WorldWideScience

Sample records for bangladesh organizations

  1. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Reinhard Vogl; Brojo Gopal Paul

    2012-01-01

    In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798) aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Banglade...

  2. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  3. "Living cadavers" in Bangladesh: bioviolence in the human organ bazaar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Monir

    2012-03-01

    The technology-driven demand for the extraction of human organs--mainly kidneys, but also liver lobes and single corneas--has created an illegal market in body parts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, in this article I examine the body bazaar in Bangladesh: in particular, the process of selling organs and the experiences of 33 kidney sellers who are victims of this trade. The sellers' narratives reveal how wealthy buyers (both recipients and brokers) tricked Bangladeshi poor into selling their kidneys; in the end, these sellers were brutally deceived and their suffering was extreme. I therefore argue that the current practice of organ commodification is both exploitative and unethical, as organs are removed from the bodies of the poor by inflicting a novel form of bioviolence against them. This bioviolence is deliberately silenced by vested interest groups for their personal gain.

  4. Organizational Democracy and Women's Empowerment: An Examination of Four Advocacy Organizations in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mahin

    2014-01-01

    Women's empowerment is an important aim of the development activities of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) in Bangladesh. In a patriarchal society, women experience discrimination and their participation in decision making processes often is not allowed in domestic, political and economic affairs. Most women's organizations mainly work to create a better, non-discriminatory, and equal society for women. To focus on this goal, these organizations often are not conscious of democracy at their...

  5. Characteristics and role of groundwater dissolved organic matter on arsenic mobilization and poisoning in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareq, Shafi M.; Maruo, Masahiro; Ohta, Keiichi

    The fluorescence and molecular weight characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in groundwater of Bangladesh were investigated to evaluate its multiple roles on arsenic (As) mobilization and poisoning. Fluorescence properties of DOM were measured in groundwater samples collected from two As contaminated areas of Bangladesh (Faridpur at the Ganges floodplain and Sonargaon at the Meghna floodplain) from different locations and depths. The three dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectra of groundwater samples showed two characteristic peaks around Ex/Em = 335-365 nm/435-480 nm for fulvic-like peaks and peak at around Ex/Em = 275-290 nm/310-335 nm for the protein-like materials. The similarity of fluorescence spectra of groundwater and surface water of both the study areas with high intensity of fluorescence and its strong correlation with DOC reflect the in situ generation of fluorescent DOM from sedimentary organic matter (SOM) and recent recharge of terrestrial labile organic carbon into shallow aquifer. High performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) analysis of DOM shows positive correlations between fluorescence intensities (FI) of small molecular fractions (0.65 kDa) and As concentrations, with the signatures of protein-like peaks of DOM in groundwater. This result provides new evidence that small molecular weight fraction of DOM in groundwater of Bangladesh can play an important role on As mobilization and toxicity. In addition, high concentration of fluorescence materials in DOM of As contaminated groundwater of Bangladesh may pose a threat to public health.

  6. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Asunción, E-mail: xonborrell@ub.edu [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Tornero, Victoria [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Bhattacharjee, Dola [Indian Institute of Science Education & Research — Kolkata, Department of Biological Sciences, Mohanpur Campus, Nadia, West Bengal (India); Aguilar, Alex [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ{sup 15}N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. - Highlights: • Trace elements were determined in organisms from the Sundarbans mangrove. • The levels found were similar to those determined in wildlife from other mangroves. • Levels in three edible species were close to threshold limits for human consumption. • Except for Cr, As and Hg

  7. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Asunción; Tornero, Victoria; Bhattacharjee, Dola; Aguilar, Alex

    2016-03-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ(15)N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health.

  8. Labile Organic Carbon in Recharge and its Impact on Groundwater Arsenic Concentrations in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, R. B.; Ashfaque, K. N.; Badruzzaman, A. M.; Ali, M.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Harvey, C. F.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers have puzzled over the origin of dissolved arsenic in the aquifers of the Ganges Delta since widespread arsenic poisoning from groundwater was publicized two decades ago. Previous work has concluded that biological oxidation of organic carbon drives geochemical transformations that mobilize arsenic from sediments; however, the source of the organic carbon that fuels these processes remains controversial. A combined hydrologic and biogeochemical analysis of a typical site in Bangladesh, where constructed ponds and groundwater-irrigated rice fields are the main sources of recharge, shows that only recharge through pond sediments provides the biologically degradable organic carbon that can drive arsenic mobilization. Numerical groundwater simulations as well as chemical and isotopic indicators suggest that contaminated groundwater originates from excavated ponds and that water originating from rice fields is low in arsenic. In fact, rice fields act as an arsenic sink. Irrigation moves arsenic-rich groundwater from the aquifers and deposits it on the rice fields. Most of the deposited arsenic does not return to the aquifers; it is sorbed by the field’s surface soil and bunds, and is swept away in the monsoon floods. The findings indicate that patterns of arsenic contamination in the shallow aquifer are due to recharge-source variation and complex three-dimensional flow.

  9. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of causative organisms of neonatal septicemia in an urban hospital of Bangladesh

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    Forhad Monjur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The information of the sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms is very important for effective control of septicemia in neonates. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion and profile of pathogenic bacteria in the blood cultures of the neonates with clinically suspected septicemia and their susceptibility pattern to antimicrobial agents for developing a unified antibiotic treatment protocol. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted over a period of 3 year and 4 months (39 months. The study included 1000 patients admitted in the selected hospital in Bangladesh. Blood samples for culture were taken aseptically before starting antibiotic therapy. Microorganisms were isolated and identified by standard microbiological processes which include colony morphology, Gram stain, and biochemical profiles. Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were performed by Kirby-Bauer′s disc diffusion method against imipenem, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, netilmicin, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, cefotaxime, cephalexin, and ampicillin. Results: Among the patients, 633 (63.3% were males and 367 (36.7% were females. Blood cultures were found positive in 194 (19.4% neonates. The organisms isolated were Pseudomonas spp. (31.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.2%, Staphylococcus aureus (12.4%, Escherichia coli (7.2%, Acinatobactor (5.7%, Gram-negative Bacilli (4.1%, Flavobacterium spp. (3.6%, Serratia spp. (5.7%, Citrobacter fruendi (3.1%, Streptococcus species (2.6%, and Enterobacter spp. (1.0%. A majority of the bacterial isolates in neonatal sepsis were found sensitive to imipenem (91.8% and ciprofloxacin (57.2% and resistant to commonly used antibiotics, eg. ampicillin (96.4% and cephalexin (89.2%. Conclusion : The problem can be mitigated by careful selection and prudent use of available antibiotics.

  10. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  11. Characterization of Organic Carbon and Its Bioavailability in Recharge Waters and Aquifer Sediments: Implications for Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracht, L. E.; Ardissono, R. J.; Polizzotto, M.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Ali, M. A.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Neumann, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh affects millions of people, as groundwater is the primary source of both drinking and irrigation water in the country. The arsenic is of geologic origin, naturally-occurring in the aquifer sediment. However, the source of organic carbon that fuels the microbial reactions responsible for mobilizing arsenic off the sediment and into the groundwater has been debated for over a decade. The outstanding question is whether this organic carbon is sedimentary carbon that was co-deposited when the aquifers were formed, or surface-derived organic carbon transported into the subsurface along with recharge water. The answer to this question has implications for managing the contamination problem. Here we present results of recent laboratory incubations of aquifer sediment with recharge waters collected from our field site in Bangladesh. The incubations revealed a hitherto undocumented pool of biodegradable sedimentary organic carbon. Despite the carbon being old (thousands of years), it was rapidly utilized by the native microbial population. The results imply that within the aquifer this pool of sedimentary organic carbon is largely unavailable to the microbial community, but that chemical and/or physical perturbations to the subsurface, induced, for example, by large-scale groundwater pumping or microbial activity, could mobilize this bioavailable organic carbon off the sediment. Currently, we are using Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry and spectroscopic techniques to understand the initial character of the mobilized organic carbon in our incubation experiments, and to track how its composition changes over time as it is degraded by microbes. These efforts will help clarify the in situ processes that could destabilize the sedimentary organic carbon and identify the components that make the carbon biologically available. Collectively, our data suggest a possible role for both surface-derived and

  12. Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

  13. Dialectic of control and emancipation in organizing for social change: a multitheoretic study of the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, M J; Auwal, M A; Singhal, A

    1995-08-01

    Dedicated to helping the poorest of the poor obtain the financial means to become productively self-employed, the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh is founded upon the belief that credit is a fundamental human right and that development should be measured according to the per capita income of the bottom 50% of the population. The bank provides collateral-free loans and social services for the poor, charging 20% interest on capital, all the while maintaining a 99% loan recovery rate. The bank has 1.9 million members, 94% of whom are women, and has successfully organized grassroots microenterprises for productive self-employment and social change. The authors use the coorientation, concertive control, and critical feminist theories to analyze the bank's programs in an effort to explain the dialectic between control and emancipation in organizing for social change. Examining the bank's organizational processes from multiple theoretical perspectives allows insights to be drawn about theory and praxis in organizing for social change. The Grameen Bank has effectively demonstrated that development is an organized process of education, environmentally sound productivity, and improvement in the quality of life for the poorest of the poor.

  14. Towards sustainable co-management organization: a case study of the Baikka Beel, Moulvibazar, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidul Islam Bhuiya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in Baikka Beel, Moulvibazar, Bangladesh from July, 2012 to October, 2012. This paper examined the role and performance of the CMOs in the Beel management and the challenges faced by the CMO members. Primary information were collected through focus group discussions using conceptual framework. Organizational development, leadership development, capital formation, women and gender development and conflict resolution were used to examine the performance of the CMOs. The result revealed that the RMO and FRUG were in satisfactory level in sustainability except RMO network. However CMOs were facing some challenges. These included policy level (amendment of Fish Act 1950 regarding permanent sanctuary, lease period extension complexity, no national and social recognition of CMO members, less awareness program to the non-CMO respondents, few scope of media highlight and no fund especially in RMO network operation and operational level (no vehicle to rush to protect the poaching, no provision of honorary for RMO members, less training in capacity building and regional and statewide interactions. At last some recommendations were made for both policy and operational level. Finally new project could be implemented through the implementation of the research findings towards sustainable CMOs.

  15. Spotlight: Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, L

    1998-01-01

    This brief article highlights the progress made in Bangladesh in reducing fertility and improving women's status. The mid-1997 population was an estimated 122.2 million persons. The land area is 50,260 square miles. Population density was 2432 people per square mile. Births were 31 per 1000 persons. Deaths were 11 per 1000 persons. Infant deaths were 77 per 1000 live births. Natural increase was 2% per year. The total fertility rate was 3.3 births per woman. Life expectancy was 58 years for males and females. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world and has about 50% of US population situated on land the size of Wisconsin. Average annual income is about $240. Livelihoods from agriculture are affected by monsoons and natural disasters. Bangladesh has reduced its fertility by half since the mid-1970s. Almost 50% of married women relied on contraception during 1996-97, compared to only 8% of married women in 1975. Increases in contraceptive prevalence are attributed to the family planning program and parents' desire for smaller families. The government has made slowing population growth a priority since the 1970s. The 35,000 field workers provide door-to-door contraception and counseling. Mass media has promoted messages about the economic and health advantages of limiting or spacing births. Women continue to play a subordinate role to men, despite their improved control over fertility. Under 30% of women are literate compared to 50% of men. Islamic practices still confine women to the home. Programs are directed to improving women's financial status through credit programs. Women now hold many jobs in the new garment industry, which is the largest nonagricultural employer.

  16. Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

  17. Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Charles F.; Swartz, Christopher H.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Keon-Blute, Nicole; Yu, Winston; Ali, M. Ashraf; Jay, Jenny; Beckie, Roger; Niedan, Volker; Brabander, Daniel; Oates, Peter M.; Ashfaque, Khandaker N.; Islam, Shafiqul; Hemond, Harold F.; Ahmed, M. Feroze

    2002-11-01

    High levels of arsenic in well water are causing widespread poisoning in Bangladesh. In a typical aquifer in southern Bangladesh, chemical data imply that arsenic mobilization is associated with recent inflow of carbon. High concentrations of radiocarbon-young methane indicate that young carbon has driven recent biogeochemical processes, and irrigation pumping is sufficient to have drawn water to the depth where dissolved arsenic is at a maximum. The results of field injection of molasses, nitrate, and low-arsenic water show that organic carbon or its degradation products may quickly mobilize arsenic, oxidants may lower arsenic concentrations, and sorption of arsenic is limited by saturation of aquifer materials.

  18. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  19. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Douglas F. [Senior Energy Consultant, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Khandker, Shahidur R. [Lead Economist, Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Samad, Hussain A. [Consultant, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. (author)

  20. Made In Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUCHEN

    2004-01-01

    It is nothing new for global consumers to find the tag ‘Made in China' on the back of products from famous brands such as Nike or Panasonic.or will it surprise North American or European customers to find clothes from big brands like Esprit or GAP containing the mark ‘Made in Bangladesh'.

  1. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of the Ultra-Poor in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Aktaruzzaman; Ali, Anees Janee

    2014-01-01

    Although microcredit is considered the main vehicle for increasing the income of the poor and alleviating poverty in Bangladesh, it is now well recognised that more than this is needed to reach the ultra poor in rural areas. Consequently, almost half of the Bangladesh population is in some way linked to non-governmental organizations'…

  2. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of the Ultra-Poor in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Aktaruzzaman; Ali, Anees Janee

    2014-01-01

    Although microcredit is considered the main vehicle for increasing the income of the poor and alleviating poverty in Bangladesh, it is now well recognised that more than this is needed to reach the ultra poor in rural areas. Consequently, almost half of the Bangladesh population is in some way linked to non-governmental organizations' development…

  3. OPPORTUNITIES OF DEVELOPING TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SHAMSUDDOHA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism appeal includes natural places like beaches, eco-parks, lakes, valleys, rivers, islands etc., archeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, picnic spots, forest and wildlife. Bangladesh is a riverine country having attractive panoramic beauty. There are hills, valley, canals, lake, eco-park and mangrove forests, rivers, so many islands and the longest beach in the world. In this country, the scope of nature based tourism, resource based tourism, culture based tourism and eco-tourism is quite evident. Bangladesh is trying hard to develop its tourism industry. Therefore the whole situation deserves to be seen from right perspectives. Role of government is positive since the last twenty years both private and public organizations have come forwarded to attract the local and foreign tourists. The cracks of problem could not identify accurately because of the paucity number of researches and investigations in our country. Developed and organized tourism industry could change the economic condition and contribute a big share in the GDP of Bangladesh. This study will impede the opportunities of developing tourism industry in the light of existing resources.

  4. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana [Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1999-09-01

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  5. Bangladesh: giving girls the "key of keys".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, R

    1998-01-01

    In Bangladesh, 100 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have worked with the government to create approximately 52,000 nonformal schools for children who have never attended school or have dropped out. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) alone has 34,000 nonformal education centers. The BRAC program has been particularly effective at increasing educational opportunities for girls, and BRAC is a major implementing agency of the agreement forged by the International Labor Organization and the UN Children's Fund with the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers Export Association, which gives about 10,000 former child garment workers a meager stipend allowing them to study instead of work. BRAC, the Grameen Bank, and several other NGOs are also developing alternative income-generating methods to compete with the exploitative working conditions suffered by impoverished girls. BRAC now has more than a million students enrolled each year, 700,000 of whom are girls. Students participate in special condensed courses in classes that average 33 pupils (20 must be girls). Gender sensitivity is incorporated at every level. BRAC also relies on community participation in running the schools, and the flexible hours and imaginative curriculum have resulted in very high attendance rates. Government actions (making primary education compulsory and tripling education expenditure) have also resulted in increased primary enrollment while special programs seek to increase the number of girls in secondary schools.

  6. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

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    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  7. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda

    2015-08-01

    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  8. Human rabies in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M; Ahmed, K; Bulbul, T; Hossain, S; Rahman, A; Biswas, M N U; Nishizono, A

    2012-11-01

    Rabies is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where most of the population live in rural areas. However, there is little epidemiological information on rabies in rural Bangladesh. This study was conducted in 30 upazilas (subdistricts) covering all six divisions of the country, to determine the levels of rabies and animal bites in Bangladesh. The total population of these upazilas was 6 992 302. A pretested questionnaire was used and data were collected by interviewing the adult members of families. We estimated that in Bangladesh, 166 590 [95% confidence interval (CI) 163 350-170 550] people per year are bitten by an animal. The annual incidence of rabies deaths in Bangladesh was estimated to be 1·40 (95% CI 1·05-1·78)/100 000 population. By extrapolating this, we estimated that 2100 (95% CI 1575-2670) people die annually from rabies in Bangladesh. More than three-quarters of rabies patients died at home. This community-based study provides new information on rabies epidemiology in Bangladesh.

  9. History and Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Raihan

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the smaller states in Asia. But it has a long and rich history of nuclear medicine for over sixty years. The progress in science and technology is always challenging in a developing country. In 1958, work for the first Nuclear Medicine facility was commenced in Dhaka in a tin-shed known as 'Radioisotope Centre' and was officially inaugurated in 1962. Since the late 50s of the last century nuclear medicine in Bangladesh has significantly progressed through the years in its course of development, but still the facilities are inadequate. At present there are 20 nuclear medicine establishments with 3 PET-CTs, 42 gamma camera/SPECTs with 95 physicians, 20 physicists, 10 radiochemists and 150 technologists. The Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh (SNMB) was formed in 1993 and publishing its official journal since 1997. Bangladesh also has close relationships with many international organizations like IAEA, ARCCNM, AOFNMB, ASNM, WFNMB and WARMTH. The history and the present scenario of the status of nuclear medicine in Bangladesh are being described here.

  10. International Briefing 24: Training and Development in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Monowar; Akhter, Salma

    2011-01-01

    Training and development activities in Bangladesh have yet to be systematic and able to fulfil the needs of the economy and industry. The national educational and training system failed to provide adequate knowledge and skills to the workforce. However, private sector organizations are undertaking different initiatives to cope with the industry…

  11. H&m i Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Refsøe, Anna; Sørensen, Johan; Skytte, Josephine; Skovgaard, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Outsourcing remains an increasingly attractive strategy for many large companies. The enormous distance between the companies and its suppliers, has resulted in a hazy labor policy in the companies suppliers' production factories. Companies find it difficult to maintain ideal working conditions in developing countries due to the geographical distance. This project, focus on H&M's outsourcing to Bangladesh. Bangladesh is interesting because H&M gets 25% of their products produced in the cou...

  12. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattar, M.A. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN{sub 3}). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA and {sup 125}I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come 32 refs., 1 tab.

  13. IMPACT OF MARKETING STRATEGIES ON SACHET PRODUCTS IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A product is anything that can be accessible to the market for satisfaction. The basic objective of marketing is maximum satisfaction since satisfaction of consumer and business performance is positively related to each other. For satisfaction, product is diversified in different categories i.e. generic product, product type product, substitute product and product line etc. Sachet product is one of the expansions of product line. The term ‘Sachet’ is originated from the French word which means “mini”. In Bangladesh, sachet product has a strong market share. Thus, this study attempts to determine the exiting share of sachet product and measure the impact of marketing strategies on sachet product in Bangladesh. This study uses the selective 22 dimensions to favor the sachet product on the basis of 4Ps (Product, Price, Place and Promotion. To accomplish the study, 125 samples have been taken from selective markets in Cosmopolitan city, Chittagong. The study found that sachet product has strong market position comparative with other categories of products, where promotional effect is the dominant factor who played the vital role to sustain the sachet product in Bangladesh. The results of this study will be constructive for executives and policy-makers of business organization who works with fast moving consumer good (FMCG items effectively in Bangladesh.

  14. IMPACTS OF REMITTANCE ON THE SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITION OF BANGLADESH: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Ahmed Chowdhury

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Remittance is considered to be one of the influential sectors of the socioeconomic development of the Third World countries, particularly countries like Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, remittance contributes to the socioeconomic development, maintain foreign exchange reserves, and manage balance of payment, etc. This paper particularly explains the impacts of remittance on the socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh. The paper is written based on secondary sources, published documents on the impacts of remittance. The paper reveals that remittance has both positive and negative impacts on the socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh. However, the positive impacts are more influential than negative one. In Bangladesh, remittance helps people generate income, provide children advanced education, increase social status, create employment opportunities for poor, and above all empower women. People can avail material and non-material culture and can enjoy civic amenities of the modern era. Although, it creates inequality in the society and cultural lag among people, its influential aspect to the socioeconomic development of Bangladesh is more prevailing. As a result, this paper recommends for necessary initiatives from Government Organizations and Non Government Organizations to maintain both remittance and migration flow normal and congenial.

  15. Bangladesh Development Update, October 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This update introduces Bangladesh's new poverty numbers at $1.90 per capita per day in 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) prices, followed by an account of recent economic development, the outlook, risks, and policy responses. The revised poverty rates are significantly lower, but follow the same downward historical trend seen when using the 2005 international extreme poverty line. Banglad...

  16. Wind Energy Potential in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z.A. Saifullah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is encountering difficulties in supplying energy to maintain its economic growth. Government of Bangladesh is looking for renewable energy sources to meet up the total power demand in this country. The present study aims to assess wind energy potential in Bangladesh as a sustainable solution to overcome the energy crisis. Wind speed at six coastal zones Patenga, Cox’s Bazar, Teknaf, Char Fassion, Kuakata and Kutubdia at Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh have been analyzed. A near shore wind farm has been considered at these locations having a coastal line of 574 km. The turbines are spaced 7D apart in the prevailing wind direction, and 3D apart in the perpendicular direction, where D is rotor diameter. This near shore wind farm with an array of 5104 horizontal axis wind turbines with hub height of 100 m and rotor diameter of 75 m with a wind speed of 7 m/sec is capable to generate 1855.25 MW of electrical power. This can mitigate 55.93 per cent of energy shortage in 2016. By developing renewable energy sources it is possible to compensate 11.25 per cent of total power demand by 2020.

  17. Vermi-compost production to enterprise: case studies from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Shaikh Tanveer

    2014-01-01

    In recent years organic agriculture practices have been gaining support from both consumers and producers in Bangladesh. Considering the economic benefits and environmental advantages, one such practice vermi-compost, or worm based composting, is growing in popularity with small-scale households. In the program study area it is fostering entrepreneurship, and with proper guidance and monitoring, is demonstrating that it can be a profitable enterprise.

  18. Flourescence Humic Substances in Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAFI M. TAREQ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past, only arsenic (As concentrations in groundwater of Bangladesh were considered as having direct effects on the epidemical degrees of different types of diseases including arsenicosis, but the results of the present investigation indicated that fluorescence humic substance (HS is also an important component of dissolved organic matter in groundwater of Bangladesh. Therefore, it is suspected that both fluorescent HS and As in groundwater may have effects on the biological toxicity. The evidence of presence of high fluorescent HS and As in groundwater of Faridpur supports the above synergistic effect. The spatial distribution of fluorescence HS and As in groundwater of Faridpur indicated that the variations may be related to local hydrogeological conditions.

  19. THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Hassan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-governmental organizations are claimed to have impacts on the sustainable development in rural areas of the developing countries and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC is identified as an example. This study has considered BRAC as the case and has been aimed to critically outline the roles of this selected non-governmental organization (BRAC in sustainable development process. With this particular aim, this study has also explored the trends of current poverty situations in Bangladesh. In addition, impacts of the BRAC sustainable development initiatives have also been analyzed, to some extent. This study has selected two villages of the Chandpur district of Bangladesh, where BRAC has been operating intense programmes. This study has used both the qualitative and quantitative methods of research. Results suggest that programmes undertaken by NGOs are capable of having positive contributions in the sustainable development process to a certain level. The fact is that the programme implementation, where efficiency of the NGO employees is an indicator of success factor. The research is empirical and is expectedly fill the gap of literature.

  20. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  1. Energy Flow in Agriculture: Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Alam; Alam, M.R; Islam, K. K.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a qualitative energy flow analysis in Bangladesh agriculture has been made for a period from 1980-81 to 2000-01 to evaluate the impact of energy input to produce output. Human & animal muscle power and machinery energy for tillage operation, electricity and diesel energy for irrigation, fertilizer and pesticides energy for growth and protection are taken into account. Energy values are calculated by multiplying respective quantity by their respective energy equivalents with...

  2. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation

  3. Wishing for a World without "Theatre for Development": Demystifying the Case of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Jamil

    2002-01-01

    Argues that Theatre for Development in Bangladesh practiced by Non-Governmental Organizations, which is almost entirely funded by international donor organizations, serves globalization in the name of poverty alleviation. Concludes by advocating for the necessity of exploring alternatives by which indigenous theatre performers may access directly…

  4. Demand of eLearning for Professional Education and Learners’ Preparation: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Iftekhar Khalid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper demonstrates the demand of elearning that needs to cope with and possible technology introduction through Bangladesh Open University as a lone government agency of distance education in Bangladesh for its learners who are doing Commonwealth Executive MBA (CEMBA/Commonwealth Executive MPA (CEMPA offered in cooperation with Commonwealth of Learning (COL and MBA program of its own. Web based learning or eLearning is a new genre for providing services in the arena of education. Though in most developed countries such USA, Canada, UK, web based learning becomes popular to learners of their country, that is a very new to a third country like Bangladesh. Students of Bangladesh are also partaking courses through online programmes offered by those developed countries. These courses are expensive too, so it is necessary to establish our own elearning system in Bangladesh. As the demand of training and education is huge in Bangladesh, it is necessary to adapt the mobile and flexible system. Keeping the eye on view, a survey was conducted among the learners of those professional academic programmes. The informants were selected both from the capital city of Bangladesh as well as divisional cities and district town. The survey demonstrates that this technology can be appropriately used to meet the demands of the professional programmes. However, this survey also shows that the professional programmes require careful planning and sound technological infrastructures. The study will clarify how far prospective learners have the appreciation of the technology and how the learners have comparatively more preparation to participate in an eLearning programme rather than the organizations. The survey also focuses the primary and secondary education through collected data from websites of Bangladeshi government and private organization.

  5. Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update - December 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2015-01-01

    The Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) has been produced by the Bangladesh Resident Mission of the Asian Development Bank since March 2001. The QEU provides information and analysis on Bangladesh’s macroeconomic and sector developments, key development challenges, and policy and institutional reforms. The QEU has wide readership in government, academia, development partners, private sector, and civil society.

  6. Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update June 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    The Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) has been produced by the Bangladesh Resident Mission of the Asian Development Bank since March 2001. The QEU provides information and analysis on Bangladesh’s macroeconomic and sector developments, key development challenges, and policy and institutional reforms. The QEU has wide readership in government, academia, development partners, private sector, and civil society.

  7. Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update September 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    The Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) has been produced by the Bangladesh Resident Mission of the Asian Development Bank since March 2001. The QEU provides information and analysis on Bangladesh’s macroeconomic and sector developments, key development challenges, and policy and institutional reforms. The QEU has wide readership in government, academia, development partners, private sector, and civil society.

  8. Arsenic poisoning of Bangladesh groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickson, Ross; McArthur, John; Burgess, William; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Ravenscroft, Peter; Rahmanñ, Mizanur

    1998-09-01

    In Bangladesh and West Bengal, alluvial Ganges aquifers used for public water supply are polluted with naturally occurring arsenic, which adversely affects the health of millions of people. Here we show that the arsenic derives from the reductive dissolution of arsenic-rich iron oxyhydroxides, which in turn are derived from weathering of base-metal sulphides. This finding means it should now be possible, by sedimentological study of the Ganges alluvial sediments, to guide the placement of new water wells so they will be free of arsenic.

  9. Pheromone use for insect control: present status and prospect in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Azharul Islam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect’s world is filled with many odors. Insects use these odors to cue them in a variety of complex social behaviors, including courtship, mating, and egg laying. Scientists and pest control specialists have known about these complex communication systems for decades. The main aim of this study was to visualize the availability, trends and differences in the sources of pheromone control in agricultural growth of Bangladesh. It also concerned on constrains and present use of pheromone and their possible recommendation on behalf of Bangladesh agriculture. It concentrated on the data during last three decades (1980-2010, comprising status of pheromone use in Bangladesh agriculture and its future. Review revealed that Bangladesh has been enormously successful in increasing pheromone use in agricultural production (especially for vegetables. Understanding of the nature of pheromones and their potential for pest control along with the future prospective of pheromone technique in agriculture were stated. Since the pheromone, technologies for control of major crop pests in Bangladesh are still limited. So that this review emphasized on more attention to the authority to increase the research works and project facilities related to develop and promote pheromone techniques. It is highly recommended to increase availability of pheromone in market, more investment in research and development, introduction of newly identified pheromone for specific pest, to assist government and non-government organizations to work with farmers to reduce harmful insecticide use and promote pheromone tactics as one part of integrated crop management (ICM.

  10. The Role of NGOs in Promoting Christianty: the case of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Saidul Islam

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Western Non-Governmental organizations (NGOs are operating in all parts of the world. Many are doing great work in alleviating poverty and helping with development efforts. Unfortunately, some have hidden agendas. Presently Bangladesh has the NGO density of 3.5 foreign NGOs per square mile. Most of the foreign NGOs, under the banner of "development partner", are working to alleviate poverty and to promote education and progress. Their direct and indirect involvements in evangelization, however, have brought about an increase in tensions and social problems in Bangladesh.

  11. A Novel Hierarchical Semi-centralized Telemedicine Network Architecture Proposition for Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, Samiul; Peterson, Carrie Beth; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2011-01-01

    One of the major functions of telemedicine is the prompt delivery of modern healthcare to the remotest areas with reduced cost and efficient use of communication resources. The establishment of a well organized telemedicine system is therefore exigent for the developing countries like Bangladesh...... where there are extreme paucities of efficient healthcare professionals and equipments, specifically in the rural areas. In this paper a novel, hierarchical and semi-centralized telemedicine network architecture has been proposed holisti-cally focusing on the rural underdeveloped areas of Bangladesh...

  12. No place is safe: sexual abuse of children in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Kazi Nazrul; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2013-01-01

    During July 2007 to June 2010, BRAC, a nongovernment organization in Bangladesh, reported 713 incidents of rape and attempted rape of children (< 18 years) in rural Bangladesh. This study explores these 713 incidents to identify possible patterns related to the victims, perpetrators, and different dynamics of the incidents. Rape and attempted rape, particularly of young girls, constituted 64% of all reported incidents of violence against children. Children were found to be abused by men from all walks of life, mainly by non-family-members (83%). Similar diversity was seen in the location, time, and context of the incidents. The present study attempts to put forward an overall picture of the depth of the problem of child sexual abuse in rural Bangladesh, linking the incidents with the socially constructed gender relations of power and how it perpetuates sexual abuse of children, especially girls.

  13. Converting Bangladesh's influential religious leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaz, A

    1996-01-01

    While the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) introduced family planning to Bangladesh in 1953, very little progress was achieved before the 1980s. It was noticed during the 1980s that despite solid service delivery efforts with interpersonal communication at the community level and expanding choices of contraceptive methods, program success was impeded by religious leader opposition. Religious leader claims that family planning was against Islam reinforce male opposition to contraception. In an effort to win the support of religious leaders, the FPAB established an Islamic Research Cell (IRC) in 1984 and launched targeted advocacy and orientation programs. An expert with religious education and background ran the IRC. The leaders were taught that Islam directly or indirectly promotes family welfare from the viewpoint of the health and economic needs of the family, and that the Qur'an nowhere argues that family planning is forbidden. The Qur'an actually encourages prolonged breastfeeding and the avoidance of unwanted births. Orientation courses, seminars, a national conference, and the distribution of educational printed media eventually convinced the religious leaders to support family planning. Male involvement in family planning is essential in such a male-dominated society.

  14. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of Agricultural Workers Receiving Microcredit in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Kazi Tanvir; Parvez, Asif; Hilton, David; Kabir, G. M. Shamsul; Wahid, Ishraat Saira

    2014-01-01

    The policy of providing microcredit and skill training to poor agricultural workers in developing countries is well-established. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the effectiveness of the training part of that policy. BRAC (formerly the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), the largest non-governmental organization in…

  15. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  16. Surface Geology of Bangladesh (geo8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the geologic age and type of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Bangladesh. It also includes...

  17. Rohingyas and refugee status in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Prytz Phiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rohingya refugees from northern Rakhine Statein Myanmar are living in a precarious situation in theircountry of asylum, Bangladesh, but have seen significantimprovements in recent times.

  18. Floods in Northeast India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For the past two weeks floods have ravaged Bangladesh (center) and eastern India (draped around Bangladesh to the north), killing over 50 people and displacing hundreds of thousands from their homes. These false-color images acquired on July 15 and 16, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite show some of the worst flooding. The dark brown, swollen river in the images (top right on July 16; center on July 15) is the Brahmaputra River, which flows through the middle of the Indian state of Assam at the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains. A large, black area south of the Brahmaputra (partially obscured by clouds) shows flooded areas in Bangladesh. Floods of this magnitude have been known to occur in southern Bangladesh and are caused by storms washing seawater over coastal regions. This year, however, unrelenting torrential rains across the entire eastern sub-continent gave rise to the deluge. The massive amounts of rainwater that fell on Nepal and Assam drained into an already waterlogged eastern Bangladesh. Normally, the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines, and the large black patches in Bangladesh would be the color of the rest of the land surface, tan. In these false-color images, land is tan, and clouds are pink and white. Water comes across as black or dark brown, depending on its sediment level, with clearer water being closer to black. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. [Children and bankers in Bangladesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B

    1991-06-01

    This critique of the World Bank's role in developing country population programs begins with a description of a 1987 case in which an 80-year- old Bangladeshi man was persuaded to undergo vasectomy and then robbed of his incentive payment by the health agent. For over 20 years, the World Bank has pressured 3rd World governments to implement population control programs. Although there are divergent opinions within the World Bank, the most dominant is the neomalthusian view that the poor through their high fertility help perpetuate their own poverty. This view hides the real source of poverty in the Third World: the unequal distribution of resources within these countries and between the developed and developing countries. The World Bank has always been blind to the inequalities, and has associated with the elites of developing countries who monopolize the resources of their countries and thereby impede authentic development. Furthermore, the emphasis on population control distorts social policy and hinders the implementation of safe and voluntary family planning services. In many countries the World Bank has required governments to give greater priority to population control than to basic health services. It has pressured them to relax contraceptive prescription norms and has promoted the more effective methods without regard to proper use or side effects. In Bangladesh the World Bank has sponsored sterilization programs that rely on coercion and incentives. In that country of enormous inequities, 10% of landowners control over 50% of lands, while nearly half the population is landless and chronically underemployed. Political power is concentrated in the military government, which annually receives over 1.5 billion dollars in external aid. External aid primarily benefits the wealthy. 3/4 of the population are undernourished and less than 1/3 are literate or have access to basic health care. The poor of Bangladesh, as in many other countries, feel that their only

  20. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  1. Ebola Virus Disease – Global Scenario & Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    test, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, electron microscopy and virus isolation by cell culture.1 Supportive care - rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids - and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD.1 Raising awareness of risk factors for Ebola infection and protective measures that individuals can take is an effective way to reduce human transmission. Risk reduction messaging should focus on several factors like reducing the risks of wildlife-to-human transmission and human-to-human transmission and also on outbreak containment measures.1 Health care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus should apply extra infection control measures to prevent contact with the patient’s blood and body fluids and contaminated surfaces or materials such as clothing and bedding, wear face protection besides routine measures. Samples taken from humans and animals for investigation of Ebola infection should be handled by trained staff with utmost care and processed in suitably equipped laboratories.1 The infections of two health care workers in Dallas, USA and a nurse in Madrid, Spain have revealed the truth that even highly developed nations are not immune. Still, Asia has some advantages as it readies itself for Ebola. Flight patterns suggest that the influx of travelers from Ebola-stricken West African countries to the Asian continent is far less than it is to Africa, Europe or North America.10 The recent outbreak affecting several nations also alarmed the public health sector of Bangladesh. But virus and healthcare experts have assured that there is nothing to be anxious about Ebola in Bangladesh as it has been categorized as among the least threatened countries by the World Health Organization (WHO on August 8, 2014 in its first Emergency Committee meeting.11 Bangladesh Government has already taken effective preventive measures suggested by WHO, which

  2. Assessment of Hydrocarbon Generation Potential of Permian Gondwana Coals, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Zakir Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the geochemical characteristics of Gondwana coals from the Barapukuria coal mine, Bangladesh in order to investigate the potential for hydrocarbon generation. A total number of twenty three coal samples were analyzed Rock-Eval pyrolysis, CHNS elemental analyses, maceral analysis and vitrinite reflectance. The samples were collected from drill hole GDH-40 of the Barapukuria coal mine encountered within Gondwana succession of Permian age. The TOC contents of the coal samples range between ~50 and 76 wt.% and the organic matter consists predominantly of type III and type IV kerogen with respect to hydrocarbon generation. The GP, HI, PI and Tmax values range between 7 and 35 mg HC/g rock, 20 and 62 mg HC/g TOC, 0.02 and 0.04, and 430 and 437oC, respectively. The organic matter is mainly gas prone and thermally immature to early mature level. The potential coal bed methane (CBM generation of the Barapukuria basin is estimated to be 11 Gm3. Thus, underground coal gasification (UCG is helpful for better development of subsurface coals at the Barapukuria basin, Bangladesh.

  3. Genotype Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Strains Circulating in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rume, Farzana Islam; Affuso, Alessia; Serrecchia, Luigina; Rondinone, Valeria; Manzulli, Viviana; Campese, Emanuele; Di Taranto, Pietro; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Fasanella, Antonio; Hugh-Jones, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is considered an endemic disease affecting ruminants with sporadic zoonotic occurrences in humans. Due to the lack of knowledge about risks from an incorrect removal of infected carcasses, the disease is not properly monitored, and because of the socio-economic conditions, the situation is under-reported and under-diagnosed. For sensitive species, anthrax represents a fatal outcome with sudden death and sometimes bleeding from natural orifices. The most common source of infection for ruminants is ingestion of spores during grazing in contaminated pastures or through grass and water contaminated with anthrax spores. Domestic cattle, sheep and goats can also become infected through contaminated bone meal (used as feed) originating from anthrax-infected carcasses. The present investigation was conducted to isolate B. anthracis organisms from 169 samples (73 soil, 1 tissue, 4 bone and 91 bone meal samples) collected from 12 different districts of Bangladesh. The sampling was carried out from 2012 to 2015. Twelve samples resulted positive for B. anthracis. Biomolecular analyses were conducted starting from the Canonical Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (CanSNP) to analyze the phylogenetic origin of strains. The analysis of genotype, obtained through the Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) with the analysis of 15 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR), demonstrated four different genotypes: two of them were previously identified in the district of Sirajganj. The sub-genotyping, conducted with Single Nucleotide Repeats analysis, revealed the presence of eight subgenotypes. The data of the present study concluded that there was no observed correlation between imported cattle feed and anthrax occurrence in Bangladesh and that the remarkable genetic variations of B. anthracis were found in the soil of numerous outbreaks in this country.

  4. Criminal poisoning of commuters in Bangladesh: prospective and retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, M Mahbub Alam; Basher, Ariful; Faiz, M Abul; Kuch, Ulrich; Pogoda, Werner; Kauert, Gerold F; Toennes, Stefan W

    2008-08-25

    Travel-related poisoning is an emerging social and public health emergency in Bangladesh but its cause and significance have not been determined. To investigate this syndrome we performed a prospective clinical study and retrospective analysis of hospital records in a general medicine unit of a public tertiary care teaching hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using toxicological analysis by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS). The participants of the prospective study were 130 consecutive patients aged 16-80 years who were admitted with central nervous system depression (Glasgow Coma Score 3-14) after using public transportation, in the absence of other abnormalities, from January through June 2004, and a convenience sample of 15 such patients admitted during 3 days in May 2006. In 2004-2006, travel-related poisoning increased from 6.1 to 9.5% of all admissions (210-309 of 3266-3843 per year), representing 46.6-55.7% of all admitted poisoning cases. Incidents were associated with bus (76%), taxi, train, and air travel, or local markets; 98% of patients remembered buying or accepting food or drinks before losing consciousness. Direct financial damage (missing property) was diverse and frequently existential. Among 94 urine samples analyzed by FPIA, 74% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Among 15 urine samples analyzed by LC-TOF MS, lorazepam was detected in all; five also contained diazepam or metabolites; nitrazepam was present in three. FPIA results obtained for these 15 samples were below the recommended cut-off in eight (53%; lorazepam only). Our findings show that the massive medicosocial emergency of travel-related poisoning in Bangladesh is the result of drug-facilitated organized crime and that benzodiazepine drugs are used to commit these crimes, suggesting modifications to the local emergency management of the victims of this type of poisoning. They also highlight the

  5. Institutional Repositories and Open Access Initiatives in Bangladesh: A New Paradigm of Scholarly Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anwarul Islam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, open access (OA in its diverse forms constitutes the most interesting and promising model for the research output of an academic or research institution. The purpose of the present study is to discuss the situation of OA in the developing world, with a focus on Bangladesh. The study also addresses why OA is important for developing countries and which initiatives have been taken in Bangladesh. Finally, we discuss some challenging issues of OA and suggestions on how to overcome these issues. It is rather obvious that developing countries have always faced a lack of research information and were unable to afford sufficient subscriptions to journals. The other side of the picture is the poor dissemination of the research outcome in the developing world. In Bangladesh, only three organizations have their institutional repository and have a reasonable number of local OA journals. We will identify some problems that impede the process of building open access IR, or more generally an OA environment in Bangladesh. We are convinced, however, that we will witness in the near future a sustainable growth of open access initiatives, with more open access literature and digital repositories.

  6. Relationships of exclusion and cohesion with health: the case of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Heidi Bart

    2009-08-01

    The concept of social exclusion, applied widely in the European Union, has in recent years been gaining use in Bangladesh, mostly by international development agencies. Does this discourse of deprivation, developed in the welfare states of northern Europe, have salience in its application to deprivation in countries like Bangladesh where, for example, 31% of the rural population lives in chronic poverty? The concept of social exclusion has three principal components: a dynamic and relational perspective which requires the identification of who or what causes exclusion; an explicit recognition of multiple dimensions of deprivation; and a longitudinal perspective, recognizing that individuals and groups are dynamic intra- and intergenerationally. The Social Exclusion Knowledge Network of the World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health expanded the concept to include health status as a contributor to and an outcome of exclusion and to show that actors beyond the state or public sector can critically impact exclusionary processes. In the Bangladesh application, the relevance of the modified model was explored to find that while there are negative associations between social exclusion and health status, much stronger documentation is needed of the relationship. The modification of including multiple sectors, such as private enterprise and civil society, in addition to the state, as having potential to impact exclusionary processes is fundamental to the application of the social exclusion model in Bangladesh.

  7. Grameen Bank women borrowers’ non-formal adult learning transformation in Bangladesh

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    Kazi Abdur Rouf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grameen Bank (GB is a micro credit organization established to address poverty to empower the poor women in Bangladesh. GB targets adult women who were illiterate. GB’s adult learning information has ‘Sixteen Decisions’ (inculcate the socio-economic messages aimed at improving the social, economic, health, and well-being of GB borrowers. This Sixteen Decision adult learning campaign empowers GB women borrowers in their familial and communal life. It is important to know the efficacy of adult learning strategies that has used by GB to create this paradigm shift and transformation in local communities. How does the Grameen Bank adult learning process enables GB’s women borrowers to mobilize group solidarity, leadership development and apply the sixteen decisions in their daily life? The study finds 87% GB women borrowers were able to make better family decision on behalf of the entire family. 25% of women vice-chairs won in local in Upzilla counsels in 2009 election in Bangladesh. This statistics indicate that gender changes are happening as women are becoming successful in representing their family and holding public offices in patriarchal Bangladesh. Exponential improvements in literacy is happening, (100% of GB borrowers are able to sign their names on the documents which show signs of achievements in adult learning. However, if GB non-formal adult learning strategies could streamline, this would generate more socio-economic consciousness and environmental awareness and social justice reforms to improve the life of GB women borrowers in Bangladesh.

  8. Spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A H; Huq, S M; Mesbah-us-Saleheen

    1993-05-01

    This paper depicts the spatial patterns of mortality of the administrative upazilas of Bangladesh. Due to the absence of adequate data on mortality rates from across the country, the mortality rates of the upazilas are calculated from the age sex structure of the population of the respective upazilas employing the standardized mortality rates of divisional headquarters. Crude death rates are used to determine spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh. The patterns portray strong regional differences. Such differentiation is accounted for by traditional differences in demographic and socio-economic factors. Also, regression analysis is used to assist in explaining spatial variations.

  9. Teachers’ recruitment process via MCDM methods: A case study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Karmaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of faculty members is very significant for educational organization to prompt reputation of the organization and to provide quality education. Teaching staff, the pillars of the educational institution, can change the whole nation stimulating the magnet of interest, knowledge, and wisdom in the pupils. Selecting a better academic staff among the others is very crucial for Human Resources Management (HRM as the success of any organization solely depends on how well it selects its manpower. Institute managing committee must have a reliable technique to judge a teachers’ ranking through multiple conflicting criteria because different teachers have various capabilities. In Bangladesh, it is a common practice in public engineering universities to select teachers only having good academic records. But teaching staff selection problem is a multi-staged decision-making problem having both quantitative and qualitative criteria. It is evident that it has become challenging as the number of alternatives and conflicting criteria increases. In this paper, a structured framework has been developed using MCDM methods both in fuzzy as well as non-fuzzy environments in the renowned engineering university of Bangladesh, where seven candidates under fifteen different sub-criteria are evaluated and ranked. The study helps the recruitment panel of educational organization in Bangladesh select the most eligible academic staff for required posts.

  10. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  11. Gender Disparities in Secondary Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Molla; Rahman, Pk Md. Motiur

    2008-01-01

    Enrolment and success rates are very crucial for any educational system in the world but they are more important for the developing countries like Bangladesh. Gender differences in enrolment and success rates are also emerging issues. This study investigated the enrolment and success rate's status in secondary educational system of Bangladesh…

  12. Gender, Parenting, and Adolescent Functioning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sunita Mahtani; Bond, Michael Harris; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Ma, Stefan S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined associations of self-esteem, relationship harmony, and academic achievement with perceptions of parents' styles and supervisory practices among 212 adolescents in Islamic Bangladesh. Found that parental supervisory practices were associated with a warm parental style for girls and parental dominating control for boys. Girls' (but not…

  13. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; A. H. M. Kamal; Ali, K.S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  14. Digital geologic and geophysical data of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persits, Feliks M.; Wandrey, C.J.; Milici, R.C.; Manwar, Abdullah

    1997-01-01

    The data set for these maps includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and geophysical fields of Bangladesh. Political boundaries are provided to show the general location of administrative regions and state boundaries. Major base topographic data like cities, rivers, etc. were derived from the same paper map source as the geology.

  15. First case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromoblastomycosis is a rare and chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by black fungi and mostly reported in tropical and subtropical areas. Here we report the first case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh. Molecular biology permitted to identify Fonsecaea nubica, and the patient responded well to antifungal treatment alone.

  16. Women's Struggle against Tradition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Mainus

    1994-01-01

    In rural Bangladesh, women's participation in a literacy program was opposed by Mullahs for several reasons: content encouraged decision making, monopoly of the Qur'anic schools was threatened, Mullahs' leadership and spiritual roles were potentially subverted, and it conflicted with the practice of polygamy. (SK)

  17. The prospects and challenges of plastic industries in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Pintu, MD. Nazmul Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Plastic is one of the most used engineered material in Bangladesh that has come out as im-portant industrial sector during the last few decades. The size of Domestic market is more than thousands of billions euros. The available cheap labor, vast population and fast development of plastics wastes recycling industries have given Bangladesh a huge potential advantages to compete in the global market. Although, plastics sector is one of the most growing markets in Bangladesh, but still it is fac...

  18. Software Development Standard and Software Engineering Practice: A Case Study of Bangladesh

    CERN Document Server

    Begum, Zerina; Hafiz, Mohd Zulfiquar; Islam, Md Saiful; Shoyaib, Md; 10.3329/jbas.v32i2.2432

    2010-01-01

    Improving software process to achieve high quality in a software development organization is the key factor to success. Bangladeshi software firms have not experienced much in this particular area in comparison to other countries. The ISO 9001 and CMM standard has become a basic part of software development. The main objectives of our study are: 1) To understand the software development process uses by the software developer firms in Bangladesh 2) To identify the development practices based on established quality standard and 3) To establish a standardized and coherent process for the development of software for a specific project. It is revealed from this research that software industries of Bangladesh are lacking in target set for software process and improvement, involvement of quality control activities, and standardize business expertise practice. This paper investigates the Bangladeshi software industry in the light of the above challenges.

  19. Community economic status and intimate partner violence against women in bangladesh: compositional or contextual effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderEnde, Kristin E; Sibley, Lynn M; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Yount, Kathryn M

    2015-06-01

    In this research, we used a multi-level contextual-effects analysis to disentangle the household- and community-level associations between income and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in Bangladesh. Our analyses of data from 2,668 women interviewed as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women showed that household income was negatively associated with women's risk of experiencing IPV. Controlling for residence in a low-income household, living in a low-income community was not associated with women's risk of experiencing IPV. These results support a household-level, not community-level, relationship between income and IPV in Bangladesh.

  20. Prevalence and Health Care–Seeking Behavior for Childhood Diarrheal Disease in Bangladesh

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    Abdur Razzaque Sarker MHE, MSS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, the burden of diarrheal diseases is significant among children <5 years old. The objective of this study is to capture the prevalence of and health care–seeking behavior for childhood diarrheal diseases (CDDs and to identify the factors associated with CDDs at a population level in Bangladesh. We use a logistic regression approach to model careseeking based on individual characteristics. The overall diarrhea prevalence among children <5 years old was found to be 5.71%. Some factors found to significantly influence the health care–seeking pattern were age and sex of the children, nutritional score, age and education of mothers, wealth index, and access to electronic media. The health care service could be improved through working in partnership with public facilities, private health care practitioners, and community-based organizations, so that all strata of the population get equitable access in cases of childhood diarrhoea.

  1. Programme impact on current contraception in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M A

    1994-03-01

    "This paper analyses the impact of three credit programmes--the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), the Bangladesh Rural Development Board's Rural Development-12 (BRDB RD-12), and the Grameen Bank (GB), on current rate of contraception. These programmes are targeted to alleviate poverty by providing group-based credit to the rural poor in creating self employment opportunities. With small credits, these programmes combine family planning activities in terms of consciousness raising, awareness building and motivation. Sample survey data are used to analyse the problem of impact evaluation. The analyses show that the BRAC and the GB programmes have [a] significantly positive impact on the current rate of contraception, while the BRDB RD-12 programme does not have any such impact. It is also found that education, both of female[s] and male[s] separately, and child survivorship have independently positive impact[s] on current contraception."

  2. Development Dynamics of Remittances in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munim K. Barai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remittance inflows in the economy of Bangladesh are getting larger every passing year, matching with the increasing external demand for its manpower. The ensuing development impacts of remittances, as a means of transfer of wealth, on socioeconomic factors are increasingly viewed with importance. Remittances have helped improve the social and economic indicators like nutrition, living condition and housing, education, health care, poverty reduction, social security, and investment activities of the recipient households. The relative weight of remittances has also increased against most of the macroeconomic variables alongside the contribution to GDP. Moreover, Bangladesh has been able to avoid any serious imbalances in BOP’s current account, although it has persistent merchandize trade deficits. Not only that, the export tradable sector has thus far remained unaffected from the Dutch Disease effects of remittances.

  3. Farmers’ Education and Farmers’ Wealth in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of farmers’ education is examined with a view to evaluate the actual situation of farmers’ education in Bangladesh. Fifty samples were collected from two sub districts of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. The selection of the study sites and collection of the samples such as the years of schooling of the farm household head, total income, farm size, number of earners of farm families, family size, years of farming experience of farm household head, number of times extension contacts and rice yield were done purposively. It is cleared from the study that education is necessary for farmers to raise their wealth. Results were derived through regression analysis. The study has also shown that size of family and years of farming experience contributed significantly to the wealth accumulation of farmers.

  4. Introduction of new vaccines: decision-making process in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Bari, Tajul I; Koehlmoos, Tracey P

    2013-06-01

    The understanding of the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines helps establish why vaccines are adopted or not. It also contributes to building a sustainable demand for vaccines in a country. The purpose of the study was to map and analyze the formal decision-making process in relation to the introduction of new vaccines within the context of health policy and health systems and identify the ways of making decisions to introduce new vaccines in Bangladesh. During February-April 2011, a qualitative assessment was made at the national level to evaluate the decision-making process around the adoption of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The study population included: policy-level people, programme heads or associates, and key decision-makers of the Government, private sector, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies at the national level. In total, 13 key informants were purposively selected. Data were collected by interviewing key informants and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed thematically. The findings revealed that the actors from different sectors at the policy level were involved in the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines. They included policy-makers from the ministries of health and family welfare, finance, and local government and rural development; academicians; researchers; representatives from professional associations; development partners; and members of different committees on EPI. They contributed to the introduction of new vaccines in their own capacity. The burden of disease, research findings on vaccine-preventable diseases, political issues relating to outbreaks of certain diseases, initiatives of international and local stakeholders, pressure of development partners, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support, and financial matters were the key factors in the introduction of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The slow introduction and uptake of new vaccines is a concern

  5. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  6. Globalization and its Impact on Bangladesh Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    to other continents and the three monotheistic religions namely Islam , Christianity and Judaism took root. In the nineteenth century, the technology...Institute of Development Studies, Institute of Development Studies (Sussex) and Oxfam-Great Britain-Bangladesh Program, January 2003, 2. 2Md Saiful ...Haque, Md Saiful . “Critical Challenges Await the Economy’s Thrust Sector.” The Independent (Dhaka), 15 May 2003, 4. 63 Mondal Abdul Hye, “Study

  7. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Bangladesh, India and Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Bang-ladesh-China People’s Friendship Association (BCPFA), the Unity International Foundation of India (UIFI), the India-China Society and the Thai-Chinese Friendship Association (TCFA), from November 7 to 22, 2005, a CPAFFC delegation led by its Vice President Wang Yunze paid a visit to Bangladesh, India and Thailand, where they were accorded warm and friendly reception. The BCPFA attached great importance to the CPAFFC delegation’s visit.

  8. Impact of Iraq War on Bangladesh Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Debapriya Bhattacharya; Mustafizur Rahman; Ananya Raihan

    2003-01-01

    The paper is aimed at providing an early assessment of the anticipated consequences of Iraq war and its possible impacts on Bangladesh economy. Critical insights and fact-based information on possible changes in several areas including oil price, flow of remittance, volume of export and import, migration of labour force etc., and how these will reshape the country’s economic settings in the post-war era, have been presented in the paper.

  9. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  10. Empowerment and family planning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, S R

    1994-08-01

    A 1992 survey of 1500 women (1300 married and under age 50 years) was conducted in Bangladesh. Women who participated in 1 of 2 nongovernmental programs which provide small business loans for women (the Grameen Bank and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) were compared with women who were not members but lived in villages served by the programs and with women who were eligible but lived in villages where the loans were not available. It was found that Grameen Bank membership had a significant positive effect on the use of contraceptives and on the rate in which the level of contraceptive use increased. The greater economic independence enjoyed by the Grameen Bank members is a factor in the increased contraceptive usage as is the promotion by the Bank of a small family norm. Empowerment indicators for women in Bangladesh include mobility, economic security, the ability to make purchases, freedom from domination and violence within the family, political and legal awareness, and participation in political activities. Women are able to achieve their fertility goals by participating in programs that decrease their social isolation and their economic dependence on men.

  11. Type 1 diabetes: The Bangladesh perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishwar Azad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common endocrine disorder among children and adolescents in Bangladesh. The latest International Diabetes Federation atlas estimated the incidence of type 1 DM (T1DM in Bangladesh as 4.2 new cases of T1DM/100,000 children (0-14 years/year, in 2013. Diabetes, being a lifelong disease, places a huge burden on the economy of the most densely populated, and resource-poor country of the world. The Diabetic Association of Bangladesh (BADAS, the largest of its kind in the world, provides comprehensive care to the biggest number of diabetics at any one centre and is engaged in advocacy. Although sounding grandiose, it′s aims that ′no diabetic shall die untreated, unfed or unemployed, even if poor′ is pursued with a passion. Recently BADAS has been supported in its endeavor for children and adolescents by two programmes; viz the Changing Diabetes in Children program (a joint initiative of BADAS, the World Diabetes Foundation and Novo Nordisk, and the Life for a Child Programme (LFAC supported by the IDF. Numerous studies from the prosperous countries have demonstrated the incidence of T1DM is increasing. Data from the CDiC clinic at BIRDEM shows a rising trend in patients presenting with classical T1DM. In addition, the pattern of DM is changing.

  12. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  13. Engineering Education in Bangladesh--An Indicator of Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz

    2012-01-01

    Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although…

  14. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  15. Making Work Pay in Bangladesh : Employment, Growth, and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Paci, Pierella; Sasin, Marcin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this report is to analyze the important roles of labor markets, employment, productivity, and labor income in facilitating shared growth and promoting poverty reduction in Bangladesh. First, the report provides a background discussion of poverty, reform, and growth in Bangladesh. Following that, it gives an overview of the labor market, describing the country's demographic...

  16. Water Quality vs. Sanitation Accessibility: What is the most effective intervention point for preventing cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, M. S.; Gute, D.; Faruque, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Every year, 3 to 5 million individuals contract cholera, an acute diarrheal infection that is caused by the ingestion of food or water containing the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. Because cholera is a waterborne disease, it can be transmitted quickly in environments with inadequate water and sanitation systems where infected waste can easily pollute drinking water. Today, Bangladesh continues to struggle with endemic cholera. Donor organizations address water and sanitation via localized initiatives, including the installation of community water collection sites (i.e. tubewells; water-boiling points; etc.). At this small-scale level, water quality and sanitation accessibility can be improved independently of one another, and when resources are limited, donors must invest in the most effective disease prevention options. This study used laboratory-confirmed cholera incidence data (2000-2009) collected by the International Centre of Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh at their on-site hospital to compare the efficacy of interventions addressing water quality versus sanitation accessibility in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data regarding use of sanitary latrines and boiling of drinking water were extracted from sequential patient interviews conducted at the Dhaka facility and used as surrogate variables for sanitation accessibility and water quality respectively. Our analysis indicates that boiling water is 10 times more effective at preventing cholera than the use of a sanitary latrine. This finding suggests that regulating water quality is perhaps more critical to cholera prevention than increasing sanitation accessibility in an urban environment like that of Dhaka. At present, WaterAid - one of Bangladesh's most significant water and sanitation donor organizations - invests the majority of its budget on improving sanitation accessibility. The World Health Organization and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals also prioritize sanitation accessibility. However, in

  17. Socioeconomic and Demographic Disparities in Knowledge of Reproductive Healthcare among Female University Students in Bangladesh

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    Md. Nazrul Islam Mondal, PhD,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive health (RH is a critical component of women’s health and overall well-being around the world, especially in developing countries. We examine the factors that determine knowledge of RH care among female university students in Bangladesh. Methods: Data on 300 female students were collected from Rajshahi University, Bangladesh through a structured questionnaire using purposive sampling technique. The data were used for univariate analysis, to carry out the description of the variables; bivariate analysis was used to examine the associations between the variables; and finally, multivariate analysis (binary logistic regression model was used to examine and fit the model and interpret the parameter estimates, especially in terms of odds ratios. Results: The results revealed that more than one-third (34.3% respondents do not have sufficient knowledge of RH care. The X2 -test identified the significant (p < 0.05 associations between respondents’ knowledge of RH care with respondents’ age, education, family type, watching television; and knowledge about pregnancy, family planning, and contraceptive use. Finally, the binary logistic regression model identified respondents’ age, education, family type; and knowledge about family planning, and contraceptive use as the significant (p < 0.05 predictors of RH care. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Knowledge of RH care among female university students was found unsatisfactory. Government and concerned organizations should promote and strengthen various health education programs to focus on RH care especially for the female university students in Bangladesh.

  18. In vivo analysis of toxic effect of hydrose used in food preparations in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuhin Reza; Asafudullah; Farjana Nikkon; Khaled Hossain; Zahangir Alam Saud; Sharmin Aktar; Hasan Al Amin; Mashiur Rahman; Afroza Arefin; Nayan Chandra Mohanto; Shahnur Alam; Abdullah Al Mamun; Anwar Habib

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose used in the molasses preparation in Bangladesh.Methods:Molasses were collected from open markets in different parts of Bangladesh. The presence of hydrose in selected molasses was detected using commercial kit. To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose, Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. Group I was used as control, while Groups II, III and IV received hydrose mixing food (5, 10 and 25 g/kg food), respectively, and these supplementations were continued to the end of the study (16 weeks). Blood was collected from thoracic arteries of the mice under ether anesthesia and then organs were taken. To determine the effect of hydrose on host, blood indices related to liver, heart and kidney dysfunctions were measured.Results:Creatinine and urea levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased in a dose dependent manner in hydrose treated mice, whereas calcium level was significantly decreased in hydrose exposed mice compared to control mice. Histological study of kidney showed the glomeruler inflammation, increased diameter of renal glomeruli and enlargement of proximal tubular lumen of kidneys of mice exposed to hydrose compared to that of control animals. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that use of hydrose in molasses and other food preparations in Bangladesh may cause kidney impairment.

  19. In vivo analysis of toxic effect of hydrose used in food preparations in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuhin; Reza; Sharmin; Aktar; Hasan; Al; Amin; Mashiur; Rahman; Afroza; Arefin; Nayan; Chandra; Mohanto; Shahnur; Alam; Abdullah; Al; Mamun; Anwar; Habib; Asafudullah; Farjana; Nikkon; Khaled; Hossain; Zahangir; Alam; Saud

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose used in the molasses preparation in Bangladesh.Methods:Molasses were collected from open markets in different parts of Bangladesh.The presence of hydrose in selected molasses was detected using commercial kit.To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose.Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups.Group Ⅰ was used as control,while Groups Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ received hydrose mixing food(5.10 and 25 g/kg food),respectively,and these supplementations were continued to the end of the study(16weeks).Blood was collected from thoracic arteries of the mice under ether anesthesia and then organs were taken.To determine the effect of hydrose on host,blood indices related to liver,heart and kidney dysfunctions were measured.Result:Creatinine and urea levels were significantly(P<0.05) increased in a dose dependent manner in hydrose treated mice,whereas calcium level was significantly decreased in hydrose exposed mice compared to control mice.Histological study of kidney showed the glomeruler inflammation,increased diameter of renal glomeruli and enlargement of proximal tubular lumen of kidneys of mice exposed to hydrose compared to that of control animals.Conclusion:The results of this study indicated that use of hydrose in molasses and other food preparations in Bangladesh may cause kidney impairment.

  20. Food provisioning experiences of ultra poor female heads of household living in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Rondeau, Krista; Kirkpatrick, Sharon; Hatfield, Jennifer; Islam, Khaled Shamsul; Huda, Syed Nazmul

    2011-03-01

    Ultra poor women in Bangladesh are especially vulnerable to poverty and food insecurity, and they have generally been excluded from recent improvements in hunger and poverty rates in the country. An examination of the food provisioning narratives of 43 ultra poor female heads of household in Bangladesh was conducted in order to deepen understanding of this obstacle to the country's achievement of the First Millennium Development Goal. All participants were the household's sole income provider, had dependent children, and earned less than $1 USD per day. Women were purposively selected based on occupational group, context, and personal characteristics. Ethnographic interviews were conducted in January and February, 2008. Analysis of women's accounts of their daily food routine revealed chronic and pervasive food insecurity punctuated by acute episodes of absolute food deprivation that resulted from seasonal fluctuations in earnings, rising food prices, illness disrupting work, and healthcare costs. Women's accounts of their daily food provisioning experiences suggested compromises in, and trade-offs between, multiple basic needs as a result of inadequate income. Women were further constrained by social norms and gender roles that influenced their ability to work outside the home. Our method of inquiry led us to construct an organizing framework that extends knowledge of ultra poor women in Bangladesh's complex and multi-sphered experience of poverty and food insecurity. Based on these findings, we propose a strategy called whole person development (WPD), which seeks small adjustments to services, programs, and policies based on leverage points identified through in-depth narratives.

  1. Differences by sex in tobacco use and awareness of tobacco marketing -Bangladesh, Thailand, and Uruguay, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    The majority of the world's 1.3 billion tobacco users are men, but female use is increasing. To examine differences in tobacco use and awareness of tobacco marketing by sex, CDC and health officials in Bangladesh, Thailand, and Uruguay (among the first countries to report results) analyzed 2009 data from a newly instituted survey, the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated wide variation among the three countries in tobacco use, product types used, and marketing awareness among males and females. In Bangladesh and Thailand, use of smoked tobacco products was far greater among males (44.7% and 45.6%, respectively) than females (1.5% and 3.1%, respectively). In Uruguay, the difference was smaller (30.7% versus 19.8%). Use of smokeless tobacco products in Bangladesh was approximately the same among males (26.4%) and females (27.9%), but females were significantly more likely to use smokeless tobacco in Thailand (6.3% versus 1.3%), and use in Uruguay by either sex was nearly nonexistent. Males in Bangladesh were twice as likely as females to notice cigarette advertising (68.0% versus 29.3%), but the difference between males and females was smaller in Thailand (17.4% versus 14.5%) and Uruguay (49.0% versus 40.0%). In all three countries, awareness of tobacco marketing was more prevalent among females aged 15--24 years than older women. Comprehensive bans on advertising, sponsorship, and promotion of tobacco products, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), can reduce per capita cigarette consumption if enforced.

  2. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-01-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub

  3. Prevalence of co-morbid depression in out-patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh

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    Roy Tapash

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of depression in people with diabetes in Bangladesh. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with depression in out-patients with Type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. Methods In this cross-sectional study a random sample of 483 diabetes out-patients from three diabetes clinics in Bangladesh was invited to participate. Of them 417 patients took part. Depressive symptoms were measured using previously developed and culturally standardized Bengali and Sylheti versions of the World HealthOrganization-5 Well Being Index (WHO-5 and the Patient Health Questionairre-9 (PHQ-9 with predefined cut-off scores. Data was collected using two different modes; e.g. standard assisted collection and audio questionnaire methods. Associations between depression and patient characteristics were explored using regression analysis. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 34% (PHQ-9 score ≥ 5 and 36% (WHO-5 score  Conclusions This study demonstrated that depression prevalence is common in out-patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. In a setting where recognition, screening and treatment levels remain low, health care providers need to focus their efforts on diagnosing, referring and effectively treating this important disease in order to improve service delivery.

  4. Harnessing pluralism for better health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Evans, Timothy G; Standing, Hilary; Mahmud, Simeen

    2013-11-23

    How do we explain the paradox that Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in health and human development, yet its achievements have taken place within a health system that is frequently characterised as weak, in terms of inadequate physical and human infrastructure and logistics, and low performing? We argue that the development of a highly pluralistic health system environment, defined by the participation of a multiplicity of different stakeholders and agents and by ad hoc, diffused forms of management has contributed to these outcomes by creating conditions for rapid change. We use a combination of data from official sources, research studies, case studies of specific innovations, and in-depth knowledge from our own long-term engagement with health sector issues in Bangladesh to lay out a conceptual framework for understanding pluralism and its outcomes. Although we argue that pluralism has had positive effects in terms of stimulating change and innovation, we also note its association with poor health systems governance and regulation, resulting in endemic problems such as overuse and misuse of drugs. Pluralism therefore requires active management that acknowledges and works with its polycentric nature. We identify four key areas where this management is needed: participatory governance, accountability and regulation, information systems, and capacity development. This approach challenges some mainstream frameworks for managing health systems, such as the building blocks approach of the WHO Health Systems Framework. However, as pluralism increasingly defines the nature and the challenge of 21st century health systems, the experience of Bangladesh is relevant to many countries across the world.

  5. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  6. Marriage and its transition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A U

    1986-01-01

    The author examines developments in marriage patterns in Bangladesh in light of social, cultural, and economic conditions. Previous literature on the subject is used to discuss Muslim marriage, Hindu marriage, child marriage, mate selection and social mobility, and the question of a marriage squeeze. "The analysis presents evidence that the society is experiencing a change in its family formation, mating process and family type. This transition is to some extent towards the characteristics of [the] Western World, but in a poor economy. Part of this transition is due to the effect of modernization and part due to increasing poverty."

  7. Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Evidence from 2007 BDHS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mostafa Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors affecting adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Overall, 69.3 per cent of the married adolescents began childbearing. Among them 56.4 per cent were already mothers and 12.9per cent were pregnant for the first time. Of the adult married women age 20–49, 62.1 per cent initiated childbearing before age 19. The multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s education, husband’s education, place of residence, ever use of contraceptive method, religion, wealth and region are important determinants of adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh.

  8. Summer rains in northeast Bangladesh: Onset and triggering mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ssemujju, Musa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to shed light on convective triggering mechanisms around the onset of the summer rains in Northeast Bangladesh. We want to understand this rainfall since it has a large impact on the local climate, and because 25.3% of the annual rainfall in Northeast Bangladesh falls in Bangladesh summer (March - May). To do this, we first identified the onset of the summer rains for each year using Sylhet station rainfall data with a 11 mm/day pentad rainfall mean threshold and a 6-...

  9. Microfinance Participation and Marital Violence in Bangladesh: A Qualitative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta; Zippay, Allison

    2016-09-15

    This study explores the experiences of marital violence within the context of microfinance participation among a sample of women living in poverty in Bangladesh. Status inconsistency theory suggests that the higher incomes and female independence that may occur with microfinance participation may threaten or destabilize marital norms in Bangladesh, and have implications in terms of increased violence. We use qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 30 women residing in a slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to assess the circumstances in which there may be an association between microfinance participation and marital violence and elucidate the context in which this interaction occurs.

  10. New ways of working with partners. Women's forum in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In May 1997, Oxfam initiated an effort to help partner organizations in Bangladesh integrate gender issues into their management structures and programs. Oxfam's strategy involved inviting all 20 of its partners to send two women in management or staff positions to create a forum on gender. Oxfam kept the agenda open and included recreational activities. Within the first 24 hours, the group had produced an action plan and asked Oxfam to facilitate continuation of the forum. At first the women wanted Oxfam representatives to meet with their directors to discuss problems; after two meetings, the women only wanted Oxfam to witness the discussions and deflect objections about donor intent. Priority issues were maternity leave, equity with men in receiving resources for communication and transportation, and sexual harassment that occurred when directors extended the household roles of the women into the workplace. Lessons learned from this strategy are that 1) there is no quick fix, but this intervention is relatively inexpensive; 2) long-term support is needed; 3) involving middle managers is a concrete way to place gender issues on the agendas of partner organizations; and 4) a gender policy is important, but an action plan is even more important.

  11. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  12. Social implications of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M Manzurul; Atkins, Peter J; Dunn, Christine E

    2005-11-01

    Besides its toxicity, groundwater arsenic contamination creates widespread social problems for its victims and their families in Bangladesh. There is, for instance, a tendency to ostracise arsenic-affected people, arsenicosis being thought of as a contagious disease. Within the community, arsenic-affected people are barred from social activities and often face rejection, even by their immediate family members. Women with visible arsenicosis symptoms are unable to get married and some affected housewives are divorced by their husbands. Children with symptoms are not sent to school in an effort to hide the problem. This paper employs mainly qualitative methods to interpret people's understandings about the toxic impact of groundwater arsenic poisoning on their social lives. Arsenic-affected patients in southwest Bangladesh were asked to determine their 'own priorities' in measuring arsenic toxicity on their social activities and to explore their perceptions about their own survival strategies. We found that patients' experiences reveal severe negative social impacts, and a sharp difference of perceptions about arsenic and social issues between arsenicosis patients and unaffected people.

  13. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  14. Strategic Intervention of ODL in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Q. M. Bazlur RASHID

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Education has been considered as a priority sector and a great challenge to the Bangladesh Government, with a view to transforming human potential into a productive workforce. The conventional face to face education system is not enough to cope with the need of an ever increasing population, rapid changes in human knowledge and the global context being changed. Education through open and distance learning (ODL has been recognized as an important alternative in the country. Bangladesh Open University (BOU, established in 1992, has been mandated to improve the quality, relevance and efficiency of the education system with a view to eradicating illiteracy, developing human resources and alleviating poverty in the country. This article outlines the services provided by BOU, and explains how BOU utilizes its infrastructure and support services to deliver formal and non-formal programmes in basic and applied sciences, agriculture, technology, health, environment, education, language, teaching education, literature, population and gender issues to create awareness and promote knowledge. The impact of the programmes are reviewed and evaluated, based on feedback studies with target groups, and with particular reference to ODL in agriculture and rural development.

  15. Profile of childhood epilepsy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Selina H; Khan, Naila Z; Hossain, Mahmuda; Jahan, Anisa; Parveen, Monwara; Rahman, Narsis; Boyd, Stewart H; Neville, Brian

    2003-07-01

    Very little is known about childhood epilepsies in Bangladesh. This study was conducted within a national children's hospital in Dhaka city to provide baseline information on diagnosis and clinical outcomes of 151 children (98 males, 53 females, age range between 2 months to 15 years, median age of 3 years). Participants who presented with recurrent unprovoked seizures were followed up in an epilepsy clinic for at least 1 year. Of presenting families, 68.3% were from middle-income and lower-income groups. A history of perinatal asphyxia and neonatal seizures was present in 46.4% and 41.1% of participants respectively. Generalized, partial, and unclassifiable epilepsy were found in 63.6%, 25.2%, and 11.2% respectively. Severe outcome (malignant) epilepsy syndromes were diagnosed in 14.6%. Symptomatic epilepsy was found in 61%. Poor cognitive development was present in 72.8% and poor adaptive behaviour in 57%. Poor seizure remission occurred in 50.3%. Factors most predictive of poor seizure remission were: multiple types of seizures, poor cognition at presentation, high rates of seizures, associated motor disability, and EEG abnormalities. The study suggests that most children presenting at tertiary hospitals for seizure disorders come late and with associated neurodevelopmental morbidities. Specialized services are needed closer to their homes. The process for establishing early referral and comprehensive management of childhood epilepsies in Bangladesh requires further study.

  16. Hepatitis B in Bangladesh: Further Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiul Jamal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Iread with great interest Rashid and Rafiq's article published in the spring issue of this journal(1. The authors not only highlighted the shortcomings of the current hepatitis B vaccination strategy in Bangladesh but also prescribed awonderful policy, which is felt to be both costeffective and befitting with the country's existing programme on immunization. To complement thisI would like to add few more points: ||l|| Most neonates mount an immune response, which is believed to be adequate to reduce their risk of perinatal Hepatitis B Virus (HBV acquisition after vaccination(2. Though the pre-term babies (<37 weeks show a slower response than the term (||“||37 weeks babies, immunogenicity, which is inversely proportional to the gestational age, can be improved by increasing the vaccine dosage (2,3. l| Timing first dose of hepatitis B vaccine with BCG probably has a positive interaction: administration of BCG at the time of HBV vaccine priming at birth markedly increases the cytokines as well as ntibody responses to HBV vaccine(4. This astonishing finding might suggest that BCG has a synergistic effect on hepatitis B vaccination. Bangladesh is reported to have a very high (94% coverage of BCG vaccine(5; the uptake of HBV vaccine can be equally improved by timing it with BCG.l| The present infant vaccination policy will leave adolescents unguarded and hence nationwide prevention of the disease will be delayed. A recent survey unveils that available infrastructure in Bangladesh has sufficient spare capacity to sustain storage of an increased quantity of vaccines(5. To make good use of this unused legroom adolescent vaccination should be started along with infant vaccination. Countries such as Spain and Portugal have both neonatal and adolescent vaccination programmes in place, since 1993 and 2000 respectively, and these countries will be able to end the adolescent programme once the first immunised newborn cohort has reached the target age of the

  17. Dual burden of underweight and overweight among women in Bangladesh: patterns, prevalence, and sociodemographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul

    2015-03-01

    The discourse of dual burden caused through underweight and overweight is well-documented globally but this issue and its connection with women's health in Bangladesh is yet to be explored widely. To enrich the current debate, this study, in the context of Bangladesh, examines the patterns, prevalence, and socioeconomic factors influencing the ever-married women of being underweight and overweight over normal weight. Data used in this study have been extracted from the most recent 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. To achieve results connected with the research objectives, both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses have been employed. In bivariate analysis, we used seven categories of BMI cutoff points for Asian countries as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to investigate the net effect of socioeconomic factors on underweight, pre-overweight, and overweight over normal weight. The results confirm the co-existence of underweight and overweight among women as we found the prevalence of underweight, normal weight, pre-overweight, overweight, and obesity to be 24.1%, 46.7%, 12.8%, 13.5%, and 2.9% respectively. Compared to the richest, the women from the poorest households were significantly (poverweight (OR=0.15, 95% CI 0.12-0.19) over normal weight. The urban women, compared to their rural counterparts, were significantly (poverweight (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.18-1.51) than normal weight. The other socioeconomic grades that were most marked to be underweight and overweight are age, women's education, marital status, age at first childbirth, parity, number of children aged ≤ 5 years at the household, and food security. The findings confirm the dual burden of both under- and overweight. Systematic and regular monitoring and surveillance of the social trajectory of nutritional status of women and men in Bangladesh is crucial to develop opposite strategy that addresses the persistent and

  18. Impacts of floods on forest trees and their coping strategies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rani Basak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, the Government of Bangladesh, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs, semi-government organizations, private organizations and individuals have established a large number of plantations under different programs viz. social forestry, agro-forestry and avenue plantations with indigenous and exotic tree species without considering their habit and habitats. Along with the indigenous species like Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica, Gmelina arborea, Trewia nudiflora and Artocapus heterophyllus and many exotic species e.g. Swietenia macrophylla, Albizia saman, Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Acacia auriculiformis, Melia sempervirens, Acacia mangium etc. have been planted randomly. With increasing trend of climate-induced floods, millions of trees have been dying due to floods and water-logging. The most affected species are Dalbergia sissoo, Albizia saman, Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium and Artocarpus heterophyllus etc. This situation has caused severe impacts on socio-economic conditions of Bangladesh. The impacts involved a significant loss in terms of investment, biodiversity and afforestation program. Little investigations have been conducted to find out the causes of the deaths and also to find out the suitable adaptation practices to reduce impacts of floods on trees. This synthesis focused on the impacts of floods on plantations and also assessed the potential role of traditional forest management practices in addressing the effects flooding on forests in Bangladesh. The study added important information and revealed knowledge gaps on the causes of large forest deaths. It also provided recommendations for policy on the establishment of frequent floods resilient tree crop plantations.

  19. Map Service Showing Geologic and Geophysical Data of Bangladesh

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, major faults, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in Bangladesh. This compilation is part of an interim product of the...

  20. Aeromagnetic Anomaly Map of Bangladesh (mag8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs and arc labels that hold the Aeromagnetic anomaly value for contours and type contours of the original map of Bangladesh with the same...

  1. History, problems, and prospects of Islamic insurance (Takaful) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Issa; Rahman, Noor Naemah Binti Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli Bin Mohd; Nor, Mohd Roslan Bin Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This study explains the history, current problems, and future possibilities of Islamic insurance (takaful) in Bangladesh. To articulate these issues, the researcher has adopted the qualitative method, and data has been collected through secondary sources i.e. articles, books, and online resources. The study reveals that Islamic insurance in Bangladesh is regulated by the Insurance Act 2010 which is contradictory with Islamic insurance causing numerous problems for Islamic insurance. This study also points out that Islamic insurance is a fast growing industry with huge prospects in Bangladesh. The government should introduce separate regulations for both Islamic and conventional insurance. The research concludes with suggestions for the further development of Islamic insurance in Bangladesh.

  2. Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of Bangladesh (grav8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs and arc labels that hold the Bouguer Gravity anomaly value for contours and type contours of the original map of Bangladesh with the same...

  3. Weather Impact on Nursery Diseases of Mango Saplings in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. H. Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the period of July 2010 to April 2012 to find out the effect of weather prevalence of seedling diseases ofmango in different areas of Bangladesh. The locations were Mymensingh Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari. Altogether 12 nurseries in fourdistricts of Bangladesh were surveyed and mango seedling diseases were recorded. Incidence and severity of important seedling diseases ofhas been studied under different geographical locations (viz. Mymensingh, Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari of Bangladesh. The effects oftemperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on the incidence and severity of noted diseases were observed the aforesaid locations of Bangladesh.The studied diseases were anthracnose, leaf spot, red rust, powdery mildew, scab, bacterial leaf blight and malformation of mango seedlings.The graphs of weather parameters and incidence and severity of diseases were performed to determine the relationship between differentcomponents of climatic factor and seedling diseases of mango.

  4. Organic carbon storage in trees within different Geopositions of Chittagong (South) forest division, Bangladesh%孟加拉国吉大港不同地理位置的森林有机碳贮量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The organic carbon storage in trees and organic carbon flow with geoposition of trees was estimated in the forest area of Chittagong (South) Forest Division within geo-position 91°47' and 92°15' East longitude and 21°45' and 22°30' North latitude. The study was conducted through stratified random sampling by identifying each sampling point through Global Positioning System (GPS). It was found that above ground organic carbon storage (t/hm2), below ground organic carbon (t/hm2) and total biomass organic carbon (t/hm2) was respectively the highest in Dipterocarpus turbinatus (Garjan) (7.9, 1.18 and 9.08 t/hm2) followed by Tectona grandis (Teak) (5.66, 0.85 and 6.51 t/hm2), Artocarpus chaplasha (Chapalish) (2.32, 0.34 and 2.66 t/hm2), Artocarpus lacucha (Batta) (1.97, 0.29 and 2.26 t/hm2) and Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit) (1.7 , 0.25 and 2.26 t/hm2). From the study it was revealed that organic carbon stock was the highest (142.7 t/hm2) in the geo-position 22° Latitude and 92° Longitude and was the lowest (4.42 t/hm2) in the geo-position 21° 50' Latitude and 92° 2.5' Longitude. The forest of the study area is a good reservoir of organic carbon so has a good capacity to sequester organic carbon from the atmosphere. Sustainable forest management may help to sequester more organic carbon so that economic benefit for the country and environmental benefit in the international arena are possible from the study area.%在孟加拉国吉大港林区(东经91°47'-92°15', 北纬21°45'-22°30'),利用全球定位系统和通过辨认每个样点和分层随机采样方法,估算树木有机碳贮量和不同地理位置的森林有机碳流量.结果显示:地上树木有机碳贮量,地下树木有机碳贮量和全生物有机碳含量在羯布罗香(Dipterocarpus turbinatus)林中最高(7.9, 1.18 和 9.086 t/hm2),其次分别是柚木林(Tectona grandis, 5.66, 0.85 和 6.51 t/hm2), 恰普拉希面包果林(Artocarpus chaplasha, 2.32, 0.34 和 2.66 t/hm2),

  5. Tourism in Bangladesh: Present Status and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Chandra Roy; Mallika Roy

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh is full of natural beauty. Rivers, coasts and beaches, archaeological sites, religious places, hills, forests, waterfalls, tea gardens surround it. The Sundarban, Historic Mosque in city of Bagerhat, Ruins of the Buddihist Vihara at Paharpur are the three world heritage sites in Bangladesh among 1007. To observe the beauty of nature, huge amount of domestic and foreign tourists visit the country and its tourist attraction sites. In 2012, around six-lakh (6 hundred thousand) tourist...

  6. Female labour force participation in Bangladesh : trends, drivers and barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Rushidan I; Islam, Rizwanul

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the stylized implications of the U-shaped hypothesis, there has been an increase in female labour force participation in Bangladesh, alongside the acceleration in economic growth since the 1990s. In this regard, Bangladesh has witnessed a substantial increase in female employment in labour- intensive export-oriented industries in urban areas. The study also finds that the rapid expansion of micro-finance in rural areas has supported women’s employment. However, the economy in g...

  7. Health Insurance for Government Employees in Bangladesh: A Concept Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Syed Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Introducing compulsory health insurance for government employees bears immense importance for stepping towards universal healthcare coverage in Bangladesh. Lack of scientific study on designing such scheme, in the Bangladesh context, motivates this paper. The study aims at designing a comprehensive insurance package simultaneously covering health, life and accident related disability risks of the public employees, where the health component would extend to all dependent family members. ...

  8. Causality relationship between electricity consumption and GDP in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozumder, Pallab [Environmental Institute, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: pallab@tei.umass.edu; Marathe, Achla [Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Tech, 1880 Pratt Drive, Bldg XV, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)]. E-mail: amarathe@vt.edu

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, we examine the causal relationship between the per capita electricity consumption and the per capita GDP for Bangladesh using cointegration and vector error correction model. Our results show that there is unidirectional causality from per capita GDP to per capita electricity consumption. However, the per capita electricity consumption does not cause per capita GDP in case of Bangladesh. The finding has significant implications from the point of view of energy conservation, emission reduction and economic development.

  9. Good governance and political culture: A case study of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic system it is essential to have a competitive, and a tolerant party system, but Bangladesh has experienced an intolerant and a confrontational party system that has created a deadlock and brought uncertainty to the whole country. Since 1990, except 2014, Bangladesh has witnessed four systematic peaceful free elections, one each--in 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2008. On January 5, 2014, however, a controversial election took place in which major opposition political parties did not participate except the ruling alliance parties. The two dominant parties—the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP and the Awami League (AL—each won two previous free and fair elections, with the BNP winning in1991, and a BNP-led 4-party coalition in 2001, and the AL in 1996, and an AL-led 14 party alliance in 2008. However, from 2014 Bangladesh is heading towards an authoritarian system. All these are happening due to the lack of good governance. This article intends to emphasize that the political culture emanating from the party politics is retarding good governance in Bangladesh. This article argues that the cultural traits developed in the last four decades in various dimensions,, particularly in more recent years, have worked as an “earth-worm” in the fabrics of democracy in Bangladesh preventing ‘good governance’.

  10. Molecular dating of HIV-1 subtype C from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontell, Irene; Sarker, Md Safiullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Afrad, Mokibul Hassan; Sönnerborg, Anders; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has an overall low HIV prevalence of Bangladesh and related strains from other countries, and thereby clarify when and from where subtype C was introduced in the country and how it subsequently spread within Bangladesh. The phylogenetic analysis included 118 Bangladeshi gag sequences and 128 sequences from other countries and was performed using the BEAST package. Our analysis revealed that the vast majority of Bangladeshi sequences (97/118, 82%) fall into a large regional cluster of samples from Bangladesh, India, China and Myanmar, which dates back to the early 1960's. Following its establishment in the region, this strain has entered Bangladesh multiple times from around 1975 and onwards, but extensive in-country transmission could only be detected among drug users and not through sexual transmission. In addition, there have been multiple (at least ten) introductions of subtype C to Bangladesh from outside this region, but no extensive spread could be detected for any of these. Since many HIV-infections remain undetected while asymptomatic, the true extent of the transmission of each strain remains unknown, especially among hard to reach groups such as clients of sex workers and returning migrants with families.

  11. MEASURING THE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector has been playing a significant role in achieving the economic growth of Bangladesh, where contribution of Islamic Banking Sector is remarkable. Islamic Banking Sector shows a substantial growth position in Bangladesh. Customer satisfaction is the most significant affecting phenomenon in determining the banking growth. Thus, this study attempts to measure the existing level of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banks in Bangladesh, using the Structural Equation Model (SEM. This study uses the 22 dimensions of customer satisfaction which used in the earlier studies in different countries for measuring the customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector. A total of 385 samples have been taken from six full pledged Islamic Banks in Bangladesh. It reveals form the study that Human Resources and Systemization Service Delivery is the strongest indicator of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh followed by Core Product, Service Capability and Social Responsibility. The findings therefore, may be helpful for policy-makers of banking authorities who have been making serious endeavor to sustain the growth of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh.

  12. Past and future flooding in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Hopson, Thomas; Simmer, Clemens; Simon, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Currently, an average of about 20 % of the land surface in Bangladesh is flooded each year, affecting one of the most densely populated regions in the world. We aim to understand the processes currently determining flooding in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin, in particular the role of precipitation and sea-level rise, as well as to assess how climate change might impact flood characteristics in the future. Water level and discharge data were provided by the Bangladesh Water Development Board on a daily basis for a period of 1909-2009. Monthly maps based on daily sea level anomalies from the Data Unification Altimeter Combination System DUACS are available on a 0.25° by 0.25° grid for the time period 1993-2014. Ensemble model output for upper catchment precipitation and annual mean thermosteric sea-level rise is taken from historical and RCP scenario runs conducted with the CCSM4. We first analyzed daily water levels of the past 100 years in order to detect potential shifts in extremes. The available observations are then used to set up a generalized linear model to detect how precipitation influences flooding in the GBM basin. This model can then be used to give a prognosis on changes in future flooding. Our analysis suggests that water levels have indeed changed over the course of the past century. While the magnitude and duration of average flood events decreased, the frequency of extreme flood events has increased. Low water levels have also changed, with a significant decrease in the annual minimum water level most noticeable when we compare the time periods 1909-1939 and 1979-2009. For the future, first results confirm the decrease in return periods of strong flood events found in previous studies. The impact of climate change on flooding will also be compared to the impact of man-made structures such as Farakka barrage, built across the Ganges on the border between India and Bangladesh and operating since 1975. This is of particular interest as

  13. Statistical characterization of arsenic contamination in shallow tube wells of western Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Faisal; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Nahar, Nurun; Delawer Hossain, M.

    2006-04-01

    A regional assessment of the arsenic (As) contamination scenario in shallow tube wells (depth Bangladesh is presented. Comparisons are made in light of bulk geological differences (Pleistocene versus Holocene deposits/northwest versus southwest) and As measurement protocols (field kit (FK) versus atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)). Our As database comprised the following: (1) the nationwide As survey completed in 1999 by the British Geological Survey in collaboration with the Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE); and (2) a regional As survey conducted in southwest Bangladesh by the Japan International Cooperation Agency in collaboration with DPHE in 2002. First, we characterize the error structure of the semi-quantitative FK As measurements using collocated AAS As measurements as reference from a set of 307 wells located in southwest Bangladesh. The depth distribution of As is identified using a very dense cluster of 2963 wells over a 560 km2 domain. The probability of the FK method for successful detection of a well sample as unsafe (safe) was found to be 96.9% (34.1%) and 95.2% (80.3%) for the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bangladesh safe limits, respectively. Similarly, the probability of false alarms and false hopes for WHO (Bangladesh) safe limits were found to be 3.1% (4.8%) and 87.5% (19.7%), respectively. The depth at which the highest fraction of wells exceeding a given safe limit occurred could still be inferred correctly by FK measurements. A simple bias adjustment procedure on FK As data did not result in a more accurate characterization of depth distribution of As. This indicated that simple error statistics are inadequate for advancing the utility of FKs; rather, an understanding of the complex and multidimensional error structure is required. Regional anisotropy in the spatial dependence of As for the northwest was found to be stronger than the southwest. The correlation length for As concentration in the east-west direction of

  14. Changing Climate; Bangladesh Facing the Challenge of Severe Flood Problems; A Comparison of Flood Management between Bangladesh and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    BISWAS, KALLOL KUMAR

    2010-01-01

    Both Bangladesh and the Netherlands are the most flood prone countries in two continents Asia and Europe. Bangladesh is known to be highly vulnerable to floods. Frequent floods have put enormous constraints on its development potential. Unfortunately, the frequency of high intensity floods is increasing every year. So far the country has struggled to put a sizeable infrastructure in place to prevent flooding in many parts of the country with limited success. Where, the Netherlands has develop...

  15. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AND RECOVERY POTENTIAL: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alamgir, A. Ahsan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 7690 tons of municipal solid waste generated daily at the six major cities of Bangladesh, namely, Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Barisal and Sylhet, as estimated in 2005. Sampling was done at different waste generation sources such as residential, commercial, institutional and open areas, in different seasons. The composition of the entire waste stream was about 74.4% organic matter, 9.1% paper, 3.5% plastic, 1.9% textile and wood, 0.8% leather and rubber, 1.5% metal, 0.8% glass and 8% other waste. The per capita generation of municipal solid waste was ranged from 0.325 to 0.485 kg/cap/day while the average rate was 0.387 kg/cap/day as measured in the six major cities. The potential for waste recovery and reduction based on the waste characteristics are evaluated and it is predicted that 21.64 million US$/yr can be earned from recycling and composting of municipal solid waste.

  16. Anthrax Outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Apurba; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hasnat, Mohammed Abul; Parveen, Shahana; Islam, M. Saiful; Mikolon, Andrea; Chakraborty, Ranjit Kumar; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Ara, Khorsed; Haider, Najmul; Zaki, Sherif R.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, M. Jahangir

    2012-01-01

    During August 2009–October 2010, a multidisciplinary team investigated 14 outbreaks of animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh to identify the etiology, pathway of transmission, and social, behavioral, and cultural factors that led to these outbreaks. The team identified 140 animal cases of anthrax and 273 human cases of cutaneous anthrax. Ninety one percent of persons in whom cutaneous anthrax developed had history of butchering sick animals, handling raw meat, contact with animal skin, or were present at slaughtering sites. Each year, Bacillus anthracis of identical genotypes were isolated from animal and human cases. Inadequate livestock vaccination coverage, lack of awareness of the risk of anthrax transmission from animal to humans, social norms and poverty contributed to these outbreaks. Addressing these challenges and adopting a joint animal and human health approach could contribute to detecting and preventing such outbreaks in the future. PMID:22492157

  17. Radon measurements in some areas in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Khan, M.A. [Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 164, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: hamidkhan1950@yahoo.com; Chowdhury, M.S. [Physics Department, Dhaka University, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2008-08-15

    A survey of radon level measurements using CR-39 has been carried out in some of urban and rural residential areas and one gas explosion area in Bangladesh. The lowest level of radon concentration was found to be 49Bqm{sup -3} inside a hospital in Cox's Bazar district and the highest level was found to be 835Bqm{sup -3} inside a mud-made old residential house in Sylhet city. It was observed that old residential houses were found to have higher levels of radon concentrations compared to newly built houses. The radon level at the gas explosion area at Magurchara in Moulvibazar district was found to be 408{+-}98Bqm{sup -3}.

  18. Educating girls in Bangladesh: exploding the myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M

    1993-01-01

    Poor landless families in Bangladesh typically see no need to educate their girls. Even where school fees are waived, exercise books, pencils, and school clothes cost money, and girls are especially needed to care for siblings and do other household chores. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), however, has found it possible to get girls to school by adapting education to the circumstances of poverty instead of requiring families and students to adjust to the conventional rules of primary school. The BRAC non-formal primary education (NFPE) program in five years has expanded to 12,000 centers serving 360,000 children in two programs of three-year duration each for 8-10 year olds and 11-14 year olds. Reflecting the policy of giving priority to girls, more than 70% of enrolled children are female. Almost all teachers are also female and typically young, married, from the neighborhood, and with 9-10 years of schooling. Each center is a thatch or tin-roofed hut accommodating thirty children managed by a village committee and a parent-teacher committee at a cost of US$18 per child per year. All learning materials are provided at the center for the three hours of courses six days per week set according to students' availability and convenience. The course for the younger children offers the equivalent of three years of primary education, while the course for the older children offers basic literacy and life skills. The success of the BRAC centers demonstrates how parents and children may respond when education is socially and culturally acceptable, affordable, and strives to meet parents' and child's expectations.

  19. Reliability and validity of the Bangla version of WHOQOL-BREF in an adult population in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Kato, Seika; Islam, Md Akramul; Yamada, Helena Sayuri; Kato, Hiroshi; Wakai, Susumu

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Bangla version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) in an adult population in Bangladesh. Approximately 200 adults in the Dhaka district were interviewed using a questionnaire containing the Bangla version of the WHOQOL-BREF, as well as questions related to sociodemographic data. To assess the reliability of WHOQOL-BREF, Cronbach's alpha was calculated, and test-retest reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the first and second administrations. For comparison, approximately 200 leprosy patients were also interviewed with the questionnaire to examine the discriminant validity between groups. On the whole, sufficient validity was observed, and the Bangla version of the WHOQOL-BREF was deemed to be valid and reliable in assessing the quality of life of an adult population in Bangladesh.

  20. Innovating veterinary public health challenges of Bangladesh to integrate the concept of ‘one world, one health’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mufizur Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses relevant problems and constraints of VPH in Bangladesh in the light of global concept “One World, One Health” that need to be overcome and to ask for help, coordination and collaboration of international organization to promote and build the capacity for the spectrum of important VPH issues contributing to zoonoses, food-borne disease control, food safety and fostering better and living condition. In Bangladesh the loss of border controls within countries and the globalization of trade have led to an increasing trade in animals and products of animal origin. As a consequence there appears the demand and imperative need for new and elaborate surveillance strategies. The world is changing fast and new diseases are emerging and reemerging across the globe. Many of these new diseases can be linked to animals or changes occurring in environmental conditions. Bangladesh government has launched a collaborative effort and established increased participatory approach and joint venture activities with the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC in respect of capacity building for surveillance and control of zoonotic diseases, and food safety. The four recommendations mentioned below could provide valuable direction to the future VPH program and activities linked to global concept “One World, One Health” These are (1 Development and Strengthening of VPH (2 Formation of Veterinary Public Health Forum (3 Establishment of National Communicable Disease Center (4 Foundation of National Institute of VPH Studies. 

  1. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by

  2. Bangladesh national guidelines on the management of tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus co-morbidity (summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Delwar Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB and diabetes mellitus (DM have synergetic relationship. People with diabetes are 2–3 times at higher risk of getting active TB disease. On the other hand, TB or anti-TB treatment may cause glucose intolerance. The dual disease of DM and TB is more likely to be associated with atypical disease presentation, higher probability of treatment failure and complications. In most of the health-care delivery systems of the world, DM and TB are managed separately by two vertical health-care delivery programs in spite of clear interaction between the two diseases. Thus, there should be a uniform management service for TB-DM co-morbidity. Realizing this situation, Bangladesh Diabetic Samity (BADAS, a nonprofit, nongovernment organization for the management of diabetes in Bangladesh, with the patronization of TB CARE II Project funded by U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID, launched a project in 2013 titled BADAS-USAID TB Care II, Bangladesh with the goal of “Integrated approach to increase access to TB services for diabetic patients.” One of the project objective and activity was to develop a national guideline for the management of TB-DM comorbidity. Thus, under the guidance of National Tuberculosis Control Program, of the Directorate General of Health Services, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh and World Health Organization (WHO, this guideline was developed in 2014. It is based on the existing “National Guidelines and Operational Manual for TB Control” (5th edition and guidelines for management of DM as per WHO and International Diabetes Federations. Along with that, expert opinions from public health experts and clinicians and “Medline”-searched literature were used to develop the guidelines. These guidelines illustrate the atypical presentation of the TB-DM co-morbidity, recommendations for screening, treatment, and follow-up of these patients and also recommendations in case of management of

  3. Development of agribiotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess safety of genetically modified crops in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiruddin, Khondoker M; Nasim, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    Bangladesh is on the verge of adopting genetically modified (GM) crops for commercial cultivation and consumption as feed and food. Most of the laboratories are engaged in tissue culture and molecular characterization on plants, whereas some have started living modified organism research with shortages of trained manpower, infrastructure, and funding. Nutritionally improved Golden Rice, biotech brinjal, and late blight-resistant potato are in contained trials in a greenhouse, and potato ring spot virus-resistant papaya is in the process of approval for a field trial. The government has taken some initiative in support of GM organism research, which include the formation of a Biotechnology Department in all institutes and the formation of the apex body, the National Task Force Committee on Biotechnology of Bangladesh under the chairpersonship of the Prime Minister. Biosafety policy guidelines and related aspects of biotechnology issues have been approved, and the laws are in the process of being promulgated. Being a party to the Cartagena Protocol, proper biosafety measures are regulated by the appropriate authority as stated. Although there are no laws made yet directly for biosafety of GM crops/foods, the relevant laws on agriculture, medicine, food, import, trade, environment, etc. may suffice and explain the situation.

  4. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  5. Impact of Coastal Pollution on Childhood Disabilities and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: The Case of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juma Rahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this review was to explore the situation of coastal water pollution and its impact on child health and pregnancy outcomes in Bangladesh. Background: Globally coastal pollution is of greater significance than inland’s for its huge resources and contribution to livelihood. As a result it has been a source of increased Global Burden of Disease by means of consumption of seafood, involvement in risky jobs, and exposure to water related disastrous events. Almost sixty percent of the world’s population is at risk of costal contamination and developing countries like Bangladesh, geographically located at the tip of the Bay of Bengal, are facing significant challenges by this form of pollution. Method: This study was based on a critical review of published literature and unpublished documents from 1972 to 2011 retrieved from databases of scientific publications, from public-access search engines, reports from government, international organizations, and non-government agencies, and personal communications. Discussion: Huge noxious pollutants including heavy metals, oil spill and redionucleotides were found in the Bay of Bengal, those have enormous adverse impacts on child health and pregnancy outcomes. This review focuses on children and pregnant women because of their vulnerable physiological conditions to the impacts of environmental factors. The physiological systems of children and fetuses are developing fast and usually are sensitive to disruptions induced by environmental pollutants and exposures in utero increase the risk of future toxic insults. Conclusion: The coastal zone of Bangladesh is one of the vulnerable zones in the world which is predicted to disappear due to climate change impacts. This areas face huge weather-related disasters due to continuous changing coastal-configuration and man-made pollutions. However, these observations are indecisive due to limitations of supportive evidence. Therefore, further

  6. Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh: a 14-year study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Das, Bhaskar; Murrill, Matthew; Dey, Sankar; Chandra Mukherjee, Subhas; Dhar, Ratan Kumar; Biswas, Bhajan Kumar; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Roy, Shibtosh; Sorif, Shahariar; Selim, Mohammad; Rahman, Mahmuder; Quamruzzaman, Quazi

    2010-11-01

    Since 1996, 52,202 water samples from hand tubewells were analyzed for arsenic (As) by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) from all 64 districts of Bangladesh; 27.2% and 42.1% of the tubewells had As above 50 and 10 μg/l, respectively; 7.5% contained As above 300 μg/l, the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions. The groundwater of 50 districts contained As above the Bangladesh standard for As in drinking water (50 μg/l), and 59 districts had As above the WHO guideline value (10 μg/l). Water analyses from the four principal geomorphological regions of Bangladesh showed that hand tubewells of the Tableland and Hill tract regions are primarily free from As contamination, while the Flood plain and Deltaic region, including the Coastal region, are highly As-contaminated. Arsenic concentration was usually observed to decrease with increasing tubewell depth; however, 16% of tubewells deeper than 100 m, which is often considered to be a safe depth, contained As above 50 μg/l. In tubewells deeper than 350 m, As >50 μg/l has not been found. The estimated number of tubewells in 50 As-affected districts was 4.3 million. Based on the analysis of 52,202 hand tubewell water samples during the last 14 years, we estimate that around 36 million and 22 million people could be drinking As-contaminated water above 10 and 50 μg/l, respectively. However for roughly the last 5 years due to mitigation efforts by the government, non-governmental organizations and international aid agencies, many individuals living in these contaminated areas have been drinking As-safe water. From 50 contaminated districts with tubewell As concentrations >50 μg/l, 52% of sampled hand tubewells contained As poisoning and to prevent this disaster from continuing to plague individuals in the future.

  7. Food Adulteration and Bio-magnification of Environmental Contaminants: A Comprehensive Risk Framework for Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehreen eMajed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article thoroughly investigates the severity of the prevailing environmental conditions and evaluates the resulting threats to food intake and public health in Bangladesh by establishing relationship among different contaminant transfer mechanisms to human. It describes the potential of certain contaminants to get bio-magnified through the food chain. A database was prepared on a number of contaminants in the study area that are responsible for rendering different foods vulnerable to produce long term or short-term health effects. Contaminants that have been identified in the food sources were categorized in a continuum based on their allowable daily intake. A protocol has been developed which will enable the assessment of the potential of a contaminant to bio-magnify through food chain to understand the contribution of a contaminant on different levels of food chain. The study also provides a detailed assessment of the public health risks associated with direct ingestion of adulterated foods and intake of contaminants through food chain or water intake. Their intake to human body was quantified, which provides an indication of the toxicity level of the contaminants and possible impact on human health. The traditional four steps of risk assessment technique have been employed for some model contaminants (including metals, organic contaminants and food adulterants. Additionally, existing rules and regulations of Bangladesh were identified with possible limitations that can play significant role in controlling the food adulteration practices and concentration of contaminants in the environment and human body. Finally, a holistic approach to necessary interventions has been prescribed at policy, treatment and evaluation level to prevent the water pollution and food adulteration. Thus, a much-needed comprehensive framework is prescribed in this study to promote safety in food handling, preserve environment and improve health-based strategies in

  8. Internalized HIV/AIDS-related stigma in a sample of HIV-positive people in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Tanvir; Nath, Samir Ranjan; Khan, Nabilah S; Akram, Owasim; Gomes, Tony Michael; Rashid, Sabina F

    2012-03-01

    Internalized stigma among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) is prevalent in Bangladesh. A better understanding of the effects of stigma on PLHA is required to reduce this and to minimize its harmful effects. This study employed a quantitative approach by conducting a survey with an aim to know the prevalence of internalized stigma and to identify the factors associated with internalized stigma among a sample of 238 PLHA (male=152 and female=86) in Bangladesh. The findings suggest that there is a significant difference between groups with the low- and the high-internalized HIV/AIDS stigma in terms of both age and gender. The prevalence of internalized stigma varied according to the poverty status of PLHA. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) found 10 of 15 items loaded highly on the three factors labelled self-acceptance, self-exclusion, and social withdrawal. About 68% of the PLHA felt ashamed, and 54% felt guilty because of their HIV status. More than half (87.5% male and 19.8% female) of the PLHA blamed themselves for their HIV status while many of them (38.2% male and 8.1% female) felt that they should be punished. The male PLHA more frequently chose to withdraw themselves from family and social gatherings compared to the female PLHA. They also experienced a higher level of internalized stigma compared to the female PLHA. The results suggest that the prevalence of internalized stigma is high in Bangladesh, and much needs to be done by different organizations working for and with the PLHA to reduce internalized stigma among this vulnerable group.

  9. The environment associated with significant tornadoes in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikos, Dan; Finch, Jonathan; Case, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the environmental parameters favoring significant tornadoes in Bangladesh through a simulation of ten high-impact events. A climatological perspective is first presented on classifying significant tornadoes in Bangladesh, noting the challenges since reports of tornadoes are not documented in a formal manner. The statistical relationship between United States and Bangladesh tornado-related deaths suggests that significant tornadoes do occur in Bangladesh so this paper identifies the most significant tornadic events and analyzes the environmental conditions associated with these events. Given the scarcity of observational data to assess the near-storm environment in this region, high-resolution (3-km horizontal grid spacing) numerical weather prediction simulations are performed for events identified to be associated with a significant tornado. In comparison to similar events over the United States, significant tornado environments in Bangladesh are characterized by relatively high convective available potential energy, sufficient deep-layer vertical shear, and a propensity for deviant (i.e., well to the right of the mean flow) storm motion along a low-level convergence boundary.

  10. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

    2013-11-23

    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints.

  11. Determinants of drinking arsenic-contaminated tubewell water in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M H; Aklimunnessa, Khandoker; Kabir, M; Mori, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    Bangladesh has already experienced the biggest catastrophe in the world due to arsenic contamination of drinking water. This study investigates the association of drinking arsenic-contaminated water (DACW) with both personal and household characteristics of 9116 household respondents using the household data of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2004. Here DACW means that arsenic level in the drinking water is greater than the permissible limit (50 microg/l) of Bangladesh. The overall rate of DACW was 7.9%. It was found to be significantly associated with education, currently working, and division of Bangladesh, either by cross tabulation or multivariate logistic regression analyses or both. Similarly, household characteristics -- namely television, bicycle, materials of the wall and floor, total family members, number of sleeping rooms, and availability of foods -- were significantly associated in bivariate analyses. Many household characteristics -- namely electricity, television, wall and floor materials, and number of sleeping rooms -- revealed significant association in the logistic regression analysis when adjusted for age, education and division. This study indicates that respondents from Chittagong division and lower socio-economic groups (indicated by household characteristics) are at significantly higher risk of DACW. These findings should be taken into account during the planning of future intervention activities in Bangladesh.

  12. Bangladesh Enterprises Continue to Participate in Trade Promotion Events in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ On March 26, 2007,Bangladesh celebrated its 36th anniversary of the Independence and National Day.China and Bangladesh enjoy time tested friendly relations. The bilateral relations are characterized by sustained efforts to further broaden the nature and scope of the cooperation. In 2005, China emerged as the biggest source of import for Bangladesh, outstripping the volume of import from Bangladesh's other immediate neighbors. Bangladesh is the third largest trading partner of China in South Asia. The total bilateral trade volume has reached beyond US$ 3 billion in 2006.

  13. Carbon dioxide emission from brickfields around Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Imran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken at six divisions of Bangladesh to investigate the CO2 emission from brickfields. to explore the rate of carbon emission over the last 10 years, based on existing technology for brick production. The finding reveals that there were more than 45,000 Brick kilns in Bangladesh which together account for about 95% of operating kilns including Bull's Trench Kiln, Fixed Chimney Kiln, Zigzag Kiln and Hoffman Kiln. These kilns were the most carbon emitting source but it varies on fuel type, kiln type and also for location. It has been found that, maximum carbon emission area was Chittagong, which was 93.150 with percentage of last 10 years and 9.310 per cent per year. Whereas Sylhet was lower carbon emission area indicating percentage 17.172 of last 10 years and 4.218 percent per year. It has been found that total annual amount of CO2 emission for 4 types brick kilns from Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulana, Sylhet and Barisal were 8.862 Mt yr-1, 10.048 Mt yr-1, 12.783 Mt yr-1, 15.250 Mt yr-1, in the year of 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2010 respectively. In Mymensingh district, the maximum CO2 emission and coal consumption was obtained in Chamak brick field, which was 1882 tons and 950 tons, respectively and minimum was obtained in Zhalak brick field, which was 1039.5 tons and 525.0 tons, respectively during the year of 2013. The percentage in last 10 years of CO2 emission was 72.784 and per cent per year 7.970, which is very alarming for us. The estimates obtained from surveys and on-site investigations indicate that these kilns consume an average of 240 tons of coal to produce 1 million bricks. This type of coal has a measured calorific value of 6,400 KJ, heating value of coal is 20.93 GJ t-1 and it produces 94.61 TJ t-1 and 56.1 TJ t-1 CO2 from coal and natural gas, respectively.

  14. Profile of lichen planus in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khondker, L; Wahab, M A; Khan, S I

    2010-04-01

    Lichen planus is one of the common inflammatory disorders of skin, mucous membrane, nail and hair characterized by violaceous, polish, pruritic, polygonal, flat-topped papules usually distributed bilaterally symmetrically over the extremities. Our objectives in this study were to explore the prevalence of lichen planus in large area of Dhaka in Bangladesh and to establish the clinical characteristics of lichen planus. This descriptive type of cross sectional study was carried out from September 2006 to August 2008 in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) in Dhaka. Patients suffering from lichen planus were selected as study population. By face to face interview and clinical observations, data were collected from sample. A total 120 patients of lichen planus were selected, on the basis of age, 30(25%) were 10-30 years of age, 75(62.56%) were 30-50 years and 16(13.33%) were over 50 years of age. The mean age of the patient was 40+/-4 years. Out of 120 patients, 80(66.66%) were male and 60(33.33%) were female and eight patients (6.67%) had positive family history among highest age group (30 to 50 years). In case of duration of disease, highest percentage (68%) of cases was 15 days to 6 months and considering clinical sign, koebnerization was present 45(37.5%) cases and Wickhams striae 22(18.33%) cases. Regarding site of onset of lesion, lesions were highest 100(83.33%) in upper limbs, next lower limbs, trunk, oral mucosa etc. The distribution of clinical pattern of lichen planus showing classic pattern (68.33%) was the most common type, followed by hypertrophic, actinic, ashy dermatoses, lichen plano-pilaris, erosive or ulcerative etc. This clinico-epidemiological study of lichen planus attending in the different hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh has shown that lichen planus is usually associated with 30 to 50 years of age group, with

  15. Bacterial etiology of bloodstream infections and antimicrobial resistance in Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilruba Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloodstream infections due to bacterial pathogens are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh and other developing countries. In these countries, most patients are treated empirically based on their clinical symptoms. Therefore, up to date etiological data for major pathogens causing bloodstream infections may play a positive role in better healthcare management. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial pathogens causing major bloodstream infections in Dhaka, Bangladesh and determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Methods From January 2005 to December 2014, a total of 103,679 single bottle blood samples were collected from both hospitalized and domiciliary patients attending Dhaka hospital, icddrb, Bangladesh All the blood samples were processed for culture using a BACT/Alert blood culture machine. Further identification of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility test were performed using standard microbiological procedures. Results Overall, 13.6% of the cultured blood samples were positive and Gram-negative (72.1% bacteria were predominant throughout the study period. Salmonella Typhi was the most frequently isolated organism (36.9% of samples in this study and a high percentage of those strains were multidrug-resistant (MDR. However, a decreasing trend in the S. Typhi isolation rate was observed and, noticeably, the percentage of MDR S. Typhi isolated declined sharply over the study period. An overall increase in the presence of Gram-positive bacteria was observed, but most significantly we observed the percentage of MDR Gram-positive bacteria to double over the study period. Overall, Gram positive bacteria were more resistant to most of the commonly used antibiotics than Gram-negative bacteria, but the MDR level was high in both groups. Conclusions This study identified the major bacterial pathogens involved with BSI in Dhaka, Bangladesh and also revealed their

  16. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER — RESULTS OF PROTOTYPE FIELD TESTS IN BANGLADESH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowolik, K; Addy, S.E.A.; Gadgil, A.

    2009-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 50 million people in Bangladesh drink arsenic-laden water, making it the largest case of mass poisoning in human history. Many methods of arsenic removal (mostly using chemical adsorbents) have been studied, but most of these are too expensive and impractical to be implemented in poor countries such as Bangladesh. This project investigates ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) as an affordable means of removing arsenic. Experiments were performed on site in Bangladesh using a prototype termed “sushi”. This device consists of carbon steel sheets that serve as electrodes wrapped into a cylinder, separated by plastic mesh and surrounded by a tube-like container that serves as a holding cell in which the water is treated electrochemically. During the electrochemical process, current is applied to both electrodes causing iron to oxidize to various forms of iron (hydr)oxides. These species bind to arsenic(V) with very high affi nity. ECAR also has the advantage that As(III), the more toxic form of arsenic, oxidizes to As(V) in situ. Only As(V) is known to complex with iron (hydr)oxides. One of the main objectives of this research is to demonstrate the ability of the new prototype to reduce arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh groundwater from >200 ppb to below the WHO limit of 10 ppb. In addition, varying fl ow rate and dosage and the effect on arsenic removal was investigated. Experiments showed that ECAR reduced Bangladeshi water with an initial arsenic concentration as high as 250 ppb to below 10 ppb. ECAR proved to be effective at dosages as high as 810 Coulombs/Liter (C/L) and as low as 386 C/L (current 1 A, voltage 12 V). These results are encouraging and provide great promise that ECAR is an effi cient method in the remediation of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. A preliminary investigation of arsenic removal trends with varying Coulombic dosage, complexation time and fi ltration methods is

  17. Digital Divide between Teachers and Students in Urban Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    data available on them in Bangladesh context. A study was conducted to study the digital divide and ICT usage pattern among the urban students and teachers of schools and colleges in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. About 75 students enrolled in probability and statistics course of Independent...... to use’ compared to Bangla medium students. Significantly higher percentage of students can use and own desktop, laptop, cellphone, iPOD and MP3 player. While teachers mostly use computers for work (73%), study (45%) and listening music (34%), students use for playing games (63%), listening musing (62...... University, Bangladesh (IUB) in autumn 2009 participated in conducting survey activities. Total 33 academic institutes were south for approval and 11 could be surveyed before the Christmas and annual recess. Responses from 6 other academics institutes were collected from the personal networks of students...

  18. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  19. Applicability of Telemedicine in Bangladesh: Current Status and Future Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Nessa, Ahasanun; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    Telemedicine refers to the use of information and communication technology to provide and support health care mainly for the purpose of providing consultation. It is also a way to provide medical procedures or examinations to remote locations. It has the potential to improve both the quality and the access to health care services delivery while lowering costs even in the scarcity of resources. Understanding the potentiality of telemedicine, many developing countries are implementing telemedicine to provide health care facility to remote area where health care facilities are deficient. Bangladesh is not an exception to this either. In this paper we mention the reasons why Bangladesh has to move for telemedicine. We also present the past and on-going telemedicine activities and projects in Bangladesh. Analyzing these projects we have found out some factors which should be assessed carefully for successful implementation of telemedicine application. Finally we propose a prototype telemedicine network for Banglad...

  20. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Mohan Tulsiani, Suhella

    The role of in-house transmission on the incidence of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly waterborne pathogen, is still not developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible contamination routes in household domain for effective cholera control in Bangladesh. To examine the prevalence...... and water supply may be the reason behind this relatively high presence of virulence factors in food plates and water pots. Direct exposure routes of disease transmission should be a major consideration in cholera prevention policies. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh........ Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305215719_Investigation_of_household_contamination_of_Vibrio_cholerae_in_Bangladesh [accessed Oct 14, 2016]....

  1. Inflation Targeting as the Monetary Policy Framework: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed SAIFUL ISLAM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflation targeting strategy has become a widely accepted monetary policy framework in many countries all over the world. Our study finds that the central bank of Bangladesh is neither inflation targeting nor does follow any other rule-guided monetary policy, rather the policy is formulated with substantial discretion under the guidelines of donor agencies. This paper provides the evidence that monetary sector of Bangladesh economy has gained considerable degree of maturity and fulfils a number of prerequisites to adopt inflation targeting strategy. Using data over 1980-2010 we estimate an error correction model in order to examine if interest rate policy could fight the inflation. This is evident that deviation in inflation from target can be corrected via the changes in interest rate. Empirical findings jointly with few descriptive statistics provide strong evidence to recommend inflation targeting as the monetary policy strategy for Bangladesh.

  2. Board Composition and Firm Performance: Evidence from Bangladesh

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    Afzalur Rashid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of corporate board composition in the form of representation of outsideindependent directors on firm economic performance in Bangladesh. Two hypotheses are developed toexamine the relationship among composition of board memberships including independent directors andfirm performance. An observation of 274 Bangladeshi firm-years is used in the study. A linear regressionanalysis is used to test the hypotheses. Results reveal that the outside (independent directors cannot addpotential value to the firm’s economic performance in Bangladesh. The idea of the introduction ofindependent directors may have benefits for greater transparency, but the non-consideration of theunderlying institutional and cultural differences in an emerging economy such as Bangladesh may not resultin economic value addition to the firm. The findings provide an insight to the regulators in their quest forharmonization of international corporate governance practices.

  3. Challenges in Teaching Pronunciation at Tertiary Level in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzina Tahereen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching pronunciation is one the most challenging parts of ELT in Bangladesh. Very few research and least attention on pronunciation teaching has instigated those challenges more. Moreover, setting an ambitious target to achieve native like pronunciation and teaching without considering the Bangladeshi context are more specific reasons for creating those problems. Therefore, this paper concentrates on the discussion of the existing condition of teaching pronunciation in Bangladesh. Consequently, it starts with presenting existing circumstances of pronunciation teaching in Bangladesh, and showing what the achievable and realistic goal should be for this situation. Then, it talks about the challenges that the teachers face while teaching pronunciation in ELT classroom. This discussion provides deep insight into those challenges which are only applicable to Bangladeshi students. Finally, the paper suggests some contextual and practical solutions to those specific problems.

  4. The Effects of Remittances on Inflation: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like many developing countries, remittances are relatively larger capital inflows in Bangladesh in the recent years. Hence, understanding the impact of remittances on the macroeconomic variables such as inflation is essential for the policy makers of the recipient economy. Incorporating remittances as an exogenous variable to the standard inflation function, this paper verifies how it affects the inflation rate in Bangladesh in the 1972-2010 periods. Applying Vector Autoregressive (VAR techniques, the empirical results find that a one percent increase in remittances inflows increases inflation rate by 2.48 percent in the long run, whereas no significant relationship is evident between these two variables in the short-run in Bangladesh.

  5. A comprehensive assessment of arsenic in commonly consumed foodstuffs to evaluate the potential health risk in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md Kawser; Shaheen, Nazma; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Islam, Saiful; Islam, Md Monirul; Kundu, Goutam Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Lalita

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic (As), particularly of its inorganic form (iAs) is highly toxic, and its presence in food composites is a matter of concern for the public health safety, specifically in Bangladesh which is regarded as the most arsenic affected country throughout the world. This study was carried out to investigate the levels of As in the composite samples of commonly consumed foodstuffs collected from 30 different agro-ecological zones for the first time in Bangladesh. Most of the individual food composites contain a considerable amount of As which was, as a whole, in the range of 0.077-1.5mg/kg fw which was lower than those reported from Spain, EU, France, Korea, whereas higher than those of Mexico, Chile, Japan, Cambodia, Hong Kong, Serbia, respectively. Cereals, vegetables, milk, and fish contribute about 90% to the daily intake of inorganic arsenic. Human health risk of dietary iAs was assessed separately for both the rural and urban adults. The estimated daily dietary intakes (EDI) of iAs for the exposed rural (3.5) and urban residents (3.2 μg/kg-BW/day) clearly exceeded the previous provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) value of 2.1 μg/kg-BW/day, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). From the health point of view, this study concluded that both the rural and urban residents of Bangladesh are exposed to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks who consume As-contaminated water and foodstuffs.

  6. A critical review and database of biomass and volume allometric equation for trees and shrubs of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, H.; Siddique, M. R. H.; Akhter, M.

    2016-08-01

    Estimations of biomass, volume and carbon stock are important in the decision making process for the sustainable management of a forest. These estimations can be conducted by using available allometric equations of biomass and volume. Present study aims to: i. develop a compilation with verified allometric equations of biomass, volume, and carbon for trees and shrubs of Bangladesh, ii. find out the gaps and scope for further development of allometric equations for different trees and shrubs of Bangladesh. Key stakeholders (government departments, research organizations, academic institutions, and potential individual researchers) were identified considering their involvement in use and development of allometric equations. A list of documents containing allometric equations was prepared from secondary sources. The documents were collected, examined, and sorted to avoid repetition, yielding 50 documents. These equations were tested through a quality control scheme involving operational verification, conceptual verification, applicability, and statistical credibility. A total of 517 allometric equations for 80 species of trees, shrubs, palm, and bamboo were recorded. In addition, 222 allometric equations for 39 species were validated through the quality control scheme. Among the verified equations, 20%, 12% and 62% of equations were for green-biomass, oven-dried biomass, and volume respectively and 4 tree species contributed 37% of the total verified equations. Five gaps have been pinpointed for the existing allometric equations of Bangladesh: a. little work on allometric equation of common tree and shrub species, b. most of the works were concentrated on certain species, c. very little proportion of allometric equations for biomass estimation, d. no allometric equation for belowground biomass and carbon estimation, and d. lower proportion of valid allometric equations. It is recommended that site and species specific allometric equations should be developed and

  7. A comprehensive assessment of arsenic in commonly consumed foodstuffs to evaluate the potential health risk in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Md. Kawser [Faculty of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Shaheen, Nazma [Institute of Nutrition and Food Science (INFS), University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Islam, Md. Saiful [Department of Risk Management and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md., E-mail: habibullah-al-sj@ynu.jp [Department of Risk Management and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Islam, Saiful [Institute of Nutrition and Food Science (INFS), University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Islam, Md. Monirul [Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); School of Earth and Environment, Leeds University, Leeds LS2, 9JT (United Kingdom); Kundu, Goutam Kumar [Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Bhattacharjee, Lalita [National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Bangladesh)

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic (As), particularly of its inorganic form (iAs) is highly toxic, and its presence in food composites is a matter of concern for the public health safety, specifically in Bangladesh which is regarded as the most arsenic affected country throughout the world. This study was carried out to investigate the levels of As in the composite samples of commonly consumed foodstuffs collected from 30 different agro-ecological zones for the first time in Bangladesh. Most of the individual food composites contain a considerable amount of As which was, as a whole, in the range of 0.077–1.5 mg/kg fw which was lower than those reported from Spain, EU, France, Korea, whereas higher than those of Mexico, Chile, Japan, Cambodia, Hong Kong, Serbia, respectively. Cereals, vegetables, milk, and fish contribute about 90% to the daily intake of inorganic arsenic. Human health risk of dietary iAs was assessed separately for both the rural and urban adults. The estimated daily dietary intakes (EDI) of iAs for the exposed rural (3.5) and urban residents (3.2 μg/kg-BW/day) clearly exceeded the previous provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) value of 2.1 μg/kg-BW/day, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). From the health point of view, this study concluded that both the rural and urban residents of Bangladesh are exposed to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks who consume As-contaminated water and foodstuffs. - Highlights: • A comprehensive health risk assessment from dietary arsenic exposure was evaluated. • Sample collected from 30 agro-ecological zones for the first time in Bangladesh. • Rural and urban adults are consuming more arsenic through food than the safe limit. • Cereals, vegetables, milk, and fish contribute about 90% to EDI of inorganic As. • Inhabitants are exposed chronically to arsenic induced risks.

  8. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaduzzaman, M. [Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1996-12-31

    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.

  9. FORMAL TRADE BETWEEN INDIA AND BANGLADESH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K.S. YADAV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of improving trade flows between India and Bangladesh is not only beneficial to them, but for the whole SAARC region, given that Bhutan and Nepal utilise Bangladesh ports as gateways to trade outside the region. Bangladesh’s overall exports are dominated by labour-intensive manufacturing and its imports to India by primary commodities. The shares of manufactured goods in country’s overall export were about 92 and 91 percent in 2001 and 2011 respectively. However, the composition of bilateral trade between these two countries has been changing over time. Addition and removal in the list of products of trade basket is a usual process. Consistent products in the trade basket of Bangladesh are ready made garments and sea food, whereas those of India are raw cotton, cereals and products and machinery of iron and steel. Expansion of trade of these countries with outside world, but not with each other confirms the prevalence of certain barriers, physical or non-physical in nature, rendering many potential products remain untraded. India and Bangladesh being geographically proximate to each other possess huge scope to trade. Specifically as both the countries are rich in natural resources and are competent in the production of small-scale manufacturing and agrarian supplies, mostly from the eastern parts of India and Bangladesh, both possess huge potential for bilateral trade. Many items having high trade potential are still not able to get market exposure in the neighbouring country because of various non-tariff barriers prevailing in current trade scenario, which have hiked up the cost of doing business to unacceptable proportions and as most of the highly tradable products are still kept under the sensitive lists of Bangladesh. There are numerous bottlenecks in the current trade infrastructure which turns out to be physical barrier to trade. The present paper highlights the import export and Exchange Rate change and prospects of

  10. NEW TRENDS IN LEGAL EDUCATION AT BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid FERDOUSI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, Formal legal education is provided by either a department of a university or an affiliated college. There are four public universities and above twenty six private universities in our country with law as a regular subject of teaching. Besides, the National University imparts teaching of law through law colleges in the country. All public and private universities providing law graduate degree by conventional system but many people deprived from this opportunities. Thus to increase equitable access to education and to develop the human resources of the country the Bangladesh Open University playing significant role. Large numbers of students of rural areas, particularly women, out of school and adults who must do work to support their families are include with the university. Bangladesh Open University is the only institution in Bangladesh which imparts education in open and distance mode and offers 23 formal programmes, the demand for the introduction of LL.B programme for the benefit of those who have been, for various reasons, deprived of the opportunity of undertaking graduate course in law in conventional mode of education. The decision to offer the programme in distance mode is being taken in response to the earnest desire of the relevant quarters expressed in various dailies and formal applications submitted to the university authority as the learners in the open and distance mode learn at his own place and any time whenever he feels convenient to learn and is not for restricted by time, space or age. Distance learning is, indeed, presently considered as a viable alternative of the conventional system of education to fulfill the growing demand for legal education.This paper presents the new academic trends in Bangladesh Open University by distance learning Bachelor of Laws (LL.B. degree and modern aspects of the legal education at School of Law in Bangladesh Open University.

  11. Sexual violence towards married women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2013-05-01

    This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.

  12. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-06-01

    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  13. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in environmental water in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Anwarul; Yoshizumi, Ayumi; Saga, Tomoo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2014-11-01

    Pathogens encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes represent a threat for failure of empirical antibiotic therapy and are associated with high mortality, morbidity and expenses. We examined surface water in Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh and isolated ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae, suggesting the potential role of water for the dissemination and transmission of resistant genes among microorganisms. E. coli found most prevalent among isolated Enterobacteriaceae from environmental water. Molecular and genetic analysis revealed CTX-M-type and SHV-type ESBL genes in isolates that may influence the spread of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria causing human and animal infections in Bangladesh.

  14. A rainfall simulation model for agricultural development in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayedur Rahman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A rainfall simulation model based on a first-order Markov chain has been developed to simulate the annual variation in rainfall amount that is observed in Bangladesh. The model has been tested in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Few significant differences were found between the actual and simulated seasonal, annual and average monthly. The distribution of number of success is asymptotic normal distribution. When actual and simulated daily rainfall data were used to drive a crop simulation model, there was no significant difference of rice yield response. The results suggest that the rainfall simulation model perform adequately for many applications.

  15. Existing and Expected Service Quality of Grameenphone Users in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Ullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Grameenphone (GP is a market leader in the telecommunication industry in Bangladesh. This study investigates the existing and expected service quality of Grameenphone users in Bangladesh. The Study reveals that there are significant gap between existing and expected perceived service network, 3G, customer care, physical facilities, billing cost, information service, mobile banking and GP offers. The study concludes that customer satisfaction is a dynamic phenomenon. Maintaining desired level of customer satisfaction requires corporate proactive responsiveness in accessing, building & retaining satisfied customers for sustainable competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  16. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  17. The emerging disease occurrence of pet animals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umma Habiba

    2016-12-01

    Results: Among the most general pet animals in Bangladesh (dog, cat, rabbit, the mostly occured diseases were scabies (23.07%, feline ascariasis (37.14% and rabbit mange (34.61%, while the less frequent diseases were canine parvovirus enteritis (2.19%, cat scratch disease (5.71% and overgrown teeth (7.69%. Conclusion: The study provides basic information about the current status and the percentage (% of disease occurrence considering the emerging diseases of pet animals in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 413-419

  18. Bangladesh arsenic mitigation programs: lessons from the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuzar Rahman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring access to safe drinking water by 2015 is a global commitment by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. In Bangladesh, significant achievements in providing safe water were made earlier by nationwide tubewell-installation programme. This achievement was overshadowed in 1993 by the presence of arsenic in underground water. A total of 6 million tubewells have been tested for arsenic since then, the results of which warranted immediate mitigation. Mitigation measures included tubewell testing and replacing; usage of deeper wells; surface water preservation and treatment; use of sanitary dug wells, river sand and pond sand filters; rainwater collection and storage; household-scale and large-scale arsenic filtrations; and rural pipeline water supply installation. Shallow tubewell installation was discouraged. Efforts have been made to increase people's awareness. This paper describes the lessons learned about mitigation efforts by the authors from experience of arsenic-related work. In spite of national mitigation plans and efforts, a few challenges still persist: inadequate coordination between stakeholders, differences in inter-sectoral attitudes, inadequate research to identify region-specific, suitable safe water options, poor quality of works by various implementing agencies, and inadequate dissemination of the knowledge and experiences to the people by those organizations. Issues such as long-time adaptation using ground water, poor surface water quality including bad smell and turbidity, and refusal to using neighbor's water have delayed mitigation measures so far. Region-specific mitigation water supply policy led by the health sector could be adopted with multisectoral involvement and responsibility. Large-scale piped water supply could be arranged through Public Private Partnerships (PPP in new national approach.

  19. Human Resource Management Practices and Employees’ Satisfaction Towards Private Banking Sector in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Tofael Hossain Majumder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic advances of Information and Communication Technology (ICT, changing mix and personal values of the workforce, emergence of the knowledge economy and increasing global competition have created enormous challenges on organizations. To cope with the challenges efficiently, human resource has been considered as one of the most important factors in today’s hyper-competitive market place. The focus of this study is to gain an insight into the current HRM practices and its impact on employee’s satisfaction on the private banking sector in Bangladesh. For conducting this research, 100 bank employees are selected from the chosen banks and out of this 88 employees responses properly, the response rate is 88 percent. The questionnaire consists of different questions on nine HRM dimensions such as recruitment and selection systems, compensation package, job security, career growth, training and development, management style, job design and responsibilities, reward and motivation and working environment. The questionnaire was developed by using a five point Likert scale. In this study, some statistical measures such as Z-test, mean and proportion analysis is used to examine employee’s satisfaction. The study reveals that all HRM dimensions exercised in the private banking sector of Bangladesh does not satisfied to the employees equally. Most of the employees are dissatisfied with compensation package followed by reward and motivation, career growth, training and development, management style, and job design and responsibilities. So, these HRM dimensions quality should be improved for the betterment of the bank’s success.

  20. Identification and quantification of pesticide residues in water samples of Dhamrai Upazila, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahman, M. A.; Salam, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    Being agricultural country, different types of pesticides are widely used in Bangladesh to prevent the crop losses due to pest attack which are ultimately drain to the water bodies. The present study was conducted to identify and quantify the organochlorine (DDT, DDE and DDD), organophosphorus (malathion, diazinon and chloropyrifos) and carbamate (carbaryl) residues in water samples of different sources from Dhamrai upazila of Bangladesh using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with ultra violate (UV) detector. Thirty water samples from fish pond, cultivated land and tube-well were collected in winter season to analyze the pesticide residues. Among the organophosphorus pesticides, malathion was present in seven water samples ranging from 42.58 to 922.8 μg/L, whereas diazinon was detected in water sample-8 (WS-8) and the concentration was 31.5 μg/L. None of the tested water samples was found to be contaminated with chlorpyrifos, carbaryl or DDT and its metabolites (DDE and DDD). Except for a tube-well water sample, concentrations of the detected residues are above the acceptable limit for human body as assigned by different organizations. To avoid the possible health hazards, the indiscriminate application of pesticides should be restricted and various substitute products like bio-pesticide should be introduced in a broad scale as soon as possible.

  1. The impact of education and media on contraceptive use in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Abdul; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, an attempt is made to show the impact of education and media on contraceptive use and also to identify the factors that associated with the current use of contraception and continuing of contraception. To reach our goal, Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2007) data were used. Findings of this study reveal that education, age of the respondents, religion, media exposure, area of residence and if they belong to any of the non-governmental organizations (Grameen Bank, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, ASA, Mother's club, etc.) have significant contribution to current use of contraception and continuing of contraception. Media, particularly TV, and education play the leading role regarding this issue, whereas the others have an indirect relationship. Multivariate analyses showed that contraceptive use were higher among educated women and those women who watch TV at least once a week as compared with their respective counterpart. The results indicate urgent need to give emphasis on education, ensuring electronic media exposure, head-to-head communication programme, institutional-based family planning education and necessary information to learn about the impact of overpopulation for the people all over the country.

  2. Investigating Incursion of Transboundary Pollution into the Atmosphere of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Masud Rana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of particulate matter (PM in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during November 2013 to April 2014 were found 7-8 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO guideline value. Probability of contribution of transboundary sources to this PM pollution was investigated through different approaches. Ninety-six-hour backward trajectories with every 3-hour interval were computed and clustered into 06 groups based on angle distance matrix. Probabilities of individual cluster to be associated with different ranges of coarse and fine particles were studied. Gazipur station near Dhaka city was found to have 68% probability of receiving PM10 concentration higher than 150 μg/m3 when air masses followed the route of Middle East through the Himalayan valley to the station. This channel was identified as the main route of PM transport to Bangladesh during dry season. Transboundary source-regions were spotted by concentration weighted trajectory (CWT method and also by the monthly average aerosol optical depths (AOD over South Asia. North-western Indian regions, Nepal and its neighboring areas, and Indian state of West Bengal were identified as the most probable zones that might have contributed to PM pollution in Gazipur, Dhaka. November to January was the high time the station had experienced fine particles from those transboundary regions.

  3. Deforestation effects on biological and other important soil properties in an upland watershed of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M. Sirajul Haque; Sanatan Das Gupta; Sohag Miah

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation occurs at an alarming rate in upland watersheds of Bangladesh and has many detrimental effects on the environment. This study reports the effects of deforestation on soil biological proper-ties along with some important physicochemical parameters of a southern upland watershed in Bangladesh. Soils were sampled at 4 paired sites, each pair representing a deforested site and a forested site, and having similar topographical characteristics. Significantly fewer (p≤0.001) fungi and bacteria, and lower microbial respiration, active microbial biomass, metabolic and microbial quotients were found in soils of the deforested sites. Soil physical properties such as moisture content, water holding capacity, and chemical properties such as organic matter, total N, avail-able P and EC were also lower in deforested soils. Bulk density and pH were significantly higher in deforested soils. Available Ca and Mg were inconsistent between the two land uses at all the paired sites. Re-duced abundance and biomass of soil mesofauna were recorded in defor-ested soils. However, soil anecic species were more abundant in defor-ested soils than epigeic and endogeic species, which were more abundant in forested soils than on deforested sites.

  4. Effect of Knowledge Management Practices on Business Performance in Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafikul Islam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, the area Knowledge Management (KM has drawn considerable attention from researchers. This is due to the fact that firms’ performances are increasingly hinge upon managing knowledge of their employees rather than managing only physical facilities and resources. The present study intends to investigate the effect of KM practices on business performance in Bangladesh Pharmaceutical industry. Factor analysis has identified three factors of KM, namely organization culture, IT infrastructure and performance measurement. Structural Equation Modelling application has found that IT infrastructure and performance measurement have positive impact on business performance, while no significant relationship was observed between organization culture and business performance. Managerial implications of the findings are put forward.

  5. Abundance of sardine fish species in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Bikram Jit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during January, 2012 to December 2012 in the sardine fisheries which is occurred both in artisanal and industrial fishing sector in the marine water of the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. During this study period the total landing amounts by weight of sardines were 7352.99 MT, among these 23.76% (1747.22 MT was exploited by the artisanal mechanized boats and 76.24% (5605.77 MT captured through different industrial fishing trawlers and contributed 17.51% of the total marine fish production by commercial fish trawlers during the study period. 4 sardine species have been recorded from our marine territory. Among them, 2 sardine species are highly abundant, Sardinella fimbriata total production volumes was 5495.79 MT (74.74% contributed 1747.22MT (31.79% from the artisanal and 3748.57MT (68.21% from the industrial sector and Dussumieria acuta production amounts was 1857.20MT (25.26% contributed only from the industrial fishing sector.Species wise contribution shows that S. fimbriata contributed 100% in the artisanal sector and in the industrial fishing S. fimbriata contributed 66.87% and D. acuta contributed the rest 33.13%. The distribution of the S. fimbriata is within 10-20 meters depth and abundance was observed in the southern part of the South patches and South of south patches (N: 210.09// -22, E: 920.04/-07 to N: 200.45/-25, E: 920.18/-56 and 10-50m depth in onshore and off shore areas in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point -N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57. The distribution of the D. acuta is within 40-60 m. depth and abundance was observed in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground areas (Kohinoor point - N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57 and south-west to south-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point- N: 200-17/.29, E: 900.15/.21 to N: 200.29/.56, E: 910.24/.22 in the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. The peak capture season of

  6. Child marriage in Bangladesh: trends and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Ying, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.

  7. Children's Rights and the Imagination of Community in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that sharply divergent images of children in Bangladesh reflect different "imagined communities" of society and polity, local and global. Universal concepts of "the rights of the child" contrast strongly with a local culture of "guardianship", as the key social institution that governs children's lives. How might bringing these…

  8. Antimalarial drug resistance in Bangladesh, 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ubydul; Glass, Gregory E; Haque, Waziul; Islam, Nazrul; Roy, Shyamal; Karim, Jahirul; Noedl, Harald

    2013-12-01

    Malaria remains an important health problem in Bangladesh, with approximately 14 million people at risk. Antimalarial drug resistance is a major obstacle to the control of malaria in endemic countries. In 2012, Bangladesh reported an estimated 29 522 malaria episodes, of which 94% were reported as being caused by Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we reviewed and summarized antimalarial drug resistance data from Bangladesh published until June 2013. We searched published sources for data referring to any type of P. falciparum drug resistance (in vivo, in vitro, or molecular) and found 169 articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Of these, 143 articles were excluded because they did not meet our inclusion criteria. After detailed review of the remaining 26 articles, 14 were selected for evaluation. Published studies indicate that P. falciparum shows varying levels of resistance to chloroquine, mefloquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Combination therapy of chloroquine and primaquine has proven ineffective and combinations of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine with either quinine or chloroquine have also shown poor efficacy. Recent studies indicate that artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate, remain highly efficacious in treating P. falciparum malaria. Available data suggest that artemisinins, quinine, doxycyline, mefloquine-artesunate and azithromycin-artesunate combination therapy remain efficacious in the treatment of P. falciparum malaria in Bangladesh.

  9. Private University Librarian's Experience on Procurement of Books in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Muhammad Hossam Haider

    2011-01-01

    The private universities in Bangladesh are playing an important role in modernizing the higher education system in the country and the role of librarians is also different and challenging. Specially, procuring books and monographs is an exigent function being this lost its demand very quickly. In some cases, titles bear only one semester…

  10. Caesarean of Lion (Panthera leo at Dulahajra Safari Park, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M.M. Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A six years eight months pregnant lioness at the Dulahajara Safari Park, Chakoria, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, was presented with dystocia. This paper described the pre-, intra- and postoperative procedures including anesthetic protocol carried out and performing a caesarean section to remove dead fetuses and the successful recovery of the lioness without complications.

  11. Dowry and Spousal Physical Violence against Women in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Persson, Lars Ake

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether payment issues or presence of dowry demand in marriage reflecting patriarchal attitude of marital family underlies the positive relationship between dowry and wife abuse using a sample of reproductive-age women (N = 2,702) from a population-based survey conducted in urban and rural Bangladesh in 2001. Regression…

  12. Enhanced Ties with China Can Help Bangladesh Develop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihabur; Rahman

    2013-01-01

    <正>Construction of a deep seaport in Chittagong and establishment of Chittagong-Kunming rail and road communications have been a much-talked-about issue following Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s visit to China.She went for the trip in the rising economic superpower in one and a half years of her assuming office early 2009.During

  13. The Dissonance between Schooling and Learning: Evidence from Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, M. Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul

    2015-01-01

    Using a basic mathematics competence test based on the primary school curricular standard, we examine the extent to which years spent in school actually increases numeracy achievement in rural Bangladesh. Our sample includes 10-18-year-old children currently enrolled in school as well as those out of school. About half of the children failed to…

  14. Neoliberalism, Policy Reforms and Higher Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ariful Haq

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has introduced neoliberal policies since the 1970s. Military regimes, since the dramatic political changes in 1975, accelerated the process. A succession of military rulers made rigorous changes in policy-making in various sectors. This article uses a critical approach to document analysis and examines the perceptions of key…

  15. Impact of an aquaculture extension project in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an impact study of key short- and long-run effects of the Danida supported Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project (MAEP) in Bangladesh, applying different matching and double difference estimators. Results are mixed. First, the paper finds a positive short-run impact on pond...

  16. Financial Liberalization, Savings and the Banking Sector in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); I.A. Robin (Iftekhar Ahmed)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis article explores the consequences of financial liberalization policy on the banking sector in Bangladesh. Following a motivating portfolio selection theor-etical model on the impact of liberalization, it applies time series techniques with annual banking sector data for the period 1

  17. Military Strategy of Bangladesh to Counter Terrorism in Near Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Paper presented at first bi-annual international symposium of the Center for Asian Terrorism Research (CATR) at Denpensar, Bali , Indonesia, 19-21...observed phenomena . Bangladesh has had and is likely to experience more terrorist acts in the near future...qualitative in nature. By characteristics, qualitative research uses a naturalistic approach that seeks to understand phenomena in context-specific

  18. Postburn contracture treatment: a healthcare project in Bangladesh.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, A.; Swapan, K.B.; Spronk, C.A.E.M.; Niemeijer, R.P.; Spauwen, P.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 6 years, a health care program aimed at the surgical correction of postburn contractures has taken place in Faridpur, Bangladesh. People in this rural region are very poor and often cannot afford medical treatment. Often secondary flexion contractures of the face and chin as well as th

  19. Household Schooling and Child Labor Decisions in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2007-01-01

    Using empirical methods, this paper examines household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh. The results suggest the following: poverty and low parental education are associated with lower schooling and greater child labor; asset-owning households are more likely to have children combine child labor with schooling; households…

  20. Ganokendra: An Innovative Model for Poverty Alleviation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Kazi Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    Ganokendras (people's learning centers) employ a literacy-based approach to alleviating poverty in Bangladesh. They give special attention to empowering rural women, among whom poverty is widespread. The present study reviews the Ganokendra-approach to facilitating increased political and economic awareness and improving community conditions in…

  1. MEDIA CONCERN AND TRENDS OF FERTILITY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Morad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how the media interprets Bangladeshian fertility trends by analyzing 11 online available articles from two Bangladeshi leading dailies, The Daily Star and the Prothom Alo. The exploration of the newspaper articles reveals that print media in Bangladesh has shown concern notably on the present scenario of the country’s declining fertility trend. It has been observed from the newspaper clippings that both population growth rate and fertility rate are gradually declining in Bangladesh which they explain as a matter of great satisfaction. Drawing on examples from South Asia, the articles explain that Bangladesh has a remarkable achievement in fertility reduction compared to India and Pakistan. However, almost all of the articles have expressed concern over the population bomb of Bangladesh. The newspapers also report that though fertility is declining at the national level, significant variation exists at the regional level and among different socio economic groups. The fertility rate is reported to be very high in the urban shanties and poverty-stricken rural areas. In this regard, the clippings have often criticized the government activities, especially governmental population control programme.

  2. Living Sexualities: Negotiating Heteronormativity in Middle Class Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Karim (Shuchi)

    2012-01-01

    textabstract‘Living Sexualities’ is a study of erotic desires, practices and identities, lived within the heteronormative and marriage-normative socio-sexual structures of the urban middle class in contemporary Bangladesh. The study is based on two years fieldwork during which data was generated thr

  3. Quality and Processes of Bangladesh Open University Course Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tofazzal; Rahman, Morshedur; Rahman, K. M. Rezanur

    2006-01-01

    A new member of the mega-Universities, Bangladesh Open University (BOU) introduced a course team approach for developing effective course materials for distance students. BOU teaching media includes printed course books, study guides, radio and television broadcasts, audiocassettes and occasional face-to-face tutorials. Each course team…

  4. Living with infertility : Experiences among urban slum populations in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papreen, N; Sabin, K; Begum, L; Ahsan, SK; Baqui, AH

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the perceived causes of infertility, treatment-seeking for infertility and the consequences of childlessness, particularly for women, among a predominantly Muslim population in urban slums of Dhaka in Bangladesh. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women and GO men randoml

  5. Folk medicinal uses of Verbenaceae family plants in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Jahan, Rownak; Azam, F M Safiul; Hossan, S; Mollik, M A H; Rahman, Taufiq

    2011-01-01

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of Bangladesh are scattered among more than twenty tribes residing within the country's borders. The various tribes have their own tribal practitioners, who use medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. The objective of the present survey was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes and tribal practitioners to determine which species of plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family are used by the practitioners. The Verbenaceae family plants are well known for constituents having important bio-active properties. The present survey indicated that 13 species belonging to 8 genera are used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh. A comparison of their folk medicinal uses along with published reports in the scientific literature suggests that the Verbenaceae family plants used in Bangladesh can potentially be important sources of lead compounds or novel drugs for treatment of difficult to cure debilitating diseases like malaria and rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. The link between infertility and poverty: evidence from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen

    2012-03-01

    The link between high fertility and poverty is well established. However, this paper shows how infertility may also generate poverty among childless families in Bangladesh. An ethnographic study was conducted, involving various qualitative research methods that revealed economic consequences to be one of the crucial sequelae of childlessness in Bangladesh. This paper details how the poverty/fertility relationship is dependent on social and institutional characteristics, including patriarchal values, education, urban-rural location and health services. Empirical data show that childlessness generates poverty in various ways, including the deprivation of children's earnings, decline in women's mobility, demoralisation of men to earn an income, marriage devaluation by the husband, disbursements for treatment and denial of microcredit (very small loans to those in poverty, which support them to become self-employed to generate income). The current study shows that the infertility/poverty relationship is mostly contingent upon class and gender. It is therefore the rural poor childless women who are most badly affected economically in Bangladesh rather than the urban middle class childless women. In other words, this study reveal that along with gender, class plays a dominant role in terms of the economic consequences of childlessness in Bangladesh. It sheds light on a different and unusual aspect of poverty and aims to contribute to the gender discussion of livelihood and poverty.

  7. Considerations around the introduction of a cholera vaccine in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher B; Mogasale, Vittal; Bari, Tajul Islam A; Clemens, John D

    2014-12-12

    Cholera is an endemic and epidemic disease in Bangladesh. On 3 March 2013, a meeting on cholera and cholera vaccination in Bangladesh was convened by the Foundation Mérieux jointly with the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR, B). The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the investment case for cholera vaccination as a complimentary control and prevention strategy. The performance of a new low cost oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol™, used in recent trials in Bangladesh, was also reviewed in the context of a potential large-scale public-sector vaccination program. Findings showed the oral vaccine to be highly cost-effective when targeting ages 1-14 y, and cost-effective when targeting ages 1+y, in high-burden/high-risk districts. Other vaccination strategies targeting urban slums and rural areas without improved water were found to be cost-effective. Regardless of cost-effectiveness (value), the budget impact (affordability) will be an important determinant of which target population and vaccination strategy is selected. Most importantly, adequate vaccine supply for the proposed vaccination programs must be addressed in the context of global efforts to establish a cholera vaccine stockpile and supply other control and prevention efforts.

  8. Distributing and Showing Farmer Learning Videos in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Jeffery W.; Van Mele, Paul; Harun-ar-Rashid, Md.; Krupnik, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of showing farmer learning videos through different types of volunteers. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews with volunteers from different occupational groups in Bangladesh, and a phone survey with 227 respondents. Findings: Each occupational group acted differently. Shop keepers, tillage…

  9. E-Banking of Economical Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azizul Baten

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s due to emerging global economy, e-commerce and e-business have increasingly become a necessary component of business strategy and a strong catalyst for economic development. The new information technology is becoming an important factor in the future development of financial services industry, and especially banking industry. As a third-world developing country, Bangladesh is far behind to reach the expected level in global banking system. So it is our urgent need to upgrade its banking system. This paper is aimed at to determine economical prospects of e-banking and to explain the present scenario of banking sectors in Bangladesh and at the same time it demonstrates the scope and benefits of e-banking compared with the existing system. This paper also tries to present actual sit uation of e-banking in the marketing point of view in Bangladesh. The results of th is study shows that e-banking serves several advantages to Bangladeshi banking sector, however, the study also shows that the Bangladeshi customers have not enough knowledge regarding e-banking which is rendering by banking sector in Bangladesh. A discussion of the implications of these results and limitations are provided at the end.

  10. The advantages of micro-credit lending programs and the human capabilities approach for women’s poverty reduction and increased human rights in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouf, Kazi Abdur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifty percent of people all over the world are suffering from a lack basic needs. Even poor women are denied their equality of human rights. Equality of rights for these women would mean access to food, clothing, shelter, and credit as well as liberation from exploitative forms of income generation such as domestic work, child labor and trafficking. Women in Bangladesh suffer from inequality of rights on quite an unimaginable level and their socio-economic development has been largely impeded. Thus, these poor women depend on others to survive. Human capability services like education and skills development services are not generated nor tailored to them particularly at the village level which affects the basic human rights of these women. Without educational, health, economic and social services at the village grass-roots level, poor people suffer most in Bangladesh. Although the Constitution of Bangladesh appears to strongly approve gender equality and positive action that guarantees women’s full participation in social, economic and political life, it is clear that full support is absent. Ironically, the disadvantaged poor people specifically are struggling to fulfill their basic human needs and are aware of their basic human rights. Although some steps have been made to reduce gender inequality, some laws still lag behind and many discriminatory practices are found in the customary laws, which still remain in force. A solution that has offered to assist poor women in Bangladesh through micro-credit organizations (MFIs like Grameen Bank credit, that create opportunities for these women to help educate themselves and overcome poverty in Bangladesh. However, human rights education at the grass roots level is very nominal. Hence focus on human rights education extension programs are urgently required to establish basic human rights.

  11. The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towfiqua Mahfuza Islam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. Objective: We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. Methods: We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. Results: One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–2.8 times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0–3.0 times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.0 times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4–2.3 times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. Conclusions: This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh.

  12. Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Anne; Ahsan, Mehedi; Marbach, Michelle; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Solid waste mismanagement in Dhaka, Bangladesh, illustrates a well-known market failure which can be summarized as: waste is a resource in the wrong place. Inorganic materials such as plastic or paper can be used to feed the demand for recycled materials in the industrial sector. Organic materials can be converted and used in the nutrient-starved agricultural sector which is currently heavily depending on chemical fertilizers. They are also a feedstock to generate renewable energy in the form of biogas for this energy-starved country relying on diminishing natural gas reserves and increasing import of coal. Reality however does not capitalize on this potential; instead the waste is a burden for municipal authorities who spend large portions of their budgets attempting to transport it out of the city for discharge into landfills. The major part of these materials still remains uncollected in the residential areas and is discarded indiscriminately in open spaces, polluting the residents' living environment including water, soil and air resources, in the city and beyond. Bangladeshi authorities have, to some extent, recognized this market failure and have developed policies to encourage the development of waste recycling activities. It is also important to note that this market failure is only partial: a large, mostly informal recycling sector has developed in Bangladesh, focusing on inorganic recyclables of market value. The fact that this sector remains largely informal means that these actors perceive significant barriers to formalization. Comparatively, the organic waste recycling sector is less driven by market mechanisms. Competition from chemical fertilizers and fossil fuels is fierce and hinders the development of market opportunities for compost and renewable energy. Nevertheless commercial production of compost and biogas from organic municipal waste is formalized and benefiting from policy incentives.

  13. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  14. Risk Management Practices in Islamic Bank: A Case Study of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Md Akther

    2015-01-01

    Islamic banking industry has been growing rapidly for last three decades. As risk is inherent in banking business it is necessary to develop a comprehensive risk management framework and process. In this paper, a humble attempt has been made to study and analyze risk management practices of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL), one of the leading Islamic banks in Bangaladesh. Annual reports of IBBL and 7 other full-fledged Islamic banks, Bangladesh Bank, the central bank of Bangladesh, publi...

  15. The Big Four in Bangladesh:Caught between the Global and the Local

    OpenAIRE

    Belal, Ataur; Spence, Crawford; Carter, Chris; Zhu, Jingqi

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThis article explores the work practices of Big 4 firms in Bangladesh with the aim of exploring the extent to which Global Professional Service Firms can be thought of as being genuinely ‘global’. Methodology/Approach Interviews were undertaken with the vast majority of Big 4 partners in Bangladesh. These interviews explored a number of themes related to the professional service work context in Bangladesh and the relationship between local and global firms. Findings The central finding...

  16. Reanalysis of the Stress-Strain Conditions in Maddhapara Granite Mine, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Dr.Quamruzzaman; Kaniz, Fatema; Hasan, Md. Rizwanul; Noor, Samia; Sanzida, Murshed; WoobaidUllah, A.S M

    2013-01-01

    Underground mining is not a process to the world but Bangladesh is experiencing second underground mining and first hard rock mining project at Maddhapara in the district of Dinajpur. Maddhapara is the only hard rock mining project in Bangladesh. Since Maddhapara is the first experience of hard rock mine in Bangladesh, it is a matter of great interest to make it successful and highly profitable project. While research it was found that there are lot of doubtful calculations and interpretation...

  17. BRAND AND QUALITY CONTROL OF GARMENT PRODUCTS IN THE BANGLADESH GARMENT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshen, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis paper contains information on the garment industry of Bangladesh. The garment business plays a vital part in global market. There are a large numbers of world renowned apparel companies that outsource their products in Bangladesh. The aim of the thesis is to explicate quality management in garment production and the brand protection process during outsourcing in Bangladesh. The theoretical part of the thesis provides basic information about garment products, the glo...

  18. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  19. Birds in Kurigram district of Bangladesh

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    S.I. Khan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the birds in the area adjacent to the Dharala and Brahmaputra rivers in Kurigram District, Bangladesh, was conducted between November 2000 and February 2002. A total of 105 species of birds belonging to 12 orders, 35 families and 77 genera were recorded. Out of 105 species, 51 (48.6% were non-passerine and 54 (51.4% passerine, 33 (31.4% migratory and 72 (68.6% resident. Of the non-passerine birds, 15 (29.4% were migratory and 36 (70.6% were resident, while, among the passerines 18 (33.3% were migratory and 36 (66.7% were resident. Of the total (105 species 14 (13.3% were found to be very common, 30 (28.6% common, 25 (23.8% fairly common and 36 (34.3% were rare or few. Out of 105 species, 30 (28.6% were aquatic and semiaquatic birds and 75 (71.4% were terrestrial. Among 105 species, 52 (49.5% were widely distributed in Kurigram, 31 (29.5% restricted only to the northern side, five (4.8% to the central side, eight (7.6% to the southern side, and nine (8.6% species were common in two or three parts of the study area. Among the three canopy categories, 16 (15.2% species were observed in lower canopy, 32 (30.5% species were recorded from both lower and middle canopies, 19 (18.1% species from upper and middle canopies and only one (1% species was recorded from upper canopy. In the study area 37 (35.2% species of birds used all levels of the canopy. Out of 105 species, 48 (45.7% were insectivorous, 11 (10.4% were grainivorous, five (4.8% frugivorous, 10 (9.5% were piscivorous, five (4.8% were predatory, and 19 (18.1% species of birds were omnivorous. Only one (1% was vegetarian and the diet of 6 (5.7% species could not be determined.

  20. Effect of shifting cultivation on soil physical and chemical properties in Bandarban hill district, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khandakar Showkat Osman; M. Jashimuddin; S. M. Sirajul Haque; Sohag Miah

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the effects of shifting cultivation at slashing stage on soil physicochemical properties at Bandarban Sadar Upazila in Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. At this initial stage of shifting cultivation no general trend was found for moisture content, maximum water holding capacity, field capacity, dry and moist bulk density, parti-cle density for some chemical properties between shifting cultivated land and forest having similar soil texture. Organic matter was significantly (p≤0.05) lower in 1-year and 3-year shifting cultivated lands and higher in 2-year shifting cultivation than in adjacent natural forest. Significant differences were also found for total N, exchangeable Ca, Mg and K and in CEC as well as for available P. Slashed area showed higher soil pH. Deterioration in land quality starts from burning of slashing materials and continues through subsequent stages of shifting cultivation.

  1. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  2. Multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria in frozen food (ready to cook food) of animal origin sold in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouzia Sultana; Kamrunnahar; Hafsa Afroz; Afroz Jahan; Md Fakruddin; Suvamoy Datta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the bacterial load and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates obtained from (ready to cook) frozen food samples of animal origin in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A total of 20 samples of frozen ready to cook food of animal origin were purchased from different separate grocery stores in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on the basis of biochemical properties. Results: A total of 57 isolates has been isolated from 20 samples, of them 35.08% were Gram positive and 64.92% were Gram negative organisms. Highest percentages of isolated organisms were Staphylococcocus spp. (24.56%), Alcaligene spp. (17.54%), Klebshiella spp. (12.28%) and the lowest percentages of organisms were Enterococcus spp., Actinobacillus spp. and Proteus spp. Antibiogram results clearly showed that levofloxacin and imipenem were the most effective drug against the isolates. The less effective antibiotics were chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid and resistance was highest against ciprofloxacin. The most contaminated food was chicken nuggets. Conclusions: This type of frozen food contaminated with multi-antibiotic resistant microorganisms can be potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases.

  3. Bangladesh: currently the worst, but possibly the future's best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Garrett

    2015-02-01

    Garment workers in Bangladesh producing clothing for international brands have experienced repeated factory fires and building collapses in the last 10 years, resulting in more than 1,600 deaths and hundreds of disabling injuries. After the Tazreen Fashion fire in December 2012 and the Rana Plaza building collapse in April 2013, more than 190 international clothing brands and retailers signed an "Accord on Fire and Building Safety" with two international union federations. Full implementation of the provisions of the Accord would change "business as usual" in Bangladesh's garment industry and set a positive example for other countries and other industries with global supply chains. The components, challenges, and controversies of the Accord are detailed in the article.

  4. Observations of cyclone-induced storm surge in coastal Bangladesh

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Soyee

    2015-01-01

    Water level measurements from 15 tide gauges in the coastal zone of Bangladesh are analyzed in conjunction with cyclone tracks and wind speed data for 54 cyclones between 1977 and 2010. Storm surge magnitude is inferred from residual water levels computed by subtracting modeled astronomical tides from observed water levels at each station. Observed residual water levels are generally smaller than reported storm surge levels for cyclones where both are available, and many cyclones produce no obvious residual at all. Both maximum and minimum residual water levels are higher for west-landing cyclones producing onshore winds and generally diminish for cyclones making landfall on the Bangladesh coast or eastward producing offshore winds. Water levels observed during cyclones are generally more strongly influenced by tidal phase and amplitude than by storm surge alone. In only 7 of the 15 stations does the highest plausible observed water level coincide with a cyclone. While cyclone-coincident residual water level ...

  5. Secondary Educational Institution Centered Diffusion of ICT in Rural Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    were: an integrated purchase and training facilitation, smart classroom implementation, educational administration, extracurricular activities, a non-formal computer literacy center, and school-based internship. Two live-in field studies were conducted: from August 2011 to January 2012 and from August......This dissertation presents a holistic approach for exploring, analyzing, solving, and circumventing the barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in relation to the learning environments of secondary educational institutions in rural Bangladesh. It contributes to the fields of ICT...... in the secondary education systems (i.e., covering grades 6–12) in Bangladesh. Having positioned this investigation within the transformative paradigm, I took six strategic approaches to diffuse ICT in the learning environment of the stakeholders in rural private vocational school. The ICT diffusion strategies...

  6. FDI, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption & Environmental Nexus in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip SARKER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the relationship among economic growth, energy consumption, CO2 emission, FDI and natural gas usage in Bangladesh through co-integration and Vector Error Correction model (VECM over the period 1978 to 2010. Using ADP unit root tests it is found that all the four variables are integrated in first difference. The Johansen co-integration tests indicate that there is existence of long-run relationship among the variables. The VECM long run causality model indicates that there is a long run causality running from energy consumption and natural gas usage by industrial sector to GDP as well as from CO2 emission to FDI. Likewise in the short run a causal relationships have also been found among the variables. Moreover our model is found be error free based on several statistical test. Our results provide important policy suggestions regarding our foreign direct investment, environmental issues and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh.

  7. User perceptions of shared sanitation among rural households in Indonesia and Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kali B Nelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The practice of sharing sanitation facilities does not meet the current World Health Organization/UNICEF definition for what is considered improved sanitation. Recommendations have been made to categorize shared sanitation as improved sanitation if security, user access, and other conditions can be assured, yet limited data exist on user preferences with respect to shared facilities. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed user perceptions of shared sanitation facilities in rural households in East Java, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies of 2,087 households in East Java and 3,000 households in Bangladesh were conducted using questionnaires and observational methods. Relative risks were calculated to analyze associations between sanitation access and user perceptions of satisfaction, cleanliness, and safety. RESULTS: In East Java, 82.4% of households with private improved sanitation facilities reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation compared to 68.3% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09, 1.31]. In Bangladesh, 87.7% of households with private improved facilities reported feeling satisfied compared to 74.5% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10, 1.20]. In East Java, 79.5% of households who reported a clean latrine also reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation; only 38.9% of households who reported a dirty latrine also reported feeling satisfied [RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.45, 2.08]. CONCLUSION: Simple distinctions between improved and unimproved sanitation facilities tend to misrepresent the variability observed among households sharing sanitation facilities. Our results suggest that private improved sanitation is consistently preferred over any other sanitation option. An increased number of users appeared to negatively affect toilet cleanliness, and lower levels of cleanliness were associated with lower levels of satisfaction

  8. Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development in Bangladesh (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

    2013-11-01

    Bangladesh is widely considered to be one of the nations most threatened by climate change. With two-thirds of the country less than 20 feet above sea level, the intrusion of salt into freshwater wells, frequent flooding, and the displacement of people from their homes is an ongoing threat. At the same time, the country's cities are rapidly growing, and the demand for energy is increasing at a corresponding rate.

  9. Serodiagnosis of Viruses Infecting Some Crops of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Akanda, Abdul Mannan; Tsuno, Kazunori; Wakimoto, Satoshi

    1991-01-01

    As many as 39 plant samples representing nine different botanical families, showing symptoms like virus diseases, were collected from different locations of Bangladesh in 1986- X7. The samples were preserved at 4°C after drying by lyophilization or over calcium chloride. Double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA) were applied for serological detection of viruses by using 11 different antiivirus-sera. Many of the samples (28/39) sh...

  10. Lead Poisoning: An Alarming Public Health Problem in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. K. Bashar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105 of those tested had BLLs ≥10 µg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs ≥10 µg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 ± 10.32, 7.24 ± 6.31, and 2.47 ± 3.32 µg/dL, respectively; p <0.001. Weight-for-age z-scores of the urban children were significantly lower than that of the rural children (-1.41 ± 1.88 vs. 0.20 ± 1.16, p <0.001. Children with elevated BLLs had poorer nutritional status (p = 0.05 than those with normal BLLs. Over 90% of the parents did not know that lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh.

  11. Inflation and Financial Sector Correlation: The Case of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu N.M. Wahid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of inflation on financial development in case of Bangladesh for the period of 1985-2005. In doing so, ARDL bounds testing approach and Error Correction Method (ECM have been employed. Empirical findings reveal that high trends of inflation impede the performance of financial markets. GDP per capita promotes development of financial sector through its causal channels.

  12. Mapping malaria risk in Bangladesh using Bayesian geostatistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Heidi; Haque, Ubydul; Clements, Archie C A; Tatem, Andrew J; Vallely, Andrew; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Islam, Akramul; Haque, Rashidul

    2010-10-01

    Background malaria-control programs are increasingly dependent on accurate risk maps to effectively guide the allocation of interventions and resources. Advances in model-based geostatistics and geographical information systems (GIS) have enabled researchers to better understand factors affecting malaria transmission and thus, more accurately determine the limits of malaria transmission globally and nationally. Here, we construct Plasmodium falciparum risk maps for Bangladesh for 2007 at a scale enabling the malaria-control bodies to more accurately define the needs of the program. A comprehensive malaria-prevalence survey (N = 9,750 individuals; N = 354 communities) was carried out in 2007 across the regions of Bangladesh known to be endemic for malaria. Data were corrected to a standard age range of 2 to less than 10 years. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models with environmental covariates were used to predict P. falciparum prevalence for 2- to 10-year-old children (PfPR(2-10)) across the endemic areas of Bangladesh. The predictions were combined with gridded population data to estimate the number of individuals living in different endemicity classes. Across the endemic areas, the average PfPR(2-10) was 3.8%. Environmental variables selected for prediction were vegetation cover, minimum temperature, and elevation. Model validation statistics revealed that the final Bayesian geostatistical model had good predictive ability. Risk maps generated from the model showed a heterogeneous distribution of PfPR(2-10) ranging from 0.5% to 50%; 3.1 million people were estimated to be living in areas with a PfPR(2-10) greater than 1%. Contemporary GIS and model-based geostatistics can be used to interpolate malaria risk in Bangladesh. Importantly, malaria risk was found to be highly varied across the endemic regions, necessitating the targeting of resources to reduce the burden in these areas.

  13. Knowledge and awareness about STDs among women in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge and awareness concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has become the burning issue of the day. Although STDs pose serious risks to health security, there is very little literature quantifying the knowledge and awareness of these diseases and their principal socioeconomic determinants. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of different socio-economic and demographic factors on knowledge and awareness about STDs among women in Bangladesh. Methods This is ...

  14. RURAL MARKETS IN BANGLADESH AND THE RURAL MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, M. Mosleh; Kabir, M.; Alam, M. Mostafa; Boss, G. K.

    1989-01-01

    This study describes the Impact of rural maintenance programme on rural markets in Bangladesh. Rural Maintenance programme (RMP) is a year-round programme for maintenance ol 16 miles earthen roads In each selected union. The programme is run by crews consisting of 15 destitute women. The findings suggest that better road maintenance by RMP in the programme areas has resulted in more traffic f low through which the markets in the programme areas have been expanded. Better supply of services su...

  15. Relative sea-level changes during the Holocene in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Towhida; Suzuki, S.; Sato, Hiroshi; Monsur, M. H.; Saha, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a reconstruction of the Holocene paleo-environment in the central part of Bangladesh in relation to relative sea-level changes 200 km north of the present coastline. Lithofacies characteristics, mangal peat, diatoms and paleophysiographical evidence were considered to reconstruct the past position and C-14 ages were used to determine the time of formation of the relative sea level during the Holocene. With standard reference datum, the required m.s.l. at the surface of five sections was calculated. The relative sea-level (RSL) curve suggests that Bangladesh experienced two mid-Holocene RSL transgressions punctuated by regressions. The curve shows an RSL highstand at approximately 7500 cal BP, although the height of this highstand could not be determined because the transgressive phase was observed in a bioturbated sand flat facies. The curve shows a regression of approximately 6500 cal BP, and the RSL was considerably lower, perhaps 1-2 m, than the present m.s.l. The abundant marine diatoms and mangrove pollens indicate the highest RSL transgression in Bangladesh at approximately 6000 cal BP, being at least 4.5 to 5 m higher than the modern m.s.l. After this phase, the relative sea level started to fall, and consequently, a freshwater peat developed at approximately 5980-5700 cal BP. The abundant mangrove pollens in the salt-marsh succession shows the regression at approximately 5500 cal BP, when it was 1-2 m higher than the modern sea level. The curve indicates that at approximately 5000 cal BP and onwards, the RSL started to fall towards its present position, and the present shoreline of Bangladesh was established at approximately 1500 cal BP and has not noticeably migrated inland since.

  16. Iron in tubewell water and linear growth in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briend, A; Hoque, B A; Aziz, K M

    1990-02-01

    The growth of 694 children from rural Bangladesh was studied. Children drinking water containing greater than 1 mg iron/l (n = 628) were significantly taller than those drinking less than 1 mg iron/l (n = 66): their mean (SD) height for age Z score was -2.10 (1.34) compared with -2.45 (1.24), p less than 0.05. This suggests that iron deficiency may contribute to growth retardation in poor communities.

  17. Impact of wealth inequality on child nutrition in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortuza Ahmmed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of malnutrition in Bangladesh is among the highest in the world. Millions of women and children suffer from one or more forms of malnutrition, including low birth weight, wasting, stunting, underweight, vitamin A deficiency, iodine deficiency disorders, and anemia. Today malnutrition not only affects individuals, but its effects are passed from one generation to the next as malnourished mothers give birth to infants who struggle to develop and thrive. Objective To assess the economic impact on child nutrition in Bangladesh. Methods The 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data was used for this study. In this study, quintiles were calculated based on asset and wealth scores by use of principal component analysis. To understand the nutritional status and health inequality, concentration index was also calculated. Results The negative concentration index showed a higher rate of malnutrition in the children less than five years of age from the poorest class. Furthermore, the ratio of poorest to richest indicated that stunting and underweight conditions in rural children under five years of age were almost two times higher than that of the richest children. This inequality in the health situation of children may be explained in terms of income inequality. In Bangladesh, about 40% of the wealth is concentrated in 10% of the families. The results are discussed as possible input for public policy. Conclusion Bangladeshi children under the age of five years and in the poorest economic class are nearly twice as likely to be underweight or stunted compared to children of similar age in the richest economic class. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:299-304.].

  18. The tectonic origin of the Bay of Bengal and Bangladesh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Talwani, M.; Desa, M.; Ismaiel, M.; Krishna, K.S.

    Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251-1892, USA  2Geological Oceanography, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa –403004, India 3Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona... spreading magnetic anomalies south off Sri Lanka, Mar. Geol., 229, 227-240.  Frielingsdorf, J., S.A. Islam, M. Block, M.M. Rahman, and M.G. Rabbani (2008), Tectonic subsidence modeling and Gondwana source rock hydrocarbon potential, northwest Bangladesh...

  19. BRAC's experience in scaling-up MNP in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsana, Kaosar; Haque, Mohammad Raisul; Sobhan, Shafinaz; Shahin, Shaima Arjuman

    2014-01-01

    Despite progress in health status and achievements in Millennium Development Indicators, Bangladesh presents a gloomy scenario for nutrition. In 2009, BRAC (formerly known as Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) has begun to implement a community-based approach of Alive & Thrive with Family Health International 360, aiming to reduce undernutrition among children under two by promoting exclusive breastfeeding and appropriate complementary feeding practices. To address anemia and other micronutrient deficiencies, home-fortification with micronutrient powders (MNP) has been promoted among under-fives across Bangladesh along with the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN). BRAC's frontline community health workers play a critical role in promoting micronutrient powders with better feeding practices. Over the years, improvements have been observed in the intervention areas: exclusive breastfeeding rose from 49% to 83% of children (0-6 months), 86% of children received complementary feeding at 6-8 months with about two/thirds being fed the recommended number of times; and 70% of children (6-59 months) adhered to MNP use, ie consumption of 1 sachet per day in the past 60 days. However, many challenges are still observed in traditional feeding practices, along with limited skills of community health workers and households' poor access to quality food, necessitating constant interactions between caregivers, mothers-in-law and fathers with the frontline workers. Maintaining the supply chain of micronutrient powders and a visible and convincing change in nutritional status of children are key success factors. The partnerships between BRAC, GAIN and Renata, the producer of MNP in Bangladesh, have given birth to a home-fortification model that can deliver impact at scale.

  20. Human Rights Violations in the Garment Industry of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jalava, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    In the span of a few decades, Bangladesh has risen to become the second largest garment exporter in the world as a result of liberalized trade policies that have attracted large scale foreign investment. The growing industry has provided the country with much needed capital to curb distressing poverty rates by giving employment to millions of young women from rural areas, while international apparel retailers have gained access to virtually unlimited cheap and low-skilled labour ideal for the...

  1. Heterogeneous effects of international migration: evidences from Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Traverso, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Despite the general consensus regarding the important role played by international migration in the development of Bangladesh, little has been done to quantitatively estimate its effects. Within the framework of Rubin's causal model, this paper contributes to the literature estimating the net impact of international migration on the welfare of the members of households with migration experience. By taking advantage of the non-parametric nature of matching estimators, the effect of migration i...

  2. Lead poisoning: an alarming public health problem in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amal K; Haque, Akhlaque; Islam, Manirul; Bashar, S A M K

    2009-01-01

    To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs) from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105) of those tested had BLLs >or= 10 microg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs >or= 10 microg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 +/- 10.32, 7.24 +/- 6.31, and 2.47 +/- 3.32 microg/dL, respectively; p <0.001). Weight-for-age z-scores of the urban children were significantly lower than that of the rural children (-1.41 +/- 1.88 vs. 0.20 +/- 1.16, p <0.001). Children with elevated BLLs had poorer nutritional status (p = 0.05) than those with normal BLLs. Over 90% of the parents did not know that lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh.

  3. ENGLISH MEDIUM INSTRUCTION IN THE PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjurul Islam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: As it is viewed English Medium Instruction (EMI at tertiary level has emerged as a big educational issue in Bangladesh as well as many parts of the world. Hence, the present trend of Bangladeshi higher education has assessed some crucial reasons of the extended use of English as a medium of instruction. Although education researchers in other countries have worked in this area to understand this educational issue, there has been very little research on EMI at tertiary level in Bangladesh. That is why, this study reports a case study involving teachers and students in a private university in Bangladesh by critically examining the language practice and implementation of EMI policy within the context of Bangladeshi higher education. Based on the analysis of interview data, it is argued that through their language practices and beliefs students and teachers constructed their perception towards the accomplishment of EMI policy, educational choice and effectiveness of EMI policy. It is suggested that implications of MOI policies world-wide and the national level practices of students’ content knowledge and English proficiency development in a globalizing world where English is widely believed to hold mammoth prospective for individuals and societies because of its role in human capital development.

  4. Prospects and problems of medical tourism in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Muhammad Z; Andaleeb, Syed Saad

    2013-01-01

    The growing trend of Bangladeshi patients travelling abroad for medical services has led to some soul-searching in policy circles. While other countries of the Southeast Asia region are profiting from medical tourism, Bangladesh not only lags behind, it also loses patients to these countries in a continuous stream. This exodus for medical treatment is seemingly driven by the higher perceived quality of treatment abroad, despite the fact that similar treatment is available more cost-effectively within the country. Certainly the Bangladesh health care system is not without its problenis, which have diminished the perception of quality in the sector. Thus, this study focuses on key factors for Bangladeshi health service providers to address. By doing so, they will be better able to develop the local health care sector and retain Bangladeshi patients within the country. Subsequently, by identifying strategic niches, Bangladesh could focus on delivering higher quality health care services to develop medical tourism and attract patients from abroad in specific categories of health care.

  5. Electricity consumption and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh: Revisited evidences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahamad, Mazbahul Golam, E-mail: mg.ahamad@gmail.com [Research Division, Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), House: 40C, Road: 11, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1209 (Bangladesh); Islam, A.K.M. Nazrul, E-mail: nazrul2002@yahoo.com [Research Division, Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), House: 40C, Road: 11, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1209 (Bangladesh)

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, an attempt is being made to examine the causal relationship between per capita electricity consumption and per capita GDP of Bangladesh using the vector error correction specified Granger causality test to search their short-run, long-run and joint causal relationships for the period of 1971-2008. Empirical findings reveal that there is a short-run unidirectional causal flow running from per capita electricity consumption to per capita GDP without feedback. The presence of a positive short-run causality explains that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic activity in Bangladesh. Likewise, results from joint causality exhibit the same as in short-run. By contrast, long-run results show a bi-directional causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth with feedback. These findings can provide essential policy insights to design immediate and long-term growth prospect for Bangladesh keeping in mind its present planned growth strategy and dismal power and energy sector. - Highlights: > Short-run causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth. > Positive SR causality explains electricity generation directly affects economic growth. > For long run, causality runs from electricity consumption to economic growth with feedback. > Joint causality implies the same as in short-run.

  6. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  7. Commercial cultivation by farmers of medicinal plants in northern Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. M. Manzoor Rashid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants (MPs are an important component of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, which are traditionally used in healthcare and source of livelihood all over the world. In an over-populated country like Bangladesh, the pressure on natural forests is immense; thus the cultivation of MPs can significantly contribute towards improving the livelihood of poor people, reducing the pressure on natural forests and enhancing biological diversity. Notwithstanding the growing recognition of its importance and economic and ecological potential, there has been little research on MPs, especially the cultivation, management and marketing aspects, in Bangladesh. Based on extensive fieldwork in a northern district of Bangladesh, this study explores various aspects of the cultivation, management and marketing of MPs. How collective efforts have brought economic and social benefits to communities was also examined in this study. It assesses the major processes and elements of management, identifies key problems and challenges and indicates ways of maximizing the potential of this important sector. The issues covered in this research include: farmers ’ perceptions and experiences; existing research and policy-making processes related to the MP sector; constraining factors (such as lack of processing technology, inadequate transportation, logistics, financial and storage infrastructure, lack of institutional capacity; markets, finance and networking; land use; pattern of livelihood and value chain issue.

  8. Mangrove wetland ecosystems in Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafi Noor ISLAM; Albrecht GNAUCK

    2008-01-01

    The Sundarbans is one of the productive man-grove wetland ecosystems in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh. The delta is undergoing rapid eco-logical changes due to human activity. In the present study, surface water salinity data from 13 rivers of the Sundarbans were collected in order to investigate the sal-ine water intrusion in the mangrove wetlands. Results demonstrate that saline water has penetrated the upstream area as river water salinity has increased signifi-cantly in 1976 compared to the year 1968. The soil and river water salinity data also shows that it has crossed the water salinity threshold line in most parts of the Sundarbans wetlands. These observations are due to the construction of Farakka Barrage in 1975, which reduced the water discharge of the Ganges River from 3700 m3/s in 1962 to 364 m3/s in 2006. The shortage of freshwater dis-charge to the deltaic area is trailing active ecosystems function, especially in the dry season in the south western region in Bangladesh. The objective of this study is to understand and analyze the present degraded mangrove wetland ecosystems and their negative impacts. The find-ings of this study would contribute to the formulation of the mangrove wetland ecosystems management plan inthe Ganges delta of Bangladesh.

  9. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

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    Javaid Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, P=0.02. The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, P=0.04. Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P>0.05. Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh.

  10. Micro-insurance in Bangladesh: risk protection for the poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Wendy J

    2009-08-01

    Health services and modem medicines are out of reach for over one billion people globally. Micro-insurance for health is one method to address unmet health needs. This case study used a social exclusion perspective to assess the health and poverty impact of micro-insurance for health in Bangladesh and contrasts this with several micro-insurance systems for health offered in India. Micro-insurance for health in Bangladesh targeted towards the poor and the ultra-poor provides basic healthcare at an affordable rate whereas the Indian micro-insurance schemes for health have been implemented across larger populations and include high-cost and low-frequency events. Results of analysis of the existing literature showed that micro-insurance for health as currently offered in Bangladesh increased access to, and use of, basic health services among excluded populations but did not reduce the likelihood that essential health-related costs would be a catastrophic expense for a marginalized household.

  11. How and what rural women know: experiences in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martius-von Harder, G

    1979-01-01

    A study was conducted in Bangladesh to determine the contribution rural women make to the economic conditions in their country. The study was necessary because little research has been done into the working patterns of rural women and their economic contributions have often been overlooked because they do not produce actual income. This article is a discussion of the problems faced by field researchers in countries like Bangladesh. Certain types of questions cannot be asked of women in rural Muslim areas, e.g., questions dealing with acreage of property, supply and demand in the marketplace, and irrigated land. Secluded women would have no way of knowing answers to these questions. Observation had to be used for a study of time-use, since the women do not live by the clock. Questions on women's ages can never be asked. Questions to females had to concern themselves with activities of females and questions to males, with activities of males. Rural people in Bangladesh do not seem to think in terms of exact measurement; this must be taken into account when analyzing answers. Researchers have to adapt their interviewing to the socioeconomic conditions of the area.

  12. Treatment delay period: the case of arsenicosis in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bimal Kanti; Brock, Vicki L Tinnon

    2006-12-01

    Arsenic concentrations of tubewell water that exceed acceptable limits poses a serious health problem in Bangladesh. Many Bangladeshis are now suffering from arsenic-related diseases. The objectives of this paper are to examine the extent of delay in seeking medical treatment by victims of arsenic poisoning and to identify factors contributing to this delay. Questionnaire survey successfully administered to 663 victims living in two rural areas of Bangladesh provided the major data source for this study. Analysis of survey data reveal that median delay period was 12 months, but the delay period ranged from 1 month to 18 years. Because of this extremely large range, the mean delay period was about 22 months. The study identified time of identification of symptoms of arsenicosis as the most significant determinant of treatment delay followed by treatment sought from members of mobile medical teams, perceived threat, and level of education. Based on the study findings, it is recommended that the Bangladesh government and NGOs involved in arsenic mitigation and prevention efforts should educate individuals at risk for arsenic poisoning about the benefits of seeking early treatment. This study also recommends to continue to dispatch mobile medical teams to the arsenic-impacted areas.

  13. Chemical and environmental vector control as a contribution to the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian subcontinent: cluster randomized controlled trials in Bangladesh, India and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Pradeep

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh, India and Nepal are working towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL by 2015. In 2005 the World Health Organization/Training in Tropical Diseases launched an implementation research programme to support integrated vector management for the elimination of VL from Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The programme is conducted in different phases, from proof-of-concept to scaling up intervention. This study was designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the three different interventions for VL vector management: indoor residual spraying (IRS; long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN; and environmental modification (EVM through plastering of walls with lime or mud. Methods Using a cluster randomized controlled trial we compared three vector control interventions with a control arm in 96 clusters (hamlets or neighbourhoods in each of the 4 study sites: Bangladesh (one, India (one and Nepal (two. In each site four villages with high reported VL incidences were included. In each village six clusters and in each cluster five households were randomly selected for sand fly collection on two consecutive nights. Control and intervention clusters were matched with average pre-intervention vector densities. In each site six clusters were randomly assigned to each of the following interventions: indoor residual spraying (IRS; long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN; environmental management (EVM or control. All the houses (50-100 in each intervention cluster underwent the intervention measures. A reduction of intra-domestic sand fly densities measured in the study households by overnight US Centres for Disease Prevention and Control light trap captures (that is the number of sand flies per trap per night was the main outcome measure. Results IRS, and to a lesser extent EVM and LLINs, significantly reduced sand fly densities for at least 5 months in the study households irrespective of type of walls or whether or

  14. Ecological determinants of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) outbreaks in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Biswas, Paritosh K.

    2012-01-01

    between Bangladesh and e. g., Thailand and Vietnam. The primary aim of the current study was to establish ecological determinants associated with the risk of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks at subdistrict level in Bangladesh. The secondary aim was to explore the performance of two different statistical modeling...

  15. The Role of Pre-School Education on Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school education on learning achievement at primary level in Bangladesh. Evidence from learning achievement test and household and school-related data were obtained from 7093 pupils attending 440 primary schools in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a small proportion (15.3%) of primary school pupils attended…

  16. Information Technology for Economic and Social Benefit--Options for Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Farhad Ali

    2002-01-01

    Considers how information technology (IT) can help socioeconomic growth of developing countries based on experiences in Bangladesh. Topics include Bangladesh's development plans; future economic growth trends triggered by IT; emerging technologies; intellectual and societal development; industrial revolutions; telematics; regional and world…

  17. Potentiality of Disaster Management Education through Open and Distance Learning System in Bangladesh Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saima; Numan, Sharker Md.

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh Open University (BOU) is the only public educational institution in Bangladesh, where, a dual-mode method of learning system has been introduced. Established in 21st October, 1992, the University now accommodates 174,459 learners in 2012. The wide range networking of this university provides it a great prospect to execute a broad…

  18. Approaches to Increase Arsenic Awareness in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of an Arsenic Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; Islam, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from…

  19. The Diffusion of Grameen Bank in Bangladesh: Lessons Learned about Alleviating Rural Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwal, Mohammad A.; Singhal, Arvind

    1992-01-01

    Discusses rural poverty in Bangladesh and describes the creation of the Grameen Bank, which combines business with social engineering. The rapid diffusion of the bank both within and outside Bangladesh is described; interpersonal strategies used in communicating its programs, especially to women, are explained; and the socioeconomic impact in…

  20. Employment of Active Learning at HEIs in Bangladesh to Improve Education Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Faieza

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, education quality and quality assessment have received a great deal of attention at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Bangladesh. Most of the HEIs in Bangladesh face severe resource constraints and find it difficult to improve education quality by improving inputs, such as better infrastructure and modernized classroom…

  1. An Exploratory Review of Bangladesh Gas Sector: Latest Evidence and Areas of Further Research

    OpenAIRE

    Professor A K M A Quader; Professor Edmond Gomes

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews and explores the latest evidence from the gas sector of Bangladesh and highlights areas that would benefit from further research. The study reported actual consumption of gas by different sectors; projection of demands by various studies and plan documents; estimates of gas reserves and potential by various studies; and operation of the International Oil Companies (IOCs) in Bangladesh.

  2. Satellite Altimetry and GRACE Gravimetry for Studies of Annual Water Storage Variations in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Andersen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh.

  3. Analysis of Quality in Public and Private Universities in Bangladesh and USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2014-01-01

    To meet the growing need for increased capacity in higher education, the government of Bangladesh encouraged development of private universities in 1992. Currently, there are sixty private universities, thirty-four public universities and three international universities in Bangladesh. Although the increased number of universities has provided…

  4. Temporal trends in severe malaria in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maude Richard

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological data on malaria in Bangladesh are sparse, particularly on severe and fatal malaria. This hampers the allocation of healthcare provision in this resource-poor setting. Over 85% of the estimated 150,000-250,000 annual malaria cases in Bangladesh occur in Chittagong Division with 80% in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT. Chittagong Medical College Hospital (CMCH is the major tertiary referral hospital for severe malaria in Chittagong Division. Methods Malaria screening data from 22,785 inpatients in CMCH from 1999–2011 were analysed to investigate the patterns of referral, temporal trends and geographical distribution of severe malaria in Chittagong Division, Bangladesh. Results From 1999 till 2011, 2,394 malaria cases were admitted, of which 96% harboured Plasmodium falciparum and 4% Plasmodium vivax. Infection was commonest in males (67% between 15 and 34 years of age. Seasonality of malaria incidence was marked with a single peak in P. falciparum transmission from June to August coinciding with peak rainfall, whereas P. vivax showed an additional peak in February-March possibly representing relapse infections. Since 2007 there has been a substantial decrease in the absolute number of admitted malaria cases. Case fatality in severe malaria was 18% from 2008–2011, remaining steady during this period. A travel history obtained in 226 malaria patients revealed only 33% had been to the CHT in the preceding three weeks. Of all admitted malaria patients, only 9% lived in the CHT, and none in the more remote malaria endemic regions near the Indian border. Conclusions The overall decline in admitted malaria cases to CMCH suggests recent control measures are successful. However, there are no reliable data on the incidence of severe malaria in the CHT, the most endemic area of Bangladesh, and most of these patients do not reach tertiary health facilities. Improvement of early treatment and simple supportive care for

  5. IMPACT OF CURRENCY DEVALUATION ON THE EXPORTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH AND INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Shahzad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the impact of currency devaluation on exports of three major economies of South Asian (i.e., Pakistan, Bangladesh and India over the period 1980 to 2012, by implementing the multiple regression models. Results reveales that currency devaluation encourages exports of Pakistan and Bangladesh. Lending interest rate significant negative effect in Pakistan and Bangladesh but insignificant in India. Government expenditure encouraged the export of Pakistan while not significaant in Bangladesh while depress in India. Money supply also enhanced the export of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. Result suggest that concerned authorities should manage and use the resources properly in such a way which may assist to develop the economies.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A (H5N1) viruses, Bangladesh, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Tun, Hein Min; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Islam, Skm Azizul; Islam, Md Nurul; Giasuddin, Md; Osmani, Tabm Muzaffar Goni; Islam, Ariful; Thornton, Ronald Norman; Burgess, Graham William; Skerratt, Lee Francis; Selleck, Paul; Brun, Edgar; Debnath, Nitish Chandra; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the origins, evolution and patterns of spread of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in Bangladesh, we performed a phylogenetic reconstruction analysis using Bayesian methods. The analysis was conducted using 81 hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences from the H5N1 viruses isolated in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011, together with 264 publicly available HA sequences of clade 2.2, 2.3.2 and 2.3.4 retrieved from GenBank. Our study provides evidence that clade 2.2.2 viruses that caused outbreaks in Bangladesh were lineages independent from the viruses introduced earlier into India. Furthermore, the Bangladesh clade 2.2.2 descendents subsequently spread to India and Bhutan. This has implications for avian influenza control in southern Asia suggesting multiple routes of entry of the virus including one pathway that spread to neighboring countries via Bangladesh.

  7. Institutional Interplay in Natural Resources Governance: Toward a Sub-Sectoral Approach for Medicinal Plants Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Shahidullah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the significance of medicinal plants for rural livelihoods and primary healthcare, this paper attempted to analyze institutional interplays in medicinal plants management in Bangladesh. It assessed the governing process of natural resources by identifying cross-scale linkages of the institutions involved with managing medicinal plants. The study intended to delineate the interactional patterns and dynamics between existing formal and informal organizations toward exploring prospects of new medicinal plants governance institutions. Employing case study and participatory approaches to empirical field investigation, two intervention cases of the Livelihood and Agro-Forestry (LEAF and Sustainable Environmental Management Program (SEMP were assessed in two different social-ecological settings of the country. Involving 45 respondents in each site, Focus Group Discussions were carried out, and a total of 26 Key Informants were interviewed. The findings have revealed that undefined roles and responsibilities, inadequate coordination, and weak linkages among the cross-scale institutions resulted in ineffective management and relatively poor performance. Institutions with direct or indirect involvement in the process of managing medicinal plants interacted haphazardly, without much focus on the subsector and its local producers. Addressing the weaknesses, this study calls for formulating a national sub-sectoral approach focusing on strengthening and sustaining local producers and value addition to producer levels. Finally, this research offers a framework for developing a multi-stakeholder forum to govern medicinal plant resources coherently and effectively in Bangladesh.

  8. Spatial relationship of groundwater arsenic distribution with regional topography and water-table fluctuations in the shallow aquifers in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudduha, M.; Marzen, L. J.; Uddin, A.; Lee, M.-K.; Saunders, J. A.

    2009-06-01

    The present study has examined the relationship of groundwater arsenic (As) levels in alluvial aquifers with topographic elevation, slope, and groundwater level on a large basinal-scale using high-resolution (90 m × 90 m) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model and water-table data in Bangladesh. Results show that high As (>50 μg/l) tubewells are located in low-lying areas, where mean surface elevation is approximately 10 m. Similarly, high As concentrations are found within extremely low slopes (Bangladesh Water Development Board) was mapped using water-table data from 950 shallow (depth Works Datum (PWD) level. Extremely low groundwater gradients (0.01-0.001 m/km) within the GBM delta complex hinder groundwater flow and cause slow flushing of aquifers. Low elevation and gentle slope favor accumulation of finer sediments, As-carrying iron-oxyhydroxide minerals, and abundant organic matter within floodplains and alluvial deposits. At low horizontal hydraulic gradients and under reducing conditions, As is released in groundwater by microbial activity, causing widespread contamination in the low-lying deltaic and floodplain areas, where As is being recycled with time due to complex biogeochemical processes.

  9. Municipal solid waste (MSW management in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z.A. Saifullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dhaka is the capital city of Bangladesh, with the highest population density (129,501 people/square km in the world. Municipal solid waste (MSW generation in the city is 4634.52 tons/day. This study aims to explore current MSW management scenario which is found one of the most underestimated sectors of Dhaka City Corporation (DCC – the responsible authority for MSW management. Overall operational and collection efficiency of DCC MSW management is 45% and 60%, respectively. Vehicle fleet for waste transport showed considerably low efficiency in terms of load carrying capacity and fuel consumption. Residential waste is found potential source of composting. At present, a 500 tons/day compost plant has been operating since September 1998. Worth of recoverable recyclable material is found US$ 82,428,449.9989. Open dumping is a pressing problem leading to groundwater pollution, environmental contamination and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Each day, approximately, 1800 tons of MSW is dumped in the only official landfill site – Matuail. DCC spends 1.5% (601,350 Bangladesh Taka (BDT/day of the total budget for landfilling operation and management. Land required for disposal of MSW in Dhaka is estimated to be 110 ha per year. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM projects in waste sector in Bangladesh are found promising. This study urge to prepare a detailed plan for sustainable MSW management in Dhaka for source separation, large scale investment on composting and Waste to Energy (WTE projects, recycling, state of the art landfill development, and optimized reverse logistic operation

  10. Performing monkeys of Bangladesh: characterizing their source and genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Akhtar, Sharmin; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The acquisition and training of monkeys to perform is a centuries-old tradition in South Asia, resulting in a large number of rhesus macaques kept in captivity for this purpose. The performing monkeys are reportedly collected from free-ranging populations, and may escape from their owners or may be released into other populations. In order to determine whether this tradition involving the acquisition and movement of animals has influenced the population structure of free-ranging rhesus macaques in Bangladesh, we first characterized the source of these monkeys. Biological samples from 65 performing macaques collected between January 2010 and August 2013 were analyzed for genetic variation using 716 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA. Performing monkey sequences were compared with those of free-ranging rhesus macaque populations in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Forty-five haplotypes with 116 (16 %) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the performing monkeys. As for the free-ranging rhesus population, most of the substitutions (89 %) were transitions, and no indels (insertion/deletion) were observed. The estimate of the mean number of pair-wise differences for the performing monkey population was 10.1264 ± 4.686, compared to 14.076 ± 6.363 for the free-ranging population. Fifteen free-ranging rhesus macaque populations were identified as the source of performing monkeys in Bangladesh; several of these populations were from areas where active provisioning has resulted in a large number of macaques. The collection of performing monkeys from India was also evident.

  11. Quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, P; Ishrat, S; Rahman, D; Banu, J; Deeba, F; Begum, N; Anwary, S A; Hossain, H B

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is an important health issue which has been neglected in the developing countries. First test-tube babies (triplet) in Bangladesh were born on 30th May, 2001. Although there is no tertiary level infertility center in the public sector, several private centers have come up with the facilities. The objective of the study was to find i) the quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh and ii) the cause of infertility in the attending patients iii) the treatment seeking behaviors iv) and the reasons for not taking treatment among the attending patients. There are now 10 tertiary level Infertility centers in Bangladesh. The information was collected in a preformed datasheet about the facilities and the profile of the patients and the treatment seeking behavior of the attending patients. Out of the ten centers two centers refused to respond and did not disclose their data. Around 16700 new patients are enrolled in a year in the responsive clinics. Five percent (5%) of the patients underwent ART, 7% of the patients gave only one visit, 84% of the patients completed their evaluation, 76% of the patients took treatment. Causes of infertility in the patients taking treatment were male factor in 36.4%, bilateral tubal block in 20.2%, PCOS and anovulation in 31.7%, endometriosis in 19.6%, unexplained in 10.95, combined in 3.5%, ovarian failure in 1.4%, testicular failure in 0.33%, congenital anomaly in 0.3%. The main reason for not taking treatment was financial constrainment. The quality and quantity of infertility care is dependent on the available resources and on the use of the resources by the patients. In developing countries the resources are merging and confined to specified areas which cannot meet the demand of their population. The study gives us the idea of the need and the demand of the services in the country.

  12. Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matter, Anne [Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec), Überlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Swisscontact: Swiss Foundation for Technical Cooperation, South Asian Regional Office, House No. 19, Road No. 11, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Ahsan, Mehedi [KfW: Development Bank for Germany, Bangladesh Office, House 10/C, Road 90, Gulshan 2, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Marbach, Michelle [NADEL: Center for Development and Cooperation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Clausiusstrasse 37, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Zurbrügg, Christian [Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec), Überlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Bangladesh’s industry and population are growing rapidly, producing more urban waste. • Recycling reduces the solid waste management burden of Municipalities. • A wide array of informal and formal actors is involved in collection and recycling. • Demand for recycled materials and renewable energy creates market incentives. • Policy incentives exist, but they only reach the formal industry. - Abstract: Solid waste mismanagement in Dhaka, Bangladesh, illustrates a well-known market failure which can be summarized as: waste is a resource in the wrong place. Inorganic materials such as plastic or paper can be used to feed the demand for recycled materials in the industrial sector. Organic materials can be converted and used in the nutrient-starved agricultural sector which is currently heavily depending on chemical fertilizers. They are also a feedstock to generate renewable energy in the form of biogas for this energy-starved country relying on diminishing natural gas reserves and increasing import of coal. Reality however does not capitalize on this potential; instead the waste is a burden for municipal authorities who spend large portions of their budgets attempting to transport it out of the city for discharge into landfills. The major part of these materials still remains uncollected in the residential areas and is discarded indiscriminately in open spaces, polluting the residents’ living environment including water, soil and air resources, in the city and beyond. Bangladeshi authorities have, to some extent, recognized this market failure and have developed policies to encourage the development of waste recycling activities. It is also important to note that this market failure is only partial: a large, mostly informal recycling sector has developed in Bangladesh, focusing on inorganic recyclables of market value. The fact that this sector remains largely informal means that these actors perceive significant barriers to formalization

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi isolates from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chien-Shun; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Phung, Dac Cam; Watanabe, Haruo; Kuo, Jung-Che; Wang, Pei-Jen; Liu, Yen-Yi; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Chen, Pei-Chen

    2014-11-01

    We characterized Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam to investigate their genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance. The isolates from Bangladesh and Vietnam were genetically closely related but were distant from those from Indonesia and Taiwan. All but a few isolates from Indonesia and Taiwan were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. The majority of isolates from Bangladesh and Vietnam were multidrug resistant (MDR) and belonged to the widespread haplotype H58 clone. IncHI1 plasmids were detected in all MDR S. Typhi isolates from Vietnam but in only 15% of MDR isolates from Bangladesh. Resistance genes in the majority of MDR S. Typhi isolates from Bangladesh should reside in the chromosome. Among the isolates from Bangladesh, 82% and 40% were resistant to various concentrations of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Several resistance mechanisms, including alterations in gyrase A, the presence of QnrS, and enhanced efflux pumps, were involved in the reduced susceptibility and resistance to fluoroquinolones. Intensive surveillance is necessary to monitor the spread of chromosome-mediated MDR and fluoroquinolone-resistant S. Typhi emerging in Bangladesh.

  14. Genesis of avian influenza H9N2 in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganatham, Karthik; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Walker, David; Alam, SMRabiul; Hasan, MKamrul; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G

    2014-12-01

    Avian influenza subtype H9N2 is endemic in many bird species in Asia and the Middle East and has contributed to the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8, which are potential pandemic threats. H9N2 viruses that have spread to Bangladesh have acquired multiple gene segments from highly pathogenic (HP) H7N3 viruses that are presumably in Pakistan and currently cocirculate with HP H5N1. However, the source and geographic origin of these H9N2 viruses are not clear. We characterized the complete genetic sequences of 37 Bangladeshi H9N2 viruses isolated in 2011-2013 and investigated their inter- and intrasubtypic genetic diversities by tracing their genesis in relationship to other H9N2 viruses isolated from neighboring countries. H9N2 viruses in Bangladesh are homogenous with several mammalian host-specific markers and are a new H9N2 sublineage wherein the hemagglutinin (HA) gene is derived from an Iranian H9N2 lineage (Mideast_B Iran), the neuraminidase (NA) and polymerase basic 2 (PB2) genes are from Dubai H9N2 (Mideast_C Dubai), and the non-structural protein (NS), nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein (MP), polymerase acidic (PA) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1) genes are from HP H7N3 originating from Pakistan. Different H9N2 genotypes that were replaced in 2006 and 2009 by other reassortants have been detected in Bangladesh. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses suggest that the current genotype descended from the prototypical H9N2 lineage (G1), which circulated in poultry in China during the late 1990s and came to Bangladesh via the poultry trade within the Middle East, and that this genotype subsequently reassorted with H7N3 and H9N2 lineages from Pakistan and spread throughout India. Thus, continual surveillance of Bangladeshi HP H5N1, H7N3 and H9N2 is warranted to identify further evolution and adaptation to humans.

  15. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh

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    Nurshad Ali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32 and in a suburban (n = 22 area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18–7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON

  16. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-09-24

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  17. Arsenical keratoses in Bangladesh--update and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M; Ahsan, Habibul; Shea, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is considered a Class I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer because of its increased risk for skin cancer, as well as internal cancers, such as lung and bladder cancer. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in Bangladesh has been called the "largest mass poisoning of a population in history." This inorganic arsenic contamination is of natural origin, with arsenic thought to be released to the groundwater from the surrounding sediment. Arsenicosis and its risk factors and prevention and management are discussed in this article.

  18. Analyzing The Factors For Rejection Of Leather In Bangladesh

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    Md.Farhad Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leather plays a vital role in earning the foreign currency for Bangladesh. Export of finished leather and leather products have an important impact on the economy of Bangladesh. Mainly cow goat sheep and buffalo leathers are produced in this country. Different defects of leather due to numerous numbers of diseases of animals of poor management of people deteriorate the quality of leather which has negative impact in this sector. This paper analyses the magnitude and category of major defects in case of cow goat and buffalo of Bangladesh. We have studied in sixteen tanneries of Hazaribagh Dhaka where 95 tanneries of the whole country are situated. This study found that in case of cow skin hair slip parasitic skin diseases wound and pox are mainly responsible for the defects in leather in raw condition. Again in case of the wet blue leather of cow flay cut pox mark parasitic diseases growth mark wound sun burn scratch dark mole are responsible for the defects. Further for crust leather of cow flay cut parasitic diseases pox looseness for bating scratch wrinkle grain damage are found as the reason of defects. In case of goat parasitic diseases pox growth mark mole scratch flay cut hair slip were found responsible mostly for the defects in Bangladesh. Moreover parasite pox wound branding growth mark wrinkle jam wrinkle mole scratch flay cut curing have been detected for the defects of buffalo in this country. Again in this study it is found that average leather grade A-D is 15 E-F is 25 G-H is 30 HH is 12.5 and again the rejection is 18.43. It is observed that most of the defects occur during animal life period. The rest of the defects happen during slaughter flaying preservation and processing period of hides and skins into leather. By proper caring of the farm level and at the point of slaughter and flaying desired quality of hides and skins could be obtained.

  19. Poverty Trends and Growth Performance: Some Issues in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mujeri, Mustafa K

    2000-01-01

    With a low level of per capita income, nearly one of every two persons in Bangladesh is poor, and one of three lives below the income poverty line of $ 1 a day.1 If those who are deprived of adequate clothing or shelter or other basic needs are counted, the number will be considerably higher. Similarly, if the people who live ‘above’ the poverty line but are vulnerable to risks, crisis and socioecononomic shocks and are in constant danger of income erosion below the poverty threshold are cons...

  20. Long-term socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jina, A.

    2013-05-01

    Natural disasters lead to myriad negative impacts upon society, causing loss of life, property, and income. Among disasters, floods annually affect the most people, and lead to widespread negative outcomes, particularly in developing countries. While immediate effects of disasters are readily observed, long-term socioeconomic effects have received little attention. Recent work in development economics finds that environmental exposure in early life can have negative impacts upon later outcomes in health, education, and labor markets. Such research is problematic for disasters, however, as objective measurements of hazard exposure are difficult to obtain. This study develops a remote sensing method to detect flooding in Bangladesh, one of the most flood-prone countries, using MODIS 8-day composite data. This approach addresses one of the main problems in the literature on the social impacts of disasters by deriving an objective measure rather than using self-reported damages. Flood data from 2000-2012 is matched to geolocated social surveys conducted by the Bangladesh government to identify impacts of exposure to floods at critical periods of life. While flooding is noted to be a natural and important part of ecosystem functioning in Bangladesh, we aim to understand the impacts of a flood of greater than normal magnitude or abnormal timing to identify the effects on human capital formation. We find that an increase in flooding of one standard deviation (SD) above the mean in the birth month leads to a 3% increase in stunting (2 SD below cohort height). This has implications for physical and cognitive development, shown elsewhere to persist to adulthood. We find that children from households that are exposed to floods while in elementary school are more likely to drop out. Other impacts will be identified in the course of this research. The stated impacts suggest that the long-term health and economic fortunes of the rural poor in Bangladesh are significantly

  1. Migration of female construction labourers to Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, R M

    1997-03-01

    The author analyzes migration patterns and processes of female construction workers in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, and considers the impact of this migration. "Interviews...reveal that the major goal of these female migrants, whose mobility and employment have traditionally been restricted, is to take responsibility in the struggle for livelihood.... Success of many migrations is linked with participation in construction work in the city. Employment in such activities is largely by women from male-headed households, indicating male support in the work, followed by females heading their own households."

  2. Groundwater Exploration in Freshwater/Saline Layered Aquifers - Southern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, P. A.; Rahman, M.

    2001-05-01

    A major urban water supply and sanitation project is being implemented in the southern coastal districts of Bangladesh, by the Governments of Bangladesh and Denmark (DPHE/DANIDA). Due to the poor quality and reliability of surface water in the coastal districts, the source for these schemes will be groundwater. However, the abstraction of large quantities of water is complicated by the fact that the shallow aquifers are thin and of poor hydraulic quality. In addition, there is saline water underlying the shallow aquifer and, in recent years, arsenic has been discovered in many shallow wells throughout Bangladesh. Over the majority of the coastal districts, a thick freshwater sand underlies the saline aquifers, at depths below 200 m. This freshwater unit is bounded by thick clays which protect it from overlying and underlying saline water. The deep aquifer has been exploited in some of the project towns but in a few areas no freshwater aquifers had been located. An exploration programme was undertaken in each of these towns to prove the location of the freshwater sands and to help plan the location and depth of production well drilling. The first exploration stage was to locate any existing deep hand pumped wells and to carry out a water quality survey. Generally, this was sufficient to prove the existence of a thick freshwater aquifer. However, exact well depths and geological data were usually lacking and an exploration well was usually required. In three of the project towns, no deep aquifers had been exploited by existing hand pumped wells and geophysical surveys were undertaken to identify the locations of freshwater aquifers. These surveys comprised resistivity sounding both within the towns and in outlying areas within a feasible pumping distance. In two cases, freshwater aquifers were inferred from the geophysical surveys and exploration drilling was undertaken to prove the resource. Exploration drilling was undertaken by local contractors using hand

  3. Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mohan Palipudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples. Results: The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9% (male-58.2% and female-51.7%, in workplace (63% (male-67.8% and female-30.4%, and in any public place (57.8% (male-90.4% and female-25.1% 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3% and health care facilities (5.8%; however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%, and restaurants (27.6%. SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups. Conclusions: Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on

  4. Impact of tannery effluents on the aquatic environment of the Buriganga River in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Hasan, Imtiaj; Rajia, Sultana; Khan, Nazneen; Kabir, Kazi Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    This study presents an overview of the existence and effects of six heavy metals, chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), and aluminum (Al), in tannery effluents released to the Buriganga River in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The pollutants were found in three different sources, such as effluents from tanneries, contaminated river water and three species of fish-climbing perch (Anabas testudineus), spotted snakehead (Channa punctata), and Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) caught from the river. Tannery effluents, water, and fish samples were collected from three different factories, five sample stations, and three different harvesting points, respectively. Effluents from all three factories contained significant amounts of heavy metals, especially Cr (374.19 ppm in average), whereas lesser amounts were found in the tissues of the three fish species studied. The trends in tissue elemental concentrations of fish were Cr > Pb > Al > Hg > Mn > Cd. In most cases (Cr, Cd, Mn, and Al), heavy metal concentrations were found to be greater in climbing perch than in Black tilapia and spotted snakehead. Although the river water contained high concentrations of harmful heavy metals, the fish species under study had concentrations well below the permissible Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization levels for those metals and seemed to be safe for human consumption.

  5. Distribution and Potential Toxicity of Trace Metals in the Surface Sediments of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Ramanathan, A.; Mathukumalli, B. K. P.; Datta, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution, enrichment and ecotoxocity potential of Bangladesh part of Sundarban mangrove was investigated for eight trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) using sediment quality assessment indices. The average concentration of trace metals in the sediments exceeded the crustal abundance suggesting sources other than natural in origin. Additionally, the trace metals profile may be a reflection of socio-economic development in the vicinity of Sundarban which further attributes trace metals abundance to the anthropogenic inputs. Geoaccumulation index suggests moderately polluted sediment quality w.r.t. Ni and As and background concentrations for Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, As and Cd. Contamination factor analysis suggested low contamination by Zn, Cr, Co and Cd, moderate by Fe, Mn, Cu and Pb while Ni and As show considerable and high contamination, respectively. Enrichment factors for Ni, Pb and As suggests high contamination from either biota or anthropogenic inputs besides natural enrichment. As per the three sediment quality guidelines, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co and As would be more of a concern with respect to ecotoxicological risk in the Sundarban mangroves. The correlation between various physiochemical variables and trace metals suggested significant role of fine grained particles (clay) in trace metal distribution whereas owing to low organic carbon content in the region the organic complexation may not be playing significant role in trace metal distribution in the Sundarban mangroves.

  6. Between affiliation and autonomy: navigating pathways of women's empowerment and gender justice in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeer, Naila

    2011-01-01

    Inasmuch as women's subordinate status is a product of the patriarchal structures of constraint that prevail in specific contexts, pathways of women's empowerment are likely to be "path dependent." They will be shaped by women's struggles to act on the constraints that prevail in their societies, as much by what they seek to defend as by what they seek to change. The universal value that many feminists claim for individual autonomy may not therefore have the same purchase in all contexts. This article examines processes of empowerment as they play out in the lives of women associated with social mobilization organizations in the specific context of rural Bangladesh. It draws on their narratives to explore the collective strategies through which these organizations sought to empower the women and how they in turn drew on their newly established "communities of practice" to navigate their own pathways to wider social change. It concludes that while the value attached to social affiliations by the women in the study is clearly a product of the societies in which they have grown up, it may be no more context-specific than the apparently universal value attached to individual autonomy by many feminists.

  7. Exploring the communication barriers in private commercial banks of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana, Nahneen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, lots of private commercial banks are contributing for economic growth. The performance of the banks depends on a well-structured communication system. So by maintaining an effective communication system, the banks can gain competitive advantage. Thus the study aims to investigate the communication barriers that should be removed for effective communication in the private commercial banks of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire survey based on 5-point Likert-scale was conducted on 165 full-time employees of private commercial banks. The sample includes 15 private commercial banks. The Principal Component Analysis reveals three types of communication barriers; personal barriers, job barriers, and organizational barriers. Among these barriers, personal barriers are the most significant barriers according to the respondents of the study. Personal barriers include lack of English knowledge, local tone, opposite sex and hot temper. The second most important barriers are job barriers that include technical words, personal life and job monotony. The third most important barriers are organizational barriers which include defective technology and internal politics.

  8. Women's experiences with medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Heather M; Biswas, Kamal; Griffin, Risa; Menzel, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Menstrual regulation has been legal in Bangladesh since 1974, but the use of medication for menstrual regulation is new. In this study, we sought to understand women's experiences using medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with rural and urban women between December 2013 and February 2014. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. The majority of women in our study had had positive experiences with medication for menstrual regulation and successful outcomes, regardless of whether they obtained their medication from medicine sellers/pharmacies, doctors or clinics. Women were strongly influenced by health providers when deciding which method to use. There is a need to educate not only women of reproductive age, but also communities as a whole, about medication for menstrual regulation, with a particular emphasis on cost and branding the medication. Continued efforts to improve counselling by providers about the dose, medication and side-effects of medication for menstrual regulation, along with education of the community about medication as an option for menstrual regulation, will help to de-stigmatise the procedure and the women who seek it.

  9. Arsenic incorporation into authigenic pyrite, Bengal Basin sediment, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowers, H.A.; Breit, G.N.; Foster, A.L.; Whitney, J.; Yount, J.; Uddin, Md. N.; Muneem, Ad. A.

    2007-01-01

    Sediment from two deep boreholes (???400 m) approximately 90 km apart in southern Bangladesh was analyzed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), total chemical analyses, chemical extractions, and electron probe microanalysis to establish the importance of authigenic pyrite as a sink for arsenic in the Bengal Basin. Authigenic framboidal and massive pyrite (median values 1500 and 3200 ppm As, respectively), is the principal arsenic residence in sediment from both boreholes. Although pyrite is dominant, ferric oxyhydroxides and secondary iron phases contain a large fraction of the sediment-bound arsenic between approximately 20 and 100 m, which is the depth range of wells containing the greatest amount of dissolved arsenic. The lack of pyrite in this interval is attributed to rapid sediment deposition and a low sulfur flux from riverine and atmospheric sources. The ability of deeper aquifers (>150 m) to produce ground water with low dissolved arsenic in southern Bangladesh reflects adequate sulfur supplies and sufficient time to redistribute the arsenic into pyrite during diagenesis.

  10. Impact of Liquidity on Islamic Banks' Profitability: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limon Moinur Rasul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of liquidity on Islamic banks’ profitability during an 11 years period of 2001 to 2011. To explore and interpret the results the study has taken samples from five Islamic banks that have been in operation in Bangladesh on or before 2001 to till date. In order to construct the liquidity model it used four liquidity variables namely cash & due from banks to total assets (CDTA, cash & due from banks to total deposits (CDDEP, investment to total assets (INVSTA and investment to total deposits (INVSDEP. According to adjusted R squares profitability variables return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE and return on deposits (ROD are respectively 17.1%, 4.5% and 24.6% dependent on independent variables. The statistical results suggest that CDTA is found insignificant with all profitability variables, whereas CDDEP is individually significant with all profitability variables except ROE. On the other hand INVSTA and INVSDEP are recognized significant with all three profitability variables. However, when ROE stands for an insignificant relationship with the overall liquidity model, ROA and ROD are identified significantly correlated with the similar model at 1% significant level. Unsurprisingly the findings do strengthen the specification that the impact of liquidity reflects adequate imposition on profitability that the Islamic banks in Bangladesh must abide by.

  11. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  12. Modeling for Growth and Forecasting of Pulse Production in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niaz Md. FarhatRahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to estimate growth pattern and examine the best ARIMA model to efficiently forecasting pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production in Bangladesh. It appeared that the time series data for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea were 1st order homogenous stationary. Two types of models namely Box-Jenkins type Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA and deterministic type growth models, are examined to identify the best forecasting models for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production in Bangladesh. The study revealed that the best models were ARIMA (1, 1 and 1, ARIMA (0, 1 and 0 and ARIMA (1, 1 and 3 for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production, respectively. Among the deterministic type growth models, the cubic model is best for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production. The analysis indicated that short-term forecasts were more efficient for ARIMA models compared to the deterministic models. The production uncertainty of pulse could be minimized if production were forecasted well and necessary steps were taken against losses. The findings of this study would be more useful for policy makers, researchers as well as producers in order to forecast future national pulse production more accurately in the short run.

  13. Floristic composition and management of cropland agroforest in southwestern Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Hasanuzzaman; Mahmood Hossain; Mustafa Saroar

    2014-01-01

    Cropland agroforest is an important production system in the southwest region of Bangladesh. This study focused on the floristic composition and management of existing cropland agroforests. A total of 313 cropland agroforests were surveyed and 83%respondents practiced pure agroforestry while the remaining 17% practiced agroforestry with fisheries. A total of 18 forest trees and 2 shrubs were recorded from 11 families and 59 species of agricultural crops were from 28 families. A higher proportion (79%) of cropland agroforests were occupied small land areas (0.12-0.80 ha). About 63% of respondents planted trees for fruit production and 47%for timber production, and 35%of respondents engaged in commercial production (35%). Swietenia macrophylla was the most prevalent species (relative prevalence 20.83) followed by Man-gifera indica (relative prevalence 15.57) and Cocos nucifera (relative prevalence 7.08). Shorter spacing was used for timber and fuel wood species and wider spacing for fruit trees. A wide range of rotation periods, from 5 to 25 years, was observed for both cases. The use of chemical fertilizer was highest followed by cow dung and compost in cropland agroforests. Overall management practices of cropland agroforest in southwest Bangladesh were determined by the end product and local demand.

  14. Bangladesh: an Emerging Centre for Terrorism in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjan M. Gohel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This Research Note examines the political developments that have occurred in Bangladesh in 2013 and explores how these have fed into the rise of religious militancy. The ongoing conflicts not only intensify the instability and schisms within the country, but also illustrate that there is a rise in religious militancy that the country can ill afford at this juncture. Furthermore, it highlights how some members of the Bangladeshi diaspora in the United States and United Kingdom have been recruited by al-Qaeda and its affiliates to plot mass casualty attacks. Significantly, it is argued that all these threads are tied together because of the murky role of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (JEI, which is Bangladesh’s largest religious political party. A further deterioration of Bangladesh’s democracy and political stability could create additional space within which Islamist militants may be increasingly free to operate not just for domestic terrorist activity but for preparing internationals plots as well.

  15. Effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) in rural coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Atikul; Azad, Abul Kalam; Akber, Md Ali; Rahman, Masudur; Sadhu, Indrojit

    2015-12-01

    Scarcity of drinking water in the coastal area of Bangladesh compels the inhabitants to be highly dependent on alternative water supply options like rainwater harvesting system (RWHS), pond sand filter (PSF), and rain-feed ponds. Susceptibility of these alternative water supply options to microbial contamination demands a low-cost water treatment technology. This study evaluates the effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) to treat drinking water from available sources in the southwest coastal area of Bangladesh. A total of 50 households from Dacope upazila in Khulna district were selected to investigate the performance of SODIS. Data were collected in two rounds to examine fecal coliform (FC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination of drinking water at the household water storage containers and SODIS bottles, and thereby determined the effectiveness of SODIS in reducing fecal contamination. All water samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity and salinity. SODIS significantly reduced FC and E. coli contamination under household conditions. The median health risk reduction by SODIS was more than 96 and 90% for pond and RWHS, respectively. Besides, turbidity of the treated water was found to be less than 5 NTU, except pond water. Only 34% of the participating households routinely adopted SODIS during the study.

  16. ANALYZING AND ESTIMATING PORTFOLIO PERFORMANCE OF BANGLADESH STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zobaer Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM is one of the most important developments in the finance literature. Simply, CAPM is a model that describes the relationship between risk and expected return. The theoretical validity of CAPM is well tested and accepted but the practical validity of CAPM is in questioned. This study is designed to analyze and estimate the portfolio performance of Bangladesh stock market in a CAPM framework. For this study, monthly stock returns from 80 companies for the period of January 2005 to December 2009 are chosen. In order to examine whether the CAPM is satisfied in the portfolio or not, the 80 stocks are arranged in descending order of beta and 10 portfolios are being made of eight stocks in each. The All Share Price Index (DSI is used as a proxy for the market portfolio and Bangladesh government 3-Month T-bill rate is used as the proxy for the risk-free asset. The results of this analysis show that the intercept terms are not significantly different from zero, linearity in the securities market line and insignificant unique risk for the 10 portfolios during the period. But, the results in term of slope contradict the CAPM hypothesis and indicate evidence against the CAPM in the portfolios. This analysis will obviously be used as a basis of reference for future investigates and the researchers and they will get proper instruction from this study.

  17. Practicing governance: pitfalls and potentials - a study of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rubayet RAHAMAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Governance is a manner of undertaking activities performed for a state’s people by the state’s government to ensure development. Hence, it has scope of having conflicts between state policy and government bodies resulting poor quality of governance: abuse of rule of law, bureaucratic discrimination, corruption, poverty, inequality, low level of human resource development, low level of per capita income, poor utilization of country resources, etc. The reason for conflicts is poor governance vis-à-vis the result from poor governance, i.e., as there has conflict, there exists poor governance and at the same time as there exists poor governance, there has conflict. On the other hand, interrelationships between state policy and government bodies assist ensuring good governance: participatory, consensus oriented, transparent and accountable, equitable and efficient, etc. Developing nations like Bangladesh require having good governance in their countries for promoting development indicators: ‘country resource’ mobilization, increasing GDP growth, increasing per capita income, enhancing quality of socioeconomic indices of people, etc. The major of findings from this paper is ‘good governance for sustainable development’. This paper addresses issues of historical performance of governance exercise, obstacles towards good governance, and reforming agendas come up in past studies. The authors conclude by explaining why and how good governance is essential in Bangladesh for sustainable development.

  18. Education for Disabled Children in Bangladesh: Perceptions, Misconceptions and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Neaz Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite having specific policy, laws and services, disabled children in Bangladesh are facing troubles in obtaining education. Poverty, limited institutional services, lack of trained teachers, weak academic support, etc. are the most common visual causes behind their physically challenged conditions but the root causes remains hidden in our social system. The paper describes as to how people view the concept, educational need and importance of the disabled children while considering existing social, cultural and religious misconceptions and stigmas. Besides, opinion of the respondent are also described here. Based on quantitative research method, the data was collected from disabled children, their parents and their teachers through interviews and observation of the researchers. The findings reveal that majority of the population considered in the study are still maintaining different attitudes. Moreover, religious and cultural trends are not in favour of the disabled children. Families are found more attentive and sensitive but external supports are not appropriate to ensure their educational rights with harmony. Even disabled children often fail to receive proper cooperation and mental support from their institutions, society and from their parents. However, changes are visible but at a slower pace, and this trend should be speeded up. The paper also probes for the opinions and suggestions of the parents and teachers to overcome those barriers and limitations. The study was conducted in the Sylhet city of Bangladesh covering general and specialised schools where disabled children attend.

  19. Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Luby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n = 34, observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n = 18 and drawing seasonal diagrams (n = 6 with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.

  20. Spectrum of Acute Pharmaceutical and Chemical Poisoning in Northern Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendranath Sarkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute poisoning is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. It is a common method for suicide. A clear picture regarding clinical presentation, most commonly used toxic agents, background factors and outcome of poisoned patients is necessary in every region. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency and outcome of acute pharmaceutical and chemical poisoning cases in Northern Bangladesh. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study on poisoned patients with 18 years of age and above who were admitted to Rangpur Medical College Hospital during 1st December 2011 to 30th November 2012. Results: During the study period, a total of 956 patients were investigated. Males slightly outnumbered females (51.6%. The majority of patients (92% were in the 18-40 year age-group. Regarding occupation, housewives were the most frequent (33.6% followed by farmers (31.7% and students (20.9%. Organophosphate compounds (OPC were the most commonly used toxic agents (73.5%. Most of poisoning cases occurred following suicidal attempts (88%. Familial disharmony was the main cause of suicidal attempts (92.3%. Univariate Analysis showed that age less than 40 years, being married, living in rural areas and educational attainment below secondary level were significantly associated with an increased risk of poisoning (P

  1. Socio-economic determinants of mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M; Howlader, A A

    1980-01-01

    Infant mortality in Bangladesh is 1 of the highest in Asian countries. There are several reasons why infant mortality is still high in Bangladesh. A large number of births occur prematurely, or there is poor handling by birth attendants leading to injury and infection. In addition, there is a gross shortage of maternity clinics, trained midwives, and other paramedical personnel in the country. The children are generally born in the most unhygienic of conditions. Malnutrition is a common factor. In recent years, the study of socioeconomic differentials of infant and child mortality has occupied an important position in demographic research. Given the limited data available to measure many variables which could have an effect on mortality as measured here by infant mortality, the analysis has been essentially confined to an analysis of differences in infant mortality by various socioeconomic characteristics. The factors and relative contributions of the combined effects of medical services, general socioeconomic and environmental factors need to be examined. Mortality can be seen in this context as a final consequence of the interactions between health, work, and income. Due to lack of data availability, very little work has been done on this. The World Fertility Survey has given a unique opportunity to researchers to explore this field more comprehensively.

  2. Rain Attenuation Prediction for Terrestrial Microwave Link in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN Sakir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rain attenuation is a major shortcoming of microwave transmission. As a subtropical country, Bangladesh is one of the highest rainy areas of the world. Thus, designing a terrestrial microwave link is a serious challenge to the engineers. In this paper, the annual rain rate and monthly variation of rate are predicted for different percentage of time of the year from the measured rainfall data. Using ITU rain model for terrestrial microwave communication, the rain attenuation is predicted for five major cities of Bangladesh, namely Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Sylhet, and Khulna. It is found that rain attenuation is the most severe in Sylhet and least in Rajshahi. The attenuation is estimated for different frequency and polarization. A horizontally polarized signal encounters 15% more rain attenuation than that of vertically polarized signal. It is also found that attenuation in Rajshahi is about 20% lesser than that in Sylhet. Thus, the horizontally polarized transmission in Rajshahi experiences about 5% less attenuation than the vertically polarized transmission in Sylhet.

  3. The impact of snake bite on household economy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S M K; Basher, A; Molla, A A; Sultana, N K; Faiz, M A

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the different types of costs for treatment of snake bite patients, to quantify household economic impact and to understand the coping mechanisms required to cover the costs for snake bite patients in Bangladesh. The patients admitted to four tertiary level hospitals in Bangladesh were interviewed using structured questionnaires including health-care-related expenditures and the way in which the expenditures were covered. Of the snakes which bit the patients, 54.2% were non-venomous, 45.8% were venomous and 42.2% of the patients were given polyvalent antivenom. The total expenditure related to snake bite varies from US$4 (US$1 = Taka 72) to US$2294 with a mean of US$124 and the mean income loss was US$93. Expenditure for venomous snake bite was US$231, which is about seven times higher than non-venomous snake bite (US$34). The treatment imposes a major economic burden on affected families, especially in venomous snake bite cases.

  4. Satellite altimetry and GRACE gravimetry for studies of annual water storage variations in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Berry, P.; Freeman, J.;

    2008-01-01

    Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh. The GRACE satellites...... measure the integrated mass change and hence the terrestrial soil moisture variations, which can also be estimated by a hydrological model (GLDAS). These types of observations enable the derivation of the integrated water storage in the entire region of Bangladesh. For all data types, the annual signal...... has been estimated from a common dataset spanning the period 2003 and 2004. All four different data observe that water storage in Bangladesh is largely dominated by an annual signal with a phase peaking in early September. The annual variations in river level peaks roughly two weeks earlier than...

  5. How to finance investment in Bangladesh: Finding long-run factors in a bounds test method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biru Paksha Paula

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investment in Bangladesh has been at almost one-fourth of the country’s output since the early 2000s. Consequently, Bangladesh’s growth has also remained stagnant at around 6 percent since then. The question of how to increase investment in Bangladesh has been of crucial discussion of late. This study examines the long run determinants of investment in Bangladesh by applying the bounds test over 1976-2010. There should not be any policy dilemma about the effect of lending rates, which must be reduced to boost investment and domestic credit should be expanded. Further liberalization in trade and finance is recommended since economic openness and financial deepening show a positive impact on capital formation. The policy prescriptions for Bangladesh are not different from those for other nations that embarked on liberalization to augment investment for accelerating growth.

  6. Analysis of Recent Situation of Pesticide Poisoning in Bangladesh: Is There a Proper Estimate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourab Dewan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Pesticide poisoning is responsible for great number of admissions and deaths in Bangladesh. Creating a register of commercially available pesticides in each region for rapid identification of nature of the pesticide is recommended.

  7. Undiscovered gas resources assessment unit boundaries for Bangladesh (au8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the undiscovered natural gas resources assessment unit boundaries of the Bangladesh. This...

  8. Satellite Altimetry and GRACE Gravimetry for Studies of Annual Water Storage Variations in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Andersen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh. The GRACE satellites measure the integrated mass change and hence the terrestrial soil moisture variations, which can also be estimated by a hydrological model (GLDAS. These types of observations enable the derivation of the integrated water storage in the entire region of Bangladesh. For all data types, the annual signal has been estimated from a common dataset spanning the period 2003 and 2004. All four different data observe that water storage in Bangladesh is largely dominated by an annual signal with a phase peaking in early September. The annual variations in river level peaks roughly two weeks earlier than terrestrial soil moisture observations by GRACE observations and GLDAS model output.

  9. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  10. Undiscovered natural gas resources Total Petroleum System unit boundaries for Bangladesh (tps8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the Total Petroleum System boundaries of the natural gas resources of Bangladesh. This...

  11. Undiagnosed hypertension in a rural district in Bangladesh: The Bangladesh Population-based Diabetes and Eye Study (BPDES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, F M A; Bhuiyan, A; Chakrabarti, R; Rahman, M A; Kanagasingam, Y; Hiller, J E

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension is mainly asymptomatic and remains undiagnosed until the disease progresses. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension in rural Bangladesh. Using a population-based cluster random sampling strategy, 3096 adults aged ⩾30 years were recruited from a rural district in Bangladesh. Data collected included two blood pressure (BP) measurements, fasting blood glucose, socio-demographic and anthropometric measurements. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP (SBP) ⩾140 mm Hg or diastolic BP (DBP) ⩾90 mm Hg or self-reported diagnosed hypertension. Logistic regression techniques were used for data analyses. The crude prevalence of hypertension was 40% (95% confidence interval (CI) 38-42%) of which 82% were previously undiagnosed. People from lower socio-economic status (SES) had a significantly higher percentage of undiagnosed hypertension compared with people with higher SES (PBangladesh than that reported from the rural area in neighbouring India and China. Lower SES was associated with a higher risk of undiagnosed hypertension. Public health programs at the grass-roots level must emphasise the provision of primary care and preventive services in managing this non-communicable disease.

  12. Rural development scheme of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited - A study on its growth, effectiveness and prospect in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the people of Bangladesh are living under poverty line. To alleviate poverty, thousands of NGOs and GOs have been working since the inception of the Bangladesh. But the success rate of these programs appears to be insignificant. Rural Development Scheme (RDS being a shariah and teaching of Islam based technique has been introduced in order to graduate the rural poor from poverty trap by bringing them in the main stream of economy by providing micro-credit and teaching for value creation. The present study has been undertaken aiming at evaluating the effectiveness of the program and its prospect. It has collected both primary and secondary data, and analyzed these with the help of both financial and statistical techniques. The findings of the study are: the growth performance of RDS in important parameters are robust across study period, and RDS influence the income and income generating activities of borrowing members significantly. Finally the study has put forward some logical suggestions for enhancing the sustainability as well as robustness of the program.

  13. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman; Md. Nazmul Hoque; Anup Kumar Talukder; Ziban Chandra Das

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured...

  14. An ethnographic investigation on land and life of Santal community in Barind Tract, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akan, Mashiur Rahman; Al Mamun, Md Abdullah; Naznin, Tahmina

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of life style of Santal community, one of the largest tribal communities in Bangladesh. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), participant observation, focus group discussions (FGD), and informal and semi-structured interviews were used to collect information. Santals......, social problems i.e., poverty, inequality, resource scarcity, illiteracy, maladjustment are more severe. Respecting the national constitution, Bangladesh should generate a multi-ethnic leadership to bring glory and protect Santal from all sorts of hazards and discriminations....

  15. Challenges for Sustainable Development: Rapid Urbanization, Poverty and Capabilities in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, haider

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the causes and consequences -- in particular, the policy implications -- of the ongoing urbanization in Bangladesh. Like many other Asian developing countries, a rapidly increasing share of the population of Bangladesh migrates to urban centers in search for employment opportunities outside agriculture in industrial enterprises or the services sector. For the first time in its history, the urban population is growing faster than the rural...

  16. Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Mainstream Primary Education of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Asim, Das

    2011-01-01

    Over the years Bangladesh has shown a remarkable progress in primary education. Inclusion of students with disabilities in mainstream primary education is also increasing year by year. But in the context of quality teachinglearning for all, Bangladesh is still a far away from effective inclusive education. Inclusive education requires some additional arrangement within the mainstream system that is really a challenge. The present paper reports on the prevailing situation of education of stude...

  17. Socio-economic Conditions of Tribal Female Workers of the Beauty Parlors in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nargis Akhter; Feroz Ahmed; Sohrab Hossain

    2011-01-01

    The study highlights the socio-economic conditions of tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh. The study consists of 240 sample tribal female workers of the different beauty parlors situated in six divisional towns of Bangladesh and judgment sampling technique was used to select this sample. The study reveals that tribal women working at beauty parlor draw competitively higher salary than other tribal people; they live at a comparatively healthy physical environment provided...

  18. Reviewing the status of agricultural production in Bangladesh from a food security perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ghose Bishwajit; Razib Barmon; Sharmistha Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to review the major food security issues in Bangladesh, with a brief reference to its past trend in agricultural output, constraints, and challenges in the coming decades. Food security relates directly to nutrition and health of a population which consequently influences a nation's socio-economic status. Despite Bangladesh has changed its status from a country with chronic food shortages to a self-sufficient one, it still faces food-security challenges. Few non-agricultural f...

  19. Designing an Health Insurance Scheme for Government Employees in Bangladesh: A Concept Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Syed Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Introducing compulsory health insurance for government employees bears immense importance for stepping towards universal healthcare coverage in Bangladesh. Lack of scientific study on designing such scheme, in the Bangladesh context, motivates this paper. The study aims at designing a comprehensive insurance package simultaneously covering health, life and accident related disability risks of the public employees, where the health component would extend to all dependent family members. ...

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING MASS MEDIA FP PROGRAMS ON CURRENT USE OF CONTRACEPTION IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M. Amirul; Kabir, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the significant role of mass media and factors affecting it have been investigated. . Mass media has played an important role in the success of Bangladesh family planning programs. Different mass media are employed to disseminate FP-MCH messages. Evaluation of the impact of mass media exposures on FP-MCH programs would provide new directions and strategy for its effectiveness. In this study a total of 3100 currently married women from all over Bangladesh were interviewed. The ai...

  1. The Adoption of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the University Libraries of Bangladesh: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Siddike, Abul Kalam; Munshi, Nasiruddin; Sayeed, Abu

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore the extent of adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in the university libraries of Bangladesh. The study discusses the present conditions of using ICT by the public and private university libraries in Bangladesh. The study also finds out the systems and services provided by the university libraries. The paper is a basic work so far such study has not been carried out by anyone in Bangladesh and it investigates the original views o...

  2. Molecular detection and genetic diversity of Babesia gibsoni in dogs in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Masashi; Akter, Shirin; Yasin, Md Golam; Nakao, Ryo; Kato, Hirotomo; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Katakura, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Babesia gibsoni is a tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasite of dogs that often causes fever and hemolytic illness. Detection of B. gibsoni has been predominantly reported in Asian countries, including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Bangladesh and India. The present study shows the first molecular characterization of B. gibsoni detected from dogs in Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected on FTA® Elute cards from 50 stray dogs in Mymensingh District in Bangladesh. DNA eluted from the cards was subjected to nested PCR for the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia species. Approximately 800bp PCR products were detected in 15 of 50 dogs (30%). Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and direct sequencing of the PCR products, all parasite isolates were identified as B. gibsoni. Furthermore, the BgTRAP (B. gibsoni thrombospondin-related adhesive protein) gene fragments were detected in 13 of 15 18S rRNA gene PCR positive blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the BgTRAP gene revealed that B. gibsoni parasites in Bangladesh formed a cluster, which was genetically different from other Asian B. gibsoni isolates. In addition, tandem repeat analysis of the BgTRAP gene clearly showed considerable genetic variation among Bangladeshi isolates. These results suggested that B. gibsoni parasites in a different genetic clade are endemic in dogs in Bangladesh. Further studies are required to elucidate the origin, distribution, vector and pathogenesis of B. gibsoni parasites circulating in dogs in Bangladesh.

  3. ROLE OF PLANTS FOUND IN NORTH EAST INDIA AND BANGLADESH IN CONTROLLING POPULATION GROWTH

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    Jhimly Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Being part of the Indian subcontinent both the North Eastern region of India and the Bangladesh share a long common cultural, economic and political history. One of the most critical problems of developing countries like India as well as Bangladesh is their enormous increase in human population. Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR of India is 48.3 and that of Bangladesh is 53.8. As the large majority of population of both the countries belong to rural area, the family planning programmes have largely remained unsuccessful because of many factors including lack of availability of contraceptive drugs in rural markets, lack of accessibility of rural people to medical personnel as well as the lack of acceptability of synthetic drugs due to various socio-cultural and religious perceptions prevailing among many ethnic communities. These contributed to a growing interest among researchers in developing contraceptives of natural origin and at present natural herbal contraception have become one of the major focuses of modern contraceptive research. Since time immemorial herbal drugs are being practiced by various rural communities and ethnic tribes in North East India as well as in Bangladesh, and hence the acceptability of herbal contraceptives is expected to be much higher among rural folk. In different parts of North East India and Bangladesh, ethnic communities are using plant based medicinal products till today. This study aims at highlighting the contraceptive property of some plants found in North-Eastern India as well as in Bangladesh.

  4. Socio-economic Conditions of Tribal Female Workers of the Beauty Parlors in Bangladesh

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    Nargis Akhter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study highlights the socio-economic conditions of tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh. The study consists of 240 sample tribal female workers of the different beauty parlors situated in six divisional towns of Bangladesh and judgment sampling technique was used to select this sample. The study reveals that tribal women working at beauty parlor draw competitively higher salary than other tribal people; they live at a comparatively healthy physical environment provided by their owners. Majority of the respondents mentioned that their earnings have improved their economic condition significantly and more than half of them have past work experience of the same job. The tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh are not only generating income from the beauty parlors they are providing a valuable service to the new consumer society. The main stream society is not yet ready to provide this type of services. So, we should not treat this migrant community as temporary visitors rather we should treat them as indispensable and contributing factor of the social and economic development in Bangladesh. There should be initiative from the government of Bangladesh to inspect health; safety; welfare and other related issues of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh and take necessary actions in this regard. Finally, the future research directions are presented.

  5. Cause-specific mortality and socioeconomic status in Chakaria, Bangladesh

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    Syed M. A. Hanifi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES. Objective: The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. Design: We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4. The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Results: Analysing cause of death (CoD revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were the leading causes of deaths (37%, followed by communicable diseases (CDs (22%, perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%, and injury and accidents (6%; the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0–14 years, which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04. For adult and the elderly (15 years and older, NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%, followed by CDs (23%. For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005, and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0

  6. Women Empowerment through Participation in Micro-Credit Programme: A Case Study from Bangladesh

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    Mahmuda Hoque

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Numerous micro-credit organizations have been emerged as the form of mushroom in Bangladesh in the recent times. All of them are providing micro-credit to the poor women with the view of poverty reduction and empowering the rural women. Thus, the researchers take an attempt to check that to what extent these micro-credit programmes are effective in empowering rural women. Approach: The study was attempted to assess the impact of micro-credit programmes in empowering rural women in Bangladesh. All women of Rampur village were the population of the study. Empirical data for the study were collected from 180 women of Rampur village under Palashbari sub-district of Gaibandha district by using structured questionnaire. Among these 180 women 50% were active members of MF NGOs and rest were individual housewives. Lists of micro-credit NGO women were collect from concerned MF NGOs and from these lists, respondent women were selected as random basis. Similarly, lists of the individual housewives were collected from union council office and from that lists respondent women were selected randomly. Results: The result of the study revealed that only 21% of the respondent women are empowered and rest of them is not yet empowered. However, among the empowered respondent women 69% of them are the active members of micro-credit programmes. The result of the study also explored that among the socio-economic factors of the women institutional participation, media exposure and family land holdings are very important for women empowerment. While, micro-credit use by own self, duration of micro-credit use and monitoring by the concerned MF NGO are found as significant factors for women empowerment who are associated with micro-credit programmes. Conclusion: It was therefore, recommended that if it was possible to provide micro-credit to rural women and monitor them regularly, that women by themselves use this money in productive sector then they

  7. Physicochemical Assessment of Surface and Groundwater Quality of the Greater Chittagong Region of Bangladesh

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    M. J. Ahmed

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess surface and groundwater quality of the greater Chittagong (Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar districts and Chittagong Hill Tracts (Rangamati, Khagrachhari and Bandarban districts of Bangladesh. To study the various physicochemical and microbiological parameters, surface water samples from the Karnafuli, Halda, Sangu, Matamuhuri, Bakkhali, Naf, Kasalong, Chingri and Mayani Rivers, Kaptai Lake and groundwater samples from almost every Upazilas, smaller administrative unit of Bangladesh, were collected and analyzed. The statistical methods of sampling were used for collecting samples. Samples were preserved using suitable preservation methods. Water samples from the freshwater resources were collected from different points and tide conditions and at different seasons for continuous monitoring during the hydrological years 2008-2009. The collected samples were analyzed for the following parameters: pH, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, total suspended solids (TSS, total solids (TS, dissolved oxygen (DO, transparency, acidity, dissolved carbon dioxide, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, ammonia-N, hydrogen sulfide, sulphate-S, o-phosphate-P, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total nitrite and nitrate-N, arsenic, iron, manganese, copper, nickel, chromium, cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium using the procedure outlined in the standard methods. Average values of maximum physicochemical and microbiological parameters studied for the Karnafuli River were found higher than the World Health Organization (WHO guideline. The maximum water quality parameters of Kaptai Lake and other Rivers of Chittagong region were existed within the permissible limits of WHO guideline. The data showed the water quality slightly differs in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon than monsoon season. The concentration of different constituents of most of

  8. Electrical Energy Potential from Municipal Solid Waste in Rajshahi City Corporation, Bangladesh

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    A.Z.A. Saifullah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the assessment of the electrical power generation potential from municipal solid waste (MSW in Rajshahi City Corporation (RCC, Bangladesh. RCC generates huge amount of solid waste (SW which is left very poorly managed due to crisis in governance. About 80% of organic food wastes are the major constituents of SW generated in RCC in the year 2012. Electrical energy can be produced from SW generated in RCC as a sustainable commercial solution. The average calculated value of heat content of MSW of the year 2012 based on the data of MSW of 2005 (MSW: 2005 and MSW of 2012 (MSW: 2012 is 7234.5 kJ/kg, which is sufficient to produce electricity. Integrated sustainable waste management (ISWM has to be put into operation to harness energy from MSW. A 645.543 ton/day energy recovery Mass Burn Incinerator (MBI system of 19.71% overall efficiency is to be used. It is found that potential of electrical energy generation from MSW in RCC during the years 2012 and 2025 is 5.336 MW and 10.568 MW respectively.

  9. Detection of antibiotic resistant Avibacterium paragallinarum from broiler chickens in Bangladesh

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    Mst. Mousumi Khatun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An attempt was undertaken for the detection and characterization of Avibacterium paragallinarum from clinically sick broiler chickens during field outbreaks. Materials and methods: Nasal and ocular discharges (n=6, tracheal swab (n=6, tracheal washing (n=4 and infraorbital sinus exudates (n=4 were collected aseptically from broiler chickens (n=10. To isolate A. paragallinarum, the clinical samples were cultured onto blood agar and chocolate agar enriched with Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD and feeder organism (Staphylococcus aureus. Identification of A. paragallinarum was performed by Gram staining reaction, sugar fermentation profiles using five basic sugars (Dextrose, Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose and Mannitol and biochemical tests (Indole, Voges Proskauer and Methyl red tests. Antibiogram of the bacterial isolates of infected chicken was performed against five antibiotics namely Ciprofloxacin, Azithromycin, Gentamicin, Ampicillin and Cefalexin using disk diffusion method. Results: Results of colonial morphology, Gram staining reaction, sugar fermentation and biochemical tests confirmed one isolate as A. paragallinarum. The overall prevalence of IC in broiler chicken was 10% (1 of 10. This isolate was found to be sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Azithroycin and Gentamicin and resistant to Ampicillin and Cefalexin. Conclusion: This is the first report of detection of A. paragallinarum from broiler chicken in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 173-177

  10. Do self-reported health indicators predict mortality? Evidence from Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, Abdur; Mustafa, A H M G; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2014-09-01

    In order to understand current and changing patterns of population health, there is a clear need for high-quality health indicators. The World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) survey platform and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries (INDEPTH) generated data for this study. A total of 4300 people aged 50 years or older were selected randomly from the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. The health indicators derived from these survey data are self-rated general health, overall health state, quality of life and disability levels. The outcome of the study is mortality over a 2-year follow-up since the survey. Among the four health indicators, only self-rated health was significantly associated with subsequent mortality irrespective of sex: those who reported bad health had higher mortality than those who reported good health, even after controlling for socio-demographic factors. For all other three health indicators, such associations exist but are significant only for males, while for females it is significant only for 'quality of life'.

  11. Landlessness and its Impact on Economic Development: A Case Study on Bangladesh

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    Md H. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has accomplished a critical appraisal on landlessness and economic development of Bangladesh through conducting a primary survey and traced out what are the best alternative recommendations to ameliorate land ownership pattern of the economy. Basically landlessness often materializes the manifestation of poverty, indebtedness and powerlessness of the majority of the rural households. The causes of landlessness and near landlessness are numerous including dearth of land, rapid population growth, low productivity in agriculture, lack of effective government policies, colonial legacies etc. Due to these circumstances, land-oriented poverty and rural to urban migration without any expansion in the housing and utility services lead to the expansion of slump with all affiliated social problems. On the other hand, it has been found that landlessness diminishes the rate of land-fragmentation, which facilitates automation in production process through both extensive and intensive directions. Therefore, this research has uncovered that landlessness has a significant level of positive impacts on economic development through facilitating modern technology in primary sector. For social welfare, the policymakers can rehabilitate the landless people through creating income generating activities. In this regard, setting up agro based industries as well as promoting employment in non agricultural sector is a must for achieving potential economic growth. However, this research also identified that landlessness causes to boom up the service sector. It has been happened due to the radical emergence of non-government organizations that generated income-oriented activities in the rural areas through social movement.

  12. Monitoring the Urban Growth of Dhaka (bangladesh) by Satellite Imagery in Flooding Risk Management Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitelli, G.; Franci, F.; Mandanici, E.

    2013-01-01

    There is large consensus that demographic changes, the lack of appropriate environmental policies and sprawling urbanization result in high vulnerability and exposure to the natural disasters. This work reports some experiences of using multispectral satellite imagery to produce landuse/cover maps for the Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh, which is subject to frequent flooding events.The activity was conducted in collaboration with the non-profit organization ITHACA (Information Technology for Humanitarian Assistance, Cooperation and Action). The Landsat images acquired in 2000, 2002 and 2009 were used to evaluate the urban growth in order to support risk assessment studies; to identify areas routinely flooded during the monsoon season, the image of October 2009 (the most critical month for the effects of rain) was compared with two images acquired in January and February 2010. The analysis between 2000 and 2009 was able to quantify a very rapid growth of the metropolis, with an increase in built-up areas from 75 to 111 km2. The analysis highlights also a sharp rise of Bare soil class, likely related to the construction of embankments for the creation of new building space; consequently a decrease of cultivated land was observed. In particular, these artificial islands have been invading flooding areas. The change detection procedure also showed that the flooding in October 2009 affected about 20% (115 out of 591 km2) of the entire study area; furthermore these areas became wetlands and farmland over the next three/four months.

  13. Study on soils under shifting cultivation and other land use categories in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alake Biswas; M.Alamgir; S.M.S.Haque; K.T.Osman

    2012-01-01

    Soil samples were collected and analyzed from 25 sites of three hilly regions (Rangamati,Banderban and Khagrachari) for an understanding of the impact of denudation and land use on soils in Chittagong Hill Tracts,Bangladesh.There were natural forests,bushy land,slashed sites,slashed and burnt sites,and the sites prepared for shifting cultivation,one year after shifting cultivation and two years after shifting cultivation.The soils were generally yellowish brown to reddish brown,sandy to sandy clay loam,strongly acid,and well to excessively drained on steep slopes with considerable variation among the sites and land use categories.Bulk density was the highest in sites of one year after shifting cultivation (1.52 g·cm-3) and the lowest in foreted sites (1.38 g·cm-3).Water holding capacities were,however,statistically similar in all sites.Organic carbon varied from 0.54% (slashed and burnt sites) to 1.55% (forested sites) and total N ranged from 0.05% (shifting cultivation for one year) to 0.13% (forested sites).Available phosphorus (Bray & Kurtz-2 P) was the maximum in forested sites (12.32 mg·kg-1),and it did not differ significantly in other sites.Contents of available Ca,Mg and K were also higher in the bushy lands and forested sites than cleared and shifting cultivated sites.

  14. Dynamics of arsenic adsorption in the targeted arsenic-safe aquifers in Matlab, south-eastern Bangladesh: Insight from experimental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Clare, E-mail: crobinson@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 5B9 (Canada)] [NGO Forum for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation, Lalmatia, Dhaka 1207 (Bangladesh); Broemssen, Mattias von [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Ramboell Sweden AB, Box 4205, SE-102 65 Stockholm (Sweden); Bhattacharya, Prosun; Haeller, Sara; Biven, Annelie [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Hossain, Mohammed [NGO Forum for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation, Lalmatia, Dhaka 1207 (Bangladesh)] [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Jacks, Gunnar [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Hasan, M. Aziz [Department of Geology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Thunvik, Roger [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Adsorption behaviour of shallow oxidized sediments from Matlab Region in SE Bangladesh is investigated. {yields} Oxidized sediments have a high capacity to adsorb arsenic. {yields} Adsorption capacity will be reduced by high concentration of reactive organic C. {yields} Monitoring of groundwater quality over 5 year period shows relatively stable water chemistry. - Abstract: Targeting shallow low-As aquifers based on sediment colour may be a viable solution for supplying As-safe drinking water to rural communities in some regions of Bangladesh and West Bengal in India. The sustainability of this solution with regard to the long-term risk of As-safe oxidized aquifers becoming enriched with As needs to be assessed. This study focuses on the adsorption behaviour of shallow oxidized sediments from Matlab Region, Bangladesh, and their capacity to attenuate As if cross-contamination of the oxidized aquifers occurs. Water quality analyses of samples collected from 20 tube-wells in the region indicate that while there may be some seasonal variability, the groundwater chemistry in the reduced and oxidized aquifers was relatively stable from 2004 to 2009. Although sediment extractions indicate a relatively low amount of As in the oxidized sediments, below 2.5 mg kg{sup -1}, batch isotherm experiments show that the sediments have a high capacity to adsorb As. Simulations using a surface complexation model that considers adsorption to amorphous Fe(III) oxide minerals only, under-predict the experimental isotherms. This suggests that a large proportion of the adsorption sites in the oxidized sediments may be associated with crystalline Fe(III) oxides, Mn(IV) and Al(III) oxides, and clay minerals. Replicate breakthrough column experiments conducted with lactose added to the influent solution demonstrate that the high adsorption capacity of the oxidized sediments may be reduced if water drawn down into the oxidized aquifers contains high levels of

  15. QUALITY AND PROCESSES OF BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY COURSE MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT

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    K. M. Rezanur RAHMAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A new member of the mega-Universities, Bangladesh Open University (BOU introduced a course team approach for developing effective course materials for distance students. BOU teaching media includes printed course books, study guides, radio and television broadcasts, audiocassettes and occasional face-to-face tutorials. Each course team comprises specialist course writer(s, editor, trained style editor, graphic designer,illustrator, audio-visual producer and anonymous referees. An editorial board or preview committee is responsible for the final approval for publishing or broadcasting materials for learners. This approach has been proved to be effective, but appeared to be complicated and time-consuming. This report focuses on the quality and processes of BOU course materials development taking into account the strengths and weaknesses of the current approach.

  16. Credit programs, women's empowerment, and contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, S R; Hashemi, S M

    1994-01-01

    This article presents findings of research addressing the question of how women's status affects fertility. The effects on contraceptive use of women's participation in rural credit programs and on their status or level of empowerment were examined. A woman's level of empowerment is defined here as a function of her relative physical mobility, economic security, ability to make various purchases on her own, freedom from domination and violence within her family, political and legal awareness, and participation in public protests and political campaigning. The main finding is that participation in both of the credit programs studied, those of Grameen Bank and Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), is positively associated with women's level of empowerment. A positive effect on contraceptive use is discernible among both participants and nonparticipants in Grameen Bank villages. Participation in BRAC does not appear to affect contraceptive use.

  17. Reducing the health effect of natural hazards in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Richard A; Halder, Shantana R; Husain, Mushtuq; Islam, Md Sirajul; Mallick, Fuad H; May, Maria A; Rahman, Mahmudur; Rahman, M Aminur

    2013-12-21

    Bangladesh, with a population of 151 million people, is a country that is particularly prone to natural disasters: 26% of the population are affected by cyclones and 70% live in flood-prone regions. Mortality and morbidity from these events have fallen substantially in the past 50 years, partly because of improvements in disaster management. Thousands of cyclone shelters have been built and government and civil society have mobilised strategies to provide early warning and respond quickly. Increasingly, flood and cyclone interventions have leveraged community resilience, and general activities for poverty reduction have integrated disaster management. Furthermore, overall population health has improved greatly on the basis of successful public health activities, which has helped to mitigate the effect of natural disasters. Challenges to the maintenance and reduction of the effect of cyclones and floods include rapid urbanisation and the growing effect of global warming. Although the effects of earthquakes are unknown, some efforts to prepare for this type of event are underway.

  18. Men's views on gender and sexuality in a Bangladesh village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muradul; Karim, K M Rabiul

    The violation of women's sexual rights is a crucial public health problem, which is often related to the way people view gender and sexuality in a society. This study explores married men's typical views on gender, family, and sexuality in a rural Bangladesh context. Using a qualitative methodological approach, 10 married men were purposively included from a northwest village. The study revealed that married men's views about gender and sexuality are heavily influenced by patriarchal norms. Men think that a wife is the property of her husband and that the wife should obey her husband by giving sex to her husband whenever he wants. Men also think that if women fail to obey their husbands or please them sexually, men are allowed to beat their wives. Interviews explored that the violation of women's sexual rights might be closely related to men's gendered views about women's rights.

  19. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Bangladesh: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A K M Monwarul; Majumder, A A S

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are the most-common cardiovascular disease in young people aged <25 years, globally. They are important contributors to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. Classical risk factors, i.e. poverty, overcrowding, ignorance, and insufficient health care services were responsible for the high incidence and prevalence of these diseases over the last century. In concert with the progresses in socioeconomic indicators, advances in health sectors, improved public awareness, and antibiotic prophylaxis, acute RF came into control. However, chronic RHD continues to be prevalent, and the actual disease burden may be much higher. RHD predominantly affects the young adults, seriously incapacitates them, follows a protracted course, gets complicated because of delayed diagnosis and is sometimes maltreated. The treatment is often palliative and expensive. Large-scale epidemiological and clinical researches are needed to formulate evidence-based national policy to tackle this important public health issue in future.

  20. The limitations of microcredit for promoting microenterprises in Bangladesh

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    Alam Mahmudul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcredit is regarded as a tool for poverty alleviation. A stereotyped delivery system is designed and used for promoting and serving survival- and subsistence-level economic activities, particularly for poor female clients. In Bangladesh its success has raised social expectations as to its potential as also a promoter of microenterprises, which are growth-yielding small businesses beyond subsistence-level economic activity. The field survey shows that about 11.7% of the microcredit borrowers are this kind of potential or growing microentrepreneur. It also shows that microcredit’s standardised delivery system, particularly in respect of gender preference, loan size, loan disbursement, and repayment schedules, is a strong limiting factor in effectively serving the microenterprises, which require a more flexible credit package. Therefore a methodological modification is necessary to accommodate flexibility in the microcredit delivery system.

  1. Determinants of Customer Satisfaction of Banking Industry in Bangladesh

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    Mohammed Belal Uddin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate, through the development and operationalized constructs of service quality, service charge, perceived value, and customer satisfaction; customersatisfaction and its determinants of the banking industry in Bangladesh. An exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling was used to analyze data. Measurement model and structural model indicate that service quality and fair service charge both havepositive direct impact on customer satisfaction in a mass service industry (i.e., banking industry. It was further observed that they also have indirect influence on customer satisfaction through perceive value, i.e. perceived value has mediating role betweenquality, charge fairness and satisfaction. Bank managers are recommended to formulate operations and marketing strategies that focus on desires of customers to enhance level of satisfaction.

  2. Cyclone disaster vulnerability and response experiences in coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Edris; Collins, Andrew E

    2010-10-01

    For generations, cyclones and tidal surges have frequently devastated lives and property in coastal and island Bangladesh. This study explores vulnerability to cyclone hazards using first-hand coping recollections from prior to, during and after these events. Qualitative field data suggest that, beyond extreme cyclone forces, localised vulnerability is defined in terms of response processes, infrastructure, socially uneven exposure, settlement development patterns, and livelihoods. Prior to cyclones, religious activities increase and people try to save food and valuable possessions. Those in dispersed settlements who fail to reach cyclone shelters take refuge in thatched-roof houses and big-branch trees. However, women and children are affected more despite the modification of traditional hierarchies during cyclone periods. Instinctive survival strategies and intra-community cooperation improve coping post cyclone. This study recommends that disaster reduction programmes encourage cyclone mitigation while being aware of localised realities, endogenous risk analyses, and coping and adaptation of affected communities (as active survivors rather than helpless victims).

  3. The Role of Cyanobacteria Blooms in Cholera Epidemic in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagir Ahmed, Md.; Raknuzzaman, Md.; Akther, Hafeza; Ahmed, Sumaiya

    A study was conducted on association of Vibrio cholerae with plankton specially emphasis on cyanobacteria in relation to some physico-chemical parameters in the River Buriganga, Dhaka, from January to December 2002. Monthly abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton varied from 457 to 14166 and from 169 to 1055 individual L-1, respectively. Monthly average of faecal coliform in water, zooplankton and phytoplankton samples were 3.99x109, 4.54x103 and 4.28x102 (CFU L-1), respectively. During epidemics, toxigenic V. cholerae 01 and 0139 were isolated from the patients as well as from the surface water. V. cholerae 01 and 0139 were also isolated from plankton samples. More over, it was observed that ctx (cholera toxic) positive in water and phytoplankton samples of the river. A bloom of Oscillatoria sp. (1.6x104 individual L-1) occurred in the upper reaches of the River Buriganga in May 2002. Methanol-water extract of bloom sample was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and Mass Spectrum (MS) detected microcystin-RR. Cyanobacteria are abundant in the aquatic environment of Bangladesh and it was established that V. cholerae maintain a symbiotic relationship with these algae particularly mucilaginous cyanobacteria. During epidemics, patients symptoms included diarrhea, vomiting and hemorrhagic enteritis and in severe cases hemorrhagic diarrhea. So, question has arisen that which is responsible, microcystins or cholera for death of cholera/diarrhea patients in Bangladesh. Future research should be directed to isolate microcystins and cholera toxins from the epidemic areas to clarify the fact.

  4. Redistributive land and tenancy reform in Bangladesh agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslim, M A

    1993-04-01

    Land is scarce and population dense in Bangladesh. Accordingly, there is great need to maximize agricultural production with intensive cultivation and the diffusion of modern technology. The realization of this goal, however, is impeded by the prevailing inequitable and inefficient structure of agricultural land tenure in which a few rural households hold the bulk of cultivatable land. Cropsharing and the system of land tenancy perpetuates low productivity and stagnation throughout the country. Development professionals, ruling politicians, and general populations in many countries under similar circumstances often suggest that share tenancy be abolished and tenants given ownership of tenanted plots, with large farms broken into smaller ones with an ultimate ceiling on farm size. The political and undertaken by new governments coming to power after violent social upheavals. Careful review reveals that such reform has hardly ever led to the establishment of prosperous and independent peasantries. Small family farms have instead become more dependent on the state and on off-farm employment. The rural elite is destroyed and a small peasant proprietorship dependent on the state is established which is ultimately controlled by the urban elite of the country; control over rural populations is reinforced. The dubious historical motivation for and results of land reform suggest that Bangladesh abandon its consideration in favor of promoting vocational training and education; providing research and extension services to agriculture for more rapid diffusion of high-yield innovations; mobilizing domestic resources to build up the infrastructure; fostering the development of private initiatives; and informing and advising about sustainable development practices to encourage their adoption so that an ecological balance may be maintained.

  5. Connecting Environmental Observations with Cholera Outbreaks in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, D.; Sandborn, A.; Widmeyer, P. A.; Escobar, V. M.

    2011-12-01

    Research has demonstrated that cholera epidemics in Bangladesh occur seasonally. This bimodal outbreak pattern closely follows times when large monsoon events are most frequent (spring and fall). While these patterns are presented in regional data, this knowledge alone cannot forecast the severity and location of cholera outbreaks until a monsoon event occurs, or an outbreak is reported. Therefore, there can only be reactive responses to cholera outbreaks. A heightened understanding of the link between environmental factors and outbreak occurrence will greatly enhance disease management capabilities. A predictive tool capable of giving an advanced warning of the environmental hazards that lead to location specific outbreaks allows for proactive and preventative responses, minimizing negative effects. A specific goal of this research was to relate latitude-longitude data with existing points associated with V. cholerae human case data collected from four cities in Bangladesh. Remotely sensed products were used to better understand the correlation between human outbreak occurrences, chlorophyll-a estimates, sea surface temperature (SST), and rainfall. Using MODIS, SeaWiFS, and TRMM satellite data, a gridded regional image was developed. Correlation analyses of the data were studied within the context of geographically diverse locations for the four cities of interest. Seasonal relationships were found between the cholera case data and all three of the chosen remotely sensed parameters. The strongest correlation found was between chlorophyll-a concentrations and reported human cases. The primary deliverable of this project was the production of an interactive Google Earth base map for use in a pilot design study that will lead to the development of applications to connect earth science products with water and health studies. The base map, with its inherent value of merging remotely sensed data with in situ observation points, can be used as a basis for constructing

  6. Land Use, Livelihoods, Vulnerabilities, and Resilience in Coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.

    2014-12-01

    The densely populated, low-lying coast of Bangladesh is famously associated with vulnerability to sea-level rise, storms, and flooding. Simultaneously, land-use change has significantly altered local sediment transport, causing elevation loss and degradation of drainage. The rapid growth of shrimp aquaculture has also affected soil chemistry in former agricultural areas and the stock of riverine fisheries through intense larval harvesting. To understand the net impact of these environmental changes on the region's communities, it is necessary to examine interactions across scale - from externally driven large scale environmental change to smaller scale, but often more intense, local change - and also between the physical environment and social, political, and economic conditions. We report on a study of interactions between changing communities and changing environment in coastal Bangladesh, exploring the role of societal and physical factors in shaping the different outcomes and their effects on people's lives. Land reclamation projects in the 1960s surrounded intertidal islands with embankments. This allowed rice farming to expand, but also produced significant elevation loss, which rendered many islands vulnerable to waterlogging and flooding from storm surges. The advent of large-scale shrimp aquaculture added environmental, economic, social, and political stresses, but also brought much export revenue to a developing nation. Locally, attempts to remedy environmental stresses have produced mixed results, with similar measures succeeding in some communities and failing in others. In this context, we find that people are continually adapting to changing opportunities and constraints for food, housing, and income. Niches that support different livelihood activities emerge and dwindle, and their occupants' desires affect the political context. Understanding and successfully responding to the impacts of environmental change requires understanding not only the

  7. Annual incidence of snake bite in rural bangladesh.

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    Ridwanur Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake bite is a neglected public health problem in the world and one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in many areas, particularly in the rural tropics. It also poses substantial economic burdens on the snake bite victims due to treatment related expenditure and loss of productivity. An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a national epidemiological survey to determine the annual incidence density of snake bite among the rural Bangladeshi population. Information on frequency of snake bite and individuals' length of stay in selected households over the preceding twelve months was rigorously collected from the respondents through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Point estimates and confidence intervals of the incidence density of snake bite, weighted and adjusted for the multi-stage cluster sampling design, were obtained. Out of 18,857 study participants, over one year a total of 98 snake bites, including one death were reported in rural Bangladesh. The estimated incidence density of snake bite is 623.4/100,000 person years (95% C I 513.4-789.2/100,000 person years. Biting occurs mostly when individuals are at work. The majority of the victims (71% receive snake bites to their lower extremities. Eighty-six percent of the victims received some form of management within two hours of snake bite, although only three percent of the victims went directly to either a medical doctor or a hospital. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Incidence density of snake bite in rural Bangladesh is substantially higher than previously estimated. This is likely due to better ascertainment of the incidence through a population based survey. Poor access to health services increases snake bite related morbidity and mortality; therefore, effective public health actions are warranted.

  8. Impact of the Grameen Bank on childhood mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M; Davanzo, J; Sutradhar, S C

    1996-01-01

    The Grameen Bank (GB) is a highly innovative and well-supervised credit program for the rural poor in Bangladesh. About 95% of over 2 million participants are women. GB can positively affect child survival among its participants through its income-generation and consciousness-raising activities. The study examines if GB influences childhood mortality among its participants. An integrated family life survey was carried out during 1993-94 among about 2500 married women in landless households who are eligible for membership in GB. The survey was carried out among randomly selected married women regardless of GB membership in 3 thanas of Tangail district and 1 thana of Mymensingh district. The study permits an analysis in a "before-after" and "treatment-comparison" framework for measuring the impact of GB on childhood mortality. Estimation was done through proportional hazards models, where the effects of confounding factors like calendar year, maternal age, parity, maternal education, economic conditions, and areal variation were controlled for. There was a 34% and significant reduction in childhood (under-5) mortality after the mothers joined the GB. Similar effects of other NGOs on childhood mortality were also observed. Childhood mortality was similar between the GB members before joining the Bank and never-members, indicating that the GB members were not from a selective group. Childhood mortality was 21% and significantly lower among women who worked for income generation than those women who did not work. Income generation and social development programs modeled after the GB and other NGOs can reduce childhood mortality in Bangladesh and similar settings.

  9. Increase in diarrheal disease associated with arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh.

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    Jianyong Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Millions of households throughout Bangladesh have been exposed to high levels of arsenic (As causing various deadly diseases by drinking groundwater from shallow tubewells for the past 30 years. Well testing has been the most effective form of mitigation because it has induced massive switching from tubewells that are high (>50 µg/L in As to neighboring wells that are low in As. A recent study has shown, however, that shallow low-As wells are more likely to be contaminated with the fecal indicator E. coli than shallow high-As wells, suggesting that well switching might lead to an increase in diarrheal disease. METHODS: Approximately 60,000 episodes of childhood diarrhea were collected monthly by community health workers between 2000 and 2006 in 142 villages of Matlab, Bangladesh. In this cross-sectional study, associations between childhood diarrhea and As levels in tubewell water were evaluated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Adjusting for wealth, population density, and flood control by multivariate logistic regression, the model indicates an 11% (95% confidence intervals (CIs of 4-19% increase in the likelihood of diarrhea in children drinking from shallow wells with 10-50 µg/L As compared to shallow wells with >50 µg/L As. The same model indicates a 26% (95%CI: 9-42% increase in diarrhea for children drinking from shallow wells with ≤10 µg/L As compared to shallow wells with >50 µg/L As. CONCLUSION: Children drinking water from shallow low As wells had a higher prevalence of diarrhea than children drinking water from high As wells. This suggests that the health benefits of reducing As exposure may to some extent be countered by an increase in childhood diarrhea.

  10. Biosecurity and Circulation of Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Live-Bird Markets in Bangladesh, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, P K; Giasuddin, M; Nath, B K; Islam, M Z; Debnath, N C; Yamage, M

    2015-12-14

    Bangladesh has been considered as one of the five countries endemic with highly pathogenic avian influenza A subtype H5N1 (HPAI H5N1). Live-bird markets (LBMs) in south Asian countries are believed to play important roles in the transmission of HPAI H5N1 and others due to its central location as a hub of the poultry trading. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been promoting improved biosecurity in LBMs in Bangladesh. In 2012, by enrolling 32 large LBMs: 10 with FAO interventions and 22 without assistance, we assessed the virus circulation in the selected LBMs by applying standard procedures to investigate market floors, poultry stall floors, poultry-holding cases and slaughter areas and the overall biosecurity using a questionnaire-based survey. Relative risk (RR) was examined to compare the prevalence of HPAI H5N1 in the intervened and non-intervened LBMs. The measures practised in significantly more of the FAO-intervened LBMs included keeping of slaughter remnants in a closed container; decontamination of poultry vehicles at market place; prevention of crows' access to LBM, market/floor cleaning by market committee; wet cleaning; disinfection of floor/poultry stall after cleaning; and good supply of clean water at market (P < 0.05). Conversely, disposal of slaughter remnants elsewhere at market and dry cleaning were in operation in more of the FAO non-intervened LBMs (P < 0.05). The RR for HPAI H5N1 in the intervened and non-intervened LBMs was 1.1 (95% confidence interval 0.44-2.76), suggesting that the proportion positive of the virus in the two kinds of LBM did not vary significantly (P = 0.413). These observations suggest that the viruses are still maintained at the level of production in farms and circulating in LBMs in Bangladesh regardless of interventions, albeit at lower levels than in other endemic countries.

  11. Application of Standardized Precipitation Index to assess meteorological drought in Bangladesh

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    Md. Anarul H. Mondol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one of the vulnerable countries of the world for natural disasters. Drought is one of the common and severe calamities in Bangladesh that causes immense suffering to people in various ways. The present research has been carried out to examine the frequency of meteorological droughts in Bangladesh using the long-term rainfall data of 30 meteorological observatories covering the period of 1948–2011. The study uses the highly effective Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI for drought assessment in Bangladesh. By assessing the meteorological droughts and the history of meteorological droughts of Bangladesh, the spatial distributions of meteorological drought indices were also analysed. The spatial and temporal changes in meteorological drought and changes in different years based on different SPI month intervals were analysed. The results indicate that droughts were a normal and recurrent feature and it occurred more or less all over the country in virtually all climatic regions of the country. As meteorological drought depends on only rainfall received in an area, anomaly of rainfall is the main cause of drought. Bangladesh experienced drought in the years 1950, 1951, 1953, 1954, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1967 and 1971 before independence and after independence Bangladesh has experienced droughts in the years 1972, 1973, 1975, 1979, 1980, 1983, 1985, 1992, 1994, 1995, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 during the period 1948–2011. The study indicated that Rajshahi and its surroundings, in the northern regions and Jessore and its surroundings areas, the island Bhola and surrounding regions, in the south-west region, were vulnerable. In the Sylhet division, except Srimongal, the areas were not vulnerable but the eastern southern sides of the districts Chittagong, Rangamati, Khagrachhari, Bandarban and Teknaf were vulnerable. In the central regions, the districts of Mymensingh and Faridpur were more vulnerable

  12. Determinant factors of tobacco use among ever-married men in Bangladesh

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    Rahman MS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Md Shafiur Rahman,1,2 Md Nazrul Islam Mondal,2 Md Rafiqul Islam,2 Md Mizanur Rahman,2 M Nazrul Hoque,3 Md Shamsher Alam4 1Department of Public Health, First Capital University of Bangladesh, Chuadanga, Bangladesh; 2Department of Population Science and Human Resource Development, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh; 3Hobby Center for Public Policy, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 4Faculty of Ecology, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia Background: The burden of tobacco use is shifting from developed to developing countries. This study aimed to explore the different types of tobacco use, and to identify the determinant factors associated with the tobacco use among ever-married men in Bangladesh. Data and methods: Data of 3,771 ever-married men, 15–54 years of age were extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007. Prevalence rate, chi-square (Χ2 test, and binary logistic regression analysis were used as the statistical tools to analyze the data. Results: Tobacco use through smoking (58.68% was found to be higher than that of chewing (21.63% among men, which was significantly more prevalent among the poorest, less educated, and businessmen. In bivariate analysis, all the socioeconomic factors were found significantly associated with tobacco use; while in multivariate analysis, age, education, wealth index, and occupation were identified as the significant predictors. Conclusion: Tobacco use was found to be remarkably common among males in Bangladesh. The high prevalence of tobacco use suggests that there is an urgent need for developing intervention plans to address this major public health problem in Bangladesh. Keywords: tobacco use, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, prevalence rate, logistic regression model

  13. Protection from annual flooding is correlated with increased cholera prevalence in Bangladesh: a zero-inflated regression analysis

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    Yunus Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration of natural or historical aquatic flows can have unintended consequences for regions where waterborne diseases are endemic and where the epidemiologic implications of such change are poorly understood. The implementation of flood protection measures for a portion of an intensely monitored population in Matlab, Bangladesh, allows us to examine whether cholera outcomes respond positively or negatively to measures designed to control river flooding. Methods Using a zero inflated negative binomial model, we examine how selected covariates can simultaneously account for household clusters reporting no cholera from those with positive counts as well as distinguishing residential areas with low counts from areas with high cholera counts. Our goal is to examine how residence within or outside a flood protected area interacts with the probability of cholera presence and the effect of flood protection on the magnitude of cholera prevalence. Results In Matlab, living in a household that is protected from annual monsoon flooding appears to have no significant effect on whether the household experiences cholera, net of other covariates. However, counter-intuitively, among households where cholera is reported, living within the flood protected region significantly increases the number of cholera cases. Conclusions The construction of dams or other water impoundment strategies for economic or social motives can have profound and unanticipated consequences for waterborne disease. Our results indicate that the construction of a flood control structure in rural Bangladesh is correlated with an increase in cholera cases for residents protected from annual monsoon flooding. Such a finding requires attention from both the health community and from governments and non-governmental organizations involved in ongoing water management schemes.

  14. Spatio-temporal magnitude and direction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) outbreaks in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Biswas, Paritosh K.;

    2011-01-01

    The number of outbreaks of HPAI-H5N1 reported by Bangladesh from 2007 through 2011 placed the country among the highest reported numbers worldwide. However, so far, the understanding of the epidemic progression, direction, intensity, persistence and risk variation of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks over space...... and time in Bangladesh remains limited....

  15. Long-term comparison of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae O1 and Shigella species between urban and rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klontz, Erik H; Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Dilruba; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Klontz, Karl C

    2014-05-01

    From 2000 to 2012, Vibrio cholerae O1 and Shigella species isolates from urban Dhaka and rural Matlab were tested for resistance to all clinically relevant antibiotics in Bangladesh. Resistances in urban and rural Bangladesh tended to rise and fall together, especially a few years after the introduction of new resistance.

  16. Prospect for Cell Phones as Instructional Tools in the EFL Classroom: A Case Study of Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Roksana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potentiality of cell phone use in the EFL classroom of Bangladesh as an instructional tool. The researcher conducted a case study on Jahangirnagar University of Bangladesh. For the study, some SMS based class tests were conducted in the English Department of the university where one hundred…

  17. Get a Second Chance to Make a First Impression: Eradicate the Poverty Level of the Women Farmer in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Zobaida

    2008-01-01

    In the socio-economic context of Bangladesh, involvement of women in agriculture is very important. It would be easier to control rural-urban migration by engaging women in agricultural activities to a greater extent. Women play a vital role in agricultural production throughout the Bangladesh, making a significant contribution to the basic…

  18. A Framework for Evaluating Qualitative Changes in Learners' Experience and Engagement: Developing Communicative English Teaching and Learning in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Adrian Terence; Rae, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the context and framework for evaluation studies of educational transformations associated with the English in Action Project, Bangladesh (EIA) as it progresses over a nine-year period. EIA was launched in May 2008 with the intention of developing communicative English language learning and teaching in Bangladesh. Through a…

  19. Bangladesh Sundarbans: Present status of the environment and Biota

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    Abdul Aziz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sundarbans is a deltaic mangrove forest, formed about 7000 years ago by the deposition of sediments from the foothills of the Himalayas through the Ganges river system, and is situated southwest of Bangladesh and south of West Bengal, India. However, for the last 40 years, the discharge of sediment-laden freshwater into the Bay of Bengal through the Bangladesh part of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forests (BSMF has been reduced due to a withdrawal of water during the dry period from the Farakka Barrage in India. The result is two extremes of freshwater discharge at Gorai, the feeding River of the BSMF: a mean minimum monthly discharge varies from 0.00 to 170 m3·s−1 during the dry period with a mean maximum of about 4000 to 8880 m3·s−1 during the wet period. In the BSMF, about 180 km downstream, an additional low discharge results in the creation of a polyhaline environment (a minimum of 194.4 m3·s−1 freshwater discharge is needed to maintain an oligohaline condition during the dry period. The Ganges water carries 262 million ton sediments/year and only 7% is diverted in to southern distributaries. The low discharge retards sediment deposition in the forestlands’ base as well as the formation of forestlands. The increase in water flow during monsoon on some occasions results in erosion of the fragile forestlands. Landsat Satellite data from the 1970s to 2000s revealed a non-significant decrease in the forestlands of total Sundarbans by 1.1% which for the 6017 km2 BSMF is equivalent to 66 km2. In another report from around the same time, the estimated total forestland loss was approximately 127 km2. The Sundarbans has had great influence on local freshwater environments, facilitating profuse growth of Heritiera fomes (sundri, the tallest (at over 15 m and most commercially important plant, but now has more polyhaline areas threatening the sundri, affecting growth and distribution of other mangroves and biota. Landsat images and GIS data

  20. Occurrence of arsenic in core sediments and groundwater in the Chapai-Nawabganj District, northwestern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim Reza, A H M; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Yang, Huai-Jen; Lee, Ming-Kuo; Woodall, Brian; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Luo, Shang-De

    2010-03-01

    Groundwater and core sediments of two boreholes (to a depth of 50m) from the Chapai-Nawabganj area in northwestern Bangladesh were collected for arsenic concentration and geochemical analysis. Groundwater arsenic concentrations in the uppermost aquifer (10-40m of depth) range from 2.8microgL(-1) to 462.3microgL(-1). Groundwater geochemical conditions change from oxidized to successively more reduced, higher As concentration with depth. Higher sediment arsenic levels (55mgkg(-1)) were found within the upper 40m of the drilled core samples. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy was employed to elucidate the arsenic speciation of sediments collected from two boreholes. Environmental scanning electron microscopy and transmission X-ray microscopy were used to investigate the characteristics of FeOOH in sediments which adsorb arsenic. In addition, a pH-Eh diagram was drawn using the Geochemist's Workbench (GWB) software to elucidate the arsenic speciation in groundwater. The dominant groundwater type is Ca-HCO(3) with high concentrations of As, Fe and Mn but low levels of NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-). Sequential extraction analysis reveals that Mn and Fe hydroxides and organic matter are the major leachable solids carrying As. High levels of arsenic concentration in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments. Fluorescent intensities of humic substances indicate that both groundwater and sediments in this arsenic hotspot area contain less organic matter compared to other parts of Bengal basin. Statistical analysis clearly shows that As is closely associated with Fe and Mn in sediments while As is better correlated with Mn in groundwater. These correlations along with results of sequential leaching experiments suggest that reductive dissolution of MnOOH and FeOOH mediated by anaerobic bacteria represents an important mechanism for releasing arsenic into the groundwater.

  1. Effects of coastal afforestation on some soil properties in Lakshmipur coast of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. M. Shaifullah; M. Mezbahuddin; M. Sujauddin; S. M. S. Haque

    2008-01-01

    Coastal zones comprising important intertidal tropical and subtropical ecosystems are characterized by high productivity, diversity and unique zonation of various plant and animal communities. The comparison of some selected physicochemical soil properties viz. Texture, particle density, moisture content, pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen between planted site (Telir char) and barren site (Boyar char) has been investigated at surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (10-45 cm) soil across three different land strips viz. Inland, middle part and sea side in Lakshmipur coast of Bangladesh. Sand particles in the soil were lower in planted site than barren site. The reverse trend was found in case of both silt and clay percentage. Coastal afforestation had a significant effect on soil binding process since a common trend of increment in soil particle density was noticed. Maximum increment (20.43% to 23.30%) in soil moisture content was recorded in surface soil across the seaside while at subsurface soil both across the middle part (19.53% to 22.30%) and sea side (20.19% to 22.96%). Moreover, the highest reduction in soil pH was recorded at surface soil (7.27 to 6.60) across the sea side and subsurface soil (7.16 to 6.67) in inland due to the influence of coastal plantation. Across all the land strips and the soil depths studied, soil organic carbon was higher in planted site than in barren site with only exception at subsurface soil in the middle part (0.50% in both sites). Total soil nitrogen in the study area was increased at both depths due to forestation with the highest increment in the inland at both surface and subsurface soil.

  2. A review of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for deforestation policy in Bangladesh

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    Miah MD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation in the tropical developing countries is the critical environmental concern to ecologists and environmentalists. Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC hypothesis is critical to understanding the development path of a nation in relevance to its environment. The dictation of national economic growth to deforestation can be found through the study of EKC. To understand the EKC phenomena for deforestation, the study was undertaken through reviewing the literature. With the understanding of the different EKC trajectories for deforestation, an attempt was made to implicate the economic development of Bangladesh with the EKC. The proven EKC trajectories for deforestation in some regions/countries show a higher income per capita requirement for the turning point. The study suggests that tunneling in the EKC trajectory for Bangladesh would be favorable. The type of economic and forest policy that Bangladesh should follow to retard deforestation is also revealed. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD have been suggested for tunneling the EKC in Bangladesh. The findings of the study are expected to contribute to the environmental development of Bangladesh.

  3. SPIN SELLING CONCEPT & ITS APPLICATION IN THE BUSINESS PERFORMANCE OF SACHET PRODUCT IN BANGLADESH

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    Mir Hossain SOHEL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is lower middle income oriented country (LMIC in South Asia where sachet product has become more popular than other scaling products. SPIN selling is an approach of consultative selling or presenting an offer to the potential clients considering their pain-points using a powerful questioning process. This study attempts to find out the reasons of gaining popularity of sachet product in Bangladesh. SPIN Selling concept is the age-old concept used in this respect. A sample size of 120 was collected from the salespeople of 15 different companies that are co-integrated sachet product in their product line. A self-administered questionnaire is applied for data collection and This study reveals hat the existence of the applicability of SPIN concept in a moderate format in Bangladesh. The findings of the study postulate that in Bangladesh, sachet product is introduced as follower product and it will be helpful for the marketing executives, R&D officers or decision makers of concerned firms in re-considering their strategic thinking aiming to gain sustainable competitive advantage in the product market of Bangladesh for sachet product.

  4. Geospatial Technology: A Tool to Aid in the Elimination of Malaria in Bangladesh

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    Karen E. Kirk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a malaria endemic country. There are 13 districts in the country bordering India and Myanmar that are at risk of malaria. The majority of malaria morbidity and mortality cases are in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, the mountainous southeastern region of Bangladesh. In recent years, malaria burden has declined in the country. In this study, we reviewed and summarized published data (through 2014 on the use of geospatial technologies on malaria epidemiology in Bangladesh and outlined potential contributions of geospatial technologies for eliminating malaria in the country. We completed a literature review using “malaria, Bangladesh” search terms and found 218 articles published in peer-reviewed journals listed in PubMed. After a detailed review, 201 articles were excluded because they did not meet our inclusion criteria, 17 articles were selected for final evaluation. Published studies indicated geospatial technologies tools (Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing were used to determine vector-breeding sites, land cover classification, accessibility to health facility, treatment seeking behaviors, and risk mapping at the household, regional, and national levels in Bangladesh. To achieve the goal of malaria elimination in Bangladesh, we concluded that further research using geospatial technologies should be integrated into the country’s ongoing surveillance system to identify and better assess progress towards malaria elimination.

  5. REVIEWING THE STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH FROM A FOOD SECURITY PERSPECTIVE

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    Ghose Bishwajit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the major food security issues in Bangladesh, with a brief reference to its past trend in agricultural output, constraints, and challenges in the coming decades. Food security relates directly to nutrition and health of a population which consequently influences a nation's socio-economic status. Despite Bangladesh has changed its status from a country with chronic food shortages to a self-sufficient one, it still faces food-security challenges. Few non-agricultural factors are identified as equally responsible for aggravating the food insecurity scenario. Since its independence in 1971, the country has constantly been facing issues like high population growth, political unrest, natural disasters which are contributing to food insecurity. Though industrialization is the order of the modern economy, agriculture remains the lifeblood of food security, especially for predominantly agrarian economies like Bangladesh. And this truth must be emphasized and implemented accordingly so that the predicted food crisis in near future can be successfully avoided. This article aims to review the performance of different agricultural sectors and to identify major setbacks to achieving food security in Bangladesh. This study is based on previously published researches on various food security issues in the context of Bangladesh.

  6. Different Context but Similar Cognitive Structures: Older Adults in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternäng, Ola; Lövdén, Martin; Kabir, Zarina N; Hamadani, Jena D; Wahlin, Åke

    2016-06-01

    Most research in cognitive aging is based on literate participants from high-income and Western populations. The extent to which findings generalize to low-income and illiterate populations is unknown. The main aim was to examine the structure of between-person differences in cognitive functions among elderly from rural Bangladesh. We used data from the Poverty and Health in Aging (PHA) project in Bangladesh. The participants (n = 452) were in the age range 60-92 years. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the fit of a five-factor model (episodic recall, episodic recognition, verbal fluency, semantic knowledge, processing speed) and to examine whether the model generalized across age, sex, and literacy. This study demonstrates that an established model of cognition is valid also among older persons from rural Bangladesh. The model demonstrated strong (or scalar) invariance for age, and partial strong invariance for sex and literacy. Semantic knowledge and processing speed showed weak (or metric) sex invariance, and semantic knowledge demonstrated also sensitivity to illiteracy. In general, women performed poorer on all abilities. The structure of individual cognitive differences established in Western populations also fits a population in rural Bangladesh well. This is an important prerequisite for comparisons of cognitive functioning (e.g., declarative memory) across cultures. It is also worth noting that absolute sex differences in cognitive performance among rural elderly in Bangladesh differ from those usually found in Western samples.

  7. Bioremediation of Arsenic: Prospects and Limitations in the Agriculture of Bangladesh

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    MOHAMMAD ZABED HOSSAIN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination in the groundwater of Bangladesh has been termed as one of the largest mass poisoning in history. The problem of arsenic toxicity in crop plants that occurs through transfer of arsenic from contaminated soil to plant parts is of great concern because of its potential health hazards. Among the various method, bioremediation of arsenic is the most desirable because of low coast, environmental safety and sustainability. This article focuses on the potential of using various methods for arsenic bioremediation and discusses the advantages and challenges of these methods with special emphasis on the problem of Bangladesh. Although remediation through phytoextraction of arsenic in soil seems promissing, disposing plants used as hyper-accumulator is a concern for the environment. Moreover, further improvement of phytoextraction is needed due to the severity of arsenic contamination in the agricultural soils of Bangladesh. Using soil microbes for bioremediatioin also needs further research in order to enhance our knowledge abut the efficient methods suitable for Bangladesh. Information gathered in this article is likely to enhance our knowledge about the arsenic bioremediation among the stakeholders including the policy makers in countries like Bangladesh where the problem of arsenic contamination in agricultural soil is severe.

  8. The Emerging Consumer Culture in Bangladesh: Everyday Life and Festivals in Rural Areas

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    Md. M. Hossain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladesh’s main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural Bangladesh and answers the following question: How is Bangladeshi culture associated with consumption. Approach: This study employed a triangulation of methods: namely semi-structured indepth qualitative interviews, ethnography and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs. Results: This study highlighted consumption and other related issues of marriage and dowry, household decision making, division of labor, as well as different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims, the Bengali New Year and Durga puja (for Hindus. Early marriage and dowry are still practiced in rural areas. Women in rural Bangladesh perform most of the household work but men, as in any other patriarchal society, make the major decisions. Conclusion: The government and NGOs should engage in various activities to boost awareness among the rural people.

  9. Social determinants of inequalities in child undernutrition in Bangladesh: A decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Tanvir M; Hayes, Alison; El Arifeen, Shams; Dibley, Michael J

    2017-03-08

    Socioeconomic inequalities in child undernutrition remain one of the main challenges in Bangladesh. The social determinants of health are mostly responsible for such inequalities across different population groups. However, no study has examined the relative contribution of different social determinants to the socioeconomic inequality in child undernutrition in Bangladesh. Our objective is to measure the extent of socioeconomic-related inequalities in childhood stunting and identify the key social determinants that potentially explain these inequalities in Bangladesh. We used data for children younger than 5 years of age for this analysis from 2 rounds of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2004 and 2014. We examined the socioeconomic inequality in stunting using the concentration curve and concentration index. We then decomposed the concentration index into the contributions of individual social determinants. We found significant inequality in stunting prevalence. The negative concentration index of stunting indicated that stunting was more concentrated among the poor than among the well-off. Our results suggest that inequalities in stunting increased between 2004 and 2014. Household economic status, maternal and paternal education, health-seeking behavior of the mothers, sanitation, fertility, and maternal stature were the major contributors to the disparity in stunting prevalence in Bangladesh. Equity is a critical component of sustainable development goals. Health policymakers should work together across sectors and develop strategies for effective intersectoral actions to adequately address the social determinants of equity and reduce inequalities in stunting and other health outcomes.

  10. Flood characteristics of the Haor area in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Asadusjjaman; Bhattacharya, Biswa

    2013-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Bangladesh is a country, which is frequently suffering from flooding. The current research is conducted in the framework of a project, which focuses on the flooding issues in the Haor region in the north-east of Bangladesh. A haor is a saucer-shaped depression, which is used during the dry period (December to mid-May) for agriculture and as a fishery during the wet period (June-November), and thereby presents a very interesting socio-economic perspective of flood risk management. Pre-monsoon flooding till mid-May causes agricultural loss and lot of distress whereas monsoon flooding brings benefits. The area is bordering India, thereby presenting trans-boundary issues as well, and is fed by some flashy Indian catchments. The area is drained mainly through the Surma-Kushiyara river system. The terrain generally is flat and the flashy characteristics die out within a short distance from the border. Limited studies on the region, particularly with the help of numerical models, have been carried out in the past. Therefore, an objective of the current research was to set up numerical models capable of reasonably emulating the physical system. Such models could, for example, associate different gauges to the spatio-temporal variation of hydrodynamic variables and help in carrying out a systemic study on the impact of climate changes. A 1D2D model, with one-dimensional model for the rivers (based on MIKE 11 modelling tool from Danish Hydraulic Institute) and a two

  11. Digital Bangladesh: Using Formative Research to Develop Phone Messages for the Prevention and Control of Diabetes in Rural Bangladesh.

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    Hannah Maria Jennings

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: As with many low-income countries, diabetes is an increasing issue in Bangladesh affecting an estimated 20% to 30% of the population either as intermediate hyperglycaemia or fully expressed diabetes mellitus (Bhowmik et al., 2012. The Bangladesh D-MAGIC project is a cluster randomised control trial to test the effectiveness of interventions to improve detection, management and control of diabetes in rural Bangladesh. One of these interventions is an mHealth intervention, which involves sending health promotion voice messages to individuals’ mobile phones to target diabetes prevention and management. In-depth formative research (interviews and focus group discussions has been undertaken in rural Faridpur District in order to gain a greater understanding of people’s beliefs, practices and behaviour regarding diabetes prevention and control and their access to and use of mobile phones. The findings of the research, used within the COM-B framework (Michie et al 2011, are being used to inform and appropriately tailor the voice messages to the needs of the target population. This presentation will highlight key findings of the formative research and discuss how these findings are being used to design the mHealth intervention. Aim: To identify key issues for the content and delivery of voice messages regarding the prevention and control of diabetes in rural Bangladesh through in-depth formative research. Methods: We conducted sixteen semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled diabetics, non-diabetics and health professionals. In addition, nine focus group discussions with diabetics and non-diabetics were conducted in villages in three sub-districts of Faridpur. We explored beliefs and behaviour regarding diet, exercise, smoking, stress and care-seeking. The findings from the interviews and focus group discussions were analysed thematically, and specific enablers and barriers to behaviour change related to diabetes identified

  12. Resistivity imaging of strata and faults in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosain, A.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, the largest in the world, is subject to deformation by active tectonics and dynamic river systems. It lies near the juncture of the Indian, Eurasian and Burmese plates and is being overthrust by both the Shillong Massif and the Indo-Burman Ranges. There are multiple major and minor active faults in Bangladesh, many of which are buried by the sedimentation. For example, the Madhupur tract is a Pleistocene upland in the middle part of Bengal Basin. Whether it is a passive interfluve of the river system or a tilted and tectonically uplifted block has been debated for decades. The Tippera Surface, in Comilla at the eastern part of the basin, is composed of uplifted and oxidized Holocene strata and overlies buried anticlines of the Indo-Burman fold belt. Furthermore, the rivers are subject to migrations, avulsions and other changes in course. The last major avulsion of the Brahmaputra River was only ~200 years ago. During the sea level fall in the last glaciation the major rivers created large incised valleys. In much of the exposed uplands there was the development of a weathered clay surface. This now forms a clay layer separating the Pleistocene and Holocene strata in large parts of Bangladesh. We use electrical resistivity surveying and hand-drilled borehole lithological data to better understand the subsurface discontinuities and structures. The resistivity system consists of an 84 electrode array powered by 2 car batteries and is capable of imaging lithologies to ~100m depth, similar to the depths of the boreholes used to calibrate the data. We extend our previous work on the western margin of the Madhupur Tract with additional lines on the eastern flank of Madhupur. Resistivity lines along the exposed Lalmai anticline in Comilla image the now tilted Holocene-Pleistocene clay layer. Additional lines along the subsurface continuation of the anticline provide additional information on the subsurface lithologies associated with

  13. Accounts of severe acute obstetric complications in Rural Bangladesh

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    Sikder Shegufta S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As maternal deaths have decreased worldwide, increasing attention has been placed on the study of severe obstetric complications, such as hemorrhage, eclampsia, and obstructed labor, to identify where improvements can be made in maternal health. Though access to medical care is considered to be life-saving during obstetric emergencies, data on the factors associated with health care decision-making during obstetric emergencies are lacking. We aim to describe the health care decision-making process during severe acute obstetric complications among women and their families in rural Bangladesh. Methods Using the pregnancy surveillance infrastructure from a large community trial in northwest rural Bangladesh, we nested a qualitative study to document barriers to timely receipt of medical care for severe obstetric complications. We conducted 40 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with women reporting severe acute obstetric complications and purposively selected for conditions representing the top five most common obstetric complications. The interviews were transcribed and coded to highlight common themes and to develop an overall conceptual model. Results Women attributed their life-threatening experiences to societal and socioeconomic factors that led to delays in seeking timely medical care by decision makers, usually husbands or other male relatives. Despite the dominance of male relatives and husbands in the decision-making process, women who underwent induced abortions made their own decisions about their health care and relied on female relatives for advice. The study shows that non-certified providers such as village doctors and untrained birth attendants were the first-line providers for women in all categories of severe complications. Coordination of transportation and finances was often arranged through mobile phones, and referrals were likely to be provided by village doctors. Conclusions Strategies to increase timely

  14. Neotectonics of the Surma Basin, Bangladesh from GPS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, M. A. U.

    2015-12-01

    The Surma Basin is a sub-basin of the Bengal Basin situated at the northeastern corner of Bangladesh. The tectonically-active basin lies at the junction of three tectonic plates: the Indian plate, the Eurasian plate and the Burma platelet. The Surma Basin is bounded on the north by the Shillong Massif, east and southeast by CTFB of the Indo-Burman Ranges, west by the Indian Shield and to the south and southeast it is open to the main part of Bengal Basin. The Surma basin is subsiding at a high rate, which is controlled by flexure loading along the southern margin of the 2-km high Shillong Massif because of Dauki thrust fault system. The objective of this study is to explore and reconstruct the present scenario of the tectonically active zone of the northeastern Bangladesh, identify the active faults, identify the relation between the neotectonic activities and seismicity, relation between neotectonic activities and natural hazards and describe the nature of the possible future earthquakes. The present effort to establish the tectonics of the Surma basin mainly utilizes the horizontal and vertical movements of the area using GPS geodetic data and other constraints on the structure of the region. We also make use historical seismologic data, field geology, and satellite image data. The GPS data has been processed using GAMIT-GLOBK. The analysis of 5 continuous GPS geodetic stations installed in the Surma Basin are combined with published data from the adjacent parts of India. While the area is moving northeast at a rate of 50-52 mm/year relative to ITRF2008 reference frame, it is moving south in an Indian reference frame. The velocities reflect that the Surma Basin being overthrust by both Shillong Plateau from the north and Burmese microplate from the east, respectively. The combined GPS velocity data indicates shortening across Dauki Fault and Indo Burman Ranges at a rate of 7 mm/yr and 18 mm/yr, respectively. The complex anticlinal structures in and around the

  15. Causes of Acute Water Scarcity in the Barind Tract, Bangladesh

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    Md. Bazlar Rashid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Barind tract is an elevated landmass (about 11-48 m amsl comprised with Pleistocene terraces and is situated in the northwestern part of Bangladesh. At present, this area faces scarcity of water. The present study is an attempt to unveil the causes of water scarcity of the area. Several aspects like change in climatic condition, irrigation practice and drainage characteristics of major rivers are the prime factors for water scarcity. Interpretation of recent satellite imagery and historical records reveal that the major rivers of the area like Ganges (Padma, Tista and Kosi have remarkably migrated from Barind tract during last few hundred years. Shifting of these rivers causes great change in hydrodynamics of the Barind tract. As a result, flow of other related rivers of the area like the Mahananda, Kulic, Tangon, Punarbhaba, Atrai, Little Jamuna, Karatoya and Nagar reduces remarkably in the dry season. As a result aquifers in the area are not recharged sufficiently by river water in the dry season. India constructed Farakka barrage on the Ganges (Padma river in 1975 to divert the flow of water from Bangladesh to the other parts of India. This diversion of water also leads to the decreasing of water in the area. Climatic data interpretation of the last 50 years also reveals that annual rainfall in the area is decreasing while overall temperature is increasing. To boost up the cropping intensity (117% to 200% compared to national average of 174% and to meet present demand 74% of cultivable lands are being irrigated with 96% share of groundwater owing to unavailability or scarcity of rainfall and hence surface water. Irrigation by groundwater has dramatically been increased (250 times in the last 30 years. Due to over exploitation, water table progressively declined (av. rate 0.10 m/year which ultimately leads the area to water scarcity zone. The aquifers are confined or semi-confined and do not get appreciable vertical recharge through clay

  16. Causes of maternal mortality decline in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Kalim, Nahid; Koblinsky, Marge

    2009-04-01

    Bangladesh is distinct among developing countries in achieving a low maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 322 per 100,000 livebirths despite the very low use of skilled care at delivery (13% nationally). This variation has also been observed in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, where longitudinal data on maternal mortality are available since the mid-1970s. The current study investigated the possible causes of the maternal mortality decline in Matlab. The study analyzed 769 maternal deaths and 215,779 pregnancy records from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) and other sources of safe motherhood data in the ICDDR,B and government service areas in Matlab during 1976-2005. The major interventions that took place in both the areas since the early 1980s were the family-planning programme plus safe menstrual regulation services and safe motherhood interventions (midwives for normal delivery in the ICDDR,B service area from the late 1980s and equal access to comprehensive emergency obstetric care [EmOC] in public facilities for women from both the areas). National programmes for social development and empowerment of women through education and microcredit programmes were implemented in both the areas. The quantitative findings were supplemented by a qualitative study by interviewing local community care providers for their change in practices for maternal healthcare over time. After the introduction of the safe motherhood programme, reduction in maternal mortality was higher in the ICDDR,B service area (68.6%) than in the government service area (50.4%) during 1986-1989 and 2001-2005. Reduction in the number of maternal deaths due to the fertility decline was higher in the government service area (30%) than in the ICDDR,B service area (23%) during 1979-2005. In each area, there has been substantial reduction in abortion-related mortality--86.7% and 78.3%--in the ICDDR,B and government service areas respectively. Education of women was a strong predictor

  17. Bangladesh: towards health for all by the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazour-ul-karim

    1986-11-01

    To achieve its twin goals of realizing a net reproduction rate of 1% in population growth, and health for its population by the year 2000, Bangladesh has launched an Integrated Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Program (MCH/FP). Several plans, each spanning a 5-year period, have been developed. Until July 1986, family planning services were given a higher priority than maternal and child health care. The third 5-year plan attempts to give equal emphasis to these 2 concerns. The information, education, communication (IEC) program or information, education, and motivation (IEM) program as it is named in Bangladesh, is an important component of the MCH/FP program. The IEC implementors have adopted the following strategies: make the people aware of the population problem and the need for family planning and MCH care; familiarize people with the MCH/FP concepts, methods, and services; make family planning and MCH services socially acceptable; counteract misconceptions about family planning and MCH services; overcome religious opposition to family planning; motivate people to accept family planning and MCH services; and mobilize community support for MCH/FP services. The program has been designed to reach people through the 3 reinforcing approaches of mass media, small group, and family contacts. The organizational framework responsible for implementing communication activities includes family planning and health field workers at the grassroots level and the IEM unit of the Directorate of Family Planning of the Ministry of Health and Family Planning (MOHFP), units of the Ministry of Information, and the Health Education Bureau of the MOHFP at other various levels. Interpersonal communication, the mainstay of the MCH/FP communication activities is carried out primarily by female family welfare assistants and the male health assistants. Many social support activities are geared to reach a group that can help influence the eligible couples to practice family

  18. Voluntary organizations in development in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    The governments of South Asian countries have become aware of the substantial role that nongovernment organizations (NGOs) or voluntary agencies can play in rural development and other nation building activities. Although private agencies cannot substitute for government programs, there is general consensus that NGOs use development funds more efficiently and innovatively than government programs. NGOs in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan exemplify the influence these organizations have on development in South Asia. The Lutheran World Service in Bangladesh, a foreign origin NGO, has branched out from its original aim of providing relief and war rehabilitation to give skills training and technical assistance to the poor. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, an indigenous NGO, works for the well-being and self-reliance of the landless poor, those with very small farms, and women. NGOs in Bangladesh have been especially innovative in developing methods to encourage self-help, such as local organization and credit, which are often combined with training in practical skills, literacy, nutrition, and family planning. Present NGO activity in India is dominated by the Gandhian tradition. There is a potential conflict between the philosophy of the NGO's in terms of building on the people's felt needs from the bottom up and the tendency of government agencies to want to plan for the people. In Pakistan, the concept of development-oriented NGOs is recent and not yet strong, although the government has adopted a policy of routing funds from government and from bilateral donor agencies through NGOs in 2 areas--family planning and women's welfare. The chief limitation of NGOs is their scope, meaning that the major burden of the development process rests on government agencies.

  19. Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater of Bangladesh: Perspectives on Geochemical, Microbial and Anthropogenic Issues

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    Shafi M. Tareq

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A groundwater, sediment and soil chemistry and mineralogical study has been performed to investigate the sources and mobilization process of Arsenic (As in shallow aquifers of Bangladesh. The groundwater from the shallow aquifers is characterized by high concentrations of Arsenic (47.5–216.8 µg/L, iron (0.85–5.83 mg/L, and phosphate, along with high electrical conductivity (EC. The groundwater has both very low oxidation-reduction potential (Eh and dissolved oxygen (DO values indicating reducing conditions. By contrast, the deep aquifers and surface waters (pond, canal have very low concentrations of Arsenic ( < 6 µg/L, iron (0.12–0.39 mg/L, and phosphate along with a relatively low EC. Furthermore, the values of Eh and DO are high, indicating oxic to suboxic conditions. Arsenic is inversely correlated with Eh values in the upper aquifer, whereas no relationship in the deeper aquifer is observed. These results suggest that As mobilization is clearly linked to the development of reducing conditions. The clayey silt, enriched in Fe, Mn, Al oxides and organic matter, and deposited in the middle unit of shallow aquifers, contains moderately high concentrations of As, whereas the sediments of deep aquifers and silty mud surface soils from paddy fields and ponds contain a low content of As (Daudkandi area. Arsenic is strongly correlated with the concentrations of Fe, Mn and Al oxides in the core samples from the Daudkandi and Marua areas. Arsenic is present in the oxide phase of Fe and Mn, phyllosilicate minerals and in organic matter in sediments. This study suggests that adsorption or precipitation of As-rich Fe oxyhydroxide on the surface or inner sites of biotite might be responsible for As concentrations found in altered biotite minerals by Seddique et al. Microbially or geochemically mediated reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides is the main mechanism for As release. The reducing conditions are caused by respiratory decomposition of

  20. Child marriage and its association with adverse reproductive outcomes for women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the prevalence of child marriage and its effect on reproductive outcomes among women in Bangladesh using the most recent 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Both bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques used in the study yielded quantitatively important and reliable estimates of child marriage and its impact on adverse reproductive and health outcomes. Overall, 77% of the marriages among women aged 20 to 49 years old took place before the age of 18 years. Women's education is the most single significant determinant of child marriage. Findings revealed that after being adjusted for sociodemographic factors, child marriage significantly (P marriage but also for sound reproductive health and overall social development of Bangladesh.

  1. Financing Small and Medium Enterprises in Bangladesh – Issues and Challenges

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    Fuad Hasan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Now-a-days, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs have become an important sector that is supposed to play a pivotal role in boosting the economy of Bangladesh. But, SME financing is still facing some remarkable challenges that limit its potential success in contributing to the economy. Lots of thinking has contributed to the initiation and development of SMEs in Bangladesh. Now is the time to identify the challenges and making adjustments to the initial thinking. This paper is, therefore, an attempt to analyze various issues and challenges of financing this particular sector and find some worthy ways out to overcome these challenges. It will also survey various literatures and reports on the concerned field and recommend supporting actions to help this highly prospective industrial sector operate in a fully yielding manner.Keywords: SME, Financing, Development, Bangladesh economy, Industrial sector

  2. Tropical Cyclone Vulnerability Mapping Using Geospatial Techniques: Application to a Coastal Upazila in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M. A. A.; Phinn, S. R.; Roelfsema, C. M.; Childs, I.

    2015-12-01

    Cyclones are one of the most catastrophic natural disasters. Globally, many coastal regions are vulnerable to different categories cyclones. In Bangladesh, disasters from tropical cyclones are annual occurrences in coastal areas. The intensity and extent of damage due to tropical cyclones are very high. An appropriate mapping approach is essential for producing detail vulnerability assessments to deliver useful information for reducing the impacts of cyclones on people, property and environment. The present study developed and tested a vulnerability mapping approach for tropical cyclone impacts in Sarankhola upazila a 151 km2 local government area located in coastal Bangladesh. The study applied the approach by integrating remote sensing, field data and multi-criteria evaluation at regional scales covering Bangladesh to tropical cyclones.

  3. Prevalence and characterization of motile Salmonella in commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Olsen, Katharina E. P.;

    2012-01-01

    at farm/holding level, and the zoonotic serovars circulating in layer poultry in the South and South-East Asian countries including Bangladesh, where small-scale commercial farms are predominant, is limited. To investigate the prevalence of Salmonella at layer farm level, and to identify the prevalent...... serovars we conducted a cross-sectional survey by randomly selecting 500 commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh. Faecal samples from the selected farms were collected following standard procedure, and examined for the presence of Salmonella using conventional bacteriological procedures. Thirty...... showed that all of them were clonally related because only one genotype and three subtypes were determined based on the variation in two or three bands. This is also the first report on the presence of any specific serovar of Salmonella enterica in poultry in Bangladesh....

  4. Impact of International Trade, Remittances and Industrialization on the Economic Growth of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    There are several important factors of growth and many endeavors have been made to apply these factors to explain the growth of different economies at different times. In this context, the objective of this paper is to examine the impact of international trade, remittances and industrialization on the economic growth of Bangladesh using annual data from the period of 1976 to 2010. This study uses the time series econometrics methodology, which covers tests for stationary, cointegration, and specification of the model. This study also focuses on finding causal relationship among export, import, remittances, and industrialization on the economic growth of Bangladesh by using Granger causality test. The result shows that the variables are cointegrated, implying a long-run causal relationship among export, import, remittances, and industrialization on the economic growth of Bangladesh.

  5. Brucella abortus is Prevalent in Both Humans and Animals in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A K M A; Saegerman, C; Berkvens, D; Melzer, F; Neubauer, H; Fretin, D; Abatih, E; Dhand, N; Ward, M P

    2017-01-09

    To determine the role of different Brucella (B.) spp. in Bangladesh, 62 animal samples and 500 human sera were tested. Animal samples from cattle, goats and sheep (including milk, bull semen, vaginal swabs and placentas) were cultured for Brucella spp. Three test-positive human sera and all animal samples were screened by Brucella genus-specific real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and positive samples were then tested by IS711 RT-PCR to detect B. abortus and B. melitensis DNA. Only B. abortus DNA was amplified from 13 human and six animal samples. This is the first report describing B. abortus as the aetiological agent of brucellosis in occupationally exposed humans in Bangladesh. Of note is failure to detect B. melitensis DNA, the species most often associated with human brucellosis worldwide. Further studies are required to explore the occurrence of Brucella melitensis in Bangladesh.

  6. Coastal to inland: Expansion of prawn farming for adaptation to climate change in Bangladesh

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    Nesar Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The practice of prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii farming is widespread in coastal Bangladesh due to favorable biophysical resources. However, export-oriented prawn farming is particularly vulnerable to climate change in coastal Bangladesh. This study identified different climatic variables, including salinity, coastal flooding, cyclone, sea-level rise, water temperature, drought, and rainfall have profound effects on prawn farming in the Bagerhat area of southwest Bangladesh. Considering extreme vulnerability to the effects of climate change on prawn production, one of the adaptation strategies is to translocate prawn culture from coastal to inland (i.e., Bagerhat–Gopalganj that appear less vulnerable to climate change. Although the prospects for prawn–carp polyculture and integrated prawn–fish–rice farming are positive in Gopalganj, a number of challenges were identified for the expansion of prawn culture. We suggest that institutional support would help to adopt prawn production.

  7. Status and constraints of jute cultivation in Bangladesh: An experience from selected upazilas under chandpur district

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    Mohammad Muzahidul Islam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at exploring the obstacles of jute cultivation under Chandpur Districts in Bangladesh by the principle component analysis (PCA. The required data were collected through structured interview schedule from 803 jute farmers sampled conveniently. Though jute diversified industry has been seen as potential since the last decade in Bangladesh, raw jute production is not satisfactory due to several obstacles. The study has identified three categories of constraints that hinder sustainable jute production. These are lack of capital and inputs, knowledge and natural resources, and market information. Basically farmers cultivate jute for earning profit but they are not conscious about forward market. Lack of jute diversification knowledge is the unique findings of this study. The findings may help policy makers and stakeholders for taking effective decision in addressing the barriers to jute cultivation in Bangladesh.

  8. Managing burn patients in a fire disaster: Experience from a burn unit in Bangladesh

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    Mashreky S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although burn disaster is not a frequent event, with urbanisation and industrialisation, burn disaster is becoming an emerging problem in Bangladesh. On 3 June 2010, a fire disaster killed 124 people in Neemtali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This paper narrates the management of burn patients of this disaster in the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. The burn unit managed 192 burn victims of the disaster. Forty-two victims were admitted and 150 of them received primary care at the emergency room and were sent back home. Ten patients among 42 in-patients died. The in-patient mortality was 23.8%. Burn unit in Dhaka Medical College Hospital is the only burn management centre in Bangladesh. Proper planning and coordinated effort by all sectors and persons concerned were the key elements in this successful management.

  9. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND TRENDS OF DRY DAYS IN SYLHET REGION OF BANGLADESH

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    Syed Mustakim Ali Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rainfall distribution in Bangladesh is not uniform and refl ecting topography. Hilly Sylhet region receives substantial rainfall every year compare to other regions of Bangladesh. Though Sylhet region is less vulnerable to drought but weather pattern is not constant and changing day by day. Hence as a part of drought an alysis, behavior of dry days is important. This study focuses on dry days pattern and associ ated changes from daily records of last 54 years for Sylhet region. Monthly, yearly and seasonal variations of dry days were analyzed to check for major changes. In order to inve stigate extreme dry events, time history of monthly dry days data were transformed into fre quency domain using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. Variability of dry days in tim e scale was also checked from filtered signals which is very useful for drought a nalysis, agricultural development and disaster management for the north-east region of Bangladesh.

  10. An ethnographic investigation on land and life of Santal community in Barind Tract, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akan, Mashiur Rahman; Al Mamun, Md Abdullah; Naznin, Tahmina;

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of life style of Santal community, one of the largest tribal communities in Bangladesh. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), participant observation, focus group discussions (FGD), and informal and semi-structured interviews were used to collect information. Santals......, social problems i.e., poverty, inequality, resource scarcity, illiteracy, maladjustment are more severe. Respecting the national constitution, Bangladesh should generate a multi-ethnic leadership to bring glory and protect Santal from all sorts of hazards and discriminations.......This paper is an investigation of life style of Santal community, one of the largest tribal communities in Bangladesh. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), participant observation, focus group discussions (FGD), and informal and semi-structured interviews were used to collect information. Santals...

  11. Emerging from the tragedies in Bangladesh: a challenge to voluntarism in the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Björn Skorpen

    2015-02-01

    Under the regime of private company or multi-stakeholder voluntary codes of conduct and industry social auditing, workers have absorbed low wages and unsafe and abusive conditions; labor leaders and union members have become the targets of both government and factory harassment and violence; and trade union power has waned. Nowhere have these private systems of codes and audits so clearly failed to protect workers as in Bangladesh's apparel industry. However, international labor groups and Bangladeshi unions have succeeded in mounting a challenge to voluntarism in the global economy, persuading more than 180 companies to make a binding and enforceable commitment to workers' safety in an agreement with 12 unions. The extent to which this Bangladesh Accord will be able to influence the entrenched global regime of voluntary codes and weak trade unions remains an open question. But if the Accord can make progress in Bangladesh, it can help to inspire similar efforts in other countries and in other industries.

  12. Growth and pattern of intra-industry trade between India and Bangladesh: 1975–2010

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    Kumar Sushil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the intra-industry trade between India and Bangladesh over the period of 1975 to 2010. GL index is used to calculate intraindustry trade at the three-digit level of SITC. The study also calculated the trade complementarity index, and revealed comparative index. The extent of intra-industry trade is high in sectors like crude materials, inedible, except fuels, food and live animals. The study also reveals mismatch between Indian imports and Bangladesh exports. The present study indicates positive effect on consumer surplus and trade using SMART model. Finally, the paper suggests that Bangladesh should diversify his export structure to reduce the bilateral trade deficit on the basis of comparative advantage

  13. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India.

  14. Potential contribution of the forestry sector in Bangladesh to carbon sequestration.

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    Yong Shin, Man; Miah, Danesh M; Lee, Kyeong Hak

    2007-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol provides for the involvement of developing countries in an atmospheric greenhouse gas reduction regime under its Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Carbon credits are gained from reforestation and afforestation activities in developing countries. Bangladesh, a densely populated tropical country in South Asia, has a huge degraded forestland which can be reforested by CDM projects. To realize the potential of the forestry sector in developing countries for full-scale emission mitigation, the carbon sequestration potential of different species in different types of plantations should be integrated with the carbon trading system under the CDM of the Kyoto Protocol. This paper discusses the prospects and problems of carbon trading in Bangladesh, in relation to the CDM, in the context of global warming and the potential associated consequences. The paper analyzes the effects of reforestation projects on carbon sequestration in Bangladesh, in general, and in the hilly Chittagong region, in particular, and concludes by demonstrating the carbon trading opportunities. Results showed that tree tissue in the forests of Bangladesh stored 92tons of carbon per hectare (tC/ha), on average. The results also revealed a gross stock of 190tC/ha in the plantations of 13 tree species, ranging in age from 6 to 23 years. The paper confirms the huge atmospheric CO(2) offset by the forests if the degraded forestlands are reforested by CDM projects, indicating the potential of Bangladesh to participate in carbon trading for both its economic and environmental benefit. Within the forestry sector itself, some constraints are identified; nevertheless, the results of the study can expedite policy decisions regarding Bangladesh's participation in carbon trading through the CDM.

  15. WHAT IMPLICATIONS DOES THE WORLD FOOD PRICE RISE HAVE FOR FOOD SECURITY IN BANGLADESH

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    Mahbub Hossain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh has often been regarded as a country whose food security situation is frequently worsened by price rise of essential foodstuffs. Rice has been the most significant cereal food in Bangladesh because it accounts for around 42 percent of per capita daily energy intake. Food price rise has become the most serious concern of majority of the country’s household as price rise becomes the regular phenomenon in the country. One-third of the country’s total population have been living under the poverty line. Regardless of the domestic rice production, Bangladesh imports around three million tonnes of rice every year which constitutes 17 percent of the country’s total import. Therefore, this empirical paper has attempted to explore how Bangladeshi local rice price is being affected by the world rice price, and how rising rice price affects household food security. In doing so, co-integration model and error correction model were applied to weekly rice price data obtained from the on-line database of the Food Policy Monitoring Unit of the Ministry of Food, Government of Bangladesh. The results confirm that world rice price and Bangladesh local market rice price are co-integrated. Although there has not been any immediate impact of world price shock in Bangladesh due to the influence of short term measures taken by the government, there are long term impacts of such price shock. Logit model has been employed to determine the rice price threshold beyond which households become unable to ensure their food security. For this purpose a sample of 80 poor households whose per capita income was less than $1, was surveyed in order to obtain the required data. The results of the logit model suggest that if rice price goes beyond Tk 34 per kilogram, sample poor households become extremely vulnerable in respect of food security. Finally, some recommendations have been made at the end of this paper based on the empirical findings.

  16. Current Status and Prospects for E-learning in the Promotion of Distance Education in Bangladesh

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    Abu Sadeque Md. SELIM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of e-learning as an advanced system for training and educating mass people using information and communication technologies (ICTs has been received an increasing level of interest in recent years in most of the western countries. In spite of socio-economic constraints, ICTs are rapidly expanding in the developing countries, and thus offering a new scope for the use of e-learning for the promotion of distance education. In Bangladesh, e-learning was first introduced as early as 1960s as a Radiobroadcast followed by a pilot project School Broadcasting Program (SBP in 1980s and then expanded by the establishment of the National Institute of Educational Media and Technology (NIEMT, which was later transformed into Bangladesh Institute of Distance Education (BIDE in 1985. The significant progress has been done after the establishment of the Bangladesh Open University (BOU in 1992 as the first and only national distance learning university. Within a decade of its establishment, enrollment of BOU students have reached nearly 400 thousands, and thus enlisted it as one of the mega-universities. BOU has been offering a variety of formal and non-formal academic programs from certificate to Masters levels using print, TV and radio broadcasts, audio-cassettes and face to face tutorials as the media of delivering its academic courses. Considering the rapid expansion of computer and internet in Bangladesh after 1998s, it is now appropriate time to consider inclusion of some interactive ICTs i.e. e-learning in delivering course materials of BOU or other institutes to promote distance education in Bangladesh. In this paper, we discuss the current situation and future prospects for e-learning in Bangladesh considering the current trend of ICTs expansion in the country.

  17. Delivery practices of traditional birth attendants in Dhaka slums, Bangladesh.

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    Fronczak, N; Arifeen, S E; Moran, A C; Caulfield, L E; Baqui, A H

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes associations among delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, and early postpartum morbidity in women in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During November 1993-May 1995, data on delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, delivery-related complications, and postpartum morbidity were collected through interviews with 1,506 women, 489 home-based birth attendants, and audits in 20 facilities where the women from this study gave birth. Associations among maternal characteristics, birth practices, delivery-location, and early postpartum morbidity were specifically explored. Self-reported postpartum morbidity was associated with maternal characteristics, delivery-related complications, and some birthing practices. Dais with more experience were more likely to use potentially-harmful birthing practices which increased the risk of postpartum morbidity among women with births at home. Postpartum morbidity did not differ by birth-location. Safe motherhood programmes must develop effective strategies to discourage potentially-harmful home-based delivery practices demonstrated to contribute to morbidity.

  18. Molecular characterization of Duck Plague virus isolated from Bangladesh

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    Md. Mostakin Ahamed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Duck plague (DP is the most feared duck disease in the world. For isolation, identification, molecular detection and characterization of DP virus (DPV, a total of 94 samples were collected from commercial farms (n=6 and households (n=13 from Rajshahi (n=37, Netrokona (n=35 and Mymensingh (n=22 districts of Bangladesh. The samples were processed and inoculated into 11-13 days old embryonated duck eggs for virus propagation. Virus was identified using agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIT and passive hemagglutination (PHA test, and was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting DNA polymerase and gC genes, followed by sequencing. Pathogenicity tests were performed using duck embryos, ducklings and ducks. Among the 94 samples, 17 isolates were confirmed as DPV by PCR amplification of partial DNA polymerase (446-bp and gC genes (78-bp, respectively. One of the isolates (Anatid herpes 1 BAU DMH was sequenced and found to be closely related with a Chinese variant of DPV (GenBank: JQ647509.1. Thus, we assume that both Bangladeshi and Chinese isolates of DPV may have a common ancestor. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 296-303

  19. Influences on pregnancy-termination decisions in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaVanzo, Julie; Rahman, Mizanur; Ahmed, Shahabuddin; Razzaque, Abdur

    2013-10-01

    We investigate factors affecting women's decisions to terminate pregnancies in Matlab, Bangladesh, using logistic regression on high-quality data from the Demographic Surveillance System on more than 215,000 pregnancies that occurred between 1978 and 2008. Variables associated with the desire not to have another birth soon (very young and older maternal age, a greater number of living children, the recent birth of twins or of a son, a short interval since a recent live birth) are associated with a greater likelihood of pregnancy termination, and the effects of many of these explanatory variables are stronger in more recent years. Women are less likely to terminate a pregnancy if they don't have any living sons or recently experienced a miscarriage, a stillbirth, or the death of a child. The higher the woman's level of education, the more likely she is to terminate a pregnancy. Between 1982 and the mid-2000s, pregnancy termination was significantly less likely in the area of Matlab with better family planning services.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance and related issues: An overview of Bangladesh situation

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    Md. Sayedur Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to understand Bangladesh situation about antimicrobial resistance. Half of the Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella showed resistance against older and common antimicrobials. Most (50% common reasons to prescribe antimicrobial are fever, respiratory and urinary tract infection. About 70% prescriber mentioned diagnostic uncertainty and emergence of resistance as causes for increase in antimicrobial prescribing. 51.9% of prescribers opined that physicians prescribe antimicrobial more than the actual need. About two-third of 5th year medical students answered correctly on different issues related to antimicrobials and resistance. Antimicrobial and resistance received little emphasis in Pharmacology and Microbiology written questions at both undergraduate (0.7 to 16.1% and postgraduate (0.9 to 18.4% level. Print (0.02% to 2.0% and electronic media (0.0 to 0.6% attaches small importance on the issues. Nothing related to ‘antimicrobials’ and ‘measure to contain resistance’ were mentioned in related policy documents.

  1. Hydrological control of As concentrations in Bangladesh groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, M.; Zheng, Y.; Schlosser, P.; Horneman, A.; Dhar, R. K.; Datta, S.; Hoque, M. A.; Seddique, A. A.; Shamsudduha, M.; Ahmed, K. M.; van Geen, A.

    2007-09-01

    The elevated arsenic (As) content of groundwater from wells across Bangladesh and several other South Asian countries is estimated to slowly poison at least 100 million people. The heterogeneous distribution of dissolved arsenic in the subsurface complicates understanding of its release from the sediment matrix into the groundwater, as well as the design of mitigation strategies. Using the tritium-helium (3H/3He) groundwater dating technique, we show that there is a linear correlation between groundwater age at depths <20 m and dissolved As concentration, with an average slope of 19 μg L-1 yr-1 (monitoring wells only). We propose that either the kinetics of As mobilization or the removal of As by groundwater flushing is the mechanism underlying this relationship. In either case, the spatial variability of As concentrations in the top 20 m of the shallow aquifers can to a large extent be attributed to groundwater age controlled by the hydrogeological heterogeneity in the local groundwater flow system.

  2. Cluster of Nipah virus infection, Kushtia District, Bangladesh, 2007.

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    Nusrat Homaira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In March 2007, we investigated a cluster of Nipah encephalitis to identify risk factors for Nipah infection in Bangladesh. METHODS: We defined confirmed Nipah cases by the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against Nipah virus in serum. Case-patients, who resided in the same village during the outbreak period but died before serum could be collected, were classified as probable cases. RESULTS: We identified three confirmed and five probable Nipah cases. There was a single index case. Five of the secondary cases came in close physical contact to the index case when she was ill. Case-patients were more likely to have physical contact with the index case (71% cases versus 0% controls, p = <0.001. The index case, on her third day of illness, and all the subsequent cases attended the same religious gathering. For three probable cases including the index case, we could not identify any known risk factors for Nipah infection such as physical contact with Nipah case-patients, consumption of raw date palm juice, or contact with sick animals or fruit bats. CONCLUSION: Though person-to-person transmission remains an important mode of transmission for Nipah infection, we could not confirm the source of infection for three of the probable Nipah case-patients. Continued surveillance and outbreak investigations will help better understand the transmission of Nipah virus and develop preventive strategies.

  3. Tree assemblages and diversity patterns in Tropical Juri Forest, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swapan Kumar Sarker; Muhammad Nur-Un-Nabi; Md. Mohasinul Haque; Mahmuda Sharmin; Sanjay Saha Sonet; Sourav Das; Niamjit Das

    2015-01-01

    Juri is a biodiversity-rich primary forest in Bangladesh, which remains ecologically unexplored. We identified tree species and examined the richness, alpha (α) diversity and floristic similarity patterns within the identi-fied communities. Vegetation and environmental data were sampled in 120 (0.04 ha) study plots. Tree communities were delimited by two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). In total, 78 tree species of 35 families and 58 genera were identified. TWINSPAN identified six tree communities: A—Tricalysia singularis; B—Kydia calyci-na-Castanopsis tribuloides;C—Polyalthia simiarum-Dua-banga grandiflora; D—Ficus roxburghii; E—Artocarpus lacucha;F—Artocarpus lacucha. Mean richness, Shannon and Gini-Simpson indices were highest for the Polyalthia simiarum-Duabanga grandiflora community, while Ficus roxburghii showed lowest diversity. Significant differences (p=0.05) in three diversity indices were recorded between Polyalthia simiarum-Duabanga grandiflora and Ficus roxburghii. Tree compositional similarity was greatest between Kydia calycina-Castanopsis tribuloides and Polyalthia simiarum-Duabanga grandiflora (0.712).

  4. ROAD ACCIDENT AND SAFETY STUDY IN SYLHET REGION OF BANGLADESH

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    B. K. BANIK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Roads, highways and streets are fundamental infrastructure facilities to provide the transportation for passenger travel and goods movement from one place to another in Sylhet, north–eastern division of Bangladesh with rapid growth of road vehicle, being comparatively developed economic tourist prone area faces severe road traffic accident. Such severe road accidents cause harsh safety hazards on the roads of Sylhet area. This research work presents an overview of the road traffic accident and degraded road safety situation in Sylhet zone which in particular, discusses the key road accident problem characteristics identifying the hazardous roads and spots, most responsible vehicles and related components, conditions of drivers and pedestrians, most victims of accident, effects of accident on society, safety priorities and options available in Sylhet. In this regard, a comprehensive questionnaire survey was conducted on the concerned groups of transportation and detailed accident data was collected from a popular local newspaper. Analysis of the study reveals that Dhaka- Sylhet highway is the most hazardous in road basis and Sylhet Sador thana is the most vulnerable in thana basis in Sylhet region.

  5. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

    2012-11-01

    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns.

  6. Farming of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Bagerhat, Bangladesh

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    Shirin Akter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to know the present status of Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in Bagerhat district, Bangladesh from March 2012 to January 2013. Education levels of farmers were found as illiterate (12.3%, primary (36.19%, secondary (20%, SSC (13.33%, HSC (12.38% and graduate (5.71%. M. rosenbergii culture was the primary and secondary occupation of 80% and 20% farmers respectively. Average stocking density and production in extensive, improved extensive and semi-intensive culture were 9609, 11502 and 22847 per ha and 193, 284 and 488 kg/ha/year respectively; rearing period ranges from 6-10 months and survival rate varied from 55 to 60%. In improved extensive and semi-intensive culture 82.86% and 71.43% farmers applied farm-made feed instead of company feeds respectively and 11.43% and 37.14% farmers used both feeds. 91.43%, 80% and 68.57% respondents responded on normal to high mortality in extensive, improved extensive and semi-intensive culture respectively. Lack of finance and appropriate technology, scarcity of quality PL, diseases and inadequate extension work were major problems of prawn culture.

  7. Coastal Aquaculture Development in Bangladesh: Unsustainable and Sustainable Experiences

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    Azad, A. Kalam; Jensen, Kathe R.; Lin, C. Kwei

    2009-10-01

    Coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh consists mainly of two shrimp species ( Penaeus monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Currently, there are about 16,237 marine shrimp ( P. monodon) farms covering 148,093 ha and 36,109 fresh water shrimp ( M. rosenbergii) farms covering 17,638 ha coastal area. More than 0.7 million people are employed in the farmed shrimp sector and in 2005-2006 the export value of shrimp was 403.5 million USD. Thus, coastal aquaculture contributes significantly to rural employment and economy but this is overshadowed by negative social and ecological impacts. This article reviews the key issues, constraints and opportunities of sustainable shrimp farming. In addition we present the results of two case studies from southwestern coastal areas where shrimp farming originated and central coastal areas where shrimp farming, especially M. rosenbergii, began in recent years. Lessons learned from the review and case studies are considered in the context of recommendations to encompass a socially equitable and ecologically sound coastal aquaculture.

  8. Contextualising sexual harassment of adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen; van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Reis, Ria

    2013-05-01

    Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular form of sexual harassment, namely "eve teasing", experienced by Bangladeshi adolescent girls (12-18 years) which emerged from a study of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out by young people. The study used qualitative methods and a participatory approach, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Despite taboos, unmarried adolescents actively seek information about sex, erotic pleasure and romance. Information was easily available from videos, mobile phone clips and pornographic magazines, but reinforced gender inequality. "Eve teasing" was one outlet for boys' sexual feelings; they gained pleasure from it and could show their masculinity. The girls disliked it and were afraid of being blamed for provoking it. Thus, "eve teasing" is a result of socio-cultural norms relating to sexuality, as well as a lack of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services in Bangladesh. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive sexuality education that goes beyond a mere health focus and addresses gender norms and helps youth to gain social-sexual interaction skills.

  9. Knowledge of HIV and AIDS among tertiary students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Bellal; Kabir, Alamgir; Ferdous, Hasina

    To examine the levels and predictors of knowledge on HIV and AIDS, a survey was conducted among 392 tertiary level students in the University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Students demonstrated a high knowledge of transmission and prevention of HIV and AIDS yet with considerable misconception. All students said that unprotected sex with an HIV-positive man or woman can transmit the HIV virus to a negative man or woman but at the same time 43.6% of students believed that there is a preventive vaccine for HIV and 39.8% understood that HIV can be cured if it is diagnosed early. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the students who had more knowledge on HIV and AIDS were: older boys, fathers having more income, business or service as father's occupation, having more mass media exposure, being senior students, living in a university dormitory, and being students of faculty of arts, social sciences, and science. The findings of this study suggest that a special course on health education, including risk perceptions of HIV and AIDS and issues related to sexual and other high risk behavior, should be included in the course curricula irrespective of disciplines at tertiary levels.

  10. Hydrogeochemical quality and suitability studies of groundwater in northern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M J; Hakim, M A; Hanafi, M M; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Aktar, Sharmin; Siddiqa, Aysha; Rahman, A K M Shajedur; Islam, M Atikul; Halim, M A

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture, rapid urbanization and geochemical processes have direct or indirect effects on the chemical composition of groundwater and aquifer geochemistry. Hydro-chemical investigations, which are significant for assessment of water quality, were carried out to study the sources of dissolved ions in groundwater of Dinajpur district, northern Bangladesh. The groundwater samplish were analyzed for physico-chemical properties like pH, electrical conductance, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids and Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO3(2-), HCO3(-), SO4(2-) and Cl- ions, respectively. Based on the analyses, certain parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, Kelly's ratio, permeability index and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The results showed that the groundwater of study area was fresh, slightly acidic (pH 5.3-6.4) and low in TDS (35-275 mg I(-1)). Ground water of the study area was found suitable for irrigation, drinking and domestic purposes, since most of the parameters analyzed were within the WHO recommended values for drinking water. High concentration of NO3- and Cl- was reported in areas with extensive agriculture and rapid urbanization. Ion-exchange, weathering, oxidation and dissolution of minerals were major geochemical processes governing the groundwater evolution in study area. Gibb's diagram showed that all the samples fell in the rock dominance field. Based on evaluation, it is clear that groundwater quality of the study area was suitable for both domestic and irrigation purposes.

  11. Bovine Brucellosis: An Epidemiological Study at Chittagong, Bangladesh

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    Suchandan Sikder*, AKM Anisur Rahman1, Mohammad Rayhan Faruque, Mohammad Abdul Alim2, Shubhagata Das2, Aungshuman Das Gupta3, Bhajan Chandra Das, Mohammad Inkeyas Uddin4 and Mohammad Abdul Matin Prodhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological survey was conducted to identify probable risk factors and prevalence of brucellosis in commercial and backyard dairy cows at Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 500 milk samples were collected (250 commercial and 250 backyards for Milk Ring Test (MRT. The MRT positive cows were subjected to sera collection and Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and indirect ELISA were done for confirmatory diagnosis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle was 5% (7.6% in commercial and 2.4% in backyard. Significantly higher (P<0.05 prevalence was found in the zero grazing (5.74%, pregnant cows (7.53% and cows with history of retained placenta (7.89% or abortion (5.88% or both (11.76% than non-pregnant (2.68% and without any reproductive disorder (4.44%. A total of 420 farm attendants and owners were interviewed where 93.55 and 99.08% commercial and backyard personnel were found to have no knowledge of brucellosis and 9.67 and 87.77% consumed raw milk and yogurt respectively were highly vulnerable to zoonotic brucellosis. The results showed that brucellosis is widely distributed locally, underscoring the need for further studies including biovar determination.

  12. Sex worker activism, feminist discourse and HIV in Bangladesh.

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    Sultana, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between sex worker activism and HIV-related discourse in Bangladesh, relating recent developments in activism to the influence of feminist thought. Following their eviction in 1991 from brothels from red light areas, Bangladeshi sex workers started a social movement, at just about the same time that programmes started to work with sex workers to reduce the transmission of HIV. This paper argues that both sex worker activism and HIV-prevention initiatives find impetus in feminist pro-sex-work perspectives, which place emphasis on individual and collective agency. However, by participating in these programmes, sex workers failed to contest the imagery of themselves as 'vectors' of HIV. In this way, they were unwittingly complicit in reproducing their identity as 'polluting others'. Moreover, by focusing on individual behaviour and the agency of sex workers, HIV programmes ignored the fact that the 'choices' made by sex workers are influenced by a wide range of structural and discursive factors, including gender norms and notions of bodily purity, which in turn have implications for the construction of HIV-related risk.

  13. Achieving the Cairo Conference (ICPD) goal for youth in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Laila; Rob, Ubaidur; Bhuiya, Ismat; Khan, M E; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    Sexual and reproductive health education is not yet formally introduced in Bangladesh without which the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo's goal to ensure young people's right to access to such information and services will remain unfulfilled. The Population Council provided technical assistance to a governmental department to pilot youth reproductive health education. Study findings from the pre- and posttests of 379 matched respondents revealed significant changes in knowledge, attitudes, and life-skills. Knowledge about long-term contraceptives and skills on negotiating safe sex improved significantly by 63% and 26%, respectively. Youths who do not consider menstruation as a disease nearly doubled, and misunderstandings about the mother's role in sex determination of a child were significantly dispelled. Decisions not to accompany friends in visiting sex workers and to use condoms, ignoring friends' disapproval, were increased over 18%. Over 98% of students reported that teachers discussed condoms, while only 12% alleged unfriendly behavior. Findings motivated the department to scale up the reproductive health curriculum.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN SUNAMGANJ OF BANGLADESH

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    F. Raihan, J. B. Alam

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, groundwater quality in Sunamganj of Bangladesh was studied based on different indices for irrigation and drinking uses. Samples were investigated for sodium absorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, residual sodium carbonate, electrical conductance, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelly's ratio, total hardness, permeability index, residual sodium bi-carbonate to investigate the ionic toxicity. From the analytical result, it was revealed that the values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that ground water of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there was neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, so that ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. Average Total Hardness of the samples in the study area was in the range of between 215 mg/L at Tahirpur and 48250 mg/L at Bishamvarpur. At Bishamvarpur, the water was found very hard. Average total hardness of the samples was in the range of between 215 mg/L at Tahirpur and 48250 mg/L at Bishamvarpur. At Bishamvarpur, the water was found very hard. It was shown based on GIS analysis that the groundwater quality in Zone-1 could be categorized of "excellent" class, supporting the high suitability for irrigation. In Zone-2 and Zone-3, the groundwater quality was categorized as "risky" and "poor" respectively. The study has also made clear that GIS-based methodology can be used effectively for ground water quality mapping even in small catchments.

  15. Lifecycle analysis of different urban transport options for Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ijaz [Department of Petroleum and Mineral Resources Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Guelen, Guercan [Center for Energy Economics, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas at Austin, 1801 Allen Pkwy, Houston, TX 77019 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Once again, sustained high oil prices are forcing policy makers in oil importing countries to consider alternatives to oil products as transportation fuels. Unlike in the past, advancements in technology, relative success of some experiments and increased familiarity among and acceptance by the public of some alternatives indicate a higher likelihood of success. In particular, natural gas offers a couple of the best options as compressed natural gas (CNG) and chemical conversion of natural gas into diesel (gas-to-liquids, GTL). These options are likely to be most attractive in countries that have cheap access to natural gas. We compare lifetime costs of several individual transportation options for Bangladesh, an oil importer with natural gas reserves. The results are then used to inform the natural gas policy debate in the country. Assuming a natural gas price of 1.5 per million Btu, both the CNG and GTL options are competitive with conventional gasoline/diesel cars if the oil price stays higher than 35-40 per barrel. If natural gas price increases after new upstream developments, CNG becomes less attractive while GTL remains competitive up to 2.5 if capital costs of GTL facilities decline as expected. Under a government policy push (lower discounting), the breakeven price of oil falls to 30-35 per barrel. (author)

  16. Patterns of tree buttressing at Lawachara National Park, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Abu Hanifa Mehedi; Chandan Kundu; Md. Qumruzzaman Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    We describe patterns of buttress formation and development in eleven tree species at Lawachara National Park,Bangladesh.Forty-five percent of trees of these 11 species had buttresses.Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb.showed maximum (87%) buttress formation,whereas Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br.did not show any buttress.Buttresses were recorded in 20%-40% of trees of six species and 40%-60% of trees in three species.Mean length and height of buttress varied among the species and ranged from 0.37-1.37 m and 0.71-2.13 m,respectively.Buttress height,mean buttress length,total buttress length,and total length plus length of secondaries increased with DBH (diameter at breast height) and tree height.Buttress number did not increase with DBH or tree height.Under-storey and mid-canopy trees produced less developed buttresses than did emergent trees (p<0.01).Wood density showed moderate effects on buttress characters (p<0.05),while the slope of the land did not.Canopy category was a primary regulating factor for tree buttressing,suggesting that buttresses are mechanical adaptations of trees to counter physical stresses.

  17. Social networking in Bangladesh: Boon or curse for academic engagement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouri Dey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of social networking services (SNSs users in Bangladesh is increasing at an accelerating rate. There are many who argue that SNS usage is destroying the students’ future by diminishing their academic engagement. The authors aim to investigate whether there is any relationship between students’ academic performance and their SNS usage. The study chose Facebook as a representative of SNSs because this is the most popular platform for online social connectivity and conducted a survey regarding the usage of Facebook among students of Business Administration from three private Bangladeshi private universities. The research results show that Facebook can be used for at least 21 academic tasks or goals and that these can be grouped into six major factors. Moreover, students opine that their online socializing does not reduce their study time, instead it helps them get the latest study related information, sharing courses, class schedules etc. After running a regression analysis, the authors conclude that the students’ level of engagement with the academic life through Facebook does not influence their academic results. The reason for this insignificant relation between academic results and academic engagement through SNSs may be due to the non-diversified course curriculum, the traditional way of delivering lectures and evaluating, limited study materials, non-receptiveness to technology-based learning etc. However, the authors propose to include SNSs as a study tool as it is a popular media and to conduct further research to better understand the effective way of using it in the education system.

  18. Implementation of emergency obstetric care training in Bangladesh: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Tajul; Haque, Yasmin Ali; Waxman, Rachel; Bhuiyan, Abdul Bayes

    2006-05-01

    The Women's Right to Life and Health project aimed to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh through provision of comprehensive emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in the country's district and sub-district hospitals. Human resources development was one of the project's major activities. This paper describes the project in 2000-2004 and lessons learned. Project documents, the training database, reports and training protocols were reviewed. Medical officers, nurses, facility managers and laboratory technicians received training in the country's eight medical college hospitals, using nationally accepted curricula. A 17-week competency-based training course for teams of medical officers and nurses was introduced in 2003. At baseline in 1999, only three sub-district hospitals were providing comprehensive EmOC and 33 basic EmOC, mostly due to lack of trained staff and necessary equipment. In 2004, 105 of the 120 sub-district hospitals had become functional for EmOC, 70 with comprehensive EmOC and 35 with basic EmOC, while 53 of 59 of the district hospitals were providing comprehensive EmOC compared to 35 in 1999. The scaling up of competency-based training, innovative incentives to retain trained staff, evidence-based protocols to standardise practice and improve quality of care and the continuing involvement of key stakeholders, especially trainers, will all be needed to reach training targets in future.

  19. Corporate social responsibility initiatives addressing social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Wendy J

    2009-08-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships- collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives-may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation.

  20. Inconsistent use of oral contraceptives in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Asaduzzaman; Trottier, Dorace A; Islam, M Ataharul

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore predictors of inconsistent use of oral contraceptives (OCs) in rural Bangladesh. A total of 801 rural OC users were included in the study, about half of them (49%) missed one or more active pill(s) during the 6 months before the survey.Multivariate analysis revealed that Muslim women were 60% more likely to be inconsistent OC users compared to their non-Muslim counterparts. Women who lacked knowledge about contraindications were 60% more likely to take the pill inconsistently than were women who had the knowledge. Women who were not visited by family planning workers or did not have access to mass media were 40% more likely to be inconsistent OC users.OC users need increased information about correct OC use, which could be provided via improved access to mass media with specific messages on how to use OCs properly. Better access to the community clinics could improve the pill-taking behaviors of rural Bangladeshi women.

  1. A process of developing an HRM framework based on qualitative study in Technology companies in Bangladesh and Malaysia

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    Tarnima Warda Andalib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the corporate world, humans are treated as ‘manpower’ or ‘resources that utilize other resources, however, this cannot be the only identity of humans or employees of the company. Rather, it must be considered that these employees are humans and humans have got certain rights those are to be fulfilled irrespective of every situation. Humans are beings not just mere resources. This is the time to understand this truth. Technological change has triggered and increased the standard of living but at the same time has deteriorated the humane values and inspired a profligate life style; therefore, the Standardized Human Rights policies like Universal Declaration of Human rights (UDHR & International Labour Organization (ILO need to be implemented in the organization culture by understanding the attitudes, attributes of human resources. The purpose of this Study is to investigate the HRM policies of the Technology Companies of Malaysia & of Bangladesh and to identify all the components and integrate all those components with the standardized Human Rights platforms, which are UDHR, ILO etc. To look for the behavior, attitude and analytical option of humans working inside the company due to technological advancements, changes and implemented HRM policies in the organization.

  2. A process of developing an HRM framework based on qualitative study in Technology companies in Bangladesh and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnima Warda Andalib

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the corporate world, humans are treated as ‘manpower’ or ‘resources that utilize other resources, however, this cannot be the only identity of humans or employees of the company. Rather, it must be considered that these employees are humans and humans have got certain rights those are to be fulfilled irrespective of every situation. Humans are beings not just mere resources. This is the time to understand this truth. Technological change has triggered and increased the standard of living but at the same time has deteriorated the humane values and inspired a profligate life style; therefore, the Standardized Human Rights policies like Universal Declaration of Human rights (UDHR & International Labour Organization (ILO need to be implemented in the organization culture by understanding the attitudes, attributes of human resources. The purpose of this Study is to investigate the HRM policies of the Technology Companies of Malaysia & of Bangladesh and to identify all the components and integrate all those components with the standardized Human Rights platforms, which are UDHR, ILO etc. To look for the behavior, attitude and analytical option of humans working inside the company due to technological advancements, changes and implemented HRM policies in the organization.  

  3. Intriguing Success in 3D Seismic Acquisition in Ecologically Critical Lawachara National Park of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakht, Delawar; Siddique, Mohammad; Masud, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    In-depth environmental studies were conducted in 2008 by a multi-disciplinary team of international and national specialists of SMEC International for Chevron Bangladesh for obtaining Environmental Clearance for 3D seismic acquisition in Moulvibazar Gas Field. This included Lawachara National Park which was declared as an ecologically critical area in 1996. Exclusive monitoring of potential impact mitigation mechanism identified through EIA studies resulted in to completing the project with intriguing success. This has displayed a glaring example of sharing expertise leading to successful initiative in technology transfer in the developing country like Bangladesh currently in dire quest of harnessing natural gas.

  4. Biosecurity Conditions in Small Commercial Chicken Farms, Bangladesh 2011-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimi, N A; Sultana, R; Muhsina, M

    2017-01-01

    In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 is endemic in poultry. This study aimed to understand the biosecurity conditions and farmers' perception of avian influenza biosecurity in Bangladeshi small commercial chicken farms. During 2011-2012, we conducted observations, in-depth interv......In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 is endemic in poultry. This study aimed to understand the biosecurity conditions and farmers' perception of avian influenza biosecurity in Bangladeshi small commercial chicken farms. During 2011-2012, we conducted observations, in...

  5. An analysis of the gravity field and tectonic evaluation of the northwestern part of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. A.; Rahman, T.

    1992-06-01

    The total Bouguer anomaly values of the northwestern part of Bangladesh have been analysed on the basis of the trend, shape and magnitude of the anomaly values. Residual gravity and the second vertical derivatives of gravity show only two near-surface features, viz. the Nilphamari and Rangpur highs. Geological models of the two highs have been constructed on the basis of gravity modelling. Gravity data, in conjunction with aeromagnetic and bore hole data, enable us to propose four tectonic elements of the northwestern part of Bangladesh: the Northern Slope of the Platform, the Stable Platform, the Nawabganj-Gaibandha Intracratonic High and the Southern Part of the Platform.

  6. Transnational Diaspora and Civil Society Actors Driving MNE Internationalisation: The Case of Grameenphone in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Elo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    process. While emerging markets tend to feature complex institutional contexts and idiographic entry challenges, our study with a focus on emerging market presents two under-examined types of stakeholders as distinct social actors’ that affect internationalisation process: the transnational diaspora......) in Bangladesh. This case study analyses and describes the stages of development, documenting how Norwegian Telenor, American Gonophone, Japanese Marubeni and Bangladeshi Grameen Bank created an IJV named Grameenphone in Bangladesh, and how diaspora and civil society actors made up the prime movers...... that supported this emerging-market IJV development. The study contributes to research on international joint ventures, transnational diaspora entrepreneurship and civil society actors and the internationalisation of MNEs....

  7. Present status and future prospects of industrial applications of isotopes in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, M.D.S. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Ramna Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Ionising radiation is used for quality assurance and quality control of many industrial products. Bangladesh is actively working on the industrial application of isotopes in the fields of non-destructive testing (NDT) of material, nuclear analytical technique, radiation technology, tracer technology through the participation in the UNDP/IAEA/RCA Project for Asia and the Pacific on the industrial application of isotopes and radiation technology. Bangladesh is developing NDT technology to such an extent and standard that the country is attaining self-reliance in this field for service and human resource development and the foreign dependence is becoming greatly reduced. Examples of recent achievements are given

  8. Persistent organohalogen contaminants in plasma from groups of humans with different occupations in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, R; Athanasiadou, M; Nahar, N; Mamun, M I R; Mosihuzzaman, M; Bergman, A

    2009-01-01

    The present study is aimed to assess persistent organic halogenated pollutants in humans living in Bangladesh. The results are compared to other similar studies in the region and globally. Human blood plasma were collected from groups of men and women with different occupations, i.e. being students, garment industry workers, employees at the Power Development Board (PDB), all groups in Dhaka, fishermen and fishermen wife's from Dhaka and another group from Barisal district. The plasma was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH and delta-HCH, the DDT group of chemicals, chlordane compounds, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, trans-heptachlorepoxide, methoxychlor and mirex. The most abundant contaminant, in all groups studied, p,p'-DDE is dominating, with p,p'-DDT/Sigma DDT ratios indicating recent and ongoing DDT exposure. Among the other pesticides analysed beta-HCH is the most abundant indicating the use of technical HCH products instead of Lindane (gamma-HCH). While the Sigma DDT is present in the low ppm range the beta-HCH is detected in up to approx. 400 ppb, lipid basis. The beta-HCH is most abundant in the groups of students. In contrast to the pesticides analysed very low concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are present in all study groups, with e.g. CB-153 in the range of 5-30 ng g(-1) fat. The concentrations of the DDT group of chemical differ significantly between fishermen and fishermen's wives living and working in the Dhaka area versus those living and working in Barisal. Also, fishermen and their wives had significantly different concentrations of DDT compared to garment industry workers.

  9. Nutritional Status of Settler and Indigenous Women of Reproductive Age Group in Khagrachari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Monoarul Haque

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive health is closely related with nutritional status of a country. Women are regarded as the nerve centers of the families and society, maternal nutrition and health is considered as the most important regulator of human fetal growth. Objective: This study was conducted with a view to assess the nutritional status of settler and indigenous women of reproductive age group (15--49 years in Khagrachari district. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done in the purposively selected Panchari thana of Khagrachari district in Bangladesh from 01 May to 31 August 2013. A total of 200 reproductive aged women were interviewed. Among them 100 were indigenous and 100 were settlers. Their anthropometric measurements were taken and nutritional status was determined by body mass index (BMI recommended by World Health Organization (WHO for Asian people. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 29.8 ± 11.1 years and maximum were in the age group of 15--24 years. Among the indigenous subjects Chakma, Marma, Tripura and Boisnu were 20.5%, 20.5%, 6.5% and 2.5% respectively. Among 100 indigenous reproductive aged women 17 were underweight; but among settlers 19 were underweight. Forty nine settler women were normal and in case of indigenous women 46 were normal. But regarding overweight indigenous women went ahead than settler women and obesity was found equal in both groups. Mean difference of mid upper arm circumference (MUAC was significantly different (p<0.005 between the groups. Conclusion: This study provided a vivid picture of the nutritional status of the settler and indigenous reproductive aged women.

  10. Groundwater chemistry and occurrence of arsenic in the Meghna floodplain aquifer, southeastern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, A.; Hassan, M.Q.; Balke, K.-D.; Flegr, M.; Clark, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved major ions and important heavy metals including total arsenic and iron were measured in groundwater from shallow (25-33 m) and deep (191-318 m) tube-wells in southeastern Bangladesh. These analyses are intended to help describe geochemical processes active in the aquifers and the source and release mechanism of arsenic in sediments for the Meghna Floodplain aquifer. The elevated Cl- and higher proportions of Na+ relative to Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ in groundwater suggest the influence by a source of Na+ and Cl-. Use of chemical fertilizers may cause higher concentrations of NH 4+ and PO 43- in shallow well samples. In general, most ions are positively correlated with Cl-, with Na+ showing an especially strong correlation with Cl-, indicating that these ions are derived from the same source of saline waters. The relationship between Cl-/HCO 3- ratios and Cl- also shows mixing of fresh groundwater and seawater. Concentrations of dissolved HCO 3- reflect the degree of water-rock interaction in groundwater systems and integrated microbial degradation of organic matter. Mn and Fe-oxyhydroxides are prominent in the clayey subsurface sediment and well known to be strong adsorbents of heavy metals including arsenic. All five shallow well samples had high arsenic concentration that exceeded WHO recommended limit for drinking water. Very low concentrations of SO 42- and NO 3- and high concentrations of dissolved Fe and PO 43- and NH 4+ ions support the reducing condition of subsurface aquifer. Arsenic concentrations demonstrate negative co-relation with the concentrations of SO 42- and NO 3- but correlate weakly with Mo, Fe concentrations and positively with those of P, PO 43- and NH 4+ ions. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Groundwater dynamics and arsenic mobilization in Bangladesh assessed using noble gases and tritium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Stephan; Kipfer, Rolf; Cirpka, Olaf A; Harvey, Charles F; Brennwald, Matthias S; Ashfaque, Khandaker N; Badruzzaman, Abu Borhan M; Hug, Stephan J; Imboden, Dieter M

    2006-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by geogenic arsenic is the cause of major health problems in south and southeast Asia. Various hypotheses proposing that As is mobilized by the reduction of iron (oxy)hydroxides are now under discussion. One important and controversial question concerns the possibility that As contamination might be related to the extraction of groundwater for irrigation purposes. If As were mobilized by the inflow of re-infiltrating irrigation water rich in labile organic carbon, As-contaminated groundwater would have been recharged after the introduction of groundwater irrigation 20-40 years ago. We used environmental tracer data and conceptual groundwater flow and transport modeling to study the effects of groundwater pumping and to assess the role of reinfiltrated irrigation water in the mobilization of As. Both the tracer data and the model results suggest that pumping induces convergent groundwater flow to the depth of extraction and causes shallow, young groundwater to mix with deep, old groundwater. The As concentrations are greatest at a depth of 30 m where these two groundwater bodies come into contact and mix. There, within the mixing zone, groundwater age significantly exceeds 30 years, indicating that recharge of most of the contaminated water occurred before groundwater irrigation became established in Bangladesh. Hence, at least at our study site, the results call into question the validity of the hypothesis that re-infiltrated irrigation water is the direct cause of As mobilization; however, the tracer data suggest that, at our site, hydraulic changes due to groundwater extraction for irrigation might be related to the mobilization of As.

  12. Source apportionment and pollution evaluation of heavy metals in water and sediments of Buriganga River, Bangladesh, using multivariate analysis and pollution evaluation indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain; Dampare, Samuel B; Islam, M A; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals in water and sediment samples of Buriganga River in the capital city Dhaka, Bangladesh, were studied to understand the level of heavy metals and their source apportionment. The results showed that the mean concentrations of heavy metals both in water and sediment samples were very high and, in most cases, exceeded the permissible limits recommended by the Bangladesh government and other international organizations. Significantly higher concentrations of Pb, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd were found in sediment samples. However, average concentrations of metals both in water and sediment samples were above the effect range median. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and degree of contamination (Cd) yielded different results in water samples despite significant correlations between them. The heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) showed strong correlations with HPI and Cd and provided better assessment of pollution levels. The enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) showed the elevated value of Cr, Pb, and Cd in access of background values. The measured elements were subjected to positive matrix factorization (PMF) and examining correlations in order to explain the content, behavior, and source apportionment of metals. PMF resulted in a successful partitioning of variances into sources related to background geochemistry and contaminant influences. However, the PMF approach successfully demarcated the major sources of metals from tannery, paint, municipal sewage, textiles, and agricultural activities.

  13. Site Suitability Analysis for Dissemination of Salt-tolerant Rice Varieties in Southern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D. D.; Singh, A. N.; Singh, U. S.

    2014-11-01

    Bangladesh is a country of 14.4 million ha geographical area and has a population density of more than 1100 persons per sq. km. Rice is the staple food crop, growing on about 72 % of the total cultivated land and continues to be the most important crop for food security of the country. A project "Sustainable Rice Seed Production and Delivery Systems for Southern Bangladesh" has been executed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in twenty southern districts of Bangladesh. These districts grow rice in about 2.9 million ha out of the country's total rice area of 11.3 million ha. The project aims at contributing to the Government of Bangladesh's efforts in improving national and household food security through enhanced and sustained productivity by using salinity-, submergence- and drought- tolerant and high yielding rice varieties. Out of the 20 project districts, 12 coastal districts are affected by the problem of soil salinity. The salt-affected area in Bangladesh has increased from about 0.83 million ha in 1973 to 1.02 million ha in 2000, and 1.05 million ha in 2009 due to the influence of cyclonic storms like "Sidr", "Laila" and others, leading to salt water intrusion in croplands. Three salinity-tolerant rice varieties have recently been bred by IRRI and field tested and released by the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) and Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA). These varieties are BRRI dhan- 47 and Bina dhan-8 and - 10. However, they can tolerate soil salinity level up to EC 8-10 dSm-1, whereas the EC of soils in several areas are much higher. Therefore, a large scale dissemination of these varieties can be done only when a site suitability analysis of the area is carried out. The present study was taken up with the objective of preparing the site suitability of the salt-tolerant varieties for the salinity-affected districts of southern Bangladesh. Soil salinity map prepared by Soil Resources Development Institute of

  14. Dragonflies and damselflies (Insecta: Odonata of the northeastern region of Bangladesh with five new additions to the Odonata fauna of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kawsar Khan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Odonata were surveyed in one reserve forest, two national parks, one Eco Park, one lake and one University campus in the northeastern region of Bangladesh from March 2014 to March 2015.  A total of 64 species of Anisoptera and Zygoptera belonging to 41 genera under seven families were recorded.  Among them 45 species and 19 genera were new records for the study area.  Two species of Anisoptera, i.e., Anax indicus Lieftinck, 1942 and Gynacantha khasiaca MacLachlan, 1896, and three species of Zygoptera i.e., Matrona nigripectus Selys, 1879, Agriocnemis kalinga Nair & Subramanian, 2014, and Prodasineura laidlawii Forster, 1907 were recorded for the first time from Bangladesh.  

  15. Sexual Health of Women with Spinal Cord Injury in Bangladesh

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    Huib Cornielje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify factors influencing the sexual health of women with spinal cord injury (SCI in Bangladesh.Methods: This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The quantitative part used a case-control design. Cases were women with SCI and controls were age-matched women without SCI.  Questionnaires were used to collect data concerning the sexual health status of women. Multivariate logistic regression was done to determine which factors had an independent effect on sexual health.  In-depth interviews were held with a sub-group of women from both groups, and interview guides were used. The in-depth interview data was subjected to content analysis.Results: In total, 92 questionnaires were given out and 30 in-depth interviews were conducted. A relationship was found between physical factors and sexual health, as pain, vaginal dryness and physical discomfort were mentioned more frequently among women with SCI. Environmental and emotional factors such as stigma, satisfaction of the husband and support from the husband and friends had an influence on the sexual health of the women with SCI, as well as the other group of women.Conclusions: From interviews it became clear that most of the women with SCI were dissatisfied with their sexual health as compared to the women without SCI. However, environmental and emotional factors such as attitudes, support and stigma, rather than physical factors, were the most important influences on sexual health in both groups of women.doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.60

  16. Modelling malaria treatment practices in Bangladesh using spatial statistics

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    Haque Ubydul

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria treatment-seeking practices vary worldwide and Bangladesh is no exception. Individuals from 88 villages in Rajasthali were asked about their treatment-seeking practices. A portion of these households preferred malaria treatment from the National Control Programme, but still a large number of households continued to use drug vendors and approximately one fourth of the individuals surveyed relied exclusively on non-control programme treatments. The risks of low-control programme usage include incomplete malaria treatment, possible misuse of anti-malarial drugs, and an increased potential for drug resistance. Methods The spatial patterns of treatment-seeking practices were first examined using hot-spot analysis (Local Getis-Ord Gi statistic and then modelled using regression. Ordinary least squares (OLS regression identified key factors explaining more than 80% of the variation in control programme and vendor treatment preferences. Geographically weighted regression (GWR was then used to assess where each factor was a strong predictor of treatment-seeking preferences. Results Several factors including tribal affiliation, housing materials, household densities, education levels, and proximity to the regional urban centre, were found to be effective predictors of malaria treatment-seeking preferences. The predictive strength of each of these factors, however, varied across the study area. While education, for example, was a strong predictor in some villages, it was less important for predicting treatment-seeking outcomes in other villages. Conclusion Understanding where each factor is a strong predictor of treatment-seeking outcomes may help in planning targeted interventions aimed at increasing control programme usage. Suggested strategies include providing additional training for the Building Resources across Communities (BRAC health workers, implementing educational programmes, and addressing economic factors.

  17. Laparoscopic assisted appendicectomy in District Hospital, Joypurhat, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashar, M K; Alam, M Z; Aziz, M M; Nur-E-Elahi, M; Taher, M A; Jahan, I

    2014-01-01

    "Laparoscopic assisted appendicectomy" refers to visualization of abdominal cavity, identification of appendix, drawing the appendix out through the port wound and appendicectomy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the outcome of the procedure of laparoscopic assisted appendicectomy. In this prospective study patients with appendicitis were randomly selected for laparoscopic assisted appendicectomy from August 2007 to February 2009 in the Department of Surgery, Modernized District Hospital, Joypurhat, Bangladesh. Out of 73 patients Laparoscopic assisted appendicectomy was performed successfully in 95.89% cases and conversion rate was 4.11%. Male to female ratio was almost 1:2 with mean±SD age 18.62±9.16 years. The wound infection rate was 8.2% and urinary retention 2.7%. Early postoperative feeding was started within 24 hours in 86.3% cases and mean duration of hospital stay was 2 days in 76.71% patients. More than 82% returned to their home and started social activities within 5 days. Duration of surgery was almost similar in emergency and interval appendicectomy group (19.35±10.13 vs. 23.66±9.43) minutes. Postoperative morbidity in emergency appendicectomy group showed significantly higher morbidity than interval appendicectomy group (p=0.003). This study indicates that the laparoscopic assisted appendicectomy is feasible for the majority of the patients with appendicitis in both emergency and interval settings. It reduces the operative time, shortens hospital stay and helps in early resumption of normal activities with good cosmetic outcome and patients' satisfaction.

  18. Poverty status and health equity: evidence from rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, F; Tripura, A; Gani, M S; Chowdhury, A M R

    2006-03-01

    Many studies have examined the health inequities between different social groups, often measured by individual independent variables, such as education, gender, ethnicity, geography, rich, poor, etc. Although inequities are increasingly widening, a few studies have looked at the health inequity between different poverty groups within the poor. The present study, using equity terms, examined the use of health services in two rural areas of Bangladesh. Using a multistage sampling method, a total of 80 villages were selected from the Bogra and Dinajpur sadar thanas (subdistricts) for the study. A total of 4003 households in these villages were visited for data collection on mortality and fertility, while data related to use of health services was collected from a subsample of 1032 households. A poverty index, constructed using three variables (household landholding, education level of head of household, and self-rated categorization of household's annual food security), categorized the households into three groups: extreme poor, moderate poor and non-poor. Overall, the data revealed considerable inequities in many study indicators between the poor and the non-poor. However, inequities of varying degrees were also found between the extreme poor and the moderate poor. Lower levels of inequities were found between the poor and the non-poor in the use of health services, which were easily accessible and free of charge (immunization, vitamin A capsule, etc.). On the whole, the extreme poor were less likely to use health services than the moderate poor and the non-poor, suggesting the need for a more appropriate programme to address their pressing health needs.

  19. Bangladesh women scientists' association honours ICDDR,B scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Dr. Ayesha Molla, an ICDDR,B biochemist-nutritionist, was awarded a gold medal by the Bangladesh Women Scientists' Association and named Best Woman Scientist of the Year. She was honored for outstanding achievements in diarrhea/nutrition research especially in her classic studies on nutrient absorption during diarrhea. Her recent work has focused on the diarrhea/malnutrition mechanism in children. Her findings indicate that eating during acute diarrhea should be encouraged to reduce post-diarrhea malnutriton in vulnerable developing country children. In another study in collaboration with her husband, a pediatrician and gastroenterologist, it was found that diarrhea has a negligible effect on secretion of digestive enzymes which partially explains why significant digestion and absorption continue during diarrhea. Dr. Molla was also honored for related studies on the vitamin A/diarrhea/malnutrition mechanism. This is of immense importance in developing countries since repeated diarrheal infections in children aggravate malnutrition and lead to vitamin A deficiency blindness. Most blindness seems to be associated with or preceded by recurrent diarrheal infections. Dr. Molla found that water-soluble vitamin A administrated orally was associated with rapid improvement of deteriorating eye conditions. A brief outline of her background is given and her current work discussed. She is presently involved in seeking the best possible diet for children suffering from severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM). This problem results in coincident lack of varying proportions of protein and energy. Dr. Molla is attempting to determine the fastest, most tolerable, low cost, readily available and culturally acceptable diet. Maternal training in feeding practices will be provided. In collaboration with her husband, Dr. Molla is also studying the 2nd generation Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS). They are working to substitute rice or other staples for the traditional sugar in ORS.

  20. Geohazards and Poverty: An Ecosystem Services Approach in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Lazar, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Ecosystem Services (ES) of river deltas often support high population densities, estimated at over 500 million people globally, with particular concentrations in South, South-East and East Asia and Africa. Further, a large proportion of delta populations experience extremes of poverty and are highly vulnerable to the environmental and ecological stress and degradation that is occurring. A systems dynamics approach is adopted to provide policy makers with the knowledge and tools to enable them to evaluate the effects of Geohazards and environmental stressors and associated policy decisions on people's livelihoods (Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation - ESPA Deltas). This is done by a multidisciplinary and multi-national team of policy analysts, social and natural scientists and engineers. The work presents a participatory approach to formally evaluating ecosystem services and poverty in the context of the wide range of environmetnal stressors and hazards. These changes include subsidence and sea level rise, land degradation and population pressure in delta regions. The approach will be developed, tested and applied in coastal Bangladesh. Rural livelihoods are inextricably linked with the natural ecosystems and low income farmers are highly vulnerable to changes in ecosystem services as they are impacted by geohazards and environmental stressors. Their health, wellbeing and financial security are under threat from many directions such as unreliable supplies of clean water, increasing salinisation of soils and flood, while in the longer term they are threatened by subsidence and sea-level rise. This study will contribute to the understanding of this present vulnerability and help the people who develop the relevant policy to make more informed choices about how best to reduce this vulnerability.

  1. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Trong T; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A S M; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P; Gurley, Emily S

    2016-04-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010-2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005.

  2. Poultry slaughtering practices in rural communities of Bangladesh and risk of avian influenza transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimi, Nadia Ali; Sultana, Rebeca; Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi

    2014-01-01

    Slaughtering sick poultry is a risk factor for human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza and is a common practice in Bangladesh. This paper describes human exposures to poultry during slaughtering process and the customs and rituals influencing these practices in two Bangladeshi rura...

  3. Alternative Mentoring of Street Girls in Bangladesh: New Identities and Non-Traditional Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Jill

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how mentoring and female role models enhance perceptions of self-worth and career aspirations for adolescent girls from low socioeconomic backgrounds. It describes an eight-week project that provided nine girls from the slums of Bangladesh with female role models and mentors in a modern work environment. The project involved…

  4. How far does a big push really push? : Mitigating ultra-poverty in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Misha (Farzana); W.A. Raza (Wameq); J. Ara (Jinnat); E. Van de Poel (Ellen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBRAC implemented the Challenging the Frontiers of Poverty Reduction: Specially Targeted Ultra-Poor (CFPR) program in 2002 to mitigate ultra-poverty in the poorest districts of Bangladesh, providing multifaceted support in the form of asset-transfer, food-stipends, education, healthcare a

  5. An Explorative Study on Environmental Literacy among the Secondary Level Students in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Md. Mahbub Alam; Ara, Quazi Afroz Jahan; Raihan, Jahir; Ozaki, Koji

    2008-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the environmental literacy among the secondary level students of Bangladesh. Specifically, it was designed to: i) determine environmental knowledge of the secondary students, ii) explore their environmental attitude, iii) find out their environment related practices, and iv) explore school's environment-friendly…

  6. The Framework for Implementing ECommerce: The Role of Bank and Telecom in Bangladesh

    CERN Document Server

    Laisuzzaman, Ijaj Md; Nahid, Abdullah Al; Ziaul, Md; Alim, Md Abdul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an effective framework for adapting electronic commerce or e-commerce services in developing countries like Bangladesh. The internet has opened up a new horizon for commerce, namely electronic commerce (e-commerce). It entails the use of the internet in the marketing, identification, payment and delivery of goods and services. At present internet facilities are available in Bangladesh. Slowly, but steadily these facilities are holding a strong position in every aspects of our life. E-commerce is one of those sectors which need more attention if we want to be a part of global business. Bangladesh is far-far away to adapt the main stream of e-commerce application. Though government is shouting to take the challenges of e-commerce, but they do not take the right step, that is why e-commerce dose not make any real contribution in our socio-economic life. Here we propose a model which may develop the e-commerce infrastructure of Bangladesh.

  7. Zombie Graduates Driven by Rickshaw Faculty--A Qualitative Case Study: Private Universities in Urban Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Matt M.; Osswald, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh's post-secondary education has become a hunting ground for local economic conglomerates and their transnational allies. Applying a holistic lens helps to understand the factors and short-term effects of blindly applying neo-liberal induced deregulation and privatization that constructed a mushrooming "McDonaldization" culture…

  8. Determination of Insulin Secretory Defect and Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, J; Ahmed, S; Laila, R; Islam, M T; Rahaman, M F; Snigdha, K R; Sarkar, S; Khan, A S; Sarkar, A K

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. This study was undertaken to explore the basic defect in type 2 diabetes patients in Bangladesh. This was an observational study with case control design, was conducted in the Biomedical Research Group, Research Division, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the period of July 2008 to June 2009. A total of 153 subjects were included in study of which 63 belonged to type 2 diabetes mellitus group and 90 were healthy controls. Fasting and 2 hours postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin, HOMA%B, HOMA%S, QuickI, Glucose /insulin ratio, TG were measured and age, BMI, WHR were recorded. Waist-hip ratio (WHR), was significantly higher in T2DM as compared to control subjects [WHR, mean±SD, 0.94±0.12 vs. 0.88±0.06, pBangladesh.

  9. Localization of Digital Content for Use in Secondary Schools of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md. Didar; Al-Mahmood, Abdullah; Bashar, Md. Abul; Ahmed, Jamal Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Localization of digital content (LDC) in Bangladesh is aimed at the production of graphical and video content adapted for the local curriculum and suitable for use in secondary schools. Teachers learnt how to make PowerPoint presentations into which they can incorporate video, audio and graphical content downloaded from the Internet. Empowering…

  10. Evaluating the genetic impact of South and Southeast Asia on the peopling of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Gazi Nurun Nahar; Sharif, Mohd Istiaq; Asaduzzaman, Md; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer

    2015-11-01

    Despite rapidly growing understandings and dependency on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), highly variable autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) are still regarded as the most established method to differentiate individuals at forensic level. Here with large number of various ethnic groups we undertook this study to reveal the genetic structure of the most densely populated part of South Asia i.e. the Bangladesh. The purpose of this work was to estimate population parameters based on the allele frequencies obtained for 15 polymorphic autosomal STR loci investigated in caste and tribal populations from Bangladesh (n=706). We compared the results in a broader context by merging 24 different populations of Asia to pertain their affinity. Various statistical analyses suggested a clear cut demarcation of tribal and non-tribal in Bangladesh. Moreover, beside the phylogenetic structure of the studied populations, it is found that the mean heterozygosity value was highest among the populations of Bangladesh, likely because of gene flow from different directions. However, Tonchangya, Adi and Khumi showed sign of genetic isolation and reduced diversity, possibly as a result of genetic drift and/or strong founder effects working on small endogamous populations.

  11. An overview of freshwater prawn fishery in Bangladesh: present status and future prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdous Ahamed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawn fishery plays an important role in the economy of Bangladesh. The fishery is mainly based on the culture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The culture fishery has been growing rapidly, thus, masking the dwindling capture fishery which is faced with serious environmental issues augmented by deleterious fishing methods. Despite the high prospects of the freshwater prawn aquaculture in Bangladesh, a lot of research is needed to ensure the sustainable development of the capture fishery which forms a key source of prawn aquaculture seed as well as provide a baseline for future appraisals. Freshwater prawn aquaculture in Bangladesh is based on traditional methods with continuous adaptations by the rural fishers. However, numerous constraints to its full development are evident at all stages of its production. Lack of quality brood stock, seed, feeds and poor technical knowledge at farmers level are but some of the impediments challenging the sustainability of this industry. This paper reviews the freshwater prawn fishery of Bangladesh over the last few decades and outlines approaches for the development of an ecosystem-based management of both the culture and capture sectors of this important fishery.

  12. Available Motherhood: Legal Technologies, "State of Exception" and the Dekinning of "War-Babies" in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookherjee, Nayanika

    2007-01-01

    This article takes an ethnographical approach to explore the "state of exception" through which legal technologies of abortion and adoption of "war-babies" (children born as a result of wartime rapes) in the Bangladesh war enabled the dekinning and elimination of certain childhoods while the raped women were rekinned within…

  13. Digitalization of Education System and Teacher Educators' Computer Skill in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the incorporation and use of computer technology resources in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study encompasses the thorough investigation of teacher educators' "computer skills" by using the valid and reliable instruments. The study finally examined whether any…

  14. Study on rural duck production systems in selected areas of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanum, J.; Chwalibog, André; Huque, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate scavenging duck production systems in two regions (Netrokona Sadar Upazila and Sundargonj Upazila) of Bangladesh. Feeding systems and availability of feed for raising ducks, production performance of scaavenging ducks and profitability of raising...

  15. Prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases in cattle population of chittagong division, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alim, Md. Abdul; Das, Shubhagata; Roy, Krisna;

    2012-01-01

    A one year (2009-10) prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were...

  16. Bangladesh-China People’s Friendship Association Delegation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the CPAFFC, the Bangladesh-China People’s Friendship Association (BCPFA) delegation led by Murshed Chowdhury Manzur, patron of the BCPFA and former Bengali ambassador to China, visited Beijing, Shanghai and Yunnan from May 19 to 28.

  17. Community Learning Circles: Promoting Positive Development for Early Primary Children in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyson, Marilou; Hossain, Kamal; Chowdhury, Didarul Anam

    2010-01-01

    One of the poorest and most densely populated countries in the world, Bangladesh has faced many challenges during its almost 40-year history as an independent nation. Yet the country has recently made substantial progress in improving young children's survival and protection. It now provides health care, nutrition, immunization, and education…

  18. Identification and epidemiology of a rare HoBi-like pestivirus strain in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Rahman, M S; Khan, S U; Mikolon, A; Gurley, E S; Osmani, M G; Shanta, I S; Paul, S K; Macfarlane-Berry, L; Islam, A; Desmond, J; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Azim, T; Luby, S P; Zeidner, N; Rahman, M Z

    2014-06-01

    The genus pestivirus of the family flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), classical swine fever virus and border disease virus. A new putative pestivirus species tentatively named as either 'HoBi-like pestivirus' or BVDV-3 has recently been identified in Brazil, Italy and Thailand. Despite reports of serological evidence of BVDV in Bangladesh, the types of the virus circulating in cattle have not been identified. We conducted surveillance in cattle from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals to characterize BVDV in cattle of Bangladesh. We tested serum for BVDV using an antigen-capture ELISA. Of 638 cattle samples, 3% (16/638) tested positive for BVDV antigen. The ELISA-positive samples were selected for further molecular detection and characterization of BVDV. Molecular analysis of the partial 5' untranslated region (UTR) nucleotide sequences of BVDV-positive samples identified the rare HoBi-like pestivirus or BVDV-3 virus circulating in cattle of Bangladesh. The identification of this rare HoBi-like pestivirus or BVDV-3 strain in Bangladesh warrants further surveillance to evaluate its impact on livestock production.

  19. Student Motivation and Learning Strategies of Students from USA, China and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Quamrul

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the motivation and strategies used by students around the world, a comparative study among three different countries was performed. The current study used the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) questionnaire to collect responses from students in public and private universities of Bangladesh. The results…

  20. Institutional Arrangements in seasonal floodplain management under community-based Aquaculture in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, A.B.M.M.; Visser, L.E.; Dey Madan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal floodplains under private and public ownership in the Indo-Ganges river basin provide food and income for millions of people in Bangladesh. Floodplain ownership regimes are diverse, covering the whole spectrum from public to private ownership. The paper compares community-based fish culture

  1. Hospital-based Surveillance for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Among Young Children in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastanaduy, Paul A.; Islam, Khaleda; Rahman, Mahmudur; Rahman, Mustafizur; Luby, Stephen P.; Heffelfinger, James D.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Gurley, Emily S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In anticipation of introduction of a rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization program of Bangladesh, active hospital-based surveillance was initiated to provide prevaccine baseline data on rotavirus disease. Methods: Children 5 years of age and younger admitted with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) (≥3 watery or looser-than-normal stools or ≥1 episode of forceful vomiting) at 7 hospitals throughout Bangladesh were identified. Clinical information and stool specimens were collected from every 4th patient. Specimens were tested for rotavirus antigen by enzyme immunoassays; 25% of detected rotaviruses were genotyped. Results: From July 2012 to June 2015, rotavirus was detected in 2432 (64%) of 3783 children hospitalized for AGE. Eight enrolled children died, including 4 (50%) who were rotavirus positive. Rotavirus was detected year-round in Bangladesh with peak detection rates of >80% during November–February. Most (86%) rotavirus AGE cases were 6–23 months of age. Sixty-nine percent of children with rotavirus had severe disease (Vesikari score, ≥11). Among 543 strains genotyped, G1P[8] (31%) and G12P[8] (29%) were the most common. Conclusions: Rotavirus is a major cause of morbidity in Bangladeshi children, accounting for nearly two-thirds of AGE hospitalizations. These data highlight the potential value of rotavirus vaccination in Bangladesh, and will be the key for future measurement of vaccine impact. PMID:27798545

  2. Participatory Action Research in Marginalised Communities : safe drinking water in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rammelt, Crelis

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an example of an application of participatory action research (PAR) to the current crisis of arsenic poisoning in rural Bangladesh. The approach was used to link the author’s doctoral research with the work of the Arsenic Mitigation and Research Foundation (AMRF), a small group o

  3. Intercultural Exposure through English Language Teaching: An Analysis of an English Language Textbook in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqie, Shamsun Akhter

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of culture in foreign language textbooks is comparatively a new trend in English Language Teaching (ELT) which is based on the growing consensus that language textbooks should attempt to raise students' awareness of international culture as well as that of their own. Being influenced by this thought, Bangladesh too like many other…

  4. Variations of Quality of Work Life of Academic Professionals in Bangladesh: A Discriminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Md. Abu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this research was to analyze the key issues related to quality of work life (QWL), which have become increasingly important to HRD scholars and practitioners. In addition, the significant differences between the academic professionals of public and private universities in Bangladesh in terms of QWL were also addressed.…

  5. Radiation safety aspects in application of isotopes for industrial radiography in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakht, D. [Titas Gas Transmission and Distribution Company, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Industrial Radiography arose out of the widespread applications of X-rays pioneered by Roentgen about 100 years back. It is routinely used in studying the integrity of structural materials and like most countries in the world, its use in Bangladesh is increasing at a faster rate. This is because Bangladesh is a developing country of 3rd world and in the backdrop of agrarian poverty ridden economy, its population may exceed 125 millions by 2000 AD, leaving some 12 millions people unemployed. To support them, therefore, immense activities are activated in different sectors. Accordingly, increasing importance on NDT is given and in most cases particular application of Gamma radiography is preferred using Iridium Isotope Ir-192. Consequently the points of implications of isotopes are in Open Field and Inservice Inspection Radiography, Handling of Radiation Emergencies, Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials and Hazardous Effects and Risk of Ionizing Radiation, etc. Accordingly over exposure of Ir-192 Radionuclides, Accidents and Unusual Occurrences: Case Studies, Training Courses on Safety and Regulation of Sealed Sources, Licenses for Radiography Operation including Safe Disposal of Isotopes are the salient issues to be viewed in appropriate perspectives. The role played by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and Bangladesh Society for NDT in collaboration with other members of the international committee for NDT are furthering the safe industrialization process

  6. How does competition affect the performance of MFIs ? evidence from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Koolwal, Gayatri B.; Badruddoza, Syed

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Bangladesh has witnessed strong competition among microfinance institutions. Using program-level panel data from 2005-2010, this paper studies the microfinance institutions' recent competitive roles in their pricing of products, targeting strategies and portfolio shifts, as well as their ability to recover loans. The findings do not support the view that newer micro...

  7. Using remote sensing satellite data and artificial neural network for prediction of potato yield in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhand, Kawsar; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix

    2016-09-01

    Potato is one of the staple foods and cash crops in Bangladesh. It is widely cultivated in all of the districts and ranks second after rice in production. Bangladesh is the fourth largest potato producer in Asia and is among the world's top 15 potato producing countries. The weather condition for potato cultivation is favorable during the sowing, growing and harvesting period. It is a winter crop and is cultivated during the period of November to March. Bangladesh is mainly an agricultural based country with respect to agriculture's contribution to GDP, employment and consumption. Potato is a prominent crop in consideration of production, its internal demand and economic value. Bangladesh has a big economic activities related to potato cultivation and marketing, especially the economic relations among farmers, traders, stockers and cold storage owners. Potato yield prediction before harvest is an important issue for the Government and the stakeholders in managing and controlling the potato market. Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based satellite data product vegetation health indices VCI (vegetation condition index) and TCI (temperature condition index) are used as predictors for early prediction. Artificial neural network (ANN) is used to develop a prediction model. The simulated result from this model is encouraging and the error of prediction is less than 10%.

  8. Effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on impetigo in infants in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darmstadt, G.L.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Ahmed, S.; Feldman, C.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Baqui, A.H.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Fuchs, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine the effects of maternal zinc supplementation on skin infections among infants in poor urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted among 199 and 221 Bangladeshi infants whose mothers were administered 30 mg daily of zinc

  9. Deforestation, land conversion and illegal logging in Bangladesh: the case of the Sal (Shorea robusta forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh, with a forest cover estimated at 17.08% of all land surface area, has experienced massive degradation of its natural resources and a conside­rable change in its land cover. While deforestation in Bangladesh is obviously a complex issue, one important aspect emerges from previous research findings in explaining deforestation: industrialization. This study focuses on the causes of deforestation in Bangladesh, particularly in tropical moist deciduous Sal forests, using multi levels factor analysis framework. Data were collected through questionnaire surveys, formal and informal discussions with local people, expert interviews and literature reviews. The main findings of defore­station framework show that illegal logging and forest land conversion were the ultimate causes of Sal forests deforestation in Bangladesh. Illegal logging is a complex phenomenon and is being patronized by a local syndicate, functio­ning from behind the scenes. On the other hand, land conversion into different commercial activities has direct influence on national policy and the predispo­sing conditions of this country. Therefore, the immediate task of the nation would be to stop illegal logging and land conversion of Sal forests. This can be done by involving all relevant stakeholders in the form of effective forest policy formulation and execution of strict environmental protection law.

  10. Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1), Detected through Routine Surveillance, in Child, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, A.S.M.; Sultana, Rebecca; Islam, M. Saiful; Rahman, Mustafizur; Fry, Alicia M.; Shu, Bo; Lindstrom, Stephen; Nahar, Kamrun; Goswami, Doli; Haider, M. Sabbir; Nahar, Sharifun; Butler, Ebonee; Hancock, Kathy; Donis, Ruben O.; Davis, Charles T.; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Luby, Stephen P.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Rahman, Mahmudur

    2009-01-01

    We identified avian influenza virus A (H5N1) infection in a child in Bangladesh in 2008 by routine influenza surveillance. The virus was of the same clade and phylogenetic subgroup as that circulating among poultry during the period. This case illustrates the value of routine surveillance for detection of novel influenza virus. PMID:19751601

  11. Revisiting a Dream-Site of Liberation: The Case of Mukta Natak in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Jamil

    2011-01-01

    In 1984, a group of urban theatre activists of Bangladesh rejected their role as "traditional intellectuals", and sought to join the subaltern classes as "ideologues in action" by mobilising their knowledge and expertise on theatre in a manner that would animate those classes entwined in the exploitive infrastructure of the…

  12. Gynacantha subinterrupta Rambur, 1842: an addition to the odonates (Insecta: Odonata: Aeshnidae of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kawsar Khan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gynacantha subinterrupta Rambu 1842 is first time recorded from Bangladesh. The species is described from two male specimens collected from Tilagor Eco Park, Sylhet.  Description, identification keys and distribution range of the species is provided.  

  13. Subsurface iron and arsenic removal for drinking water treatment in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halem, D.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of shallow tube well drinking water is an urgent health problem in Bangladesh. Current arsenic mitigation solutions, including (household) arsenic removal options, do not always provide a sustainable alternative for safe drinking water. A novel technology, Subsurface Arsenic Re

  14. Risk assessment of pesticides used in rice-prawn concurrent systems in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Rico, Andreu; Horst, Ter Mechteld M.S.; Brink, Van den Paul J.; Haque, Mohammad Mahfujul; Rashid, Harunur

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the occupational health hazards posed by the application of pesticides in rice-prawn concurrent systems of south-west Bangladesh and to assess their potential risks for the aquatic ecosystems that support the culture of freshwater prawns (Macr

  15. Relationship between Remittance and Economic Growth in Bangladesh: an Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapan Chandra Majumder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the long-run impact of remittances on economic growth in Bangladesh. Bangladesh, being one of the top remittance-recipient countries in the world, has drawn attention to the remittance-output relationship in recent years. In 2014, remittances contributed to 8.2% of GDP of Bangladesh while the contribution was 6.7% in 2006. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the remittance on economic growth (GDP. We adopted Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL models or dynamic linear regressions are widely used to examine the relationship between remittances and economic growth in the country. In testing for the unit root properties of the time series data, all variables are found stationary at first differencing level under the ADF and PP stationary tests. The study made use of diagnostic tests such as the residual normality test, heteroskedacity and serial autocorrelation tests for misspecification in order to validate the parameter estimation outcomes achieved by the estimated model. The stability test of the model is also checked by CUSUM test. The ARDL model presents that there exist a statistically significant long run positive relationship between remittance and economic growth of gross domestic product in Bangladesh.

  16. Integrating ecosystem services and climate change responses in coastal wetlands development plans for Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarwar, M.H.; Hein, L.G.; Rip, F.I.; Dearing, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the integration of ecosystem services and climate change adaptation in development plans for coastal wetlands in Bangladesh. A new response framework for adaptation is proposed, based on an empirical analysis and consultations with stakeholders, using a modified version of the DP

  17. Defining and implementing arsenic policies in Bangladesh: possible roles for public and private sector actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Shakeel Ahmed Ibne; Ball, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    A UN report warned up to 50% of Bangladesh's population (57 million) are at risk of arsenic poisoning from naturally occurring arsenic in well water. This article explores how this problem occurred, assesses what factors impede progress eliminating this problem and recommends governmental measures for prevention of arsenic poisoning.

  18. Implementing CLT at Higher Secondary Level in Bangladesh: A Review of Change Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Shidur

    2015-01-01

    CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) was substituted for GTM (Grammar Translation Method) at higher secondary level in Bangladesh in 2001. This replacement of ELT method was a significant change in the English curriculum. This study aimed to determine that the mismanagement of the change is a prime cause of not getting expected CLT outcomes at…

  19. Communicative Language Teaching: A Practical Scenario in the Context of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md. Kawser

    2016-01-01

    Communicative Language Teaching, popularly known as CLT, has become a newly adopted methodology in the teaching and learning context of Bangladesh. This methodology, since the initiation, has encountered and is still encountering a number of hurdles that need to be dealt with best care and feasible strategy. Of all methods, most of the educational…

  20. The "Trainer in Your Pocket:" Mobile Phones within a Teacher Continuing Professional Development Program in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christopher S.; Power, Tom; Khatoon, Masuda; Biswas, Sudeb Kumar; Paul, Ashok Kumar; Sarkar, Bikash Chandra; Griffiths, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Examples of mobile phones being used with teachers to provide continuing professional development (CPD) in emerging economies at scale are largely absent from the research literature. We outline English in Action's (EIA) model for providing 80,000 teachers with CPD to improve their communicative language teaching in Bangladesh over nine years.…

  1. School-Based Teachers' Professional Development through Technology-Enhanced Learning in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohel, M. Mahruf C.; Banks, Frank

    2012-01-01

    To promote significant pedagogical change, the most successful teacher education programmes for the global south happen in the school context. This paper is based on a pre-pilot intervention study of an international education development programme in Bangladesh. Technology-enhanced learning, in this case the use of the Apple[R] iPod[R] (iPod…

  2. Representation and Dissemination of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Bangladesh through Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Chowdhury, Md Saiful Alam

    2016-01-01

    of strategically representing and diffusing ICH through social media, this research explores the current roles of social media in the transmission of ICH in the virtual world. The research question is: How are Baul song and Jamdani weaving as intangible cultural heritage of Bangladesh represented and disseminated...

  3. Communicative Language Teaching: A Practical Scenario in the Context of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kawser Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Communicative Language Teaching, popularly known as CLT, has become a newly adopted methodology in the teaching and learning context of Bangladesh. This methodology, since the initiation, has encountered and is still encountering a number of hurdles that need to be dealt with best care and feasible strategy. Of all methods, most of the educational institutes be- it secondary or higher secondary are inclined to accept and apply the CLT in classroom, though there has been a lack of resources, materials and language experts. Ignoring the reality, the policy makers would like to follow the other countries, though they are self-sufficient and self-dependent on their strategic plans and strong funds who have already executed CLT with success. This paper attempts to present the reality behind the implementation of CLT in the language teaching and learning environment and outlines the malpractices widely obvious in educational institutes of Bangladesh. This paper also focuses on the strategic points, data collection and analysis and probable remedy regarding the real picture of CLT in Bangladesh. Keywords: CLT, methodology, context, hurdles, Bangladesh

  4. Emergence and Distribution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A and O in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S P; Rahman, M Z; Momtaz, S; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Bangladesh and is predominantly due to FMDV serotype O. In 2012, FMD outbreaks were identified in five different districts of Bangladesh. Of 56 symptomatic cattle epithelial tissue samples, diagnostic PCR assay based on 5'-URT detected 38 FMDV infections. Viral genotyping targeting VP1-encoding region confirmed emergence of two distinct serotypes, A and O with an abundance of serotype A in Chittagong and Gazipur districts and serotype O in Pabna and Faridpur. Only single lineage of both A and O was retrieved from samples of five different regions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences revealed that serotype O sequences were closely related to the Ind 2001 sublineage of Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype that was previously circulating in Bangladesh, and serotype A sequences belonging to the genotype VII that was dominant in India during the last decade. The results suggest that extensive cross-border animal movement from neighbouring countries is the most likely source of FMDV serotypes in Bangladesh.

  5. Water consumption patterns in rural Bangladesh: are we underestimating total arsenic load?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Abul Hasnat; Rahman, Habibur; Smith, Wayne; Shrestha, Rupendra; Dear, Keith

    2006-12-01

    Risk related to the ingestion of any water contaminants depends on many factors, including the daily per capita amount of consumed water relative to body weight. This study explored the water consumption pattern of a rural arsenic-affected population in Bangladesh. The study findings are likely to contribute to the risk estimation attributable to ingestion of arsenic and other drinking water contaminants. A total of 640 individuals participated in this cross-sectional study carried out in an arsenic-affected rural population in Bangladesh. In this study daily per capita water consumption for drinking purposes was found to be 73.04 ml/kg/d (range = 71.24-74.84 ml/kg/d), which is higher than for both the US and Taiwan populations. This difference in per capita drinking water consumption might contribute to much higher lifetime cancer mortality and other morbidity risks from arsenic among the Bangladesh population compared to either the US or Taiwan populations. Arsenic is also ingested through cooking water which, if considered, might increase the risk further. The findings of this study highlight the urgent need for a holistic water supply programme for Bangladesh, with special emphasis on the arsenic-affected population.

  6. From Handpumps to Health: The Evolution of Water and Sanitation Programmes in Bangladesh, India and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maggie

    The case histories of water and sanitation schemes described in this volume can best be understood by identifying the moments at which critical hurdles were encountered and surmounted. The first case study, which concerns Bangladesh, discusses promising prospects that existed amid the pollution and the technical and managerial expansion of the…

  7. Marital disruption : Determinants and consequences on the lives of women in a rural area of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhuiya, A; Mushtaque, A; Chowdhury, R; Momen, M; Khatun, M

    2005-01-01

    This study, carried out during the second half of 1995, investigated the predisposing factors leading to marital disruption and its consequences on the lives of women in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Data were generated from detailed case st

  8. Economic contribution of participatory agroforestry program to poverty alleviation: a case from Sal forests, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, K.K.; Hoogstra, M.A.; Ullah, M.O.; Sato, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the Forest Department of Bangladesh, a Participatory Agroforestry Program (PAP) was initiated at a denuded Sal forests area to protect the forest resources and to alleviate poverty amongst the local poor population. We explored whether the PAP reduced poverty and what factors might be responsible

  9. Factors associated with the utilization of institutional delivery services in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Ekholuenetale, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Bangladesh has made remarkable progress towards reducing its maternal mortality rate (MMR) over the last two decades and is one of the few countries on track to achieving the MMR-related Millennium Development Goals (MDG-5A). However, the provision of universal access to reproductive healthcare (MDG-5B) and the utilization of maternal healthcare services (MHS) such as institutional delivery, which are crucial to the reduction of maternal mortality, are far behind the internationally agreed-upon target. Effective policymaking to promote the utilization of MHS can be greatly facilitated by the identification of the factors that hinder service uptake. In this study, we therefore aim to measure the prevalence of institutional delivery services and explore the factors associated with their utilization in Bangladesh. Methods Data for this study were extracted from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, 2011); participants were 7,313 women between the ages of 15 and 49 years, selected from both urban and rural households. Data were analyzed using Chi-square analysis, and conditional logistic regression. Results According to the findings, fewer than one in three women reported delivering at a health facility. The multivariable regression analysis showed that participants from rural areas were 46.9% less likely to have institutional deliveries compared to urban dwellers (OR = 0.531; pBangladesh could be aided by investments into education, poverty reduction and the strengthening of reproductive healthcare services through community clinics, with particular focus on rural areas. PMID:28192478

  10. Conflict and Livelihood Decisions in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Badiuzzaman (Muhammad); S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We analyse rural household livelihood and child school enrolment decisions in the post-conflict setting of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) region of Bangladesh. What makes this paper innovative is the use of current subjective perceptions regarding the possibility of v

  11. Rural Education in Bangladesh - Problems and Prospects. IIEP Seminar Paper: 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M.

    As a land of extreme rural poverty and illiteracy, Bangladesh needs to consciously promote, develop, and support local institutions and participatory leadership, involving local people in the planning, development, and implementation of developmental policies. Begun in 1959, the Comilla experiment constitutes the rationale for institutional…

  12. Rural Development in Bangladesh since Independence: A Study on Progress and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ismail Hossain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rural development has been the core focus of the Bangladesh economic policies since her independence. The rural sector is pivotal to the country‟s economic, social and political development. This paper examines the Bangladesh rural development policies, strategies and programs since Independence in 1971. Secondary data were used and collected from various sources especially from BBS and HIES. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as mean and percentage to reach the objectives. Results of this study show that the share of agricultural sector in the country‟s GDP has declined which is an indicator of a country‟s progress from an agriculture-based to an export-oriented economy. The success of the agricultural and rural programs in Bangladesh is reflected in the reduction in the poverty incidence in the rural sector from almost 54 percent in the 1983-84 to about 35 percent in 2009-10. Development efforts of Bangladesh are governed by the twin objectives of achieving growth with equity and reducing poverty. The government policy has to some extent achieved the intended results but poverty and inequality are still significant and apparent. Hence, rural development continues to be an important agenda to the country‟s development effort.

  13. Whether and where to Enrol? Choosing a Primary School in the Slums of Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Slums account for around a third of the population of Dhaka, Bangladesh, and are thought to be growing rapidly. But there is little in the research literature about education of children who live in slums and it is doubtful whether they are covered in official statistics such as those on enrolment rates. This paper addresses this gap with…

  14. English Language Teaching in Rural Areas: A Scenario and Problems and Prospects in Context of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Mahroof

    2016-01-01

    Language is one of the medium of expressing our ideas, feelings and emotions. And if we think about language in present world then English is one of the most used languages in the world and English is used as a second language in Bangladesh. English is introduced here at the primary level and its inclusion continues till the tertiary level of…

  15. Confronting Poverty and Educational Inequalities: Madrasas as a Strategy for Contesting Dominant Literacy in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nitya; Hossain, Munshi Israil

    2011-01-01

    In a context of globalisation and the rapid expansion of low-paid "global" jobs, formal schooling is no longer perceived as contributing to the acquisition of skills that are appropriate or even relevant to active engagement with the new opportunities. Based on empirical material from a village in Bangladesh, this paper explores the role…

  16. Perception of Education Quality in Private Universities of Bangladesh: A Study from Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akareem, Husain Salilul; Hossain, Syed Shahadat

    2012-01-01

    Quality of education has been a concern for decades. Gradually it is becoming more specialised and commercialised throughout the world. In this study a sample of 400 students were taken from the five renowned private universities of Bangladesh for measuring perception toward education quality of existing students. Principle component analysis was…

  17. Determinants of Quality Education in Private Universities from Student Perspectives: A Case Study in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Mohammad A.; Osman, Abu Zafar Rashed; Ratan, Sarker Rafij Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to identify the determinants that potentially influence quality education in private universities in Bangladesh. Design/methodology/approach: To attain this objective, 234 data were collected through face-to-face interviews on campus during February-March 2013 from Bachelor of Business Administration…

  18. Neoliberal Universities and the Education of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaruddin, Rdar M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the neoliberal impacts on higher education in Bangladesh, how market-driven policies might limit the education of arts, humanities and social sciences, and whether or not this phenomenon may have consequences for the future of democracy in the country. First, the author focuses on the privatisation of higher…

  19. Probabilistic Projections of Climate Change Impacts on the Agricultural Sector in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Major, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    We describe a novel approach to impact assessment that generates probabilistic distributions of climate change impacts by passing model and societal uncertainties in a continuous manner throughout the assessment process. Rather than driving impact models with conditions based upon summary statistics from an ensemble of global climate models (GCMs) or relying on a prescribed range of inputs, end-to-end assessment is conducted for a wide variety of GCMs and emissions scenarios. The resulting distribution of impacts may be used to elucidate internal dynamics of the system and to attach model and societal-based probabilities to individual outcomes. To demonstrate the method, preliminary results from a World Bank project on the effect of climate change on Bangladesh's agricultural sector are presented. Working with a wide range of collaborators in Bangladesh, 48 climate change scenarios (16 GCMs and 3 emissions scenarios) were generated from 2020-2100 for each of 16 regions in Bangladesh. These scenarios were then used to drive the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) biophysical model for major cereal crops. Output generated from a smaller subset of hydrologic and coastal model scenarios is then used to adjust the yield production to account for projected river floods in the Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna basin and coastal inundation from the Bay of Bengal, respectively. The result is a probabilistic distribution of agricultural impacts for Bangladesh that retains model and societal uncertainties throughout the assessment process.

  20. Working boys and girls at risk: child labour in urban Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieten, G.K.

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh, despite its commendable progress in terms of basic education, has not been able to deal with its child labour problem. There is no single approach to the eradication of the problem, but a better understanding of the reasons why children work, the conditions under which they work and the