Sample records for bangladesh india vietnam

  1. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Bangladesh, India and Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>At the invitation of the Bang-ladesh-China People’s Friendship Association (BCPFA), the Unity International Foundation of India (UIFI), the India-China Society and the Thai-Chinese Friendship Association (TCFA), from November 7 to 22, 2005, a CPAFFC delegation led by its Vice President Wang Yunze paid a visit to Bangladesh, India and Thailand, where they were accorded warm and friendly reception. The BCPFA attached great importance to the CPAFFC delegation’s visit.

  2. Floods in Northeast India and Bangladesh (United States)


    For the past two weeks floods have ravaged Bangladesh (center) and eastern India (draped around Bangladesh to the north), killing over 50 people and displacing hundreds of thousands from their homes. These false-color images acquired on July 15 and 16, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite show some of the worst flooding. The dark brown, swollen river in the images (top right on July 16; center on July 15) is the Brahmaputra River, which flows through the middle of the Indian state of Assam at the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains. A large, black area south of the Brahmaputra (partially obscured by clouds) shows flooded areas in Bangladesh. Floods of this magnitude have been known to occur in southern Bangladesh and are caused by storms washing seawater over coastal regions. This year, however, unrelenting torrential rains across the entire eastern sub-continent gave rise to the deluge. The massive amounts of rainwater that fell on Nepal and Assam drained into an already waterlogged eastern Bangladesh. Normally, the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines, and the large black patches in Bangladesh would be the color of the rest of the land surface, tan. In these false-color images, land is tan, and clouds are pink and white. Water comes across as black or dark brown, depending on its sediment level, with clearer water being closer to black. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi isolates from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam. (United States)

    Chiou, Chien-Shun; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Phung, Dac Cam; Watanabe, Haruo; Kuo, Jung-Che; Wang, Pei-Jen; Liu, Yen-Yi; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Chen, Pei-Chen


    We characterized Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam to investigate their genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance. The isolates from Bangladesh and Vietnam were genetically closely related but were distant from those from Indonesia and Taiwan. All but a few isolates from Indonesia and Taiwan were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. The majority of isolates from Bangladesh and Vietnam were multidrug resistant (MDR) and belonged to the widespread haplotype H58 clone. IncHI1 plasmids were detected in all MDR S. Typhi isolates from Vietnam but in only 15% of MDR isolates from Bangladesh. Resistance genes in the majority of MDR S. Typhi isolates from Bangladesh should reside in the chromosome. Among the isolates from Bangladesh, 82% and 40% were resistant to various concentrations of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Several resistance mechanisms, including alterations in gyrase A, the presence of QnrS, and enhanced efflux pumps, were involved in the reduced susceptibility and resistance to fluoroquinolones. Intensive surveillance is necessary to monitor the spread of chromosome-mediated MDR and fluoroquinolone-resistant S. Typhi emerging in Bangladesh.


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    S. K.S. YADAV


    Full Text Available The importance of improving trade flows between India and Bangladesh is not only beneficial to them, but for the whole SAARC region, given that Bhutan and Nepal utilise Bangladesh ports as gateways to trade outside the region. Bangladesh’s overall exports are dominated by labour-intensive manufacturing and its imports to India by primary commodities. The shares of manufactured goods in country’s overall export were about 92 and 91 percent in 2001 and 2011 respectively. However, the composition of bilateral trade between these two countries has been changing over time. Addition and removal in the list of products of trade basket is a usual process. Consistent products in the trade basket of Bangladesh are ready made garments and sea food, whereas those of India are raw cotton, cereals and products and machinery of iron and steel. Expansion of trade of these countries with outside world, but not with each other confirms the prevalence of certain barriers, physical or non-physical in nature, rendering many potential products remain untraded. India and Bangladesh being geographically proximate to each other possess huge scope to trade. Specifically as both the countries are rich in natural resources and are competent in the production of small-scale manufacturing and agrarian supplies, mostly from the eastern parts of India and Bangladesh, both possess huge potential for bilateral trade. Many items having high trade potential are still not able to get market exposure in the neighbouring country because of various non-tariff barriers prevailing in current trade scenario, which have hiked up the cost of doing business to unacceptable proportions and as most of the highly tradable products are still kept under the sensitive lists of Bangladesh. There are numerous bottlenecks in the current trade infrastructure which turns out to be physical barrier to trade. The present paper highlights the import export and Exchange Rate change and prospects of

  5. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  6. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  7. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.


    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  8. After Access: Divergent Learning Profiles in Vietnam and India (United States)

    Rolleston, Caine; James, Zoe


    In recent decades, both India and Vietnam have successfully expanded access to schooling to near-universal levels and have shifted their focus to quality-oriented policy reform. Yet, international and national evidence shows strongly contrasting learning profiles for children within the two systems. Simple indicators of numeracy suggest similar…

  9. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... concerning the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would...

  10. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam....


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    Imran Shahzad


    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the impact of currency devaluation on exports of three major economies of South Asian (i.e., Pakistan, Bangladesh and India over the period 1980 to 2012, by implementing the multiple regression models. Results reveales that currency devaluation encourages exports of Pakistan and Bangladesh. Lending interest rate significant negative effect in Pakistan and Bangladesh but insignificant in India. Government expenditure encouraged the export of Pakistan while not significaant in Bangladesh while depress in India. Money supply also enhanced the export of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. Result suggest that concerned authorities should manage and use the resources properly in such a way which may assist to develop the economies.

  12. Seed-borne viruses detected on farm-retained seeds from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.; Mortensen, C A Nieves Paulino


    esculentum Mill.), paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), bambara [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam were tested for seed-borne viruses using various techniques including...

  13. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the... imports from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... Commission following notification of preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of frozen...

  14. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam (United States)


    ... (Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission... (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on...

  15. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21.10 and... of frozen warmwater shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and...


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    Jhimly Das


    Full Text Available Being part of the Indian subcontinent both the North Eastern region of India and the Bangladesh share a long common cultural, economic and political history. One of the most critical problems of developing countries like India as well as Bangladesh is their enormous increase in human population. Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR of India is 48.3 and that of Bangladesh is 53.8. As the large majority of population of both the countries belong to rural area, the family planning programmes have largely remained unsuccessful because of many factors including lack of availability of contraceptive drugs in rural markets, lack of accessibility of rural people to medical personnel as well as the lack of acceptability of synthetic drugs due to various socio-cultural and religious perceptions prevailing among many ethnic communities. These contributed to a growing interest among researchers in developing contraceptives of natural origin and at present natural herbal contraception have become one of the major focuses of modern contraceptive research. Since time immemorial herbal drugs are being practiced by various rural communities and ethnic tribes in North East India as well as in Bangladesh, and hence the acceptability of herbal contraceptives is expected to be much higher among rural folk. In different parts of North East India and Bangladesh, ethnic communities are using plant based medicinal products till today. This study aims at highlighting the contraceptive property of some plants found in North-Eastern India as well as in Bangladesh.

  17. 76 FR 78313 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded carbon- quality steel pipe, provided for in... of India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec....

  18. Preliminary studies on trace element contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in India and Vietnam (United States)

    Agusa, T.; Kunito, T.; Nakashima, E.; Minh, T. B.; Tanabe, S.; Subramanian, A.; Viet, P. H.


    The disposal of wastes in dumping sites has increasingly caused concem about adverse health effects on the populations living nearby. However, no investigation has been conducted yet on contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in Asian developing countries. In this study, concentrations of 11 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb and Pb) were detennined in scalp hair from the population living nearby and in soil from dumping sites and control sites of India and Vietnam. Soil samples in dumping site in India showed significantly higher concentrations of some trace elements than soils in control site, whereas this trend was not notable in Vietnam. This is probably due to the fact that the wastes were covered with the soil in the dumping site of Vietnam. Cadmium concentrations in some hair samples of people living near dumping site in India and Vietnam exceeded the level associated with learning disorder in children. Levels of most of the trace elements in hair were significantly higher in dumping site than those in control site in India and Vietnam, suggesting direct or indirect exposure to those elements from dumping wastes. To our knowledge, this is the first study of trace element contamination in dumping sites in India and Vietnam.

  19. Civil Airlines/Air Services in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Volumes 1 thru 4. (United States)


    Calcutta-Dacca-Chittagong. The Indian subcontinent was partitioned into India and Pakistan in 1947; Bangladesh formed the eastern wing of Pakistan. Because...aircraft on following occasions: - Evacuation of refugees immediately after the partition of India and Pakistan during which period Indian civil aviation...year earlier to October 1946, when Mohammad Ali Jinnah , the founder of Pakistan, formed the Muslim-owned Orient Airways Limited in Calcutta. The

  20. 77 FR 37711 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... (United States)


    ... detailed scope language, see 77 FR 19635, April 2, 2012. For further information concerning the conduct of... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...-fair-value imports from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded...

  1. 'Lived Islam' in India and Bangladesh: negotiating religion to realise reproductive aspirations. (United States)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Hutter, Inge


    This paper seeks to answer the question of how Muslim women interpret and negotiate religion in order to realise their reproductive aspirations. A close reading of lived experiences of 32 Muslim women from a varied educational background yields a wider perspective of the different interpretations of reproductive norms employed by adherents of the same religion (Islam), situated in two countries (India/Bangladesh) and group (majority/minority) contexts. Further, this comparative study yields a deeper understanding of agency that is employed by Muslim participants in each country. Muslim women - both in India and Bangladesh - are not passive followers of religious norms, but have agency to bring change in their own life and take an active role in planning their family, thereby transgressing religious norms in reproductive matters. Muslim women in India exercise their agency by adopting sterilisation - a method proscribed by Islam - without the knowledge of their significant others. Muslim women in Bangladesh use their agency by making a flexible interpretation of Islam in reproductive matters. A lesson learned from this comparative study is the need to remove barriers that prevent the adoption of contraceptives by Muslim minorities in India and to design family planning programmes that takes into account their religious needs.

  2. Growth and pattern of intra-industry trade between India and Bangladesh: 1975–2010

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    Kumar Sushil


    Full Text Available The present study investigates the intra-industry trade between India and Bangladesh over the period of 1975 to 2010. GL index is used to calculate intraindustry trade at the three-digit level of SITC. The study also calculated the trade complementarity index, and revealed comparative index. The extent of intra-industry trade is high in sectors like crude materials, inedible, except fuels, food and live animals. The study also reveals mismatch between Indian imports and Bangladesh exports. The present study indicates positive effect on consumer surplus and trade using SMART model. Finally, the paper suggests that Bangladesh should diversify his export structure to reduce the bilateral trade deficit on the basis of comparative advantage

  3. 76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the.... 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China...\\ Commissioner Daniel R. Pearson determines that revocation of the antidumping duty orders covering...

  4. 78 FR 50110 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Commission Determination To Deny a Request To Hold a Portion of a Hearing In Camera AGENCY:...

  5. Genetically modified food and international trade: The case of India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines



    "Genetically modified (GM) food crops have the potential to raise agricultural productivity in Asian countries, but they are also associated with the risk of market access losses in sensitive importing countries. We study the potential effects of introducing GM food crops in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines in the presence of trade-related regulations of GM food in major importers. We focus on GM field crops (rice, wheat, maize, soybeans, and cotton) resistant to biotic and a...

  6. Evaluating large-scale teacher professional development programmes: English in Action (Bangladesh) & TESS-India


    Burton, Sonia; Moore, Rhiannon


    This paper presents the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) frameworks of two large-scale UKaid-funded teacher development programmes – English in Action (EIA) (Bangladesh) and TESS-India – both of which look to improve the quality of school-based teaching. EIA focuses on the subject of English, while TESS-India works across eight subjects. The Open University (UK) is an implementation partner in both programmes.\\ud \\ud Given the common goal (improving teaching quality), the programmes’ M&E frame...

  7. India-China Rivalry and Strategic Options for Bangladesh (United States)


    Indian Ocean surfaced as a new form of dispute between these two countries. The spillover effect of this rivalry impacts the regional small states...growth of both India and China, the strategic context of South Asia is likely to be more volatile . As such, Bangladeshi policy makers have to be very...conflicts had surfaced in various regions of the world, of which South Asia is the most volatile . According to Paul, due to the prolonged colonial

  8. Patterns of use and perceptions of harm of smokeless tobacco in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh

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    Seema Mutti


    Full Text Available Background: Globally, smokeless tobacco use is disproportionately concentrated in low-income and middle-income countries like India and Bangladesh. Objectives: The current study examined comparative patterns of use and perceptions of harm for different smokeless tobacco products among adults and youth in Navi Mumbai, India, and Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: Face-to-face interviews were conducted on tablets with adult (19 years and older smokeless tobacco users and youth (16–18 years users and non-users in Navi Mumbai (n = 1002, and Dhaka (n = 1081. Results: A majority (88.9% of smokeless tobacco users reported daily use. Approximately one-fifth (20.4% of the sample were mixed-users (used both smoked and smokeless tobacco, of which about half (54.4% reported that they primarily used smokeless over smoked forms like cigarettes or bidis. The proportion of users planning to quit was higher in India than in Bangladesh (75.7% vs. 49.8%p “ 0.001. Gutkha was the most commonly used smokeless product in India, and pan masala in Bangladesh. Among users in Bangladesh, the most commonly reported reason for using their usual product was the belief that it was “less harmful” than other types. Perceptions of harm also differed with respect to a respondent’s usual product. Bangladeshi respondents reported more negative attitudes toward smokeless tobacco compared to Indian respondents. Conclusions: The findings highlight the high daily use of smokeless tobacco, and the high prevalence of false beliefs about its harms. This set of findings reinforces the need to implement effective tobacco control strategies in low and middle-income countries like India and Bangladesh.

  9. Active case detection in national visceral leishmaniasis elimination programs in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal: feasibility, performance and costs

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    Huda M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active case detection (ACD significantly contributes to early detection and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL cases and is cost effective. This paper evaluates the performance and feasibility of adapting ACD strategies into national programs for VL elimination in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Methods The camp search and index case search strategies were piloted in 2010-11 by national programs in high and moderate endemic districts / sub-districts respectively. Researchers independently assessed the performance and feasibility of these strategies through direct observation of activities and review of records. Program costs were estimated using an ingredients costing method. Results Altogether 48 camps (Bangladesh-27, India-19, Nepal-2 and 81 index case searches (India-36, Nepal-45 were conducted by the health services across 50 health center areas (Bangladesh-4 Upazillas, India-9 PHCs, Nepal-37 VDCs. The mean number of new case detected per camp was 1.3 and it varied from 0.32 in India to 2.0 in Bangladesh. The cost (excluding training costs of detecting one new VL case per camp varied from USD 22 in Bangladesh, USD 199 in Nepal to USD 320 in India. The camp search strategy detected a substantive number of new PKDL cases. The major challenges faced by the programs were inadequate preparation, time and resources spent on promoting camp awareness through IEC activities in the community. Incorrectly diagnosed splenic enlargement at camps probably due to poor clinical examination skills resulted in a high proportion of patients being subjected to rK39 testing. Conclusion National programs can adapt ACD strategies for detection of new VL/PKDL cases. However adequate time and resources are required for training, planning and strengthening referral services to overcome challenges faced by the programs in conducting ACD.

  10. Association between gap in spousal education and domestic violence in India and Bangladesh

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    Rapp Daniel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic violence (DV against women is a serious human rights abuse and well recognised global public health concern. The occurrence of DV is negatively associated with the educational level of spouses but studies dealing with educational discrepancies of spouses show contradicting results: Wives with higher education than their husbands were more likely to ever experience DV as compared to equally educated couples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between spousal education gap (SEG and the prevalence and severity of DV in India and Bangladesh. Methods Nationally representative data collected through the 2005/2006 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 and 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS were used. In total, we analysed data of 69,805 women aged 15–49 years (Bangladesh: 4,195 women, India: 65,610 women. In addition to univariate and bivariable analyses, a multinomial logistic regression model was used to quantify the association between education gap and less severe as well as severe domestic violence. Adjustment was made for age, religion, and family structure. Results Wives with higher education than their husbands were less likely to experience less severe (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77–0.89 and severe (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72–0.87 DV as compared to equally low-educated spouses (reference group. Equally high-educated couples revealed the lowest likelihood of experiencing DV (severe violence: OR 0.43, CI 0.39–0.48; less severe violence: OR 0.59, CI 0.55–0.63. The model’s goodness of fit was low (Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.152. Conclusions Our analysis revealed no increased DV among wives with a higher educational level than their husbands. Moreover, the results point towards a decrease of severe violence with an increase in education levels among spouses. However, the model did not explain a satisfying amount of DV. Therefore, further research should be

  11. Contesting heteronormativity: the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition in India and Vietnam. (United States)

    Horton, Paul; Rydstrøm, Helle; Tonini, Maria


    Recent public debates about sexuality in India and Vietnam have brought the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people sharply into focus. Drawing on legal documents, secondary sources and ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the urban centres of Delhi and Hanoi, this article shows how the efforts of civil society organisations dedicated to the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender rights have had different consequences in these two Asian contexts. The paper considers how these organisations navigated government regulations about their formation and activities, as well as the funding priorities of national and international agencies. The HIV epidemic has had devastating consequences for gay men and other men who have sex with men, and has been highly stigmatising. As a sad irony, the epidemic has provided at the same time a strategic entry point for organisations to struggle for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition. This paper examines how the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition has been doubly framed through health-based and rights-based approaches and how the struggle for recognition has positioned lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in India and Vietnam differently.

  12. Modelling the impact of sanitation, population growth and urbanization on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters—a case study for Bangladesh and India (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lucie C.; de Kraker, Jelske; Hofstra, Nynke; Kroeze, Carolien; Medema, Gertjan


    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that can cause diarrhoea. Human faeces are an important source of Cryptosporidium in surface waters. We present a model to study the impact of sanitation, urbanization and population growth on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters. We build on a global model by Hofstra et al (2013 Sci. Total Environ. 442 10-9) and zoom into Bangladesh and India as illustrative case studies. The model is most sensitive to changes in oocyst excretion and infection rate, and to assumptions on the share of faeces reaching the surface water for different sanitation types. We find urban centres to be hotspots of human Cryptosporidium emissions. We estimate that 53% (Bangladesh) and 91% (India) of total emissions come from urban areas. 50% of oocysts come from only 8% (Bangladesh) and 3% (India) of the country area. In the future, population growth and urbanization may further deteriorate water quality in Bangladesh and India, despite improved sanitation. Under our ‘business as usual’ (‘sanitation improvements’) scenario, oocyst emissions will increase by a factor 2.0 (1.2) for India and 2.9 (1.1) for Bangladesh between 2010 and 2050. Population growth, urbanization and sanitation development are important processes to consider for large scale water quality modelling.

  13. A Review on Different Currency Recognition System for Bangladesh India China and Euro Currency

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    Ahmed Ali Abbasi


    Full Text Available Paper currency recognition is one of the important applications of pattern recognition. This application is used to recognize the currency of different countries. Currency recognition system can be used in many places like Hotels, Shops and Automated Teller Machines etc. The currency recognition system should be able to classify this paper currency to the correct class of paper currencies to which it belongs. This paper represents currency recognition system of different countries using different techniques. The paper represents recognition system of different countries like Bangladesh, China, India and recognition system for Euro currency. Different techniques are used to develop these systems like Bangladeshi Currency Recognition System using Negatively Correlated Neural Network, Bangladeshi Currency Recognition System Using Neural Network with Axis Symmetrical Masks and Chinese Currency Recognition System based on BP (Back Propagation Neural Network Improved by Gene Algorithm, Chinese Currency Recognition by Neural Network, Chinese Currency Recognition based on LBP (Local Binary Pattern. Indian Currency Recognition System based on Heuristic Analysis and Recognition System for Euro using New Recognition Method. This paper represents currency recognition system of different countries and method used to develop these systems.

  14. Estimation of regional-scale groundwater flow properties in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh (United States)

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.


    Quantitative evaluation of management strategies for long-term supply of safe groundwater for drinking from the Bengal Basin aquifer (India and Bangladesh) requires estimation of the large-scale hydrogeologic properties that control flow. The Basin consists of a stratified, heterogeneous sequence of sediments with aquitards that may separate aquifers locally, but evidence does not support existence of regional confining units. Considered at a large scale, the Basin may be aptly described as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity. Though data are sparse, estimation of regional-scale aquifer properties is possible from three existing data types: hydraulic heads, 14C concentrations, and driller logs. Estimation is carried out with inverse groundwater modeling using measured heads, by model calibration using estimated water ages based on 14C, and by statistical analysis of driller logs. Similar estimates of hydraulic conductivities result from all three data types; a resulting typical value of vertical anisotropy (ratio of horizontal to vertical conductivity) is 104. The vertical anisotropy estimate is supported by simulation of flow through geostatistical fields consistent with driller log data. The high estimated value of vertical anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity indicates that even disconnected aquitards, if numerous, can strongly control the equivalent hydraulic parameters of an aquifer system. ?? US Government 2009.

  15. Does parental migration really benefit left-behind children? Comparative evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. (United States)

    Viet Nguyen, Cuong


    Millions of children are left behind when their parents migrate from home to another place. This study examines whether parental migration can affect health and cognitive ability of left-behind children aged at 5-8 years old in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. It uses data on 7725 children in the four countries collected from Young Lives surveys in 2007 and 2009. It finds that although parental migration helps families increase per capita consumption, it does not improve health and cognitive ability of children. The effect of parental migration varies across different countries and different types of migration. In Ethiopia, parental migration does not have a significant effect on children. However, parental migration reduces health outcomes of children in other three countries and decreases cognitive ability test scores in India and Vietnam. The negative effect on children tends to be higher for long-term parental migration than short-term parental migration.

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis elimination programme in India, Bangladesh, and Nepal: reshaping the case finding/case management strategy.

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    Dinesh Mondal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate visceral leishmaniasis (VL burden in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal and document care-seeking behaviour for VL to provide baseline information for monitoring the VL elimination program and identify options for improved case finding and management. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using cluster sampling (clusters being villages of 4 VL endemic districts was used in order to document all current and existing VL cases over the preceding 12 mo. Extended (in-depth interviews were conducted in a subsample of households to explore (a VL-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the population; (b use of VL care by patients; and (c delay between onset of symptoms, diagnosis, and start of treatment, as well as treatment interruption. Findings were discussed with national program managers and policy makers to develop improved strategies. RESULTS: Screening for VL was done in 18,933 households (106,425 inhabitants. The estimated annual incidence of VL in the endemic districts was on average 22 times higher than the elimination target of less than one case per 10,000 inhabitants in 2015. This incidence varied widely between study sites, from 9.0 to 29.8 per 10,000 inhabitants. The percentage of newly detected cases through the household screening was high in the districts least covered by health-care services (particularly Rajshahi, Bangladesh, 49%; and to a lesser extent Vaishali in Bihar, India, 32.5%, and much lower in districts with greater availability of VL care (Muzaffarpur, India, 3.8%. On average 267 houses had to be visited, i.e., at least three to four working days per health worker, to identify a new VL (ranging from 1,432 houses in Muzaffarpur, India to only 166 houses in Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Knowledge of the disease and its vectors was good in India and Nepal but poor in Bangladesh (Rajshahi where very little attention has been given to VL over the last decades. Although all socio-demographic indicators

  17. Comparison of dissolved and particulate arsenic distributions in shallow aquifers of Chakdaha, India, and Araihazar, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kazi M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of the spatial variability of dissolved As concentrations in shallow aquifers of the Bengal Basin remains poorly understood. To address this, we compare here transects of simultaneously-collected groundwater and aquifer solids perpendicular to the banks of the Hooghly River in Chakdaha, India, and the Old Brahmaputra River in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Results Variations in surface geomorphology mapped by electromagnetic conductivity indicate that permeable sandy soils are associated with underlying aquifers that are moderately reducing to a depth of 10–30 m, as indicated by acid-leachable Fe(II/Fe ratios 5 mg L-1. More reducing aquifers are typically capped with finer-grained soils. The patterns suggest that vertical recharge through permeable soils is associated with a flux of oxidants on the banks of the Hooghly River and, further inland, in both Chakdaha and Araihazar. Moderately reducing conditions maintained by local recharge are generally associated with low As concentrations in Araihazar, but not systematically so in Chakdaha. Unlike Araihazar, there is also little correspondence in Chakdaha between dissolved As concentrations in groundwater and the P-extractable As content of aquifer particles, averaging 191 ± 122 ug As/L, 1.1 ± 1.5 mg As kg-1 (n = 43 and 108 ± 31 ug As/L, 3.1 ± 6.5 mg As kg-1 (n = 60, respectively. We tentatively attribute these differences to a combination of younger floodplain sediments, and therefore possibly more than one mechanism of As release, as well as less reducing conditions in Chakdaha compared to Araihazar. Conclusion Systematic dating of groundwater and sediment, combined with detailed mapping of the composition of aquifer solids and groundwater, will be needed to identify the various mechanisms underlying the complex distribution of As in aquifers of the Bengal Basin.

  18. Hygiene on maternity units: lessons from a needs assessment in Bangladesh and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Cross


    Full Text Available Background: As the proportion of deliveries in health institutions increases in low- and middle-income countries, so do the challenges of maintaining standards of hygiene and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs in mothers and babies. Adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH and infection prevention and control (IPC in these settings should be seen as integral parts of the broader domain of quality care. Assessment approaches are needed which capture standards for both WASH and IPC, and so inform quality improvement processes. Design: A needs assessment was conducted in seven maternity units in Gujarat, India, and eight in Dhaka Division, Bangladesh in 2014. The WASH & CLEAN study developed and applied a suite of tools – a ‘walkthrough checklist’ which included the collection of swab samples, a facility needs assessment tool and document review, and qualitative interviews with staff and recently delivered women – to establish the state of hygiene as measured by visual cleanliness and the presence of potential pathogens, and individual and contextual determinants or drivers. Results: No clear relationship was found between visually assessed cleanliness and the presence of pathogens; findings from qualitative interviews and the facility questionnaire found inadequacies in IPC training for healthcare providers and no formal training at all for ward cleaners. Lack of written policies and protocols, and poor monitoring and supervision also contributed to suboptimal IPC standards. Conclusions: Visual assessment of cleanliness and hygiene is an inadequate marker for ‘safety’ in terms of the presence of potential pathogens and associated risk of infection. Routine environmental screening of high-risk touch sites using simple microbiology could improve detection and control of pathogens. IPC training for both healthcare providers and ward cleaners represents an important opportunity for quality improvement. This should

  19. Neither Here nor There : An Overview of South-South Migration from both ends of the Bangladesh-India Migration Corridor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Joseph (Jolin); V. Narendran (Vishnu)


    textabstractThis review essay draws on a survey of available literature to explore key themes, dimensions and opportunities for future research on South-South Migration flows. Through an analysis of the Bangladesh-India migration corridor, the paper attempts to explore nuances in South-South migrati

  20. Molecular characterization of peste-des-petits ruminants virus (PPRV) isolated from an outbreak in the Indo-Bangladesh border of Tripura state of North-East India. (United States)

    Muthuchelvan, Dhanavelu; De, Ankan; Debnath, Bikas; Choudhary, Dheeraj; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Rajak, Kaushal Kishore; Sudhakar, Shashi Bhusan; Himadri, Divakar; Pandey, Awadh Bihari; Parida, Satya


    Peste-des-petits- ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and devastating disease of goats and sheep. Although India is endemic for PPR, Tripura, a state in North East India has never been reported confirmed PPR outbreaks. Recently, an outbreak of PPR occurred in non-descript goats at the Sabroom town of Tripura state in North-East India in June, 2013. The causative agent, PPR virus (PPRV) was confirmed by sandwich ELISA, virus isolation and N gene based RT-PCR and sequencing. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the involvement of lineage IV PPR virus in the outbreak. The outbreak viruses from Tripura state were clustered mainly with circulating viruses from Bangladesh, India, China, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Dubai and Kurdistan. However, the nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 99.2 to 99.6% with the PPR strains circulating in Bangladesh during 2011 and 2012 whereas 95.5-98% homology has been observed with the viruses from India and other countries. These findings suggest the transboundary circulation of PPR virus between India and Bangladesh border, which warrant immediate vaccination across the international border to create an immune belt.

  1. Geologic, geomorphic and hydrologic framework and evolution of the Bengal basin, India and Bangladesh (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E.; Thomas, William A.


    The Bengal basin, the largest fluvio-deltaic sedimentary system on Earth, is located in Bangladesh and three eastern states of India. Sediment accumulates in the basin from the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna (GBM) river systems and is dispersed into the Bay of Bengal, forming the largest submarine fan in the world. The basin is located in the Himalayan foreland at the junction of the Indian, Eurasian, and Burmese plates. The basin is bounded by the Indian craton on the west and the Indo-Burmese fold belts on the east. It can be broadly divided into a stable shelf and a foredeep separated by a deep seismic hinge zone. Basin sediments overlie Gondwanan basement and vary in thickness from a few kilometers on the stable shelf to more than 16 km in the foredeep. The basin was initiated at the breakup of Gondwanaland in the late Mesozoic and evolved through the formation of the proto-GBM delta to the present delta starting around 10.5 Ma. The stratigraphy of the different parts of the basin differs considerably, because of contrast in depositional history within the several sub-basins that were produced by intra-plate tectonic activities associated with ongoing Himalayan orogeny. The present-day geomorphology is dominated by the extensive Holocene GBM floodplain and delta. The vertical succession of the deltaic plain can be classified into five units on the basis of differences in grain size, which reflect differing depositional environments. The initiation of the modern GBM delta at the onset of the Pleistocene glacial maximum and its evolution to the present configuration are intricately related to Holocene fluvio-dynamic processes, eustatic sea-level changes, and tectonic movements. The sedimentology and mineralogy of the different parts of the basin reflect differences in sediment provenance. The mineralogy is dominated by detrital quartz, some feldspar, and minor amounts of carbonates; illite and kaolinite are the main clay minerals. The basin has profuse

  2. A simple model for post-landfall intensity changes of tropical cyclone over India, Bangladesh and Myanmar coasts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C M Kishtawal; Shivani Shah; Sashmita Chaurasia; Neeru Jaiswal


    Using JTWC (Joint Typhoon Warning Center) best track analysis data for the Indian Ocean cyclones, we developed an empirical equation for prediction of maximum surface wind speed of tropical cyclones during first 6–12 hours of landfall along the coastline of Indian subcontinent. A non-linear data fitting approach, the Genetic Algorithm, has been used to develop the above empirical equation using data for 74 tropical cyclones that made landfall on the coasts of India, Bangladesh and Myanmar during the period 1978–2011. For an out of sample validation test, the mean absolute error of the prediction was found to be 5.2 kt, and a correlation of 0.97. Our analysis indicates that time-integration of land area intercepted by cyclones during the landfall is a better predictor of post-landfall intensity compared to post-landfall time span. This approach also helps to tackle the complexity of coastline geometry of Indian subcontinent area.

  3. Chemical and environmental vector control as a contribution to the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian subcontinent: cluster randomized controlled trials in Bangladesh, India and Nepal

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    Das Pradeep


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh, India and Nepal are working towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL by 2015. In 2005 the World Health Organization/Training in Tropical Diseases launched an implementation research programme to support integrated vector management for the elimination of VL from Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The programme is conducted in different phases, from proof-of-concept to scaling up intervention. This study was designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the three different interventions for VL vector management: indoor residual spraying (IRS; long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN; and environmental modification (EVM through plastering of walls with lime or mud. Methods Using a cluster randomized controlled trial we compared three vector control interventions with a control arm in 96 clusters (hamlets or neighbourhoods in each of the 4 study sites: Bangladesh (one, India (one and Nepal (two. In each site four villages with high reported VL incidences were included. In each village six clusters and in each cluster five households were randomly selected for sand fly collection on two consecutive nights. Control and intervention clusters were matched with average pre-intervention vector densities. In each site six clusters were randomly assigned to each of the following interventions: indoor residual spraying (IRS; long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN; environmental management (EVM or control. All the houses (50-100 in each intervention cluster underwent the intervention measures. A reduction of intra-domestic sand fly densities measured in the study households by overnight US Centres for Disease Prevention and Control light trap captures (that is the number of sand flies per trap per night was the main outcome measure. Results IRS, and to a lesser extent EVM and LLINs, significantly reduced sand fly densities for at least 5 months in the study households irrespective of type of walls or whether or

  4. Consensus recommendation for India and Bangladesh for the use of pneumococcal vaccine in mass gatherings with special reference to Hajj pilgrims

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    Dilip Mathai


    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections are prevalent among Hajj pilgrims with pneumonia being a leading cause of hospitalization. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common pathogen isolated from patients with pneumonia and respiratory tract infections during Hajj. There is a significant burden of pneumococcal disease in India, which can be prevented. Guidelines for preventive measures and adult immunization have been published in India, but the implementation of the guidelines is low. Data from Bangladesh are available about significant mortality due to respiratory infections; however, literature regarding guidelines for adult immunization is limited. There is a need for extensive awareness programs across India and Bangladesh. Hence, there was a general consensus about the necessity for a rapid and urgent implementation of measures to prevent respiratory infections in pilgrims traveling to Hajj. About ten countries have developed recommendations for pneumococcal vaccination in Hajj pilgrims: France, the USA, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, the UAE (Dubai Health Authority, Singapore, Malaysia, Egypt, and Indonesia. At any given point whether it is Hajj or Umrah, more than a million people are present in the holy places of Mecca and Madina. Therefore, the preventive measures taken for Hajj apply for Umrah as well. This document puts forward the consensus recommendations by a group of twenty doctors following a closed-door discussion based on the scientific evidence available for India and Bangladesh regarding the prevention of respiratory tract infections in Hajj pilgrims.

  5. Climate Variability over India and Bangladesh from the Perturbed UK Met Office Hadley Model: Impacts on Flow and Nutrient Fluxes in the Ganges Delta System (United States)

    Whitehead, P. G.; Caesar, J.; Crossman, J.; Barbour, E.; Ledesma, J.; Futter, M. N.


    A semi-distributed flow and water quality model (INCA- Integrated Catchments Model) has been set up for the whole of the Ganges- Brahmaputra- Meghna (GBM) River system in India and Bangladesh. These massive rivers transport large fluxes of water and nutrients into the Bay of Bengal via the GBM Delta system in Bangladesh. Future climate change will impact these fluxes with changing rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration and soil moisture deficits being altered in the catchment systems. In this study the INCA model has been used to assess potential impacts of climate change using the UK Met Office Hadley Centre GCM model linked to a regionally coupled model of South East Asia, covering India and Bangladesh. The Hadley Centre model has been pururbed by varying the parameters in the model to generate 17 realisations of future climates. Some of these reflect expected change but others capture the more extreme potential behaviour of future climate conditions. The 17 realisations have been used to drive the INCA Flow and Nitrogen model inorder to generate downstream times series of hydrology and nitrate- nitrogen. The variability of the climates on these fluxes are investigated and and their likley impact on the Bay of Begal Delta considered. Results indicate a slight shift in the monsoon season with increased wet season flows and increased temperatures which alter nutrient fluxes. Societal Importance to Stakeholders The GBM Delta supports one of the most densely populated regions of people living in poverty, who rely on ecosystem services provided by the Delta for survival. These ecosystem services are dependent upon fluxes of water and nutrients. Freshwater for urban, agriculture, and aquaculture requirements are essential to livelihoods. Nutrient loads stimulate estuarine ecosystems, supporting fishing stocks, which contribute significantly the economy of Bangladesh. Thus the societal importance of upstream climate driven change change in Bangladesh are very

  6. Methylated and unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in street dust from Vietnam and India: occurrence, distribution and in vitro toxicity evaluation. (United States)

    Tuyen, Le Huu; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Viet, Pham Hung; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Ramanathan, Alagappan; Tanabe, Shinsuke


    Methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MePAHs), unsubstituted PAHs and AhR-mediated activities were determined in street dust collected from Vietnam and India using a combined approach of chemical analysis and in vitro reporter gene assay. MePAHs and PAHs diagnostic ratios indicated that the main sources of MePAHs in Vietnam were pyrogenic emissions, whereas in India there were mixed sources of pyrogenic and petrogenic emissions. AhR-mediated activities determined by using DR-CALUX assay were observed in urban street dust at mean 40, 29 and 20 ng CALUX-TEQ/g dw for Hanoi, Bangalore and New Delhi, respectively. MePAHs and PAHs contributed only 5% or less to AhR-mediated activity in street dust, indicating the occurrence of unknown AhR agonists. The principal contributors to Theoretical-TEQs among target compounds were methyl benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]- and benzo[k]fluoranthene. The present study indicates importance of MePAHs in evaluation of toxic risk related to AhR-mediated activity in urban polluted areas.

  7. From Handpumps to Health: The Evolution of Water and Sanitation Programmes in Bangladesh, India and Nigeria. (United States)

    Black, Maggie

    The case histories of water and sanitation schemes described in this volume can best be understood by identifying the moments at which critical hurdles were encountered and surmounted. The first case study, which concerns Bangladesh, discusses promising prospects that existed amid the pollution and the technical and managerial expansion of the…

  8. Green governance - one solution for two problems? : climate change and economic shocks ; risk perceptions and coping strategies in China, India and Bangladesh



    This collection of papers is based on an international workshop held in the summer of 2009 at the University of Duisburg-Essen. It brings together different perceptions regarding China, India and Bangladesh as they face the risks and crises of climate change and economic shocks like the recent global financial crisis. The papers reflect assumptions concerning the concept of Risk Society and discuss the extent to which Sustainable Development and the rather new concepts of Green Governance, Gr...

  9. The cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka: an annotated provisional catalogue, regional checklist and bibliography (United States)

    Allan, Elizabeth Louise; Marathe, Kiran; Sarkar, Vivek; Simon, Chris; Kunte, Krushnamegh


    Abstract Background The cicadas of the Indian subcontinent, like many other insects in the region, have remained understudied since the early part of the 20th Century, and await modern taxonomic, systematic and phylogenetic treatment. This paper presents an updated systematic catalogue of cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka, the first in over a century. New information This paper treats 281 species, including: India and Bangladesh (189 species), Bhutan (19 species), Myanmar (81 species), Nepal (46 species) and Sri Lanka (22 species). For each species all recognized junior synonyms are included with information on the type material and additional specimens where relevant. The global distributional range and notes on the taxonomy of each species are included where appropriate. Two lists are provided: (1) species known to occur in India and Bangladesh (treated as a geographic unit), Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka; and (2) species previously listed from these countries in error. A bibliography of species descriptions is provided, with the papers containing the original descriptions provided where copyright allows. PMID:27660527

  10. Environmental hypothesis: is poor dietary selenium intake an underlying factor for arsenicosis and cancer in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India? (United States)

    Spallholz, Julian E; Mallory Boylan, L; Rhaman, M M


    To reduce the incidence of dysentery, cholera and other water-borne diseases and mortality of people drinking from surface contaminated sources of water, the World Bank and United Nations Children's Fund began to sink tube wells into the underlying aquifers of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, in the 1970s. Many of the tube wells were drilled into underground aquifers that provided microbiologically clean water that was later determined to contain arsenic (As). As contamination of drinking water is a problem of natural occurrence throughout the world and domestic water often exceeds the World Health Organization limit of 50 microg As/l in the countries of Bangladesh, West Bengal, India and Nepal as well as other areas occupying much of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. It is estimated that as many as one-half of these tube wells discharge water with sufficient amounts of As to produce arsenicosis, i.e. As toxicity in the human population. Access to clean As free water is the priority of most organized relief efforts. Where As free domestic water cannot be provided, an improved diet and/or dietary supplements may ameliorate As toxicity or prevent its toxicity all together. The dietary status of the essential human trace element, selenium (Se) may be adversely affected by a chronic excessive ingestion of As. As added to animal diets has been known to counteract Se toxicity in animals since the 1930s. It is reasoned therefore, that high levels of chronic As ingestion from well water by people within the delta will accelerate the excretion of Se lowering the body's content of this essential trace element. Excessive Se excretion owing to Se/As complexation may add to the likelihood of As being more toxic and carcinogenic over time, due to the oxidative stress imposed by the excessive As and low Se ingestion. Because of the unique environment of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in which millions of people are presently exposed to As, we ask the question: are low dietary Se

  11. India. (United States)


    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  12. Cross-sectional time series analysis of associations between education and girl child marriage in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, 1991-2011.

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    Anita Raj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Girl education is believed to be the best means of reducing girl child marriage (marriage 20% of girl child marriage- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. METHODS: Cross-sectional time series analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS from 1991 to 2011 in the four focal nations. Analyses were restricted to ever-married women aged 20-24 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of highest level of education received (none, primary, secondary or higher on age at marriage (<14, 14-15, 16-17, 18 and older. RESULTS: In Bangladesh and Pakistan, primary education was not protective against girl child marriage; in Nepal, it was protective against marriage at <14 years (AOR = 0.42 but not for older adolescents. Secondary education was protective across minor age at marriage categories in Bangladesh (<14 years AOR = 0.10; 14-15 years AOR = .25; 16-17 years AOR = 0.64 and Nepal (<14 years AOR = 0.21; 14-15 years AOR = 0.25; 16-17 years AOR = 0.57, but protective against marriage of only younger adolescents in Pakistan (<14 years AOR = 0.19; 14-15 years AOR = 0.23. In India, primary and secondary education were respectively protective across all age at marriage categories (<14 years AOR = 0.34, AOR = 0.05; 14-15 years AOR = 0.52, AOR = 0.20; 16-17 years AOR = 0.71, AOR = 0.48. CONCLUSION: Primary education is likely insufficient to reduce girl child marriage in South Asia, outside of India. Secondary education may be a better protective strategy against this practice for the region, but may be less effective for prevention of marriage among older relative to younger adolescents.

  13. Institutional and Regulatory Economics of Electricity Market Reforms: the Evidence from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka (United States)

    Singh, Bipulendu

    Five South Asian countries-- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka -- embarked on electricity market reforms in the 1990's. The dissertation uses the framework of New Institutional Economics to assess the effects on electricity sector performance of both observables elements of reform (i.e. privatization, unbundling, establishment of independent regulatory agencies etc.) as well as the unobservable elements (informal beliefs, habit, norms and culture of the actors involved in reforms). The first part of the dissertation -- econometric analysis of the relationship between observable electricity market reform measures and performance indicators -- finds that for the most part electricity market reforms in South Asia are having a positive impact on the performance of the sector. This is particularly the case for reforms that have increased private sector participation in generation and distribution and have vertically unbundled utilities into generation, transmission and distribution entities. Many of the reforms are positively correlated with higher tariffs, indicating a cost to the consumers from the reforms. The relationship between independent regulation and performance indicators , however, is not established. The second part of the dissertation - analytical narrative of the reform experiences of Gujarat and Nepal -- examines the informal elements (such as beliefs, norms, culture) that motivate behavior and explains how and why reform outcomes differed in these two places. The dissertation finds that the strength of formal institutions rules and the nature of social norms and customs have a significant influence on the outcome of reforms. Aided by the strength of its formal institutional framework and more evolved social norms and customs that encouraged people to follow formal rules, reforms in the Indian state of Gujarat were a success. The weakness of the formal institutional framework and the predominance of relation-based norms and customs in

  14. What is the role of community capabilities for maternal health? An exploration of community capabilities as determinants to institutional deliveries in Bangladesh, India, and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Paina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While community capabilities are recognized as important factors in developing resilient health systems and communities, appropriate metrics for these have not yet been developed. Furthermore, the role of community capabilities on access to maternal health services has been underexplored. In this paper, we summarize the development of a community capability score based on the Future Health System (FHS project’s experience in Bangladesh, India, and Uganda, and, examine the role of community capabilities as determinants of institutional delivery in these three contexts. Methods We developed a community capability score using a pooled dataset containing cross-sectional household survey data from Bangladesh, India, and Uganda. Our main outcome of interest was whether the woman delivered in an institution. Our predictor variables included the community capability score, as well as a series of previously identified determinants of maternal health. We calculate both population-averaged effects (using GEE logistic regression, as well as sub-national level effects (using a mixed effects model. Results Our final sample for analysis included 2775 women, of which 1238 were from Bangladesh, 1199 from India, and 338 from Uganda. We found that individual-level determinants of institutional deliveries, such as maternal education, parity, and ante-natal care access were significant in our analysis and had a strong impact on a woman’s odds of delivering in an institution. We also found that, in addition to individual-level determinants, greater community capability was significantly associated with higher odds of institutional delivery. For every additional capability, the odds of institutional delivery would increase by up to almost 6 %. Conclusion Individual-level characteristics are strong determinants of whether a woman delivered in an institution. However, we found that community capability also plays an important role, and should be

  15. Identifying, monitoring and implementing "sustainable" agricultural practices for smallholder farmers over large geographic areas in India and Vietnam (United States)

    Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.; Nair, D.; Esteves, T.; Rudek, J.; Thu Ha, T.


    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small-holder farms (size families, we have worked actively in five states in India and two provinces in Vietnam for the last five years to understand how sustainable and climate smart farming practices can be monitored at small-holder farms. Here, any approach to monitor farming must begin by accounting for the tremendous management variability from farm to farm and also the current inability to ground-truth remote sensing data due to lack of relaible basic parameters (e.g., yields, N use, farm boundaries) which are necessary for calibrating empirical/biogeochemical models. While we continue to learn from new research, we have found that it is crucial to follow some steps if sustainable farming programs are to succeed at small-holder farms Demographic data collection and GPS plot demarcation to establish farm size and ownership Baseline nutrient, water & energy use and crop yield determination via surveys and self-reporting which are verifiable through farmer networks given the importance of peer to peer learning in the dissemination of new techniques in such landscapes "Sustainable" practice determination in consultation with local universities/NGO experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or empirical equations and establish which practices are truly "sustainable" (e.g., GHG emission reduction varies from 0-7 tCO2e/acre for different sustainable practices). Propagation of sustainable practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments after analyzing the replicability of identified farming practices in the light of local financial, cultural or socio-political barriers. We will present results from representative plots (including soil and weather parameters, GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings), farmer surveys and diary data; and discuss our key conclusions based

  16. Emergence and Evolution of Learning Gaps across Countries. Panel Evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam (Documento de Trabajo 124 – La aparición y evolución de brechas de aprendizaje entre países: La evidencia de estudio longitudinal en Etiopía, India, Perú y Vietnam)


    Abhijeet Singh


    Los resultados de las evaluaciones internacionales estandarizadas de aprendizaje permiten identificar brechas de magnitud importante entre estudiantes de diversos países. En este documento, se utiliza información única de niños del estudio longitudinal Niños del Milenio /Young Lives en Etiopía, India, Perú y Vietnam usando las mismas evaluaciones a niños de 5, 6, 12 y 15 años de edad para encontrar a qué edades surgen las brechas entre diferentes poblaciones, cómo incrementan o disminuyen con...

  17. 77 FR 73674 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, The United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam (United States)


    ..., 2012 (77 FR 37711). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on October 17, 2012, and all persons who... countervailing duty determination with respect to circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe from Vietnam (77 FR 64471, October 22, 2012), the Commission terminated investigation No. 701-TA-485 (77 FR 65712,...

  18. Breaking Ships in the World-System: An Analysis of Two Ship Breaking Capitals, Alang-Sosiya, India and Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scott Frey


    Full Text Available Centrality in the world-system allows countries to externalize their hazards or environmental harms on others. Core countries, for instance, dump heavy metals and greenhouse gases into the global sinks, and some of the core's hazardous products, production processes and wastes are displaced to the (semi peripheral zones of the world-system. Since few (semi peripheral countries have the ability to assess and manage the risks associated with such hazards, the transfer of core hazards to the (semi periphery has adverse environmental and socio-economic consequences for many of these countries and it has spawned conflict and resistance, as well as a variety of other responses. Most discussions of this risk globalization problem have failed to situate it firmly in the world-system frame emphasizing the process of ecological unequal exchange. Using secondary sources, I begin such a discussion by examining the specific problem of ship breaking (recycling core-based ocean going vessels for steel and other materials at the yards in Alang-Sosiya, India and Chittagong, Bangladesh. Attention centers on the nature and scope of ship breaking in these two locations, major drivers operating in the world-system, adverse consequences, the unequal mix of costs and benefits, and the failure of existing political responses at the domestic and international levels to reduce adequately the adverse consequences of ship breaking.

  19. Understanding the causes and consequences of injuries to adolescents growing up in poverty in Ethiopia, Andhra Pradesh (India), Vietnam and Peru: a mixed method study. (United States)

    Morrow, Virginia; Barnett, Inka; Vujcich, Daniel


    The World Health Organization estimates that almost half of all premature deaths among 15- to 19-year olds can be attributed to injuries with most (95%) fatal injuries occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Yet the evidence base for adolescent injuries in low-income countries is poor. This article uses a mixed method approach to gain an understanding of patterns, causes and consequences of unintentional injuries among adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years in four low-income country settings. Survey data collected in 2009 in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam (from ~900 adolescents in each country) were integrated with qualitative research (conducted between 2007 and 2011) with a nested sample of older cohort children in Ethiopia (n = 25) and India (n = 25) using an iterative process. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine potential risk factors for injuries. Injuries were a concern for adolescents in all countries and occurred during work, recreation and sports or transportation. Being male was associated with an increased risk for all types of injuries, whereas being poor was only significantly associated with work injuries. Area of residence (urban vs rural) made a difference in some countries and for some kinds of injuries as did perceived health status. Qualitative findings highlight the consequences of injuries not only for the adolescents but also for the social and economic status of the entire household. Injury prevention programmes need to be specific to cultural and environmental settings, expectations of adolescent's responsibilities and responsive to the context of poverty.

  20. Ecological determinants of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) outbreaks in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Biswas, Paritosh K.


    between Bangladesh and e. g., Thailand and Vietnam. The primary aim of the current study was to establish ecological determinants associated with the risk of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks at subdistrict level in Bangladesh. The secondary aim was to explore the performance of two different statistical modeling...

  1. Periods of child growth up to age 8 years in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam: key distal household and community factors. (United States)

    Schott, Whitney B; Crookston, Benjamin T; Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D; Behrman, Jere R


    Recent research has demonstrated some growth recovery among children stunted in infancy. Less is known about key age ranges for such growth recovery, and what factors are correlates with this growth. This study characterized child growth up to age 1 year, and from ages 1 to 5 and 5 to 8 years controlling for initial height-for-age z-score (HAZ), and identified key distal household and community factors associated with these growth measures using longitudinal data on 7266 children in the Young Lives (YL) study in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. HAZ at about age 1 year and age in months predicted much of the variation in HAZ at age 5 years, but 40-71% was not predicted. Similarly, HAZ at age 5 years and age in months did not predict 26-47% of variation in HAZ at 8 years. Multiple regression analysis suggests that parental schooling, consumption, and mothers' height are key correlates of HAZ at about age 1 and also are associated with unpredicted change in HAZ from ages 1 to 5 and 5 to 8 years, given initial HAZ. These results underline the importance of a child's starting point in infancy in determining his or her growth, point to key distal household and community factors that may determine early growth in early life and subsequent growth recovery and growth failure, and indicate that these factors vary some by country, urban/rural designation, and child sex.

  2. Tourism Cooperation among China, India, Burma and Bangladesh%中印缅孟区域的旅游合作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are rich resources for tourism among the adjacent areas of China, India, Burma and Ban- gladesh. To develop the industry may facilitate economic and social development and promote poverty alleviation in this region. While recognizing the potentials and advantages for tourism cooperation, however, the nations concerned must address the existing problems and turn potential resources into palpable interests.%中印缅孟毗邻地区旅游资源富集,大力发展旅游业有利于促进该区域经济社会发展,加快民众脱贫致富,互惠双赢.该区域开展旅游合作潜力很大,也具备一些有利条件,但现存问题需要逐步得到解决,才能把潜在资源转变为现实收益.在大力促进中国与印度的双边旅游合作的同时,逐步推进区域旅游合作,是比较可行的思路.

  3. Potential of using arsenic-safe aquifers as sustainable drinking water sources in arsenic-affected areas of Bengal basin, India and Bangladesh (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Prosun; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Biswas, Ashis; Hossain, Mohammed; von Brömssen, Mattias


    Naturally occurring arsenic (As) in Holocene aquifers in Bengal basin (India and Bangladesh) have undermined a long success of supplying the population with safe drinking water. Several studies have shown that many of the tested mitigation options have not been well accepted by the people. Instead, local drillers target presumed safe groundwater on the basis of the colour of the sediments. The overall objective of the study has thus been focused on assessing the potential for local drillers to target As safe groundwater. The specific objectives have been to validate the correlation between aquifer sediment colours and groundwater chemical composition, characterize aqueous and solid phase geochemistry and dynamics of As mobility and to assess the risk for cross-contamination of As between aquifers in areas of southeastern Bangladesh and West Bengal. Drillings to a depth of 60 m revealed two distinct hydrostratigraphic units, a strongly reducing aquifer unit with black to grey sediments overlying a patchy sequence of weathered and oxidised white, yellowish-grey to reddish-brown sediment. The aquifers are separated by an impervious clay unit. The reducing aquifer is characterized by high concentrations of dissolved As, DOC, Fe and PO43--tot. On the other hand, the off-white and red sediments contain relatively higher concentrations of Mn and SO42- and low As. Groundwater chemistry correlates well with the colours of the aquifer sediments. Geochemical investigations indicate that secondary mineral phases control dissolved concentrations of Mn, Fe and PO43--tot. Dissolved As is influenced by the amount of Hfo, pH and PO43--tot as a competing ion. Laboratory studies suggest that oxidised sediments have a higher capacity to absorb As. Monitoring of hydraulic heads and groundwater modelling illustrate a complex aquifer system with three aquifers to a depth of 250 m. Groundwater modelling studies illustrate two groundwater flowsystems: i) a deeper regional predominantly

  4. Spotlight: Bangladesh. (United States)

    Parikh, L


    This brief article highlights the progress made in Bangladesh in reducing fertility and improving women's status. The mid-1997 population was an estimated 122.2 million persons. The land area is 50,260 square miles. Population density was 2432 people per square mile. Births were 31 per 1000 persons. Deaths were 11 per 1000 persons. Infant deaths were 77 per 1000 live births. Natural increase was 2% per year. The total fertility rate was 3.3 births per woman. Life expectancy was 58 years for males and females. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world and has about 50% of US population situated on land the size of Wisconsin. Average annual income is about $240. Livelihoods from agriculture are affected by monsoons and natural disasters. Bangladesh has reduced its fertility by half since the mid-1970s. Almost 50% of married women relied on contraception during 1996-97, compared to only 8% of married women in 1975. Increases in contraceptive prevalence are attributed to the family planning program and parents' desire for smaller families. The government has made slowing population growth a priority since the 1970s. The 35,000 field workers provide door-to-door contraception and counseling. Mass media has promoted messages about the economic and health advantages of limiting or spacing births. Women continue to play a subordinate role to men, despite their improved control over fertility. Under 30% of women are literate compared to 50% of men. Islamic practices still confine women to the home. Programs are directed to improving women's financial status through credit programs. Women now hold many jobs in the new garment industry, which is the largest nonagricultural employer.

  5. Hydrogeochemical comparison and effects of overlapping redox zones on groundwater arsenic near the Western (Bhagirathi sub-basin, India) and Eastern (Meghna sub-basin, Bangladesh) margins of the Bengal Basin (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; von Brömssen, Mattias; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Fryar, Alan E.; Hasan, Md. Aziz; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar; Sracek, Ondra


    Although arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater in the Bengal Basin has received wide attention over the past decade, comparative studies of hydrogeochemistry in geologically different sub-basins within the basin have been lacking. Groundwater samples were collected from sub-basins in the western margin (River Bhagirathi sub-basin, Nadia, India; 90 samples) and eastern margin (River Meghna sub-basin; Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh; 35 samples) of the Bengal Basin. Groundwater in the western site (Nadia) has mostly Ca-HCO3 water while that in the eastern site (Brahmanbaria) is much more variable consisting of at least six different facies. The two sites show differences in major and minor solute trends indicating varying pathways of hydrogeochemical evolution However, both sites have similar reducing, postoxic environments (pe: + 5 to - 2) with high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, indicating dominantly metal-reducing processes and similarity in As mobilization mechanism. The trends of various redox-sensitive solutes (e.g. As, CH4, Fe, Mn, NO3-, NH4+, SO42-) indicate overlapping redox zones, leading to partial redox equilibrium conditions where As, once liberated from source minerals, would tend to remain in solution because of the complex interplay among the electron acceptors.

  6. 78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand... (United States)


    ..., Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil country tubular goods... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations...

  7. 75 FR 60074 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Correction to... (United States)


    ... Seaproduct Company \\23\\ 4.57 Pataya Food Industries (Vietnam) Ltd.\\24\\ 4.57 Phu Cuong Seafood Processing and... shrimp from Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China,...

  8. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research. (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower


    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub

  9. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A (H5N1) viruses, Bangladesh, 2007-2011. (United States)

    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Tun, Hein Min; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Islam, Skm Azizul; Islam, Md Nurul; Giasuddin, Md; Osmani, Tabm Muzaffar Goni; Islam, Ariful; Thornton, Ronald Norman; Burgess, Graham William; Skerratt, Lee Francis; Selleck, Paul; Brun, Edgar; Debnath, Nitish Chandra; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching


    To investigate the origins, evolution and patterns of spread of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in Bangladesh, we performed a phylogenetic reconstruction analysis using Bayesian methods. The analysis was conducted using 81 hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences from the H5N1 viruses isolated in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011, together with 264 publicly available HA sequences of clade 2.2, 2.3.2 and 2.3.4 retrieved from GenBank. Our study provides evidence that clade 2.2.2 viruses that caused outbreaks in Bangladesh were lineages independent from the viruses introduced earlier into India. Furthermore, the Bangladesh clade 2.2.2 descendents subsequently spread to India and Bhutan. This has implications for avian influenza control in southern Asia suggesting multiple routes of entry of the virus including one pathway that spread to neighboring countries via Bangladesh.

  10. Improving Security Ties with India (United States)


    Mohammed Ali Jinnah , with it being split between East (today’s Bangladesh) and West Pakistan. India, although predominantly Hindu, has a large Muslim...population. At partition , most Muslims elected to live in East and West Pakistan. India wanted to grow as an independent state and Nehru did not want...bilateral relations between these states. 19 Pakistan is the greatest immediate concern to India in South Asia. Ever since partition , the two have been

  11. Using Observational Data to Estimate the Effect of Hand Washing and Clean Delivery Kit Use by Birth Attendants on Maternal Deaths after Home Deliveries in Rural Bangladesh, India and Nepal.

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    Nadine Seward

    Full Text Available Globally, puerperal sepsis accounts for an estimated 8-12% of maternal deaths, but evidence is lacking on the extent to which clean delivery practices could improve maternal survival. We used data from the control arms of four cluster-randomised controlled trials conducted in rural India, Bangladesh and Nepal, to examine associations between clean delivery kit use and hand washing by the birth attendant with maternal mortality among home deliveries.We tested associations between clean delivery practices and maternal deaths, using a pooled dataset for 40,602 home births across sites in the three countries. Cross-sectional data were analysed by fitting logistic regression models with and without multiple imputation, and confounders were selected a priori using causal directed acyclic graphs. The robustness of estimates was investigated through sensitivity analyses.Hand washing was associated with a 49% reduction in the odds of maternal mortality after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.93. The sensitivity analysis testing the missing at random assumption for the multiple imputation, as well as the sensitivity analysis accounting for possible misclassification bias in the use of clean delivery practices, indicated that the association between hand washing and maternal death had been over estimated. Clean delivery kit use was not associated with a maternal death (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 0.62-2.56.Our evidence suggests that hand washing in delivery is critical for maternal survival among home deliveries in rural South Asia, although the exact magnitude of this effect is uncertain due to inherent biases associated with observational data from low resource settings. Our findings indicating kit use does not improve maternal survival, suggests that the soap is not being used in all instances that kit use is being reported.

  12. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses circulating in Bangladesh from 2007-2011. (United States)

    Mondal, S P; Balasuriya, U B R; Yamage, M


    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been endemic in Bangladesh since its first isolation in February 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of HPAI H5N1 viruses demonstrated that 25 Bangladeshi isolates including two human isolates from 2007-2011 along with some isolates from neighbouring Asian countries (India, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, China and Vietnam) segregate into two distinct clades (2.2 and 2.3). There was clear evidence of introduction of clade 2.3.2 and 2.3.4 viruses in 2011 in addition to clade 2.2 viruses that had been in circulation in Bangladesh since 2007. The data clearly demonstrated the movement of H5N1 strains between Asian countries included in this study due to migration of wild birds and/or illegal movement of poultry across borders. Interestingly, the two human isolates were closely related to the clade 2.2 Bangladeshi chicken isolates indicating that they have originated from chickens. Furthermore, comparative amino acid sequence analysis revealed several substitutions (including 189R>K and 282I>V) in HA protein of some clade 2.2 Bangladeshi viruses including the human isolates, suggesting there was antigenic drift in clade 2.2.3 viruses that were circulating between 2008 and 2011. Overall, the data imply genetic diversity among circulating viruses and multiple introductions of H5N1 viruses with an increased risk of human infections in Bangladesh, and establishment of H5N1 virus in wild and domestic bird populations, which demands active surveillance.

  13. Inclusive Education in Bangladesh (United States)

    Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay


    This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

  14. Vietnam: Historians at War (United States)

    Moyar, Mark


    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  15. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  16. Molecular dating of HIV-1 subtype C from Bangladesh. (United States)

    Bontell, Irene; Sarker, Md Safiullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Afrad, Mokibul Hassan; Sönnerborg, Anders; Azim, Tasnim


    Bangladesh has an overall low HIV prevalence of Bangladesh and related strains from other countries, and thereby clarify when and from where subtype C was introduced in the country and how it subsequently spread within Bangladesh. The phylogenetic analysis included 118 Bangladeshi gag sequences and 128 sequences from other countries and was performed using the BEAST package. Our analysis revealed that the vast majority of Bangladeshi sequences (97/118, 82%) fall into a large regional cluster of samples from Bangladesh, India, China and Myanmar, which dates back to the early 1960's. Following its establishment in the region, this strain has entered Bangladesh multiple times from around 1975 and onwards, but extensive in-country transmission could only be detected among drug users and not through sexual transmission. In addition, there have been multiple (at least ten) introductions of subtype C to Bangladesh from outside this region, but no extensive spread could be detected for any of these. Since many HIV-infections remain undetected while asymptomatic, the true extent of the transmission of each strain remains unknown, especially among hard to reach groups such as clients of sex workers and returning migrants with families.

  17. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Mohsin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130. Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80% of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not

  18. Cancer control in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard


    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  19. Ocean Dynamics: Vietnam DRI (United States)


    Dynamics: Vietnam DRI Robert Pinkel Marine Physical Laboratory Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla California 92093-0213 Phone: (858) 534...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ocean Dynamics: Vietnam DRI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...cycle.. The Thorpe-scale estimates are local to Site III. South China Sea Process Cruise 2014 Under Vietnam DRI funding, Researcher Drew Lucas

  20. Capacity Building in Vietnam


    Adam McCarty


    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  1. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...... towards Vietnam. However, it is likely that the antidumping measures used by the EU are not primarily directed at Vietnam, but rather at China. This means that Vietnam is affected by the re-polarization of the world economy through its proximity to and links with China, but that the relation is perhaps...

  2. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn


    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India.

  3. Climate Change and Vietnam (United States)


    expansion of large hydropower and reservoir construction can increase social resilience through associated economic development . However, the same...of the most vulnerable countries globally to the consequences of climate change, Vietnam is highly likely to experience a variety of negative...iii ABSTRACT Climate Change and Vietnam As one of the most vulnerable countries globally to the consequences

  4. Doing Business in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Thi Thu Yen; Nguyen, Hung Vo


    still reflects inheritances from the central plan system, Vietnam today has a vibrant economy with small businesses springing up at every street corner. Foreign investors have been flogging to Vietnam since the early 1990s, with a new peak of FDI inflow in 2004. This paper reviews the Vietnamese economy...

  5. Emergency medicine in Vietnam. (United States)

    Richards, J R


    The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is one of the poorest countries in the world. Recent economic developments, as the country attempts to start a market economy, have had a profound impact on its health care system. This report describes the state of prehospital and emergency medical care in Vietnam and possibilities for the future.

  6. The tectonic origin of the Bay of Bengal and Bangladesh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Talwani, M.; Desa, M.; Ismaiel, M.; Krishna, K.S.

    Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251-1892, USA  2Geological Oceanography, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa –403004, India 3Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona... spreading magnetic anomalies south off Sri Lanka, Mar. Geol., 229, 227-240.  Frielingsdorf, J., S.A. Islam, M. Block, M.M. Rahman, and M.G. Rabbani (2008), Tectonic subsidence modeling and Gondwana source rock hydrocarbon potential, northwest Bangladesh...

  7. Made In Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It is nothing new for global consumers to find the tag ‘Made in China' on the back of products from famous brands such as Nike or Panasonic.or will it surprise North American or European customers to find clothes from big brands like Esprit or GAP containing the mark ‘Made in Bangladesh'.

  8. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared. (United States)

    Miller, B D


    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  9. First record of Ratanaworabhans’s Fruit Bat Megaerops niphanae Yenbutra & Felten, 1983 (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae from Bangladesh

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    Mohammad Nurul Islam


    Full Text Available This note provides a morphological confirmation of the occurrence of Ratanaworabhans’s Fruit Bat Megaerops niphanae in Bangladesh. Although previously recorded in neighbouring territories in India, this constitutes the first country record for the taxon and highlights the current incompleteness of faunal knowledge and potential for future discoveries in the country. Greater survey effort and sustained investments into developing taxonomic capacity and museum collections in Bangladesh are required to realize this potential however. 


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    Mohammad Morad


    Full Text Available This paper analyses how the media interprets Bangladeshian fertility trends by analyzing 11 online available articles from two Bangladeshi leading dailies, The Daily Star and the Prothom Alo. The exploration of the newspaper articles reveals that print media in Bangladesh has shown concern notably on the present scenario of the country’s declining fertility trend. It has been observed from the newspaper clippings that both population growth rate and fertility rate are gradually declining in Bangladesh which they explain as a matter of great satisfaction. Drawing on examples from South Asia, the articles explain that Bangladesh has a remarkable achievement in fertility reduction compared to India and Pakistan. However, almost all of the articles have expressed concern over the population bomb of Bangladesh. The newspapers also report that though fertility is declining at the national level, significant variation exists at the regional level and among different socio economic groups. The fertility rate is reported to be very high in the urban shanties and poverty-stricken rural areas. In this regard, the clippings have often criticized the government activities, especially governmental population control programme.

  11. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

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    Nowsher Ali


    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  12. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan


    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  13. 78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan... (United States)


    ... tubular goods from India and Turkey and LTFV imports of certain oil country tubular goods from India... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam: Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  14. “He Doesn’t Listen to My Words at All, So I Don’t Tell Him Anything”—A Qualitative Investigation on Exposure to Second Hand Smoke among Pregnant Women, Their Husbands and Family Members from Rural Bangladesh and Urban India (United States)

    Jackson, Cath; Huque, Rumana; Satyanarayana, Veena; Nasreen, Shammi; Kaur, Manpreet; Barua, Deepa; Bhowmik, Prashanta Nath; Guha, Mithila; Dherani, Mukesh; Rahman, Atif; Siddiqi, Kamran; Chandra, Prabha S.


    Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy is associated with poor pregnancy and fetal outcomes. To design interventions to reduce exposure, an in depth understanding of social and cultural factors of smoking behavior at home is important, especially in South Asia where SHS exposure is high. This study aimed to explore pregnant women’s, their husbands’ and other family members’ knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding home SHS exposure. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 participants in Comilla, Bangladesh and 31 in Bangalore, India (36 pregnant women, 18 husbands, and 10 family members). Data were analyzed using the Framework approach. Husbands smoked in various living areas inside the home, often in the presence of their pregnant wives. Most had never tried to stop smoking at home. Knowledge of the risks was generally poor. Most women had repeatedly asked their husband to smoke outside with little success and only few family members had reprimanded the husbands. Husbands who had stopped did so because of requests from children and their mother. Potential strategies to decrease SHS exposure at home were educating the husband about risks and supporting the pregnant women in negotiation. Interventions must also enlist family support to enhance the woman’s self-efficacy. PMID:27834841

  15. “He Doesn’t Listen to My Words at All, So I Don’t Tell Him Anything”—A Qualitative Investigation on Exposure to Second Hand Smoke among Pregnant Women, Their Husbands and Family Members from Rural Bangladesh and Urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cath Jackson


    Full Text Available Second hand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy is associated with poor pregnancy and fetal outcomes. To design interventions to reduce exposure, an in depth understanding of social and cultural factors of smoking behavior at home is important, especially in South Asia where SHS exposure is high. This study aimed to explore pregnant women’s, their husbands’ and other family members’ knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding home SHS exposure. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 participants in Comilla, Bangladesh and 31 in Bangalore, India (36 pregnant women, 18 husbands, and 10 family members. Data were analyzed using the Framework approach. Husbands smoked in various living areas inside the home, often in the presence of their pregnant wives. Most had never tried to stop smoking at home. Knowledge of the risks was generally poor. Most women had repeatedly asked their husband to smoke outside with little success and only few family members had reprimanded the husbands. Husbands who had stopped did so because of requests from children and their mother. Potential strategies to decrease SHS exposure at home were educating the husband about risks and supporting the pregnant women in negotiation. Interventions must also enlist family support to enhance the woman’s self-efficacy.

  16. Molecular detection and genetic diversity of Babesia gibsoni in dogs in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Terao, Masashi; Akter, Shirin; Yasin, Md Golam; Nakao, Ryo; Kato, Hirotomo; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Katakura, Ken


    Babesia gibsoni is a tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasite of dogs that often causes fever and hemolytic illness. Detection of B. gibsoni has been predominantly reported in Asian countries, including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Bangladesh and India. The present study shows the first molecular characterization of B. gibsoni detected from dogs in Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected on FTA® Elute cards from 50 stray dogs in Mymensingh District in Bangladesh. DNA eluted from the cards was subjected to nested PCR for the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia species. Approximately 800bp PCR products were detected in 15 of 50 dogs (30%). Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and direct sequencing of the PCR products, all parasite isolates were identified as B. gibsoni. Furthermore, the BgTRAP (B. gibsoni thrombospondin-related adhesive protein) gene fragments were detected in 13 of 15 18S rRNA gene PCR positive blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the BgTRAP gene revealed that B. gibsoni parasites in Bangladesh formed a cluster, which was genetically different from other Asian B. gibsoni isolates. In addition, tandem repeat analysis of the BgTRAP gene clearly showed considerable genetic variation among Bangladeshi isolates. These results suggested that B. gibsoni parasites in a different genetic clade are endemic in dogs in Bangladesh. Further studies are required to elucidate the origin, distribution, vector and pathogenesis of B. gibsoni parasites circulating in dogs in Bangladesh.

  17. Human rabies in rural Bangladesh. (United States)

    Hossain, M; Ahmed, K; Bulbul, T; Hossain, S; Rahman, A; Biswas, M N U; Nishizono, A


    Rabies is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where most of the population live in rural areas. However, there is little epidemiological information on rabies in rural Bangladesh. This study was conducted in 30 upazilas (subdistricts) covering all six divisions of the country, to determine the levels of rabies and animal bites in Bangladesh. The total population of these upazilas was 6 992 302. A pretested questionnaire was used and data were collected by interviewing the adult members of families. We estimated that in Bangladesh, 166 590 [95% confidence interval (CI) 163 350-170 550] people per year are bitten by an animal. The annual incidence of rabies deaths in Bangladesh was estimated to be 1·40 (95% CI 1·05-1·78)/100 000 population. By extrapolating this, we estimated that 2100 (95% CI 1575-2670) people die annually from rabies in Bangladesh. More than three-quarters of rabies patients died at home. This community-based study provides new information on rabies epidemiology in Bangladesh.

  18. Upstream profitability in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingeberg, K.


    This report outlines the main characteristics of the petroleum industry in Vietnam. First, it discusses the exploration history and the fiscal regime and concession system for international companies searching for new exploration ventures in the country. Second, it presents an economic analysis of exploration and field development decisions. The analysis is based on a cash flow tax model reflecting the current economic framework. Calculations of upstream profitability are based on typical offshore oil project assumptions. The analysis includes the effects of different levels of exploration risks, tax position and tax agreements. The report also compares fiscal terms in Vietnam and Malaysia and their effect on attractivity. 20 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein


    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  20. Discovery of Paragonimus skrjabini in Vietnam and its phylogenetic status in the Paragonimus skrjabini complex. (United States)

    Doanh, P N; Hien, H V; Nonaka, N; Horii, Y; Nawa, Y


    Two members of the Paragonimus skrjabini complex, P. skrjabini and P. miyazakii, are now considered as two sub-species, P. skrjabini skrjabini and P. skrjabini miyazakii. They are well known as important pathogens for human paragonimiasis in China and Japan. Recently, members of this species complex have been reported from India. Here we report the first discovery of P. skrjabini from freshwater crab hosts in Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam. For morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies, adult worms were obtained by experimental infection in cats and dogs. Molecular analyses of metacercariae and adults revealed that the P. skrjabini population from Thanh Hoa, Vietnam was almost completely identical with that from Yunnan province, China. Those populations from Thanh Hoa, Vietnam and Yunnan, China and those from Manipur, India were significantly different from P. skrjabini populations reported from other localities of China in cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene sequences, indicating considerable genetic variation within the P. skrjabini complex. Moreover, low bootstrap values in the CO1 tree suggested that more variant genotypes belonging to P. skrjabini complex may be found in other Asian countries in between Vietnam and India, such as Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. Since P. skrjabini is known as a pathogen for humans, paragonimiasis cases caused by P. skrjabini might be found in Vietnam and other Asian countries.

  1. Vietnam in Childrens' Books. (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    Twenty-five nonfiction and 18 fiction and folklore listings are included in this bulletin on Vietnam in childrens' books. Slides, filmstrips, and film listings are also included. Each listing is accompanied by a brief annotation. Subjects include customs and culture, the country and the people, Ho Chi Min, the Vietnamese revolution, Vietnamese…

  2. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to credit policy is clearly inappropriate....

  3. H&m i Bangladesh


    Refsøe, Anna; Sørensen, Johan; Skytte, Josephine; Skovgaard, Louise


    Outsourcing remains an increasingly attractive strategy for many large companies. The enormous distance between the companies and its suppliers, has resulted in a hazy labor policy in the companies suppliers' production factories. Companies find it difficult to maintain ideal working conditions in developing countries due to the geographical distance. This project, focus on H&M's outsourcing to Bangladesh. Bangladesh is interesting because H&M gets 25% of their products produced in the cou...

  4. Opportunities for Partnership in the Pacific Rim: Reflections on a Visit to Vietnam. (United States)

    Sykes, Abel B., Jr.

    Community colleges are poised to play a vital role in Vietnam and other Pacific Rim nations currently seeking to develop their business sectors and economies. Projects and partnerships with U.S. community colleges are currently in progress in India, Malaysia, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Korea. In addition, the Vietnamese Ministry of Education and…

  5. Chinese Commodities and Vietnam Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Last April, with the support of China Machinery Industry Federation and Vietnam Em bassy in China, the Society of Automotive Engineers of CCPIT successfully held "China Famous Brand Auto Vietnam Show". I am informed that the Organizing Committee plans to hold the 3rd China Auto International Exhibition Tour in this November. According to the agenda, this activity will extend from Vietnam to other ASEAN member countries, therefore, it will have a larger scale, a longer route and a richer content. On beha...

  6. Vietnam's Labour Market in Transition


    Adam McCarty


    This report examines the employment structure and structural change (1986-1999) of Vietnam, discusses Vietnam's labour market regulations and examines how Vietnam's labour markets could become more efficient. Vietnam’s labour policies remain focused on control of state enterprises: who they employ, how many, and what they pay them. The Labour Code of 1995 saw a move to extend state worker privileges throughout the economy. This is a futile exercise to establish a welfare state in a country wi...

  7. Hepatitis B in Bangladesh: Further Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiul Jamal


    adolescent programme (6. This has already happened in Italy; all persons born since 1979 have been targeted by either the infant or adolescent HBV vaccination programme in the space of 12 years (7. Following these examples Bangladesh can implement both neonatal and adolescent vaccination programmes together in the beginning but can withdraw the adolescent programme after a decade or so when the current neonatal cohort will reach the age of puberty.l| The proposed strategy is applicable to other resource-poor countries that implement HBV vaccination policy similar to Bangladesh viz: India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan and many more. Selecting the most appropriate HBV vaccination policy appears to be an ever-debatable issue; what we need before everything else is a global consensus on HBV vaccination strategy in the third world countries. Competing interests: None declared*

  8. Micro-insurance in Bangladesh: risk protection for the poor? (United States)

    Werner, Wendy J


    Health services and modem medicines are out of reach for over one billion people globally. Micro-insurance for health is one method to address unmet health needs. This case study used a social exclusion perspective to assess the health and poverty impact of micro-insurance for health in Bangladesh and contrasts this with several micro-insurance systems for health offered in India. Micro-insurance for health in Bangladesh targeted towards the poor and the ultra-poor provides basic healthcare at an affordable rate whereas the Indian micro-insurance schemes for health have been implemented across larger populations and include high-cost and low-frequency events. Results of analysis of the existing literature showed that micro-insurance for health as currently offered in Bangladesh increased access to, and use of, basic health services among excluded populations but did not reduce the likelihood that essential health-related costs would be a catastrophic expense for a marginalized household.

  9. Past and future flooding in Bangladesh (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Hopson, Thomas; Simmer, Clemens; Simon, Thorsten


    Currently, an average of about 20 % of the land surface in Bangladesh is flooded each year, affecting one of the most densely populated regions in the world. We aim to understand the processes currently determining flooding in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin, in particular the role of precipitation and sea-level rise, as well as to assess how climate change might impact flood characteristics in the future. Water level and discharge data were provided by the Bangladesh Water Development Board on a daily basis for a period of 1909-2009. Monthly maps based on daily sea level anomalies from the Data Unification Altimeter Combination System DUACS are available on a 0.25° by 0.25° grid for the time period 1993-2014. Ensemble model output for upper catchment precipitation and annual mean thermosteric sea-level rise is taken from historical and RCP scenario runs conducted with the CCSM4. We first analyzed daily water levels of the past 100 years in order to detect potential shifts in extremes. The available observations are then used to set up a generalized linear model to detect how precipitation influences flooding in the GBM basin. This model can then be used to give a prognosis on changes in future flooding. Our analysis suggests that water levels have indeed changed over the course of the past century. While the magnitude and duration of average flood events decreased, the frequency of extreme flood events has increased. Low water levels have also changed, with a significant decrease in the annual minimum water level most noticeable when we compare the time periods 1909-1939 and 1979-2009. For the future, first results confirm the decrease in return periods of strong flood events found in previous studies. The impact of climate change on flooding will also be compared to the impact of man-made structures such as Farakka barrage, built across the Ganges on the border between India and Bangladesh and operating since 1975. This is of particular interest as

  10. Teaching in Vietnam

    CERN Multimedia



    Monsieur B.Vitale porte depuis plusieurs années un grand interêt aux questions d'enseignement dans les pays du tiers monde et a recemment eu l'occasion de faire un séjour dans la république démocratique du Vietnam. Il va nous faire part de ses impressions dans le domaine de l'enseignement, qu'il a vu, entrevu et essayé de comprendre

  11. Geospatial Technology: A Tool to Aid in the Elimination of Malaria in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Kirk


    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a malaria endemic country. There are 13 districts in the country bordering India and Myanmar that are at risk of malaria. The majority of malaria morbidity and mortality cases are in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, the mountainous southeastern region of Bangladesh. In recent years, malaria burden has declined in the country. In this study, we reviewed and summarized published data (through 2014 on the use of geospatial technologies on malaria epidemiology in Bangladesh and outlined potential contributions of geospatial technologies for eliminating malaria in the country. We completed a literature review using “malaria, Bangladesh” search terms and found 218 articles published in peer-reviewed journals listed in PubMed. After a detailed review, 201 articles were excluded because they did not meet our inclusion criteria, 17 articles were selected for final evaluation. Published studies indicated geospatial technologies tools (Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing were used to determine vector-breeding sites, land cover classification, accessibility to health facility, treatment seeking behaviors, and risk mapping at the household, regional, and national levels in Bangladesh. To achieve the goal of malaria elimination in Bangladesh, we concluded that further research using geospatial technologies should be integrated into the country’s ongoing surveillance system to identify and better assess progress towards malaria elimination.

  12. The Lessons of the Vietnam War. (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  13. Developing School Psychology in Vietnam (United States)

    Le, Phuong; Hagans, Kristi; Powers, Kristin; Hass, Michael


    Like China, Vietnam is a communist country with increasingly capitalist economic policies. A fundamental change occurred in these policies with the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 that called for a "free market with socialist orientations." However, this economic modernization has inadvertently…

  14. Developing School Psychology in Vietnam (United States)

    Le, Phuong; Hagans, Kristi; Powers, Kristin; Hass, Michael


    Like China, Vietnam is a communist country with increasingly capitalist economic policies. A fundamental change occurred in these policies with the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 that called for a "free market with socialist orientations." However, this economic modernization has inadvertently changed the social…

  15. Performing monkeys of Bangladesh: characterizing their source and genetic variation. (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Akhtar, Sharmin; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn


    The acquisition and training of monkeys to perform is a centuries-old tradition in South Asia, resulting in a large number of rhesus macaques kept in captivity for this purpose. The performing monkeys are reportedly collected from free-ranging populations, and may escape from their owners or may be released into other populations. In order to determine whether this tradition involving the acquisition and movement of animals has influenced the population structure of free-ranging rhesus macaques in Bangladesh, we first characterized the source of these monkeys. Biological samples from 65 performing macaques collected between January 2010 and August 2013 were analyzed for genetic variation using 716 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA. Performing monkey sequences were compared with those of free-ranging rhesus macaque populations in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Forty-five haplotypes with 116 (16 %) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the performing monkeys. As for the free-ranging rhesus population, most of the substitutions (89 %) were transitions, and no indels (insertion/deletion) were observed. The estimate of the mean number of pair-wise differences for the performing monkey population was 10.1264 ± 4.686, compared to 14.076 ± 6.363 for the free-ranging population. Fifteen free-ranging rhesus macaque populations were identified as the source of performing monkeys in Bangladesh; several of these populations were from areas where active provisioning has resulted in a large number of macaques. The collection of performing monkeys from India was also evident.

  16. Comparison of the Pathogenicity of Nipah Virus Isolates from Bangladesh and Malaysia in the Syrian Hamster


    DeBuysscher, Blair L.; Emmie de Wit; Munster, Vincent J.; Dana Scott; Heinz Feldmann; Joseph Prescott


    Nipah virus is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are not well described. The first Nipah virus outbreak occurred in Malaysia, where human disease had a strong neurological component. Subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India and transmission and disease processes in these outbreaks appear to be different from those of the Malaysian outbreak. Until this point, virtually all Nipah virus studies in vitro and in vivo, includi...

  17. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to 2002, reflecting increased market integration; but the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. Credit rationing depends on education and credit history, but we find no evidence of a bias against women. Regional differences are striking, and a ‘one size fits all’ approach...

  18. Sustainable urbanization in Vietnam. (United States)

    Drakakis-smith, D; Dixon, C


    "This paper examines the nature of [urban-based economic growth in Vietnam] and contends that the present size of Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi are much greater than official figures suggest. It then goes on to review the situation with regard to urban poverty, basic needs and the environment to illustrate the extent to which this unacknowledged growth is not only threatening the sustained expansion of those cities, but also the sustainability of the economic growth on which the country is so reliant."

  19. Teacher Education in Northeast India--Status, Weaknesses and Alternatives (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, D. S.


    Northeast India comprises of a cluster of eight states--Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The region is usually stereotyped as underdeveloped. Geographically, the region is surrounded by international border with part of Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Prevalence of insurgency and…

  20. Bangladesh Development Update, October 2016



    This update introduces Bangladesh's new poverty numbers at $1.90 per capita per day in 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) prices, followed by an account of recent economic development, the outlook, risks, and policy responses. The revised poverty rates are significantly lower, but follow the same downward historical trend seen when using the 2005 international extreme poverty line. Banglad...

  1. Wind Energy Potential in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z.A. Saifullah


    Full Text Available Bangladesh is encountering difficulties in supplying energy to maintain its economic growth. Government of Bangladesh is looking for renewable energy sources to meet up the total power demand in this country. The present study aims to assess wind energy potential in Bangladesh as a sustainable solution to overcome the energy crisis. Wind speed at six coastal zones Patenga, Cox’s Bazar, Teknaf, Char Fassion, Kuakata and Kutubdia at Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh have been analyzed. A near shore wind farm has been considered at these locations having a coastal line of 574 km. The turbines are spaced 7D apart in the prevailing wind direction, and 3D apart in the perpendicular direction, where D is rotor diameter. This near shore wind farm with an array of 5104 horizontal axis wind turbines with hub height of 100 m and rotor diameter of 75 m with a wind speed of 7 m/sec is capable to generate 1855.25 MW of electrical power. This can mitigate 55.93 per cent of energy shortage in 2016. By developing renewable energy sources it is possible to compensate 11.25 per cent of total power demand by 2020.

  2. Vietnam: achievements and challenges. (United States)

    Tran Tien Duc


    The Vietnamese Government's successful development of the National Population and Family Planning Program has contributed in raising people's awareness on population issues and changing their attitudes and behavior regarding fostering small families. It has also been found to be very effective in substantially decreasing fertility level. In addition, economic levels of many households have been greatly improved since the adoption of a renovation policy. The advancement of welfare accompanied by the provision of better basic social services, including health services, has boost people's health. Several factors behind the achievements of the National Population and Family Planning Program include: 1) Strengthening of the political commitment of national and local leaders; 2) Nationwide mobilization of mass organizations and NGOs; 3) A strong advocacy and information, education and communication program; 4) Provision of various kinds of contraceptives; 5) Effective management of the program by priority; and 6) Support of the international community. Despite such successes, Vietnam is facing a number of new issues such as enlargement of the work force, shifting migration patterns and accelerating urbanization, aging of population, and change of household structure. Nevertheless, the Government of Vietnam is preparing a New Population Strategy aimed to address these issues.

  3. Vietnam, Four American Perspectives: Lectures


    McGovern, George S.; Westmoreland, William C.; Luttwak, Edward N.; McCormick, Thomas J.; Hearden, Patrick F.


    This collection of speeches delivered in 1987 presents the widely diverging opinions of four men: an eminent politician, a professional soldier, a government consultant, and a distinguished scholar. The first contributor, Senator George S. McGovern, ran as the Democratic candidate for president in 1972 on a platform that called for the withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam. The second speaker, General William C. Westmoreland, commanded American military forces in Vietnam until growing ba...

  4. 75 FR 56062 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Preliminary Results... (United States)


    ...., Ltd., Vinh Hoan, QVD, South Vina, and CL-Fish A designation as a non-market economy (``NME'') remains... Philippines, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan are exporters of frozen fish fillets, and, thus... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice...

  5. India's "Democracy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Dao: After independence, India basically inherited the political system set up by British colonial rule. After half century's transformation, a "democratic" political system with "India's characteristics" has gradually taken shape in India.

  6. Emergence and Distribution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A and O in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Nandi, S P; Rahman, M Z; Momtaz, S; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A


    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Bangladesh and is predominantly due to FMDV serotype O. In 2012, FMD outbreaks were identified in five different districts of Bangladesh. Of 56 symptomatic cattle epithelial tissue samples, diagnostic PCR assay based on 5'-URT detected 38 FMDV infections. Viral genotyping targeting VP1-encoding region confirmed emergence of two distinct serotypes, A and O with an abundance of serotype A in Chittagong and Gazipur districts and serotype O in Pabna and Faridpur. Only single lineage of both A and O was retrieved from samples of five different regions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences revealed that serotype O sequences were closely related to the Ind 2001 sublineage of Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype that was previously circulating in Bangladesh, and serotype A sequences belonging to the genotype VII that was dominant in India during the last decade. The results suggest that extensive cross-border animal movement from neighbouring countries is the most likely source of FMDV serotypes in Bangladesh.

  7. Study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuong Huu Tan [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)


    The report presents main results of the study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam which have been carried out at Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission in collaboration with Ministry of Industry of Vietnam and other countries like Japan, Canada and Korea. The study covers all topics related to the nuclear power introduction into Vietnam such as electricity demands and supply, economics, finance, technology, safety, manpower, site selection etc. (author)

  8. Flexibility, Reach, and the Vietnam Fire Base (United States)


    48 v ACRONYMS AVRN Army of the Republic of Vietnam COIN Counterinsurgency DRV Democratic Republic of Vietnam DOD Department of...insect-transmitted diseases like malaria, dengue, and encephalitis. Cholera , hepatitis, and typhoid were common in the countryside because of v =Q-m96RoxwrI (accessed 18 January 2014). 75PBS, “Battlefield: Vietnam; The Siege at Khe Sanh,” Battlefield Vietnam Web Site, Adobe Shockwave

  9. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam


    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  10. Energy Flow in Agriculture: Bangladesh


    M. S. Alam; Alam, M.R; Islam, K. K.


    In this paper, a qualitative energy flow analysis in Bangladesh agriculture has been made for a period from 1980-81 to 2000-01 to evaluate the impact of energy input to produce output. Human & animal muscle power and machinery energy for tillage operation, electricity and diesel energy for irrigation, fertilizer and pesticides energy for growth and protection are taken into account. Energy values are calculated by multiplying respective quantity by their respective energy equivalents with...

  11. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)


    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation

  12. Higher Education in Vietnam: Change and Response. (United States)

    Sloper, David, Ed.; Le, Thac Can, Ed.

    This collection of 12 essays examines the development of higher education in Vietnam, focusing on current issues related to educational reform, expansion, and funding. They are: (1) "Higher Education in Vietnam: The Door Opens--From Inside" (Le Thac Can and David Sloper); (2) "Socio-Economic Background of Vietnam Since 1986: Impact on Education…

  13. Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update - December 2014


    Asian Development Bank


    The Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) has been produced by the Bangladesh Resident Mission of the Asian Development Bank since March 2001. The QEU provides information and analysis on Bangladesh’s macroeconomic and sector developments, key development challenges, and policy and institutional reforms. The QEU has wide readership in government, academia, development partners, private sector, and civil society.

  14. Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update June 2014


    Asian Development Bank


    The Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) has been produced by the Bangladesh Resident Mission of the Asian Development Bank since March 2001. The QEU provides information and analysis on Bangladesh’s macroeconomic and sector developments, key development challenges, and policy and institutional reforms. The QEU has wide readership in government, academia, development partners, private sector, and civil society.

  15. Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update September 2014


    Asian Development Bank


    The Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) has been produced by the Bangladesh Resident Mission of the Asian Development Bank since March 2001. The QEU provides information and analysis on Bangladesh’s macroeconomic and sector developments, key development challenges, and policy and institutional reforms. The QEU has wide readership in government, academia, development partners, private sector, and civil society.

  16. Undiagnosed hypertension in a rural district in Bangladesh: The Bangladesh Population-based Diabetes and Eye Study (BPDES). (United States)

    Islam, F M A; Bhuiyan, A; Chakrabarti, R; Rahman, M A; Kanagasingam, Y; Hiller, J E


    Hypertension is mainly asymptomatic and remains undiagnosed until the disease progresses. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension in rural Bangladesh. Using a population-based cluster random sampling strategy, 3096 adults aged ⩾30 years were recruited from a rural district in Bangladesh. Data collected included two blood pressure (BP) measurements, fasting blood glucose, socio-demographic and anthropometric measurements. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP (SBP) ⩾140 mm Hg or diastolic BP (DBP) ⩾90 mm Hg or self-reported diagnosed hypertension. Logistic regression techniques were used for data analyses. The crude prevalence of hypertension was 40% (95% confidence interval (CI) 38-42%) of which 82% were previously undiagnosed. People from lower socio-economic status (SES) had a significantly higher percentage of undiagnosed hypertension compared with people with higher SES (PBangladesh than that reported from the rural area in neighbouring India and China. Lower SES was associated with a higher risk of undiagnosed hypertension. Public health programs at the grass-roots level must emphasise the provision of primary care and preventive services in managing this non-communicable disease.

  17. Genesis of avian influenza H9N2 in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Shanmuganatham, Karthik; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Walker, David; Alam, SMRabiul; Hasan, MKamrul; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G


    Avian influenza subtype H9N2 is endemic in many bird species in Asia and the Middle East and has contributed to the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8, which are potential pandemic threats. H9N2 viruses that have spread to Bangladesh have acquired multiple gene segments from highly pathogenic (HP) H7N3 viruses that are presumably in Pakistan and currently cocirculate with HP H5N1. However, the source and geographic origin of these H9N2 viruses are not clear. We characterized the complete genetic sequences of 37 Bangladeshi H9N2 viruses isolated in 2011-2013 and investigated their inter- and intrasubtypic genetic diversities by tracing their genesis in relationship to other H9N2 viruses isolated from neighboring countries. H9N2 viruses in Bangladesh are homogenous with several mammalian host-specific markers and are a new H9N2 sublineage wherein the hemagglutinin (HA) gene is derived from an Iranian H9N2 lineage (Mideast_B Iran), the neuraminidase (NA) and polymerase basic 2 (PB2) genes are from Dubai H9N2 (Mideast_C Dubai), and the non-structural protein (NS), nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein (MP), polymerase acidic (PA) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1) genes are from HP H7N3 originating from Pakistan. Different H9N2 genotypes that were replaced in 2006 and 2009 by other reassortants have been detected in Bangladesh. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses suggest that the current genotype descended from the prototypical H9N2 lineage (G1), which circulated in poultry in China during the late 1990s and came to Bangladesh via the poultry trade within the Middle East, and that this genotype subsequently reassorted with H7N3 and H9N2 lineages from Pakistan and spread throughout India. Thus, continual surveillance of Bangladeshi HP H5N1, H7N3 and H9N2 is warranted to identify further evolution and adaptation to humans.

  18. The Vanishing People and Vanishing Community- A Case Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drs Chandan Kumar Sarkar


    Full Text Available Development, inequality and poverty are perhaps the most important issues in Bangladesh. Politicians, academics, NGO leaders, concern citizens—all try to emphasize the need to enhance the resilience of the poor by reducing their marginalization and vulnerability. The majority of indigenous people are poor, particularly in India and Bangladesh; they constitute a significant proportion of the rural poor and are the most vulnerable and marginalized in category. The following concept can play an important role in reducing poverty by addressing indigenous people’s development needs. These concepts highlight the problems and challenges faced by the (nomadic/ bede people. As most (nomadic / Bede people live in marginal areas where property rights are ill-defined, secure access to land, forests and water is necessarily a major issue. It is also important to address nomadic e.g. Bede community basic human rights to food, health, education, culture, dignity and peace.

  19. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A


    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  20. Arsenic poisoning of Bangladesh groundwater (United States)

    Nickson, Ross; McArthur, John; Burgess, William; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Ravenscroft, Peter; Rahmanñ, Mizanur


    In Bangladesh and West Bengal, alluvial Ganges aquifers used for public water supply are polluted with naturally occurring arsenic, which adversely affects the health of millions of people. Here we show that the arsenic derives from the reductive dissolution of arsenic-rich iron oxyhydroxides, which in turn are derived from weathering of base-metal sulphides. This finding means it should now be possible, by sedimentological study of the Ganges alluvial sediments, to guide the placement of new water wells so they will be free of arsenic.

  1. Greening textile industry in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong, L.


        The textile and garment industry has made a remarkable contribution to the economic development of Vietnam and employs currently a large labor force of 2.5 million people.However, the textile industry is also seen as a most polluting and unsustainable industry due to the use of exces

  2. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong


    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience...

  3. Universal service policy in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten; Von Salakpi, Simeon


    Universal service provision is a key to bridge the digital divide. This paper provides an empirical examination of the Vietnamese universal policy introduced in 2015 for implementation up to 2020. Using the framework of King et al. (1994) the paper analyses the universal services policy in Vietnam...

  4. Data on Vietnam Era Veterans. (United States)

    Veterans Administration, Washington, DC. Office of the Controller.

    Statistical data are presented on Vietnam era veterans for the following topics: employment status, medical status, compensation and pension, education, housing assistance, expenditures, and demographic information. The estimated number and age of veterans in civil life, categorized by sex and state, and the educational attainment of veterans at…

  5. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007. (United States)

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van


    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition.

  6. The Vietnam Experience in Perspective. (United States)

    Nurse, Ronald J.; Fleming, Dan B.


    Ten recent editions of secondary school-level United States history textbooks were analyzed to determine coverage and balance of the Vietnam War. Treatment of topics such as Vietnamese culture, the roles of wartime leaders, the aims of the United States government, the antiwar movement, and costs of the war are discussed. (PP)

  7. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Douglas F. [Senior Energy Consultant, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Khandker, Shahidur R. [Lead Economist, Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Samad, Hussain A. [Consultant, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)


    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. (author)

  8. Converting Bangladesh's influential religious leaders. (United States)

    Neaz, A


    While the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) introduced family planning to Bangladesh in 1953, very little progress was achieved before the 1980s. It was noticed during the 1980s that despite solid service delivery efforts with interpersonal communication at the community level and expanding choices of contraceptive methods, program success was impeded by religious leader opposition. Religious leader claims that family planning was against Islam reinforce male opposition to contraception. In an effort to win the support of religious leaders, the FPAB established an Islamic Research Cell (IRC) in 1984 and launched targeted advocacy and orientation programs. An expert with religious education and background ran the IRC. The leaders were taught that Islam directly or indirectly promotes family welfare from the viewpoint of the health and economic needs of the family, and that the Qur'an nowhere argues that family planning is forbidden. The Qur'an actually encourages prolonged breastfeeding and the avoidance of unwanted births. Orientation courses, seminars, a national conference, and the distribution of educational printed media eventually convinced the religious leaders to support family planning. Male involvement in family planning is essential in such a male-dominated society.

  9. The United States and Vietnam Relationship: Benefits and Challenges for Vietnam (United States)


    59 Regarding its economy, Vietnam, after renovation (doi moi), has gradually integrated into the global economy with a market economy access the U.S. market . The standards maintained in Vietnam such as Best Aquaculture Practices, Global Good Agriculture Practice, and Aquaculture... Strategy toward Vietnam and Interest in Vietnam The United States’ Rebalance to the Pacific In the global context, U.S. policy now states that it

  10. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  11. Surface Geology of Bangladesh (geo8bg) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the geologic age and type of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Bangladesh. It also includes...

  12. Rohingyas and refugee status in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Prytz Phiri


    Full Text Available The Rohingya refugees from northern Rakhine Statein Myanmar are living in a precarious situation in theircountry of asylum, Bangladesh, but have seen significantimprovements in recent times.

  13. A taxonomic review of the genus Antepipona de Saussure, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from India. (United States)

    Kumar, Girish P; Carpenter, James M; Sureshan, Pavittu M


    A review of 20 Indian species of the genus Antepipona de Saussure with a key to species and subspecies is provided. A new synonymy is proposed for Antepipona biguttata (Fabricius, 1787) =A. excelsa keralensis Lambert, 2004, syn. nov. The parasitic association of Strepsiptera is reported for the first time in the genus Antepipona. Antepipona rufescens (Smith, 1857) is newly recorded from India and A. ovalis (de Saussure, 1853) from Bangladesh. The reported distributions of ten species within India are enlarged.

  14. China-Vietnam Friendship Bringing Light Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>At the invitation of the Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations (VUFO),a delegation headed by CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku and composed of a medical team from Beijing Tongren Hospital made a"China-Vietnam Friendship Bringing Light Tour to Vietnam"from November 13 to 20,2009 and gave free cataract surgery to about 100 patients in Bac Giang Province.

  15. The First Chinese Emperor in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>Vietnam,a close neighbor of China,was influenced by the Chinese Culture for generations.In history,Vietnam had been under the administration and protection of ancient Chinese imperial court for a long period of time.The first Chinese emperor in Vietnam,who can be traced far back to Qin and Han dynasty,is referred to as the oldest emperor worldwide, His name was Zhao Tuo,

  16. Investment climate in Vietnam: potentials and limitations


    Nguyen Thi Hong Bach Lien; Shatokhina, Anastasia Olegovna


    Due to economic renovation in 1986, Vietnam has gained a number of convincing social-economic achievements. One of the factors determining the success of Vietnam's economy is the support of foreign direct investment. Thus, the study and analysis of the determinants, affecting the ability to attract foreign investment have become more practically oriented and necessary. The main purpose of the article is to clarify the definition of investment climate and its characteristics in Vietnam. The ar...

  17. [Children and bankers in Bangladesh]. (United States)

    Hartmann, B


    This critique of the World Bank's role in developing country population programs begins with a description of a 1987 case in which an 80-year- old Bangladeshi man was persuaded to undergo vasectomy and then robbed of his incentive payment by the health agent. For over 20 years, the World Bank has pressured 3rd World governments to implement population control programs. Although there are divergent opinions within the World Bank, the most dominant is the neomalthusian view that the poor through their high fertility help perpetuate their own poverty. This view hides the real source of poverty in the Third World: the unequal distribution of resources within these countries and between the developed and developing countries. The World Bank has always been blind to the inequalities, and has associated with the elites of developing countries who monopolize the resources of their countries and thereby impede authentic development. Furthermore, the emphasis on population control distorts social policy and hinders the implementation of safe and voluntary family planning services. In many countries the World Bank has required governments to give greater priority to population control than to basic health services. It has pressured them to relax contraceptive prescription norms and has promoted the more effective methods without regard to proper use or side effects. In Bangladesh the World Bank has sponsored sterilization programs that rely on coercion and incentives. In that country of enormous inequities, 10% of landowners control over 50% of lands, while nearly half the population is landless and chronically underemployed. Political power is concentrated in the military government, which annually receives over 1.5 billion dollars in external aid. External aid primarily benefits the wealthy. 3/4 of the population are undernourished and less than 1/3 are literate or have access to basic health care. The poor of Bangladesh, as in many other countries, feel that their only

  18. Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas - Cambodia and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), CH-8600 Dubendorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail:; Stengel, Caroline [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), CH-8600 Dubendorf (Switzerland); Trang, Pham Thi Kim [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hung Viet, Pham [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sampson, Mickey L. [Resource Development International-Cambodia (RDIC), P.O. Box 494, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Leng, Moniphea [Resource Development International-Cambodia (RDIC), P.O. Box 494, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Samreth, Sopheap [Resource Development International-Cambodia (RDIC), P.O. Box 494, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Fredericks, David [Phnom Penh (Cambodia)


    Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paper presents an overview of groundwater arsenic pollution in the Mekong delta: arsenic concentrations ranged from 1-1610 {mu}g/L in Cambodia (average 217 {mu}g/L) and 1-845 {mu}g/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 {mu}g/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation in Red River delta where groundwater arsenic concentrations vary from 1-3050 {mu}g/L (average 159 {mu}g/L). In addition to rural areas, the drinking water supply of the city of Hanoi has elevated arsenic concentrations. The sediments of 12-40 m deep cores from the Red River delta contain arsenic levels of 2-33 {mu}g/g (average 7 {mu}g/g, dry weight) and show a remarkable correlation with sediment-bound iron. In all three areas, the groundwater arsenic pollution seem to be of natural origin and caused by reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron phases buried in aquifers. The population at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning is estimated to be 10 million in the Red River delta and 0.5-1 million in the Mekong delta. A subset of hair samples collected in Vietnam and Cambodia from residents drinking groundwater with arsenic levels > 50 {mu}g/L have a significantly higher arsenic content than control groups (< 50 {mu}g/L). Few cases of arsenic related health problems are recognized in the study areas compared to Bangladesh and West Bengal. This difference probably relates to arsenic contaminated tube-well water only being used substantially over the past 7 to 10 years in Vietnam and Cambodia. Because symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning usually take more than 10 years to develop, the number of future arsenic related ailments in Cambodia and Vietnam is likely to increase. Early mitigation measures should be a high priority.

  19. Increasing Choice or Inequality? Pathways through Early Education in Andhra Pradesh, India. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 58. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions (United States)

    Streuli, Natalia; Vennam, Uma; Woodhead, Martin


    This working paper is part of the Studies in Early Transitions series emerging from "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores recent trends for children growing up in Andhra Pradesh, one of India's most populous states, based on Young Lives survey data collected for…

  20. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Shefali, M K


    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  1. Vietnam and the regional crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Pietro Paolo


    inflows, should be understood in the broader frame of regional contingencies, and not be simplistically explained as investors' discontent (i.e., in order to pressure Vietnamese authorities into implementing a more orthodox neo-liberal agenda). And in a post-crisis regional economic reorganisation......The paper explores the linkages between Vietnam and the regional economy before and after the East Asian financial crisis of 1997 and 1998, indicating that the country is more closely associated with the region than normally assumed. Thus, key indicators, such as falling foreign direct investment...... (including a restructuring of the so-called 'flying geese' pattern) Vietnam's chances of benefitting from closer integration in the world economy will depend on a clearcut industrial and trade policy, rather than on embarking a so-called 'neutral trade regime'. Preliminary evidence seems to indicate...

  2. Mutation Spectrum of β-Thalassemia and Other Hemoglobinopathies in Chittagong, Southeast Bangladesh. (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tridip; Chakravarty, Amit; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chowdhury, Mahmood Ahmed; Sultana, Razia


    Thalassemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive blood disorders in the world. It shows a variety of clinical expression, starting from asymptomatic to severe blood transfusion dependence. More than 500 alleles have been characterized in or around the β-globin region. Moreover, most geographical regions have their own characteristics, frequency and availability of these alleles, predominantly circulating within the communities present in that particular region. In this study, we explored the spectrum of β-thalassemia (β-thal) alleles present in Chittagong, Southeast Bangladesh. This study comprises β-thal and Hb E (HBB: c.79 G > A) patients from in and around the area of Chittagong. Not only exploring the complete β-globin mutation spectrum of the area, but we also tried to look at the origin of the mutated alleles. The β-thal mutations of Bangladesh show a relatively wide spectrum of alleles, which further demonstrates the heterogeneity of the disease in this country. Although our study showed that the majority of the mutations have their origin in neighboring countries such as India, countries of Southeast Asia, Pakistan, etc., some unusual alleles do not originate in neighboring countries and put a little more diversity in the overall spectrum of β-thal-specific alleles. Overall, this study demonstrates the mutation spectrum related to β-thal in Chittagong, Southeast Bangladesh.

  3. Local Expert Perceptions of Migration as a Climate Change Adaptation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Stojanov


    Full Text Available People have long migrated for many reasons, often with a combination of forced and voluntary reasons combining to push them away from current situations and to pull them towards new situations. Bangladesh is one example where environmental changes have long been amongst the multitude of reasons for migrating, with contemporary climate change suggested as a major impetus towards more migration. This paper examines local expert perceptions of migration as a climate change adaptation strategy for Bangladeshis. Seventeen in-depth interviews were conducted with local experts in Bangladesh and Assam (India on environmental change and migration to understand the perspectives of those with formal education and expert-related jobs who come from the areas being directly affected by Bangladeshi migration. Findings show that local experts consider that migration is used and will be used for climate change adaptation in Bangladesh, but migration is not solely for climate change adaptation, instead interweaving with all other factors influencing migration-related decisions.

  4. Assessment of arsenic contamination of groundwater and health problems in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Khalequzzaman, M; Faruque, Fazlay S; Mitra, Amal K


    Excessive amounts of arsenic (As) in the groundwater in Bangladesh and neighboring states in India are a major public health problem. About 30% of the private wells in Bangladesh exhibit high concentrations of arsenic. Over half the country, 269 out of 464 administrative units, is affected. Similar problems exist in many other parts of the world, including the Unites States. This paper presents an assessment of the health hazards caused by arsenic contamination in the drinking water in Bangladesh. Four competing hypotheses, each addressing the sources, reaction mechanisms, pathways, and sinks of arsenic in groundwater, were analyzed in the context of the geologic history and land-use practices in the Bengal Basin. None of the hypotheses alone can explain the observed variability in arsenic concentration in time and space; each appears to have some validity on a local scale. Thus, it is likely that several biogeochemical processes are active among the region's various geologic environments, and that each contributes to the mobilization and release of arsenic. Additional research efforts will be needed to understand the relationships between underlying biogeochemical factors and the mechanisms for arsenic release in various geologic settings.

  5. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  6. 4th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Toan, Nguyen; Khoa, Truong; Phuong, Tran; Development of Biomedical Engineering


    This volume presents the proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam which was held in Ho Chi Minh City as a Mega-conference. It is kicked off by the Regenerative Medicine Conference with the theme “BUILDING A FACE” USING A REGENERATIVE MEDICINE APPROACH”, endorsed mainly by the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society (TERMIS). It is followed by the Computational Medicine Conference, endorsed mainly by the Computational Surgery International Network (COSINE) and the Computational Molecular Medicine of German National Funding Agency; and the General Biomedical Engineering Conference, endorsed mainly by the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE). It featured the contributions of 435 scientists from 30 countries, including: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Malaysia, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Ru...

  7. Understanding the transmission dynamics of Leishmania donovani to provide robust evidence for interventions to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India the LCNTDR Collection: Advances in scientific research for NTD control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Cameron (Mary M.); A. Acosta-Serrano (Alvaro); C. Bern (Caryn); M. Boelaert (Marleen); M. Den Boer (Margriet); S. Burza (Sakib); L.A.C. Chapman (Lloyd A. C.); A. Chaskopoulou (Alexandra); M. Coleman (Michael); O. Courtenay (Orin); S. Croft (Simon); P.K. Das (P.); E. Dilger (Erin); G. Foster (Geraldine); R. Garlapati (Rajesh); L. Haines (Lee); A. Harris (Angela); J. Hemingway (Janet); T.D. Hollingsworth (T. Déirdre); S. Jervis (Sarah); G.F. Medley (Graham F.); M. Miles (Michael); M. Paine (Mark); A. Picado (Albert); R. Poché (Richard); P. Ready (Paul); M. Rogers (Matthew); M. Rowland (Mark); S. Sundar (Shyam); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); D. Weetman (David)


    textabstractVisceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected vector-borne disease. In India, it is transmitted to humans by Leishmania donovani-infected Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. In 2005, VL was targeted for elimination by the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh by 2015. The elimination st

  8. Vietnam: The Political Economy of Education in a "Socialist" Periphery (United States)

    London, Jonathan D.


    In this article I examine historic changes in the goals, conduct and outcomes of education policies in Vietnam from the 1940s to the present, under the Communist Party of Vietnam. Recent studies of Vietnam's education system centre on econometric and demographic analysis of education data dating back to the early 1990s, when Vietnam began an…

  9. Bangladesh Sundarbans: Present status of the environment and Biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz


    Full Text Available The Sundarbans is a deltaic mangrove forest, formed about 7000 years ago by the deposition of sediments from the foothills of the Himalayas through the Ganges river system, and is situated southwest of Bangladesh and south of West Bengal, India. However, for the last 40 years, the discharge of sediment-laden freshwater into the Bay of Bengal through the Bangladesh part of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forests (BSMF has been reduced due to a withdrawal of water during the dry period from the Farakka Barrage in India. The result is two extremes of freshwater discharge at Gorai, the feeding River of the BSMF: a mean minimum monthly discharge varies from 0.00 to 170 m3·s−1 during the dry period with a mean maximum of about 4000 to 8880 m3·s−1 during the wet period. In the BSMF, about 180 km downstream, an additional low discharge results in the creation of a polyhaline environment (a minimum of 194.4 m3·s−1 freshwater discharge is needed to maintain an oligohaline condition during the dry period. The Ganges water carries 262 million ton sediments/year and only 7% is diverted in to southern distributaries. The low discharge retards sediment deposition in the forestlands’ base as well as the formation of forestlands. The increase in water flow during monsoon on some occasions results in erosion of the fragile forestlands. Landsat Satellite data from the 1970s to 2000s revealed a non-significant decrease in the forestlands of total Sundarbans by 1.1% which for the 6017 km2 BSMF is equivalent to 66 km2. In another report from around the same time, the estimated total forestland loss was approximately 127 km2. The Sundarbans has had great influence on local freshwater environments, facilitating profuse growth of Heritiera fomes (sundri, the tallest (at over 15 m and most commercially important plant, but now has more polyhaline areas threatening the sundri, affecting growth and distribution of other mangroves and biota. Landsat images and GIS data

  10. Chinese Friendly Personages’ Delegation Visits Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>A 50-member "Meeting at Uncle Ho’s Hometown" Chinese friendly personages’delegation led by Wang Yunze, vice president of the China-Vietnam Friendship Association (CVFA), paid a visit to Vietnam from May 15 to 23. Nguyen Minh Triet, Vietnamese president;

  11. Vietnam kan nieuwe bron voor kokkels worden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.


    Wageningse onderzoekers gaan Vietnam helpen om de puntjes op de i te zetten bij hun monitoringsprogramma voor de voedselveiligheid van schaal- en schelpdieren, en ze bijscholen in risicomanagement en HACCP-audits. Want Vietnam wil graag de controles op visproductie verbeteren en meer kokkels, mossel

  12. Causes of Acute Water Scarcity in the Barind Tract, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bazlar Rashid


    Full Text Available The Barind tract is an elevated landmass (about 11-48 m amsl comprised with Pleistocene terraces and is situated in the northwestern part of Bangladesh. At present, this area faces scarcity of water. The present study is an attempt to unveil the causes of water scarcity of the area. Several aspects like change in climatic condition, irrigation practice and drainage characteristics of major rivers are the prime factors for water scarcity. Interpretation of recent satellite imagery and historical records reveal that the major rivers of the area like Ganges (Padma, Tista and Kosi have remarkably migrated from Barind tract during last few hundred years. Shifting of these rivers causes great change in hydrodynamics of the Barind tract. As a result, flow of other related rivers of the area like the Mahananda, Kulic, Tangon, Punarbhaba, Atrai, Little Jamuna, Karatoya and Nagar reduces remarkably in the dry season. As a result aquifers in the area are not recharged sufficiently by river water in the dry season. India constructed Farakka barrage on the Ganges (Padma river in 1975 to divert the flow of water from Bangladesh to the other parts of India. This diversion of water also leads to the decreasing of water in the area. Climatic data interpretation of the last 50 years also reveals that annual rainfall in the area is decreasing while overall temperature is increasing. To boost up the cropping intensity (117% to 200% compared to national average of 174% and to meet present demand 74% of cultivable lands are being irrigated with 96% share of groundwater owing to unavailability or scarcity of rainfall and hence surface water. Irrigation by groundwater has dramatically been increased (250 times in the last 30 years. Due to over exploitation, water table progressively declined (av. rate 0.10 m/year which ultimately leads the area to water scarcity zone. The aquifers are confined or semi-confined and do not get appreciable vertical recharge through clay

  13. Spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Sharif, A H; Huq, S M; Mesbah-us-Saleheen


    This paper depicts the spatial patterns of mortality of the administrative upazilas of Bangladesh. Due to the absence of adequate data on mortality rates from across the country, the mortality rates of the upazilas are calculated from the age sex structure of the population of the respective upazilas employing the standardized mortality rates of divisional headquarters. Crude death rates are used to determine spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh. The patterns portray strong regional differences. Such differentiation is accounted for by traditional differences in demographic and socio-economic factors. Also, regression analysis is used to assist in explaining spatial variations.

  14. Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh (United States)

    Harvey, Charles F.; Swartz, Christopher H.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Keon-Blute, Nicole; Yu, Winston; Ali, M. Ashraf; Jay, Jenny; Beckie, Roger; Niedan, Volker; Brabander, Daniel; Oates, Peter M.; Ashfaque, Khandaker N.; Islam, Shafiqul; Hemond, Harold F.; Ahmed, M. Feroze


    High levels of arsenic in well water are causing widespread poisoning in Bangladesh. In a typical aquifer in southern Bangladesh, chemical data imply that arsenic mobilization is associated with recent inflow of carbon. High concentrations of radiocarbon-young methane indicate that young carbon has driven recent biogeochemical processes, and irrigation pumping is sufficient to have drawn water to the depth where dissolved arsenic is at a maximum. The results of field injection of molasses, nitrate, and low-arsenic water show that organic carbon or its degradation products may quickly mobilize arsenic, oxidants may lower arsenic concentrations, and sorption of arsenic is limited by saturation of aquifer materials.

  15. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)


    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  16. Education for All Summit of Nine High-Population Countries (New Delhi, India, December 12-16, 1993). Final Report. (United States)

    Naik, Chitra, Ed.; And Others

    This final report on an international conference of nine high population developing countries on education for all (EFA) begins with a declaration of goals by the representatives of each of the nine nations represented. Participating nations were Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, and Pakistan. After a scene…

  17. Negotiating triple roles as activists, managers and researchers in Vietnam's LGBT movement


    Hoang, T.A.; Oosterhoff, P.; Lalor, K.; Mills, E.; Sánchez García, A.; Haste, P.


    The contributions to this Edited Collection reveal the complexity of the deceptively simple question posed by its title: Gender, Sexuality and Social Justice: What’s Law Got to Do With It? Many of those involved in this publication are directly involved in and affected by the issues to which the Edited Collection’s title speaks. From activists working with women in Assam’s tea gardens in India or young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender leaders in Vietnam, to lawyers fighting the Anti-Hom...

  18. Governance of ‘long term delta planning’ in Bangladesh, Vietnam and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van M.F.


    The Deltas in Times of Climate Change Conference II, taking place in September 2014, Rotterdam, presented a suitable occasion to discuss both delta challenges and interesting approaches to how ‘delta dynamics’ are being dealt with worldwide.1 Delta dynamics include here both environmental (including

  19. 稻文化的再思考3:稻与社稷——印度、泰国等东南亚、南亚主要国家%Rethinking of Rice Culture (3): Rice and Country:India, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam,Philippine, Bangladesh, Myanmar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞乾林; 林海; 王志刚



  20. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur


    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  1. Gender Disparities in Secondary Education in Bangladesh (United States)

    Huq, Molla; Rahman, Pk Md. Motiur


    Enrolment and success rates are very crucial for any educational system in the world but they are more important for the developing countries like Bangladesh. Gender differences in enrolment and success rates are also emerging issues. This study investigated the enrolment and success rate's status in secondary educational system of Bangladesh…

  2. Gender, Parenting, and Adolescent Functioning in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Stewart, Sunita Mahtani; Bond, Michael Harris; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Ma, Stefan S. L.


    Examined associations of self-esteem, relationship harmony, and academic achievement with perceptions of parents' styles and supervisory practices among 212 adolescents in Islamic Bangladesh. Found that parental supervisory practices were associated with a warm parental style for girls and parental dominating control for boys. Girls' (but not…

  3. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh


    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; A. H. M. Kamal; Ali, K.S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F


    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  4. Digital geologic and geophysical data of Bangladesh (United States)

    Persits, Feliks M.; Wandrey, C.J.; Milici, R.C.; Manwar, Abdullah


    The data set for these maps includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and geophysical fields of Bangladesh. Political boundaries are provided to show the general location of administrative regions and state boundaries. Major base topographic data like cities, rivers, etc. were derived from the same paper map source as the geology.

  5. First case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun Sophie


    Full Text Available Chromoblastomycosis is a rare and chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by black fungi and mostly reported in tropical and subtropical areas. Here we report the first case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh. Molecular biology permitted to identify Fonsecaea nubica, and the patient responded well to antifungal treatment alone.

  6. Women's Struggle against Tradition in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Sultan, Mainus


    In rural Bangladesh, women's participation in a literacy program was opposed by Mullahs for several reasons: content encouraged decision making, monopoly of the Qur'anic schools was threatened, Mullahs' leadership and spiritual roles were potentially subverted, and it conflicted with the practice of polygamy. (SK)

  7. Building an Extension Network in Vietnam. (United States)

    Poussard, H.


    Agricultural extension in Vietnam is in transition as the economy moves to a market orientation. The national extension service created in 1993 is constrained by lack of funding, staff, and access to current extension knowledge. (SK)

  8. 2009 China-Vietnam Border Friendship Gala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>International dragon boat races at sea, youth ex- changes, art performances and a symbolic friendship tree plant- ing ceremony were among the many colourful activities held during the 2009 China-Vietnam

  9. Vietnam Land Policy - Adjusting to Globalization (United States)


    Conflicts over Land in Vietnam’s Red River Delta," Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, (2007): 317, accessed 6 September 2013, JSTOR . 5...Responsibility and No Rice,”: The Rise and Fall of Agricultural Collectivization in Vietnam,” Agricultural History: vol 82, no. 1, (2008), 54, JSTOR . 18...Performance and Communist Legitimacy,” World Politics, vol. 38 no. 3, (1986): 463, accessed 22 October 2013, JSTOR . 32 Ibid., 463. 33 Elliott

  10. Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Vietnam: an update. (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi


    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes.

  11. Taxonomic notes on the species of the genus Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from Vietnam, with description of a new species. (United States)

    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong


    A taxonomic study on the solitary wasps in the vespid genus Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863, from Vietnam is presented. One species previously identified as A. (Anterhynchium) abdominale abdominale (Illiger, 1802) is described as new, namely A. punctatum Nguyen, sp. nov. Antechynchium (Dirhynchium) flavolineatum flavolineatum (Smith, 1857) and A. (Dirhynchium) flavomarginatum flavomarginatum (Smith, 1852) are newly recorded from Vietnam. New synonymy is proposed for A. flavolineatum flavolineatum (Smith, 1857) =A. flavolineatum malaisei van der Vecht, 1963, syn. nov. A. coracinum van der Vecht sensu Girish Kumar (2013) is a misidentification of A. f. flavomarginatum (Smith), and the record of this species from Pakistan and India belongs to A. f. flavolineatum. A key to species of the genus from Vietnam is provided. 

  12. [An analysis of the pharmaceuticals market in Vietnam]. (United States)

    Simonet, D


    This article sheds a light on the Vietnamese pharmaceutical market. The progress that has been made in the recent years following the opening of the Vietnamese regime to the western world, although not easy, brought a certain number of opportunities for domestic firms and foreign investors. The pharmaceutical Vietnamese industry started to emerge at the beginning of the 1990s. Although, the consumption of drugs is low, it does reach the sum of $ 5.5 per capita. As the majority of these products are imported, foreign companies tend to dominate the market both in volume and in diversity. The state has always played an important role with the implementation of a strict price control strategy and most national drug companies remain state-owned. The production and consumption of drugs were also largely influenced by state policies as the latter also control hospitals. In the second half of the eighties, the progressive liberalisation of the country allowed private drug pharmacies to appear and advertisement campaigns became legal. Because the lack of specific products like antibiotics was clear, the government increased the flow of imports, including private imports by citizens. Sources of imports have become more diverse, although France remains an important source of supply. Fournier, Lipha and Pierre Fabre are among the French drug manufacturers located in Vietnam. Other foreign companies include from India, South Korea, Thailand and Germany. Joint ventures were also created with French and Japanese companies. The import of medical materials is subjected to authorisations from the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Foreign Trade as it is necessary to obtain a licence to do so. Licences are issued on the basis of the production of drugs that do not currently exist on the local market. But Vietnam also exports pharmaceutical products to Laos, Cambodia, and Cuba. Local resources constitute an important source of new products and have stirred a strong interest among

  13. The prospects and challenges of plastic industries in Bangladesh


    Pintu, MD. Nazmul Hossain


    Plastic is one of the most used engineered material in Bangladesh that has come out as im-portant industrial sector during the last few decades. The size of Domestic market is more than thousands of billions euros. The available cheap labor, vast population and fast development of plastics wastes recycling industries have given Bangladesh a huge potential advantages to compete in the global market. Although, plastics sector is one of the most growing markets in Bangladesh, but still it is fac...

  14. Neotectonics of the Surma Basin, Bangladesh from GPS analysis (United States)

    Bulbul, M. A. U.


    The Surma Basin is a sub-basin of the Bengal Basin situated at the northeastern corner of Bangladesh. The tectonically-active basin lies at the junction of three tectonic plates: the Indian plate, the Eurasian plate and the Burma platelet. The Surma Basin is bounded on the north by the Shillong Massif, east and southeast by CTFB of the Indo-Burman Ranges, west by the Indian Shield and to the south and southeast it is open to the main part of Bengal Basin. The Surma basin is subsiding at a high rate, which is controlled by flexure loading along the southern margin of the 2-km high Shillong Massif because of Dauki thrust fault system. The objective of this study is to explore and reconstruct the present scenario of the tectonically active zone of the northeastern Bangladesh, identify the active faults, identify the relation between the neotectonic activities and seismicity, relation between neotectonic activities and natural hazards and describe the nature of the possible future earthquakes. The present effort to establish the tectonics of the Surma basin mainly utilizes the horizontal and vertical movements of the area using GPS geodetic data and other constraints on the structure of the region. We also make use historical seismologic data, field geology, and satellite image data. The GPS data has been processed using GAMIT-GLOBK. The analysis of 5 continuous GPS geodetic stations installed in the Surma Basin are combined with published data from the adjacent parts of India. While the area is moving northeast at a rate of 50-52 mm/year relative to ITRF2008 reference frame, it is moving south in an Indian reference frame. The velocities reflect that the Surma Basin being overthrust by both Shillong Plateau from the north and Burmese microplate from the east, respectively. The combined GPS velocity data indicates shortening across Dauki Fault and Indo Burman Ranges at a rate of 7 mm/yr and 18 mm/yr, respectively. The complex anticlinal structures in and around the

  15. Industrial Clustering Policy and Economic Restructuring in Vietnam


    Pham, Thi Thanh Hong; Nguyen, Binh Giang


    This paper reviews the industrial agglomeration and evaluates the industrial clustering policy in Vietnam. Base on the Kuchiki flowchart on the building of industrial clustering policy for developing countries, the authors suggest a policy framework for Vietnam.

  16. U.S.-Vietnam Military Relations: Game Theory Perspective (United States)


    13 Andrew X. Pham, Catfish and Mandala : A Two-Wheeled Voyage through the Landscape and Memory of Vietnam...140. 17 Karnow, Vietnam: A History, 141; Pham, Catfish and Mandala , 229. 10 U.S. Prisoners of War/Missing in Action (POW/MIAs).18 Vietnam did not...22, 2011. Pham, Andrew X. Catfish and Mandala : A Two-Wheeled Voyage through the Landscape and Memory of Vietnam, Picador, New York, 1999. Phong

  17. Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    As a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Viet Nam will make its strong effort to implement the UNFCCC through effective activities in order to reduce GHG emissions as well as enhance carbon sinks in the country. The UNEP/GEF Project `Economics of GHG Limitation - Phase 1: Establishment of a Methodological Framework for Climate Change Mitigation Assessment` developed by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in cooperation with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been deployed in Viet Nam since 1996. The project deals with GHG mitigation analysis and options, focusing on the main issues: a) Associated macro-economics, b) Energy, c) Land use and forestry. For this study, a number of different data related to energy, industry, forestry and agriculture sectors as well as Viet Nam socio-economic development up to the year 2030, are collected. Besides, several models such as MEDEE-S, EFOM-ENV, COMAP are applied for development and assessment of GHG mitigation options in the next decades. The MEDEE-S and EFOM-ENV models are used as a tool for determining the cost-effective strategies to abate GHG emissions for energy sector while COMAP model is applied for forestry sector. (au) 39 refs.

  18. 75 FR 54087 - Education Trade Mission to Indonesia and Vietnam (United States)


    ... Mission to Indonesia and Vietnam AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce... and Vietnam, April 3-8, 2011. Led by a senior Department of Commerce official, the mission to these..., challenges and marketing strategies for each market. Commercial Setting Vietnam With a population of...

  19. Current status of soil-transmitted helminths in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; De, Nguyen Van; Konradsen, Flemming;


    This paper provides a review of surveys on soil-transmitted helminths that were done in Vietnam between 1990 and 2001. Prevalence estimates could be obtained for 29 of the 61 provinces. Extrapolating from this, it is estimated that 33.9 million people in Vietnam are infected with Ascaris......, and human behavioral factors in the transmission of intestinal nematode infections in Vietnam....

  20. Supplement to Vietnam 1964-1973: An American Dilemma (United States)


    Vietnam MiG Killers: Deadly Duel Over Vietnam. Osceola, Wis: Motorbooks Intl, 1988. (DS 558.8 .D67 1988) Drake, Ricky J. The Rules of Defeat...34Vietnamese Infant and Childhood Mortality in Relation to the Vietnam War." American Journal of Public Health 83 (Aug 1993): 1134-1138. "Southeast Asian

  1. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in subheading 7326.20.00 of the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam. Background The...

  2. Programme impact on current contraception in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Latif, M A


    "This paper analyses the impact of three credit programmes--the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), the Bangladesh Rural Development Board's Rural Development-12 (BRDB RD-12), and the Grameen Bank (GB), on current rate of contraception. These programmes are targeted to alleviate poverty by providing group-based credit to the rural poor in creating self employment opportunities. With small credits, these programmes combine family planning activities in terms of consciousness raising, awareness building and motivation. Sample survey data are used to analyse the problem of impact evaluation. The analyses show that the BRAC and the GB programmes have [a] significantly positive impact on the current rate of contraception, while the BRDB RD-12 programme does not have any such impact. It is also found that education, both of female[s] and male[s] separately, and child survivorship have independently positive impact[s] on current contraception."

  3. Development Dynamics of Remittances in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munim K. Barai


    Full Text Available Remittance inflows in the economy of Bangladesh are getting larger every passing year, matching with the increasing external demand for its manpower. The ensuing development impacts of remittances, as a means of transfer of wealth, on socioeconomic factors are increasingly viewed with importance. Remittances have helped improve the social and economic indicators like nutrition, living condition and housing, education, health care, poverty reduction, social security, and investment activities of the recipient households. The relative weight of remittances has also increased against most of the macroeconomic variables alongside the contribution to GDP. Moreover, Bangladesh has been able to avoid any serious imbalances in BOP’s current account, although it has persistent merchandize trade deficits. Not only that, the export tradable sector has thus far remained unaffected from the Dutch Disease effects of remittances.

  4. Farmers’ Education and Farmers’ Wealth in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq


    Full Text Available The impact of farmers’ education is examined with a view to evaluate the actual situation of farmers’ education in Bangladesh. Fifty samples were collected from two sub districts of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. The selection of the study sites and collection of the samples such as the years of schooling of the farm household head, total income, farm size, number of earners of farm families, family size, years of farming experience of farm household head, number of times extension contacts and rice yield were done purposively. It is cleared from the study that education is necessary for farmers to raise their wealth. Results were derived through regression analysis. The study has also shown that size of family and years of farming experience contributed significantly to the wealth accumulation of farmers.

  5. Girl prostitution in India. (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, K K


    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  6. Flood characteristics of the Haor area in Bangladesh (United States)

    Suman, Asadusjjaman; Bhattacharya, Biswa


    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Bangladesh is a country, which is frequently suffering from flooding. The current research is conducted in the framework of a project, which focuses on the flooding issues in the Haor region in the north-east of Bangladesh. A haor is a saucer-shaped depression, which is used during the dry period (December to mid-May) for agriculture and as a fishery during the wet period (June-November), and thereby presents a very interesting socio-economic perspective of flood risk management. Pre-monsoon flooding till mid-May causes agricultural loss and lot of distress whereas monsoon flooding brings benefits. The area is bordering India, thereby presenting trans-boundary issues as well, and is fed by some flashy Indian catchments. The area is drained mainly through the Surma-Kushiyara river system. The terrain generally is flat and the flashy characteristics die out within a short distance from the border. Limited studies on the region, particularly with the help of numerical models, have been carried out in the past. Therefore, an objective of the current research was to set up numerical models capable of reasonably emulating the physical system. Such models could, for example, associate different gauges to the spatio-temporal variation of hydrodynamic variables and help in carrying out a systemic study on the impact of climate changes. A 1D2D model, with one-dimensional model for the rivers (based on MIKE 11 modelling tool from Danish Hydraulic Institute) and a two

  7. Globalization and its Impact on Bangladesh Economy (United States)


    to other continents and the three monotheistic religions namely Islam , Christianity and Judaism took root. In the nineteenth century, the technology...Institute of Development Studies, Institute of Development Studies (Sussex) and Oxfam-Great Britain-Bangladesh Program, January 2003, 2. 2Md Saiful ...Haque, Md Saiful . “Critical Challenges Await the Economy’s Thrust Sector.” The Independent (Dhaka), 15 May 2003, 4. 63 Mondal Abdul Hye, “Study

  8. Impact of Iraq War on Bangladesh Economy


    Debapriya Bhattacharya; Mustafizur Rahman; Ananya Raihan


    The paper is aimed at providing an early assessment of the anticipated consequences of Iraq war and its possible impacts on Bangladesh economy. Critical insights and fact-based information on possible changes in several areas including oil price, flow of remittance, volume of export and import, migration of labour force etc., and how these will reshape the country’s economic settings in the post-war era, have been presented in the paper.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SHAMSUDDOHA


    Full Text Available Tourism appeal includes natural places like beaches, eco-parks, lakes, valleys, rivers, islands etc., archeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, picnic spots, forest and wildlife. Bangladesh is a riverine country having attractive panoramic beauty. There are hills, valley, canals, lake, eco-park and mangrove forests, rivers, so many islands and the longest beach in the world. In this country, the scope of nature based tourism, resource based tourism, culture based tourism and eco-tourism is quite evident. Bangladesh is trying hard to develop its tourism industry. Therefore the whole situation deserves to be seen from right perspectives. Role of government is positive since the last twenty years both private and public organizations have come forwarded to attract the local and foreign tourists. The cracks of problem could not identify accurately because of the paucity number of researches and investigations in our country. Developed and organized tourism industry could change the economic condition and contribute a big share in the GDP of Bangladesh. This study will impede the opportunities of developing tourism industry in the light of existing resources.

  10. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul


    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  11. Empowerment and family planning in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Schuler, S R


    A 1992 survey of 1500 women (1300 married and under age 50 years) was conducted in Bangladesh. Women who participated in 1 of 2 nongovernmental programs which provide small business loans for women (the Grameen Bank and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) were compared with women who were not members but lived in villages served by the programs and with women who were eligible but lived in villages where the loans were not available. It was found that Grameen Bank membership had a significant positive effect on the use of contraceptives and on the rate in which the level of contraceptive use increased. The greater economic independence enjoyed by the Grameen Bank members is a factor in the increased contraceptive usage as is the promotion by the Bank of a small family norm. Empowerment indicators for women in Bangladesh include mobility, economic security, the ability to make purchases, freedom from domination and violence within the family, political and legal awareness, and participation in political activities. Women are able to achieve their fertility goals by participating in programs that decrease their social isolation and their economic dependence on men.

  12. Type 1 diabetes: The Bangladesh perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishwar Azad


    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common endocrine disorder among children and adolescents in Bangladesh. The latest International Diabetes Federation atlas estimated the incidence of type 1 DM (T1DM in Bangladesh as 4.2 new cases of T1DM/100,000 children (0-14 years/year, in 2013. Diabetes, being a lifelong disease, places a huge burden on the economy of the most densely populated, and resource-poor country of the world. The Diabetic Association of Bangladesh (BADAS, the largest of its kind in the world, provides comprehensive care to the biggest number of diabetics at any one centre and is engaged in advocacy. Although sounding grandiose, it′s aims that ′no diabetic shall die untreated, unfed or unemployed, even if poor′ is pursued with a passion. Recently BADAS has been supported in its endeavor for children and adolescents by two programmes; viz the Changing Diabetes in Children program (a joint initiative of BADAS, the World Diabetes Foundation and Novo Nordisk, and the Life for a Child Programme (LFAC supported by the IDF. Numerous studies from the prosperous countries have demonstrated the incidence of T1DM is increasing. Data from the CDiC clinic at BIRDEM shows a rising trend in patients presenting with classical T1DM. In addition, the pattern of DM is changing.

  13. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana [Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh)


    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  14. Bangladesh: giving girls the "key of keys". (United States)

    Chhabra, R


    In Bangladesh, 100 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have worked with the government to create approximately 52,000 nonformal schools for children who have never attended school or have dropped out. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) alone has 34,000 nonformal education centers. The BRAC program has been particularly effective at increasing educational opportunities for girls, and BRAC is a major implementing agency of the agreement forged by the International Labor Organization and the UN Children's Fund with the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers Export Association, which gives about 10,000 former child garment workers a meager stipend allowing them to study instead of work. BRAC, the Grameen Bank, and several other NGOs are also developing alternative income-generating methods to compete with the exploitative working conditions suffered by impoverished girls. BRAC now has more than a million students enrolled each year, 700,000 of whom are girls. Students participate in special condensed courses in classes that average 33 pupils (20 must be girls). Gender sensitivity is incorporated at every level. BRAC also relies on community participation in running the schools, and the flexible hours and imaginative curriculum have resulted in very high attendance rates. Government actions (making primary education compulsory and tripling education expenditure) have also resulted in increased primary enrollment while special programs seek to increase the number of girls in secondary schools.

  15. The Lessons of the Vietnam War: Unit 13. Teacher's Manual: Strategies and Resources for Teaching the Vietnam War. (United States)

    Center for Social Studies Education, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This teacher's manual is designed to accompany the curriculum "The Lessons of the Vietnam War." For each of 12 units of the curriculum, this manual suggests projects for student research and classroom activities. The 12 units are entitled: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and…

  16. The changing landscape of mangroves in Bangladesh compared to four other countries in tropical regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. M. Mijan Uddin; A.T.M. Rafiqul Hoque; Saiful Arif Abdullah


    Loss of mangroves and consequent habitat fragmentation is a major concern throughout the world’s tropical countries. Conversion of mangrove habitat due to aquaculture, agriculture, urbanization and industrialization, ecotourism, overlapping bureaucracy and conflicting policies is occurring at a striking rate. This paper reviews the trends of mangrove area changes in Bangladesh and compares them with four other countries in tropical regions that have significant mangrove areas. The rate of mangrove loss from the 1980 to 2005 was calculated using the compound interest rate formula for its explicit biological implication. In Bangladesh, the area of mangroves was found to have increased due to its higher accretion rate. In India the rate of mangrove loss had fallen. The rate of mangrove loss in Malaysia in the 1990s (-0.008 ha·a-1) was higher than the 1980s (-0.004 ha·a-1). In Indonesia, the rate decreased, from the 1980s (-0.018 ha·a-1) to the 1990s (-0.010 ha·a-1). Finally in Myanmar the rate of mangrove loss gradually accelerated. Aquaculture was found to be the common cause of mangrove conversion in the regions. Loss of mangroves is now a prominent global issue, associated with the loss of biodiversity, deterioration of habitat integrity, climatic changes, the amount of carbon sequestration, and resulting sea-level rise. Therefore, a systematic evaluation of these environmental impacts is prerequisite to realize sustainable mangrove management.

  17. Education for All Summit in the Nine High-Population Countries (New Delhi, India, December 13-16, 1993). Analysis and Synthesis. Discussion Draft. (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document reviews progress in the nine high-populations countries towards the goal of Education for All (EFA). The nine countries are Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Since the Thailand conference in 1990, most countries have shown improvement with primary education increasing by over 40…

  18. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila


    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  19. Engineering Education in Bangladesh--An Indicator of Economic Development (United States)

    Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz


    Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although…

  20. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa


    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  1. Making Work Pay in Bangladesh : Employment, Growth, and Poverty Reduction


    Paci, Pierella; Sasin, Marcin


    The objective of this report is to analyze the important roles of labor markets, employment, productivity, and labor income in facilitating shared growth and promoting poverty reduction in Bangladesh. First, the report provides a background discussion of poverty, reform, and growth in Bangladesh. Following that, it gives an overview of the labor market, describing the country's demographic...

  2. Tetanus in Southern Vietnam: Current Situation (United States)

    Thuy, Duong Bich; Campbell, James I.; Thanh, Tran Tan; Thuy, Cao Thu; Loan, Huynh Thi; Hao, Nguyen Van; Minh, Yen Lam; Tan, Le Van; Boni, Maciej F.; Thwaites, C. Louise


    In Vietnam, there are no accurate data on tetanus incidence to allow assessment of disease burden or vaccination program efficacy. We analyzed age structure of 786 tetanus cases admitted to a tertiary referral center in Vietnam for three separate years during an 18-year period to examine the impact of tetanus prevention programs, namely the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) and the Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus (MNT) initiative. Most cases were born before the initiation of EPI. Median age increased from 33 (interquartile range: 20–52) in 1994, to 46 (32–63) in 2012 (P anti-tetanus antibody compared with 24.4% (95% CI: 15.9–34.7%) of men, indicating continued tetanus vulnerability in older men in Vietnam. PMID:27821690

  3. Technique de lombriculture au Sud Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haubruge E.


    Full Text Available Vermicomposting technique in South Vietnam. Earthworms play a major role in organic matter transformation. The vermicomposting allows to combine several advantages: the management of diversified organic wastes, and the production of earthworms and vermicompost. Crop residues and other plant wastes mixed with animal manure from individual farms can be used. In South Vietnam, farmers are rearing some livestock and growing a few number of crop species. From several years, an increasing number of vermicomposting units were set in many farms from the Ho Chi Minh City region. Two kinds of infrastructure materials are used: baked clay blocks or bamboo stems with plastic covers. In South Vietnam, all conditions are pooled to ensure an efficient earthworm production: suitable climate, available organic wastes and materials to build the vermicomposting structures. Both field plot fertility and protein feed for livestock (pigs, poultry, etc. can be provided by rearing earthworms.

  4. Lightning protection for wind turbines in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Nguyen


    Full Text Available Wind energy has become increasingly important in the total electrical energy supply mix in Vietnam over the last few years. Small, kW turbines were installed in isolated areas a decade ago, while wind farms of several MW to few hundred MW are now being connected directly to national grid, with many additional projects in planning or under construction to fulfill an objective of 6% of the total installed capacity by 2030 (approximately 6200 MW of wind energy component. The increase in wind farm generation results in increased damage from lightning. In this paper, the annual frequency of lightning strikes to wind turbines in Vietnam is calculated using electrogeometric model. Reported lightning incidents to three major wind farms in Vietnam are summarized. Possible causes of failure are discussed, and an EMTP simulation for each incident was performed accordingly. The simulations suggest the failure mechanisms as well the potential of improved grounding to reduce lightning induced damage in future windfarms.

  5. [Health and health care in Vietnam]. (United States)

    Flessa, S


    The South East Asian state of Vietnam is currently undergoing a transition from a centralised socialism to a so-called socialist market economy strongly promoting the private sector. For the last 17 years economy experienced an impressive growth. If the assumption is true that economic growth is positively correlated with the health status of the population, the strengthened economy of Vietnam must go along with an improved health situation and health care system of this country. The following paper evaluates this assumption. It is demonstrated that there is indeed a strongly positive correlation between health and development in many aspects. However, it becomes obvious that economic growth is definitely accompanied by increasing regional and social disparity challenging the health care policy of Vietnam and her international partners.

  6. The role of trade unions in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth


    On the basis of matched employer–employee data from 2007 to 2009, this paper examines the union wage gap among small and medium non-state manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. Controlling for both worker and firm characteristics, the results provide evidence that union members earn higher wages...... than non-members, and are more likely to receive social benefits.Within unionised firms, a substantial wage premium is revealed for workers employed in Southern firms, a finding which among other factors may be attributed to historical differences between the North and South of Vietnam....

  7. Vietnam anthracite - current situation and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doan van Kien [Vietnam National Coal Corporation (Vietnam)


    A resume is given of Vietnam's resources of anthracite, sub-bituminous coal, peat, coking coal and brown coal. Details are given of anthracite produced by the Vietnam National Coal Corporation (VINACOAL). Sales, coal quality and markets are discussed. Markets include the steel, non-ferrous metal and cement industries, power generation, water treatment and electrode and calcium carbide manufacture. VINACOAL is aiming to increase anthracite production especially for PCI, and is investing in coal mining and coal preparation plants and expansion of Cam Pha port. A series of eight slides/overheads accompanies the presentation (file Doan van Kien.pdf).

  8. English in Vietnam and Its Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐; 张婷


    English spoken by people from different countries takes on different characteristics. Many linguists conducted researches on World Englishes. Focusing on the pronunciation,grammar, vocabulary and literature achievement, these studies present the target English’s environment and features. However,there is rare achievement of English in Vietnam. Under the economy boom, Vietnamese government attached importance to the English education, which led to the wide utilization of English. This article analyzes English in Vietnam and its features,including pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary, in the hope of making complements to world Englishes.

  9. English in Vietnam and Its Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐; 张婷


    English spoken by people from different countries takes on different characteristics. Many linguists conducted researches on World Englishes. Focusing on the pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and literature achievement, these studies present the target English's environment and features. However, there is rare achievement of English in Vietnam. Under the economy boom, Vietnamese government attached importance to the English education, which led to the wide utilization of English. This article analyzes English in Vietnam and its features , including pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary, in the hope of making complements to world Englishes.

  10. Internet India. (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.


    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  11. Simulation of High Impact Rainfall Events Over Southeastern Hilly Region of Bangladesh Using MM5 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Ahasan


    Full Text Available Simulation of high impact rainfall events over southeastern hilly region of Bangladesh has been carried out using Fifth-Generation PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5 conducting two historical rainfall events, namely, 21 June, 2004 and 11 July, 2004. These extraordinary rainfall events were localized over the Rangamati region and recorded 304 mm and 337 mm rainfall on 21 June, 2004 and 11 July, 2004, respectively, over Rangamati within a span of 24 h. The model performance was evaluated by examining the different predicted and derived parameters. It is found that the seasonal monsoon trough has northerly position compared to normal and pass through Bangladesh extending up to northeast India for both cases. The heat low was found to be intense (996 hPa with strong north-south pressure gradient (12–15 hPa. The analysis of the geopotential height field at 200 hPa shows that the Tibetan high is shifted towards south by 7-8° latitudes with axis along 22–25°N for both cases. The analysis of the wind field shows that the areas of high impact rainfall exhibit strong convergence of low level monsoon circulation (~19–58 knots. The strong southwesterlies were found to exist up to 500 hPa level in both cases. The lower troposphere (925–500 hPa was characterized by the strong vertical wind shear (~9–18 ms−1 and high relative vorticity (~20–40 × 10−5 s−1. The analysis also shows that the areas of high impact rainfall events and neighbourhoods are characterized by strong low level convergence and upper level divergence. The strong southwesterly flow causes transportation of large amount of moisture from the Bay of Bengal towards Bangladesh, especially over the areas of Rangamati and neighbourhoods. The high percentage of relative humidity extends up to the upper troposphere along a narrow vertical column. Model produced details structure of the spatial patterns of rainfall over Bangladesh reasonably well though there are some

  12. Coseismic Deformation of the Great 1762 Arakan Subduction Earthquake Along South-Eastern Coast of Bangladesh (United States)

    Mondal, D. R.; McHugh, C. M.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Goodbred, S. L.; Akhter, S. H.; Mortlock, R. A.


    Large subduction earthquakes and tsunamis along the India-Burma (Sunda) plate boundary were brought to the world's attention after the catastrophic 2004 Sumatra earthquake. Subduction and thus possible megathrust earthquakes are thought to continue north of the Bay of Bengal into the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta. Here the delta is being subducted resulting in ongoing accretion that is manifested by a wide active fold belt. Bangladesh, with a population of ~160 million is crossed by this plate boundary. Yet, little is known about the hazard there from megathrust earthquakes. The one in 1762 ruptured the >600 km long Arakan segment of the northern Sunda megathrust, well into the shelf area of the delta, including SE Bangladesh. The event was estimated as Mw8.8 by Cummins (2007) based on observed uplift and subsidence. To begin documenting coseismic uplift and the consequences of the 1762 earthquake in southern Bangladesh, we conducted paleoseismological studies on Saint Martin's Island and the Teknaf coast, along the outer portion of the fold belt in southeastern Bangladesh. Our structural and age data indicate that the island of Saint Martin overlies an active anticline, thus uplift can be caused by both anticline growth and the megathrust. Present water depths on the shelf near Saint Martin are ~30 m, but the island was marine during mid- to late-Holocene, and during Oxygen Isotope Stage 5. Shoreline erosion along the southern tip of the island has uncovered the tilted limbs of the anticline. Evidence for the 1762 earthquake is manifested in uplifted coquina terraces dated through detailed radiocarbon studies at 1590-1680 cal yrs AD. Similar ages were obtained for uplifted terraces along the Teknaf coast. Dead corals of the massive species "porites" are exposed along the eastern and western parts of Saint Martin. Coastal emergence was measured by a Fast Static GPS relative to mean sea level using EGM96 geoid model to be 6.6 m for the coquina terraces and 2 m for the

  13. Near-Vertical Moho Reflections Under the Hanoi Basin, Vietnam (United States)

    Dinh, T. V.; Harder, S. H.


    Surface expression of the Red River fault, a major strike-slip fault originating from the India-Eurasian collision, terminates as a large pull-apart basin in northern Vietnam. The onshore part is called the Hanoi basin and is an extension of the larger offshore Song Hong basin. Rifting in these basins began early Eocene with inversion in the late Miocene and continued subsidence today. Gravity studies indicate crustal thinning under the Hanoi basin, however both the Hanoi and Song Hong basins are in near isostatic balance resulting in relatively small gravity anomalies from large crustal-scale features. Hence, seismic methods would seem to be a more appropriate method for studying crustal structure in this situation. In January 2008 we shot the first deep crustal seismic lines in Southeast Asia in and near the Hanoi basin. Crustal seismic experiments in densely populated areas are challenging because of the high cultural noise levels and the lack of available space for shotpoints. This experiment however produced an unusually strong near-vertical reflection from the Moho under the Hanoi basin as well as a number of other arrivals. Analyses of these arrivals indicate the crust is 27 km thick, thinner than estimated from gravity data. They also show the Moho is a complex reflector with a high impedance contrast.

  14. GPS Velocities and Structure Across the Burma Accretionary Prism and Shillong Plateau in Bangladesh (United States)

    Akhter, S. H.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Agostinetti, N. P.; Kogan, M. G.


    We have installed a suite of 18 GPS receiver across the Bengal Basin, covering the country of Bangladesh, near the junction of the Indian Shield, the Himayalan collision belt and the Burma Arc subduction zone. The crust of the Indian Shield thins eastward across the hinge zone of an Early Cretaceous continental margin. The thin continental and/or oceanic crust of the eastern Bengal Basin beyond the hinge zone is overlain by a thick sedimentary sequence of 16 km or more. This heavily-sedimented basin is being overridden from the north by the Shillong Massif, a 2-km high plateau exposing Indian Shield, and from the east by the accretionary prism of the Burma Arc subduction system. The soft collision of the Burma Arc with the Bengal Basin and Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) has built a large accretionary prism that widens northwards to 250-300 km. The prism reaches as much as half way across the deep Bengal Basin and the thrust front is blind and buried by the rapid sedimentation of the GBD. Our GPS data cover the frontal region of this unusual subaerial accretionary prism. The convergence across this belt is oblique and partitioned. Our GPS array in Bangladesh shows similar velocity gradients across the accretionary prism corresponding to both E-W shortening and N-S dextral shear. The rates are consistent with the data further east in India. How this motion is partitioned into elastic earthquake-cycle loading and permanent inelastic deformation is unclear. The north-dipping Dauki thrust fault is responsible for the uplifted Shillong Plateau overriding the low-lying and rapidly subsiding Surma Basin. This crustal scale convergent boundary could represent the beginning of a forward jump of the Himalayan front. The surface expression of this boundary is a regional south-verging anticline folding Quaternary sediment into its forelimb at the deformation front south of the Plateau. This suggests that the Dauki Fault, too, is blind and extends well south of the topographic

  15. 3D Fault modeling of the active Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt, Bangladesh (United States)

    Peterson, D. E.; Hubbard, J.; Akhter, S. H.; Shamim, N.


    The Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt (CMFB), located in eastern Bangladesh, eastern India and western Myanmar, accommodates east-west shortening at the India-Burma plate boundary. Oblique subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Plate since the Eocene has led to the development of a large accretionary prism complex, creating a series of north-south trending folds. A continuous sediment record from ~55 Ma to the present has been deposited in the Bengal Basin by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers, providing an opportunity to learn about the history of tectonic deformation and activity in this fold-and-thrust belt. Surface mapping indicates that the fold-and-thrust belt is characterized by extensive N-S-trending anticlines and synclines in a belt ~150-200 km wide. Seismic reflection profiles from the Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, indicate that the anticlines mapped at the surface narrow with depth and extend to ~3.0 seconds TWTT (two-way travel time), or ~6.0 km. The folds of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts are characterized by doubly plunging box-shaped en-echelon anticlines separated by wide synclines. The seismic data suggest that some of these anticlines are cored by thrust fault ramps that extend to a large-scale décollement that dips gently to the east. Other anticlines may be the result of detachment folding from the same décollement. The décollement likely deepens to the east and intersects with the northerly-trending, oblique-slip Kaladan fault. The CMFB region is bounded to the north by the north-dipping Dauki fault and the Shillong Plateau. The tectonic transition from a wide band of E-W shortening in the south to a narrow zone of N-S shortening along the Dauki fault is poorly understood. We integrate surface and subsurface datasets, including topography, geological maps, seismicity, and industry seismic reflection profiles, into a 3D modeling environment and construct initial 3D surfaces of the major faults in this

  16. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda


    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  17. Harnessing pluralism for better health in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Evans, Timothy G; Standing, Hilary; Mahmud, Simeen


    How do we explain the paradox that Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in health and human development, yet its achievements have taken place within a health system that is frequently characterised as weak, in terms of inadequate physical and human infrastructure and logistics, and low performing? We argue that the development of a highly pluralistic health system environment, defined by the participation of a multiplicity of different stakeholders and agents and by ad hoc, diffused forms of management has contributed to these outcomes by creating conditions for rapid change. We use a combination of data from official sources, research studies, case studies of specific innovations, and in-depth knowledge from our own long-term engagement with health sector issues in Bangladesh to lay out a conceptual framework for understanding pluralism and its outcomes. Although we argue that pluralism has had positive effects in terms of stimulating change and innovation, we also note its association with poor health systems governance and regulation, resulting in endemic problems such as overuse and misuse of drugs. Pluralism therefore requires active management that acknowledges and works with its polycentric nature. We identify four key areas where this management is needed: participatory governance, accountability and regulation, information systems, and capacity development. This approach challenges some mainstream frameworks for managing health systems, such as the building blocks approach of the WHO Health Systems Framework. However, as pluralism increasingly defines the nature and the challenge of 21st century health systems, the experience of Bangladesh is relevant to many countries across the world.

  18. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov


    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  19. Assessing the National Logistics System of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Banomyong


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to present and analyse the current situation regarding the capability of the national logistics system in Vietnam. A national assessment framework for macro-logistics is utilised in combination with semi-structured interviews of key Vietnamese stakeholders to reflect on the current situation in the country. There are still numerous shortcomings in the Vietnamese logistics system. These shortcomings are not purely infrastructure based but also from a regulatory and commercial perspective. The presented national logistics system assessment framework can be replicated in other countries or regions when assessing national logistics capability. The findings can help foreign investors, international logistics providers wanting to provide their services in Vietnam to understand the logistics context within the country. These findings are also helpful for policy makers in Vietnam on how to improve their national logistics system. This study proposes a template to assess national logistics systems and provides an in-depth understanding of logistics in Vietnam, a country that has not been much studied in the literature.

  20. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...

  1. Deep Friendship Between Vietnam And China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vu; Xuan; Hong


    <正>Vietnam and China are neighbors joined by rivers and mountains.Geographical location and history ensure close friendship.This is especially true since they both endured a long revolutionary struggle to achieve national liberation,forging what Chairman Ho Chi Minh once praised as"deep friendship between comrades and brothers".The history of the past 60 years


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China attracted a record ofUS$52.7×109 in foreign direct investment (FDI) in the year 2002, surpassing the United States to become the world's largest FDI recipient. China's success in attracting FDI has received significant attention from academics. Several theoretical approaches have been developed to explain the determinants of FDI in China.However, it seems to be ignored that China has also become a growing provider of significant FDI to the rest of the world.According to United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)'s 2004 report, as a developing country,replacing Japan, China has made the list of the expected top five home countries worldwide for the first time in terms of geographical coverage (2004-2005). Vietnam is second largest market and another emerging transition tiger in Southeast Asia. Both China and Vietnam were and are experiencing transitions from centrally planned economy to free market economy. This paper, therefore, attempts to explore the development of Chinese investment in Vietnam, analysing the main motives for, and characteristics of, Chinese Multinational Enterprises' (MNEs) investment in Vietnam.

  3. Health utilities of hypertensive patients in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.; Postma, M.J.; Veninga, Catharina


    Objectives: With a lack of an essential evidence on utilities to support cost-effectiveness analysis of hypertension management in Vietnam, we aimed to gather data on health utilities for hypertensive patients and identify predictors of utility. Methods: Hypertensive patients, from 40 to 80 years ol

  4. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam (United States)

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai


    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were observed in both…

  5. Decentralized forest governance in central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Nam, T.; Burgers, P.P.M.


    A major challenge in decentralized forest governance in Vietnam is developing a mechanism that would support both reforestation and poverty reduction among people in rural communities. To help address this challenge, Forest Land Allocation (FLA) policies recognize local communities and individuals a

  6. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam (United States)

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai


    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were…

  7. Value Chain Development of Avocado in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.; Quaedackers, P.; Nguyen Trung Anh,; Wijk, van S.


    Rapid economic development, urbanisation and rising income levels, in Vietnam offer potential for pro-poor development, by creating new market opportunities for producers, traders and retailers. This article describes the process of value chain development, which involves all actors in the broad cha

  8. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.


    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their

  9. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns. (United States)

    Goodkind, D


    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve.

  10. Technology network for machine tools in Vietnam


    Mizuno, Junko


    When Vietnam joined the WTO, it accepted foreign direct investment and started to grow. Technically, it was then greatly influenced by the enterprises that entered the country through direct investment. This report shows that the technology network for machine tools is formed via direct investment and subcontracting.

  11. Social networks and wage outcomes in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Torm, Nina Elisabeth


    This paper analyzes the relationship between the use of informal contacts and wage outcomes using matched employer-employee data from small and medium firms in Vietnam. We find that obtaining a job through knowing another worker in the firm generally is positively associated with individual wages...

  12. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  13. Marriage and its transition in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Ahmed, A U


    The author examines developments in marriage patterns in Bangladesh in light of social, cultural, and economic conditions. Previous literature on the subject is used to discuss Muslim marriage, Hindu marriage, child marriage, mate selection and social mobility, and the question of a marriage squeeze. "The analysis presents evidence that the society is experiencing a change in its family formation, mating process and family type. This transition is to some extent towards the characteristics of [the] Western World, but in a poor economy. Part of this transition is due to the effect of modernization and part due to increasing poverty."

  14. Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Evidence from 2007 BDHS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mostafa Kamal


    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors affecting adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Overall, 69.3 per cent of the married adolescents began childbearing. Among them 56.4 per cent were already mothers and 12.9per cent were pregnant for the first time. Of the adult married women age 20–49, 62.1 per cent initiated childbearing before age 19. The multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s education, husband’s education, place of residence, ever use of contraceptive method, religion, wealth and region are important determinants of adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh.

  15. Summer rains in northeast Bangladesh: Onset and triggering mechanisms


    Ssemujju, Musa


    The aim of this study is to shed light on convective triggering mechanisms around the onset of the summer rains in Northeast Bangladesh. We want to understand this rainfall since it has a large impact on the local climate, and because 25.3% of the annual rainfall in Northeast Bangladesh falls in Bangladesh summer (March - May). To do this, we first identified the onset of the summer rains for each year using Sylhet station rainfall data with a 11 mm/day pentad rainfall mean threshold and a 6-...

  16. Microfinance Participation and Marital Violence in Bangladesh: A Qualitative Inquiry. (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta; Zippay, Allison


    This study explores the experiences of marital violence within the context of microfinance participation among a sample of women living in poverty in Bangladesh. Status inconsistency theory suggests that the higher incomes and female independence that may occur with microfinance participation may threaten or destabilize marital norms in Bangladesh, and have implications in terms of increased violence. We use qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 30 women residing in a slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to assess the circumstances in which there may be an association between microfinance participation and marital violence and elucidate the context in which this interaction occurs.

  17. Equity and Quality? Challenges for Early Childhood and Primary Education in Ethiopia, India and Peru. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 55. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions (United States)

    Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia


    Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses…

  18. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das


    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  19. Social implications of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Hassan, M Manzurul; Atkins, Peter J; Dunn, Christine E


    Besides its toxicity, groundwater arsenic contamination creates widespread social problems for its victims and their families in Bangladesh. There is, for instance, a tendency to ostracise arsenic-affected people, arsenicosis being thought of as a contagious disease. Within the community, arsenic-affected people are barred from social activities and often face rejection, even by their immediate family members. Women with visible arsenicosis symptoms are unable to get married and some affected housewives are divorced by their husbands. Children with symptoms are not sent to school in an effort to hide the problem. This paper employs mainly qualitative methods to interpret people's understandings about the toxic impact of groundwater arsenic poisoning on their social lives. Arsenic-affected patients in southwest Bangladesh were asked to determine their 'own priorities' in measuring arsenic toxicity on their social activities and to explore their perceptions about their own survival strategies. We found that patients' experiences reveal severe negative social impacts, and a sharp difference of perceptions about arsenic and social issues between arsenicosis patients and unaffected people.

  20. Strategic Intervention of ODL in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Q. M. Bazlur RASHID


    Full Text Available Education has been considered as a priority sector and a great challenge to the Bangladesh Government, with a view to transforming human potential into a productive workforce. The conventional face to face education system is not enough to cope with the need of an ever increasing population, rapid changes in human knowledge and the global context being changed. Education through open and distance learning (ODL has been recognized as an important alternative in the country. Bangladesh Open University (BOU, established in 1992, has been mandated to improve the quality, relevance and efficiency of the education system with a view to eradicating illiteracy, developing human resources and alleviating poverty in the country. This article outlines the services provided by BOU, and explains how BOU utilizes its infrastructure and support services to deliver formal and non-formal programmes in basic and applied sciences, agriculture, technology, health, environment, education, language, teaching education, literature, population and gender issues to create awareness and promote knowledge. The impact of the programmes are reviewed and evaluated, based on feedback studies with target groups, and with particular reference to ODL in agriculture and rural development.

  1. Profile of childhood epilepsy in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Banu, Selina H; Khan, Naila Z; Hossain, Mahmuda; Jahan, Anisa; Parveen, Monwara; Rahman, Narsis; Boyd, Stewart H; Neville, Brian


    Very little is known about childhood epilepsies in Bangladesh. This study was conducted within a national children's hospital in Dhaka city to provide baseline information on diagnosis and clinical outcomes of 151 children (98 males, 53 females, age range between 2 months to 15 years, median age of 3 years). Participants who presented with recurrent unprovoked seizures were followed up in an epilepsy clinic for at least 1 year. Of presenting families, 68.3% were from middle-income and lower-income groups. A history of perinatal asphyxia and neonatal seizures was present in 46.4% and 41.1% of participants respectively. Generalized, partial, and unclassifiable epilepsy were found in 63.6%, 25.2%, and 11.2% respectively. Severe outcome (malignant) epilepsy syndromes were diagnosed in 14.6%. Symptomatic epilepsy was found in 61%. Poor cognitive development was present in 72.8% and poor adaptive behaviour in 57%. Poor seizure remission occurred in 50.3%. Factors most predictive of poor seizure remission were: multiple types of seizures, poor cognition at presentation, high rates of seizures, associated motor disability, and EEG abnormalities. The study suggests that most children presenting at tertiary hospitals for seizure disorders come late and with associated neurodevelopmental morbidities. Specialized services are needed closer to their homes. The process for establishing early referral and comprehensive management of childhood epilepsies in Bangladesh requires further study.

  2. Vietnam's Foreign Policy toward China since the 1970s



    There is much debate about how Southeast Asia views China's ascendance on the world stage. Beijing's expanding economic, diplomatic, and military influence has countries in the region concerned about how China will use its new power and influence. Vietnam is particularly concerned, since it shares a border with China and for many centuries was under China's control. Vietnam's experience with China may shed some light on how Southeast Asia is adapting to China's rise. Today, Vietnam find...

  3. Map Service Showing Geologic and Geophysical Data of Bangladesh (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, major faults, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in Bangladesh. This compilation is part of an interim product of the...

  4. Aeromagnetic Anomaly Map of Bangladesh (mag8bg) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs and arc labels that hold the Aeromagnetic anomaly value for contours and type contours of the original map of Bangladesh with the same...

  5. History, problems, and prospects of Islamic insurance (Takaful) in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Khan, Issa; Rahman, Noor Naemah Binti Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli Bin Mohd; Nor, Mohd Roslan Bin Mohd


    This study explains the history, current problems, and future possibilities of Islamic insurance (takaful) in Bangladesh. To articulate these issues, the researcher has adopted the qualitative method, and data has been collected through secondary sources i.e. articles, books, and online resources. The study reveals that Islamic insurance in Bangladesh is regulated by the Insurance Act 2010 which is contradictory with Islamic insurance causing numerous problems for Islamic insurance. This study also points out that Islamic insurance is a fast growing industry with huge prospects in Bangladesh. The government should introduce separate regulations for both Islamic and conventional insurance. The research concludes with suggestions for the further development of Islamic insurance in Bangladesh.

  6. Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of Bangladesh (grav8bg) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs and arc labels that hold the Bouguer Gravity anomaly value for contours and type contours of the original map of Bangladesh with the same...

  7. Weather Impact on Nursery Diseases of Mango Saplings in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. H. Khan


    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the period of July 2010 to April 2012 to find out the effect of weather prevalence of seedling diseases ofmango in different areas of Bangladesh. The locations were Mymensingh Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari. Altogether 12 nurseries in fourdistricts of Bangladesh were surveyed and mango seedling diseases were recorded. Incidence and severity of important seedling diseases ofhas been studied under different geographical locations (viz. Mymensingh, Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari of Bangladesh. The effects oftemperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on the incidence and severity of noted diseases were observed the aforesaid locations of Bangladesh.The studied diseases were anthracnose, leaf spot, red rust, powdery mildew, scab, bacterial leaf blight and malformation of mango seedlings.The graphs of weather parameters and incidence and severity of diseases were performed to determine the relationship between differentcomponents of climatic factor and seedling diseases of mango.

  8. Determinants of foreign direct investment in Vietnam 1988-2009


    Bui, Anh Tuan


    This thesis analyses the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Vietnam from 1988-2009. It examines the nature, motivation and impact of FDI upon the Vietnam economy and its contribution to the subsequent leap forward in economic growth. The focus is on developing Dunning’s eclectic theory through case study analysis of Honda-Vietnam Motorbike Company and ANZ-Vietnam Bank. The prominent theories on FDI generally used in the thesis focus on Vernon’s Product Life Cycle (PLC) model, the Ma...

  9. The Chronological History and Taxonomic Variation of the Genus Cupressus(Cupressaceae) in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Silba


    Recent embryological evidence of studies of seedlings of Cupressus L. Along with chemotaxonomic studies of heart wood components has demonstrated that Cupressus lusitanica Mill. Did indeed originate from the country of India. In the midsixteenth century, Portuguese merchants established early trade routes between India and Portugal. The trade developed from the spice industry confirms Miller's (1768) original description that Cupressus lusitanica did indeed originate from India.Later authors suggested that Cupressus lusitanica cultivated in Portugal was introduced from wild populations of Cupressus in Mexico. However, this latter theory was never accepted by native botanist in the country of Mexico, including noted botanist M. Martinez (1948). In fact, all Cupressus species in India seem to have a different embryology than that of all Cupressus species in Nepal, Bhutan, China and Vietnam (Silba, 1994).

  10. Tourism in Bangladesh: Present Status and Future Prospects


    Sanjay Chandra Roy; Mallika Roy


    Bangladesh is full of natural beauty. Rivers, coasts and beaches, archaeological sites, religious places, hills, forests, waterfalls, tea gardens surround it. The Sundarban, Historic Mosque in city of Bagerhat, Ruins of the Buddihist Vihara at Paharpur are the three world heritage sites in Bangladesh among 1007. To observe the beauty of nature, huge amount of domestic and foreign tourists visit the country and its tourist attraction sites. In 2012, around six-lakh (6 hundred thousand) tourist...

  11. Female labour force participation in Bangladesh : trends, drivers and barriers


    Rahman, Rushidan I; Islam, Rizwanul


    In contrast to the stylized implications of the U-shaped hypothesis, there has been an increase in female labour force participation in Bangladesh, alongside the acceleration in economic growth since the 1990s. In this regard, Bangladesh has witnessed a substantial increase in female employment in labour- intensive export-oriented industries in urban areas. The study also finds that the rapid expansion of micro-finance in rural areas has supported women’s employment. However, the economy in g...

  12. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh


    Christian Reinhard Vogl; Brojo Gopal Paul


    In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798) aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Banglade...

  13. Health Insurance for Government Employees in Bangladesh: A Concept Paper


    Hamid, Syed Abdul


    Introducing compulsory health insurance for government employees bears immense importance for stepping towards universal healthcare coverage in Bangladesh. Lack of scientific study on designing such scheme, in the Bangladesh context, motivates this paper. The study aims at designing a comprehensive insurance package simultaneously covering health, life and accident related disability risks of the public employees, where the health component would extend to all dependent family members. ...

  14. Causality relationship between electricity consumption and GDP in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozumder, Pallab [Environmental Institute, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail:; Marathe, Achla [Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Tech, 1880 Pratt Drive, Bldg XV, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)]. E-mail:


    In this paper, we examine the causal relationship between the per capita electricity consumption and the per capita GDP for Bangladesh using cointegration and vector error correction model. Our results show that there is unidirectional causality from per capita GDP to per capita electricity consumption. However, the per capita electricity consumption does not cause per capita GDP in case of Bangladesh. The finding has significant implications from the point of view of energy conservation, emission reduction and economic development.

  15. Good governance and political culture: A case study of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam


    Full Text Available In a democratic system it is essential to have a competitive, and a tolerant party system, but Bangladesh has experienced an intolerant and a confrontational party system that has created a deadlock and brought uncertainty to the whole country. Since 1990, except 2014, Bangladesh has witnessed four systematic peaceful free elections, one each--in 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2008. On January 5, 2014, however, a controversial election took place in which major opposition political parties did not participate except the ruling alliance parties. The two dominant parties—the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP and the Awami League (AL—each won two previous free and fair elections, with the BNP winning in1991, and a BNP-led 4-party coalition in 2001, and the AL in 1996, and an AL-led 14 party alliance in 2008. However, from 2014 Bangladesh is heading towards an authoritarian system. All these are happening due to the lack of good governance. This article intends to emphasize that the political culture emanating from the party politics is retarding good governance in Bangladesh. This article argues that the cultural traits developed in the last four decades in various dimensions,, particularly in more recent years, have worked as an “earth-worm” in the fabrics of democracy in Bangladesh preventing ‘good governance’.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY


    Full Text Available The banking sector has been playing a significant role in achieving the economic growth of Bangladesh, where contribution of Islamic Banking Sector is remarkable. Islamic Banking Sector shows a substantial growth position in Bangladesh. Customer satisfaction is the most significant affecting phenomenon in determining the banking growth. Thus, this study attempts to measure the existing level of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banks in Bangladesh, using the Structural Equation Model (SEM. This study uses the 22 dimensions of customer satisfaction which used in the earlier studies in different countries for measuring the customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector. A total of 385 samples have been taken from six full pledged Islamic Banks in Bangladesh. It reveals form the study that Human Resources and Systemization Service Delivery is the strongest indicator of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh followed by Core Product, Service Capability and Social Responsibility. The findings therefore, may be helpful for policy-makers of banking authorities who have been making serious endeavor to sustain the growth of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh.

  17. Discovery of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam and its molecular phylogenetic status in P. westermani complex. (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Nawa, Yukifumi


    Paragonimus westermani is the most well-known species among the genus Paragonimus. It is widely distributed in Asia with considerable genetic diversity to form P. westermani species complex. While P. westermani distributed in Japan, Korea, China, and Taiwan are genetically homogeneous to form the East Asia group, those found in other geographic areas are heterogeneous and would be divided into several groups. Recent discoveries of P. westermani in India and Sri Lanka highlighted new insights on molecular phylogenetic relationship of geographic isolates of this species complex. Since Vietnam is located at the east end of Southeast Asia, the intermediate position between South and East Asia, it is of interest to see whether P. westermani is distributed in this country. Here, we report that P. westermani metacercariae were found in mountainous crabs, Potamiscus sp., collected in Quangtri province in the central Vietnam. Adult worms were successfully obtained by experimental infection in cats. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. westermani of Vietnamese isolates have high similarities with those of East Asia group.

  18. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Vietnam: some clarifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Le


    Full Text Available Abstract A recently published comment on a report of Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Vietnam states that this may not accurately represent the situation in the study area because the PCR primers used may cross-hybridize with Plasmodium vivax. Nevertheless, P. knowlesi infections have been confirmed by sequencing. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree based on the 18S S-Type SSUrRNA gene shows that the Vietnamese samples clearly cluster with the P. knowlesi isolates identified in Malaysia and are distinct from the corresponding P. vivax sequences. All samples came from asymptomatic individuals who did not consult for fever during the months preceding or following the survey, indicating that asymptomatic P. knowlesi infections occur in this population, although this does not exclude the occurrence of symptomatic cases. Large-scale studies to determine the extent and the epidemiology of P. knowlesi malaria in Vietnam are further needed.

  19. Clinical microbiology during the Vietnam War. (United States)

    Washington, Michael; Brown, Matthew; Palys, Thomas; Tyner, Stuart; Bowden, Robert


    During the period of 1965-1968, over two dozen Army microbiologists were deployed to various locations in Southeast Asia in support of the Vietnam War. Their role was to serve both a clinical laboratory mission/function at the mobile Army surgical hospital and mobile laboratory level as well as to perform research roles in all of the facilities. They were essential to the formulation of medical intelligence as well as to the practice of operational medicine in the deployed environment. The results of their laboratory investigations provided commanders and military physicians with critical medical information for patient care, outbreak investigation, and forensic analysis. As with many soldiers in support of the infantry and armor combat forces, most of the work occurs behind the scenes and their contributions are often left out of the historical literature. This article presents a brief overview of microbiology performed by Army microbiologists during the Vietnam War.

  20. Changing Climate; Bangladesh Facing the Challenge of Severe Flood Problems; A Comparison of Flood Management between Bangladesh and the Netherlands




    Both Bangladesh and the Netherlands are the most flood prone countries in two continents Asia and Europe. Bangladesh is known to be highly vulnerable to floods. Frequent floods have put enormous constraints on its development potential. Unfortunately, the frequency of high intensity floods is increasing every year. So far the country has struggled to put a sizeable infrastructure in place to prevent flooding in many parts of the country with limited success. Where, the Netherlands has develop...

  1. Assessing the National Logistics System of Vietnam


    Ruth Banomyong; Vinh V. Thai; Kum Fai Yuen


    The purpose of this research is to present and analyse the current situation regarding the capability of the national logistics system in Vietnam. A national assessment framework for macro-logistics is utilised in combination with semi-structured interviews of key Vietnamese stakeholders to reflect on the current situation in the country. There are still numerous shortcomings in the Vietnamese logistics system. These shortcomings are not purely infrastructure based but also from a regulatory ...

  2. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam


    Tran, Phuong


    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  3. A renewal of astronomy education in Vietnam (United States)

    Wentzel, Donat G.

    Vietnam was scientifically completely isolated for almost 30 years. With French help, several lecture courses have introduced modern astrophysics to Vietnamese physicists, and four students are studying abroad. The IAU program "Teaching for Astronomy Development" (TAD) has concentrated on modernizing the on-going astronomy course for students in the third year of the pedagogical universities. Three one-to-two week "Teachers' Workshops" have served to introduce selected up-to-date astronomical topics and a few modern teaching methods. The TAD program has also provided appropriate journals, books, a PC and educational software. A new text, Astrophysics, in Vietnamese and English on facing pages and with color pictures - apparently a first for any textbook in Vietnam - will first be used starting in September 2000. Future aditional activities: collaboration to plan a new astronomy course in the twelfth grade of the natural science branch of the secondary schools; collaboration so that the 41-cm telescope and astronomers in Hanoi can produce some simple quality science; helping the only planetarium in Vietnam to acquire a wider range of offerings; helping to create a set of B.Sc.-level astrophysics courses for three universities; and supporting the Vietnamese Astronomical Society in effective public outreach.

  4. Anthrax Outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2009–2010 (United States)

    Chakraborty, Apurba; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hasnat, Mohammed Abul; Parveen, Shahana; Islam, M. Saiful; Mikolon, Andrea; Chakraborty, Ranjit Kumar; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Ara, Khorsed; Haider, Najmul; Zaki, Sherif R.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, M. Jahangir


    During August 2009–October 2010, a multidisciplinary team investigated 14 outbreaks of animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh to identify the etiology, pathway of transmission, and social, behavioral, and cultural factors that led to these outbreaks. The team identified 140 animal cases of anthrax and 273 human cases of cutaneous anthrax. Ninety one percent of persons in whom cutaneous anthrax developed had history of butchering sick animals, handling raw meat, contact with animal skin, or were present at slaughtering sites. Each year, Bacillus anthracis of identical genotypes were isolated from animal and human cases. Inadequate livestock vaccination coverage, lack of awareness of the risk of anthrax transmission from animal to humans, social norms and poverty contributed to these outbreaks. Addressing these challenges and adopting a joint animal and human health approach could contribute to detecting and preventing such outbreaks in the future. PMID:22492157

  5. Radon measurements in some areas in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Khan, M.A. [Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 164, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail:; Chowdhury, M.S. [Physics Department, Dhaka University, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)


    A survey of radon level measurements using CR-39 has been carried out in some of urban and rural residential areas and one gas explosion area in Bangladesh. The lowest level of radon concentration was found to be 49Bqm{sup -3} inside a hospital in Cox's Bazar district and the highest level was found to be 835Bqm{sup -3} inside a mud-made old residential house in Sylhet city. It was observed that old residential houses were found to have higher levels of radon concentrations compared to newly built houses. The radon level at the gas explosion area at Magurchara in Moulvibazar district was found to be 408{+-}98Bqm{sup -3}.

  6. Educating girls in Bangladesh: exploding the myth. (United States)

    Ahmed, M


    Poor landless families in Bangladesh typically see no need to educate their girls. Even where school fees are waived, exercise books, pencils, and school clothes cost money, and girls are especially needed to care for siblings and do other household chores. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), however, has found it possible to get girls to school by adapting education to the circumstances of poverty instead of requiring families and students to adjust to the conventional rules of primary school. The BRAC non-formal primary education (NFPE) program in five years has expanded to 12,000 centers serving 360,000 children in two programs of three-year duration each for 8-10 year olds and 11-14 year olds. Reflecting the policy of giving priority to girls, more than 70% of enrolled children are female. Almost all teachers are also female and typically young, married, from the neighborhood, and with 9-10 years of schooling. Each center is a thatch or tin-roofed hut accommodating thirty children managed by a village committee and a parent-teacher committee at a cost of US$18 per child per year. All learning materials are provided at the center for the three hours of courses six days per week set according to students' availability and convenience. The course for the younger children offers the equivalent of three years of primary education, while the course for the older children offers basic literacy and life skills. The success of the BRAC centers demonstrates how parents and children may respond when education is socially and culturally acceptable, affordable, and strives to meet parents' and child's expectations.

  7. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh). (United States)

    Borrell, Asunción; Tornero, Victoria; Bhattacharjee, Dola; Aguilar, Alex


    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ(15)N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health.

  8. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Asunción, E-mail: [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Tornero, Victoria [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Bhattacharjee, Dola [Indian Institute of Science Education & Research — Kolkata, Department of Biological Sciences, Mohanpur Campus, Nadia, West Bengal (India); Aguilar, Alex [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain)


    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ{sup 15}N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. - Highlights: • Trace elements were determined in organisms from the Sundarbans mangrove. • The levels found were similar to those determined in wildlife from other mangroves. • Levels in three edible species were close to threshold limits for human consumption. • Except for Cr, As and Hg

  9. Comparison of the pathogenicity of Nipah virus isolates from Bangladesh and Malaysia in the Syrian hamster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair L DeBuysscher

    Full Text Available Nipah virus is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are not well described. The first Nipah virus outbreak occurred in Malaysia, where human disease had a strong neurological component. Subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India and transmission and disease processes in these outbreaks appear to be different from those of the Malaysian outbreak. Until this point, virtually all Nipah virus studies in vitro and in vivo, including vaccine and pathogenesis studies, have utilized a virus isolate from the original Malaysian outbreak (NiV-M. To investigate potential differences between NiV-M and a Nipah virus isolate from Bangladesh (NiV-B, we compared NiV-M and NiV-B infection in vitro and in vivo. In hamster kidney cells, NiV-M-infection resulted in extensive syncytia formation and cytopathic effects, whereas NiV-B-infection resulted in little to no morphological changes. In vivo, NiV-M-infected Syrian hamsters had accelerated virus replication, pathology and death when compared to NiV-B-infected animals. NiV-M infection also resulted in the activation of host immune response genes at an earlier time point. Pathogenicity was not only a result of direct effects of virus replication, but likely also had an immunopathogenic component. The differences observed between NiV-M and NiV-B pathogeneis in hamsters may relate to differences observed in human cases. Characterization of the hamster model for NiV-B infection allows for further research of the strain of Nipah virus responsible for the more recent outbreaks in humans. This model can be used to study NiV-B pathogenesis, transmission, and countermeasures that could be used to control outbreaks.

  10. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the... of the antidumping duty orders on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam and the...

  11. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam. (United States)


    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions...

  12. 77 FR 51514 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ On August 2... Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination of Sales...

  13. 77 FR 46044 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination of... (United States)


    ... Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less... preliminarily determine that steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') are... (``AD'') petition concerning imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam filed in proper form...

  14. 77 FR 32930 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... garment hangers (garment hangers) from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). For information on the... received a countervailing duty (CVD) petition concerning imports of garment hangers from Vietnam filed...

  15. Transgender at Work: Livelihoods for Transgender People in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.A.; Oosterhoff, P.


    The laws in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam promote equality for all citizens and refer to ‘persons’ rather than ‘men’ or ‘women’. However, because of traditional gender norms, transgender people in Vietnam are facing severe stigma and discrimination in public, in schools, at home and in the workp

  16. Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study. (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

  17. Teaching the New Vietnam: It's a Country, Not a War (United States)

    McCornac, Dennis C.


    Vietnam has made remarkable progress over the past two decades in its transition to a market economy resulting in numerous changes to both its social and economic institutions. It is a nation at peace focusing on economic development and integrating into the world economy. Although the tragic events in Vietnam's history cannot be forgotten, the…

  18. Transforming Vietnam's Medical Education through E-Learning (United States)

    Churton, Michael W.


    The costs for providing medical school education and services in Vietnam's universities continue to increase. Through a collaborative project between the Government of the Netherlands and Vietnam's Ministry of Health, a five year experimental program to develop in-country capacity and reduce the dependence upon a foreign medical service delivery…

  19. The History and Future of Community Colleges in Vietnam (United States)

    Le, Anh T.


    Since 1986, with the creation of the Renovation ("Doi moi") policy, Vietnam has demonstrated a strong commitment to the improvement of its higher education system. After 25 years of opening its doors to the global educational environment, Vietnam has achieved some notable accomplishments. The country's higher educational system has…

  20. Health economics of screening for hypertension in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Lan


    The studies aims to identify the burden of a cardiovascular diseases and solutions to manage it in Vietnam, notably hypertension screening. The studies confirmed that hypertension creates a great burden in Vietnam in terms of cardiovascular diseases, from economic, clinical and social perspectives.

  1. Refighting the Last War: Afghanistan and the Vietnam Template (United States)


    exact political and military reenactment of the Vietnam War, and the lack of self-awareness of the repetition of events 50 years ago is in the Bill Murray film ) epitomized by the paradigmatic tragedy of Hamburger Hill in Vietnam. Instead of “clear, hold and build,” what the U.S

  2. Regional year-round sypply of vegetables in North Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Wijk, van M.S.; Pham Van Hoi,


    A discussion is presented about the patterns in the present year-round supply of vegetables to large cities in the Red River Delta in North Vietnam. Especially during the hot summer season, vegetables are supplied from Dalat in South Vietnam or from Kunming Province in China. Generally speaking, imp

  3. Changing forestry discourses in Vietnam in the past 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dang, T.K.P.; Turnhout, E.; Arts, B.J.M.


    Governance and sustainability are important topics of debate in global forest policy. It is however crucial to understand how these ideas have impacted national and local forest policy and management. The case of Vietnam is interesting and relevant because since the late 1980s, Vietnam's state fores

  4. Education and Economic, Political, and Social Change in Vietnam (United States)

    Huong, Pham Lan; Fry, Gerald W.


    This paper provides an overview of the complex relations among history, education, political economy, and social change in Vietnam. Vietnam has a long history of education and a literate culture. The evolution of Vietnamese culture and society is characterized by both persistence and change. Social and political persistence and change have been…

  5. Analysis on Rice Production and International Trade in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Liu-qing; JIANG Yun-zhu; LU Li-xiang; LIN Hai; PANG Qian-lin


    This paper introduces Vietnam’s climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.%This paper introduces Vietnam's climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.

  6. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.


    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by

  7. Identification and molecular characterization of a new recombinant begomovirus and associated betasatellite DNA infecting Capsicum annuum in India. (United States)

    Bhatt, Bhavin S; Chahwala, Fenisha D; Rathod, Sangeeta; Singh, Achuit K


    Capsicum annuum (Chilli) is a perennial herbaceous plant that is cultivated as an annual crop throughout the world, including India. Chilli leaf curl disease (ChiLCD) is a major biotic constraint, causing major losses in chilli production. During 2014, leaf samples of chilli plants displaying leaf curl disease were collected from the Ahmedabad district of Gujarat, India. These samples were used to isolate, clone and sequence viral genomic DNA and an associated betasatellite DNA molecule. Sequence analysis showed 90.4 % nucleotide sequence identity to the previously reported chilli leaf curl virus-[India:Guntur:2009] (ChiLCV-[IN:Gun:09]. As per ICTV nomenclature rules, ChiLCV-Ahm represents a new species of begomovirus, and we therefore propose the name chilli leaf curl Ahmedabad virus-[India:Ahmedabad:2014] (ChiLCAV-[IN:Ahm:14]). The associated betasatellite DNA showed a maximum of 93.5 % nucleotide sequence identity to a previously reported tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite and may be named tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite-[India:Ahmedabad:Chilli:2014].

  8. Fate of arsenite and arsenate in flooded and not flooded soils of southwest Bangladesh irrigated with arsenic contaminated water. (United States)

    Martin, Maria; Violante, Antonio; Barberis, Elisabetta


    In Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, tons of arsenic are added every year to wide extensions of agricultural soils after irrigation with arsenic polluted groundwater, and the fate of the added arsenic in these water-soil environments is not yet clear. This work was aimed to investigate the accumulation and potential release of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] in two adjacent soils of Bangladesh, irrigated with arsenic contaminated groundwater and cultivated under flooded or not flooded conditions. Both soils showed a scarce As accumulation, in spite of a good adsorption capacity, higher for As(III) than for As(V). The poorly ordered Fe oxides dominated As adsorption in the topsoil of the flooded soil, whereas the crystalline forms were more important in the well aerated soil. A high percentage of the native arsenic was exchangeable with phosphate and the freshly added arsenate or arsenite were even much more mobile. In our experimental conditions, the high As mobility was not dependent on the surface coverage, and, in the flooded soil, 60-70% of the freshly added arsenite or arsenate were desorbed with an infinite sink method, while in the not flooded soil arsenate was less desorbed than arsenite. Depending on their characteristics, some soils, in particular when cultivated under flooded conditions, can represent only a temporary sink for the added As, that can be easily released to waters and possibly enter the food chain from the water-soil system.

  9. Investigating a crow die-off in January-February 2011 during the introduction of a new clade of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 into Bangladesh. (United States)

    Khan, Salah Uddin; Berman, Lashondra; Haider, Najmul; Gerloff, Nancy; Rahman, Md Z; Shu, Bo; Rahman, Mustafizur; Dey, Tapan Kumar; Davis, Todd C; Das, Bidhan Chandra; Balish, Amanda; Islam, Ausraful; Teifke, Jens P; Zeidner, Nord; Lindstrom, Steven; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O; Luby, Stephen P; Shivaprasad, H L; Mikolon, Andrea B


    We investigated unusual crow mortality in Bangladesh during January-February 2011 at two sites. Crows of two species, Corvus splendens and C. macrorhynchos, were found sick and dead during the outbreaks. In selected crow roosts, morbidity was ~1 % and mortality was ~4 % during the investigation. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 clade was isolated from dead crows. All isolates were closely related to A/duck/India/02CA10/2011 (H5N1) with 99.8 % and A/crow/Bangladesh/11rs1984-15/2011 (H5N1) virus with 99 % nucleotide sequence identity in their HA genes. The phylogenetic cluster of Bangladesh viruses suggested a common ancestor with viruses found in poultry from India, Myanmar and Nepal. Histopathological changes and immunohistochemistry staining in brain, pancreas, liver, heart, kidney, bursa of Fabricius, rectum, and cloaca were consistent with influenza virus infection. Through our limited investigation in domesticated birds near the crow roosts, we did not identify any samples that tested positive for influenza virus A/H5N1. However, environmental samples collected from live-bird markets near an outbreak site during the month of the outbreaks tested very weakly positive for influenza virus A/H5N1 in clade rRT-PCR. Continuation of surveillance in wild and domestic birds may identify evolution of new avian influenza virus and associated public-health risks.

  10. The environment associated with significant tornadoes in Bangladesh (United States)

    Bikos, Dan; Finch, Jonathan; Case, Jonathan L.


    This paper investigates the environmental parameters favoring significant tornadoes in Bangladesh through a simulation of ten high-impact events. A climatological perspective is first presented on classifying significant tornadoes in Bangladesh, noting the challenges since reports of tornadoes are not documented in a formal manner. The statistical relationship between United States and Bangladesh tornado-related deaths suggests that significant tornadoes do occur in Bangladesh so this paper identifies the most significant tornadic events and analyzes the environmental conditions associated with these events. Given the scarcity of observational data to assess the near-storm environment in this region, high-resolution (3-km horizontal grid spacing) numerical weather prediction simulations are performed for events identified to be associated with a significant tornado. In comparison to similar events over the United States, significant tornado environments in Bangladesh are characterized by relatively high convective available potential energy, sufficient deep-layer vertical shear, and a propensity for deviant (i.e., well to the right of the mean flow) storm motion along a low-level convergence boundary.

  11. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty. (United States)

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C


    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints.

  12. Determinants of drinking arsenic-contaminated tubewell water in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Khan, M M H; Aklimunnessa, Khandoker; Kabir, M; Mori, Mitsuru


    Bangladesh has already experienced the biggest catastrophe in the world due to arsenic contamination of drinking water. This study investigates the association of drinking arsenic-contaminated water (DACW) with both personal and household characteristics of 9116 household respondents using the household data of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2004. Here DACW means that arsenic level in the drinking water is greater than the permissible limit (50 microg/l) of Bangladesh. The overall rate of DACW was 7.9%. It was found to be significantly associated with education, currently working, and division of Bangladesh, either by cross tabulation or multivariate logistic regression analyses or both. Similarly, household characteristics -- namely television, bicycle, materials of the wall and floor, total family members, number of sleeping rooms, and availability of foods -- were significantly associated in bivariate analyses. Many household characteristics -- namely electricity, television, wall and floor materials, and number of sleeping rooms -- revealed significant association in the logistic regression analysis when adjusted for age, education and division. This study indicates that respondents from Chittagong division and lower socio-economic groups (indicated by household characteristics) are at significantly higher risk of DACW. These findings should be taken into account during the planning of future intervention activities in Bangladesh.

  13. History and Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Hussain, Raihan


    Bangladesh is one of the smaller states in Asia. But it has a long and rich history of nuclear medicine for over sixty years. The progress in science and technology is always challenging in a developing country. In 1958, work for the first Nuclear Medicine facility was commenced in Dhaka in a tin-shed known as 'Radioisotope Centre' and was officially inaugurated in 1962. Since the late 50s of the last century nuclear medicine in Bangladesh has significantly progressed through the years in its course of development, but still the facilities are inadequate. At present there are 20 nuclear medicine establishments with 3 PET-CTs, 42 gamma camera/SPECTs with 95 physicians, 20 physicists, 10 radiochemists and 150 technologists. The Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh (SNMB) was formed in 1993 and publishing its official journal since 1997. Bangladesh also has close relationships with many international organizations like IAEA, ARCCNM, AOFNMB, ASNM, WFNMB and WARMTH. The history and the present scenario of the status of nuclear medicine in Bangladesh are being described here.

  14. Bangladesh Enterprises Continue to Participate in Trade Promotion Events in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan


    @@ On March 26, 2007,Bangladesh celebrated its 36th anniversary of the Independence and National Day.China and Bangladesh enjoy time tested friendly relations. The bilateral relations are characterized by sustained efforts to further broaden the nature and scope of the cooperation. In 2005, China emerged as the biggest source of import for Bangladesh, outstripping the volume of import from Bangladesh's other immediate neighbors. Bangladesh is the third largest trading partner of China in South Asia. The total bilateral trade volume has reached beyond US$ 3 billion in 2006.

  15. Project on Training of Non-Formal Education Personnel: National Workshops in Bhutan, Nepal, and India cum Study Visits Undertaken by Teams of China, Lao PDR and Viet Nam (June 17-July 5, 1998) (APPEAL). (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report is a summary of study visits plus workshops that took place in Bhutan, Nepal, and India in 1998 within the framework of UNESCO's Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL). Three educators each from China, Lao PDR, and Vietnam and educators from the host countries participated. The project aimed to promote literacy and…

  16. Carbon dioxide emission from brickfields around Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Imran


    Full Text Available The study was undertaken at six divisions of Bangladesh to investigate the CO2 emission from brickfields. to explore the rate of carbon emission over the last 10 years, based on existing technology for brick production. The finding reveals that there were more than 45,000 Brick kilns in Bangladesh which together account for about 95% of operating kilns including Bull's Trench Kiln, Fixed Chimney Kiln, Zigzag Kiln and Hoffman Kiln. These kilns were the most carbon emitting source but it varies on fuel type, kiln type and also for location. It has been found that, maximum carbon emission area was Chittagong, which was 93.150 with percentage of last 10 years and 9.310 per cent per year. Whereas Sylhet was lower carbon emission area indicating percentage 17.172 of last 10 years and 4.218 percent per year. It has been found that total annual amount of CO2 emission for 4 types brick kilns from Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulana, Sylhet and Barisal were 8.862 Mt yr-1, 10.048 Mt yr-1, 12.783 Mt yr-1, 15.250 Mt yr-1, in the year of 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2010 respectively. In Mymensingh district, the maximum CO2 emission and coal consumption was obtained in Chamak brick field, which was 1882 tons and 950 tons, respectively and minimum was obtained in Zhalak brick field, which was 1039.5 tons and 525.0 tons, respectively during the year of 2013. The percentage in last 10 years of CO2 emission was 72.784 and per cent per year 7.970, which is very alarming for us. The estimates obtained from surveys and on-site investigations indicate that these kilns consume an average of 240 tons of coal to produce 1 million bricks. This type of coal has a measured calorific value of 6,400 KJ, heating value of coal is 20.93 GJ t-1 and it produces 94.61 TJ t-1 and 56.1 TJ t-1 CO2 from coal and natural gas, respectively.

  17. Profile of lichen planus in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Khondker, L; Wahab, M A; Khan, S I


    Lichen planus is one of the common inflammatory disorders of skin, mucous membrane, nail and hair characterized by violaceous, polish, pruritic, polygonal, flat-topped papules usually distributed bilaterally symmetrically over the extremities. Our objectives in this study were to explore the prevalence of lichen planus in large area of Dhaka in Bangladesh and to establish the clinical characteristics of lichen planus. This descriptive type of cross sectional study was carried out from September 2006 to August 2008 in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) in Dhaka. Patients suffering from lichen planus were selected as study population. By face to face interview and clinical observations, data were collected from sample. A total 120 patients of lichen planus were selected, on the basis of age, 30(25%) were 10-30 years of age, 75(62.56%) were 30-50 years and 16(13.33%) were over 50 years of age. The mean age of the patient was 40+/-4 years. Out of 120 patients, 80(66.66%) were male and 60(33.33%) were female and eight patients (6.67%) had positive family history among highest age group (30 to 50 years). In case of duration of disease, highest percentage (68%) of cases was 15 days to 6 months and considering clinical sign, koebnerization was present 45(37.5%) cases and Wickhams striae 22(18.33%) cases. Regarding site of onset of lesion, lesions were highest 100(83.33%) in upper limbs, next lower limbs, trunk, oral mucosa etc. The distribution of clinical pattern of lichen planus showing classic pattern (68.33%) was the most common type, followed by hypertrophic, actinic, ashy dermatoses, lichen plano-pilaris, erosive or ulcerative etc. This clinico-epidemiological study of lichen planus attending in the different hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh has shown that lichen planus is usually associated with 30 to 50 years of age group, with

  18. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn


    and government contracts. Third, the observed decrease in bribe incidence between 2005 and 2007 is largely driven by significant behavioral changes. These behavioral changes seem to be associated with policy initiatives to improve law enforcement and increased media focus on punitive actions against corruption.......This article uses panel data from a survey of small- and medium-sized enterprises in Vietnam to uncover which firms pay bribes and which do not. We also study how bribe paying evolved between 2005 and 2007 and test how the determinants of bribes changed between the two years. Three sets of insights...

  19. [Tapeworm fauna of gallinaceans (Galliformes) of Vietnam]. (United States)

    Nguen Thi, K y; Dubinina, M N


    131 specimens of 3 species of Galliformes from Vietnam were investigated (Gallus gallus dom., G. g. jaboruillei, Francolinus pintadeanus and Lophora nycthemerus). In them 9 species of cestodes were found as follows: Davainea proglottina (Davainea, 1860), Cotugnia digonopora (Pasquale, 1890), Raillietina tetragona (Molin, 1858), R. echinobothrida (Megnin, 1880), Skrjabinia cesticillus (Molin, 1858), Paroniella tinguiana Tubangui et Masilungan, 1937, Amoebotaenia cuneata (Linstow, 1872), Echinolepis carioca (Magalhaes, 1898), Dilepidoides bauchei (Joyeux, 1924). In domestic hens there were found all 9 species of cestodes while in wild Galliformes--only 7, which are mentioned for them for the first time.

  20. Area Handbook Series: Bangladesh, A Country Study (United States)


    partition as the price for stopping bloodshed and that Jinnah was willing to accept a smaller Pakistan. Mount- batten obtained sanction from Londcn for...25, 27-29; effect of partition tial law by, 228 of India on, 20, 100; Jinnah visit to, 22; European Economic Community, 123, Muslim League in, 24... Partition of Bengal annulled 1916 ...................... Congress-Muslim League Pact (often referred to as Lucknow Pact) signed 1919

  1. An addition to the known range of Marumba irata Joicey & Kaye, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae in northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Vaidya


    Full Text Available A species of moth belonging to the family Sphingidae, Marumba irata Joicey & Kaye, 1917, was sighted in Nagaland and Manipur, reported here as the first records from northeastern India and extension of the known distribution range of the species westward from its earlier known distribution in Myanmar, and from the south-eastern parts of China and northern Vietnam.  

  2. Digital Divide between Teachers and Students in Urban Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin


    data available on them in Bangladesh context. A study was conducted to study the digital divide and ICT usage pattern among the urban students and teachers of schools and colleges in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. About 75 students enrolled in probability and statistics course of Independent...... to use’ compared to Bangla medium students. Significantly higher percentage of students can use and own desktop, laptop, cellphone, iPOD and MP3 player. While teachers mostly use computers for work (73%), study (45%) and listening music (34%), students use for playing games (63%), listening musing (62...... University, Bangladesh (IUB) in autumn 2009 participated in conducting survey activities. Total 33 academic institutes were south for approval and 11 could be surveyed before the Christmas and annual recess. Responses from 6 other academics institutes were collected from the personal networks of students...

  3. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh. (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David


    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  4. Applicability of Telemedicine in Bangladesh: Current Status and Future Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Nessa, Ahasanun; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup


    Telemedicine refers to the use of information and communication technology to provide and support health care mainly for the purpose of providing consultation. It is also a way to provide medical procedures or examinations to remote locations. It has the potential to improve both the quality and the access to health care services delivery while lowering costs even in the scarcity of resources. Understanding the potentiality of telemedicine, many developing countries are implementing telemedicine to provide health care facility to remote area where health care facilities are deficient. Bangladesh is not an exception to this either. In this paper we mention the reasons why Bangladesh has to move for telemedicine. We also present the past and on-going telemedicine activities and projects in Bangladesh. Analyzing these projects we have found out some factors which should be assessed carefully for successful implementation of telemedicine application. Finally we propose a prototype telemedicine network for Banglad...

  5. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Mohan Tulsiani, Suhella

    The role of in-house transmission on the incidence of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly waterborne pathogen, is still not developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible contamination routes in household domain for effective cholera control in Bangladesh. To examine the prevalence...... and water supply may be the reason behind this relatively high presence of virulence factors in food plates and water pots. Direct exposure routes of disease transmission should be a major consideration in cholera prevention policies. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh........ Available from: [accessed Oct 14, 2016]....

  6. Inflation Targeting as the Monetary Policy Framework: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed SAIFUL ISLAM


    Full Text Available Inflation targeting strategy has become a widely accepted monetary policy framework in many countries all over the world. Our study finds that the central bank of Bangladesh is neither inflation targeting nor does follow any other rule-guided monetary policy, rather the policy is formulated with substantial discretion under the guidelines of donor agencies. This paper provides the evidence that monetary sector of Bangladesh economy has gained considerable degree of maturity and fulfils a number of prerequisites to adopt inflation targeting strategy. Using data over 1980-2010 we estimate an error correction model in order to examine if interest rate policy could fight the inflation. This is evident that deviation in inflation from target can be corrected via the changes in interest rate. Empirical findings jointly with few descriptive statistics provide strong evidence to recommend inflation targeting as the monetary policy strategy for Bangladesh.

  7. Board Composition and Firm Performance: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzalur Rashid


    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of corporate board composition in the form of representation of outsideindependent directors on firm economic performance in Bangladesh. Two hypotheses are developed toexamine the relationship among composition of board memberships including independent directors andfirm performance. An observation of 274 Bangladeshi firm-years is used in the study. A linear regressionanalysis is used to test the hypotheses. Results reveal that the outside (independent directors cannot addpotential value to the firm’s economic performance in Bangladesh. The idea of the introduction ofindependent directors may have benefits for greater transparency, but the non-consideration of theunderlying institutional and cultural differences in an emerging economy such as Bangladesh may not resultin economic value addition to the firm. The findings provide an insight to the regulators in their quest forharmonization of international corporate governance practices.

  8. Challenges in Teaching Pronunciation at Tertiary Level in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzina Tahereen


    Full Text Available Teaching pronunciation is one the most challenging parts of ELT in Bangladesh. Very few research and least attention on pronunciation teaching has instigated those challenges more. Moreover, setting an ambitious target to achieve native like pronunciation and teaching without considering the Bangladeshi context are more specific reasons for creating those problems. Therefore, this paper concentrates on the discussion of the existing condition of teaching pronunciation in Bangladesh. Consequently, it starts with presenting existing circumstances of pronunciation teaching in Bangladesh, and showing what the achievable and realistic goal should be for this situation. Then, it talks about the challenges that the teachers face while teaching pronunciation in ELT classroom. This discussion provides deep insight into those challenges which are only applicable to Bangladeshi students. Finally, the paper suggests some contextual and practical solutions to those specific problems.

  9. The Effects of Remittances on Inflation: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Khan


    Full Text Available Like many developing countries, remittances are relatively larger capital inflows in Bangladesh in the recent years. Hence, understanding the impact of remittances on the macroeconomic variables such as inflation is essential for the policy makers of the recipient economy. Incorporating remittances as an exogenous variable to the standard inflation function, this paper verifies how it affects the inflation rate in Bangladesh in the 1972-2010 periods. Applying Vector Autoregressive (VAR techniques, the empirical results find that a one percent increase in remittances inflows increases inflation rate by 2.48 percent in the long run, whereas no significant relationship is evident between these two variables in the short-run in Bangladesh.

  10. The India Connection (United States)

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal


    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  11. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaduzzaman, M. [Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka (Bangladesh)


    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid FERDOUSI


    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, Formal legal education is provided by either a department of a university or an affiliated college. There are four public universities and above twenty six private universities in our country with law as a regular subject of teaching. Besides, the National University imparts teaching of law through law colleges in the country. All public and private universities providing law graduate degree by conventional system but many people deprived from this opportunities. Thus to increase equitable access to education and to develop the human resources of the country the Bangladesh Open University playing significant role. Large numbers of students of rural areas, particularly women, out of school and adults who must do work to support their families are include with the university. Bangladesh Open University is the only institution in Bangladesh which imparts education in open and distance mode and offers 23 formal programmes, the demand for the introduction of LL.B programme for the benefit of those who have been, for various reasons, deprived of the opportunity of undertaking graduate course in law in conventional mode of education. The decision to offer the programme in distance mode is being taken in response to the earnest desire of the relevant quarters expressed in various dailies and formal applications submitted to the university authority as the learners in the open and distance mode learn at his own place and any time whenever he feels convenient to learn and is not for restricted by time, space or age. Distance learning is, indeed, presently considered as a viable alternative of the conventional system of education to fulfill the growing demand for legal education.This paper presents the new academic trends in Bangladesh Open University by distance learning Bachelor of Laws (LL.B. degree and modern aspects of the legal education at School of Law in Bangladesh Open University.

  13. Sexual violence towards married women in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum


    This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.

  14. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)


    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  15. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in environmental water in Dhaka, Bangladesh. (United States)

    Haque, Anwarul; Yoshizumi, Ayumi; Saga, Tomoo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro


    Pathogens encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes represent a threat for failure of empirical antibiotic therapy and are associated with high mortality, morbidity and expenses. We examined surface water in Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh and isolated ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae, suggesting the potential role of water for the dissemination and transmission of resistant genes among microorganisms. E. coli found most prevalent among isolated Enterobacteriaceae from environmental water. Molecular and genetic analysis revealed CTX-M-type and SHV-type ESBL genes in isolates that may influence the spread of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria causing human and animal infections in Bangladesh.

  16. A rainfall simulation model for agricultural development in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayedur Rahman


    Full Text Available A rainfall simulation model based on a first-order Markov chain has been developed to simulate the annual variation in rainfall amount that is observed in Bangladesh. The model has been tested in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Few significant differences were found between the actual and simulated seasonal, annual and average monthly. The distribution of number of success is asymptotic normal distribution. When actual and simulated daily rainfall data were used to drive a crop simulation model, there was no significant difference of rice yield response. The results suggest that the rainfall simulation model perform adequately for many applications.

  17. Existing and Expected Service Quality of Grameenphone Users in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Ullah


    Full Text Available The Grameenphone (GP is a market leader in the telecommunication industry in Bangladesh. This study investigates the existing and expected service quality of Grameenphone users in Bangladesh. The Study reveals that there are significant gap between existing and expected perceived service network, 3G, customer care, physical facilities, billing cost, information service, mobile banking and GP offers. The study concludes that customer satisfaction is a dynamic phenomenon. Maintaining desired level of customer satisfaction requires corporate proactive responsiveness in accessing, building & retaining satisfied customers for sustainable competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  18. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barua, D.C.


    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  19. The emerging disease occurrence of pet animals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umma Habiba


    Results: Among the most general pet animals in Bangladesh (dog, cat, rabbit, the mostly occured diseases were scabies (23.07%, feline ascariasis (37.14% and rabbit mange (34.61%, while the less frequent diseases were canine parvovirus enteritis (2.19%, cat scratch disease (5.71% and overgrown teeth (7.69%. Conclusion: The study provides basic information about the current status and the percentage (% of disease occurrence considering the emerging diseases of pet animals in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 413-419

  20. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd


    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  1. Formal and Informal Rural Credit in Four Provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for co...... are striking. A ‘one size fits all' approach to credit policy in Vietnam would be inappropriate......This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used...

  2. Ebola Virus Disease – Global Scenario & Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanur Rahman


    test, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, electron microscopy and virus isolation by cell culture.1 Supportive care - rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids - and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD.1 Raising awareness of risk factors for Ebola infection and protective measures that individuals can take is an effective way to reduce human transmission. Risk reduction messaging should focus on several factors like reducing the risks of wildlife-to-human transmission and human-to-human transmission and also on outbreak containment measures.1 Health care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus should apply extra infection control measures to prevent contact with the patient’s blood and body fluids and contaminated surfaces or materials such as clothing and bedding, wear face protection besides routine measures. Samples taken from humans and animals for investigation of Ebola infection should be handled by trained staff with utmost care and processed in suitably equipped laboratories.1 The infections of two health care workers in Dallas, USA and a nurse in Madrid, Spain have revealed the truth that even highly developed nations are not immune. Still, Asia has some advantages as it readies itself for Ebola. Flight patterns suggest that the influx of travelers from Ebola-stricken West African countries to the Asian continent is far less than it is to Africa, Europe or North America.10 The recent outbreak affecting several nations also alarmed the public health sector of Bangladesh. But virus and healthcare experts have assured that there is nothing to be anxious about Ebola in Bangladesh as it has been categorized as among the least threatened countries by the World Health Organization (WHO on August 8, 2014 in its first Emergency Committee meeting.11 Bangladesh Government has already taken effective preventive measures suggested by WHO, which

  3. ODEL can address the Reality-Problems of Agriculturists’ Post Graduation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Q. M. Bazlur RASHID


    , Agricultural Statistics, Ag. Cooperation & Ag. Marketing, Rural Development etc. the application of ODEL has not yet been found employed in anywhere except, a few recent endeavours under a limited scope in the Asian countries like India (IGNOU. ODEL extends the learning and self-development opportunities to those beyond the access to the conventional system due to professional, familial, economic, geographical etc. restrictions. The scenario is more acute especially in case of the applied science like Agriculture in Agriculture-dependent developing country like Bangladesh where the tool may be potential alternative to address the postgraduate agricultural education, the acute problem of a vast number of target group seeking higher studies. Bangladesh is one of the most thickly populated and agriculture dependent developing countries of the world, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU established in 1962 is only the premier seat of higher agricultural education and research in the country offering Masters and Doctoral degrees through the conventional face to face class room system. Since its establishment out of the total passed out bachelors (BSc Ag. so far till July 2007 only 31.29% Masters and 0.64% PhDs have been produced. Bangladesh has recently been connected to the information super-highway through submarine cables. As a result, along with BTTB private companies already could ramify their ICT-based business orientations in different sectors like banking, transportation, administration etc. The use of computer and the long-ranged, portable electronic device with the telephone and the cell phone networks are widely used now a day. Under the circumstances, for better and progressive existence in the competitive global context it should be concentrated on its special attention to the ICT-based ODEL as a pragmatic focal issue with a view to transforming the ever increasing vast population potential into more productive force, so as to solve the higher agricultural

  4. GPS Velocities and Structure Across the Burma Accretionary Prism and Shillong Anticline in Bangladesh (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Bilham, R. G.; Kogan, M. G.; Masson, F.; Maurin, T.; Mondal, D.; Piana Agostinetti, N.; Rangin, C.; Saha, P.


    We installed a suite of 25 GPS receivers between 2003 and 2012 covering the deltaic country of Bangladesh, which lies near the junction of the Indian Shield, the Himayalan collision belt and the Indo-Burman Wedge. The crust of the Indian Shield thins southeastward in the Bengal Basin across the hinge zone of an Early Cretaceous continental margin. The thin continental and/or oceanic crust of the Bengal Basin beyond the hinge zone is overlain by the southward prograding Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) creating a total sediment thickness of ≥16 km. This heavily-sedimented basin is being overthrust from the north by the Shillong Massif, a 2-km high basement-cored anticlinorium exposing Indian Shield, and from the east by the accretionary prism of the Indo-Burma Wedge. The soft, oblique collision of Burma with the Bengal Basin and Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) has built a large accretionary prism that widens northwards to 250-300 km. The prism reaches as much as half way across the deep Bengal Basin. The outer folds and the thrust front are blind and buried by the rapid sedimentation of the GBD. The GPS data in Bangladesh cover the frontal region of this unusual subaerial accretionary prism, while observations from India and Myanmar provide velocities for more internal parts of the system. The convergence across this belt is oblique and partitioned. The velocity gradients across the accretionary prism indicate E-W shortening at ~13 mm/y and N-S dextral shear at ~25 mm/y. The shortening appears to be more concentrated farther west, towards the thrust front, while the shear is more distributed and does not extend to the frontal folds. How this motion is further partitioned into elastic earthquake-cycle loading and permanent inelastic deformation remains unclear. The north-dipping Dauki thrust fault raises the Shillong Massif lowers the rapidly subsiding Surma Basin foredeep. This crustal scale convergent boundary could represent the beginning of a forward jump of the

  5. Treatment with aquatic plants by a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsina Mukti


    Full Text Available Context: Tribal healers mainly use land plants in their medicinal formulations; use of aquatic plants has been scarcely reported. Aims: The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey working with a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh. Settings and Design: The survey was carried out working with a Bagdi healer, who lived alone in the wetlands of Rajbari District and used primarily aquatic plants for treatment. Materials and Methods: Interview of the healer was carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: The Bagdi healer was observed to use seven different aquatic plant species coming from five plant families for treatment of ailments such as hemorrhoids, tonsillitis, heart disorders, burning sensations and pain in hands or legs, blurred vision, debility, sexual weakness in males, chronic dysentery, infertility in women, constipation, chronic leucorrhea, blackness and foul odor of menstrual blood, hair loss, graying of hair and to keep the head cool. One plant was used to treat what the healer mentioned as "evil eye", this refers to their belief in black-magic. Conclusions: This is the first reported instance of a Bagdi healer who primarily uses aquatic plants for treatment. Ethnomedicinal uses of a number of the plants used by the Bagdi healer have been reported for other places in India and Pakistan. Taken together, the various uses of the different plant species opens up scientific possibilities of new drug discoveries from the plants.

  6. Nature of solute loads in the rivers of the Bengal drainage basin, Bangladesh (United States)

    Datta, Dilip K.; Subramanian, V.


    The Bengal drainage basin is geologically one of the youngest and tectonically most active denudation regimes of the world, and encompasses the total lower reaches of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) drainage basin. The GBM river system contributes around 4.5% of the total annual global freshwater flux to the oceans. The solute load of the GBM river system is dominated by the carbonate weathering products of the transport-limited denudation regime. However, in the Meghna basin, which drains a mountainous region, silicate weathering is slightly more predominant, and the solute load tends to be more influenced by the atmospheric contribution. The river system represents about 5% (152×10 6 t yr -1) of the annual global chemical flux to the world's oceans. The chemical denudation rate of the GBM system in the Bengal basin, is one of the world's highest (79-114 t km -2 yr -1), suggesting intensive weathering and erosion in the drainage basin both in Bangladesh as well as in the hinterlands of India and China.

  7. Vestalaria vinnula spec. nov. from southern Vietnam (Odonata: Calopterygidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hämäläinen, M.


    Vestalaria vinnula spec.nov. (holotype male, southern Vietnam, Lam Dong province, Blao, 1962) is described in both sexes and compared with other species of Vestalaria May, 1935 (= the Vestalis smaragdina - group), which is ranked as valid genus.

  8. Delegation of Chinese Advisers And Veterans Visits Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>At the invitation of the Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations (VUFO),Jing Dunquan, vice president of the CPAFFC, led the delegation of Chinese advisers and veterans who had participated in China’s aid mission to help

  9. Essays on Impact evaluation: new empirical evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Cuong, N.


    Keywords: Credit, cash transfers, remittances, migration, poverty, inequality, impact evaluation, Vietnam, Asia This study estimates the impact of various economic flows including government-subsidized micro-credit, informal credit, public and private transfers, international remittances, and migr

  10. Understanding Presidential Rhetoric: The Vietnam Statements of Lyndon Johnson (United States)

    Sigelman, Lee; Miller, Lawrence


    Focuses on Lyndon Johnson's public statements about Vietnam during the final eighteen months of his presidency in an attempt to gain a perspective on the factors which shape presidential rhetoric. (MH)

  11. Abundance of sardine fish species in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Bikram Jit


    Full Text Available The study was conducted during January, 2012 to December 2012 in the sardine fisheries which is occurred both in artisanal and industrial fishing sector in the marine water of the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. During this study period the total landing amounts by weight of sardines were 7352.99 MT, among these 23.76% (1747.22 MT was exploited by the artisanal mechanized boats and 76.24% (5605.77 MT captured through different industrial fishing trawlers and contributed 17.51% of the total marine fish production by commercial fish trawlers during the study period. 4 sardine species have been recorded from our marine territory. Among them, 2 sardine species are highly abundant, Sardinella fimbriata total production volumes was 5495.79 MT (74.74% contributed 1747.22MT (31.79% from the artisanal and 3748.57MT (68.21% from the industrial sector and Dussumieria acuta production amounts was 1857.20MT (25.26% contributed only from the industrial fishing sector.Species wise contribution shows that S. fimbriata contributed 100% in the artisanal sector and in the industrial fishing S. fimbriata contributed 66.87% and D. acuta contributed the rest 33.13%. The distribution of the S. fimbriata is within 10-20 meters depth and abundance was observed in the southern part of the South patches and South of south patches (N: 210.09// -22, E: 920.04/-07 to N: 200.45/-25, E: 920.18/-56 and 10-50m depth in onshore and off shore areas in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point -N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57. The distribution of the D. acuta is within 40-60 m. depth and abundance was observed in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground areas (Kohinoor point - N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57 and south-west to south-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point- N: 200-17/.29, E: 900.15/.21 to N: 200.29/.56, E: 910.24/.22 in the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. The peak capture season of

  12. Child marriage in Bangladesh: trends and determinants. (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Ying, Yang


    This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.

  13. State-Owned Enterprises and Economic Reform in Vietnam (United States)


    FDI ), and prevents the effective development of required infrastructure. Vietnam cannot enjoy sustained economic growth while grand corruption... FDI ) has also suffered. Research shows that systemic corruption has a significant negative impact on FDI and the impact is cumulative with higher...levels of corruption resulting in a greater loss of FDI . 9 This is particularly unfortunate for Vietnam whose economy is riddled with corruption but

  14. Students' expectation toward service of recruiment agencies in Vietnam


    Tran, Hanh


    The objective of the thesis was to explore the expectations of students studying abroad to recruitment agencies in Vietnam. The study aims at recommend the right service for recruit-ment agencies offer to students to find a job and explore the culture obstacles for their career development when return home. The study originated from author’s own experience when finding an internship in Vietnam. The theoretical framework is based on relevant areas of theories of recruitment process, na-...

  15. Rewriting the Vietnam Narrative: Strategic Partnership Opportunities in Southeast Asia (United States)


    subjected the people of Vietnam to their colonial policies remaining in tight control with the exception of World War II when Japan seized Vietnam and...awards/benefit2005/vietnamese_essay.shtml (accessed December 22, 2012). 4 Nguyen Hong Thao and Ramses Amer, “Managing Vietnam’s Maritime Boundary...Disputes,” Ocean Development & International Law 38, no. 3 (August 2007): 306 5 Ibid., 306. 6 Ramses Amer, “The Territorial Disputes between China and

  16. Towards improving perinatal maternal mental health in Vietnam


    Niemi, Maria


    Major depression is increasing world-wide, and is the third leading cause of the global disease burden. In Vietnam, perinatal depression is underdiagnosed and under-treated, leading to severe consequences for the pregnant mother, her child and surroundings. AIMS: The overall aim was to improve knowledge about perinatal depression to contribute to evidence based development of prevention and treatment strategies in Vietnam. The specific aims were: To generate a report of the mental health prio...

  17. Vietnam’s Drive to Modernize Militarily - Causes and Implications (United States)


    The SCS is of utmost importance to Vietnam because of its role in economic activities, which include fishing, tourism , and oil and gas exploitation...shifted [Vietnam’s] foreign policy from one of confrontation to one of accommodation with former foes.”366 Essentially, Vietnam’s defense ministry...pursued a similar accommodating and omnidirectional strategy with the international community. Hiep notes, “Facing a far more powerful China, Vietnam

  18. Children's Rights and the Imagination of Community in Bangladesh (United States)

    White, Sarah C.


    This paper suggests that sharply divergent images of children in Bangladesh reflect different "imagined communities" of society and polity, local and global. Universal concepts of "the rights of the child" contrast strongly with a local culture of "guardianship", as the key social institution that governs children's lives. How might bringing these…

  19. Antimalarial drug resistance in Bangladesh, 1996-2012. (United States)

    Haque, Ubydul; Glass, Gregory E; Haque, Waziul; Islam, Nazrul; Roy, Shyamal; Karim, Jahirul; Noedl, Harald


    Malaria remains an important health problem in Bangladesh, with approximately 14 million people at risk. Antimalarial drug resistance is a major obstacle to the control of malaria in endemic countries. In 2012, Bangladesh reported an estimated 29 522 malaria episodes, of which 94% were reported as being caused by Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we reviewed and summarized antimalarial drug resistance data from Bangladesh published until June 2013. We searched published sources for data referring to any type of P. falciparum drug resistance (in vivo, in vitro, or molecular) and found 169 articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Of these, 143 articles were excluded because they did not meet our inclusion criteria. After detailed review of the remaining 26 articles, 14 were selected for evaluation. Published studies indicate that P. falciparum shows varying levels of resistance to chloroquine, mefloquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Combination therapy of chloroquine and primaquine has proven ineffective and combinations of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine with either quinine or chloroquine have also shown poor efficacy. Recent studies indicate that artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate, remain highly efficacious in treating P. falciparum malaria. Available data suggest that artemisinins, quinine, doxycyline, mefloquine-artesunate and azithromycin-artesunate combination therapy remain efficacious in the treatment of P. falciparum malaria in Bangladesh.

  20. Private University Librarian's Experience on Procurement of Books in Bangladesh (United States)

    Chowdhury, Muhammad Hossam Haider


    The private universities in Bangladesh are playing an important role in modernizing the higher education system in the country and the role of librarians is also different and challenging. Specially, procuring books and monographs is an exigent function being this lost its demand very quickly. In some cases, titles bear only one semester…

  1. Caesarean of Lion (Panthera leo at Dulahajra Safari Park, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M.M. Rahman


    Full Text Available A six years eight months pregnant lioness at the Dulahajara Safari Park, Chakoria, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, was presented with dystocia. This paper described the pre-, intra- and postoperative procedures including anesthetic protocol carried out and performing a caesarean section to remove dead fetuses and the successful recovery of the lioness without complications.

  2. Dowry and Spousal Physical Violence against Women in Bangladesh (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Persson, Lars Ake


    This article explores whether payment issues or presence of dowry demand in marriage reflecting patriarchal attitude of marital family underlies the positive relationship between dowry and wife abuse using a sample of reproductive-age women (N = 2,702) from a population-based survey conducted in urban and rural Bangladesh in 2001. Regression…

  3. International Briefing 24: Training and Development in Bangladesh (United States)

    Mahmood, Monowar; Akhter, Salma


    Training and development activities in Bangladesh have yet to be systematic and able to fulfil the needs of the economy and industry. The national educational and training system failed to provide adequate knowledge and skills to the workforce. However, private sector organizations are undertaking different initiatives to cope with the industry…

  4. Enhanced Ties with China Can Help Bangladesh Develop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihabur; Rahman


    <正>Construction of a deep seaport in Chittagong and establishment of Chittagong-Kunming rail and road communications have been a much-talked-about issue following Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s visit to China.She went for the trip in the rising economic superpower in one and a half years of her assuming office early 2009.During

  5. The Dissonance between Schooling and Learning: Evidence from Rural Bangladesh (United States)

    Asadullah, M. Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul


    Using a basic mathematics competence test based on the primary school curricular standard, we examine the extent to which years spent in school actually increases numeracy achievement in rural Bangladesh. Our sample includes 10-18-year-old children currently enrolled in school as well as those out of school. About half of the children failed to…

  6. Neoliberalism, Policy Reforms and Higher Education in Bangladesh (United States)

    Kabir, Ariful Haq


    Bangladesh has introduced neoliberal policies since the 1970s. Military regimes, since the dramatic political changes in 1975, accelerated the process. A succession of military rulers made rigorous changes in policy-making in various sectors. This article uses a critical approach to document analysis and examines the perceptions of key…

  7. Impact of an aquaculture extension project in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn


    This paper is an impact study of key short- and long-run effects of the Danida supported Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project (MAEP) in Bangladesh, applying different matching and double difference estimators. Results are mixed. First, the paper finds a positive short-run impact on pond...

  8. Financial Liberalization, Savings and the Banking Sector in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); I.A. Robin (Iftekhar Ahmed)


    textabstractThis article explores the consequences of financial liberalization policy on the banking sector in Bangladesh. Following a motivating portfolio selection theor-etical model on the impact of liberalization, it applies time series techniques with annual banking sector data for the period 1

  9. Military Strategy of Bangladesh to Counter Terrorism in Near Future (United States)


    Paper presented at first bi-annual international symposium of the Center for Asian Terrorism Research (CATR) at Denpensar, Bali , Indonesia, 19-21...observed phenomena . Bangladesh has had and is likely to experience more terrorist acts in the near future...qualitative in nature. By characteristics, qualitative research uses a naturalistic approach that seeks to understand phenomena in context-specific

  10. Postburn contracture treatment: a healthcare project in Bangladesh.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, A.; Swapan, K.B.; Spronk, C.A.E.M.; Niemeijer, R.P.; Spauwen, P.H.M.


    Over the last 6 years, a health care program aimed at the surgical correction of postburn contractures has taken place in Faridpur, Bangladesh. People in this rural region are very poor and often cannot afford medical treatment. Often secondary flexion contractures of the face and chin as well as th

  11. Household Schooling and Child Labor Decisions in Rural Bangladesh (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb


    Using empirical methods, this paper examines household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh. The results suggest the following: poverty and low parental education are associated with lower schooling and greater child labor; asset-owning households are more likely to have children combine child labor with schooling; households…

  12. Ganokendra: An Innovative Model for Poverty Alleviation in Bangladesh (United States)

    Alam, Kazi Rafiqul


    Ganokendras (people's learning centers) employ a literacy-based approach to alleviating poverty in Bangladesh. They give special attention to empowering rural women, among whom poverty is widespread. The present study reviews the Ganokendra-approach to facilitating increased political and economic awareness and improving community conditions in…

  13. Living Sexualities: Negotiating Heteronormativity in Middle Class Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Karim (Shuchi)


    textabstract‘Living Sexualities’ is a study of erotic desires, practices and identities, lived within the heteronormative and marriage-normative socio-sexual structures of the urban middle class in contemporary Bangladesh. The study is based on two years fieldwork during which data was generated thr


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY


    Full Text Available A product is anything that can be accessible to the market for satisfaction. The basic objective of marketing is maximum satisfaction since satisfaction of consumer and business performance is positively related to each other. For satisfaction, product is diversified in different categories i.e. generic product, product type product, substitute product and product line etc. Sachet product is one of the expansions of product line. The term ‘Sachet’ is originated from the French word which means “mini”. In Bangladesh, sachet product has a strong market share. Thus, this study attempts to determine the exiting share of sachet product and measure the impact of marketing strategies on sachet product in Bangladesh. This study uses the selective 22 dimensions to favor the sachet product on the basis of 4Ps (Product, Price, Place and Promotion. To accomplish the study, 125 samples have been taken from selective markets in Cosmopolitan city, Chittagong. The study found that sachet product has strong market position comparative with other categories of products, where promotional effect is the dominant factor who played the vital role to sustain the sachet product in Bangladesh. The results of this study will be constructive for executives and policy-makers of business organization who works with fast moving consumer good (FMCG items effectively in Bangladesh.

  15. Quality and Processes of Bangladesh Open University Course Materials Development (United States)

    Islam, Tofazzal; Rahman, Morshedur; Rahman, K. M. Rezanur


    A new member of the mega-Universities, Bangladesh Open University (BOU) introduced a course team approach for developing effective course materials for distance students. BOU teaching media includes printed course books, study guides, radio and television broadcasts, audiocassettes and occasional face-to-face tutorials. Each course team…

  16. Living with infertility : Experiences among urban slum populations in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papreen, N; Sabin, K; Begum, L; Ahsan, SK; Baqui, AH


    This paper explores the perceived causes of infertility, treatment-seeking for infertility and the consequences of childlessness, particularly for women, among a predominantly Muslim population in urban slums of Dhaka in Bangladesh. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women and GO men randoml

  17. Folk medicinal uses of Verbenaceae family plants in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Jahan, Rownak; Azam, F M Safiul; Hossan, S; Mollik, M A H; Rahman, Taufiq


    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of Bangladesh are scattered among more than twenty tribes residing within the country's borders. The various tribes have their own tribal practitioners, who use medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. The objective of the present survey was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes and tribal practitioners to determine which species of plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family are used by the practitioners. The Verbenaceae family plants are well known for constituents having important bio-active properties. The present survey indicated that 13 species belonging to 8 genera are used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh. A comparison of their folk medicinal uses along with published reports in the scientific literature suggests that the Verbenaceae family plants used in Bangladesh can potentially be important sources of lead compounds or novel drugs for treatment of difficult to cure debilitating diseases like malaria and rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. The link between infertility and poverty: evidence from Bangladesh. (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen


    The link between high fertility and poverty is well established. However, this paper shows how infertility may also generate poverty among childless families in Bangladesh. An ethnographic study was conducted, involving various qualitative research methods that revealed economic consequences to be one of the crucial sequelae of childlessness in Bangladesh. This paper details how the poverty/fertility relationship is dependent on social and institutional characteristics, including patriarchal values, education, urban-rural location and health services. Empirical data show that childlessness generates poverty in various ways, including the deprivation of children's earnings, decline in women's mobility, demoralisation of men to earn an income, marriage devaluation by the husband, disbursements for treatment and denial of microcredit (very small loans to those in poverty, which support them to become self-employed to generate income). The current study shows that the infertility/poverty relationship is mostly contingent upon class and gender. It is therefore the rural poor childless women who are most badly affected economically in Bangladesh rather than the urban middle class childless women. In other words, this study reveal that along with gender, class plays a dominant role in terms of the economic consequences of childlessness in Bangladesh. It sheds light on a different and unusual aspect of poverty and aims to contribute to the gender discussion of livelihood and poverty.

  19. Considerations around the introduction of a cholera vaccine in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher B; Mogasale, Vittal; Bari, Tajul Islam A; Clemens, John D


    Cholera is an endemic and epidemic disease in Bangladesh. On 3 March 2013, a meeting on cholera and cholera vaccination in Bangladesh was convened by the Foundation Mérieux jointly with the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR, B). The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the investment case for cholera vaccination as a complimentary control and prevention strategy. The performance of a new low cost oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol™, used in recent trials in Bangladesh, was also reviewed in the context of a potential large-scale public-sector vaccination program. Findings showed the oral vaccine to be highly cost-effective when targeting ages 1-14 y, and cost-effective when targeting ages 1+y, in high-burden/high-risk districts. Other vaccination strategies targeting urban slums and rural areas without improved water were found to be cost-effective. Regardless of cost-effectiveness (value), the budget impact (affordability) will be an important determinant of which target population and vaccination strategy is selected. Most importantly, adequate vaccine supply for the proposed vaccination programs must be addressed in the context of global efforts to establish a cholera vaccine stockpile and supply other control and prevention efforts.

  20. Distributing and Showing Farmer Learning Videos in Bangladesh (United States)

    Bentley, Jeffery W.; Van Mele, Paul; Harun-ar-Rashid, Md.; Krupnik, Timothy J.


    Purpose: To describe the results of showing farmer learning videos through different types of volunteers. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews with volunteers from different occupational groups in Bangladesh, and a phone survey with 227 respondents. Findings: Each occupational group acted differently. Shop keepers, tillage…

  1. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattar, M.A. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, (Bangladesh)


    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN{sub 3}). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA and {sup 125}I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come 32 refs., 1 tab.

  2. E-Banking of Economical Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azizul Baten


    Full Text Available Now a day’s due to emerging global economy, e-commerce and e-business have increasingly become a necessary component of business strategy and a strong catalyst for economic development. The new information technology is becoming an important factor in the future development of financial services industry, and especially banking industry. As a third-world developing country, Bangladesh is far behind to reach the expected level in global banking system. So it is our urgent need to upgrade its banking system. This paper is aimed at to determine economical prospects of e-banking and to explain the present scenario of banking sectors in Bangladesh and at the same time it demonstrates the scope and benefits of e-banking compared with the existing system. This paper also tries to present actual sit uation of e-banking in the marketing point of view in Bangladesh. The results of th is study shows that e-banking serves several advantages to Bangladeshi banking sector, however, the study also shows that the Bangladeshi customers have not enough knowledge regarding e-banking which is rendering by banking sector in Bangladesh. A discussion of the implications of these results and limitations are provided at the end.

  3. China's India Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian


    Over the past 50 years, with the improvement of relationship between India and China, the scope of India studies in China's IR research has been broadened and the new areas of studies are being explored. The research agenda of India studies has already extended to the areas like economy, society, culture, security, national strategy and their impact on both bilateral and international relations. In this situation, the focuses of India studies in China's IR research can be mainly identified as follows: reviews on India's social, political and economic systems; analysis on the national strategy and foreign policy; Sino-Indian relations; India's relations with some international organizations. However, even though many fresh progresses have been made in India studies, the India studies in China's IR research still lag far behind the study of other important countries like the U.S., UK, Russia and Japan, and more problems and challenges will face in the coming future. The paper believes that a fuller understanding of India probably will not make China and India close friends, but it definitely will help to prevent them from becoming fierce enemies.

  4. Vietnam and the sustainable development of the Mekong river basis. (United States)

    Quang, Nguyen Nhan


    Vietnam is a riparian country located in most downstream area of the Mekong river basin which is also shared by other states namely China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand and Cambodia. While the Central Highlands of Vietnam has a great potential for hydropower development in tributaries of Mekong river, the Mekong delta in Vietnam territory is rich in natural resources which are favorable for agricultural development. However, besides local constraints which being gradually remedied by Vietnam, the development of the Mekong delta is subject to, in both terms of quantity and quality, availability of water resources which relates to the water use of or discharge into the river of upper riparians. With a view to co-developing these resources in a sustainable and mutually beneficial manner, Vietnam has cooperated with other states through framework of the Mekong River Commission set up by the 1995 Mekong Agreement. This paper describes the strategy and action plan applied by Viet Nam National Mekong Committee to reach the sustainable development of the Mekong river basin in general and of Vietnam parts located in the Mekong basin in particular.

  5. The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towfiqua Mahfuza Islam


    Full Text Available Background: A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. Objective: We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. Methods: We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. Results: One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–2.8 times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0–3.0 times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.0 times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4–2.3 times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. Conclusions: This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh.

  6. Exporting and Productivity: Learning from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn;


    different policy stance than typical in Africa. This is especially so in promoting export-oriented industry. If learning by exporting is a key driver of progress, then a fundamental reason for Africa's lack of transformation is likely to be the low policy priority given to export promotion in the past....... To enlarge the body of empirical evidence, we use an extensive 2005–2012 firm-level panel data set from Vietnam and separate out productivity effects of exporting due to self-selection. This allows us to conclude that firms actually learn by exporting. We also examine how this learning takes place. Our...... findings suggest that productivity gains are associated with moving to larger scale for foreign-owned firms with little evidence of subsequent learning on export markets. We find strong evidence to suggest that private domestic firms learn and accumulate knowledge from export markets with learning...

  7. Political Connections and Investment in Rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn

    as a result of relatives moving into public office. Connections to office holders appear to be important for investment because they strengthen de facto land property rights and improve access to off-farm employment and to informal loans. The findings underline the importance of informal networks for economic......This paper uses household panel data from rural Vietnam to explore the effects of having a relative in a position of political or bureaucratic power on farmers’ agricultural investment decisions. Our main result is that households significantly increase their investment in land improvement...... behaviour in environments with developing institutions and markets. They also suggest the presence of an untapped potential for economic development: if households without connections could obtain equally strong property rights and access to credit and insurance as the well-connected households, investment...

  8. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Van So [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)


    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  9. Risk Management Practices in Islamic Bank: A Case Study of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited


    Uddin, Md Akther


    Islamic banking industry has been growing rapidly for last three decades. As risk is inherent in banking business it is necessary to develop a comprehensive risk management framework and process. In this paper, a humble attempt has been made to study and analyze risk management practices of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL), one of the leading Islamic banks in Bangaladesh. Annual reports of IBBL and 7 other full-fledged Islamic banks, Bangladesh Bank, the central bank of Bangladesh, publi...

  10. The Big Four in Bangladesh:Caught between the Global and the Local


    Belal, Ataur; Spence, Crawford; Carter, Chris; Zhu, Jingqi


    PurposeThis article explores the work practices of Big 4 firms in Bangladesh with the aim of exploring the extent to which Global Professional Service Firms can be thought of as being genuinely ‘global’. Methodology/Approach Interviews were undertaken with the vast majority of Big 4 partners in Bangladesh. These interviews explored a number of themes related to the professional service work context in Bangladesh and the relationship between local and global firms. Findings The central finding...

  11. Reanalysis of the Stress-Strain Conditions in Maddhapara Granite Mine, Dinajpur, Bangladesh


    Chowdhury, Dr.Quamruzzaman; Kaniz, Fatema; Hasan, Md. Rizwanul; Noor, Samia; Sanzida, Murshed; WoobaidUllah, A.S M


    Underground mining is not a process to the world but Bangladesh is experiencing second underground mining and first hard rock mining project at Maddhapara in the district of Dinajpur. Maddhapara is the only hard rock mining project in Bangladesh. Since Maddhapara is the first experience of hard rock mine in Bangladesh, it is a matter of great interest to make it successful and highly profitable project. While research it was found that there are lot of doubtful calculations and interpretation...



    Hoshen, Mohammad


    Abstract This thesis paper contains information on the garment industry of Bangladesh. The garment business plays a vital part in global market. There are a large numbers of world renowned apparel companies that outsource their products in Bangladesh. The aim of the thesis is to explicate quality management in garment production and the brand protection process during outsourcing in Bangladesh. The theoretical part of the thesis provides basic information about garment products, the glo...

  13. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto


    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  14. Birds in Kurigram district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Khan


    Full Text Available A study of the birds in the area adjacent to the Dharala and Brahmaputra rivers in Kurigram District, Bangladesh, was conducted between November 2000 and February 2002. A total of 105 species of birds belonging to 12 orders, 35 families and 77 genera were recorded. Out of 105 species, 51 (48.6% were non-passerine and 54 (51.4% passerine, 33 (31.4% migratory and 72 (68.6% resident. Of the non-passerine birds, 15 (29.4% were migratory and 36 (70.6% were resident, while, among the passerines 18 (33.3% were migratory and 36 (66.7% were resident. Of the total (105 species 14 (13.3% were found to be very common, 30 (28.6% common, 25 (23.8% fairly common and 36 (34.3% were rare or few. Out of 105 species, 30 (28.6% were aquatic and semiaquatic birds and 75 (71.4% were terrestrial. Among 105 species, 52 (49.5% were widely distributed in Kurigram, 31 (29.5% restricted only to the northern side, five (4.8% to the central side, eight (7.6% to the southern side, and nine (8.6% species were common in two or three parts of the study area. Among the three canopy categories, 16 (15.2% species were observed in lower canopy, 32 (30.5% species were recorded from both lower and middle canopies, 19 (18.1% species from upper and middle canopies and only one (1% species was recorded from upper canopy. In the study area 37 (35.2% species of birds used all levels of the canopy. Out of 105 species, 48 (45.7% were insectivorous, 11 (10.4% were grainivorous, five (4.8% frugivorous, 10 (9.5% were piscivorous, five (4.8% were predatory, and 19 (18.1% species of birds were omnivorous. Only one (1% was vegetarian and the diet of 6 (5.7% species could not be determined.

  15. Identifying and Improving the image of Vietnam Tourism as a Tourism destination among Finnish tourist


    Pham, Anh Van


    This writing attempts to identify the images of Vietnam as a tourism destination for Finnish tourists and suggests marketing solution for Vietnamese traveling company to improve the images of Vietnam by enhancing marketing activities in the Finnish market. Saigontourist Transportation Corporation (STC), Vietnam which is a commissioner of this thesis project, has provided updated information about the current situation of tourism in Vietnam as well as marketing activities of company durin...

  16. The Sixth Meeting of China-Vietnam People’s Forum Held in Nanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Yan


    The CPA FFC,the China Vietnam Friendship Association(CVFA),Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations(VUFO)and the Vietnam-China Friendship Association(VCFA)jointly held the Sixth Meeting of China-Vietnam People’s Forumin Nanning,capital of China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,from December1 to 3,2014,attracting delegates from political,economic,academic

  17. Advantages and Disadvantages in setting up and managing a Captive Center in Vietnam


    Nguyen, An; Nguyen, Thanh


    This work concerns factors that Captive Centers would face when they operate in Vietnam. In other words, it purposes to perceive in detail what Vietnam offers to Captive Centers by identifying the advantages and disadvantages in establishing and managing Captive Centers in Vietnam from the perspective of foreign companies. Under the qualitative research method, the authors have done three interviews with the managers of two Captive Centers operating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, by sending th...

  18. O'Neill: majanduse uut tõusu hakkavad vedama 15 riiki

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Goldman Sachsi varahalduse juhi Jim O'Neilli hinnangul kujuneb keskmise ja suure tulu saajate arvu dramaatiline kasv BRIC-riikides (Brasiilia, Venemaa, India, Hiina) ja N-11 riikides (Mehhiko, Türgi, Korea, Iraan, Egiptus, Nigeeria, Pakistan, Filipiinid, Bangladesh, Vietnam) suurimaks tarbimist vedavaks jõuks maailmas lähema 10 aasta jooksul ja sealt edasi

  19. The National Military Strategy of the United States of America 2015: The United States Military’s Contribution to National Security (United States)


    our security relationship with India and build upon our partnerships with New Zealand, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia , Vietnam, and Bangladesh. Such...strengthening our military family . This requires cultivating a professional climate that 15 reinforces our respect for core values, promotes...Nation against asymmetric threats. To improve institutional agility, we are expanding relations with American businesses , including many of the

  20. Effects of Female Education on Economic Growth: A Cross Country Empirical Study (United States)

    Oztunc, Hakan; Oo, Zar Chi; Serin, Zehra Vildan


    This study examines the extent to which women's education affects long-term economic growth in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on the time period between 1990 and 2010, using data collected in randomly selected Asia Pacific countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.…

  1. 75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1,...

  2. 75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis... imports from Vietnam of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs), provided for in subheading 3923.21.00 of... Commerce (Commerce) to be subsidized by the Government of Vietnam.\\2\\ The Commission further...

  3. Stratification and the Emergence of the Postsecondary Private Education Sector in Vietnam (United States)

    Goyette, Kimberly Ann


    Vietnam has a strong public postsecondary education sector that has only recently begun to experience growth in nonpublic institutions. I investigate how the growth of nonpublic institutions may be related to stratification in Vietnam. I find that these institutions are more likely to serve more advantaged students from South Vietnam. Students pay…

  4. 77 FR 9700 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... with material injury by reason of imports from Vietnam of utility scale wind towers, provided for in... wind towers from China and Vietnam. Accordingly, effective December 29, 2011, the Commission...

  5. 77 FR 39613 - Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export Import Bank Transaction with Vietnam (United States)


    ...--Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export-Import Bank Transaction With Vietnam #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export Import Bank Transaction with Vietnam Memorandum for the Secretary... States to extend a loan in the amount of approximately $125,870,890 to the Vietnam Post...

  6. 76 FR 55947 - Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam (United States)


    ... of the Secretary Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam AGENCY: Bureau of... implementing a program to strengthen compliance with international labor standards in Vietnam, focusing... has the recognized authority and capacity to fulfill the intent of the IRRP Phase II in Vietnam....

  7. 78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the... injured by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe... pipe from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Accordingly, effective May 16, 2013, the...

  8. 31 CFR 500.576 - Authorization of transactions concerning certain development projects in Vietnam. (United States)


    ... concerning certain development projects in Vietnam. 500.576 Section 500.576 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 500.576 Authorization of transactions concerning certain development projects in Vietnam. (a) All... in Vietnam formally proposed or approved for execution, funding or sponsorship by the...

  9. 78 FR 10210 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... with material injury by reason of imports of utility scale wind towers from China and Vietnam, provided... of imports of utility scale wind towers from China and Vietnam. Commissioner Dean A....

  10. 77 FR 32873 - Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War (United States)


    ... Vietnam War Proclamation 8830--National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012 Proclamation 8831--Prayer for... ] Proclamation 8829 of May 25, 2012 Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As we observe the 50th anniversary of the Vietnam War,...

  11. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for in... the United States at less than fair value (LTFV) and steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam that...

  12. 78 FR 8105 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Antidumping Duty Order (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). DATES... sales at less than fair value in the antidumping duty investigation of steel wire garment hangers...

  13. 77 FR 3737 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation... concerning imports of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam) filed in... of Antidumping Duties on Steel Wire Garment Hangers from Taiwan and the Social Republic of...

  14. The Vietnam Drug User Returns. Final Report. Special Action Office Monograph, Series A, Number 2, May 1974. (United States)

    Robins, Lee N.

    This report, based upon case records and follow-up interviews with 965 U.S. Servicemen returning from Vietnam investigates: (1) the availability and utilization of narcotics, marihuana and alcohol in Vietnam; (2) the psychosocial and demographic predictors of pre- and post-Vietnam narcotic use; and (3) the post-Vietnam adjustment difficulties of…

  15. 77 FR 75980 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final... antidumping investigation of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam... continue to determine that steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam are being, or are likely to be, sold...

  16. 78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on certain steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). DATES... duty investigation of certain steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam.\\1\\ On January 28, 2013, the...

  17. Potential economic corridors between Vietnam and Lao PDR: Roles played by Vietnam


    Nguyen, Binh Giang


    The Third Thai-Lao Friendship over the Mekong officially opened on 11th November 2011 facilitates the cross-border trade along Asian Highway 15 and Asian Highway 131 between Northeast Thailand, Central Lao PDR and North Central Vietnam. Since the establishment of East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) which based on the Asian Highway 16, the cross-border trade among countries in Greater Mekong Sub-region has been much facilitated. The success of EWEC encourages local governments in the region to...

  18. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissani, M; Tyson, S


    Vietnam's nuclear program began in the 1960s with the installation at Dalat of a 250 kW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor under the U.S. Atoms for Peace Program. The reactor was shut down and its core removed only a few years later, and the nuclear research program was suspended until after the end of the civil war in the late 1970s. The Soviet Union assisted Vietnam in restoring the Dalat reactor to an operational status in 1984, trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff in its operation, and contributed to the development of nuclear science for the medical and agricultural sectors. In the agricultural area in particular, Vietnamese experts have been very successful in developing mutant strains of rice, and continue to work with the IAEA to yield strains that have a shorter growing period, increased resistance to disease, and other desirable characteristics. Rice has always been the main crop in Vietnam, but technical cooperation with the IAEA and other states has enabled the country to become one of the top rice producers in the world, exporting much of its annual crop to over two dozen countries annually. More recently, Vietnam's government has shown increasing interest in developing a civil nuclear program to supplement its fossil fuel and other energy resources. Projections from a variety of open sources, ranging from the IAEA, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Vietnamese government, energy corporations, and think tanks all predict a massive increase in energy consumption--especially electricity--within Vietnam and the region as a whole. This growth in consumption will require a corresponding increase in energy production, which in Vietnam is currently satisfied mainly by fossil fuels (coal) and renewable energy (hydropower and biomass); Vietnam has a refining capacity of about 800 barrels/day. Most of its crude oil is exported to generate export income, and is not used to generate electricity

  19. Energy for rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.


    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be We use t

  20. India's Higher Education Challenges (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.


    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  1. Dynamics of arsenic adsorption in the targeted arsenic-safe aquifers in Matlab, south-eastern Bangladesh: Insight from experimental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Clare, E-mail: [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 5B9 (Canada)] [NGO Forum for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation, Lalmatia, Dhaka 1207 (Bangladesh); Broemssen, Mattias von [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Ramboell Sweden AB, Box 4205, SE-102 65 Stockholm (Sweden); Bhattacharya, Prosun; Haeller, Sara; Biven, Annelie [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Hossain, Mohammed [NGO Forum for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation, Lalmatia, Dhaka 1207 (Bangladesh)] [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Jacks, Gunnar [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Hasan, M. Aziz [Department of Geology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Thunvik, Roger [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)


    Research highlights: {yields} Adsorption behaviour of shallow oxidized sediments from Matlab Region in SE Bangladesh is investigated. {yields} Oxidized sediments have a high capacity to adsorb arsenic. {yields} Adsorption capacity will be reduced by high concentration of reactive organic C. {yields} Monitoring of groundwater quality over 5 year period shows relatively stable water chemistry. - Abstract: Targeting shallow low-As aquifers based on sediment colour may be a viable solution for supplying As-safe drinking water to rural communities in some regions of Bangladesh and West Bengal in India. The sustainability of this solution with regard to the long-term risk of As-safe oxidized aquifers becoming enriched with As needs to be assessed. This study focuses on the adsorption behaviour of shallow oxidized sediments from Matlab Region, Bangladesh, and their capacity to attenuate As if cross-contamination of the oxidized aquifers occurs. Water quality analyses of samples collected from 20 tube-wells in the region indicate that while there may be some seasonal variability, the groundwater chemistry in the reduced and oxidized aquifers was relatively stable from 2004 to 2009. Although sediment extractions indicate a relatively low amount of As in the oxidized sediments, below 2.5 mg kg{sup -1}, batch isotherm experiments show that the sediments have a high capacity to adsorb As. Simulations using a surface complexation model that considers adsorption to amorphous Fe(III) oxide minerals only, under-predict the experimental isotherms. This suggests that a large proportion of the adsorption sites in the oxidized sediments may be associated with crystalline Fe(III) oxides, Mn(IV) and Al(III) oxides, and clay minerals. Replicate breakthrough column experiments conducted with lactose added to the influent solution demonstrate that the high adsorption capacity of the oxidized sediments may be reduced if water drawn down into the oxidized aquifers contains high levels of

  2. Estimating the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam. (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Palmer, Michael; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Duong, Le Bach


    Disability is shown to be both a cause and a consequence of poverty. However, relatively little research has investigated the economic cost of living with a disability. This study reports the results of a study on the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam in 2011. The study was carried out in eight cities/provinces in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities (two major metropolitan in Vietnam) and six provinces from each of the six socio-economic regions in Vietnam. Costs are estimated using the standard of living approach whereby the difference in incomes between people with disability and those without disability for a given standard of living serves as a proxy for the cost of living with disability. The extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam accounted for about 8.8-9.5% of annual household income, or valued about US$200-218. Communication difficulty was shown to result in highest additional cost of living with disability and self-care difficulty was shown to lead to the lowest levels of extra of living cost. The extra cost of living with disability increased as people had more severe impairment. Interventions to promote the economic security of livelihood for people with disabilities are needed.

  3. Status of coral reefs in South Asia: Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Sri Lanka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasuriya, A.; Zahir, H.; Muley, E.V.; Subramanian, B.R.; Venkataraman, K.; Wafar, M.V.M.; Khan, S.M.M.H.; Whittingham, E.

    only around St. Martin's Island. Pakistan has poorly developed scattered reef communities. Natural disturbances and the lack of management of human activities continue to cause widespread damage to coral reefs in the region. In general, legal...

  4. Sentiments that Affect Sociopolitical Legitimation of TNCs in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtiar Rana, Mohammad; Sørensen, Olav Jull


    and patriotism,’ and ‘ecological balance’, and suggest that tensions stemming from these three sentiments can be managed and often turned into opportunities if appropriate strategies are applied. Eight types of strategies derived from the nine case studies are presented in order to mitigate, manage, and cash...

  5. 'Lived Islam' in India and Bangladesh : negotiating religion to realise reproductive aspirations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Hutter, Inge


    This paper seeks to answer the question of how Muslim women interpret and negotiate religion in order to realise their reproductive aspirations. A close reading of lived experiences of 32 Muslim women from a varied educational background yields a wider perspective of the different interpretations of

  6. India’s Decisive Intervention: Effectiveness of Its Assistance during the Liberation War of Bangladesh-1971 (United States)


    Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhasani played a key role in the establishment the party.24 Bangladeshi: The term “Bangladeshi” refers to the people of East...Indian border.88 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was appointed as the President of the republic and Syed Nazrul Islam as the Vice President.89 Sheikh Mujibur

  7. Bangladesh: currently the worst, but possibly the future's best. (United States)

    Brown, Garrett


    Garment workers in Bangladesh producing clothing for international brands have experienced repeated factory fires and building collapses in the last 10 years, resulting in more than 1,600 deaths and hundreds of disabling injuries. After the Tazreen Fashion fire in December 2012 and the Rana Plaza building collapse in April 2013, more than 190 international clothing brands and retailers signed an "Accord on Fire and Building Safety" with two international union federations. Full implementation of the provisions of the Accord would change "business as usual" in Bangladesh's garment industry and set a positive example for other countries and other industries with global supply chains. The components, challenges, and controversies of the Accord are detailed in the article.

  8. Observations of cyclone-induced storm surge in coastal Bangladesh

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Soyee


    Water level measurements from 15 tide gauges in the coastal zone of Bangladesh are analyzed in conjunction with cyclone tracks and wind speed data for 54 cyclones between 1977 and 2010. Storm surge magnitude is inferred from residual water levels computed by subtracting modeled astronomical tides from observed water levels at each station. Observed residual water levels are generally smaller than reported storm surge levels for cyclones where both are available, and many cyclones produce no obvious residual at all. Both maximum and minimum residual water levels are higher for west-landing cyclones producing onshore winds and generally diminish for cyclones making landfall on the Bangladesh coast or eastward producing offshore winds. Water levels observed during cyclones are generally more strongly influenced by tidal phase and amplitude than by storm surge alone. In only 7 of the 15 stations does the highest plausible observed water level coincide with a cyclone. While cyclone-coincident residual water level ...

  9. Secondary Educational Institution Centered Diffusion of ICT in Rural Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    were: an integrated purchase and training facilitation, smart classroom implementation, educational administration, extracurricular activities, a non-formal computer literacy center, and school-based internship. Two live-in field studies were conducted: from August 2011 to January 2012 and from August......This dissertation presents a holistic approach for exploring, analyzing, solving, and circumventing the barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in relation to the learning environments of secondary educational institutions in rural Bangladesh. It contributes to the fields of ICT...... in the secondary education systems (i.e., covering grades 6–12) in Bangladesh. Having positioned this investigation within the transformative paradigm, I took six strategic approaches to diffuse ICT in the learning environment of the stakeholders in rural private vocational school. The ICT diffusion strategies...

  10. Flourescence Humic Substances in Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the past, only arsenic (As concentrations in groundwater of Bangladesh were considered as having direct effects on the epidemical degrees of different types of diseases including arsenicosis, but the results of the present investigation indicated that fluorescence humic substance (HS is also an important component of dissolved organic matter in groundwater of Bangladesh. Therefore, it is suspected that both fluorescent HS and As in groundwater may have effects on the biological toxicity. The evidence of presence of high fluorescent HS and As in groundwater of Faridpur supports the above synergistic effect. The spatial distribution of fluorescence HS and As in groundwater of Faridpur indicated that the variations may be related to local hydrogeological conditions.

  11. FDI, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption & Environmental Nexus in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip SARKER


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the relationship among economic growth, energy consumption, CO2 emission, FDI and natural gas usage in Bangladesh through co-integration and Vector Error Correction model (VECM over the period 1978 to 2010. Using ADP unit root tests it is found that all the four variables are integrated in first difference. The Johansen co-integration tests indicate that there is existence of long-run relationship among the variables. The VECM long run causality model indicates that there is a long run causality running from energy consumption and natural gas usage by industrial sector to GDP as well as from CO2 emission to FDI. Likewise in the short run a causal relationships have also been found among the variables. Moreover our model is found be error free based on several statistical test. Our results provide important policy suggestions regarding our foreign direct investment, environmental issues and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh.

  12. Breastfeeding practices in urban and rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Huong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe and compare breastfeeding practices in rural and urban areas of Vietnam and to study associations with possibly influencing person and household factors. This type of study has not been conducted in Vietnam before. Methods Totally 2,690 children, born from 1st March 2008 to 30th June 2010 in one rural and one urban Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, were followed from birth to the age of 12 months. Information about demography, economy and education for persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Standard statistical methods including survival and regression analyses were used. Results Initiation of breastfeeding during the first hour of life was more frequent in the urban area compared to the rural (boys 40% vs. 35%, girls 49% vs. 40%. High birth weight and living in households with large number of assets significantly increased the probability for early initiation of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months of age was more commonly reported in the rural than in the urban area (boys 58% vs. 46%, girls 65% vs. 53%. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding as well as of any breastfeeding was longer in the rural area than in the urban area (medians for boys 97 days vs. 81 days, for girls 102 days vs. 91 days. The percentages of children with exclusive breastfeeding lasting at least 6 months, as recommended by WHO, were low in both areas. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly shorter for mothers with three or more antenatal care visits or Caesarean section in both areas. High education level of mothers was associated with longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the rural area. No significant associations were found between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother’s age, household economy indicators or household size. Conclusion Intervention programs with the aim to promote breastfeeding are needed. Mothers should

  13. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Devojit K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII gene. Methods Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. Results A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. Conclusions The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be

  14. Unsafe Practice of Extracting Potable Water From Aquifers in the Southwestern Coastal Region of Bangladesh (United States)

    Chowdhury, S. H.; Ahmed, A. U.; Iqbal, M. Z.


    The groundwater resource is of paramount importance to the lives and livelihoods of the millions of people in Bangladesh. Unfortunately, high levels of arsenic have been found in groundwater in many parts of Bangladesh. Besides, the salinity in water systems in the coastal areas has increased as a consequence of the flow diversion from the upper reaches of Ganges River by the neighboring country India. Since hand- pumped groundwater (tube) wells are the only viable sources of drinking water, maintaining drinking water security for over 6 million people in the south-west (SW) region has been a major challenge for the Bangladesh Government. Due to rapid exploitation of groundwater resources in excess of recharge capacity, non-saline water sources in the SW region have already been depleted and the hand tube wells have mostly been abandoned. Meanwhile, shrimp farming has resulted in saline water infiltration into the perched aquifer system in many areas. A recent survey covering123 wells out of 184, extending to a depth of 330 m, showed high salinity in water. Combined factors of rapid exploitation of shallow groundwater, depletion of the deep aquifers and the subsequent saline water intrusion into these aquifers have put long-term sustainability of the remaining fresh groundwater resource into jeopardy. Very high concentrations of nitrite are found in this study in many tube wells in the area where samples have been drawn from aquifer systems up to 244 m deep. Nitrite concentrations in 35 wells randomly sampled in this study range from 16.98 to 43.11 mg/L, averaging 27.55 mg/L. This is much higher than the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 mg/L set by the U.S. EPA for human consumption. Simultaneously, dissolved oxygen (DO) is found to be very low (0.1 to 2 mg/L). There are numerous reports and anecdotal evidences of "Blue Baby Syndrome" (methemoglobinemia) in the region, which is generally due to gradual suffocation caused by poor transport of oxygen from the

  15. Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development in Bangladesh (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.


    Bangladesh is widely considered to be one of the nations most threatened by climate change. With two-thirds of the country less than 20 feet above sea level, the intrusion of salt into freshwater wells, frequent flooding, and the displacement of people from their homes is an ongoing threat. At the same time, the country's cities are rapidly growing, and the demand for energy is increasing at a corresponding rate.

  16. Serodiagnosis of Viruses Infecting Some Crops of Bangladesh


    Akanda, Abdul Mannan; Tsuno, Kazunori; Wakimoto, Satoshi


    As many as 39 plant samples representing nine different botanical families, showing symptoms like virus diseases, were collected from different locations of Bangladesh in 1986- X7. The samples were preserved at 4°C after drying by lyophilization or over calcium chloride. Double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA) were applied for serological detection of viruses by using 11 different antiivirus-sera. Many of the samples (28/39) sh...

  17. Lead Poisoning: An Alarming Public Health Problem in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. K. Bashar


    Full Text Available To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105 of those tested had BLLs ≥10 µg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs ≥10 µg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 ± 10.32, 7.24 ± 6.31, and 2.47 ± 3.32 µg/dL, respectively; p <0.001. Weight-for-age z-scores of the urban children were significantly lower than that of the rural children (-1.41 ± 1.88 vs. 0.20 ± 1.16, p <0.001. Children with elevated BLLs had poorer nutritional status (p = 0.05 than those with normal BLLs. Over 90% of the parents did not know that lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh.

  18. Inflation and Financial Sector Correlation: The Case of Bangladesh

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    Abu N.M. Wahid


    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of inflation on financial development in case of Bangladesh for the period of 1985-2005. In doing so, ARDL bounds testing approach and Error Correction Method (ECM have been employed. Empirical findings reveal that high trends of inflation impede the performance of financial markets. GDP per capita promotes development of financial sector through its causal channels.

  19. Mapping malaria risk in Bangladesh using Bayesian geostatistical models. (United States)

    Reid, Heidi; Haque, Ubydul; Clements, Archie C A; Tatem, Andrew J; Vallely, Andrew; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Islam, Akramul; Haque, Rashidul


    Background malaria-control programs are increasingly dependent on accurate risk maps to effectively guide the allocation of interventions and resources. Advances in model-based geostatistics and geographical information systems (GIS) have enabled researchers to better understand factors affecting malaria transmission and thus, more accurately determine the limits of malaria transmission globally and nationally. Here, we construct Plasmodium falciparum risk maps for Bangladesh for 2007 at a scale enabling the malaria-control bodies to more accurately define the needs of the program. A comprehensive malaria-prevalence survey (N = 9,750 individuals; N = 354 communities) was carried out in 2007 across the regions of Bangladesh known to be endemic for malaria. Data were corrected to a standard age range of 2 to less than 10 years. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models with environmental covariates were used to predict P. falciparum prevalence for 2- to 10-year-old children (PfPR(2-10)) across the endemic areas of Bangladesh. The predictions were combined with gridded population data to estimate the number of individuals living in different endemicity classes. Across the endemic areas, the average PfPR(2-10) was 3.8%. Environmental variables selected for prediction were vegetation cover, minimum temperature, and elevation. Model validation statistics revealed that the final Bayesian geostatistical model had good predictive ability. Risk maps generated from the model showed a heterogeneous distribution of PfPR(2-10) ranging from 0.5% to 50%; 3.1 million people were estimated to be living in areas with a PfPR(2-10) greater than 1%. Contemporary GIS and model-based geostatistics can be used to interpolate malaria risk in Bangladesh. Importantly, malaria risk was found to be highly varied across the endemic regions, necessitating the targeting of resources to reduce the burden in these areas.

  20. Knowledge and awareness about STDs among women in Bangladesh



    Background Knowledge and awareness concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has become the burning issue of the day. Although STDs pose serious risks to health security, there is very little literature quantifying the knowledge and awareness of these diseases and their principal socioeconomic determinants. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of different socio-economic and demographic factors on knowledge and awareness about STDs among women in Bangladesh. Methods This is ...



    Uddin, M. Mosleh; Kabir, M.; Alam, M. Mostafa; Boss, G. K.


    This study describes the Impact of rural maintenance programme on rural markets in Bangladesh. Rural Maintenance programme (RMP) is a year-round programme for maintenance ol 16 miles earthen roads In each selected union. The programme is run by crews consisting of 15 destitute women. The findings suggest that better road maintenance by RMP in the programme areas has resulted in more traffic f low through which the markets in the programme areas have been expanded. Better supply of services su...

  2. Relative sea-level changes during the Holocene in Bangladesh (United States)

    Rashid, Towhida; Suzuki, S.; Sato, Hiroshi; Monsur, M. H.; Saha, S. K.


    This paper presents a reconstruction of the Holocene paleo-environment in the central part of Bangladesh in relation to relative sea-level changes 200 km north of the present coastline. Lithofacies characteristics, mangal peat, diatoms and paleophysiographical evidence were considered to reconstruct the past position and C-14 ages were used to determine the time of formation of the relative sea level during the Holocene. With standard reference datum, the required m.s.l. at the surface of five sections was calculated. The relative sea-level (RSL) curve suggests that Bangladesh experienced two mid-Holocene RSL transgressions punctuated by regressions. The curve shows an RSL highstand at approximately 7500 cal BP, although the height of this highstand could not be determined because the transgressive phase was observed in a bioturbated sand flat facies. The curve shows a regression of approximately 6500 cal BP, and the RSL was considerably lower, perhaps 1-2 m, than the present m.s.l. The abundant marine diatoms and mangrove pollens indicate the highest RSL transgression in Bangladesh at approximately 6000 cal BP, being at least 4.5 to 5 m higher than the modern m.s.l. After this phase, the relative sea level started to fall, and consequently, a freshwater peat developed at approximately 5980-5700 cal BP. The abundant mangrove pollens in the salt-marsh succession shows the regression at approximately 5500 cal BP, when it was 1-2 m higher than the modern sea level. The curve indicates that at approximately 5000 cal BP and onwards, the RSL started to fall towards its present position, and the present shoreline of Bangladesh was established at approximately 1500 cal BP and has not noticeably migrated inland since.

  3. Iron in tubewell water and linear growth in rural Bangladesh. (United States)

    Briend, A; Hoque, B A; Aziz, K M


    The growth of 694 children from rural Bangladesh was studied. Children drinking water containing greater than 1 mg iron/l (n = 628) were significantly taller than those drinking less than 1 mg iron/l (n = 66): their mean (SD) height for age Z score was -2.10 (1.34) compared with -2.45 (1.24), p less than 0.05. This suggests that iron deficiency may contribute to growth retardation in poor communities.

  4. Impact of wealth inequality on child nutrition in Bangladesh

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    Mortuza Ahmmed


    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of malnutrition in Bangladesh is among the highest in the world. Millions of women and children suffer from one or more forms of malnutrition, including low birth weight, wasting, stunting, underweight, vitamin A deficiency, iodine deficiency disorders, and anemia. Today malnutrition not only affects individuals, but its effects are passed from one generation to the next as malnourished mothers give birth to infants who struggle to develop and thrive. Objective To assess the economic impact on child nutrition in Bangladesh. Methods The 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data was used for this study. In this study, quintiles were calculated based on asset and wealth scores by use of principal component analysis. To understand the nutritional status and health inequality, concentration index was also calculated. Results The negative concentration index showed a higher rate of malnutrition in the children less than five years of age from the poorest class. Furthermore, the ratio of poorest to richest indicated that stunting and underweight conditions in rural children under five years of age were almost two times higher than that of the richest children. This inequality in the health situation of children may be explained in terms of income inequality. In Bangladesh, about 40% of the wealth is concentrated in 10% of the families. The results are discussed as possible input for public policy. Conclusion Bangladeshi children under the age of five years and in the poorest economic class are nearly twice as likely to be underweight or stunted compared to children of similar age in the richest economic class. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:299-304.].

  5. BRAC's experience in scaling-up MNP in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Afsana, Kaosar; Haque, Mohammad Raisul; Sobhan, Shafinaz; Shahin, Shaima Arjuman


    Despite progress in health status and achievements in Millennium Development Indicators, Bangladesh presents a gloomy scenario for nutrition. In 2009, BRAC (formerly known as Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) has begun to implement a community-based approach of Alive & Thrive with Family Health International 360, aiming to reduce undernutrition among children under two by promoting exclusive breastfeeding and appropriate complementary feeding practices. To address anemia and other micronutrient deficiencies, home-fortification with micronutrient powders (MNP) has been promoted among under-fives across Bangladesh along with the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN). BRAC's frontline community health workers play a critical role in promoting micronutrient powders with better feeding practices. Over the years, improvements have been observed in the intervention areas: exclusive breastfeeding rose from 49% to 83% of children (0-6 months), 86% of children received complementary feeding at 6-8 months with about two/thirds being fed the recommended number of times; and 70% of children (6-59 months) adhered to MNP use, ie consumption of 1 sachet per day in the past 60 days. However, many challenges are still observed in traditional feeding practices, along with limited skills of community health workers and households' poor access to quality food, necessitating constant interactions between caregivers, mothers-in-law and fathers with the frontline workers. Maintaining the supply chain of micronutrient powders and a visible and convincing change in nutritional status of children are key success factors. The partnerships between BRAC, GAIN and Renata, the producer of MNP in Bangladesh, have given birth to a home-fortification model that can deliver impact at scale.

  6. Human Rights Violations in the Garment Industry of Bangladesh


    Jalava, Madeleine


    In the span of a few decades, Bangladesh has risen to become the second largest garment exporter in the world as a result of liberalized trade policies that have attracted large scale foreign investment. The growing industry has provided the country with much needed capital to curb distressing poverty rates by giving employment to millions of young women from rural areas, while international apparel retailers have gained access to virtually unlimited cheap and low-skilled labour ideal for the...

  7. Heterogeneous effects of international migration: evidences from Bangladesh.


    Traverso, Silvio


    Despite the general consensus regarding the important role played by international migration in the development of Bangladesh, little has been done to quantitatively estimate its effects. Within the framework of Rubin's causal model, this paper contributes to the literature estimating the net impact of international migration on the welfare of the members of households with migration experience. By taking advantage of the non-parametric nature of matching estimators, the effect of migration i...

  8. Lead poisoning: an alarming public health problem in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Mitra, Amal K; Haque, Akhlaque; Islam, Manirul; Bashar, S A M K


    To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs) from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105) of those tested had BLLs >or= 10 microg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs >or= 10 microg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 +/- 10.32, 7.24 +/- 6.31, and 2.47 +/- 3.32 microg/dL, respectively; p <0.001). Weight-for-age z-scores of the urban children were significantly lower than that of the rural children (-1.41 +/- 1.88 vs. 0.20 +/- 1.16, p <0.001). Children with elevated BLLs had poorer nutritional status (p = 0.05) than those with normal BLLs. Over 90% of the parents did not know that lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh.

  9. Vermi-compost production to enterprise: case studies from Bangladesh


    Hossain, Shaikh Tanveer


    In recent years organic agriculture practices have been gaining support from both consumers and producers in Bangladesh. Considering the economic benefits and environmental advantages, one such practice vermi-compost, or worm based composting, is growing in popularity with small-scale households. In the program study area it is fostering entrepreneurship, and with proper guidance and monitoring, is demonstrating that it can be a profitable enterprise.

  10. Phylogeographical structure in mitochondrial DNA of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in southern India and Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Ram Kumar, Nikhil; Chang, Jian-Cheng; Narayanan, Manikanda Boopathi; Ramasamy, Srinivasan


    South and Southeast Asia endure high vegetable production losses due to begomovirus diseases mainly transmitted by the insect vector, whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Control over the spread of virus infection can be achieved through a better understanding of genetic diversity among B. tabaci. A total of 64 populations of B. tabaci collected from Tamil Nadu (India), Vietnam, Thailand, and Indonesia were investigated based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (coxI) sequences. Populations from Tamil Nadu are distributed into three clades (Asia I, Asia II 7, and Asia II 8), whereas Indonesian populations settle along with Asia I population of India in the phylogenetic tree. Vietnam populations align with the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) clade, and interestingly MEAM1 invades northern Vietnam quite recently. Samples from Thailand made a unique clade between the outgroup and the remaining B. tabaci, representing the possibility of a new subspecies. AMOVA analysis among populations from various districts in Tamil Nadu exhibits significant differences, which represent each district's individuality. This study proves that the use of coxI as a marker for molecular identification of B. tabaci can provide a better estimate of diversity. We provide important clues for developing insight into the genetic structure of B. tabaci, and suggest strategies for control.


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    Monjurul Islam


    Full Text Available Abstract: As it is viewed English Medium Instruction (EMI at tertiary level has emerged as a big educational issue in Bangladesh as well as many parts of the world. Hence, the present trend of Bangladeshi higher education has assessed some crucial reasons of the extended use of English as a medium of instruction. Although education researchers in other countries have worked in this area to understand this educational issue, there has been very little research on EMI at tertiary level in Bangladesh. That is why, this study reports a case study involving teachers and students in a private university in Bangladesh by critically examining the language practice and implementation of EMI policy within the context of Bangladeshi higher education. Based on the analysis of interview data, it is argued that through their language practices and beliefs students and teachers constructed their perception towards the accomplishment of EMI policy, educational choice and effectiveness of EMI policy. It is suggested that implications of MOI policies world-wide and the national level practices of students’ content knowledge and English proficiency development in a globalizing world where English is widely believed to hold mammoth prospective for individuals and societies because of its role in human capital development.

  12. Prospects and problems of medical tourism in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Mamun, Muhammad Z; Andaleeb, Syed Saad


    The growing trend of Bangladeshi patients travelling abroad for medical services has led to some soul-searching in policy circles. While other countries of the Southeast Asia region are profiting from medical tourism, Bangladesh not only lags behind, it also loses patients to these countries in a continuous stream. This exodus for medical treatment is seemingly driven by the higher perceived quality of treatment abroad, despite the fact that similar treatment is available more cost-effectively within the country. Certainly the Bangladesh health care system is not without its problenis, which have diminished the perception of quality in the sector. Thus, this study focuses on key factors for Bangladeshi health service providers to address. By doing so, they will be better able to develop the local health care sector and retain Bangladeshi patients within the country. Subsequently, by identifying strategic niches, Bangladesh could focus on delivering higher quality health care services to develop medical tourism and attract patients from abroad in specific categories of health care.

  13. Electricity consumption and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh: Revisited evidences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahamad, Mazbahul Golam, E-mail: [Research Division, Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), House: 40C, Road: 11, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1209 (Bangladesh); Islam, A.K.M. Nazrul, E-mail: [Research Division, Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), House: 40C, Road: 11, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1209 (Bangladesh)


    In this paper, an attempt is being made to examine the causal relationship between per capita electricity consumption and per capita GDP of Bangladesh using the vector error correction specified Granger causality test to search their short-run, long-run and joint causal relationships for the period of 1971-2008. Empirical findings reveal that there is a short-run unidirectional causal flow running from per capita electricity consumption to per capita GDP without feedback. The presence of a positive short-run causality explains that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic activity in Bangladesh. Likewise, results from joint causality exhibit the same as in short-run. By contrast, long-run results show a bi-directional causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth with feedback. These findings can provide essential policy insights to design immediate and long-term growth prospect for Bangladesh keeping in mind its present planned growth strategy and dismal power and energy sector. - Highlights: > Short-run causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth. > Positive SR causality explains electricity generation directly affects economic growth. > For long run, causality runs from electricity consumption to economic growth with feedback. > Joint causality implies the same as in short-run.

  14. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P


    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  15. Commercial cultivation by farmers of medicinal plants in northern Bangladesh

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    A. Z. M. Manzoor Rashid


    Full Text Available Medicinal plants (MPs are an important component of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, which are traditionally used in healthcare and source of livelihood all over the world. In an over-populated country like Bangladesh, the pressure on natural forests is immense; thus the cultivation of MPs can significantly contribute towards improving the livelihood of poor people, reducing the pressure on natural forests and enhancing biological diversity. Notwithstanding the growing recognition of its importance and economic and ecological potential, there has been little research on MPs, especially the cultivation, management and marketing aspects, in Bangladesh. Based on extensive fieldwork in a northern district of Bangladesh, this study explores various aspects of the cultivation, management and marketing of MPs. How collective efforts have brought economic and social benefits to communities was also examined in this study. It assesses the major processes and elements of management, identifies key problems and challenges and indicates ways of maximizing the potential of this important sector. The issues covered in this research include: farmers ’ perceptions and experiences; existing research and policy-making processes related to the MP sector; constraining factors (such as lack of processing technology, inadequate transportation, logistics, financial and storage infrastructure, lack of institutional capacity; markets, finance and networking; land use; pattern of livelihood and value chain issue.

  16. Mangrove wetland ecosystems in Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafi Noor ISLAM; Albrecht GNAUCK


    The Sundarbans is one of the productive man-grove wetland ecosystems in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh. The delta is undergoing rapid eco-logical changes due to human activity. In the present study, surface water salinity data from 13 rivers of the Sundarbans were collected in order to investigate the sal-ine water intrusion in the mangrove wetlands. Results demonstrate that saline water has penetrated the upstream area as river water salinity has increased signifi-cantly in 1976 compared to the year 1968. The soil and river water salinity data also shows that it has crossed the water salinity threshold line in most parts of the Sundarbans wetlands. These observations are due to the construction of Farakka Barrage in 1975, which reduced the water discharge of the Ganges River from 3700 m3/s in 1962 to 364 m3/s in 2006. The shortage of freshwater dis-charge to the deltaic area is trailing active ecosystems function, especially in the dry season in the south western region in Bangladesh. The objective of this study is to understand and analyze the present degraded mangrove wetland ecosystems and their negative impacts. The find-ings of this study would contribute to the formulation of the mangrove wetland ecosystems management plan inthe Ganges delta of Bangladesh.

  17. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

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    Javaid Iqbal


    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, P=0.02. The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, P=0.04. Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P>0.05. Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh.


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    Azizul Hassan


    Full Text Available Non-governmental organizations are claimed to have impacts on the sustainable development in rural areas of the developing countries and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC is identified as an example. This study has considered BRAC as the case and has been aimed to critically outline the roles of this selected non-governmental organization (BRAC in sustainable development process. With this particular aim, this study has also explored the trends of current poverty situations in Bangladesh. In addition, impacts of the BRAC sustainable development initiatives have also been analyzed, to some extent. This study has selected two villages of the Chandpur district of Bangladesh, where BRAC has been operating intense programmes. This study has used both the qualitative and quantitative methods of research. Results suggest that programmes undertaken by NGOs are capable of having positive contributions in the sustainable development process to a certain level. The fact is that the programme implementation, where efficiency of the NGO employees is an indicator of success factor. The research is empirical and is expectedly fill the gap of literature.

  19. How and what rural women know: experiences in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Martius-von Harder, G


    A study was conducted in Bangladesh to determine the contribution rural women make to the economic conditions in their country. The study was necessary because little research has been done into the working patterns of rural women and their economic contributions have often been overlooked because they do not produce actual income. This article is a discussion of the problems faced by field researchers in countries like Bangladesh. Certain types of questions cannot be asked of women in rural Muslim areas, e.g., questions dealing with acreage of property, supply and demand in the marketplace, and irrigated land. Secluded women would have no way of knowing answers to these questions. Observation had to be used for a study of time-use, since the women do not live by the clock. Questions on women's ages can never be asked. Questions to females had to concern themselves with activities of females and questions to males, with activities of males. Rural people in Bangladesh do not seem to think in terms of exact measurement; this must be taken into account when analyzing answers. Researchers have to adapt their interviewing to the socioeconomic conditions of the area.

  20. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

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    Christian Reinhard Vogl


    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  1. Treatment delay period: the case of arsenicosis in rural Bangladesh. (United States)

    Paul, Bimal Kanti; Brock, Vicki L Tinnon


    Arsenic concentrations of tubewell water that exceed acceptable limits poses a serious health problem in Bangladesh. Many Bangladeshis are now suffering from arsenic-related diseases. The objectives of this paper are to examine the extent of delay in seeking medical treatment by victims of arsenic poisoning and to identify factors contributing to this delay. Questionnaire survey successfully administered to 663 victims living in two rural areas of Bangladesh provided the major data source for this study. Analysis of survey data reveal that median delay period was 12 months, but the delay period ranged from 1 month to 18 years. Because of this extremely large range, the mean delay period was about 22 months. The study identified time of identification of symptoms of arsenicosis as the most significant determinant of treatment delay followed by treatment sought from members of mobile medical teams, perceived threat, and level of education. Based on the study findings, it is recommended that the Bangladesh government and NGOs involved in arsenic mitigation and prevention efforts should educate individuals at risk for arsenic poisoning about the benefits of seeking early treatment. This study also recommends to continue to dispatch mobile medical teams to the arsenic-impacted areas.

  2. A review of foodborne bacterial and parasitic zoonoses in Vietnam. (United States)

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Bryant, J E


    Vietnam has experienced unprecedented economic and social development in recent years, and the livestock sector is undergoing significant transformations. Although food animal production is still dominated by small-scale 'backyard' enterprises with mixed crop-livestock or livestock-aquatic systems, there is a trend towards more intensive and vertically integrated operations. Changes in animal production, processing and distribution networks for meat and animal products, and the shift from wet markets to supermarkets will undoubtedly impact food safety risks in Vietnam in unforeseen and complex ways. Here, we review the available published literature on bacterial and parasitic foodborne zoonoses (FBZ) in Vietnam. We report on clinical disease burden and pathogen prevalence in animal reservoirs for a number of important FBZ, and outline opportunities for future research.

  3. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of the Ultra-Poor in Bangladesh (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Aktaruzzaman; Ali, Anees Janee


    Although microcredit is considered the main vehicle for increasing the income of the poor and alleviating poverty in Bangladesh, it is now well recognised that more than this is needed to reach the ultra poor in rural areas. Consequently, almost half of the Bangladesh population is in some way linked to non-governmental organizations'…

  4. The Role of Pre-School Education on Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Bangladesh (United States)

    Nath, Samir Ranjan


    This paper examines the impact of pre-school education on learning achievement at primary level in Bangladesh. Evidence from learning achievement test and household and school-related data were obtained from 7093 pupils attending 440 primary schools in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a small proportion (15.3%) of primary school pupils attended…

  5. Information Technology for Economic and Social Benefit--Options for Bangladesh. (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Farhad Ali


    Considers how information technology (IT) can help socioeconomic growth of developing countries based on experiences in Bangladesh. Topics include Bangladesh's development plans; future economic growth trends triggered by IT; emerging technologies; intellectual and societal development; industrial revolutions; telematics; regional and world…

  6. Potentiality of Disaster Management Education through Open and Distance Learning System in Bangladesh Open University (United States)

    Ahmad, Saima; Numan, Sharker Md.


    Bangladesh Open University (BOU) is the only public educational institution in Bangladesh, where, a dual-mode method of learning system has been introduced. Established in 21st October, 1992, the University now accommodates 174,459 learners in 2012. The wide range networking of this university provides it a great prospect to execute a broad…

  7. Approaches to Increase Arsenic Awareness in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of an Arsenic Education Program (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; Islam, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.


    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from…

  8. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of the Ultra-Poor in Bangladesh (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Aktaruzzaman; Ali, Anees Janee


    Although microcredit is considered the main vehicle for increasing the income of the poor and alleviating poverty in Bangladesh, it is now well recognised that more than this is needed to reach the ultra poor in rural areas. Consequently, almost half of the Bangladesh population is in some way linked to non-governmental organizations' development…

  9. The Diffusion of Grameen Bank in Bangladesh: Lessons Learned about Alleviating Rural Poverty. (United States)

    Auwal, Mohammad A.; Singhal, Arvind


    Discusses rural poverty in Bangladesh and describes the creation of the Grameen Bank, which combines business with social engineering. The rapid diffusion of the bank both within and outside Bangladesh is described; interpersonal strategies used in communicating its programs, especially to women, are explained; and the socioeconomic impact in…

  10. Employment of Active Learning at HEIs in Bangladesh to Improve Education Quality (United States)

    Chowdhury, Faieza


    In recent years, education quality and quality assessment have received a great deal of attention at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Bangladesh. Most of the HEIs in Bangladesh face severe resource constraints and find it difficult to improve education quality by improving inputs, such as better infrastructure and modernized classroom…

  11. An Exploratory Review of Bangladesh Gas Sector: Latest Evidence and Areas of Further Research


    Professor A K M A Quader; Professor Edmond Gomes


    This paper reviews and explores the latest evidence from the gas sector of Bangladesh and highlights areas that would benefit from further research. The study reported actual consumption of gas by different sectors; projection of demands by various studies and plan documents; estimates of gas reserves and potential by various studies; and operation of the International Oil Companies (IOCs) in Bangladesh.

  12. Satellite Altimetry and GRACE Gravimetry for Studies of Annual Water Storage Variations in Bangladesh

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    Ole Andersen


    Full Text Available Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh.

  13. Analysis of Quality in Public and Private Universities in Bangladesh and USA (United States)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.


    To meet the growing need for increased capacity in higher education, the government of Bangladesh encouraged development of private universities in 1992. Currently, there are sixty private universities, thirty-four public universities and three international universities in Bangladesh. Although the increased number of universities has provided…

  14. Temporal trends in severe malaria in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maude Richard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological data on malaria in Bangladesh are sparse, particularly on severe and fatal malaria. This hampers the allocation of healthcare provision in this resource-poor setting. Over 85% of the estimated 150,000-250,000 annual malaria cases in Bangladesh occur in Chittagong Division with 80% in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT. Chittagong Medical College Hospital (CMCH is the major tertiary referral hospital for severe malaria in Chittagong Division. Methods Malaria screening data from 22,785 inpatients in CMCH from 1999–2011 were analysed to investigate the patterns of referral, temporal trends and geographical distribution of severe malaria in Chittagong Division, Bangladesh. Results From 1999 till 2011, 2,394 malaria cases were admitted, of which 96% harboured Plasmodium falciparum and 4% Plasmodium vivax. Infection was commonest in males (67% between 15 and 34 years of age. Seasonality of malaria incidence was marked with a single peak in P. falciparum transmission from June to August coinciding with peak rainfall, whereas P. vivax showed an additional peak in February-March possibly representing relapse infections. Since 2007 there has been a substantial decrease in the absolute number of admitted malaria cases. Case fatality in severe malaria was 18% from 2008–2011, remaining steady during this period. A travel history obtained in 226 malaria patients revealed only 33% had been to the CHT in the preceding three weeks. Of all admitted malaria patients, only 9% lived in the CHT, and none in the more remote malaria endemic regions near the Indian border. Conclusions The overall decline in admitted malaria cases to CMCH suggests recent control measures are successful. However, there are no reliable data on the incidence of severe malaria in the CHT, the most endemic area of Bangladesh, and most of these patients do not reach tertiary health facilities. Improvement of early treatment and simple supportive care for

  15. Ensemble climate projections of mean and extreme rainfall over Vietnam (United States)

    Raghavan, S. V.; Vu, M. T.; Liong, S. Y.


    A systematic ensemble high resolution climate modelling study over Vietnam has been performed using the PRECIS model developed by the Hadley Center in UK. A 5 member subset of the 17-member Perturbed Physics Ensembles (PPE) of the Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions (QUMP) project were simulated and analyzed. The PRECIS model simulations were conducted at a horizontal resolution of 25 km for the baseline period 1961-1990 and a future climate period 2061-2090 under scenario A1B. The results of model simulations show that the model was able to reproduce the mean state of climate over Vietnam when compared to observations. The annual cycles and seasonal averages of precipitation over different sub-regions of Vietnam show the ability of the model in also reproducing the observed peak and magnitude of monthly rainfall. The climate extremes of precipitation were also fairly well captured. Projections of future climate show both increases and decreases in the mean climate over different regions of Vietnam. The analyses of future extreme rainfall using the STARDEX precipitation indices show an increase in 90th percentile precipitation (P90p) over the northern provinces (15-25%) and central highland (5-10%) and over southern Vietnam (up to 5%). The total number of wet days (Prcp) indicates a decrease of about 5-10% all over Vietnam. Consequently, an increase in the wet day rainfall intensity (SDII), is likely inferring that the projected rainfall would be much more severe and intense which have the potential to cause flooding in some regions. Risks due to extreme drought also exist in other regions where the number of wet days decreases. In addition, the maximum 5 day consecutive rainfall (R5d) increases by 20-25% over northern Vietnam but decreases in a similar range over the central and southern Vietnam. These results have strong implications for the management water resources, agriculture, bio diversity and economy and serve as some useful findings to be

  16. Childhood disability and parental moral responsibility in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine


    This article explores the roles played by parents living in Hanoi, Vietnam, in shaping the subjectivities of children who are categorized as physically or intellectually impaired. In an effort to comprehend disability in terms of an active and embodied engagement with the world, I employ...... a phenomenologically inspired 'intercorporeal' perspective as a conceptual alternative to 'medical' and 'social' models of disability. Through this approach I show how, in northern Vietnam, disability in children brings into question the moral integrity of their parents and how this compels parents to define...

  17. Exporting a Scandinavian Learning Model to Egypt and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Youssef, Sandra Safwat; Bygholm, Ann; Jæger, Kirsten


    many challenges. In this paper, we will present findings from an ethnographic study of the learning systems in higher education in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The sample includes undergraduate level classes taught in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The selected learning setting include an 'Academic......The recent advances in technology have made the process of exporting Western education more easy, and Blended Learning techniques is often the method of choice for exported educational programs. Although, in theory, this make perfect sense, yet in practice, the export of education has encountered...

  18. Formal and informal credit in four provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel; Tarp, Finn


    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for consumption...... smoothening. The determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. While credit rationing depends on education and credit history, in particular, regional differences in the demand for credit are striking. A 'one size fits all' approach to credit policy in Vietnam would be inappropriate...

  19. 略论越南占婆文学%On Vietnam's Champa Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    存在于公元2世纪至19世纪的占婆王国曾占据今日越南一半的国土面积,是一个深受印度文化影响的东南亚文明古国。由于占婆王国灭亡于19世纪,对其文化的研究多为学界所遗忘,其文学遗产亦然。本文将论述占婆文学发展的基本脉络、体裁以及印度罗摩故事对占婆的影响等。%Champa, existing from the 2nd century to the 19th century in the location where Vietnam is today, was an old country with a splendid culture. Since its disappearance, its culture, including its literature, has largely been forgotten. This essay gives a basic introduction to Champa literature and the influence of Rama story of India in Champa.

  20. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashis Mukhopadhya


    Hepatitis C is an emerging infection in India and an important pathogen causing liver disease in India. The high risk of chronicity of this blood-borne infection and its association with hepatocellular carcinoma underscores its public health importance. Blood transfusion and unsafe therapeutic interventions by infected needles are two preventable modalities of spread of hepatitis C infection. In addition, risk factor modification by reducing the number of intravenous drug users will help curtail the prevalence of this infection. This review summarizes the extent, nature and implications of this relatively new pathogen in causing disease in India.

  1. The seagrasses of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Komarpant, D.S.; Rodrigues, R.

    in India. In d i a 101 T.G. Jagtap 0.5. Komarpant R. Rodrigues Surprisingly, sea grasses have not been introduced even at the level of plant science education programs. Hence, large number of students, researchers and coastaL zone managers in India may... 21 138 33 150 143 77 4 I 100 13 9 However, seagrasses in India have been largely left out of education, research and management compared to other ecoLogicalLy sensitive habitats such as mangroves, sand dunes and corals. Considering the lack...

  2. A second species of Euscorpiops Vachon from caves in Vietnam (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae, Scorpiopinae). Cave Euscorpiops scorpion from Vietnam. (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Pham, Dinh-Sac


    Euscorpiops dakrong sp. n., belonging to the family Euscorpiidae Laurie, is described on the basis of one male and one female collected in the Dakrong Nature Reserve cave system, Dakrong District, Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. The new species presents most features exhibited by scorpions of the genus Euscorpiops, but it is characterized by a slender body and elongated pedipalps. This new scorpion taxon represents the second species of Scorpiopinae discovered in a cave system and may be yet another endemic element in the fauna of Vietnam. Some taxonomic propositions on the generic position of Scorpiops oligotrichus Fage, 1933 are also suggested.

  3. Changes in contraceptive use in Vietnam. (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen Minh; Huong, Vu Thu


    This analysis used data, primarily from the 1997 Vietnamese Demographic and Health Survey (VN-DHS 1997), to determine the changes in contraceptive use in Vietnam. A descriptive analysis of individual, household and community characteristics was made to obtain a general description of contraceptive use. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were also performed on the currently married in (a) a sample of all women and (b) only those women who live in rural areas, to identify the strength of association that each variable has with the use of modern contraceptives. The use of any contraceptive method and the use of modern methods increased from 1988 to 1997. The primary contraceptive method utilized is the IUD and its use has increased substantially from 1988 to 1997. Younger women (aged 15-24) were less likely to use any contraceptive method. Women not desiring additional children were significantly more likely to use contraceptive methods than those desiring more children. Education has a clear impact on both contraceptive knowledge and use by women, with higher educated women being more likely to use a contraceptive method. Illiterate women with no formal education were significantly less likely to use modern methods of contraception. Differentials in contraceptive use exist regarding place of residence. Urban women are more likely than rural women to use contraception, but the difference is not large. Women living in mountainous areas are less likely to use contraception, compared with women living in the lowlands. Living standards, especially the availability of electricity in the community, have a large effect on the methods of contraception adopted by women. Religion is not strongly related to the contraceptive behaviour of women. There were significant differences in the use of contraceptives in communities with good quality of care, with increased contraceptive use corresponding to the increase in availability of family planning workers at communes

  4. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.


    India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance in internati......India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance...... in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates has been almost totally absent in the case of India. Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From...

  5. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    India is still the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement in its ranking in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates is seemingly totally absent in the case of India....... Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From this stylized fact follows the hypothesis that 'above/below average' growth rates lead to relative improvements....../deterioration of elite sport results (with a time lag)’. However, this has not previously been tested, and the contingencies explaining the seemingly widely different developments in countries such as China and India have not been explored. This paper tests the above hypothesis by means of a study of the correlation...

  6. Looking ahead in India. (United States)

    Gupte, P


    India and China contain more than 40% of the world's population, yet in India it is painfully clear that the political commitment necessary to tackle India's greatest problem is not there in full measure. India's present per capita income is less than $300, and nearly 65% of the people live below the poverty line. The average Indian woman produces 5 children; even if the Indian government's efforts to reduce family size to 2 children is successful by the year 2040, India will have a population of 2.5 billion. The possibility that India will succeed in reducing average family size to 2 children appears remote. 30 years ago, India became the 1st developing country to formally make family planning a matter of national policy. In the early years of the national family planning programs, practitioners had access mostly to sterilization and condoms. Over the years, theIndian government persuaded the US and other western donors to give $2 billion to population control programs. Still, the population continues to grow annually at the rate of 2.1%. Government statistics reflect the ups and downs of national population control policies; thenumber of new family planning users increased from 4.3 million in 1974-1975 to 12.5 million in 1976-1977, due largely to a dramatic increase in vasectomies. Tge number of new contraceptive users fell to 4.5 million after the "emergency" was lifted in 1977. The present Indian generation is far more receptive culturally as well as sociologically to the concept of population control than most other developing countries. What is needed now is renewed political committment by the Gandhi adminiostration. India cannot afford to replicate the Chinese way of tackling overpopulation without inflicting human abuses and without undermining its painstakingly cultivated democratic system.

  7. My Relations With India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Cheng Youshu was born in 1924. She worked for newspapers between 1946 and 1952. In 1953 she was transferred to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and worked twice at the Chinese Embassy to India and undertook work involving India, in particular many significant events involving the Sino-Indian frontier dispute. She has also worked with the Chinese permanent delegation to the United Nations and Chinese embassies to Denmark and Iceland.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ INTRODUCTION India is among one of the ten most industrialized nations in the world. Increase in population has raised the urbar industrial, transport and agriculture demands which are major reasons for the degradation of the environmel condition. For India besides land and soil degradation, deforestation, low accessibility of water, ,industrial pollution and urban congestion are the major environmental issues of priority. The industries that generate huge quantities of waste are thermal power station, Iron and Steel Plants, Sugar, Paper and Fertilizer Industries.

  9. Evidence from India


    Duggan, Mark; Garthwaite, Craig; Goyal, Aparajita


    In 2005, as the result of a World Trade Organization mandate, India began to implement product patents for pharmaceuticals that were compliant with the 1995 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). We combine pharmaceutical product sales data for India with a newly gathered dataset of molecule-linked patents issued by the Indian patent office. Exploiting variation in the timing of patent decisions, we estimate that a molecule receiving a patent experienced an average pri...

  10. Unleashing science in India (United States)

    Bagla, Pallava


    With a population of over 1.1 billion people, of whom 714 million are entitled to vote, elections in India are complex affairs. In the next general election, which begins on 16 April, there will be more than 828 000 polling stations, where some 1.3 million electronic voting machines will be used in what will be the world's largest electronic election. The machines themselves were built and designed in India.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    India is among one of the ten most industrialized nations in the world. Increase in population has raisedthe urbar industrial, transport and agriculture demands which are major reasons for the degradationof the environmel condition. For India besides landand soil degradation, deforestation, low accessibilityof water, ,industrial pollution and urban congestionare the major environmental issues of priority. Theindustries that generate huge quantities ofwaste are thermal power station, Iron and SteelPlants, Sugar, Paper and Fertilizer Industries.

  12. History of Nuclear India (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram


    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  13. Fatty acid supply of growing pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Linh Quang


    This thesis concerns the influence of essential dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and growth performance of growing pigs kept on samll holdings in Central Vietnam. Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the body and have to be ingested with the feed. There a

  14. International Briefing 18: Training and Development in Vietnam (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen Ngoc; Quang, Truong


    Vietnam provides a typical case of an emerging economy, which has attempted to develop the country and join the world economic mainstream with a highly agricultural base, large and young labour force, and a dynamically growing private sector. After a long period of quantitative growth, it is now focusing on achieving quality of development, with a…

  15. Modeling the impact of rubella vaccination in Vietnam. (United States)

    Vynnycky, Emilia; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Dac; Toda, Kohei; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Thi Hong, Duong; Ariyoshi, Koya; Miyakawa, Masami; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Tho, Le Huu; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Duc Anh, Dang; Jit, Mark; Hien, Nguyen Tran


    Supported by GAVI Alliance, measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in Vietnam in 2014, involving a mass campaign among 1-14 year olds and routine immunization of children aged 9 months. We explore the impact on the incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) during 2013-2050 of this strategy and variants involving women aged 15-35 years. We use an age and sex-structured dynamic transmission model, set up using recently-collected seroprevalence data from Central Vietnam, and also consider different levels of transmission and contact patterns. If the serological profile resembles that in Central Vietnam, the planned vaccination strategy could potentially prevent 125,000 CRS cases by 2050 in Vietnam, despite outbreaks predicted in the meantime. Targeting the initial campaign at 15-35 year old women with or without children aged 9 months-14 years led to sustained reductions in incidence, unless levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high before vaccination started. Assumptions about contact greatly influenced predictions if the initial campaign just targeted 15-35 year old women and/or levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high. Given increased interest in rubella vaccination, resulting from GAVI Alliance funding, the findings are relevant for many countries.

  16. Doi Moi, Education and Identity Formation in Contemporary Vietnam (United States)

    Salomon, Matthieu; Ket, Vu Doan


    In 2006 Vietnam had experienced more than two decades of reform. However, while the reforms have transformed the entire Vietnamese economy and opened the country to globalization, the education system is still very much under the Vietnamese Communist Party's control. The schoolbooks are published under close supervision of the authorities. The…

  17. "Doi Moi" (Renovation) and Higher Education Reform in Vietnam (United States)

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong


    Vietnam has experienced significant social, economic, political, and educational changes during the last two decades since the "Doi Moi" policy was implemented. To respond to new requirements required by the global economy, Vietnamese education has undergone remarkable reforms. This article critically examines these reforms in three areas:…

  18. Social Policy Reforms and Daughters' Schooling in Vietnam (United States)

    Belanger, Daniele; Liu, Jianye


    Vietnam's social policy reforms in the transition to a market economy included the introduction of fees for primary and secondary school in the late 1980s. Using data from the Viet Nam Living Standards Surveys, this paper examines how the increasing costs of education to households have impacted on school enrollment between 1993 and 1998, giving…

  19. Pedagogical Suggestions for Teaching Business and Economics in Vietnam (United States)

    McCornac, Dennis C.; Chi, Phan Thuy


    Given the overwhelming need for foreign faculty to assist Vietnam in its transition to a market economy, there will be opportunities for economics and business educators to teach at various institutions in that country. In this article, the authors provide a top-10 list of suggestions regarding pedagogical approaches and techniques for teaching in…

  20. Networks at Their Limits: Software, Similarity, and Continuity in Vietnam (United States)

    Nguyen, Lilly Uyen


    This dissertation explores the social worlds of pirated software discs and free/open source software in Vietnam to describe the practices of copying, evangelizing, and translation. This dissertation also reveals the cultural logics of similarity and continuity that sustain these social worlds. Taken together, this dissertation argues that the…