the Russian Middle Amur river area: the observation and simulation results

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    E. Ya. Frisman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The detailed analysis was completed on long­term population dynamics data of different game mammals conducted in the region of the Middle Amur. The study showed that when a certain stability of the majority of the total number of game animals throughout the Jewish Autonomous Region (the coefficient of Malthus model for the entire period of observation a little more than 1, except for the lynx, kolinsky and squirrel from the mid 90s of the last century indicates a steady downward trend in population numbers, especially in areas where hunting occurs (Malthus model coefficients less than 1. Perhaps the reason for the decline was the increase in the amount of poaching in the 90s due to the deteriorating socio­economic situation in the country. Impression of a certain stability in the JAR as a whole due to the position of animals in protected areas. For all considered commercial species in the reserve there is a clear tendency for the number. For such species as the kolinsky, squirrel and bears, the maximum possible model number lower than the maximum number of accounting was observed during the study period. For populations of other game animals it can be assumed that the status of their ecological niches, i.e. habitat resources (supply of food, the size of the range, availability and propagation of the growth of the offspring, etc. are relatively stable. The relation between the amount of natural reproduction of «local» populations and their replenishment quantities due to external migration was studied in detail. Maintaining the number of target species is determined by migratory activity. The presence of protected areas helps to maintain and even some increase the population numbers, but it is clearly insufficient. It’s necessary to expand the territories free from the hunt and the transition to the strategies of hard periodic limitations of hunting populations experiencing depressive mode of population dynamics.

  6. The longitudinal relationship between control over working hours and depressive symptoms: Results from SLOSH, a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Sophie C; Kecklund, Göran; Rajaleid, Kristiina; Leineweber, Constanze

    2017-06-01

    Psychosocial work factors can affect depressive moods, but research is inconclusive if flexibility to self-determine working hours (work-time control, WTC) is associated with depressive symptoms over time. We investigated if either sub-dimension of WTC, control over daily hours and control over time off, was related to depressive symptoms over time and examined causal, reversed-causal, and reciprocal pathways. The study was based on four waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health which is a follow-up of representative samples of the Swedish working population. WTC was measured using a 5-item index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a brief subscale of the Symptom Checklist. Latent growth curve models and cross-lagged panel models were tested. Best fit was found for a model with correlated intercepts (control over daily hours) and both correlated intercepts and slopes (control over time off) between WTC and depressive symptoms, with stronger associations for control over time off. Causal models estimating impacts from WTC to subsequent depressive symptoms were best fitting, with a standardised coefficient between -0.023 and -0.048. Results were mainly based on self-report data and mean age in the study sample was relatively high. Higher WTC was related to fewer depressive symptoms over time albeit small effects. Giving workers control over working hours - especially over taking breaks and vacation - may improve working conditions and buffer against developing depression, potentially by enabling workers to recover more easily and promoting work-life balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Incidence of gallstone disease in Italy: Results from a multicenter, population-based Italian study (the MICOL project)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davide Festi; Enrico Roda; Antonio Colecchia; Ada Dormi; Simona Capodicasa; Tommaso Staniscia; Adolfo F Attili; Paola Loria; Paolo Pazzi; Giuseppe Mazzella; Claudia Sama

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate gallstone incidence and risk factors in a large population-based study.METHODS:Gallstone incidence and risk factors,were evaluated by structured questionnaire and physical examination,respectively,in 9611 of 11 109(86.5%)subjects who were gallstone-free at the cross-sectional study.RESULTS:Six centers throughout Italy enrolled 9611 subjects (5477 males,4134 females,aged 3079 years),9517 of whom were included into analysis:424 subjects (4.4%) had gallstones and 61 (0.6%)had been cholecystectomized yielding a cumulative incidence of 0.67% per year (0.66% in males,0.81% in females).Increasing age,a high body mass index (BMI),a history of diabetes,peptic ulcer and angina,and low cholesterol and high triglyceride levels were identified as risk factors in men while,in females,the only risk factors were increasing age and a high BMI.Increasing age and pain in the right hypocondrium in men and increasing age in females were identified as predictors of gallstones.Pain in the epigastrium/right hypocondrium was the only symptom related to gallstones;furthermore,some characteristics of pain(forcing to rest,not relieved by bowel movements)were significantly associated with gallstones.No correlation was found between gallstone characteristics and clinical manifestations,while increasing age in men and increasing age and BMI in females were predictors of pain.CONCLUSION:Increasing age and BMI represent true risk factors for gallstone disease (GD);pain in the right hypocondrium and/or epigastrium is confirmed as the only symptom related to gallstones.

  8. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children With High IQ: Results from a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Maja Z.; Voigt, Robert G.; Colligan, Robert C.; Weaver, Amy L.; Homan, Kendra J.; Barbaresi, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the characteristics of children with ADHD who have high IQ versus normal and low IQ through long-term follow-up of children with ADHD from a population-based birth cohort. Methods Subjects included children with research-identified ADHD (N=379) from a birth cohort (N=5,718). Full scale IQ scores obtained between ages 6 –18 years were used to categorize children into three groups: Low (IQ<80), Normal (80≤IQ<120) and High IQ (IQ≥120). Subjects were retrospectively followed from birth until emigration, death, or high school graduation/dropout. The groups were compared on demographic characteristics, age at which ADHD case criteria were met, co-morbidities, treatment, and school outcomes. Results There were no significant differences among children with high (N=34), normal (N=276) or low IQ (N=21) and ADHD in numerous characteristics, including median age at which ADHD criteria were fulfilled (9.5, 9.7, and 9.8 years); rates of co-morbid learning disorders (85.3%, 78.3%, 76.2%), psychiatric disorders (47.1%, 50.4%, 47.6%), and substance abuse (17.6%, 23.6%, 19.0%); and rates of stimulant treatment (79%, 75%, 90%). In comparison to children with normal or low IQ, those with high IQ had mothers with higher educational levels (e.g., college graduation rates 44.1%, 11.6%, 14.3%), and higher reading achievement (median national percentiles on standardized reading tests 77.0, 42.0, 29.0, p<0.001). Conclusions These findings suggest that ADHD is similar among children with high, normal and low IQ, although high IQ may favorably mediate some outcomes such as reading achievement. Diagnosis and treatment of ADHD are important for all children, regardless of cognitive ability. PMID:21200330

  9. Sodium intake may promote weight gain: results of the FANPE study in a representative sample of the adult Spanish population

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    Beatriz Navia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent studies have indicated that diets rich in sodium may predispose to the development of obesity, either directly, or be associated with the consumption of foods that promote weight gain. Objetive: The aims of this study were to analyze the association between urinary sodium and the presence of excess of weight. Additionally, the study investigated the relationships between salt intake and dietary habits, as a high salt intake may be associated with inadequate eating habits and a high incidence of obesity. Methods: This study involved 418 adults (196 men and 222 women aged 18 to 60 years old. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured, and we calculated, BMI and waist/height ratio. Dietary intake was estimated using a "24 h recalls", for two consecutive days, and sodium content was determined from 24 h urine sample. Results: The 34.4% of the population had overweight and 13.6% had obesity. A positive association was seen between BMI and urinary sodium concentration. Urine sodium values were also positively associated with others adiposity indicators such as waist circumference and waist/height ratio. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist/height ratio were higher in the group of individuals with a urinary sodium excretion > 154 mmol/l (Percentile 50 (P50. Additionally, individuals placed in this group presented a higher caloric intake and total food intake, in particular, more meat, processed food and snacks. Adjusting by energy intake, a higher sodium intake was a risk factor of being overweight or obese (OR = 1.0041, IC 95% 1.0015-1.0067, p < 0.01. Conclusions: Salt intake was associated with obesity; since people with higher sodium intake consumed more energy and presented worse eating habits. Additionally, sodium intake itself appears to be related to obesity.

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function in middle aged and elderly Lithuanian urban population: results from the HAPIEE study

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    Tamosiunas Abdonas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine associations between cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive ability in middle aged and elderly Lithuanian urban population. Methods Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe study were presented. A random sample of 7,087 individuals aged 45–72 years was screened in 2006–2008. Results The scores of immediate recall and delayed verbal recall, cognitive speed and attention were significantly lower in men than in women; yet numerical ability scores were higher in men. Significant associations between lowered cognitive functions and previous stroke (in male OR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.75-3.64; in female OR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.75, 3.64 as well as ischemic heart disease history (among male OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.03-1.60 have been determined. Higher level of physical activity in leisure time (among female OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.03-1.69, poor self-rated health (among male OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.15-2.14 and poor quality of life (in male OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.07-2.61; in female OR = 2.81; 95% CI = 1.92-4.11 were related to lowered cognitive function. Conclusions The findings of the study suggest that associations between cardiovascular risk factors and lowered cognitive function among healthy middle-aged and elderly adults strongly depend on gender.

  11. Have patients with esophagitis got an increased risk of adenocarcinoma? Results from a population-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seamus J Murphy; Lesley A Anderson; Brian T Johnston; Deirdre A Fitzpatrick; Peter RG Watson; Pauline Monaghan; Liam J Murray

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine an increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma is restricted to patients who develop Barrett's esophagus or whether esophagitis per se is a risk factor for adenocarcinoma.METHODS: A population-based cohort of patients with histological evidence of esophagitis without Barrett's esophagus was constructed using electronic pathology reports relating to all esophageal biopsies in Northern Ireland between 1993 and 1996. Person-years of followup and incident cases of esophageal cancer were calculated by linking the cohort to death files and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry records. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated for esophageal cancers (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and histologically unspecified cancers).RESULTS: A total of 2 013 patients in the cohort provided 13 559 patient-years of follow-up (mean follow-up 6.7 years). None of the patients developed adenocarcinoma. Three patients developed SCC, and six developed histologically unspecified cancers. The SIR for all esophageal cancers and for SCC were 2.73 (95%CI 1.25-5.19) and 2.93 (95%CI 0.61-8.59), respectively. In a sensitivity analysis in which all unspecified esophageal cancers were treated as adenocarcinomas, the SIR for adenocarcinoma was 2.64 (0.97-5.75).CONCLUSION: The risk of adenocarcinoma is not elevated in patients with histological evidence of esophagitis without Barrett's esophagus; however, these patients may have a moderately increased risk of SCC.Further studies are required to confirm these findings,which suggest that Barrett's esophagus, not esophagitis,is the key precursor lesion in the development of adenocarcinoma.

  12. Effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening: results from a population-based case-control evaluation in Saarland, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, J; Robra, B P; Wiebelt, H; Oberhausen, R; Weiland, M; Dhom, G

    1993-05-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening by the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in Germany a population-based case-control study was conducted in Saarland, a southwestern state of Germany. As cases, we identified 522 persons (244 males, 278 females) who died of colorectal cancer between 1983 and 1986 between the ages of 55 and 75 years. For 163 male cases complete screening histories were retrieved together with up to five age-matched controls who had not died of colorectal cancer identified from the files of the case's referring general practitioner (GP). For 209 female cases screening histories were retrieved from their GPs and gynaecologists as well as for age-matched controls. Individual screening histories were established with emphasis on identifying whether FOBTs were carried out asymptomatically or symptomatically. In the time period 6-36 months prior to diagnosis 13% of the male cases and 14% of the male controls had at least one asymptomatic FOBT with a corresponding matched odds ratio of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.75). For the same prediagnostic period 16% of the female cases and 29% of the female controls had at least one asymptomatic FOBT leading to an odds ratio of 0.43 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.68). Thus, for males where participation rates are generally low, no protective effect could be seen but for females where participation rates are higher a clear protective effect is seen. Possibilities for bias need to be taken into consideration when interpreting these results. Organizational measures ensuring a high penetrance of a mass screening programme are seen as a way to elevate efficacy.

  13. RESULTS AND PROSPECTS OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELL-BEING ENSURING FOR THE POPULATION OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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    G. G. Onischenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The report states priority goals of sanitary and epidemiological service and shows the analysis of the Service's administrative reforms and structural changes from 1991 to 2007. It considers the existing regulatory and legal background on all aspects of hygiene and epidemiology as well as the Concept of the Federal Service Development. It analyses the work of Rospotrebnadzor  bodies in ensuring of sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population, including current state of population radiation protection in Russian Federation.

  14. Population isolation results in low genetic variation and high differentiation in Carolina hemlock (tsuga caroliniana), an imperiled southern Appalachian conifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Lia Campbell; Sedley A. Josserand; C. Dana Nelson; Robert M. Jetton

    2017-01-01

    Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana) is a rare conifer species that grows in small, isolated populations in the southern Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia. The species is additionally imperiled by the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an invasive insect that can...

  15. Are lower urinary tract symptoms associated with cardiovascular disease in the Dutch general population? Results from the Krimpen study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Inge I.; Blanker, Marco H.; Schouten, Boris W. V.; Bohnen, Arthur M.; Nijman, Rien J. M.; van der Heide, Wouter K.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud

    To describe the association between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), with adjustment for age and other confounders. We were specifically interested in the possible predictive value of LUTS to the incidence of CVD in the future in the general population. We

  16. Are lower urinary tract symptoms associated with cardiovascular disease in the Dutch general population? Results from the Krimpen study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Inge I.; Blanker, Marco H.; Schouten, Boris W. V.; Bohnen, Arthur M.; Nijman, Rien J. M.; van der Heide, Wouter K.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud

    PURPOSE: To describe the association between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), with adjustment for age and other confounders. We were specifically interested in the possible predictive value of LUTS to the incidence of CVD in the future in the general population.

  17. Pressure Ulcers in the United States' Inpatient Population From 2008 to 2012: Results of a Retrospective Nationwide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Karen; Rock, Kathryn; Nazzal, Munier; Jones, Olivia; Qu, Weikai

    2016-11-01

    Pressure ulcers are common, increase patient morbidity and mortality, and costly for patients, their families, and the health care system. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the impact of pressure ulcers on short-term outcomes in United States inpatient populations and to identify patient characteristics associated with having 1 or more pressure ulcers. The US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was analyzed using the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9 CM) diagnosis codes as the screening tool for all inpatient pressure ulcers recorded from 2008 to 2012. Patient demographics and comorbid conditions, as identified by ICD-9 code, were extracted, along with primary outcomes of length of stay (LOS), total hospital charge (TC), inhospital mortality, and discharge disposition. Continuous variables with normal distribution were expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation. Group comparisons were performed using t-test or ANOVA test. Continuous nonnormal distributed variables such as LOS and TC were expressed in terms of median, and nonparametric tests were used to compare the differences between groups. Categorical data were presented in terms of percentages of the number of cases within each group. Chi-squared tests were used to compare categorical data in different groups. For multivariate analysis, linear regressions (for continuous variable) and logistic regression (for categorical variables) were used to analyze the possible risk factors for the investigated outcomes of LOS, TC, inhospital mortality, and patient disposition. Coefficients were calculated with multivariate regression with all included patients versus patients with pressure ulcers alone. The 5-year average number of admitted patients with at least 1 pressure ulcer was determined to be 670 767 (average overall rate: 1.8%). Statistically significant differences between patients with and without pressure ulcers were observed for

  18. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: results from a multi-ethnic population-based survey in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Rampal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. METHODS: In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009 criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those <40 years, the adjusted prevalence ratios for metabolic syndrome for ethnic Chinese, Indians, and Indigenous Sarawakians compared to ethnic Malay were 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.96, 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69 and 1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.73, respectively. Among those aged ≥40 years, the corresponding prevalence ratios were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36, and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.11. The P-value for the interaction of ethnicity by age was 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic

  19. Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: Results from a Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Survey in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guallar, Eliseo; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahmat, Ramlee; Arif, Mohamad Taha; Rampal, Lekhraj

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. Methods In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009) criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Results The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those metabolic syndrome for ethnic Chinese, Indians, and Indigenous Sarawakians compared to ethnic Malay were 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.96), 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69) and 1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.73), respectively. Among those aged ≥40 years, the corresponding prevalence ratios were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.92), 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36), and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.11). The P-value for the interaction of ethnicity by age was 0.001. Conclusions The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic syndrome at young ages. PMID:23029497

  20. The serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin level and the diet of a Japanese population: results from the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusyo, Norihiro; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Eiichi; Okada, Kyoko; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The elevated serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) level is related to osteoporosis. In Japan, vitamin K intake is lower, and the incidence of hip fractures noticeably higher in northern Kyushu than in other areas. The study was done to determine the serum ucOC levels in a Japanese population and its association with diet and glucose metabolism. The data of 3,658 healthy adults aged 40-69 (1,373 men and 2,285 women) who lived in northern Kyushu area were analyzed. The data included anthropometric measurements and a self-reported personal interview on daily intake of foods. The serum ucOC level of each participant was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Glycohemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, and serum insulin concentrations were measured. The median serum ucOC level of the women (4.65 ng/mL) was significantly higher than that of the men (3.04 ng/mL) (P = 0.0021). The age-specific ucOC levels of the men decreased significantly with age. In contrast, the ucOC levels of the women aged ≥50 were elevated, but the levels varied markedly within the other age groups. For both men and women, multivariate analysis identified a daily diet rich in vitamin K and HbA1c level as independently having a significant, negative relationship to serum ucOC level. Our study indicates that the serum ucOC decreases with age in men, increases postmenopausally in women, and correlates inversely with dietary consumption of certain foods and with fasting glucose and HbA1c level.

  1. Biomarkers of Environmental Enteropathy are Positively Associated with Immune Responses to an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Bangladeshi Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ikhtear Uddin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enteropathy (EE is a poorly understood condition that refers to chronic alterations in intestinal permeability, absorption, and inflammation, which mainly affects young children in resource-limited settings. Recently, EE has been linked to suboptimal oral vaccine responses in children, although immunological mechanisms are poorly defined. The objective of this study was to determine host factors associated with immune responses to an oral cholera vaccine (OCV. We measured antibody and memory T cell immune responses to cholera antigens, micronutrient markers in blood, and EE markers in blood and stool from 40 Bangladeshi children aged 3-14 years who received two doses of OCV given 14 days apart. EE markers included stool myeloperoxidase (MPO and alpha anti-trypsin (AAT, and plasma endotoxin core antibody (EndoCab, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (i-FABP, and soluble CD14 (sCD14. We used multiple linear regression analysis with LASSO regularization to identify host factors, including EE markers, micronutrient (nutritional status, age, and HAZ score, predictive for each response of interest. We found stool MPO to be positively associated with IgG antibody responses to the B subunit of cholera toxin (P = 0.03 and IgA responses to LPS (P = 0.02; plasma sCD14 to be positively associated with LPS IgG responses (P = 0.07; plasma i-FABP to be positively associated with LPS IgG responses (P = 0.01 and with memory T cell responses specific to cholera toxin (P = 0.01; stool AAT to be negatively associated with IL-10 (regulatory T cell responses specific to cholera toxin (P = 0.02, and plasma EndoCab to be negatively associated with cholera toxin-specific memory T cell responses (P = 0.02. In summary, in a cohort of children 3-14 years old, we demonstrated that the majority of biomarkers of environmental enteropathy were positively associated with immune responses after vaccination with an OCV.

  2. Biomarkers of Environmental Enteropathy are Positively Associated with Immune Responses to an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Bangladeshi Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Islam, Shahidul; Nishat, Naoshin S.; Hossain, Motaher; Rafique, Tanzeem Ahmed; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Hoq, Mohammad Rubel; Zhang, Yue; Saha, Amit; Harris, Jason B.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Ryan, Edward T.; Leung, Daniel T.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a poorly understood condition that refers to chronic alterations in intestinal permeability, absorption, and inflammation, which mainly affects young children in resource-limited settings. Recently, EE has been linked to suboptimal oral vaccine responses in children, although immunological mechanisms are poorly defined. The objective of this study was to determine host factors associated with immune responses to an oral cholera vaccine (OCV). We measured antibody and memory T cell immune responses to cholera antigens, micronutrient markers in blood, and EE markers in blood and stool from 40 Bangladeshi children aged 3–14 years who received two doses of OCV given 14 days apart. EE markers included stool myeloperoxidase (MPO) and alpha anti-trypsin (AAT), and plasma endotoxin core antibody (EndoCab), intestinal fatty acid binding protein (i-FABP), and soluble CD14 (sCD14). We used multiple linear regression analysis with LASSO regularization to identify host factors, including EE markers, micronutrient (nutritional) status, age, and HAZ score, predictive for each response of interest. We found stool MPO to be positively associated with IgG antibody responses to the B subunit of cholera toxin (P = 0.03) and IgA responses to LPS (P = 0.02); plasma sCD14 to be positively associated with LPS IgG responses (P = 0.07); plasma i-FABP to be positively associated with LPS IgG responses (P = 0.01) and with memory T cell responses specific to cholera toxin (P = 0.01); stool AAT to be negatively associated with IL-10 (regulatory) T cell responses specific to cholera toxin (P = 0.02), and plasma EndoCab to be negatively associated with cholera toxin-specific memory T cell responses (P = 0.02). In summary, in a cohort of children 3–14 years old, we demonstrated that the majority of biomarkers of environmental enteropathy were positively associated with immune responses after vaccination with an OCV. PMID:27824883

  3. Biomarkers of Environmental Enteropathy are Positively Associated with Immune Responses to an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Bangladeshi Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Islam, Shahidul; Nishat, Naoshin S; Hossain, Motaher; Rafique, Tanzeem Ahmed; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Hoq, Mohammad Rubel; Zhang, Yue; Saha, Amit; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Ryan, Edward T; Leung, Daniel T; Qadri, Firdausi

    2016-11-01

    Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a poorly understood condition that refers to chronic alterations in intestinal permeability, absorption, and inflammation, which mainly affects young children in resource-limited settings. Recently, EE has been linked to suboptimal oral vaccine responses in children, although immunological mechanisms are poorly defined. The objective of this study was to determine host factors associated with immune responses to an oral cholera vaccine (OCV). We measured antibody and memory T cell immune responses to cholera antigens, micronutrient markers in blood, and EE markers in blood and stool from 40 Bangladeshi children aged 3-14 years who received two doses of OCV given 14 days apart. EE markers included stool myeloperoxidase (MPO) and alpha anti-trypsin (AAT), and plasma endotoxin core antibody (EndoCab), intestinal fatty acid binding protein (i-FABP), and soluble CD14 (sCD14). We used multiple linear regression analysis with LASSO regularization to identify host factors, including EE markers, micronutrient (nutritional) status, age, and HAZ score, predictive for each response of interest. We found stool MPO to be positively associated with IgG antibody responses to the B subunit of cholera toxin (P = 0.03) and IgA responses to LPS (P = 0.02); plasma sCD14 to be positively associated with LPS IgG responses (P = 0.07); plasma i-FABP to be positively associated with LPS IgG responses (P = 0.01) and with memory T cell responses specific to cholera toxin (P = 0.01); stool AAT to be negatively associated with IL-10 (regulatory) T cell responses specific to cholera toxin (P = 0.02), and plasma EndoCab to be negatively associated with cholera toxin-specific memory T cell responses (P = 0.02). In summary, in a cohort of children 3-14 years old, we demonstrated that the majority of biomarkers of environmental enteropathy were positively associated with immune responses after vaccination with an OCV.

  4. Joint U.S./Russian studies of population exposures resulting from nuclear production activities in the southern Urals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Bruce A

    2014-02-01

    Beginning in 1948, the Soviet Union initiated a program for production of nuclear materials for a weapons program. The first facility for production of plutonium was constructed in the central portion of the country east of the southern Ural Mountains, about halfway between the major industrial cities of Ekaterinburg and Chelyabinsk. The facility, now known as the Mayak Production Association, and its associated town, now known as Ozersk, were built to irradiate uranium in reactors, separate the resulting plutonium in reprocessing plants, and prepare plutonium metal in the metallurgical plant. The rush to production, coupled with inexperience in handling radioactive materials, led to large radiation exposures, not only to the workers in the facilities, but also to the surrounding public. Fuel processing started with no controls on releases, and fuel dissolution and accidents in reactors resulted in release of ~37 PBq of I between 1948 and 1967. Designed disposals of low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive wastes, and accidental releases via cooling water from tank farms of high-level liquid radioactive wastes into the small Techa River, caused significant contamination and exposures to residents of numerous small riverside villages downstream of the site. Discovery of the magnitude of the aquatic contamination in late 1951 caused revisions to the waste handling regimes, but not before over 200 PBq of radionuclides (with large contributions of Sr and Cs) were released. Liquid wastes were diverted to tiny Lake Karachay (which today holds over 4 EBq); cooling water was stopped in the tank farms. In 1957, one of the tanks in the tank farm overheated and exploded; over 70 PBq, disproportionately Sr, was blown over a large area to the northeast of the site. A large area was contaminated and many villages evacuated. This area today is known as the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT). Each of these releases was significant; together they have created a unique group

  5. Overview of the Dietary Intakes of the Mexican Population: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan A; Pedraza, Lilia S; Aburto, Tania C; Batis, Carolina; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; González de Cosío, Teresita; López-Olmedo, Nancy; Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Mexico is facing the double burden of malnutrition: stunting and micronutrient deficiencies in young children, iron deficiency in pregnant women, and widespread obesity across age groups. The aim was to summarize and discuss findings published in this supplement on dietary intakes and the eating habits of the Mexican population. A 24-h recall questionnaire that used the multiple-pass method with a repeated measure in a fraction of the sample was applied in a nationally representative sample. We estimated mean intakes and percentages of inadequacy for macronutrients and micronutrients; mean intakes and percentages of the population who adhere to dietary recommendations for food groups; sources of added sugars; intakes of discretionary foods by mealtime, place, and activity; and mean dietary intakes in children malnutrition and are useful to design food and nutrition policies. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Risk of intestinal lymphoma in undiagnosed coeliac disease: results from a registered population with different coeliac disease prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elli, Luca; Contiero, Paolo; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tomba, Carolina; Bardella, Maria Teresa

    2012-09-01

    Coeliac disease is often undiagnosed, early diagnosis and treatment could be relevant to avoid fearful complications as intestinal lymphoma. Our aim is to estimate the risk of intestinal lymphoma in undiagnosed coeliac patients, evaluating the real incidences and applying different theoretical settings of coeliac prevalence. We collected cases of intestinal lymphomas from the Lombardy Cancer Registry and coeliac patients through computerized search of all Pathology Departments; duodenal pathological reports compatible with a Marsh 3 grade were included. The lymphoproliferative risk was calculated for theoretical different settings of coeliac prevalence (from 1:50 to 1:200), relative risks for intestinal lymphomas and compared to the real incidence of the lymphomas in this population. Population consisted in 815,362 inhabitants; during the investigated period of time, 237 intestinal lymphomas and 326 coeliac patients were diagnosed. None of the coeliac patients had lymphoma. In the different scenarios calculated and compared with the real lymphoma incidence the relative risks of undiagnosed celiac disease for gastrointestinal B- and T-cell lymphomas ranges from 1.0 to 2.0 for 1:100 coeliac disease prevalence. Undiagnosed coeliac patients have no increased risk of developing intestinal lymphoma; population screening programmes, aimed at early diagnosis of lymphoma may not be useful in this setting. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Decreasing population blood pressure is not mediated by changes in habitual physical activity. Results from 15 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, UO; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Population blood pressure (PBP) is the average BP shared by all members of a population. In PBP research, the main focus is on the great majority of individuals who are healthy in respect to blood pressure. From previous studies, we know that PBP decreased 2 mmHg during 15 years...... population sample. Three surveys were performed with 15 years of follow-up. Methods. BP was measured under standardized circumstances. A questionnaire concerning physical exercise was completed. Two scales were used, describing physical activity at work and during leisure-time, respectively. Results. Most...

  8. MAIN RESULTS AND WAYS TO IMPROVE THE UNIFORM STATE SYSTEM FOR POPULATION EXPOSURE DOSES CONTROL AND REGISTRATION ON THE BASIS OF STATE STATISTICAL SURVEILLANCE FORMS № 4-DOZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Svetovidov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of operation results of databanks on the level and structure of the Russian Federation population exposure from natural radiation sources for the period of 2001-2010. We consider the ways to improve the system of collecting and recording of the data on the doses from natural exposure to the population based on the experience and the modern regulatory system for radiation protection.

  9. Severe Sepsis in Severely Malnourished Young Bangladeshi Children with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available In developing countries, there is no published report on predicting factors of severe sepsis in severely acute malnourished (SAM children having pneumonia and impact of fluid resuscitation in such children. Thus, we aimed to identify predicting factors for severe sepsis and assess the outcome of fluid resuscitation of such children.In this retrospective case-control study SAM children aged 0-59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh from April 2011 through July 2012 with history of cough or difficult breathing and radiologic pneumonia, who were assessed for severe sepsis at admission constituted the study population. We compared the pneumonic SAM children with severe sepsis (cases = 50 with those without severe sepsis (controls = 354. Severe sepsis was defined with objective clinical criteria and managed with fluid resuscitation, in addition to antibiotic and other supportive therapy, following the standard hospital guideline, which is very similar to the WHO guideline.The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (40% vs. 4%; p<0.001. In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, lack of BCG vaccination, drowsiness, abdominal distension, acute kidney injury, and metabolic acidosis at admission remained as independent predicting factors for severe sepsis in pneumonic SAM children (p<0.05 for all comparisons.We noted a much higher case fatality among under-five SAM children with pneumonia and severe sepsis who required fluid resuscitation in addition to standard antibiotic and other supportive therapy compared to those without severe sepsis. Independent risk factors and outcome of the management of severe sepsis in our study children highlight the importance for defining optimal fluid resuscitation therapy aiming at reducing the case fatality in such children.

  10. Prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension in the population over 55 years old. Results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, J Gorjão; De Macedo, Mário Espiga; Pego, Mariano

    2007-01-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction and stroke) and premature mortality, particularly in the elderly population. Among this population, it is an even better predictor of morbidity and mortality than diastolic blood pressure (BP). This cooperative survey was promoted by the World Hypertension League, Associação Portuguesa de Hipertensão, Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia Preventiva, Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia, Sociedade Portuguesa de Geriatria, Sociedade Portuguesa de Medicina Intema, and Direcção Geral de Saúde, with the collaboration of Servier Portugal. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the prevalence of ISH within the Portuguese elderly population (aged 55+) during the year 2000, compared and together with other countries, in order to estimate its worldwide prevalence. Secondary objectives were to investigate demographic factors related to ISH (age, gender and other cardiovascular risk factors) and to analyze the effects of repeated blood pressure measurements on prevalence and on postural variations in blood pressure. We performed a survey including 108 primary care centers. General practitioners were invited to include the first consecutive 15 patients aged over 55 years. Subjects were be selected over a period of one week and had to agree to attend three visits. All blood pressure measurements were to be performed in accordance with the standards of the 7th Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI). 1031 subjects were included in this survey. We concluded that ISH prevalence ranges between 20.3% in primary" care patients and 35% in the community, using mean values of both systolic and diastolic BP. ISH prevalence is higher among women; it increases with age, decreasing slightly after the age of 70. Risk factors include gender, age and family history of hypertension. The predictive value for ISH

  11. Prevalence of cluster headache in the Republic of Georgia: results of a population-based study and methodological considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarava, Z; Dzagnidze, A; Kukava, M

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the general-population prevalence of cluster headache in the Republic of Georgia and discuss the advantages and challenges of different methodological approaches. In a community-based survey, specially trained medical residents visited 500 adjacent households in the capital...... with possible cluster headache, who were then personally interviewed by one of two headache-experienced neurologists. Cluster headache was confirmed in one subject. The prevalence of cluster headache was therefore estimated to be 87/100,000 (95% confidence interval

  12. Generational Differences in Fast Food Intake Among South-Asian Americans: Results From a Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to improve dietary outcomes among this fast-growing ethnic population in the United States. PMID:25474383

  13. First Results from ARTEMIS, a New Two-Spacecraft Lunar Mission: Counter-Streaming Plasma Populations in the Lunar Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Russell, C. T.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Larson, D.; Ergun, R. E.; Plaschke, F.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2011-12-01

    We present observations from the first passage through the lunar plasma wake by one of two spacecraft comprising ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun), a new lunar mission that re-tasks two of five probes from the THEMIS magnetospheric mission. On Feb 13, 2010, ARTEMIS probe P1 passed through the wake at ˜3.5 lunar radii downstream from the Moon, in a region between those explored by Wind and the Lunar Prospector, Kaguya, Chandrayaan, and Chang'E missions. ARTEMIS observed interpenetrating proton, alpha particle, and electron populations refilling the wake along magnetic field lines from both flanks. The characteristics of these distributions match expectations from self-similar models of plasma expansion into vacuum, with an asymmetric character likely driven by a combination of a tilted interplanetary magnetic field and an anisotropic incident solar wind electron population. On this flyby, ARTEMIS provided unprecedented measurements of the interpenetrating beams of both electrons and ions naturally produced by the filtration and acceleration effects of electric fields set up during the refilling process. ARTEMIS also measured electrostatic oscillations closely correlated with counter-streaming electron beams in the wake, as previously hypothesized but never before directly measured. These observations demonstrate the capability of the comprehensively instrumented ARTEMIS spacecraft and the potential for new lunar science from this unique two spacecraft constellation.

  14. First Results from ARTEMIS, A New Two-Spacecraft Lunar Mission: Counter-Streaming Plasma Populations in the Lunar Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Russell, C. T.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Larson, D.; Ergun, R. E.; Plaschke, F.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    We present observations from the first passage through the lunar plasma wake by one of two spacecraft comprising ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun), a new lunar mission that re-tasks two of five probes from the THEMIS magnetospheric mission. On Feb 13, 2010, ARTEMIS probe P1 passed through the wake at approximately 3.5 lunar radii downstream from the Moon, in a region between those explored by Wind and the Lunar Prospector, Kaguya, Chandrayaan, and Chang'E missions. ARTEMIS observed interpenetrating proton, alpha particle, and electron populations refilling the wake along magnetic field lines from both flanks. The characteristics of these distributions match expectations from self-similar models of plasma expansion into vacuum, with an asymmetric character likely driven by a combination of a tilted interplanetary magnetic field and an anisotropic incident solar wind electron population. On this flyby, ARTEMIS provided unprecedented measurements of the interpenetrating beams of both electrons and ions naturally produced by the filtration and acceleration effects of electric fields set up during the refilling process. ARTEMIS also measured electrostatic oscillations closely correlated with counter-streaming electron beams in the wake, as previously hypothesized but never before directly measured. These observations demonstrate the capability of the comprehensively instrumented ARTEMIS spacecraft and the potential for new lunar science from this unique two spacecraft constellation.

  15. Sunbed Use Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recreational sunbed use accounts for the main non-solar source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in fair-skinned Western populations. Indoor tanning is associated with increased risks for acute and chronic dermatological diseases. The current community-based study assessed the one-year prevalence of sunbed use and associated skin health habits among a representative, gender-balanced sample of 1500 Austrian citizens. Overall one-year prevalence of sunbed use was 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI 7.5%–10.4%, with slightly higher prevalence in females (9.2%, 95% CI 7.3%–11.2% compared to males (8.6%, 95% CI 6.7%–10.6%. Factors predicting sunbed use were younger age (by trend decreasing with older age, place of living, smoking, skin type (by trend increasing with darker skin, sun exposure, motives to tan, and use of UV-free tanning products. Despite media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight and sunbed exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunbed use among Austrian citizens. From a Public (Skin Health perspective, the current research extends the understanding of prevailing leisure time skin health habits in adding data on prevalence of sunbed use in the general Austrian population.

  16. Cardiovascular Events in Cancer Patients Treated with Highly or Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy: Results from a Population-Based Study

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    Thao T. Vo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on cardiovascular safety in cancer patients treated with highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or MEC, who may have taken the antiemetic, aprepitant, have been limited to clinical trials and postmarketing spontaneous reports. Our study explored background rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD events among HEC- or MEC-treated cancer patients in a population-based setting to contextualize events seen in a new drug development program and to determine at a high level whether rates differed by aprepitant usage. Medical and pharmacy claims data from the 2005–2007 IMPACT National Benchmark Database were classified into emetogenic chemotherapy categories and CVD outcomes. Among 5827 HEC/MEC-treated patients, frequencies were highest for hypertension (16–21% and composites of venous (7–12% and arterial thromboembolic events (4–7%. Aprepitant users generally did not experience higher frequencies of events compared to nonusers. Our study serves as a useful benchmark of background CVD event rates in a population-based setting of cancer patients.

  17. First Results from ARTEMIS, A New Two-Spacecraft Lunar Mission: Counter-Streaming Plasma Populations in the Lunar Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Russell, C. T.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Larson, D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present observations from the first passage through the lunar plasma wake by one of two spacecraft comprising ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun), a new lunar mission that re-tasks two of five probes from the THEMIS magnetospheric mission. On Feb 13, 2010, ARTEMIS probe P1 passed through the wake at approximately 3.5 lunar radii downstream from the Moon, in a region between those explored by Wind and the Lunar Prospector, Kaguya, Chandrayaan, and Chang'E missions. ARTEMIS observed interpenetrating proton, alpha particle, and electron populations refilling the wake along magnetic field lines from both flanks. The characteristics of these distributions match expectations from self-similar models of plasma expansion into vacuum, with an asymmetric character likely driven by a combination of a tilted interplanetary magnetic field and an anisotropic incident solar wind electron population. On this flyby, ARTEMIS provided unprecedented measurements of the interpenetrating beams of both electrons and ions naturally produced by the filtration and acceleration effects of electric fields set up during the refilling process. ARTEMIS also measured electrostatic oscillations closely correlated with counter-streaming electron beams in the wake, as previously hypothesized but never before directly measured. These observations demonstrate the capability of the comprehensively instrumented ARTEMIS spacecraft and the potential for new lunar science from this unique two spacecraft constellation.

  18. Zoogeographical results of the bicentennial study of the northern part of the asian population of Phoenicopterus roseus

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    Boris Yu. Kassal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of 205 years, there have been carried out dozens of censuses of nests and nesting bird individuals, summerings and non-nesting bird individuals, winterings and wintering bird individuals, the determinations of migration routes in the Caspian region and across the Caspian Sea, in Central and Southern Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Russia. Until the early XXI century, the main flamingo nesting sites were located in the Caspian region and along the Caspian Sea within the Russian Empire / USSR / Commonwealth of Independent States. It was found that such a geographical distribution of flamingo nesting sites was established until 1930 by the relative stability of the global climate conditions in northern Eurasia that have caused the stand of water level in the Caspian Sea. During this period, in the northern part of the Asian population the monitoring of the flamingo had the form of collecting mainly qualitative information. Amongst these are the determination of the locations of breeding sites, summerings and winterings; the bird's abundance was characterised mainly using the epithets. The next period (from 1931 to 1977 was caused by the development of anthropogenic influences and by changes of global climatic conditions in northern Eurasia, which have caused a decrease in the water level in the Caspian Sea. Environmental effects of the hydrological regime changes were the most significant in the shallow north-eastern part of the Caspian Sea. The breeding sites and the summerings (that were located there had changed dislocation. Sometimes such a dislocation was observed over a wide area, up to the complete loss of breeding sites and summerings. During this period, the observations had the character of quantative information collecting and clarification of qualitative data: determination of new locations of breeding sites, duration of their existence, location of summerings and winterings, sizes of flocks and groupings, and

  19. [The age and sex indicators of mortality of population and years of life lost as a result of premature mortality in the Russian Federation in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiytsov, S A; Samorodskaya, I V

    2014-01-01

    The age-specific mortality coefficients and years of life lost as a result of premature mortality are among important medical demographic characteristics of population health. The study analyzed age and sex indicators of mortality of population in the Russian Federation. The number of years of life lost as a result of premature mortality is calculated. The comparison of values of years of life lost in various subjects of the Russian Federation was carried out. The data of Rosstat concerning population size and number of the deceased in year age groups in the Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian Federation in 2012 was used. The indicator was calculated on the basis of technique included into "The global burden of diseases report" (2010). The minimal indicators of mortality of males are noted at the age of 11 years (25.4 per 100 000 of population) and females at the age of 10 years (18.2 per 100 000 of population). The maximal differences in indicators of mortality of males and females are marked in the age group 20-29 years (314.5 of males and 92.3 of females per 100 000 of population). The percentage of deceased prior 70 years consists 63.2% among males and 29.9% among females. The total number of years of life lost in the Russian Federation consisted 36 864 309 and out of them 24 321 992 (65.9%) as a result of death of males and 12 542 317 (34.1%) as a result of death of females. The maximum percentage of years of life lost among males is marked in the age group of 51-60 years (24.61%) and among females in the age group of 71-80 years (22.38%). The indicator of years of life lost per 100 000 of population consisted 25769 for total population, 36 753 for male population and 16 314 for female population. The highest rate of indicator of years of life lost is marked in the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug and the lowest rate in the Republics of the Northern Caucasus and Moscow. However, in all subjects of the Russian Federation indicator of years of life lost is

  20. Prevalence, symptoms and chronicity of ciguatera in New Caledonia: results from an adult population survey conducted in Noumea during 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Francine; Bourrat, Marie-Blanche; Pauillac, Serge

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatera is a widespread ichthyosarcotoxism which causes gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. Investigations conducted by ORSTOM in 1992 highlighted a prevalence of 25% in the adult population of Noumea, New Caledonia. The main objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of ciguatera and the persistence of symptoms by sex and by ethnicity among adult patients of a nurse clinic in Noumea in 2005. Investigations were conducted from 1st January to 15th June 2005. During this period, 559 patients were included: 165 males and 394 females. Among them, 37.8% were poisoned at least once in their life. This rate was independent of gender and ethnicity, but was significantly higher in age groups above 40 years. Neurological signs were more frequent (>80%) than gastrointestinal (ciguatera prevalence, and its chronicity for 1/5 of European cases.

  1. Independent prognostic effect of co-morbidity in lymphoma patients: results of the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spronsen, D J; Janssen-Heijnen, M L G; Lemmens, V E P P; Peters, W G; Coebergh, J W W

    2005-05-01

    The prevalence of co-morbidity among elderly lymphoma patients is associated with a decrease in the use of chemotherapy. This study assessed the independent prognostic effect of co-morbidity in 1551 unselected lymphoma patients, diagnosed between 1995 and 2001 in the area of the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry. The prevalence of serious co-morbidity was 58% for patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) who were over 60 years of age and 66% for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) who were over 60 years of age. The administration of chemotherapy declined in the presence of co-morbidity for elderly patients with early-stage HD and elderly patients with aggressive NHL. Co-morbidity was associated with a 10-20% decline in 5-year survival. Whether less frequent application of chemotherapy in the presence of co-morbidity is justified as far as complications, prognosis and quality of life are concerned requires further investigation.

  2. [Results and prospects of the guarantee of sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The issues of further development of scientific and methodological basis of the guarantee of sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population of the Russian Federation are highlighted in accordance with the implementation of the Concept of the activity of the Federal Service for the Oversight of Consumer Protection and Welfare until 2015. Features of this work over the past 5 years have been characterized, they include: changes in the structure of the objects under surveillance; integration processes in the economy of the country rise of attention to social problems of society strengthening the influence of epidemiological and natural man-made disasters in the world and the country, improvement of the supervisory authorities of the Service, the formation of its new structure and development of legislative assembly, including sanitary legislation.

  3. Associations between former exposure to manganese and olfaction in an elderly population: Results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casjens, Swaantje; Pesch, Beate; Robens, Sibylle; Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Weiss, Tobias; Ulrich, Nadin; Arendt, Marina; Eisele, Lewin; Pundt, Noreen; Marr, Anja; van Thriel, Christoph; Van Gelder, Rainer; Aschner, Michael; Moebus, Susanne; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brüning, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Occupational exposure to manganese (Mn) has been associated with impairments in olfaction and motor functions, but it has yet to be determined if such effects persist upon cessation of exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of former occupational Mn exposure on olfaction within the framework of a prospective cohort study among an elderly German population. Information on job tasks with recognized Mn exposure and data on odor identification assessed with Sniffin' sticks was collected during the second follow-up of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. The study population consisted of 1385 men aged 55-86 years, 354 of whom ever worked in jobs with potential Mn exposure (median 58.3μg/m(3) years, interquartile range 19.0-185μg/m(3) years). Multiple exposure measures, including job tasks, cumulative Mn exposure, and Mn determined in blood samples (MnB) archived at baseline, were used to estimate effects of Mn on olfaction. Having ever worked as welder was associated with better olfaction compared to other blue-collar workers without Mn exposure. Blue-collar workers identified less odors in comparison to white-collar workers. Concentrations of previous Mn exposure >185μg/m(3) years or MnB ≥15μg/L were not associated with impaired olfaction. In addition to a strong age effect, participants with lower occupational qualification identified less odors. We found no relevant association of former Mn exposure at relatively low levels with impaired olfaction. Possible neurotoxic Mn effects may not be persistent after cessation.

  4. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities of two Bangladeshi medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ajoy; Biswas, Subrata Kumar; Chowdhury, Anusua; Shill, Manik Chandra; Raihan, Sheikh Zahir; Muhit, Md Abdul

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate phytochemical screening and to assay cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extracts of leaves of two medicinal plants, Aglaonema hookerianum Schott (Family: Araceae) and Lannea grandis Engl. (Family: Anacardiaceae) available in Bangladesh. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay showed that the ethanolic extracts of Aglaonema hookerianum and Lannea grandis possessed cytotoxic activities with LC50 5.25 (microg mL(-1)) and 5.75 (microg mL(-1)) and LC90 10.47 (microg mL(-1)) and 9.55 (microg mL(-1)), respectively. Two extracts obtained from leaves were examined for their antibacterial activities against some gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus, also gram negative strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi and Vibrio cholerae. Agar disc diffusion method was applied to observe the antibacterial efficacy of the extracts. Results indicated that both plant extracts (500 microg disc(-1)) displayed antibacterial activity against all of the tested microorganisms. These results were also compared with the zones of inhibition produced by commercially available standard antibiotic, Amoxicillin at concentration of 10 microg disc(-1). Observed antibacterial properties of the ethanolic extract of Aglaonema hookerianum Schott and Lannea grandis Engl. showed that both plants might be useful sources for the development of new potent antibacterial agents.

  5. GLYCEMIC RESPONSE AND GLYCEMIC INDEX OF BANGLADESHI HONEY IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

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    MD. IBRAHIM KHALIL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The hyperglycemic effect of carbohydrate in the forms of 20 g each of glucose and sucrose and 26 g of honey were studied in eight normal volunteers and 22 type 2 diabetic patients. There was no significant (p>0.05 change in the glycemic response in normal group when challenged with glucose, sucrose or honey. However, in the diabetic group there was some attenuation in the glycemic response and was significant (p<0.05 after two hours of treatment with glucose, sucrose or honey used. The glycemic index (GI showed considerable variability within subject groups. The results led us to speculate that honey could be a valuable sugar substitute for type 2 diabetic individuals and have a favorable GI for diabetes.

  6. Cytotoxicity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts on pancreatic cancer cells

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    Abbasi Atiya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a long standing interest in the identification of medicinal plants and derived natural products for developing cancer therapeutics. Our study focuses upon pancreatic cancer, due to its high mortality rate, that is attributed in part to the lack of an effective chemotherapeutic agent. Previous reports on the use of medicinal plant extracts either alone or alongside conventional anticancer agents in the treatment of this cancer have shown promising results. This work aims to investigate the therapeutic properties of a library of medicinal plants from Bangladesh. Methods 56 extracts of 44 unique medicinal plants were studied. The extracts were screened for cytotoxicity against the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1, using a label-free biosensor assay. The top cytotoxic extracts identified in this screen were tested on two additional pancreatic cancer cell lines (Mia-Paca2 and Capan-1 and a fibroblast cell line (Hs68 using an MTT proliferation assay. Finally, one of the most promising extracts was studied using a caspase-3 colorimetric assay to identify induction of apoptosis. Results Crude extracts of Petunia punctata, Alternanthera sessilis, and Amoora chittagonga showed cytotoxicity to three cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging between 20.3 - 31.4 μg/mL, 13.08 - 34.9 μg/mL, and 42.8 - 49.8 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of Panc-1 cells with Petunia punctata was shown to increase caspase-3 activity, indicating that the observed cytotoxicity was mediated via apoptosis. Only Amoora chittagonga showed low cytotoxicity to fibroblast cells with an IC50 value > 100 μg/mL. Conclusion Based upon the initial screening work reported here, further studies aimed at the identification of active components of these three extracts and the elucidation of their mechanisms as cancer therapeutics are warranted.

  7. Effects of Five Bangladeshi Plant Extracts on In vitro Thrombolysis and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Raju; Emran, Talha Bin; Paul, Arkajyoti; Siddique, Mohammad Kutub Uddin; Khan, Mohammad Arfad; Rahman, Md. Golamur; Sarwar, Md. Shahid; Nasir Uddin, Mir Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Piper Betle, Pterospermum acerifolium, Saraca indica, Argyreia speciosa, and Rhaphidophora glauca are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. To examine, whether organic extracts of these plants possess thrombolytic properties with minimal or no toxicity is our main aim of the study. Materials and Methods: In vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effects using streptokinase (SK) as a positive control and water as a negative control. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate (VS) as positive control. Results: Among herbal drugs, different organic extracts of P. betle, P. acerifolium, S. indica, A. speciosa, and R. glauca showed significant (P Piper betle, Pterospermum acerifolium, Saraca indica, Argyreia speciosa, and Rhaphidophora glauca were subjected to comparative antithrombotic and toxicity based analysis. In comparative study, Saraca indica showed highest clot lysis (49.70 ± 1.69%) activity among the other plant with lowest toxicity (LC50: 478.40 ± 6.98) Abbreviations Used: h: Hour; min: Minutes; sec: Second; kg: Kilogram; g: Gram; μg: Microgram; L: Liter; mL: Millilitre; μL: Micro liter; μg/mL: Microgram per Milliliter; mg/kg: Milligram per kilogram; %: Percent; °C: Degree Celsius; et al.: et alliori (and others); w/w: Weight by Weight; v/v: Volume by Volume; SEM: Standard Error Mean; LC50: lethal concentration at 50% PMID:27365985

  8. Efficacy of Online Social Networks on Language Teaching: A Bangladeshi Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Shams

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is now an established fact that the use of technology facilitates teaching and learning in language classrooms. With the advancement of technology, social networking websites have emerged too. Social networking sites have been quite popular among various age group users particularly the young users since their invention. Also, they are conceived to be able to motivate (Greenhow, Robelia, & Hughes, 2009 and expose learners to the authentic use of the target language (Baralt, 2011. However, very little research has been done, especially in Bangladesh, on how much these websites can contribute to language learning and teaching though they seem to offer ample opportunities. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the effect of using ‘The Facebook’, a social networking website, in language classrooms at tertiary level in Bangladesh. Participants of this study were first year first semester university students doing a foundation course in English focusing to improve their listening, speaking and writing skills. The participants were divided into two groups. Group 1 was the control group who was taught traditionally and non-digitally without using Facebook. Group 2, along with classroom teaching, received help from the instructor through Facebook and did tasks assigned on Facebook. At the end of the three months semester a test was taken and the result of both groups was compared. Thus, this study shall try to provide an answer regarding to what extent online social networks can facilitate second language acquisition.

  9. Population-based resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to pyrazinamide and fluoroquinolones: results from a multicountry surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zignol, Matteo; Dean, Anna S; Alikhanova, Natavan; Andres, Sönke; Cabibbe, Andrea Maurizio; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Dadu, Andrei; Dreyer, Andries; Driesen, Michèle; Gilpin, Christopher; Hasan, Rumina; Hasan, Zahra; Hoffner, Sven; Husain, Ashaque; Hussain, Alamdar; Ismail, Nazir; Kamal, Mostofa; Mansjö, Mikael; Mvusi, Lindiwe; Niemann, Stefan; Omar, Shaheed V; Qadeer, Ejaz; Rigouts, Leen; Ruesch-Gerdes, Sabine; Schito, Marco; Seyfaddinova, Mehriban; Skrahina, Alena; Tahseen, Sabira; Wells, William A; Mukadi, Ya Diul; Kimerling, Michael; Floyd, Katherine; Weyer, Karin; Raviglione, Mario C

    2016-10-01

    Pyrazinamide and fluoroquinolones are essential antituberculosis drugs in new rifampicin-sparing regimens. However, little information about the extent of resistance to these drugs at the population level is available. In a molecular epidemiology analysis, we used population-based surveys from Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Pakistan, and South Africa to investigate resistance to pyrazinamide and fluoroquinolones among patients with tuberculosis. Resistance to pyrazinamide was assessed by gene sequencing with the detection of resistance-conferring mutations in the pncA gene, and susceptibility testing to fluoroquinolones was conducted using the MGIT system. Pyrazinamide resistance was assessed in 4972 patients. Levels of resistance varied substantially in the surveyed settings (3·0-42·1%). In all settings, pyrazinamide resistance was significantly associated with rifampicin resistance. Among 5015 patients who underwent susceptibility testing to fluoroquinolones, proportions of resistance ranged from 1·0-16·6% for ofloxacin, to 0·5-12·4% for levofloxacin, and 0·9-14·6% for moxifloxacin when tested at 0·5 μg/mL. High levels of ofloxacin resistance were detected in Pakistan. Resistance to moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin when tested at 2 μg/mL was low in all countries. Although pyrazinamide resistance was significantly associated with rifampicin resistance, this drug may still be effective in 19-63% of patients with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. Even though the high level of resistance to ofloxacin found in Pakistan is worrisome because it might be the expression of extensive and unregulated use of fluoroquinolones in some parts of Asia, the negligible levels of resistance to fourth-generation fluoroquinolones documented in all survey sites is an encouraging finding. Rational use of this class of antibiotics should therefore be ensured to preserve its effectiveness. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, United States Agency for International Development

  10. Endothelial progenitor cells, cardiovascular risk factors, cytokine levels and atherosclerosis--results from a large population-based study.

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    Qingzhong Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EPC number and functionality are assumed to reflect the endogenous vascular repair capacity with the EPC pool declining in higher ages and being exhausted by unfavorable life-style and risk factors. This intriguing and clinically highly relevant concept, however, has so far been derived from small case-control studies and patient series. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In the population-based Bruneck Study EPC number and EPC-colony forming units (EPC-CFU were assessed as part of the fourth follow-up evaluation (2005 in 571 and 542 subjects, respectively. EPC number declined with age (p = 0.013, was significantly lower in women (p = 0.006 and higher in subjects on statin, hormone replacement or ACE inhibitor/angiotensin-receptor blockers, and correlated positively with moderate alcohol consumption. Unexpectedly, a positive relation between EPC number and several vascular risk factors emerged. In a step forward multivariate linear regression analysis EPC number was independently related with SDF1alpha, MMP-9, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and Hba1c. EPC-CFU in turn was related to SDF1alpha and diastolic blood pressure. Moreover, EPC number showed a significant positive association with the Framingham risk score (P = 0.001. Finally, there was an inverse association between EPC number and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (p = 0.02 and the carotid artery atherosclerosis score (p = 0.059. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based data confirm the decline of EPC number with advancing age and lend first epidemiological support to a role of SDF-1alpha and MMP9 in EPC differentiation, mobilization and homing, but are conflict with the view that EPC number is unfavorably affected by cardiovascular risk factors. EPC number increases with the cardiovascular risk estimated by the Framingham risk score (FRS, which in the absence of similar changes for EPC-CFU. Finally, we demonstrate a significant inverse association between EPC

  11. The role of climate variability in the spread of malaria in Bangladeshi highlands.

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    Ubydul Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, frequently occurring as epidemics since the 1990s. Many factors affect increases in malaria cases, including changes in land use, drug resistance, malaria control programs, socioeconomic issues, and climatic factors. No study has examined the relationship between malaria epidemics and climatic factors in Bangladesh. Here, we investigate the relationship between climatic parameters [rainfall, temperature, humidity, sea surface temperature (SST, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI], and malaria cases over the last 20 years in the malaria endemic district of Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Monthly malaria case data from January 1989 to December 2008, monthly rainfall, temperature, humidity sea surface temperature in the Bay of Bengal and ENSO index at the Niño Region 3 (NIÑO3 were used. A generalized linear negative binomial regression model was developed using the number of monthly malaria cases and each of the climatic parameters. After adjusting for potential mutual confounding between climatic factors there was no evidence for any association between the number of malaria cases and temperature, rainfall and humidity. Only a low NDVI was associated with an increase in the number of malaria cases. There was no evidence of an association between malaria cases and SST in the Bay of Bengal and NIÑO3. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: It seems counterintuitive that a low NDVI, an indicator of low vegetation greenness, is associated with increases in malaria cases, since the primary vectors in Bangladesh, such as An. dirus, are associated with forests. This relationship can be explained by the drying up of rivers and streams creating suitable breeding sites for the vector fauna. Bangladesh has very high vector species diversity and vectors suited to these habitats may be responsible for the observed results.

  12. Epiphyseal maturity indicators at the knee and their relationship to chronological age: results of an Irish population study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Jean E

    2013-09-01

    Skeletal maturation is divisible to three main components; the time of appearance of an ossification center, its change in morphology and time of fusion to a primary ossification center. With regard to the knee, the intermediate period between appearance and fusion of the ossification centers extends over a period of greater than 10 years. This study aims to investigate radiographically the age at which morphological changes of the epiphyses at the knee occur in a modern Irish population. Radiographs of 221 subjects (137 males; 84 females) aged 9-19 years were examined. Seven nonmetric indicators of maturity were assessed using criteria modified from the Roche, Wainer, and Thissen method and Pyle and Hoerr\\'s atlas of the knee. Reference charts are presented which display the timeline for each of the grades of development of the seven indicators. Mean age was found to increase significantly with successive grades of development of each of the seven indicators. A significant difference was noted between males and females at the same grade of development for six of the seven indicators. The narrowest age range reported for a single grade of development was 2.2 years for Grade 2 of development of the tibial tuberosity for males. The information on changing morphology of the epiphyses at the knee in the present study may provide an adjunct to methods used for evaluation of skeletal maturity before surgery for orthopedic disorders or to evaluate skeletal age in clinical scenarios where either delayed or precocious skeletal maturation is suspected.

  13. [Cutaneous depigmentation in black female population for cosmetic purposes: results of a KAP survey conducted in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourouma, Sarah; Gbery, Ildevert Patrice; Kaloga, Mamadou; Ecra, Elidjé Joseph; Sangaré, Abdoulaye; Kouassi, Isidore Yao; Kassi, Komenan; Kouassi, Alexandre Kouamé; Yoboué, Pauline Yao

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous depigmentation for cosmeticis purposes is a widespread practice among black African women. It has many complications that have been well documented for decades. However, the reasons of practitioners are not well known. The aim of our study was to understand the motivating reasons of these women in order to conduct a communication campaign for behavior change. We performed a cross-sectional KAP survey (Knowledge/Attitudes/Practices) at the Dermatology Department of the University Hospital of Treichville (Abidjan) Data were analyzed using Epi Info 3.5.1. and 6.04 software. Practitioners were mostly young urban single, literate and professionally active women (20-40 years). Cutaneous depigmentation and its consequences were known to women, however, they thought that women with the lightest complexion were more attractive. They were influenced by media and friends. The most frequently observed complications were exogenous ochronosis and stretch marks. The local means of communication remained what essentially sustained the information needs of these women, because they help them to change their behavior. The development of local communication strategies for behavior change seems necessary to stop the phenomenon of cutaneous depigmentation for cosmetic purposes in black female population in Abidjan.

  14. Risk Model for Colorectal Cancer in Spanish Population Using Environmental and Genetic Factors: Results from the MCC-Spain study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Sanz, Gemma; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Alonso, M. Henar; Rodríguez-Moranta, Francisco; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Bustamante, Mariona; Martin, Vicente; Llorca, Javier; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Tardón, Adonina; Jiménez-Moleón, Jose J.; Peiró, Rosana; Alguacil, Juan; Navarro, Carmen; Guinó, Elisabet; Binefa, Gemma; Navarro, Pablo Fernández; Espinosa, Anna; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Molina, Antonio José; Palazuelos, Camilo; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina; Moreno, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening of the average risk population is only indicated according to age. We aim to elaborate a model to stratify the risk of CRC by incorporating environmental data and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The MCC-Spain case-control study included 1336 CRC cases and 2744 controls. Subjects were interviewed on lifestyle factors, family and medical history. Twenty-one CRC susceptibility SNPs were genotyped. The environmental risk model, which included alcohol consumption, obesity, physical activity, red meat and vegetable consumption, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, contributed to CRC with an average per factor OR of 1.36 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.45). Family history of CRC contributed an OR of 2.25 (95% CI 1.87 to 2.72), and each additional SNP contributed an OR of 1.07 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.10). The risk of subjects with more than 25 risk alleles (5th quintile) was 82% higher (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.98) than subjects with less than 19 alleles (1st quintile). This risk model, with an AUROC curve of 0.63 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.66), could be useful to stratify individuals. Environmental factors had more weight than the genetic score, which should be considered to encourage patients to achieve a healthier lifestyle. PMID:28233817

  15. Differences in management of older women influence breast cancer survival: results from a population-based database in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Eaker

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several reports have shown that less aggressive patterns of diagnostic activity and care are provided to elderly breast carcinoma patients. We sought to investigate whether differences in the management of older women with breast cancer are associated with survival. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In an observational study using a population-based clinical breast cancer register of one health-care region in Sweden, we identified 9,059 women aged 50-84 y diagnosed with primary breast cancer between 1992 and 2002. The 5-y relative survival ratio was estimated for patients classified by age group, diagnostic activity, tumor characteristics, and treatment. The 5-y relative survival for breast cancer patients was lower (up to 13% in women 70-84 y of age compared to women aged 50-69 y, and the difference was most pronounced in stage IIB-III and in the unstaged. Significant differences in disease management were found, as older women had larger tumors, had fewer nodes examined, and did not receive treatment by radiotherapy or by chemotherapy as often as the younger women. Adjustment for diagnostic activity, tumor characteristics, and treatment diminished the relative excess mortality in stages III and in the unstaged, whereas the excess mortality was only marginally affected in stage IIB. CONCLUSIONS: Less diagnostic activity, less aggressive treatment, and later diagnosis in older women are associated with poorer survival. The large differences in treatment of older women are difficult to explain by co-morbidity alone.

  16. Factors associated with illicit drugs' lifetime and frequent/heavy use among students results from a population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitancourt, Tânia; Tissot, Maria Cristina Ribeiro Grilli; Fidalgo, Thiago Marques; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes; da Silveira Filho, Dartiu Xavier

    2016-03-30

    Substance use among teenage students and factors associated were investigated through a survey using a questionnaire adapted from the WHO's Program on Research and Reporting on the Epidemiology of Drug Dependence, additional questions on family factors and personal risks, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, adapted to Brazil. The target population consisted of 3891 10-22-year-old students from the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil. The prevalence of lifetime substance use was 26.7%. Most commonly used substances were energy drinks combined with alcohol (19%), solvents (11.2%) and marijuana (4.8%). Almost 60% of the students had already tried alcohol and 18.2% had tried tobacco. Factors associated to lifetime substance use were: lower self-esteem, going to nightclubs at least twice a week, use of alcohol, trying tobacco, bad relationship with the mother, permissive mothers, practicing sports as an obligation, working, and higher socioeconomic level. Concerning frequent/heavy substance use, chances were found to be higher among students who had use tobacco and alcohol, going to nightclubs at least twice a week, and those with lower self-esteem. Preventive actions concerning drug use should focus on avoiding the first experimentation, approaching family relationships, and improving students' self-esteem.

  17. Specific fears and phobias in the general population: results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depla, Marja F I A; ten Have, Margreet L; van Balkom, Anton J L M; de Graaf, Ron

    2008-03-01

    To examine the prevalence rate, impairment, comorbidity, course of illness and determinants of eight specific phobia variants: animals (animal subtype); heights, water, storms (natural environment subtype); flying, enclosed spaces, being alone (situational subtype); and blood/injury (blood/injury subtype). Data were obtained from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a prospective study in the Dutch general population aged 18-65 (N = 7,076). The most prevalent condition was specific phobia with a fear of heights (4.9%). On all parameters except duration, specific phobia with a fear of being alone emerged as the most severe condition. Phobias with fear of enclosed spaces and phobias with fear of blood showed a slightly greater likelihood of impairment, comorbidity and personality problems than phobias with fear of animals, heights, water or storms. The situational and blood/injury phobia subtypes appear to be a more significant index for impairments and for comorbid psychiatric disorders than the animal and natural environment phobia subtypes.

  18. Beginning with sustainable scale up in mind: initial results from a population, health and environment project in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiron, Laura; Shillingi, Lucy; Kabiswa, Charles; Ogonda, Godfrey; Omimo, Antony; Ntabona, Alexis; Simmons, Ruth; Fajans, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Small-scale pilot projects have demonstrated that integrated population, health and environment approaches can address the needs and rights of vulnerable communities. However, these and other types of health and development projects have rarely gone on to influence larger policy and programme development. ExpandNet, a network of health professionals working on scaling up, argues this is because projects are often not designed with future sustainability and scaling up in mind. Developing and implementing sustainable interventions that can be applied on a larger scale requires a different mindset and new approaches to small-scale/pilot testing. This paper shows how this new approach is being applied and the initial lessons from its use in the Health of People and Environment in the Lake Victoria Basin Project currently underway in Uganda and Kenya. Specific lessons that are emerging are: 1) ongoing, meaningful stakeholder engagement has significantly shaped the design and implementation, 2) multi-sectoral projects are complex and striving for simplicity in the interventins is challenging, and 3) projects that address a sharply felt need experience substantial pressure for scale up, even before their effectiveness is established. Implicit in this paper is the recommendation that other projects would also benefit from applying a scale-up perspective from the outset. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The association of schizophrenia with split personality is not an ubiquitous phenomenon: results from population studies in Russia and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, Georg; Kenzin, Denis; Borsche, Julia; Matschinger, Herbert; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2007-10-01

    A widely prevalent stereotype connected with schizophrenia is its misperception as split personality. We examine whether the popular meaning of the term schizophrenia differs in countries of different cultural imprint by conducting an international cross-cultural comparison of public associations with the word schizophrenia in a Western and a Non-Western industrialized country. We analyze data from two representative population surveys in Novosibirsk, Russia (n = 745), and large German cities (n = 952) that used identical questions and sampling procedures. Unprompted associations with schizophrenia are compared by assigning them to a differentiated categorical system. 31.6% of respondents in Germany associated split personality with schizophrenia, compared to 2.0% in Novosibirsk. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender and educational achievement demonstrated that country differences were independent of socio-demographic variables. Mention of split personality increased significantly with higher education. In Novosibirsk, associations with abnormality and unpredictability prevailed. We hypothesize on those cultural particularities in both countries that have shaped the different public understanding of the term and discuss implications for anti-stigma interventions.

  20. Improved Hypertension Control with the Imidazoline Agonist Moxonidine in a Multinational Metabolic Syndrome Population: Principal Results of the MERSY Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazova, Irina; Schlaich, Markus P

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of moxonidine on blood pressure and aspects of the metabolic syndrome in racially diverse population of patients encountered in routine medical practice. Physicians collected data on a minimum of three consecutive patients with uncontrolled essential hypertension and criteria for metabolic syndrome, eligible to receive moxonidine (0.2-0.4 mg once daily) for 6 months, either as monotherapy or as adjunct therapy to current antihypertensive treatment. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) declined by an average of 24.5 + 14.3 mmHg and 12.6 + 9.1 mmHg, respectively. BP responder rates defined as attaining BP < 140/90 mmHg were significantly (P < 0.001) and substantially higher among younger patients, nonpostmenopausal women, and patients receiving monotherapy. While potentially relevant improvements in the entire cohort were observed in regard to body weight (-2.1 ± 5.4 kg), fasting plasma glucose (from 6.8 to 6.2 mmol/L), and triglycerides (2.4 to 2.0 mmol/L), statistically significant changes in metabolic parameters could only be detected in subgroup analyses. Moxonidine therapy reduced blood pressure and improved rates of blood pressure control in this group of patients. While the observed trend towards improvement in various metabolic parameters merits further investigation, the overall effect of moxonidine treatment is consistent with a reduction of total cardiovascular risk in this hypertensive metabolic syndrome cohort.

  1. Improved Hypertension Control with the Imidazoline Agonist Moxonidine in a Multinational Metabolic Syndrome Population: Principal Results of the MERSY Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Chazova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effects of moxonidine on blood pressure and aspects of the metabolic syndrome in racially diverse population of patients encountered in routine medical practice. Physicians collected data on a minimum of three consecutive patients with uncontrolled essential hypertension and criteria for metabolic syndrome, eligible to receive moxonidine (0.2–0.4 mg once daily for 6 months, either as monotherapy or as adjunct therapy to current antihypertensive treatment. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP declined by an average of 24.5+14.3 mmHg and 12.6+9.1 mmHg, respectively. BP responder rates defined as attaining BP < 140/90 mmHg were significantly (P<0.001 and substantially higher among younger patients, nonpostmenopausal women, and patients receiving monotherapy. While potentially relevant improvements in the entire cohort were observed in regard to body weight (-2.1±5.4 kg, fasting plasma glucose (from 6.8 to 6.2 mmol/L, and triglycerides (2.4 to 2.0 mmol/L, statistically significant changes in metabolic parameters could only be detected in subgroup analyses. Moxonidine therapy reduced blood pressure and improved rates of blood pressure control in this group of patients. While the observed trend towards improvement in various metabolic parameters merits further investigation, the overall effect of moxonidine treatment is consistent with a reduction of total cardiovascular risk in this hypertensive metabolic syndrome cohort.

  2. What Do Women Know About Breast Density? Results From a Population Survey of Virginia Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterbock, Thomas M; Cohn, Wendy F; Rexrode, Deborah L; Eggleston, Casey M; Dean-McKinney, Melissa; Novicoff, Wendy M; Yaffe, Martin J; Knaus, William A; Harvey, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    Breast density reduces the sensitivity of mammography and is a moderate independent risk factor for breast cancer. Virginia is one of 24 states that currently require notification of patients when they have dense breasts. However, little is known about what women in the general population know about breast density. This survey study assessed knowledge about breast density and about its impact on mammography and breast cancer risk. A random sample of 1024 Virginia women between ages 35 and 70 years without breast cancer, reached by landline and cell phone, who completed a 24-minute interview. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed. Thirty-six percent of respondents had been informed about their breast density. These women were more likely to be familiar with the term "breast density." Seventy-five percent of respondents reported being either somewhat or very familiar with risk factors for breast cancer, but density as a risk factor. About half of women who had a mammogram in the last year were aware of their breast density. Overall, only one in five women were aware that density reduces the sensitivity of mammography and only one in eight were aware that density increases breast cancer risk. Very few respondents (5.3%) were able to correctly answer three density knowledge questions. Lower-education, African-American, and Jewish women were less knowledgeable about breast density. Although women are becoming aware of the term "breast density," they may not understand its relationship to cancer detection on mammography and, especially, its relationship to breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol induction therapy in an unselected Crohn's disease population: results of the FACTS survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepfer, Alain M; Vavricka, Stephan R; Binek, Janek; Felley, Christian; Geyer, Martin; Manz, Michael; Rogler, Gerhard; de Saussure, Philippe; Sauter, Bernhard; Seibold, Frank; Straumann, Alex; Michetti, Pierre

    2010-06-01

    Switzerland was the first country to approve certolizumab pegol (Cimzia, CZP) for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD) in September 2007. This phase IV study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CZP in a Swiss multicenter cohort of practice-based patients. Baseline and Week 6 evaluation questionnaires were sent to all Swiss gastroenterologists in hospitals and private practices. Disease activity was assessed with the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI) and adverse events were evaluated according to WHO guidelines. Fifty patients (31 women, 19 men) were included; 56% had complicated disease (stricture or fistula) and 52% had undergone prior CD-related surgery. All patients had prior exposure to systemic steroids, 96% to immunomodulators, 78% to infliximab, and 50% to adalimumab. A significant decrease in HBI was observed at Week 6 (versus Week 0) following induction therapy with CZP 400 mg subcutaneously at Weeks 0, 2, and 4 (12.6 +/- 4.7 Week 0 versus 6.2 +/- 4.4 Week 6, P < 0.001). Response and remission rates at Week 6 were 54% and 40%, respectively. We identified 8/11 CD patients undergoing a 50% fistula response (P = 0.021). The frequency of adverse drug reactions attributed to CZP was 6%. CZP was continued in 80% of patients beyond Week 6. In a population of CD patients with complicated disease behavior, CZP induced a response and remission in 54% and 40% of patients, respectively. This series provides the first evidence of the effectiveness of CZP in perianal fistulizing CD.

  4. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 1. Biomonitoring in blood of the general population living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel; Sampaio, C. [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal); Aguiar, P. [National School of Public Health, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    The present study is one of a series of papers describing selected results of the ongoing projects, designed to ultimately evaluate the potential impact on public health of the updated solid waste incinerator. Addressing dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, specific aims of this study were: (i) to determine whether living in the vicinity of the Meia Serra incinerator increases the dioxin body burden of the general population; (ii) to investigate other potential determinants of dioxin exposure in this population for prevention priorities; (iii) to provide data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds by determining respective toxicity levels and congeners profile in blood samples.

  5. Some Results of Three Fish Population Surveys of Lake Drummond in the Great Dismal Swamp of Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dismal Swamp has been gradually changing for about three hundred years as a result of the interest it has created in many people. Although it is not the purpose of...

  6. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls of the French population: Results of the second French Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirot, Véronique; Tard, Alexandra; Venisseau, Anaïs; Brosseaud, Aline; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) bioaccumulate through the food chain and are therefore of public health concern. Exposure to these compounds was assessed in the second French Total Diet Study (TDS). Food samples (n=583) were collected to be representative of the whole diet of the population, prepared as consumed, and analyzed. Contamination data were combined with national individual food consumption data. Mean exposure (95th percentile) to PCDD/F+DL-PCBs was assessed to be 0.57 (1.29) pg TEQ(WHO-98) (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the adult population and 0.89 (2.02) pg TEQ(WHO-98) (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the child and teenager population. Less than 4% of the population exceeded the health-based guidance value for PCDD/F+DL-PCBs. Mean exposure (95th percentile) to the six indicator PCBs (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) was estimated at 2.71 (7.90) ng (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the adult population and 3.77 (11.7) ng (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the child and teenager population. Only 2.6% of the adults [CI(95%): 1.9; 3.3] and 6.5% of the children and teenagers [5.2; 7.8] exceeded the health-based guidance value for total PCBs. These results show that the contamination levels in food and therefore the exposure of the general French population to PCDD/Fs and PCBs have declined (by a factor of 3.2 for PCDD/F+DL-PCBs and about three for total PCBs) since the last evaluation, which was conducted using another methodology in 2005 and 2007, and show the efficiency of the European risk management measures which came into force after these evaluations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Results after 19 years of testing in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Blada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Full-sib families were generated from a factorial design between seven female trees of P. strobus and four male trees of P. wallichiana to combine the rapid growth of former species with high resistance to blisterrust (Cronartium ribicola of the latter one. At age two the hybrid families were artificially inoculated with blister-rust and at age six theywere field planted. Total height growth, diameter at 1.3 m, basal area, stem volume, stem straightness and tree survival were measuredat age 19 after planting. Significant (p<0.05 and highly significant (p<0.01; p<0.001 differences among female effects were found for all tested traits including survival suggesting that nuclear additive genescontrolled these traits. Male effects were significant only for stem straightness. In all but one trait the σ2GCA: σ2SCA and σ2GCA-F : σ2GCA-M ratios were in favour of additive variance suggestingthat this variance should be used in the breeding strategy. Narrow-sense heritability at family level was 0.778 for volume growth rateand 0.861 for survival; such high values indicate that the breeding programme, has good chances of success. Two of the 11 tested parentsexhibited significant positive g.c.a. effects for survival after heavy blister-rust inoculation. One parent exhibited highly significantpositive g.c.a. effects for volume growth rate. The three good general combiners should be taken into account in the breeding programme.Estimate of the high-parent heterosis was negative for the volume but positive for survival. For volume, the hybrid mean was 5.9% lowerthan the mean of the eastern white pine but 85.4% greater than blue pine bulk lot for survival. Estimate of low-parent heterosis for survivalwas also positive; i. e. the hybrid population mean was 537.5% greater than eastern white pine. If the hybrids will be used in operationalplanting programs, a variable genetic gain between 6.0 and 10.5% for volume and between 6

  8. Results after 19 years of testing in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Blada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Full-sib families were generated from a factorial design between seven female trees of P. strobus and four male trees of P. wallichiana to combine the rapid growth of former species with high resistance to blisterrust (Cronartium ribicola of the latter one. At age two the hybrid families were artificially inoculated with blister-rust and at age six theywere field planted. Total height growth, diameter at 1.3 m, basal area, stem volume, stem straightness and tree survival were measuredat age 19 after planting. Significant (p<0.05 and highly significant (p<0.01; p<0.001 differences among female effects were found for all tested traits including survival suggesting that nuclear additive genescontrolled these traits. Male effects were significant only for stem straightness. In all but one trait the σ2GCA: σ2SCA and σ2GCA-F : σ2GCA-M ratios were in favour of additive variance suggestingthat this variance should be used in the breeding strategy. Narrow-sense heritability at family level was 0.778 for volume growth rateand 0.861 for survival; such high values indicate that the breeding programme, has good chances of success. Two of the 11 tested parentsexhibited significant positive g.c.a. effects for survival after heavy blister-rust inoculation. One parent exhibited highly significantpositive g.c.a. effects for volume growth rate. The three good general combiners should be taken into account in the breeding programme.Estimate of the high-parent heterosis was negative for the volume but positive for survival. For volume, the hybrid mean was 5.9% lowerthan the mean of the eastern white pine but 85.4% greater than blue pine bulk lot for survival. Estimate of low-parent heterosis for survivalwas also positive; i. e. the hybrid population mean was 537.5% greater than eastern white pine. If the hybrids will be used in operationalplanting programs, a variable genetic gain between 6.0 and 10.5% for volume and between 6

  9. Personality, Cortisol, and Cognition in Non-demented Elderly Subjects: Results from a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouanes, Sami; Castelao, Enrique; von Gunten, Armin; Vidal, Pedro M.; Preisig, Martin; Popp, Julius

    2017-01-01

    Certain personality traits, in particular higher neuroticism, have been associated, on one hand, with elevated cortisol levels, and on the other hand, with poorer cognitive performance. At the same time, several studies highlighted the association between high cortisol and poor cognitive functioning. Here, we hypothesized that increased cortisol may be associated with poorer cognition and with certain personality traits (mainly high neuroticism), and that personality might explain the association between cortisol and cognition. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from Colaus/PsyColaus, a population-based study involving residents of Lausanne, Switzerland. Salivary cortisol samples (upon waking, 30 min after waking, at 11 am and at 8 pm) along with cognitive and personality measures were obtained from 643 non-demented participants aged at least 65. Personality traits were assessed using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). We examined the links between the cortisol Area under the Curve (AUC), the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDRSOB) and the NEO-FFI scores. No association was found between personality traits and the CDRSOB or the MMSE score, controlling for age, sex, depression, education and BMI. However, the executive functioning domain z-score was negatively associated with agreeableness (p = 0.005; slope = -0.107 [-0.181; -0.033]) and openness (p = 0.029; slope = -0.081 [-0.154; -0.008]) after controlling for age, sex, depression, education and BMI. The CDRSOB score was positively associated with the cortisol AUC after controlling for age, sex, BMI, education and depression, (p = 0.003; slope = 0.686 [0.240; 1.333]). This association remained significant after controlling for personality traits and for the interaction between personality traits and the cortisol AUC (p = 0.006; slope = 0.792 [0.233; 1.352]. High agreeableness and openness might be associated with poorer executive performance in later life. Increased cortisol may be

  10. Personality, Cortisol, and Cognition in Non-demented Elderly Subjects: Results from a Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouanes, Sami; Castelao, Enrique; von Gunten, Armin; Vidal, Pedro M; Preisig, Martin; Popp, Julius

    2017-01-01

    Certain personality traits, in particular higher neuroticism, have been associated, on one hand, with elevated cortisol levels, and on the other hand, with poorer cognitive performance. At the same time, several studies highlighted the association between high cortisol and poor cognitive functioning. Here, we hypothesized that increased cortisol may be associated with poorer cognition and with certain personality traits (mainly high neuroticism), and that personality might explain the association between cortisol and cognition. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from Colaus/PsyColaus, a population-based study involving residents of Lausanne, Switzerland. Salivary cortisol samples (upon waking, 30 min after waking, at 11 am and at 8 pm) along with cognitive and personality measures were obtained from 643 non-demented participants aged at least 65. Personality traits were assessed using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). We examined the links between the cortisol Area under the Curve (AUC), the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDRSOB) and the NEO-FFI scores. No association was found between personality traits and the CDRSOB or the MMSE score, controlling for age, sex, depression, education and BMI. However, the executive functioning domain z-score was negatively associated with agreeableness (p = 0.005; slope = -0.107 [-0.181; -0.033]) and openness (p = 0.029; slope = -0.081 [-0.154; -0.008]) after controlling for age, sex, depression, education and BMI. The CDRSOB score was positively associated with the cortisol AUC after controlling for age, sex, BMI, education and depression, (p = 0.003; slope = 0.686 [0.240; 1.333]). This association remained significant after controlling for personality traits and for the interaction between personality traits and the cortisol AUC (p = 0.006; slope = 0.792 [0.233; 1.352]. High agreeableness and openness might be associated with poorer executive performance in later life. Increased cortisol may be

  11. Travel-related venous thrombosis: results from a large population-based case control study (MEGA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne C Cannegieter

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated an increased risk of venous thrombosis after air travel. Nevertheless, questions on the magnitude of risk, the underlying mechanism, and modifying factors remain unanswered. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied the effect of various modes and duration of travel on the risk of venous thrombosis in a large ongoing case-control study on risk factors for venous thrombosis in an unselected population (MEGA study. We also assessed the combined effect of travel and prothrombotic mutations, body mass index, height, and oral contraceptive use. Since March 1999, consecutive patients younger than 70 y with a first venous thrombosis have been invited to participate in the study, with their partners serving as matched control individuals. Information has been collected on acquired and genetic risk factors for venous thrombosis. Of 1,906 patients, 233 had traveled for more than 4 h in the 8 wk preceding the event. Traveling in general was found to increase the risk of venous thrombosis 2-fold (odds ratio [OR] 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-3.0. The risk of flying was similar to the risks of traveling by car, bus, or train. The risk was highest in the first week after traveling. Travel by car, bus, or train led to a high relative risk of thrombosis in individuals with factor V Leiden (OR 8.1; 95% CI 2.7-24.7, in those who had a body mass index of more than 30 kg/m(2 (OR 9.9; 95% CI 3.6-27.6, in those who were more than 1.90 m tall (OR 4.7; 95% CI 1.4-15.4, and in those who used oral contraceptives (estimated OR > 20. For air travel these synergistic findings were more apparent, while people shorter than 1.60 m had an increased risk of thrombosis after air travel (OR 4.9; 95% CI 0.9-25.6 as well. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of venous thrombosis after travel is moderately increased for all modes of travel. Subgroups exist in which the risk is highly increased.

  12. Self-reported asthma and allergies in top athletes compared to the general population - results of the German part of the GA2LEN-Olympic study 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Silke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of asthma and allergies in top athletes is high. However, most previous studies did not include a general population comparison group. We aimed to compare the prevalence of asthma, allergies and medical treatment in different groups of German top athletes to the general population. Methods Prior to the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, 291 German candidates for participation (65% completed a questionnaire on respiratory and allergic symptoms. Results were compared to those of a general population study in Germany (n = 2425, response 68%. Furthermore, associations between types of sports and the self-reported outcomes were calculated. All models were adjusted for age, sex, level of education and smoking. Results Athletes reported significantly more doctors' diagnosed asthma (17% vs. 7%, more current use of asthma medication (10% vs. 4% and allergic rhinitis (25% vs. 17% compared to the general population. After adjustment, top athletes only had an increased Odds Ratio for doctor's diagnosed asthma (OR: 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.5. Compared to the general population, athletes in endurance sports had an increased OR for doctor's diagnosed asthma (2.4; 1.5-3.8 and current use of asthma medication (1.8; 1.0-3.4. In this group, current wheeze was increased when use of asthma medication was taken into account (1.8; 1.1-2.8. For other groups of athletes, no significantly increased ORs were observed. Conclusions Compared to the general population, an increased risk of asthma diagnosis and treatment was shown for athletes involved in endurance sports. This might be due to a better medical surveillance and treatment of these athletes.

  13. Personalization of Mail Surveys for General Public and Populations with a Group Identity: Results from Nine Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Don A.; Lesser, Virginia; Mason, Robert; Carlson, John; Willits, Fern; Robertson, Rob; Burke, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    The effect of personalization on mail survey response rates was examined in nine studies that included 17 comparisons under several research conditions. A study of this variable across multiple experiments in five agricultural experiment stations was undertaken because of conflicting results from previous research and from concern that the…

  14. Are laboratory derived toxicity results informative for field situations? Case study on earthworm populations contaminated with heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Thissen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of laboratory tests on toxicants for field situations is often disputed given that laboratory tests are conducted under, next to the toxicant stress, optimal conditions which are not expected in field situations. In this paper we confront the results of laboratory tests on growth,

  15. Structure of rheumatic diseases among adult population of Russia according to data of an epidemiological study (preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E A Galushko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of interregional program “Social and economic consequences of rheumatic diseases” diagnostic stage are presented.Objective. Clinical examination of persons with joint pathology revealed during screening to determine the diagnosis.Material and methods. A group of persons, who had joint complaints at the examination or during the previous year, was randomly formed according to the results of screening. Thorough uniform clinical examination with participation of a qualified rheumatologist aimed to precise determination of rheumatic pathology character was performed in all cases. During screening 1755 from 2723 persons examined at diagnostic stage positively answered question about presence of joint swelling and 968 complained of pain in knee and hip joints.Results. In 1971 from 2723 persons (72,4% different rheumatic diseases were diagnosed. Nonrheumatic pathology was revealed in 371 (13,6%, low back pain – in 218 (8% persons. In 163 (6% persons no disease was determined. Osteoarthritis (49% and rheumatoid arthritis (3% were the most frequent causes of joint complaints. Other RD were revealed in 20%.Conclusion. Preliminary results of program diagnostic stage demonstrated significance of joint pathology problem and allowed to get the first data about structure of RD among adult inhabitants of Russia.

  16. Temporal Stability of ADHD in the High-IQ Population: Results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Maglione, Katherine; Doyle, Alysa; Fried, Ronna; Seidman, Larry; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the relationship between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder and high-IQ children and whether ADHD has a high predictive value among youths with high-IQ. Results further supported the hypothesis for the predictive validity of ADHD in high-IQ youths.

  17. Fully-automated left ventricular mass and volume MRI analysis in the UK Biobank population cohort: evaluation of initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Sanghvi, Mihir M; Aung, Nay; Paiva, Jose Miguel; Zemrak, Filip; Fung, Kenneth; Lukaschuk, Elena; Lee, Aaron M; Carapella, Valentina; Kim, Young Jin; Francis, Jane; Piechnik, Stefan K; Neubauer, Stefan; Greiser, Andreas; Jolly, Marie-Pierre; Hayes, Carmel; Young, Alistair A; Petersen, Steffen E

    2017-08-23

    UK Biobank, a large cohort study, plans to acquire 100,000 cardiac MRI studies by 2020. Although fully-automated left ventricular (LV) analysis was performed in the original acquisition, this was not designed for unsupervised incorporation into epidemiological studies. We sought to evaluate automated LV mass and volume (Siemens syngo InlineVF versions D13A and E11C), against manual analysis in a substantial sub-cohort of UK Biobank participants. Eight readers from two centers, trained to give consistent results, manually analyzed 4874 UK Biobank cases for LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and LV mass (LVM). Agreement between manual and InlineVF automated analyses were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Tenfold cross-validation was used to establish a linear regression calibration between manual and InlineVF results. InlineVF D13A returned results in 4423 cases, whereas InlineVF E11C returned results in 4775 cases and also reported LVM. Rapid visual assessment of the E11C results found 178 cases (3.7%) with grossly misplaced contours or landmarks. In the remaining 4597 cases, LV function showed good agreement: ESV -6.4 ± 9.0 ml, 0.853 (mean ± SD of the differences, ICC) EDV -3.0 ± 11.6 ml, 0.937; SV 3.4 ± 9.8 ml, 0.855; and EF 3.5 ± 5.1%, 0.586. Although LV mass was consistently overestimated (29.9 ± 17.0 g, 0.534) due to larger epicardial contours on all slices, linear regression could be used to correct the bias and improve accuracy. Automated InlineVF results can be used for case-control studies in UK Biobank, provided visual quality control and linear bias correction are performed. Improvements between InlineVF D13A and InlineVF E11C show the field is rapidly advancing, with further improvements expected in the near future.

  18. The sense of identity and symptoms of personality disorders - The results of a non-clinical population study

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    Aleksandra Pilarska

    2015-06-01

    The results show that identity deficits should be considered as an important symptom of personality disorders, regardless of the adopted model of personality. The most disordered identity is observed in individuals falling into the group with odd or eccentric disorders and into the anxious or fearful cluster. The group with dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders is the most heterogeneous in terms of the level of identity disorganization.

  19. Prevalence and causes of ocular morbidity in Mbeere District, Kenya. Results of a population-based survey.

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    Kahaki Kimani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Ocular morbidity (OM describes any eye disease regardless of resultant visual loss. Ocular morbidity may affect large numbers of people in low income countries and could lead to many episodes of care. However there is limited evidence about the prevalence of ocular morbidity or resulting health-seeking behavior. This study in Mbeere District, Kenya, set out to explore both these issues. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2011. Trained teams moved from house to house examining and questioning residents on ocular morbidity and health-seeking behavior. Data were collected on standardized proformas and entered into a database for analysis. RESULTS: 3,691 people were examined (response rate 91.7%. 15.52% (95% CI 13.86-16.92 had at least one ocular morbidity in at least one eye. The leading cause was presbyopia which affected 25.11% (95% CI 22.05-28.45 of participants over 35 and increased with age. Other leading causes of OM were conditions that affected the lens (32.58% and the conjunctiva (31.31%. No association was found between educational attainment or employment and OM. 9.63% (7.87-11.74 self-reported an ocular morbidity in the previous six months and 45.94% (95% CI 37.1-55.04 stated that they had sought treatment for the condition. CONCLUSION: A large number of people were affected by an ocular morbidity in this survey. Most of these people could potentially be managed in their own communities through primary care services (e.g. those with presbyopia. Further work is required to understand the best way of providing an effective, equitable service for ocular morbidity.

  20. Association between fasting plasma triglycerides, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Czech population. Results from the HAPIEE study.

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    Pikhart, H; Hubáček, J A; Peasey, A; Kubínová, R; Bobák, M

    2015-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is the risk factor of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship between the plasma triglyceride (TG) levels and total/cardiovascular mortality has not yet been analyzed in Slavs. The aim of our study was to analyze the association between the fasting TG levels and all-cause/cardiovascular mortality. We have examined 3,143 males and 3,650 females, aged 58.3+/-7.1 years. 729 deaths (274 cardiovascular deaths) have been registered during up to 11.8 years of follow-up. Age-sex adjusted all-cause mortality was higher in individuals with TG values 3.01-4.00 mmol/l (HR 1.37, 95 % CI 1.02-1.83, P=0.035) and over 4.00 mmol/l (HR 1.66, 95 % CI 1.21-2.27, P=0.002) when compared with a reference group (TG 1.41-1.80 mmol/l). Elevated risk remains significant when adjusted for education, marital status and unemployment. When further adjusted for smoking, BMI and dyslipidemia interventions, HR for those in above 4.00 mmol/l group decreased (1.42, P=0.04). The results have been similar when cardiovascular mortality has been examined, however, results reached statistical significance only for the TG over 4.0 mmol/l (P=0.028). Our results confirmed that enhanced plasma levels of plasma triglycerides are dose dependently associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, however, it seems that individuals with TG values 1.8-3.0 mmol/l are not in higher risk of death.

  1. [Results of multiphasic oncology screening of the population in the community of Beĕj 1986-1987. II. Questionnaire screening].

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    Burány, B; Beretka, F; Dzigurski-Sekulić, N

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of the multiphase oncologic population screening in the community of Becej in the period from 1986-1987, the inquiry screening comprised 16,895 persons, whereby the following results were obtained: two malignant breast neoplasms, one uterine corpus neoplasm, one carcinoma of the larynx, and out of the non-target locations, not included in the specific questionnaire, there was one carcinoma of the lower lip and one malignant neoplasm of the salivary gland. Besides, 10 benign breast neoplasms and 12 benign uterine neoplasms were also detected. These specific results lagged behind the expected ones on the basis of the known average incidence and mortality in locations of Vojvodina included by this questionnaire. The elucidation of all possible causes leading to this disaccordance, was the task of specific studies intended for the improvement of this questionnaire as a method for the early detection of malignant and premalignant lesions. Other numerous mass pathological states were detected during the screening of either the characteristic signs of specific malignant neoplasm locations, or of risk factors of particular importance for the appearances of these malignant neoplasms. These health problems with clarified epidemiological dimensions in the population studied, necessitated planned solution according to the accepted doctrinary principals (protocols). Data on these diseases gave new dimensions to the inquiry (and the overall multiphase) oncologic population screening. The target-health educational effect of this inquiry which reached every man over 40 years of age in the population studied should not be neglected, either.

  2. Results of Serological and Molecular Analysis of African and Classical Swine Fever in the Population of Wild Boars in Ukraine

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    Nevolko Oleg Mychailovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of lymphoid organs and sera of wild boars for the presence of DNA of African swine fever (ASF virus and RNA of classical swine fever (CSF virus are presented, as well as the results of a serological examination for the presence of ASF and CSF virus antibodies. The study was conducted in Ukraine between 2008 and 2013. Biological samples were obtained from wild boars shot during the hunting season, and were examined by real-time PCR and ELISA. In total, 5759 sera were tested for CSF virus antibodies and 4856 for ASF virus antibodies by ELISA. Samples of lymphoid organs totalling 1129 were examined by PCR for the detection of CSF virus RNA and 8102 such samples were examined for the detection of ASF virus DNA. CSF virus antibodies were detected in 6.56% of wild boar sera. RNA of CSF virus was also identified in 1 out of 1129 samples tested. ASF virus antibodies or DNA in lymphoid organ samples were not detected.

  3. [Diabetes mellitus in an adult population of the IMSS (Mexican Institute of Social Security). Results of the National Health Survey 2000].

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    Vázquez-Martínez, José Luis; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández-Cantón, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and control of diabetes in the adult population served by the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social according to data from the National Health Survey 2000 (ENSA-2000). The data for adults from the National Health Survey 2000 was used to estimate and describe the prevalence of diabetes in the population that belongs to the social security system in Mexico. Criteria used to define diabetes mellitus were the medical diagnosis of the disease (MDDM) and the glucose measurement from capillary blood (>126 mg/dL fasting sample and 200 mg/dL in casual blood sample). If diabetes was confirmed only through blood sample, the diabetes case was define as survey finding (SF). Prevalences were estimated for both groups, while means and medians were estimated for the four possible combination groups (SF+, MDDM+, SF+, MDDM-, SF-, MDDM+, SF-, MDDM-). Sampling results were adjusted for population estimates according to the methods established in the ENSA-2000. Diabetes is described according to age, sex, education level, geographic region, background of diabetes in the family, body mass index (BMI), abdominal perimeter. A logistic regression method was used to estimate potential associations with different risk factors. Overall prevalence was 8.7%; for MDDM, it was 7.1%, and for SF, only 1.5%. Glycemia was highest in SF+ and MDDM-, median 292 mg/dL and in MDDM+ but SF-, median 289 mg/dL. Major risk factors were background of diabetes in both parents, abdominal obesity, low educational level age (coef. = 0.5943 per decade) and BMI (coef. = 0.0133). Diabetes in social security population is higher than in the rest of the population, while genetic background, age, educational level, high BMI and abdominal perimeter have important influences in diabetes prevalence in this population. Glucose control is suboptimal even in patients under medical supervision.

  4. Social Determinants of Physical Activity Among Adult Asian-Americans: Results from a Population-Based Survey in California.

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    Becerra, Monideepa B; Bhattacharya Becerra, Monideepa; Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the key social determinants of physical activity among six Asian-American subgroups using public access 2007 California Health Interview Survey data. Physical activity was defined as meeting the American College of Sports Medicine recommendation of 450 metabolic equivalent-minutes per week. Factors positively associated with meeting physical activity recommendations included being bilingual among Chinese and Vietnamese, and increasing age for Chinese only. On the other hand, being middle aged, currently married, and low neighborhood safety were significantly associated with lower odds of meeting physical activity recommendations, as were being female for Japanese and Koreans, and living above the poverty level for Vietnamese. Such results highlight the heterogeneity among Asian-Americans and need for health messages targeted at specific subgroups. Additionally, the role of built environment, particularly in areas with high Filipino residents, should be a public health priority for increasing physical activity outcomes.

  5. Relation Between Dose of Loop Diuretics and Outcomes in a Heart Failure Population: Results of the ESCAPE Trial

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    Hasselblad, Vic; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Shah, Monica R.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Califf, Robert M.; Adams, Kirkwood F.

    2007-01-01

    Background We examined the relation of maximal in-hospital diuretic dose to weight loss, changes in renal function, and mortality in hospitalised heart failure (HF) patients. Methods In ESCAPE, 395 patients received diuretics in-hospital. Weight was measured at baseline, discharge, and every other day before discharge. Weight loss was defined as the difference between baseline and last in-hospital weight. Mortality was assessed using a log-logistic model with non-zero background. Results Median weight loss: 2.8 kg (0.7, 6.1); mean: 3.7 kg (22% of values 300 mg/day. Dose remained a significant predictor of mortality after adjusting for baseline variables that significantly predicted mortality. Correlation between maximal dose and creatinine level change was not significant (r = 0.043; p = 0.412) Conclusions High diuretic doses during HF hospitalisation are associated with increased mortality and poor 6-month outcome. PMID:17719273

  6. Plasma selenium and risk of dysglycemia in an elderly French population: results from the prospective Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing Study

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    Hininger-Favier Isabelle

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A preventive role of selenium on the risk of diabetes has been reported and ascribed to the "insulin-like" activity of selenium and the antioxidant properties of the selenoenzymes. By contrast, data from cross-sectional studies and clinical trials have suggested an adverse effect of high selenium status and selenium supplementation on type-2 diabetes risk. Given these controversial results, we investigated prospectively the relationship between baseline plasma selenium concentration and occurrence of dysglycemia (impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes in an elderly French cohort. Methods The Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing (EVA study (n = 1389, 59-71 years is a 9-year longitudinal study in which, fasting plasma glucose was measured at baseline, 2, 4 and 9 years. Analyses were performed on 1162 participants with complete data. Results At baseline plasma selenium mean levels were 1.08 (0.21 μmol/l in men and 1.10 (0.20 μmol/l in women. During the 9-year follow-up, 127 cases of dysglycemia occurred. A significant interaction was found between plasma selenium and sex. Risk of dysglycemia was significantly lower in men with plasma selenium in the highest tertile (T3:1.19-1.97 compared to those in the lowest tertile (T1:0.18-1.00 [HR = 0.48 (0.25-0.92], but no significant relationship was observed in women. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, lifestyle factors, cardiovascular diseases, body mass index, hypertension and lipid profile, plasma selenium remained marginally significantly associated with occurrence of dysglycemia in men [T3 vs. T1, HR = 0.50 (0.24-1.04] and unrelated in women. Conclusions This prospective study suggests a sex-specific protective effect of higher selenium status at baseline on later occurrence of dysglycemia.

  7. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin Health: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Telephone Survey

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    Daniela Haluza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual skin health attitudes are influenced by various factors, including public education campaigns, mass media, family, and friends. Evidence-based, educative information materials assist communication and decision-making in doctor-patient interactions. The present study aims at assessing the prevailing use of skin health information material and sources and their impact on skin health knowledge, motives to tan, and sun protection. We conducted a questionnaire survey among a representative sample of Austrian residents. Print media and television were perceived as the two most relevant sources for skin health information, whereas the source physician was ranked third. Picking the information source physician increased participants’ skin health knowledge (p = 0.025 and sun-protective behavior (p < 0.001. The study results highlight the demand for targeted health messages to attain lifestyle changes towards photo-protective habits. Providing resources that encourage pro-active counseling in every-day doctor-patient communication could increase skin health knowledge and sun-protective behavior, and thus, curb the rise in skin cancer incidence rates.

  8. Association of anorexia with sarcopenia in a community-dwelling elderly population: results from the ilSIRENTE study.

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    Landi, Francesco; Liperoti, Rosa; Russo, Andrea; Giovannini, Silvia; Tosato, Matteo; Barillaro, Christian; Capoluongo, Ettore; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

    2013-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that anorexia of aging can cause physical and mental impairment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between anorexia and sarcopenia in elderly persons aged 80 years or older. Data are from the baseline evaluation of 354 subjects enrolled in the ilSIRENTE study. The ilSIRENTE study is a prospective cohort study performed in the mountain community living in the Sirente geographic area (L'Aquila, Abruzzo) in Central Italy. We defined anorexia as the presence of loss of appetite and/or lower food intake. According to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria, diagnosis of sarcopenia required the documentation of low muscle mass plus the documentation of either low muscle strength or low physical performance. The relationship between anorexia and sarcopenia was estimated by deriving odds ratios from the multiple logistic regression models considering sarcopenia as the dependent variable. Nearly 21 % of the study sample showed symptoms of anorexia. Using the EWGSOP-suggested algorithm, 103 subjects (29.1 %) with sarcopenia were identified. Thirty-four (46.6 %) participants were affected by sarcopenia among subjects with anorexia compared to 69 subjects [24.6 %] without anorexia (p anorexia had a higher risk of sarcopenia compared with non-anorexic subjects (HR 1.88, 95 % CI 1.01-3.51). Anorexia is common among community-dwelling older subjects in Italy. Our results suggest that among old-old subjects, anorexia is independently associated with sarcopenia.

  9. Kinematic Results From a Systematic Search for Infall Signatures Towards the Starless Core Population in the Perseus Molecular Cloud

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    Walker-LaFollette, Amanda; Shirley, Y. L.; Amaya, H.; Becker, S. L.; Biddle, L. I.; Lichtenberger, M.; Nieberding, M. N.; Raphael, B. A.; Romine, J. M.; Small, L.; Stanford-Jones, C.; Smith, C.; Thompson, R.; Towner, A. P.; Turner, J.; Watson, Z.; Cates, I.; McGraw, A. M.; Pearson, K.; Robertson, A.; Tombleson, R.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a survey searching for infall signatures toward 72 starless cores in the Perseus molecular cloud. Observations of the ground state rotational transitions of HCN, HNC, and H13CN were carried out using the 12-m radio telescope on Kitt Peak operated by the Arizona Radio Observatory. All three molecules are tracers of dense molecular gas. HCN 1-0 is an excellent infall tracer, with its three hyperfine lines probing different optical depths. We examined the spectra for signs of infall by comparing observed line asymmetries with the velocity peak of the optically thin isotopologue H13CN. We find that there is an excess of blue asymmetries, but clearly self-absorbed profiles are rare (blue asymmetric and blue skewed profiles to the number of class II protostars, we find a range for the observable collapse lifetime of 6x10^4-2x10^5yrs, which is commensurate with the gravitational free-fall time (5x10^4yrs) for the observed central densities of Perseus starless cores. The best infall candidates all have observed masses that are above the Jeans mass. We calculate the infall speeds for the best collapse candidates and compare their dynamics to other known collapsing starless cores. This project was observed by The University of Arizona Undergraduate Astronomy Club.

  10. Thresholds of probable problematic gambling involvement for the German population: Results of the Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosowski, Tim; Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Consumption measures in gambling research may help to establish thresholds of low-risk gambling as 1 part of evidence-based responsible gambling strategies. The aim of this study is to replicate existing Canadian thresholds of probable low-risk gambling (Currie et al., 2006) in a representative dataset of German gambling behavior (Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology [PAGE]; N = 15,023). Receiver-operating characteristic curves applied in a training dataset (60%) extracted robust thresholds of low-risk gambling across 4 nonexclusive definitions of gambling problems (1 + to 4 + Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition [DSM-5] Composite International Diagnostic Interview [CIDI] symptoms), different indicators of gambling involvement (across all game types; form-specific) and different timeframes (lifetime; last year). Logistic regressions applied in a test dataset (40%) to cross-validate the heuristics of probable low-risk gambling incorporated confounding covariates (age, gender, education, migration, and unemployment) and confirmed the strong concurrent validity of the thresholds. Moreover, it was possible to establish robust form-specific thresholds of low-risk gambling (only for gaming machines and poker). Possible implications for early detection of problem gamblers in offline or online environments are discussed. Results substantiate international knowledge about problem gambling prevention and contribute to a German discussion about empirically based guidelines of low-risk gambling.

  11. Effects of manganese on routine semen quality parameters: results from a population-based study in China

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    Li Yuyan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manganese (Mn is an essential element in humans but its effect on semen quality is unclear. This study therefore aimed to assess the effects of Mn on semen quality in healthy men with no occupational exposure to Mn. Methods Semen samples were obtained from healthy Chinese men 20–59 years old who were recruited from six provinces in China. Individuals with urogenital tract diseases, tuberculosis, or occupational exposure to heavy metals were excluded. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and the external genitalia, semen quality, and serum Mn levels were examined. Results A total of 1,179 volunteers were enrolled in this study. The median serum Mn concentration was 8.2 μg/L (25th percentile (P25=3.7 μg/L, P75=16.2μg/L. After adjusted area (six provinces, abstinence interval, season, registered residence, age of subjects, education level, income, smoking, and drinking, the risk of teratospermia was increased at serum Mn concentrations >19.40 μg/L (P80 group, with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.18–4.37. Conclusion High serum Mn levels appeared to have harmful effects on sperm morphology and motility among healthy men with no occupational exposure to Mn.

  12. Repeat colonoscopy after a colonoscopy with a negative result in Ontario: a population-based cohort study.

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    Hol, Lieke; Sutradhar, Rinku; Gu, Sumei; Baxter, Nancy N; Rabeneck, Linda; Tinmouth, Jill M; Paszat, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    Data suggest the overuse of repeat colonoscopies, especially in patients at low risk for colorectal cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the time to repeat colonoscopies in low-risk patients aged 50-79 years old and the associated patient- and endoscopist-related factors. All patients aged 50-79 years of age who underwent a complete outpatient colonoscopy with a negative result between 2000 and 2007 were identified from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan database. A colonoscopy performed within 5.5 years of follow-up after the index colonoscopy was considered an early repeat colonoscopy. Patient, endoscopist and endoscopy setting characteristics were recorded and their association with an early repeat colonoscopy was determined using an extended Cox proportional hazards regression model. The cohort consisted of 546 467 patients: 55.4% of the patients were female with a mean age of 61.1 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 61.1-61.2). The cumulative percentage of early repeat colonoscopy after 5.5 years was 33.7%. The rate decreased significantly between 2000 and 2007 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.35, 95% CI 0.34-0.36). General surgeons were associated with a higher risk of early repeat colonoscopy than gastroenterologists (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.25-1.28). Endoscopists practising in a nonhospital setting were more likely to perform an early repeat colonoscopy (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.22-1.30) than endoscopists at a hospital. This study showed that there was overuse of early repeat colonoscopy in more than 30% of patients who were at low risk for colorectal cancer. The risk decreased significantly between 2000 and 2007 but was still greater than 20% in 2007. Our findings can be used to develop targeted educational interventions among subgroups of endoscopists with a higher rate of early repeat colonoscopy.

  13. Trends in net survival from kidney cancer in six European Latin countries: results from the SUDCAN population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Lucia; Bossard, Nadine; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Pezzarossi, Annamaria; Roncaglia, Francesca; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Kidney cancer is a frequent malignant disease. To date, there is no evidence on the effectiveness of early detection and, in most cases, surgery represents the only standard treatment. So far, there is no standardized therapy for localized and locally advanced renal tumors; however, the recent introduction of target therapy has significantly improved the prognosis of metastatic disease. Therefore, survival differences in Europe are deemed to involve differences in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The aim of the SUDCAN collaborative study was to compare the net survival from kidney cancer between six European Latin countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland) and provide trends in net survival and dynamics of excess mortality rates up to 5 years after diagnosis. The data were extracted from the EUROCARE-5 database. First, net survival was studied over the 2000-2004 period using the Pohar-Perme estimator. For trend analysis, the study period was specific to each country. The results are reported from 1992 to 2004 in France, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland, and from 2000 to 2004 in Belgium and Portugal. These analyses were carried out using a flexible excess rate modeling strategy. In 2000-2004, the 5-year net survival ranged between 59% (Spain) and 67% (France and Italy) in men and between 60% (Spain) and 73% (Portugal) in women. There was an increase in the age-standardized net survival between 1992 and 2004 at 1 year, as well as at 5 years, in all age groups and countries. Irrespective of the year of diagnosis, the excess mortality rate decreased with time elapsed since diagnosis. There are some differences in survival from kidney cancer between European Latin countries, but a considerable improvement was observed in most countries.

  14. Sensitivity of an opiate immunoassay for detecting hydrocodone and hydromorphone in urine from a clinical population: analysis of subthreshold results.

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    Bertholf, Roger L; Johannsen, Laura M; Reisfield, Gary M

    2015-01-01

    Urine drug testing (UDT) is an emerging standard of care in the evaluation and treatment of chronic non-cancer pain patients with opioid analgesics. UDT may be used both to verify adherence with the opioid analgesic regimen and to monitor abstinence from non-prescribed or illicit controlled substances. In the former scenario, it is vital to determine whether the drug is present in the urine, even at low concentrations, because failure to detect the drug may lead to accusations of opioid abuse or diversion. Opiate immunoassays typically are developed to detect morphine and are most sensitive to morphine and codeine. Although many opiate immunoassays also detect hydrocodone (HC) and/or hydromorphone (HM), sensitivities for these analytes are often much lower, increasing the possibility of negative screening results when the drug is present in the urine. We selected 112 urine specimens from patients who had been prescribed HC or hydromorphone but were presumptive negative by the Roche Online DAT Opiate II™ urine drug screening assay, which is calibrated to 300 ng/mL morphine. Using a GC/MS confirmatory method with a detection limit of 50 ng/mL both for HC and for HM, one or both of these opiates were detected in 81 (72.3%) of the urine specimens. Examination of the raw data from these presumptive negative opiate screens revealed that, in many cases, the turbidity signal was greater than the signal obtained for the negative control, but less than the signal for the 300 ng/mL (morphine) threshold calibrator. A receiver operating characteristic curve generated for the reciprocal of the ratio of turbidity measurements in the patient specimens and negative (drug-free) controls, against the presence or absence of HC and/or HM by confirmatory analyses, produced an area under the curve of 0.910. We conclude that this opiate immunoassay has sufficient sensitivity to detect HC and/or HM in some urine specimens that screen presumptive negative for these commonly prescribed

  15. Assessing risk of breast cancer in an ethnically South-East Asia population (results of a multiple ethnic groups study

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    Gao Fei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gail and others developed a model (GAIL using age-at-menarche, age-at-birth of first live child, number of previous benign breast biopsy examinations, and number of first-degree-relatives with breast cancer as well as baseline age-specific breast cancer risks for predicting the 5-year risk of invasive breast cancer for Caucasian women. However, the validity of the model for projecting risk in South-East Asian women is uncertain. We evaluated GAIL and attempted to improve its performance for Singapore women of Chinese, Malay and Indian origins. Methods Data from the Singapore Breast Screening Programme (SBSP are used. Motivated by lower breast cancer incidence in many Asian countries, we utilised race-specific invasive breast cancer and other cause mortality rates for Singapore women to produce GAIL-SBSP. By using risk factor information from a nested case-control study within SBSP, alternative models incorporating fewer then additional risk factors were determined. Their accuracy was assessed by comparing the expected cases (E with the observed (O by the ratio (E/O and 95% confidence interval (CI and the respective concordance statistics estimated. Results From 28,883 women, GAIL-SBSP predicted 241.83 cases during the 5-year follow-up while 241 were reported (E/O=1.00, CI=0.88 to 1.14. Except for women who had two or more first-degree-relatives with breast cancer, satisfactory prediction was present in almost all risk categories. This agreement was reflected in Chinese and Malay, but not in Indian women. We also found that a simplified model (S-GAIL-SBSP including only age-at-menarche, age-at-birth of first live child and number of first-degree-relatives performed similarly with associated concordance statistics of 0.5997. Taking account of body mass index and parity did not improve the calibration of S-GAIL-SBSP. Conclusions GAIL can be refined by using national race-specific invasive breast cancer rates and mortality rates

  16. Brain Amyloid Deposition and Longitudinal Cognitive Decline in Nondemented Older Subjects: Results from a Multi-Ethnic Population.

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    Yian Gu

    Full Text Available We aimed to whether the abnormally high amyloid-β (Aβ level in the brain among apparently healthy elders is related with subtle cognitive deficits and/or accelerated cognitive decline.A total of 116 dementia-free participants (mean age 84.5 years of the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project completed 18F-Florbetaben PET imaging. Positive or negative cerebral Aβ deposition was assessed visually. Quantitative cerebral Aβ burden was calculated as the standardized uptake value ratio in pre-established regions of interest using cerebellar cortex as the reference region. Cognition was determined using a neuropsychological battery and selected tests scores were combined into four composite scores (memory, language, executive/speed, and visuospatial using exploratory factor analysis. We examined the relationship between cerebral Aβ level and longitudinal cognition change up to 20 years before the PET scan using latent growth curve models, controlling for age, education, ethnicity, and Apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype.Positive reading of Aβ was found in 41 of 116 (35% individuals. Cognitive scores at scan time was not related with Aβ. All cognitive scores declined over time. Aβ positive reading (B = -0.034, p = 0.02 and higher Aβ burden in temporal region (B = -0.080, p = 0.02 were associated with faster decline in executive/speed. Stratified analyses showed that higher Aβ deposition was associated with faster longitudinal declines in mean cognition, language, and executive/speed in African-Americans or in APOE ε4 carriers, and with faster memory decline in APOE ε4 carriers. The associations remained significant after excluding mild cognitive impairment participants.High Aβ deposition in healthy elders was associated with decline in executive/speed in the decade before neuroimaging, and the association was observed primarily in African-Americans and APOE ε4 carriers. Our results suggest that measuring cerebral Aβ may give us

  17. The population demography of Betula maximowicziana, a cool-temperate tree species in Japan, in relation to the last glacial period: its admixture-like genetic structure is the result of simple population splitting not admixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Y; Nakao, K; Ide, Y; Tsumura, Y

    2015-04-01

    Conservation of the local genetic variation and evolutionary integrity of economically and ecologically important trees is a key aspect of studies involving forest genetics, and a population demographic history of the target species provides valuable information for this purpose. Here, the genetic structure of 48 populations of Betula maximowicziana was assessed using 12 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers. Genetic diversity was lower in northern populations than southern ones and structure analysis revealed three groups: northern and southern clusters and an admixed group. Eleven more genomic-SSR loci were added and the demographic history of these three groups was inferred by approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). The ABC revealed that a simple split scenario was much more likely than isolation with admixture, suggesting that the admixture-like structure detected in this species was due to ancestral polymorphisms. The ABC analysis suggested that the population growth and divergence of the three groups occurred 96 800 (95% CI, 20 500-599 000) and 28 300 (95% CI, 8700-98 400) years ago, respectively. We need to be aware of several sources of uncertainty in the inference such as assumptions about the generation time, overlapping of generations, confidence intervals of the estimated parameters and the assumed model in the ABC. However, the results of the ABC together with the model-based maps of reconstructed past species distribution and palaeoecological data suggested that the modern genetic structure of B. maximowicziana originated prior to the last glacial maximum (LGM) and that some populations survived in the northern range even during the LGM. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Sodium intake may promote weight gain; results of the FANPE study in a representative sample of the adult Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Beatriz; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Perea, José Miguel; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleon; Villar-Villalba, Carmen; Labrado, Estefania; Ortega, Rosa María

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: Estudios recientes, han señalado que las dietas ricas en sodio podrían predisponer a la aparición de obesidad, ya sea de forma directa, o por estar asociadas con el consumo de alimentos que favorecen el aumento de peso. Objetivo: El objeto de este estudio fue analizar la asociación entre sodio urinario y presencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, en una muestra representativa de adultos españoles, así como conocer si el mayor consumo de sal, se asocia con unos peores hábitos alimentarios y con una mayor ingesta de alimentos, que puedan predisponer a la aparición de la misma. Métodos: Se ha estudiado un grupo de 418 adultos (196 hombres y 222 mujeres) de 18 a 60 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso, talla, circunferencia de cintura y se calculó, a partir de ellos, el IMC y el índice cintura/talla. Con el fin de conocer el consumo de alimentos, se aplicó un “Recuerdo de 24 horas” durante dos días consecutivos y se determinó el sodio en orina de 24 horas. Resultados: Un 34,4% de la población presentó sobrepeso y un 13,6% obesidad. Se observó una asociación positiva entre el IMC y la excreción urinaria de sodio. Los valores de sodio en orina también se relacionaron de forma directa con otros parámetros indicadores de adiposidad, como la circunferencia de la cintura o la relación cintura/talla. Tanto el peso, como el IMC, la circunferencia de la cintura y la relación cintura/talla, fueron mayores en el grupo con una excreción urinaria de sodio ≥154 mmol/l (Percentil 50) (P50). Además, las personas con una mayor eliminación urinaria de sodio presentaron una mayor ingesta calórica y un mayor consumo de alimentos totales y, en concreto, de carnes, precocinados y aperitivos. Tras ajustar por la ingesta de energía, la mayor ingesta de sodio resultó ser un factor de riesgo de tener un IMC más alto (OR = 1.0041, IC 95% 1.0015-1.0067, p obesidad, ya que las personas con una mayor ingesta de sodio ingirieron más energía y

  19. Genital human papillomavirus infection among women in Bangladesh: findings from a population-based survey.

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    Quamrun Nahar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. METHODS: We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler. HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using a consensus primer set. RESULTS: Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13-4.11 compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05-3.55 compared to women whose husbands lived with them. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening.

  20. A comparison of results from two mycology laboratories for the diagnosis of onychomycosis: a study of 85 cases in a geriatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, William P; Scherer, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    An investigative study was performed to compare the results from two mycology laboratories for the diagnosis of onychomycosis in a geriatric population and to determine the possible pharmacologic treatments based on the two laboratories' results. In this study, 85 cases of suspected onychomycosis involving men and women 65 years and older from a nursing home setting in South Florida were used. Samples were taken from the hallux toenail and sent to two different mycology laboratories for fluorescent potassium hydroxide preparation and microscopic examination of a fungal culture. Of the 85 cases studied, the two mycology laboratories reported similar potassium hydroxide preparation results for 58.8% of the patients and similar fungal culture results for genus and species identification for 37.6% of the patients. When the potassium hydroxide preparation and fungal culture results were combined, the two mycology laboratories reported similar results for only 27.1% of the patients. As a result of the two mycology laboratories' findings, the possible US Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacologic treatments may differ for 43.5% of the patients studied. The discrepancy between the two independent laboratories leaves physicians to question the reproducibility of fluorescent potassium hydroxide preparation and fungal culture analysis in a geriatric patient population for the diagnosis of onychomycosis.

  1. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Physical Activity among the Adult Population of the Southern Cone of Latin America: Cross-Sectional Results from the CESCAS I Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Rosana; Serón, Pamela; Calandrelli, Matías; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Mores, Nora; Matta, María G; Gutierrez, Laura; Chung-Shiuan, Chen; Lanas, Fernando; He, Jiang; Irazola, Vilma; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Bazzano, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Objective Few data are available on population level regarding domain-specific correlates of physical activity (PA) in Latin America. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among PA patterns and their main sociodemographic determinants and cardiovascular risk factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America. Methods CESCAS I is a population-based prospective cohort study with a 4-stage stratified sampling of a general population of 7,524 adults aged 35–74 years from four mid-sized cities in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. PA was assessed using the transcultural adaptation of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire long form (IPAQ). The questionnaire asked about frequency (days/week) and duration (minutes/day) of moderate and vigorous intensity activities in three different domains: work, leisure time and active transportation (walking and bicycling). PA levels ≥ 600 metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) minutes/week was considered sufficiently active (SA). Odds ratios for associations of SA status with sociodemographic determinants and cardiovascular risk factors were obtained using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Results Almost sixty five percent (64.8%) of the participants reported ≥ 600 MET minutes/week. The lowest prevalence of sufficiently active individuals was seen in Temuco, Chile (58.0 %), among women (58.7%), older individuals (55.4%), those with higher educational level (61.6%) and homemakers (53.4%). Approximately 22.8% of the population reported no PA. In multivariable analysis, PA levels were lower among women, individuals who were older, obese, university educated, with clerical work, retired/unemployed or homemakers, and those with physical limitations. Conclusions Future interventions to increase PA levels in the Southern Cone of Latin America must take into account disparities by gender and socioeconomic status. The promotion of PA during leisure time in women –unemployed and homemakers– and of active

  2. Population-Based Lynch Syndrome Screening by Microsatellite Instability in Patients ≤50: Prevalence, Testing Determinants, and Result Availability Prior to Colon Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlitz, Jordan J; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Liu, Yong; Blanton, Christine; Schmidt, Beth; Jessup, J Milburn; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Chen, Vivien W

    2015-07-01

    As there are no US population-based studies examining Lynch syndrome (LS) screening frequency by microsatellite instability (MSI) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), we seek to quantitate statewide rates in patients aged ≤50 years using data from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) project and identify factors associated with testing. Screening rates in this young, high-risk population may provide a best-case scenario as older patients, potentially deemed lower risk, may undergo testing less frequently. We also seek to determine how frequently MSI/IHC results are available preoperatively, as this may assist with decisions regarding colonic resection extent. Data from all Louisiana colorectal cancer (CRC) patients aged ≤50 years diagnosed in 2011 were obtained from the Louisiana Tumor Registry CER project. Registry researchers and physicians analyzed data, including pathology and MSI/IHC. Of the 2,427 statewide all-age CRC patients, there were 274 patients aged ≤50 years, representing health care at 61 distinct facilities. MSI and/or IHC were performed in 23.0% of patients. Testing-associated factors included CRC family history (Plocation (P<0.0370), and care at comprehensive cancer centers (P<0.0020) but not synchronous/metachronous CRC or MSI-like histology. Public hospital screening was disproportionately low (P<0.0217). Of those tested, MSI and/or IHC was abnormal in 21.7%. Of those with abnormal IHC, staining patterns were consistent with LS in 87.5%. MSI/IHC results were available preoperatively in 16.9% of cases. Despite frequently abnormal MSI/IHC results, LS screening in young, high-risk patients is low. Provider education and disparities in access to specialized services, particularly in underserved populations, are possible contributors. MSI/IHC results are infrequently available preoperatively.

  3. Associations between functional ability and life satisfaction in the oldest old: results from the longitudinal population study Good Aging in Skåne

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    Enkvist Å

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Åsa Enkvist, Henrik Ekström, Sölve ElmståhlDepartment of Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, SwedenObjectives: To describe change in functional ability in the oldest-old population during 3 years and examine its relation to life satisfaction (LS. A total of 681 individuals aged 78 and older from the population-based study Good Aging in Skåne took part.Methods: Functional ability was assessed using Sonn and Åsberg's Activities of Daily Living (ADL scale and related to LS assessed by Neugarten et al's Life Satisfaction Index A (LSI-A.Results: Fifty-one percent of 87–93-year-olds reported ADL decline during 3 years. Individuals reporting impaired ADL had a mean LSI-A value of 23.0 compared to 26.4 in those unchanged. ADL decline had a stronger negative effect on LS in the younger group (78–84 years, r = 0.207, P < 0.001. In a multiple regression model, one score's decline in ADL capacity corresponded to 1.5 scores lower LS (P < 0.001.Discussion: Effort put into keeping the oldest old on a high level of functional ability has the potential to maintain the LS of this population.Keywords: life satisfaction, functional ability, longitudinal, oldest old

  4. Combining direct imaging and radial velocity data towards a full exploration of the giant planet population. I. Method and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannier, J.; Lagrange, A. M.; Bonavita, M.; Borgniet, S.; Delorme, P.; Meunier, N.; Desidera, S.; Messina, S.; Chauvin, G.; Keppler, M.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Thanks to the detections of more than 3000 exoplanets these last 20 yr, statistical studies have already highlighted some properties of the distribution of the planet parameters. Nevertheless, few studies have yet investigated the planet populations from short to large separations around the same star since this requires the use of different detection techniques that usually target different types of stars. Aims: We wish to develop a tool that combines direct and indirect methods so as to correctly investigate the giant planet populations at all separations. Methods: We developed the MESS2 code, a Monte Carlo simulation code combining radial velocity and direct imaging data obtained at different epochs for a given star to estimate the detection probability of giant planets spanning a wide range of physical separations. It is based on the generation of synthetic planet populations. Results: We apply MESS2 on a young M1-type, the nearby star AU Mic observed with HARPS and NACO/ESO. We show that giant planet detection limits are significantly improved at intermediate separations (≈20 au in the case of AU Mic). We show that the traditional approach of analyzing the RV and DI detection limits independently systematically overestimates the planet detection limits and hence planet occurrence rates. The use of MESS2 allows us to obtain correct planet occurrence rates in statistical studies, making use of multi-epoch DI data and/or RV measurements. We also show that MESS2 can optimize the schedule of future DI observations.

  5. Prevalence of Chronic Illness and Health Seeking Behaviour in Malaysian Population: Results from the Third National Health Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amal, N M; Paramesarvathy, R; Tee, G H; Gurpreet, K; Karuthan, C

    2011-03-01

    The third National Health Morbidity Survey was conducted in 2006 on a nationally representative sample of population in Malaysia in order to obtain community-based data and information on the prevalence of chronic illness. Of 57,500 eligible respondents 56710 (98.6%) participated in the study. Estimated overall prevalence of chronic illness in the Malaysian population within a recall period of one year was 15.5% (95% CI 15.1% - 15.9%). Chronic illness was reported significantly higher among the females, 16.8% (16.3 - 17.3). The most common chronic illness was hypertension (7.9%, 7.6 - 8.2), followed by diabetes mellitus (4.0%, 3.8 - 4.2) and highest reported by the Indians (19.7%, 18.4 - 21.0). Among the respondents who had sought treatment for chronic illness from government health facilities, Malays (65.8%) and those with monthly household income of less than RM400 (76.6%) were the highest. Chinese (44.5%) and those with household income of RM5000 and above (54.3%) were the highest groups who sought treatment from the private health facilities. Most of the respondents reported mild illness was the main reason for not seeking treatment for their chronic illness. It is hoped that the results of this survey will help the Ministry of Health Malaysia to enhance health programmes and planning resource allocation in order to improve health status of the population.

  6. The role of common mental and physical disorders in days out of role in the Iraqi general population: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Rosellini, Anthony J; Lindberg, Marrena; Petukhova, Maria; Kessler, Ronald C; Bruffaerts, Ronny

    2014-06-01

    In an effort to support mental health policy planning efforts in conjunction with the reconstruction of Iraq, a nationally representative face-to-face household survey was carried out that assessed the prevalence and correlates of common mental disorders in the Iraqi population. A total of 4332 adult (ages 18+) respondents were interviewed (95.2% response rate). The current report presents data on the role impairments (number of days out-of-role in the past 30 days) associated with the nine mental disorders assessed in the survey in comparison to the impairments associated with ten chronic physical disorders also assessed in the survey. These disorders were all assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Days out-of-role were assessed with the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Both individual-level and societal-level effects of the disorders were estimated. Strongest individual-level predictors were bipolar and drug abuse disorders (176-195 days per year), with mental disorders making up five of the seven strongest predictors. The strongest population-level predictors were headache/migraine and arthritis (22-12% population proportions). Overall population proportions were 57% of days out-of-role due to the chronic physical disorders considered here and 18% for the mental disorders. Despite commonly-occurring mental disorders accounting for more individual-level days out-of-role than the physical disorders, mental disorders are much less likely to receive treatment in Iraq (e.g., due to stigma). These results highlight the need for culturally tailored mental health prevention and treatment programs in Iraq.

  7. Replication of five prostate cancer loci identified in an Asian populationResults from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Sara; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Campa, Daniele; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Ganziano, J. Michael; Gapstur, Susan M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian; Hunter, David J; Johansson, Mattias; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Stevens, Victoria L.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willett, Walter C.; Yeager, Meredith; Hsing, Ann W.; Kraft, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background A recent Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) of prostate cancer in a Japanese population identified five novel regions not previously discovered in other ethnicities. In this study, we attempt to replicate these five loci in a series of nested prostate cancer case-control studies of European ancestry. Methods We genotyped five SNPs: rs13385191 (chromosome 2p24), rs12653946 (5p15), rs1983891 (6p21), rs339331 (6p22) and rs9600079 (13q22), in 7,956 prostate cancer cases and 8,148 controls from a series of nested case-control studies within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). We tested each SNP for association with prostate cancer risk and assessed if associations differed with respect to disease severity and age of onset. Results Four SNPs (rs13385191, rs12653946, rs1983891 and rs339331) were significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (p-values ranging from 0.01 to 1.1×10-5). Allele frequencies and odds ratios were overall lower in our population of European descent compared to the discovery Asian population. SNP rs13385191 (C2orf43) was only associated with low-stage disease (p=0.009, case-only test). No other SNP showed association with disease severity or age of onset. We did not replicate the 13q22 SNP, rs9600079 (p=0.62). Conclusions Four SNPs associated with prostate cancer risk in an Asian population are also associated with prostate cancer risk in men of European descent. Impact This study illustrates the importance of evaluation of prostate cancer risk markers across ethnic groups. PMID:22056501

  8. Variance of the SGK1 gene is associated with insulin secretion in different European populations: results from the TUEF, EUGENE2, and METSIM studies.

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    Björn Friedrich

    Full Text Available HYPOTHESIS: Serum- and Glucocorticoid-inducible Kinase 1 (SGK1 is involved in the regulation of insulin secretion and may represent a candidate gene for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. METHODS: Three independent European populations were analyzed for the association of SGK1 gene (SGK variations and insulin secretion traits. The German TUEF project provided the screening population (N = 725, and four tagging SNPs (rs1763527, rs1743966, rs1057293, rs9402571 were investigated. EUGENE2 (N = 827 served as a replication cohort for the detected associations. Finally, the detected associations were validated in the METSIM study, providing 3798 non-diabetic and 659 diabetic (type 2 individuals. RESULTS: Carriers of the minor G allele in rs9402571 had significantly higher C-peptide levels in the 2 h OGTT (+10.8%, p = 0.04; dominant model and higher AUC(C-Peptide/AUC(Glc ratios (+7.5%, p = 0.04 compared to homozygous wild type TT carriers in the screening population. As interaction analysis for BMIxrs9402571 was significant (p = 0.04 for the endpoint insulin secretion, we stratified the TUEF cohort for BMI, using a cut off point of BMI = 25. The effect on insulin secretion only remained significant in lean TUEF participants (BMI< or =25. This finding was replicated in lean EUGENE2 rs9402571 minor allele carriers, who had a significantly higher AUC(Ins/AUC(Glc (TT: 226+/-7, XG: 246+/-9; p = 0.019. Accordingly, the METSIM trial revealed a lower prevalence of type 2 diabetes (OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.71-1.01; p = 0.065, dominant model in rs9402571 minor allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: The rs9402571 SGK genotype associates with increased insulin secretion in lean non-diabetic TUEF/EUGENE2 participants and with lower diabetes prevalence in METSIM. Our study in three independent European populations supports the conclusion that SGK variability affects diabetes risk.

  9. Purification of a novel chitin-binding lectin with antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities from a bangladeshi cultivar of potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kabir, Syed Rashel

    2014-04-01

    A new chitin-binding lectin was purified from a Bangladeshi cultivar 'Deshi' of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) through anion-exchange and affinity chromatographies using a chitin column. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed the molecular mass of the lectin as 20,000 Daltons. This molecular mass was almost half of the molecular masses of chitin-binding lectins derived from other potatoes. The lectin showed both bactericidal and growth-inhibiting activities against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Shigella boydii) pathogenic bacteria. It also showed antifungal activity against Rhizopus spp., Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus niger. Biofilm produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa was dose-dependently reduced by 5-20% in 24 h after administration of the lectin, which was attributed to the glycan-binding property of the lectin having affinity to GlcNAc polymers. It was the first observation that any potato lectin prevented biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa and, therefore, could have possible applications in clinical microbiology and biomedical science.

  10. Analyses of Genetic Variations of Glutathione S-Transferase Mu1 and Theta1 Genes in Bangladeshi Tannery Workers and Healthy Controls

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    Jobaida Akther

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs belong to a group of multigene detoxification enzymes, which defend cells against oxidative stress. Tannery workers are at risk of oxidative damage that is usually detoxified by GSTs. This study investigated the genotypic frequencies of GST Mu1 (GSTM1 and GST Theta1 (GSTT1 in Bangladeshi tannery workers and healthy controls followed by their status of oxidative stress and total GST activity. Of the 188 individuals, 50.0% had both GSTM1 and GSTT1 (+/+, 12.2% had GSTM1 (+/−, 31.4% had GSTT1 (−/+ alleles, and 6.4% had null genotypes (−/− with respect to both GSTM1 and GSTT1 alleles. Among 109 healthy controls, 54.1% were double positive, 9.2% had GSTM1 allele, 32.1% had GSTT1 allele, and 4.6% had null genotypes. Out of 79 tannery workers, 44.3% were +/+, 16.8% were +/−, 30.5% were −/+, and 8.4% were −/−. Though the polymorphic genotypes or allelic variants of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were distributed among the study subjects with different frequencies, the differences between the study groups were not statistically significant. GST activity did not vary significantly between the two groups and also among different genotypes while level of lipid peroxidation was significantly higher in tannery workers compared to controls irrespective of their GST genotypes.

  11. Comparing Data Characteristics and Results of an Online Factorial Survey between a Population-Based and a Crowdsource-Recruited Sample

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    Jill D. Weinberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Compared to older kinds of sample surveys, online platforms provide a fast and low-cost platform for factorial surveys, as well as a more demographically diverse alternative to student samples. Two distinct strategies have emerged for recruitment: using panels based on population-based samples versus recruiting people actively seeking to complete online tasks for money. The latter is much cheaper but prompts various concerns about data quality and generalizability. We compare results of three vignette experiments conducted using the leading online panel that uses a population-based paradigm (Knowledge Networks, now GfK and the leading platform for crowdsource recruitment (Amazon Mechanical Turk. Our data show that, while demographic differences exist, most notably in age, the actual results of our experiments are very similar, especially once these demographic differences have been taken into account. Indicators of data quality were actually slightly better among the crowdsource subjects. Although more evidence is plainly needed, our results support the accumulating evidence for the promise of crowdsource recruitment for online experiments, including factorial surveys.

  12. Work stress and hair cortisol levels among workers in a Bangladeshi ready-made garment factory - results from a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinisch, M.; Yusuf, R.; Li, J.; Stalder, T.; Bosch, J.A.; Rahman, O.; Strümpell, C.; Ashraf, H.; Fischer, J.E.; Loerbroks, A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence on the association of work stress with cortisol levels is inconsistent and mostly stems from Western countries, with limited generalizability to other regions of the world. These inconsistencies may partly be due to methodological limitations associated with the measurement of cortisol secr

  13. A Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplement Produces Higher Maternal Vitamin B-12 Concentrations and Similar Folate, Ferritin, and Zinc Concentrations as the Standard 60-mg Iron Plus 400-μg Folic Acid Supplement in Rural Bangladeshi Women12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur; Raqib, Rubhana; Lönnerdal, Bo; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on maternal micronutrient status are not well known. Objective: We compared the efficacy and effectiveness of 3 different micronutrient supplements on maternal micronutrient status when combined with food supplementation. Methods: In the MINIMat (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention, Matlab) trial in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomly assigned to daily intake of 3 types of micronutrient capsules: 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F), 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F), or multiple micronutrient supplements (MMNs) combined with early (week 9 of pregnancy) or usual (week 20 of pregnancy) food supplementation in a 2 by 3 factorial design. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, folate, ferritin, and zinc were analyzed before the start of micronutrient supplementation (week 14) and at week 30 of pregnancy in 641 randomly selected women. An electronic monitoring device was used to measure the number of capsules taken. The effectiveness of food and micronutrient regimens as well as efficacy per capsule in maternal micronutrient status were analyzed by ANOVA and general linear models. Results: At week 30 of pregnancy, women in the MMN group had higher geometric mean concentrations of vitamin B-12 than women in the Fe60F group (119 compared with 101 pmol/L, respectively); no other differences in effectiveness of micronutrient and food regimens were observed. A dose-response relation between the number of capsules taken and concentrations of folate and ferritin was observed for all micronutrient supplements. Fe30F had lower efficacy per capsule in increasing ferritin concentrations within the first tertile of capsule intake than did Fe60F and MMNs. Because ferritin reached a plateau for all types of micronutrient supplements, there was no difference between the regimens in their effectiveness. Conclusion: Compared with Fe60F, MMNs produced higher maternal vitamin B-12 and

  14. Males in rural Bangladeshi communities are more susceptible to chronic arsenic poisoning than females: analyses based on urinary arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, C; Inaoka, T; Kadono, T; Nagano, M; Nakamura, S; Ushijima, K; Murayama, N; Miyazaki, K; Ohtsuka, R

    2001-01-01

    Spot urine samples were collected from the inhabitants of two rural communities in northwestern Bangladesh. We compared arsenic levels in the urine samples ([As](u); n = 346) with those in water from tube wells ([As](tw); range arsenic exposure, we constructed a system for rating skin manifestations, which revealed distinct sex-related differences. Comparison of males and females in the same households confirmed that skin manifestations were more severe in the males, and in the males of one community a dose-response relationship between [As](u) and the degree of skin manifestation was evident. The results of this study indicate that [As](u) in spot urine samples can be used as an exposure indicator for As. They suggest that there might be sex-related, and perhaps community-related, differences in the relationship between [As](u) and skin manifestations, although several confounding factors, including sunlight exposure and smoking habits, might contribute to the observed sex difference. The existence of such differences should be further confirmed and examined in other populations to identify the subpopulations sensitive to chronic arsenic toxicity. PMID:11748034

  15. What is the impact of different spirometric criteria on the prevalence of spirometrically defined COPD and its comorbidities? Results from the population-based KORA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrasch, Stefan; Brüske, Irene; Smith, Maia P; Thorand, Barbara; Huth, Cornelia; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Kronenberg, Florian; Heinrich, Joachim; Holle, Rolf; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing debate about the appropriate spirometric criterion for airway obstruction to detect COPD. Furthermore, the association of different criteria with comorbidity prevalence and inflammatory biomarkers in advanced age is unclear. Materials and methods Spirometry was performed in a population-based study (n=2,256) covering an age range of 41–90 years. COPD was spirometrically determined either by a fixed ratio (FR) of <0.7 for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) or by FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal (LLN). Comorbidity prevalences and circulating biomarker levels (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin [IL]-6) were compared between subjects with or without COPD by the two criteria using logistic and multiple regression models, adjusting for sex and age. Results The prevalence of spirometrically defined COPD by FR increased with age from 10% in subjects aged <65 years to 26% in subjects aged ≥75 years. For LLN-defined COPD, it remained below 10% for all age groups. Overall, COPD diagnosis was not associated with specific comorbidities, except for a lower prevalence of obesity in both FR- and LLN-defined cases. Both CRP and IL-6 tended to be higher in cases by both criteria. Conclusion In a population-based cohort of adults up to the age of 90 years, the prevalence of spirometrically defined COPD was higher for the FR criterion than for the LLN criterion. This difference increased with age. Neither prevalences of common comorbidities nor levels of the biomarkers, CRP or IL-6, were conclusively associated with the selection of the COPD criterion. Results have to be considered in light of the predominantly mild cases of airway obstruction in the examined study population. PMID:27574413

  16. [Results of epidemiologic studies performed after the disaster in Czernobyl among the adult part of the population in the region of Krakow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybiński, Z; Korzeniowska, D; Przybyszowski, A; Przybyłowski, J; Skalski, M; Gołkowski, F; Stanuch, H; Wiśniowski, Z

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies following the Czernobyl accident were performed in region Kraków, including Kraków, Nowy Sacz and Kielce district. 1426 males and 2495 females were selected according to the random sample on the whole population of Kraków and Nowy Sacz, as well as in some selected areas in Swietokrzyski Mountains, and in Kielcecity. The aim of the study was to assess the results of the prophylaxis with Kalium iodine after the radiation and the incidence of the goiter in the population. It was stated, that 19.2% of the population in Kraków district, 16.9% in Nowy Sacz and 20% in Kielce received the prophylactic dosis of K.J. 80% took mainly the Lugol solution, between May, the 1st and 5th, 1986. Among 18 of person showing side effects like gastrointestinal disturbances, 16 were of female sex. Goiter incidence according to WHO classification was 50.7%, 67.3% and 49.9% in Kraków, Nowy Sacz and Kielce respectively. The difference between the incidence of goiter in males and females was 1:3. In women it was rather Ist and IInd degree of goiter, in men OB and Ist. Nodules of thyroid gland in the rural region of Kraków, Nowy Sacz and Kielce were seen in women in 10.8%, 1.7%, add 12.3% consecutively. Hormonal studies i.e T3, T4, TSH serum concentration showed normal results in all groups studied. TSH concentration was the highest in the group OB. The microsomal and antithyroglobulin antibodies level was the same independently on the prophylactic dosis of Lugol solution. The high incidence of thyroid diseases not related to the accident was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Age-predicted values for lumbar spine, proximal femur, and whole-body bone mineral density: results from a population of normal children aged 3 to 18 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca; Beaumont, L.F. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Morrison, J. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Sala, A. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (Italy); Barr, R.D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    We measured areal bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and the proximal femur and for the total body in 179 subjects (91 girls and 88 boys) with no known disorders that might affect calcium metabolism. Results are also reported for lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) and for the derived variable, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). Expected-for-age values for each variable were derived for boys and girls by using an expression that represented the sum of a steady increase due to growth plus a rapid increase associated with puberty. Normal ranges were derived by assuming that at least 95% of children would be included within 1.96 population standard deviations (SD) of the expected-for-age value. The normal range for lumbar spine BMD derived from our population of children was compared with previously published normal ranges based on results obtained from different bone densitometers in diverse geographic locations. The extent of agreement between the various normal ranges indicates that the derived expressions can be used for reporting routine spine, femur, and whole-body BMD measurements in children and adolescents. The greatest difference in expected-for-age values among the various studies was that arising from intermanufacturer variability. The application of published conversion factors derived from DXA measurements in adults did not account fully for these differences, especially in younger children. (author)

  18. Favorable Outcomes after Implantation of Biodegradable Polymer Coated Sirolimus-Eluting Stents in Diabetic Population: Results from INDOLIMUS-G Diabetic Registry

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    Anurag Polavarapu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main aim is to evaluate safety, efficacy, and clinical performance of the Indolimus (Sahajanand Medical Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Surat, India sirolimus-eluting stent in high-risk diabetic population with complex lesions. Methods. It was a multicentre, retrospective, non-randomized, single-arm study, which enrolled 372 diabetic patients treated with Indolimus. The primary endpoint of the study was major adverse cardiac events (MACE, which is a composite of cardiac death, target lesion revascularization (TLR, target vessel revascularization (TVR, myocardial infarction (MI, and stent thrombosis (ST. The clinical follow-ups were scheduled at 30 days, 6 months, and 9 months. Results. The mean age of the enrolled patients was 53.4 ± 10.2 years. A total of 437 lesions were intervened successfully with 483 stents (1.1 ± 0.3 per lesion. There were 256 (68.8% male patients. Hypertension and totally occluded lesions were found in 202 (54.3% and 45 (10.3% patients, respectively. The incidence of MACE at 30 days, 6 months and 9 months was 0 (0%, 6 (1.6%, and 8 (2.2%, respectively. The event-free survival at 9-month follow-up by Kaplan Meier method was found to be 97.8%. Conclusion. The use of biodegradable polymer coated sirolimus-eluting stent is associated with favorable outcomes. The results demonstrated in our study depict its safety and efficacy in diabetic population.

  19. The assessment of cognitive impairment suspected of dementia in Polish elderly people: results of the population-based PolSenior Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klich-Rączka, Alicja; Piotrowicz, Karolina; Mossakowska, Małgorzata; Skalska, Anna; Wizner, Barbara; Broczek, Katarzyna; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna; Grodzicki, Tomasz

    2014-09-01

    The growing incidence of dementia in ageing societies is a major concern of health care organizations. Because of its detrimental influence on the mental and functional statuses of elderly people, it leads to increased economic burdens caused by the social and financial needs of patients with dementia and their caregivers. There has been no data concerning the prevalence of dementia in the elderly in the general Polish community so far. The main aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cognitive impairment suspected of dementia among the Polish elderly and the relationships between cognitive performance and age, gender, place of residence and educational status. The presented data was the result of nationwide, multicentre PolSenior Study conducted from 2007 to 2011 in the Polish elderly population. Cognitive functions were evaluated using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) performed by pre-trained nurses. The result of MMSE lower than 24 points was classified as cognitive impairment suspected of dementia and divided according to its severity into three stages: mild, moderate and severe dementia. The results were analysed in two ways: raw MMSE and MMSE scores after Mungas adjustment (MMSEadj), that is, corrected for age and educational level, and these were compared. To verify the suspicion of dementia an assessment was complemented by an interview of carers for the occurrence and course of memory disorders, treatment of dementia and by functional status assessment. In order to assess the prevalence of suspicion of dementia in the general Polish population, statistical analyses based on weighting were done. The suspicion of dementia on the basis of raw MMSE was made in 20.4% of respondents aged 65years and more, and after Mungas adjustment in 12.1% of older subjects. The prevalence of cognitive impairment grew with increasing age, as well as depending on the educational status of elderly respondents in both types of analyses; raw MMSE and MMSEadj. There

  20. Association of malocclusion and functional occlusion with signs of temporomandibular disorders in adults: results of the population-based study of health in Pomerania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dietmar; Bernhardt, Olaf; Kocher, Thomas; John, Ulrich; Hensel, Elke; Alte, Dietrich

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether associations exist between occlusal factors and signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in adults using the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), Germany. A representative sample of 4310 men and women aged 20 to 81 years (response 68.8%) was investigated for TMD signs, malocclusions, functional occlusion factors, and sociodemographic parameters. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for sex, age, and socioeconomic status, was used. The results were compared with other population-based studies identified by a systematic review. Few malocclusions and no factors of functional occlusion except socioeconomic parameters were associated with TMD signs, and these associations were mostly weak. Only bilateral open bite up to three mm appeared to be clinically relevant and was associated with TMD signs (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0). This malocclusion, however, was of rare occurrence, with a prevalence of 0.3% (n = 9), and this finding was not confirmed by other representative studies. Occlusal factors examined in this study explained only a small part of the differences between normal subjects and those with TMD signs. This and other population-based studies indicate that malocclusions and factors of functional occlusion surveyed should be seen as merely cofactors in the sense of one piece of the mosaic in the multifactorial problem of temporomandibular dysfunction. Single occlusal factors that showed significant effects throughout several studies could not be detected. In view of the large number of occlusal variables already investigated, other variables including nonocclusal ones probably also play a role and should be looked at more intensely.

  1. Comparing Results of Five Glomerular Filtration Rate-Estimating Equations in the Korean General Population: MDRD Study, Revised Lund-Malmö, and Three CKD-EPI Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Misuk; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Hyesun; Cho, Han-Ik; Yang, Hyun Suk; Navarin, Silvia; Di Somma, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a widely used index of kidney function. Recently, new formulas such as the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations or the Lund-Malmö equation were introduced for assessing eGFR. We compared them with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation in the Korean adult population. Methods The study population comprised 1,482 individuals (median age 51 [42-59] yr, 48.9% males) who received annual physical check-ups during the year 2014. Serum creatinine (Cr) and cystatin C (CysC) were measured. We conducted a retrospective analysis using five GFR estimating equations (MDRD Study, revised Lund-Malmö, and Cr and/or CysC-based CKD-EPI equations). Reduced GFR was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results For the GFR category distribution, large discrepancies were observed depending on the equation used; category G1 (≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2) ranged from 7.4-81.8%. Compared with the MDRD Study equation, the other four equations overestimated GFR, and CysC-based equations showed a greater difference (-31.3 for CKD-EPICysC and -20.5 for CKD-EPICr-CysC). CysC-based equations decreased the prevalence of reduced GFR by one third (9.4% in the MDRD Study and 2.4% in CKD-EPICysC). Conclusions Our data shows that there are remarkable differences in eGFR assessment in the Korean population depending on the equation used, especially in normal or mildly decreased categories. Further prospective studies are necessary in various clinical settings. PMID:27578504

  2. Sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and hepatitis B/C status in a working-age population: results from a national, cross-sectional study in Japan.

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    Hisashi Eguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many countries, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals may face discrimination and mistreatment from coworkers. Effective interventions to reduce workplace discrimination are therefore needed to protect these vulnerable populations. The current study investigated potential associations between sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues within a Japanese working population. METHODS: An online anonymous, nationwide internet survey was administered to a cross-section of approximately 3,000 individuals in Japan. The survey comprised 14 questions focusing on demographics (five items, basic HIV or HBV/HCV knowledge (eight items, and potential prejudice toward HIV or HBV/HCV infected colleagues (one item. The sociodemographic characteristics evaluated were sex, age, educational level, employment status, and individual income; with multiple logistic regression used for the analysis. RESULTS: In total, 3,055 individuals were recruited for the HIV related survey and 3,129 for the HBV/HCV related survey. Older age was significantly and positively associated with prejudice toward HIV infected colleagues (p<0.01 and negatively associated with prejudice toward HBV/HCV infected colleagues (p<0.01. Statistically significant associations were not observed between other sociodemographic characteristics and potential prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected coworkers. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study suggests that age may be associated with prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues among the working age population of Japan. As such, policy makers should consider the age of participants when formulating efforts to reduce prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected workers.

  3. Optimizing Training Population Size and Genotyping Strategy for Genomic Prediction Using Association Study Results and Pedigree Information. A Case of Study in Advanced Wheat Breeding Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoor, Ahmed; Orabi, Jihad; Andersen, Jeppe R.; Janss, Luc L.; Jensen, Just

    2017-01-01

    Wheat breeding programs generate a large amount of variation which cannot be completely explored because of limited phenotyping throughput. Genomic prediction (GP) has been proposed as a new tool which provides breeding values estimations without the need of phenotyping all the material produced but only a subset of it named training population (TP). However, genotyping of all the accessions under analysis is needed and, therefore, optimizing TP dimension and genotyping strategy is pivotal to implement GP in commercial breeding schemes. Here, we explored the optimum TP size and we integrated pedigree records and genome wide association studies (GWAS) results to optimize the genotyping strategy. A total of 988 advanced wheat breeding lines were genotyped with the Illumina 15K SNPs wheat chip and phenotyped across several years and locations for yield, lodging, and starch content. Cross-validation using the largest possible TP size and all the SNPs available after editing (~11k), yielded predictive abilities (rGP) ranging between 0.5–0.6. In order to explore the Training population size, rGP were computed using progressively smaller TP. These exercises showed that TP of around 700 lines were enough to yield the highest observed rGP. Moreover, rGP were calculated by randomly reducing the SNPs number. This showed that around 1K markers were enough to reach the highest observed rGP. GWAS was used to identify markers associated with the traits analyzed. A GWAS-based selection of SNPs resulted in increased rGP when compared with random selection and few hundreds SNPs were sufficient to obtain the highest observed rGP. For each of these scenarios, advantages of adding the pedigree information were shown. Our results indicate that moderate TP sizes were enough to yield high rGP and that pedigree information and GWAS results can be used to greatly optimize the genotyping strategy. PMID:28081208

  4. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels and Potential Radiological Risks of Common Building Materials Used in Bangladeshi Dwellings.

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    Khandoker Asaduzzaman

    Full Text Available The concentrations of primordial radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K in commonly used building materials (brick, cement and sand, the raw materials of cement and the by-products of coal-fired power plants (fly ash collected from various manufacturers and suppliers in Bangladesh were determined via gamma-ray spectrometry using an HPGe detector. The results showed that the mean concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in all studied samples slightly exceeded the typical world average values of 50 Bq kg(-1, 50 Bq kg(-1 and 500 Bq kg(-1, respectively. The activity concentrations (especially 226Ra of fly-ash-containing cement in this study were found to be higher than those of fly-ash-free cement. To evaluate the potential radiological risk to individuals associated with these building materials, various radiological hazard indicators were calculated. The radium equivalent activity values for all samples were found to be lower than the recommended limit for building materials of 370 Bq kg(-1, with the exception of the fly ash. For most samples, the values of the alpha index and the radiological hazard (external and internal indices were found to be within the safe limit of 1. The mean indoor absorbed dose rate was observed to be higher than the population-weighted world average of 84 nGy h(-1, and the corresponding annual effective dose for most samples fell below the recommended upper dose limit of 1 mSv y(-1. For all investigated materials, the values of the gamma index were found to be greater than 0.5 but less than 1, indicating that the gamma dose contribution from the studied building materials exceeds the exemption dose criterion of 0.3 mSv y(-1 but complies with the upper dose principle of 1 mSv y(-1.

  5. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels and Potential Radiological Risks of Common Building Materials Used in Bangladeshi Dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, Khandoker; Mannan, Farhana; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Farook, Mohideen Salihu; Elkezza, Aeman; Amin, Yusoff Bin Mohd; Sharma, Sailesh; Abu Kassim, Hasan Bin

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of primordial radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in commonly used building materials (brick, cement and sand), the raw materials of cement and the by-products of coal-fired power plants (fly ash) collected from various manufacturers and suppliers in Bangladesh were determined via gamma-ray spectrometry using an HPGe detector. The results showed that the mean concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in all studied samples slightly exceeded the typical world average values of 50 Bq kg(-1), 50 Bq kg(-1) and 500 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentrations (especially 226Ra) of fly-ash-containing cement in this study were found to be higher than those of fly-ash-free cement. To evaluate the potential radiological risk to individuals associated with these building materials, various radiological hazard indicators were calculated. The radium equivalent activity values for all samples were found to be lower than the recommended limit for building materials of 370 Bq kg(-1), with the exception of the fly ash. For most samples, the values of the alpha index and the radiological hazard (external and internal) indices were found to be within the safe limit of 1. The mean indoor absorbed dose rate was observed to be higher than the population-weighted world average of 84 nGy h(-1), and the corresponding annual effective dose for most samples fell below the recommended upper dose limit of 1 mSv y(-1). For all investigated materials, the values of the gamma index were found to be greater than 0.5 but less than 1, indicating that the gamma dose contribution from the studied building materials exceeds the exemption dose criterion of 0.3 mSv y(-1) but complies with the upper dose principle of 1 mSv y(-1).

  6. Urban and rural variation in clustering of metabolic syndrome components in the Thai population: results from the fourth National Health Examination Survey 2009

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    Aekplakorn Wichai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the distribution of Metabolic syndrome (MetS and its combinations by urban/rural areas in lower-middle income countries has been limited. It is not clear how the various combinations of MetS components varied by urban/rural population and if particular combinations of MetS are more common. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MetS and combinations of MetS components according to sex and urban/rural areas from a nationally representative sample of Thai adults. Methods Data from the fourth National Health Examination Survey of 19,256 Thai adults aged 20 years and over were analyzed. MetS was defined using the harmonized criteria of six international expert groups with Asian-specific cut-point for waist circumference. Results The prevalence of MetS was 23.2% among adults aged ≥ 20 years (19.5% in men and 26.8% in women. Among men, the prevalence of MetS in urban was higher than those in rural areas (23.1% vs 17.9%, P P Conclusion Metabolic syndrome affects both urban and rural population with different pattern of MetS combinations. Dyslipidemia and obesity were the most common components among women in rural areas, hence, interventions to prevent and control these factors should be strengthened.

  7. Continuing population increase resulting in global decline in cultivable land. Dr. Vo-Tong Xuan on a sustainable path to food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The law of supply and demand which governs market-based economic systems plays a major role in agricultural production, with major effects upon local producers. With total world population size projected to reach approximately 8 billion by 2025, global food production must increase by 2% annually. Food production in developing countries must increase by 3% annually. Continuing population increase will also result in a global decline in available cultivable land per capita. In this context, it is recommended to promote food reserves at the household, national, and regional levels to secure stocks of food grains; to secure land users' rights as an incentive for farmer-tenants; and to develop modern approaches to land use based upon comprehensive and participatory measures. Efforts must be made to expand agricultural extension efforts as well as access to credit from lenders. Governments should implement a form of distribution, such as food rationing, and guarantee the prices of agricultural products. Finally, special attention should be paid to international free trade regimes in order to ensure that subsidized farmers from developed countries have no unfair advantage over their counterparts in developing countries.

  8. The currently used commercial DNA-extraction methods give different results of clostridial and actinobacterial populations derived from human fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maukonen, Johanna; Simões, Catarina; Saarela, Maria

    2012-03-01

    Recently several human health-related microbiota studies have had partly contradictory results. As some differences may be explained by methodologies applied, we evaluated how different storage conditions and commonly used DNA-extraction kits affect bacterial composition, diversity, and numbers of human fecal microbiota. According to our results, the DNA-extraction did not affect the diversity, composition, or quantity of Bacteroides spp., whereas after a week's storage at -20 °C, the numbers of Bacteroides spp. were 1.6-2.5 log units lower (P bacteria, Eubacterium rectale (Erec)-group, Clostridium leptum group, bifidobacteria, and Atopobium group were 0.5-4 log units higher (P DNA-extraction as detected with qPCR, regardless of storage. Furthermore, the bacterial composition of Erec-group differed significantly after different DNA-extractions; after enzymatic DNA-extraction, the most prevalent genera detected were Roseburia (39% of clones) and Coprococcus (10%), whereas after mechanical DNA-extraction, the most prevalent genera were Blautia (30%), Coprococcus (13%), and Dorea (10%). According to our results, rigorous mechanical lysis enables detection of higher bacterial numbers and diversity from human fecal samples. As it was shown that the results of clostridial and actinobacterial populations are highly dependent on the DNA-extraction methods applied, the use of different DNA-extraction protocols may explain the contradictory results previously obtained. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and all-cause mortality: results from a population-based Danish twins study alanine aminotransferase, GGT and mortality in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Abigail; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background/Aims: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) are widely used markers of liver disease. Several population-based cohort studies have found associations of these liver enzymes with all-cause mortality. None of these studies controlled for genetic...... variation as well as fetal and early life exposure, whether environmental or genetic. Methods: We studied the associations of ALT and GGT with all-cause mortality using data for 686 twins (73-94 years old) included in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Results: An increase in 1 logged U/L of GGT...... for potential confounders and existing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Environmental developmental origins may explain the association, but larger twin studies are required to replicate our findings....

  10. [Low rate of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection among women with cervical lesion. Preliminary results from the South-Eastern Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, Melinda; Jakó, Mária; Terhes, Gabriella; Szakács, László; Kaiser, László; Deák, Judit; Bártfai, György

    2016-01-10

    Although the natural history of cervical and oral human papillomavirus infection has been intensively investigated in the past years, the ability of this virus to infect oral and genital mucosae in the same individual and its potential to co-infect both cervical and oral mucosa are still unclear. The aim of the authors was to assess the presence of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical lesions in the South-Eastern Hungarian population. The total of 103 women have been included in the study between March 1, 2013 and January 1, 2015. Brushing was used to collect cells from the oropharyngeal mucosa. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction, and Amplicor line blot test was used for genotyping. Oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection was detected in 2 cases (3%). The detected genotypes were 31, 40/61 and 73 in the oropharyngeal region. The results indicate that in women with cervical lesions oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection rarely occurs.

  11. First results on the distribution of Nosema chaetocnemae Yaman et Radek, 2003 (Microspora) in the populations of Chaetocnema tibialis Illiger, 1807 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the first report on the distribution of Nosema chaetocnemae infection of Chaetocnema tibialis populations in Turkey is given. Of the 1751 beetles collected from ten provinces, 193 were infected by the parasite. The infection average was 11.02% in Turkey. Nosema infection was found in C. tibialis adults from two (Samsun and Trabzon) of the ten provinces studied. In eight localities in different regions of Turkey, the infection was not observed. The highest percentage of beetles infected with a Nosema isolate was recorded in Samsun. The infection average in Samsun was 25.20%. The results showed that the infection level of N. chaetocnemae was relatively stable during the observation period between the years 2000-2006.

  12. Polymorphisms in the IGF1 and IGF1R genes and children born small for gestational age: results of large population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, W A; Hokken-Koelega, A C S

    2008-06-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) is the term used to describe a group of children born with a birth weight and/or birth length below the normal range of a reference population, corrected for their gestational age. Although animal models have shown that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) genes are important candidates for reduced pre- and postnatal growth, only limited case reports have been published describing mutations. This might suggest that IGF1 and IGF1R are such crucial growth factors that only common genetic polymorphisms are allowed to survive. Common IGF1 and IGF1R gene polymorphisms, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms and variable number of tandem repeats, have been investigated with conflicting results with respect to SGA-related outcomes. The exact contribution of these polymorphisms to clinical practice remains to be elucidated.

  13. Acidic Conditions in the NHE2-/- Mouse Intestine Result in an Altered Mucosa-Associated Bacterial Population with Changes in Mucus Oligosaccharides

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    Melinda A. Engevik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms bacteria use to proliferate and alter the normal bacterial composition remain unknown. The ability to link changes in the intestinal micro-environment, such as ion composition and pH, to bacterial proliferation is clinically advantageous for diseases that involve an altered gut microbiota, such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease, obesity and diabetes. In human and mouse intestine, the apical Na+/H+ exchangers NHE2 and NHE3 affect luminal Na+, water, and pH. Loss of NHE2 results in acidic luminal pH. Since acid resistance systems in gram-positive bacteria are well documented, we hypothesize that gram-positive bacteria would increase in representation in the acidic NHE2-/- intestine. Methods: Intestinal ion composition was measured by fame photometry and chloridometry and pH measured electrochemically. DNA extracted from intestinal flushes or from mucosal scrapings was analyzed by qRT-PCR to examine luminal and mucosa-associated bacterial populations. Epithelial mucus oligosaccharide patterns were examined by histology with FIT-C labeled lectins. Results: Although total luminal and mucosa-associated bacteria were unchanged in NHE2-/- intestine, gram-positive bacterial phyla were increased in the mucosa-associated bacterial population in a region-specific manner. The genera Clostridium and Lactobacillus were increased in the cecum and colon which corresponded to changes in NHE2-/- mucus oligosaccharide composition of mannose, N-acetyglucosamine, N-acetygalactosamine and galactose. Conclusions: Together these data indicate that changes in ion transport induce region-specific bacterial changes, which alter host mucus oligosaccharide patterns. These host-bacterial interactions provide a possible mechanism of niche-development and shed insight on how certain groups proliferate in changing environments and maintain their proliferation by altering the host.

  14. Investigating Arsenic Mobilization Mechanisms as well as Complexation Between Arsenic and Polysulfides Associated With a Bangladeshi Rice Paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T.; Kampalath, R.; Jay, J.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of arsenic in the groundwater has led to the largest environmental poisoning in history. Although it is a worldwide issue that affects numerous countries, including Taiwan, Bangladesh, India, China, Mexico, Peru, Australia, and the United States, the issue is of greatest concern in the West Bengal region. In the Ganges Delta, as many as 2 million people are diagnosed with arsenicosis each year. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 200,000 to 270,000 arsenic-induced cancer-related deaths in Bangladesh alone. More than 100 million people in the country consume groundwater that exceeds the WHO limit as 50% of the 8 million wells contain groundwater with more than 10 μg/L. Despite the tragic public health implications of this problem, we do not yet have a complete answer to the question of why dissolved arsenic concentrations are so high in the groundwater of the Ganges Delta. Since 1999, we have been intensively studying a field site in Munshiganj, Bangladesh with extremely high levels of arsenic in groundwater (up to 1.2 mg/L). Sediment cores were collected from two locations at the field site: 1) the rice paddy and 2) edge of a nearby irrigation pond. Recharge from irrigation ponds have recently been hypothesized to be an important site of arsenic mobilization. Recent work has proposed mineral dissolution under phosphorus-limited conditions as an important mechanism for arsenic mobilization. Using microcosms with paddy and pond sediment, we are comparing arsenic release via this mechanism with that resulting from reduction of iron hydroxides at our site. Concurrently, we are looking at enhanced solubility of As in the presence of polysulfides as the effects of elemental sulfur on As solubility have not been well researched. We hypothesize that the presence of elemental sulfur, and consequent formation of polysulfides, will substantially increase the solubility of orpiment in sulfidic water and that sorption of these complexes will

  15. Sex-specific patterns and deregulation of endocrine pathways in the gene expression profiles of Bangladeshi adults exposed to arsenic contaminated drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Chervona, Yana [New York University School of Medicine, Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Hall, Megan [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York (United States); Kluz, Thomas [New York University School of Medicine, Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Gamble, Mary V., E-mail: mvg7@columbia.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York (United States); Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water occurs globally and is associated with numerous diseases including skin, lung and bladder cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research indicates that arsenic may be an endocrine disruptor. This study was conducted to evaluate the nature of gene expression changes among males and females exposed to arsenic contaminated water in Bangladesh at high and low doses. Twenty-nine (55% male) Bangladeshi adults with water arsenic exposure ranging from 50 to 1000 μg/L were selected from the Folic Acid Creatinine Trial. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells for gene expression profiling using Affymetrix 1.0 ST arrays. Differentially expressed genes were assessed between high and low exposure groups for males and females separately and findings were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. There were 534 and 645 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of males and females, respectively, when high and low water arsenic exposure groups were compared. Only 43 genes overlapped between the two sexes, with 29 changing in opposite directions. Despite the difference in gene sets both males and females exhibited common biological changes including deregulation of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, deregulation of genes downstream of Sp1 (specificity protein 1) transcription factor, and prediction of estrogen receptor alpha as a key hub in cardiovascular networks. Arsenic-exposed adults exhibit sex-specific gene expression profiles that implicate involvement of the endocrine system. Due to arsenic's possible role as an endocrine disruptor, exposure thresholds for arsenic may require different parameters for males and females. - Highlights: • Males and females exhibit unique gene expression changes in response to arsenic. • Only 23 genes are common among the differentially expressed genes for the sexes. • Male and female gene lists exhibit common

  16. Sex-specific patterns and deregulation of endocrine pathways in the gene expression profiles of Bangladeshi adults exposed to arsenic contaminated drinking water1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Chervona, Yana; Hall, Megan; Kluz, Thomas; Gamble, Mary V.; Costa, Max

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water occurs globally and is associated with numerous diseases including skin, lung and bladder cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research indicates that arsenic may be an endocrine disruptor. This study was conducted to evaluate the nature of gene expression changes among males and females exposed to arsenic contaminated water in Bangladesh at high and low doses. Twenty-nine (55% male) Bangladeshi adults with water arsenic exposure ranging from 50–1000 µg/ L were selected from the Folic Acid Creatinine Trial. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells for gene expression profiling using Affymetrix 1.0 ST arrays. Differentially expressed genes were assessed between high and low exposure groups for males and females separately and findings were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. There were 534 and 645 differentially expressed genes (p<0.05) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of males and females, respectively, when high and low water arsenic exposure groups were compared. Only 43 genes overlapped between the two sexes, with 29 changing in opposite directions. Despite the difference in gene sets both males and females exhibited common biological changes including deregulation of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, deregulation of genes downstream of Sp1 (specificity protein 1) transcription factor, and prediction of estrogen receptor alpha as a key hub in cardiovascular networks. Arsenic-exposed adults exhibit sex-specific gene expression profiles that implicate involvement of the endocrine system. Due to arsenic’s possible role as an endocrine disruptor, exposure thresholds for arsenic may require different parameters for males and females. PMID:25759245

  17. SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER-FIVE BANGLADESHI CHILDREN AND TREND OVER THE TWELVE-YEAR PERIOD 1996-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsena, Masuda; Goto, Rie; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The nutritional status of under-five-year-old children is a sensitive indicator of a country's health status as well as economic condition. The objectives of this study were to analyse trends in the nutritional status in Bangladeshi children over the period 1996-2007 and to examine the associations between nutritional and socioeconomic status variables. Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys (BDHS) were the source of data, and a total of 16,278 children were examined. The Z-scores of the children were analysed as continuous as well as categorical variables (stunted, underweight and wasted). The socioeconomic status variables used were region, urban-rural residence, education and occupation of the parents, house type and household possession score. A series of General Linear Model and Sequential Linear and Binary Logistic Regression analyses were done to assess the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status. The trends of Z-scores were analysed by survey, as well as by child birth cohort. Region, house type, educational level of parents and household possession score showed significant associations with all three Z-scores of children after removing the effects of age, period of DHS and other explanatory variables in the model. No significant sex difference was observed between any of the Z-scores. There were improvements in mean WAZ and HAZ between 1996 and 2007 but deterioration in mean WHZ over this period. The obesity rate was below 2% in 2007, although the absolute numbers of obese children had nearly doubled in this 12-year period. Children from poorer households showed greater improvement than their better-off counterparts. The study reveals that over the years there has been substantial improvement in nutritional status of under-five children in Bangladesh and the main gains have been amongst the lower socioeconomic groups; it is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem, like poverty

  18. Decreasing population blood pressure is not mediated by changes in habitual physical activity. Results from 15 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, UO; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Population blood pressure (PBP) is the average BP shared by all members of a population. In PBP research, the main focus is on the great majority of individuals who are healthy in respect to blood pressure. From previous studies, we know that PBP decreased 2 mmHg during 15 years...... is not explained by a change in the population physical activity habits. This fact illustrates the difference between the high-risk strategy and the population strategy. In the first, the preventive strategy identifies hypertensive individuals and offers them antihypertensive medication and lifestyle modulation...... such as more and regular physical activity to improve blood pressure and lower individual CV and cerebrovascular risk. In contrast, the "population strategy" seeks to control the determinants of incidence in the population as a whole. This paper demonstrates that physical activity is not a determinant of PBP....

  19. Associations between cognitive abilities and life satisfaction in the oldest-old. Results from the longitudinal population study Good Aging in Skåne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkvist Å

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Åsa Enkvist, Henrik Ekström, Sölve Elmståhl Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Introduction: Studies on the associations between cognitive abilities and life satisfaction (LS in the oldest-old are few. The aim of this study was to explore whether abilities in six different cognitive domains could predict LS in the oldest-old 3 years later. Methods: The study population consisted of 681 individuals aged 78–98 years, drawn from the longitudinal population study “Good Aging in Skåne,” which is part of a national survey (The Swedish National Study on Aging and Care. Scores on 13 cognitive tests were related to scores on Neugartens’ LS index A (LSI-A 3 years later. The cognitive tests were added into six different cognitive domains. A multiple regression analysis was constructed for each cognitive domain separately, with scores on the LSI-A as the dependent variable. The model was adjusted stepwise for sex, age, education, functional capacity, and depressive mood. Results: Significant correlations were found between digit cancellation, word recall, verbal fluency (VF A, VF animals, VF occupations, and mental rotations at baseline, as well as LSI-A at follow-up. The domains of spatial abilities (B = 0.453, P = 0.014 and processing speed (B = 0.118, P = 0.020 remained significantly associated with LSI-A 3 years later after adjustment. Conclusion: The cognitive domains of spatial abilities and processing speed predicted LS 3 years later in the oldest-old. Clinical implications are discussed. Keywords: oldest-old, life satisfaction, longitudinal, crystallized and fluid intelligence, cognition

  20. Children's eating behavior, feeding practices of parents and weight problems in early childhood: results from the population-based Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pauline W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight problems that arise in the first years of life tend to persist. Behavioral research in this period can provide information on the modifiable etiology of unhealthy weight. The present study aimed to replicate findings from previous small-scale studies by examining whether different aspects of preschooler’s eating behavior and parental feeding practices are associated with body mass index (BMI and weight status -including underweight, overweight and obesity- in a population sample of preschool children. Methods Cross-sectional data on the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, Child Feeding Questionnaire and objectively measured BMI was available for 4987 four-year-olds participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Results Thirteen percent of the preschoolers had underweight, 8% overweight, and 2% obesity. Higher levels of children’s Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food and parental Restriction were associated with a higher mean BMI independent of measured confounders. Emotional Undereating, Satiety Responsiveness and Fussiness of children as well as parents’ Pressure to Eat were negatively related with children’s BMI. Similar trends were found with BMI categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Part of the association between children’s eating behaviors and BMI was accounted for by parental feeding practices (changes in effect estimates: 20-43%, while children’s eating behaviors in turn explained part of the relation between parental feeding and child BMI (changes in effect estimates: 33-47%. Conclusions This study provides important information by showing how young children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding patterns differ between children with normal weight, underweight and overweight. The high prevalence of under- and overweight among preschoolers suggest prevention interventions targeting unhealthy weights should start early in life. Although

  1. Natural history and role of radiation in patients with supratentorial and infratentorial WHO grade II ependymomas: results from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Ayal A; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Nguyen, Paul L; Macdonald, Shannon M; Yock, Torunn I; Tarbell, Nancy J; Shih, Helen A; Loeffler, Jay S; Oh, Kevin S

    2013-12-01

    Patients with World Health Organization (WHO) grade II supratentorial ependymomas are commonly observed after gross total resection (GTR), although supporting data are limited. We sought to characterize the natural history of such tumors. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify 112 patients ages 0-77 diagnosed with WHO grade II ependymomas between 1988 and 2007, of whom 63 (56 %) and 49 (44 %) had supratentorial and infratentorial primaries, respectively. Inclusion criteria were strict to ensure patient homogeneity. Of 33 patients with supratentorial tumors after GTR, 18 (55 %) received adjuvant radiation therapy and 15 (45 %) did not. Ependymoma-specific mortality (ESM) was the primary endpoint. With a median follow up of 4.5 years, only 1 of 33 patients with supratentorial ependymoma died of their disease after GTR; the 5-year estimate of ESM in this population was 3.3 % (95 % CI 0.2-14.8 %). Among patients with infratentorial ependymomas after GTR, the 5-year estimate of ESM was 8.7 % (95 % CI 1.4-24.6 %). In patients with subtotally resected tumors, 5-year estimates of ESM in patients with supratentorial and infratentorial primaries were 20.1 % (95 % CI 8.0-36.2 %) and 12.3 % (95 % CI 2.9-28.8 %), respectively. Among the whole cohort, on both univariable and multivariable regression, extent of resection was predictive of ESM, while tumor location and use of radiation were not. After GTR, patients with WHO grade II supratentorial ependymomas have a very favorable natural history with low associated cancer-specific mortality. Observation, with radiation reserved as a salvage option, may be a reasonable postoperative strategy in this population.

  2. The European patient with Dravet syndrome: results from a parent-reported survey on antiepileptic drug use in the European population with Dravet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Luis Miguel; Isla, Julián; Mingorance-Le Meur, Ana

    2015-03-01

    Dravet syndrome is a rare form of epilepsy largely refractory to current antiepileptic medications. The only precedents of randomized placebo-controlled trials in Dravet syndrome are the two small trials that led to the approval of stiripentol. With the arrival of new clinical trials for Dravet syndrome, we sought to determine the characteristics of the patient population with Dravet syndrome in Europe today, which has possibly evolved subsequent to the approval of stiripentol and the ability to diagnose milder clinical cases via genetic testing. From May to June 2014, we conducted an online parent-reported survey to collect information about the demographics, disease-specific clinical characteristics, as well as current and past use of antiepileptic medications by European patients with Dravet syndrome. We present data from 274 patients with Dravet syndrome from 15 European countries. Most patients were between 4 and 8years of age, and 90% had known mutations in SCN1A. Their epilepsy was characterized by multiple seizure types, although only 45% had more than 4 tonic-clonic seizures per month on average. The most common drug combination was valproate, clobazam, and stiripentol, with 42% of the total population currently taking stiripentol. Over a third of patients with Dravet syndrome had taken sodium channel blockers in the past, and most had motor and behavioral comorbidities. Our study helps define the current typical European patient with Dravet syndrome. The results from this survey may have important implications for the design of future clinical trials that investigate new treatments for Dravet syndrome.

  3. Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the US Veteran Population According to DSM-5: Results From the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisco, Blair E; Marx, Brian P; Miller, Mark W; Wolf, Erika J; Mota, Natalie P; Krystal, John H; Southwick, Steven M; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-11-01

    With the publication of DSM-5, important changes were made to the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including the addition of 3 new symptoms. Some have argued that these changes will further increase the already high rates of comorbidity between PTSD and other psychiatric disorders. This study examined the prevalence of DSM-5 PTSD, conditional probability of PTSD given certain trauma exposures, endorsement of specific PTSD symptoms, and psychiatric comorbidities in the US veteran population. Data were analyzed from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS), a Web-based survey of a cross-sectional, nationally representative, population-based sample of 1,484 US veterans, which was fielded from September through October 2013. Probable PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-5. The weighted lifetime and past-month prevalence of probable DSM-5 PTSD was 8.1% (SE = 0.7%) and 4.7% (SE = 0.6%), respectively. Conditional probability of lifetime probable PTSD ranged from 10.1% (sudden death of close family member or friend) to 28.0% (childhood sexual abuse). The DSM-5 PTSD symptoms with the lowest prevalence among veterans with probable PTSD were trauma-related amnesia and reckless and self-destructive behavior. Probable PTSD was associated with increased odds of mood and anxiety disorders (OR = 7.6-62.8, P DSM-5 probable PTSD, conditional probability of probable PTSD, and odds of psychiatric comorbidity were similar to prior findings with DSM-IV-based measures; we found no evidence that changes in DSM-5 increase psychiatric comorbidity. Results underscore the high rates of exposure to both military and nonmilitary trauma and the high public health burden of DSM-5 PTSD and comorbid conditions in veterans.

  4. The descriptive epidemiology of delirium symptoms in a large population-based cohort study: results from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H J; Barnes, Linda E; Stephan, Blossom C M; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Meagher, David; Copeland, John; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2014-07-28

    In the general population, the epidemiological relationships between delirium and adverse outcomes are not well defined. The aims of this study were to: (1) construct an algorithm for the diagnosis of delirium using the Geriatric Mental State (GMS) examination; (2) test the criterion validity of this algorithm against mortality and dementia risk; (3) report the age-specific prevalence of delirium as determined by this algorithm. Participant and informant data in a randomly weighted subsample of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study were taken from a standardized assessment battery. The algorithmic definition of delirium was based on the DSM-IV classification. Outcomes were: proportional hazard ratios for death; odds ratios of dementia at 2-year follow-up. Data from 2197 persons (representative of 13,004) were used, median age 77 years, 64% women. Study-defined delirium was associated with a new dementia diagnosis at two years (OR 8.82, 95% CI 2.76 to 28.2) and death (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.60), even after adjustment for acute illness severity. Similar associations were seen for study-defined subsyndromal delirium. Age-specific prevalence as determined by the algorithm increased with age from 1.8% in the 65-69 year age group to 10.1% in the ≥85 age group (p < 0.01 for trend). For study-defined subsyndromal delirium, age-specific period prevalence ranged from 8.2% (65-69 years) to 36.1% (≥85 years). These results demonstrate the possibility of constructing an algorithmic diagnosis for study-defined delirium using data from the GMS schedule, with predictive criterion validity for mortality and dementia risk. These are the first population-based analyses able to account prospectively for both illness severity and an earlier study diagnosis of dementia.

  5. Initial results of efficacy and safety of Sofosbuvir among Pakistani Population: A real life trial - Hepatitis Eradication Accuracy Trial of Sofosbuvir (HEATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Zahid; Shoaib, Muhammad; Javed, Masood; Sarwar, Muhammad Adnan; Shaikh, Hafeezullah; Khokhar, Nasir

    2017-01-01

    The uridine nucleotide analogue sofosbuvir is a selective inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase approved for the treatment of chronic HCV infection with genotypes 1 - 4. The objective of the study was to evaluate the interim results of efficacy and safety of regimens containing Sofosbuvir (Zoval) among Pakistani population with the rapid virologic response (RVR2/4 weeks) with HCV infections. This is a multicenter open label prospective observational study. Patients suffering from chronic Hepatitis C infection received Sofosbuvir (Zoval) 400 mg plus ribavirin (with or without peg interferon) for 12/24 weeks. The interim results of this study were rapid virological response on week 4. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 for descriptive statistics. A total of 573 patients with HCV infection were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 46.07 ± 11.41 years. Out of 573 patients 535 (93.3%) were treatment naive, 26 (4.5%) were relapser, 7 (1.2%) were non-responders and 5 (1.0%) were partial responders. A rapid virologic response was reported in 563(98.2%) of patients with HCV infection after four weeks of treatment. The treatment was generally well tolerated. Sofosbuvir (Zoval) is effective and well tolerated in combination with ribavirin in HCV infected patients.

  6. What Do the General Population Know, Believe and Feel about Individuals with Autism and Schizophrenia: Results from a Comparative Survey in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Martens, Caroline Skat; Nikolajsen, Nanna Dagmar; Skytt Gregersen, Trine; Heckmann Marx, Nanna; Goldberg Frederiksen, Mette; Hansen, Martine Stene

    2016-01-01

    Few studies investigate what members of the general population know about individuals with autism. Only one study has previously investigated how beliefs about autism differ from those about other psychiatric disorders. This study surveyed a convenience sample of the general adult population, within the Northern Region of Denmark, about their…

  7. A comparison of two methods for prediction of response and rates of inbreeding in selected populations with the results obtained in two selection experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loywyck, V.; Bijma, P.; Pinard-van der Laan, M.H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Verrier, E.

    2005-01-01

    Selection programmes are mainly concerned with increasing genetic gain. However, short-term progress should not be obtained at the expense of the within-population genetic variability. Different prediction models for the evolution within a small population of the genetic mean of a selected trait, it

  8. Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Regulation with Associated Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Depression in an Urbanizing Rural Community in Bangladesh: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajit Bhowmik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and impaired glucose regulation (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] in an urbanizing rural population of Bangladesh and associated cardiometabolic risk indicators and depression.MethodsA total of 2,293 subjects aged ≥20 years in an urbanizing rural Bangladeshi community were investigated. Socio-demographic and anthropometric details, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2 hours after 75 g plasma glucose (2hPG, glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting serum insulin and lipid profiles were studied. Presence of depressive symptoms using Montogomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale was also assessed.ResultsThe prevalence of IFG, IGT, IFG+IGT, and T2DM were 3.4%, 4.0%, 1.2%, and 7.9%, respectively. The prevalence of T2DM and impaired glucose regulation differed between males and females, but, both increased with age in both sexes. FPG and 2hPG had positive correlation. Employing logistic regression, it was found that increased age, waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and depression were independent risk indicators for diabetes. Both insulin resistance and β-cell deficiency were significantly related for causation of diabetes. Among the study population, 26.2% had general obesity, 39.8% central obesity, 15.5% hypertension, 28.7% dyslipidemia, 17.6% family history of diabetes, and 15.3% had depression. Physical inactivity and smoking habits were significantly higher in male.ConclusionRising prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in this urbanizing rural population exist as a significant but hidden public health problem. Depression and other cardiometabolic risk indicators including obesity, hypertension, and dyslipdemia were also prevalent in this population.

  9. What is the impact of different spirometric criteria on the prevalence of spirometrically defined COPD and its comorbidities? Results from the population-based KORA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karrasch S

    2016-08-01

    age.Results: The prevalence of spirometrically defined COPD by FR increased with age from 10% in subjects aged <65 years to 26% in subjects aged ≥75 years. For LLN-defined COPD, it remained below 10% for all age groups. Overall, COPD diagnosis was not associated with specific comorbidities, except for a lower prevalence of obesity in both FR- and LLN-defined cases. Both CRP and IL-6 tended to be higher in cases by both criteria.Conclusion: In a population-based cohort of adults up to the age of 90 years, the prevalence of spirometrically defined COPD was higher for the FR criterion than for the LLN criterion. This difference increased with age. Neither prevalences of common comorbidities nor levels of the biomarkers, CRP or IL-6, were conclusively associated with the selection of the COPD criterion. Results have to be considered in light of the predominantly mild cases of airway obstruction in the examined study population. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, spirometry, prevalence, comorbidity, biomarkers

  10. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population - Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. Methods: In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were det