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Sample records for bangladesh india vietnam

  1. FUTURE OF BANGLADESH-INDIA RELATIONSHIP-A CRITICAL ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    the Indian Government imposed a lot of restrictions in terms of tariffs and other barriers on Bangladesh goods entering into its market. “An average...relations have been fluctuating for reasons like changes of governments and the political scenarios in Bangladesh as well as the non -cooperative attitude of... tariffs duty for consumer goods in Bangladesh was 23% while the same was 30-55% in India”.13 Thus, Bangladeshi goods exported to India faced

  2. FORMAL TRADE BETWEEN INDIA AND BANGLADESH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K.S. YADAV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of improving trade flows between India and Bangladesh is not only beneficial to them, but for the whole SAARC region, given that Bhutan and Nepal utilise Bangladesh ports as gateways to trade outside the region. Bangladesh’s overall exports are dominated by labour-intensive manufacturing and its imports to India by primary commodities. The shares of manufactured goods in country’s overall export were about 92 and 91 percent in 2001 and 2011 respectively. However, the composition of bilateral trade between these two countries has been changing over time. Addition and removal in the list of products of trade basket is a usual process. Consistent products in the trade basket of Bangladesh are ready made garments and sea food, whereas those of India are raw cotton, cereals and products and machinery of iron and steel. Expansion of trade of these countries with outside world, but not with each other confirms the prevalence of certain barriers, physical or non-physical in nature, rendering many potential products remain untraded. India and Bangladesh being geographically proximate to each other possess huge scope to trade. Specifically as both the countries are rich in natural resources and are competent in the production of small-scale manufacturing and agrarian supplies, mostly from the eastern parts of India and Bangladesh, both possess huge potential for bilateral trade. Many items having high trade potential are still not able to get market exposure in the neighbouring country because of various non-tariff barriers prevailing in current trade scenario, which have hiked up the cost of doing business to unacceptable proportions and as most of the highly tradable products are still kept under the sensitive lists of Bangladesh. There are numerous bottlenecks in the current trade infrastructure which turns out to be physical barrier to trade. The present paper highlights the import export and Exchange Rate change and prospects of

  3. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the basis... injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of... China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec...

  4. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the...

  5. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  6. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  7. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  8. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY... duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  9. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  10. Fertility Differentials among Religious Minorities : Cross-national and Regional Evidence from India and Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; van Wissen, L. J. G.; Hutter, Inge; Bosch, Alinda

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the independent effect of religious minority status on fertility at two levels i.e. cross-country level of India and Bangladesh and intra-country level (district) of India. Demographic and health survey data from India (20052006) and Bangladesh (20062007) are used for the

  11. Fertility differentials among religious minorities: cross-national and regional evidence from India and Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahu, B.; van Wissen, L.J.G.; Hutter, I.; Bosch, A.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the independent effect of religious minority status on fertility at two levels i.e. cross-country level of India and Bangladesh and intra-country level (district) of India. Demographic and health survey data from India (2005–2006) and Bangladesh (2006–2007) are used for the

  12. After Access: Divergent Learning Profiles in Vietnam and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolleston, Caine; James, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, both India and Vietnam have successfully expanded access to schooling to near-universal levels and have shifted their focus to quality-oriented policy reform. Yet, international and national evidence shows strongly contrasting learning profiles for children within the two systems. Simple indicators of numeracy suggest similar…

  13. Health-related quality of life in old age: a comparison between rural areas in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jan; Rana, A K M Masud; Luong, Duong Huy; Winblad, Bengt; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2012-07-01

    This study compares health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its determinants among older people (≥60 years) in rural Bangladesh and Vietnam. Cross-sectional studies among older people were conducted in Bangladesh (n = 1031) and Vietnam (n = 870). Data on HRQoL were collected using an instrument that includes 24 items distributed into 6 dimensions. Older people in Vietnam reported more favorable HRQoL outcomes than those in Bangladesh, reporting better HRQoL on physical, psychological, social, and financial dimensions. Hierarchical linear regression analyses show that advanced age, being a woman, belonging to a poor household, and reporting poor health were significantly associated with lower HRQoL scores in both Bangladesh and Vietnam. In Bangladesh, being illiterate was additionally associated with lower HRQoL scores. The results of this explorative study underline the importance of a cross-cultural understanding of HRQoL of older people and the influence of the socioecological context.

  14. 76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and..., India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  15. IMPACT OF CURRENCY DEVALUATION ON THE EXPORTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH AND INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Shahzad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the impact of currency devaluation on exports of three major economies of South Asian (i.e., Pakistan, Bangladesh and India over the period 1980 to 2012, by implementing the multiple regression models. Results reveales that currency devaluation encourages exports of Pakistan and Bangladesh. Lending interest rate significant negative effect in Pakistan and Bangladesh but insignificant in India. Government expenditure encouraged the export of Pakistan while not significaant in Bangladesh while depress in India. Money supply also enhanced the export of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. Result suggest that concerned authorities should manage and use the resources properly in such a way which may assist to develop the economies.

  16. Library and Information Science Education in South Asia: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangla, P. B.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews formal postgraduate-level library and information science programs offered by universities, documentation centers, and research institutions in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Highlights include historical background; admission requirements; length of program; curricula; faculty; course content; research; administrative…

  17. Status of tick distribution in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikant; Bansal, Gyan Chand; Gupta, Suresh Chandra; Ray, Debdatta; Khan, Muhammad Qasim; Irshad, Hamid; Shahiduzzaman, Md; Seitzer, Ulrike; Ahmed, Jabbar S

    2007-09-01

    On a global basis, ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic microorganisms, protozoa, rickettsiae, spirochaets, and viruses than any other arthropods and are among the most important vectors of diseases affecting livestock, humans, and companion animals. Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs) affect 80% of the world cattle population and are widely distributed throughout the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries including India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Ticks and tick-transmitted infections have coevolved with various wild animal hosts, which constitute the reservoir hosts for ticks and tick-borne pathogens of livestock, pets, and humans. In this region, the livestock sector is suffering from a number of disease problems caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Among the parasitological problems, the damage caused by TTBDs is considered very high, and the control of TTBDs has been given priority.

  18. Child survival revolutions revisited - lessons learned from Bangladesh, Nicaragua, Rwanda and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Lars Åke; Rahman, Anisur; Peña, Rodolfo; Perez, Wilton; Musafili, Aimable; Hoa, Dinh Phuong

    2017-06-01

    Analysing child mortality may enhance our perspective on global achievements in child survival. We used data from surveillance sites in Bangladesh, Nicaragua and Vietnam and Demographic Health Surveys in Rwanda to explore the development of neonatal and under-five mortality. The mortality curves showed dramatic reductions over time, but child mortality in the four countries peaked during wars and catastrophes and was rapidly reduced by targeted interventions, multisectorial development efforts and community engagement. Lessons learned from these countries may be useful when tackling future challenges, including persistent neonatal deaths, survival inequalities and the consequences of climate change and migration. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  19. 76 FR 78313 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded carbon- quality steel pipe, provided for in... of India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f...

  20. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of Countervailing Duty Investigations and Scheduling of Preliminary Phase Investigations AGENCY: United States... of investigations and commencement of preliminary phase countervailing duty investigations Nos. 701...

  1. 77 FR 73674 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, The United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...-1191-1194 (Final)] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, The United Arab Emirates... of circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...- quality steel pipe from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam were subsidized and/or dumped...

  2. Energy efficiency policies in China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappoz, Loic; Laponche, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    Most papers dealing with energy efficiency policies focus on the policies and measures implemented in OECD countries and this may lead one to think that only the 'rich' countries are developing efforts in this field. International experience shows that emerging countries and even poor developing countries understand that energy efficiency is a prerequisite for their economic and environmentally friendly development. Among these countries, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam have implemented particularly interesting policies, some of which were launched several decades ago. Moreover the Agence Francaise de developpement (AFD) has active cooperation programs in these five countries. This study describes the current situation and recent trends in final energy demand in these countries as well as the policies and measures they are implementing in the field of end-use energy efficiency. (authors)

  3. Preliminary studies on trace element contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in India and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, T.; Kunito, T.; Nakashima, E.; Minh, T. B.; Tanabe, S.; Subramanian, A.; Viet, P. H.

    2003-05-01

    The disposal of wastes in dumping sites has increasingly caused concem about adverse health effects on the populations living nearby. However, no investigation has been conducted yet on contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in Asian developing countries. In this study, concentrations of 11 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb and Pb) were detennined in scalp hair from the population living nearby and in soil from dumping sites and control sites of India and Vietnam. Soil samples in dumping site in India showed significantly higher concentrations of some trace elements than soils in control site, whereas this trend was not notable in Vietnam. This is probably due to the fact that the wastes were covered with the soil in the dumping site of Vietnam. Cadmium concentrations in some hair samples of people living near dumping site in India and Vietnam exceeded the level associated with learning disorder in children. Levels of most of the trace elements in hair were significantly higher in dumping site than those in control site in India and Vietnam, suggesting direct or indirect exposure to those elements from dumping wastes. To our knowledge, this is the first study of trace element contamination in dumping sites in India and Vietnam.

  4. Seed-borne viruses detected on farm-retained seeds from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.; Mortensen, C A Nieves Paulino

    2010-01-01

    esculentum Mill.), paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), bambara [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam were tested for seed-borne viruses using various techniques including......The smallholder farming sector in much of the developing world relies on the use of farm-retained seed. The availability of good quality disease free seed is important in enhancing food security but seed-borne viruses can be a major problem on farm-retained seed. Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon...

  5. 77 FR 37711 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...-fair-value imports from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded carbon... respect to circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe from Oman and the United Arab Emirates being sold in...

  6. Growth and pattern of intra-industry trade between India and Bangladesh: 1975–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sushil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the intra-industry trade between India and Bangladesh over the period of 1975 to 2010. GL index is used to calculate intraindustry trade at the three-digit level of SITC. The study also calculated the trade complementarity index, and revealed comparative index. The extent of intra-industry trade is high in sectors like crude materials, inedible, except fuels, food and live animals. The study also reveals mismatch between Indian imports and Bangladesh exports. The present study indicates positive effect on consumer surplus and trade using SMART model. Finally, the paper suggests that Bangladesh should diversify his export structure to reduce the bilateral trade deficit on the basis of comparative advantage

  7. 'Lived Islam' in India and Bangladesh: negotiating religion to realise reproductive aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Hutter, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question of how Muslim women interpret and negotiate religion in order to realise their reproductive aspirations. A close reading of lived experiences of 32 Muslim women from a varied educational background yields a wider perspective of the different interpretations of reproductive norms employed by adherents of the same religion (Islam), situated in two countries (India/Bangladesh) and group (majority/minority) contexts. Further, this comparative study yields a deeper understanding of agency that is employed by Muslim participants in each country. Muslim women - both in India and Bangladesh - are not passive followers of religious norms, but have agency to bring change in their own life and take an active role in planning their family, thereby transgressing religious norms in reproductive matters. Muslim women in India exercise their agency by adopting sterilisation - a method proscribed by Islam - without the knowledge of their significant others. Muslim women in Bangladesh use their agency by making a flexible interpretation of Islam in reproductive matters. A lesson learned from this comparative study is the need to remove barriers that prevent the adoption of contraceptives by Muslim minorities in India and to design family planning programmes that takes into account their religious needs.

  8. Genetically Modified Food and International Trade: The Case of India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Gruere, Guillaume P.; Bouet, Antoine; Mevel, Simon

    2007-01-01

    "Genetically modified (GM) food crops have the potential to raise agricultural productivity in Asian countries, but they are also associated with the risk of market access losses in sensitive importing countries. We study the potential effects of introducing GM food crops in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines in the presence of trade-related regulations of GM food in major importers. We focus on GM field crops (rice, wheat, maize, soybeans, and cotton) resistant to biotic and a...

  9. Credit Risk Determinants in Banking Sector: A Comparative Analysis of the PIB (Pakistan, India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waqas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the empirical study is to investigate credit risk determinants in banking sectors across three kinds of South Asian economies. An accumulated sample of 105 unbalanced panel data of financial firms over the period of 2000-2015, by applying General Method of Moment (GMM estimation techniques one-step at the difference in order to identify factors influencing credit risk. This study is inspired by two broad categories of explanatory variables which are bank-specific and macroeconomic. Bank-specific factors influencing unsystematic risk, while macroeconomic factors promoting systematic risk. The study uses a proxy of non-performing loans for credit risk in banking sectors of Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. The empirical results have been found aligned with theoretical arguments and literature as expected. In comparison, NPLs in Pakistan is greater than India and Bangladesh, while India has the lowest ratio of non-performing loans. The study documents that bank-specific factors (inefficiency, profitability, capital ratio and leverage have a significant contribution towards credit risk. Further, the study also finds a significant impact of macroeconomic variables on non-performing loans. While, the result in the case of Bangladesh predict contradictions, that have no significant effect on non-performing loans at various level. The overall results indicate that credit risk is not influenced by only external factors but also affect by internal factors like bad management and skimping etc.

  10. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty Investigations AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of the final phase of countervailing duty...

  11. 78 FR 50110 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. Nos. 701-TA-491-497 (Final)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Commission Determination To Deny a Request To Hold a Portion of a Hearing In Camera AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION...

  12. An integrated approach to improving rural livelihoods: examples from India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Croke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of work in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and SW Bangladesh through a series of projects from 2005 to the present, considering the impact of farming systems, water shed development and/or agricultural intensification on livelihoods in selected rural areas of India and Bangladesh. The projects spanned a range of scales spanning from the village scale (∼  1 km2 to the meso-scale (∼  100 km2, and considered social as well as biophysical aspects. They focused mainly on the food and water part of the food-water-energy nexus. These projects were in collaboration with a range of organisations in India and Bangladesh, including NGOs, universities, and government research organisations and departments. The projects were part funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, and built on other projects that have been undertaken within the region. An element of each of these projects was to understand how the hydrological cycle could be managed sustainably to improve agricultural systems and livelihoods of marginal groups. As such, they evaluated appropriate technology that is generally not dependent on high-energy inputs (mechanisation. This includes assessing the availability of water, and identifying potential water resources that have not been developed; understanding current agricultural systems and investigating ways of improving water use efficiency; and understanding social dynamics of the affected communities including the potential opportunities and negative impacts of watershed development and agricultural development.

  13. An integrated approach to improving rural livelihoods: examples from India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, Barry; Merritt, Wendy; Cornish, Peter; Syme, Geoffrey J.; Roth, Christian H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of work in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and SW Bangladesh through a series of projects from 2005 to the present, considering the impact of farming systems, water shed development and/or agricultural intensification on livelihoods in selected rural areas of India and Bangladesh. The projects spanned a range of scales spanning from the village scale (˜ 1 km2) to the meso-scale (˜ 100 km2), and considered social as well as biophysical aspects. They focused mainly on the food and water part of the food-water-energy nexus. These projects were in collaboration with a range of organisations in India and Bangladesh, including NGOs, universities, and government research organisations and departments. The projects were part funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, and built on other projects that have been undertaken within the region. An element of each of these projects was to understand how the hydrological cycle could be managed sustainably to improve agricultural systems and livelihoods of marginal groups. As such, they evaluated appropriate technology that is generally not dependent on high-energy inputs (mechanisation). This includes assessing the availability of water, and identifying potential water resources that have not been developed; understanding current agricultural systems and investigating ways of improving water use efficiency; and understanding social dynamics of the affected communities including the potential opportunities and negative impacts of watershed development and agricultural development.

  14. India-China Rivalry and Strategic Options for Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    openness with an Al Capone instruction on law and order. A Chinese India expert mentioned that there is a lack of trust and confidence 40 between...Smith et al . 2012). Military strategy is the means to maintain the defense of the country when foreign policy has failed. Generally, the small

  15. Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This document presents the energy profile of Vietnam: energy organizations and policy; companies: Petrovietnam (oil), Vietgas (gas), Power Company 1, 2 and 3 (PC1, PC2, PC3) and Electricite du Vietnam (electric power), Vinacoal (coal); supplies (resources, electric power, oil, gas and coal); prices; consumption; projects and perspectives. (J.S.)

  16. Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    governing power of the Communist Party. At its inception it was a dramatic and out- ward-looking course change for Vietnam, and it led IDRC to ... considerable capacity in the hard sciences, there appeared to be a near absence of capacity for social science research. Even so, Vietnam's assets represented real opportunity.

  17. A Comparative Analysis on Food Security in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, China proposed the Bangladesh–China–India–Myanmar Economic Corridor initiatives to enhance the economic cooperation between Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. To serve the priority setting of agricultural cooperation in the initiatives, an analysis is necessary to understand the food security situation and its key influencing factors in the three countries. For this purpose, this study applied a food security index (FSI to measure the food security level at state scale and analyze its changes in the three countries during 1990–2013. Further, a factor decomposition method was used to quantify the contribution of major factors to the FSI changes. The results showed that the food demand was generally secured in Myanmar and India during 1990–2013 but in shortage by around 10% in most years before 2008 in Bangladesh. The annual FSI values showed a rather obvious periodic variation and a slightly increasing trend during the whole period. Although the grain production in the three countries increased significantly, the FSI was not accordingly improved, as a result of the simultaneous increase of grain consumption. In Bangladesh and India, the grain production increase was mainly driven by the improvement of crop yield, while the grain consumption increase was mainly caused by the population growth. In Myanmar, the production increase was largely caused by the expansion of cropping area, and the consumption growth was mainly due to the increased grain requirement per capita. To meet the increasing food demand in the future, it is essential to improve the irrigation and drainage systems and crop management to increase the land use efficiency and crop yield. In addition, the adaptation of appropriate policy for family planning could be important to slow down the quick population growth and thus the food demand.

  18. Environmental impact of energy use in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.W.; Kuntsi, E. [Turku School of Economics (Finland). Finland Futures Research Center

    2004-07-01

    The environmental impact of energy use in this study is evaluated from two aspects: the level of the utilization of natural sources as measured by energy intensity; the level of environmental stress as measured by CO{sub 2} emission intensity. This study analyzes the environmental impact of energy use in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Thailand from 1973 to 2000 based on the International Energy Agency's 2002 database. The findings differ from some previous conclusions, because they conclude that the above four countries are in a process of dematerialization with regard to energy use and are thus heading toward decreasing environmental stress. (author)

  19. Patterns of Use and Perceptions of Harm of Smokeless Tobacco in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Reid, Jessica L; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Dhumal, Gauri; Nargis, Nigar; Hussain, Akm Ghulam; Hammond, David

    2016-01-01

    Globally, smokeless tobacco use is disproportionately concentrated in low-income and middle-income countries like India and Bangladesh. The current study examined comparative patterns of use and perceptions of harm for different smokeless tobacco products among adults and youth in Navi Mumbai, India, and Dhaka, Bangladesh. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on tablets with adult (19 years and older) smokeless tobacco users and youth (16-18 years) users and non-users in Navi Mumbai ( n = 1002), and Dhaka ( n = 1081). A majority (88.9%) of smokeless tobacco users reported daily use. Approximately one-fifth (20.4%) of the sample were mixed-users (used both smoked and smokeless tobacco), of which about half (54.4%) reported that they primarily used smokeless over smoked forms like cigarettes or bidis. The proportion of users planning to quit was higher in India than in Bangladesh (75.7% vs. 49.8%, p < 0.001). Gutkha was the most commonly used smokeless product in India, and pan masala in Bangladesh. Among users in Bangladesh, the most commonly reported reason for using their usual product was the belief that it was "less harmful" than other types. Perceptions of harm also differed with respect to a respondent's usual product. Bangladeshi respondents reported more negative attitudes toward smokeless tobacco compared to Indian respondents. The findings highlight the high daily use of smokeless tobacco, and the high prevalence of false beliefs about its harms. This set of findings reinforces the need to implement effective tobacco control strategies in low and middle-income countries like India and Bangladesh.

  20. Patterns of use and perceptions of harm of smokeless tobacco in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mutti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, smokeless tobacco use is disproportionately concentrated in low-income and middle-income countries like India and Bangladesh. Objectives: The current study examined comparative patterns of use and perceptions of harm for different smokeless tobacco products among adults and youth in Navi Mumbai, India, and Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: Face-to-face interviews were conducted on tablets with adult (19 years and older smokeless tobacco users and youth (16–18 years users and non-users in Navi Mumbai (n = 1002, and Dhaka (n = 1081. Results: A majority (88.9% of smokeless tobacco users reported daily use. Approximately one-fifth (20.4% of the sample were mixed-users (used both smoked and smokeless tobacco, of which about half (54.4% reported that they primarily used smokeless over smoked forms like cigarettes or bidis. The proportion of users planning to quit was higher in India than in Bangladesh (75.7% vs. 49.8%p “ 0.001. Gutkha was the most commonly used smokeless product in India, and pan masala in Bangladesh. Among users in Bangladesh, the most commonly reported reason for using their usual product was the belief that it was “less harmful” than other types. Perceptions of harm also differed with respect to a respondent’s usual product. Bangladeshi respondents reported more negative attitudes toward smokeless tobacco compared to Indian respondents. Conclusions: The findings highlight the high daily use of smokeless tobacco, and the high prevalence of false beliefs about its harms. This set of findings reinforces the need to implement effective tobacco control strategies in low and middle-income countries like India and Bangladesh.

  1. Immunogenicity of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine among infants in two developing countries in Asia, Bangladesh and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunheang; Anh, Dang Duc; Zaman, K; Yunus, M; Mai, Le Thi Phuong; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Azim, Tasnim; Victor, John C; Dallas, Michael J; Steele, A Duncan; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Ciarlet, Max

    2012-04-27

    We evaluated the immunogenicity of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV) in two GAVI-eligible Asian countries, Bangladesh and Vietnam, nested in a larger randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial conducted over a two-year period from 2007 through 2009. 2036 infants were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive three oral doses of PRV or placebo approximately at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Concomitant use of EPI vaccines, including oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTwP) vaccine, was encouraged in accordance to the local EPI schedule. A total of 303 infants were evaluated for immunogenicity and blood samples were collected before the first dose (pD1) and approximately 14 days following the third dose (PD3). The seroresponse rates (≥3-fold rise from pD1 to PD3) and geometric mean titers (GMTs) were measured for anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) and serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) to human rotavirus serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4, and P1A[8], respectively. Nearly 88% of the subjects showed a ≥3-fold increase in serum anti-rotavirus IgA response in the analysis of the two countries combined. When analyzed separately, the IgA response was lower in Bangladeshi children (78.1% [95% CI: 66.0, 87.5]) than in Vietnamese children (97.0% [95% CI: 89.6, 99.6]), with a PD3 GMT of 29.1 (units/mL) and 158.5 (units/mL), respectively. In the combined population, the SNA responses to the individual serotypes tested ranged from 10 (G3) to 50 (G1) percentage points lower than the responses shown in the developed countries. However, the SNA response to G3 in Vietnamese subjects was 37.3% (95% CI: 25.8, 50.0), which was similar to the G3 response rate in developed countries. Three oral doses of PRV were immunogenic in two GAVI-eligible Asian countries: Bangladesh and Vietnam. The GMTs of both the serum anti-rotavirus IgA and SNA responses were generally higher in Vietnamese than in Bangladeshi children. The SNA

  2. Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    This document summarizes the main energy facts and data about Vietnam: institutions and energy policy, energy companies (Petrovietnam (oil), Vietgas (gas), Electricity of Vietnam (EVN), Vinacoal (coal)), energy production (resources, electricity, oil, natural gas, coal), energy prices (motor fuels and electricity), energy consumption, and future energy issues and prospects (exploitation of new fossil fuel resources, building of new refineries and power stations). The main economic, supply and demand, and energy balance indicators are summarized in tables and graphics. (J.S.)

  3. Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme at Secondary Stage in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present research work has studied and compared the different issues of pre-service teacher education programme in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data were collected from 24 principals, 88 teacher educators and 157 student teachers from institutions and universities where Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) course were. The data were…

  4. Unemployment of Educated Youth in Asia: A Comparative Analysis of the Situation in India, Bangladesh and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A. K.

    This study of unemployment among university graduates in West Bengal (India), Bangladesh, and the Philippines provides socioeconomic and educational characteristics of these areas, a comparative analysis of unemployment, and suggested measures for reducing unemployment. The International Institute for Educational Planning studies, focusing on…

  5. The borders that divide, the borders that unite: (Re)interpreting Garo Processes of identification in India and Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, E.W.; Claquin-Chambugong, T.

    2014-01-01

    The people known as Garos, from the Garo Hills and adjacent (lowland) areas in India and Bangladesh, have never constituted one unified and self-defined in-group, although British colonial rule indeed produced a feeble notion of an imagined Garo community. Hence, the international border of 1947

  6. Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Bangladesh is a country of 143,998 sq.km with 116 million inhabitants, of whom 47-22% for males and females, respectively, are literate. Independence was gained on 1971. The terrain consists of mainly flat, alluvial plain, with hills in the Southeast, with a climate which is semi-tropical with monsoons. Bangla and English are spoken by Bengali, nonBengali Muslims, and other ethnic groups who are of mainly Muslim and Hindu faiths. Life expectancy ranges over 52-54 years. GDP is $23 billion, growing at a rate of 3.6%. Per capita income is $198. The country's natural resources include natural gas and water. Rice, jute, tea, sugar, wheat, jute goods, garments, frozen shrimp, textiles, fertilizer, leather, metal reprocessing, pharmaceutical, and newspring are areas of economic production. Capital goods, foodgrains, petroleum, consumer goods, fertilizer, chemicals, vegetable oils, and textiles are imported, and ready-made garments, jute goods, leather, frozen fish, shrimp, raw jute, and tea are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  7. Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Attention in this discussion of Vietnam is directed to the following: people; geography; history; government; the economy (agriculture and industry, trade and balance of payments); foreign relations; and relations between the US and Vietnam. In mid-1983 the population was estimated at 57,610,000 with an annual growth rate of 2.4%. Ethnic Vietnamese constitute almost 90% of the population. Various ethnic groups make up the remaining 10% of the population, with approximately 1.2 million Chinese being the most numerous and concentrated in southern Vietnam. The 2nd largest minority, the Montagnards (mountain tribesmen) comprise 2 main ethnolinguistic groups--Malayo Polynesia and Mon-Khmer. The most important political institution in Vietnam is the Vietnamese Communisty Party. All but 4 party Politburo members concurrently hold high positions in the government. The most important powers within the Vietnamese government, as opposed to the Communisty Party, are the executive agencies. Under the overly ambitious initial 5 year plan and the more conservative 1981-85 plan, the Vietnamese have made little progress in raising output and living standards beyond the levels of the 1960s. Guidelines of the 1981-85 plan call for attaining food self sufficiency, strengthening export and consumer industries, as well as the heavy industries that support them, and improving transport and energy production. The US does not have diplomatic relations with Vietnam.

  8. Human waste: An underestimated source of nutrient pollution in coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-05-15

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in many nutrient models. We quantify nutrient export by large rivers to coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, and the associated eutrophication potential in 2000 and 2050. Our new estimates for N and P inputs from human waste are one to two orders of magnitude higher than earlier model calculations. This leads to higher river export of nutrients to coastal seas, increasing the risk of coastal eutrophication potential (ICEP). The newly calculated future ICEP, for instance, Godavori river is 3 times higher than according to earlier studies. Our modeling approach is simple and transparent and can easily be applied to other data-poor basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Support Networks among micro entrepreneurial women: comparison between Bangladesh, India and the Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Sato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microcredit has been seen as a way of helping low-income people, primarily women, to survive, by giving them independence and the resources to create their own businesses. Low-income people have the support of social networks that allow their members to assist each other morally, economically and by sharing information. They also share experiences that make it easier to obtain the income needed for survival. Through their social networks and social capital the poor can use the tools provided by microcredits to improve their living conditions. This document compares the ways in which women in three countries associate, and use microcredits. The countries involved are India, Bangladesh and the South of Mexico.

  10. Comparison of GPS and GRACE hydrological loading signatures in Myanmar, India, Bangladesh, and Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materna, K.; Feng, L.; Lindsey, E. O.; Hill, E.; Burgmann, R.

    2017-12-01

    The elastic response of the lithosphere to surface mass redistributions produces significant deformation that can be observed in geodetic time series. This deformation is especially pronounced in Southeast Asia, where the annual monsoon produces large-amplitude hydrological loads. The MIBB network of 20 continuous GPS stations in Myanmar, India, Bangladesh, and Bhutan, operational since 2012, provides an opportunity to study the earth's response to these loads. In this study, we use GRACE gravity products as an estimate of surface water distribution, and input these estimates into an elastic loading calculation. We compare the predicted deformation with that observed with GPS. We find that elastic loading from the GRACE gravity field is able to explain the phase and the peak-to-peak amplitude (typically 2-3 cm) of the vertical GPS oscillations in northeast India and central Myanmar. GRACE-based corrections reduce the RMS scatter of the GPS data by 30%-45% in these regions. However, this approach does not capture all of the variation in central Bangladesh and southern Myanmar. Local hydrological effects, non-tidal ocean loads, poroelastic deformation, or differences in elastic properties may explain discrepancies between the GPS and GRACE signals in these places. The results of our calculations have practical implications for campaign GPS measurements in Myanmar, which make up the majority of geodetic measurements at this point. We may be able to reduce errors in campaign measurements and increase the accuracy of velocity estimates by correcting for hydrologic signals with GRACE data. The results also have potential implications for crustal rheology in Southeast Asia.

  11. Association between gap in spousal education and domestic violence in India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapp Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic violence (DV against women is a serious human rights abuse and well recognised global public health concern. The occurrence of DV is negatively associated with the educational level of spouses but studies dealing with educational discrepancies of spouses show contradicting results: Wives with higher education than their husbands were more likely to ever experience DV as compared to equally educated couples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between spousal education gap (SEG and the prevalence and severity of DV in India and Bangladesh. Methods Nationally representative data collected through the 2005/2006 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 and 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS were used. In total, we analysed data of 69,805 women aged 15–49 years (Bangladesh: 4,195 women, India: 65,610 women. In addition to univariate and bivariable analyses, a multinomial logistic regression model was used to quantify the association between education gap and less severe as well as severe domestic violence. Adjustment was made for age, religion, and family structure. Results Wives with higher education than their husbands were less likely to experience less severe (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77–0.89 and severe (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72–0.87 DV as compared to equally low-educated spouses (reference group. Equally high-educated couples revealed the lowest likelihood of experiencing DV (severe violence: OR 0.43, CI 0.39–0.48; less severe violence: OR 0.59, CI 0.55–0.63. The model’s goodness of fit was low (Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.152. Conclusions Our analysis revealed no increased DV among wives with a higher educational level than their husbands. Moreover, the results point towards a decrease of severe violence with an increase in education levels among spouses. However, the model did not explain a satisfying amount of DV. Therefore, further research should be

  12. Association between gap in spousal education and domestic violence in India and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Daniel; Zoch, Beate; Khan, M Mobarak H; Pollmann, Thorsten; Krämer, Alexander

    2012-06-21

    Domestic violence (DV) against women is a serious human rights abuse and well recognised global public health concern. The occurrence of DV is negatively associated with the educational level of spouses but studies dealing with educational discrepancies of spouses show contradicting results: Wives with higher education than their husbands were more likely to ever experience DV as compared to equally educated couples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between spousal education gap (SEG) and the prevalence and severity of DV in India and Bangladesh. Nationally representative data collected through the 2005/2006 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) and 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) were used. In total, we analysed data of 69,805 women aged 15-49 years (Bangladesh: 4,195 women, India: 65,610 women). In addition to univariate and bivariable analyses, a multinomial logistic regression model was used to quantify the association between education gap and less severe as well as severe domestic violence. Adjustment was made for age, religion, and family structure. Wives with higher education than their husbands were less likely to experience less severe (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77-0.89) and severe (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72-0.87) DV as compared to equally low-educated spouses (reference group). Equally high-educated couples revealed the lowest likelihood of experiencing DV (severe violence: OR 0.43, CI 0.39-0.48; less severe violence: OR 0.59, CI 0.55-0.63). The model's goodness of fit was low (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.152). Our analysis revealed no increased DV among wives with a higher educational level than their husbands. Moreover, the results point towards a decrease of severe violence with an increase in education levels among spouses. However, the model did not explain a satisfying amount of DV. Therefore, further research should be done to reveal unknown determinants so that suitable interventions to reduce DV can be

  13. Contesting heteronormativity: the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition in India and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul; Rydstrøm, Helle; Tonini, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent public debates about sexuality in India and Vietnam have brought the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people sharply into focus. Drawing on legal documents, secondary sources and ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the urban centres of Delhi and Hanoi, this article shows how the efforts of civil society organisations dedicated to the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender rights have had different consequences in these two Asian contexts. The paper considers how these organisations navigated government regulations about their formation and activities, as well as the funding priorities of national and international agencies. The HIV epidemic has had devastating consequences for gay men and other men who have sex with men, and has been highly stigmatising. As a sad irony, the epidemic has provided at the same time a strategic entry point for organisations to struggle for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition. This paper examines how the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition has been doubly framed through health-based and rights-based approaches and how the struggle for recognition has positioned lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in India and Vietnam differently.

  14. Role of Evidence in Maternal Health Policy Processes in Vietnam, India and China: Findings from the HEPVIC Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Green, Andrew; Gerein, Nancy; Pearson, Stephen; Bird, Philippa; Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Ramani, Karaikurichi; Qian, Xu; Yang, Xiaoguang; Mukhopadhyay, Maitrayee; Soors, Werner

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of evidence in maternal health policy processes in Vietnam, India and China. Both formal and informal types of evidence were used; and differences were found between the stages of policy processes. Evidence used mostly covered easily quantifiable issues and clearly identifiable technical solutions. Different policy…

  15. A systematic review of rotavirus strain diversity in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Melody G; Lewis, Kristen D C; Kang, Gagandeep; Parashar, Umesh D; Steele, A Duncan

    2012-04-27

    Of the estimated half-million deaths from rotavirus globally each year, approximately one-third (N = 160,000 deaths) occur in the Indian subcontinent (defined as India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan). Two commercial vaccines are available for use and recommended by WHO, although the prohibitive vaccine price has limited their introduction into routine childhood immunization programs. New rotavirus vaccines are in late clinical development, including two advanced candidates in India. As significant shifts in rotavirus strain diversity have occurred in the past three decades and questions remain regarding whether strain replacement may occur following introduction of rotavirus vaccines, it is important to understand the temporal and regional strain diversity profile before vaccine introduction. We reviewed 33 peer-reviewed manuscripts from the Indian subcontinent and found that the most common G-types (G1-4) and P-types (P[4] and P[8]) globally accounted for three-fourths of all strains in the subcontinent. However, strains varied by region, and temporal analysis showed the decline of G3 and G4 in recent years and the emergence of G9 and G12. Our findings underscore the large diversity of rotavirus strains in the Indian subcontinent and highlight the need to conduct surveillance on a regional scale to better understand strain diversity before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Modelling the impact of sanitation, population growth and urbanization on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters—a case study for Bangladesh and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lucie C.; de Kraker, Jelske; Hofstra, Nynke; Kroeze, Carolien; Medema, Gertjan

    2015-09-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that can cause diarrhoea. Human faeces are an important source of Cryptosporidium in surface waters. We present a model to study the impact of sanitation, urbanization and population growth on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters. We build on a global model by Hofstra et al (2013 Sci. Total Environ. 442 10-9) and zoom into Bangladesh and India as illustrative case studies. The model is most sensitive to changes in oocyst excretion and infection rate, and to assumptions on the share of faeces reaching the surface water for different sanitation types. We find urban centres to be hotspots of human Cryptosporidium emissions. We estimate that 53% (Bangladesh) and 91% (India) of total emissions come from urban areas. 50% of oocysts come from only 8% (Bangladesh) and 3% (India) of the country area. In the future, population growth and urbanization may further deteriorate water quality in Bangladesh and India, despite improved sanitation. Under our ‘business as usual’ (‘sanitation improvements’) scenario, oocyst emissions will increase by a factor 2.0 (1.2) for India and 2.9 (1.1) for Bangladesh between 2010 and 2050. Population growth, urbanization and sanitation development are important processes to consider for large scale water quality modelling.

  17. Estimation of regional-scale groundwater flow properties in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of management strategies for long-term supply of safe groundwater for drinking from the Bengal Basin aquifer (India and Bangladesh) requires estimation of the large-scale hydrogeologic properties that control flow. The Basin consists of a stratified, heterogeneous sequence of sediments with aquitards that may separate aquifers locally, but evidence does not support existence of regional confining units. Considered at a large scale, the Basin may be aptly described as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity. Though data are sparse, estimation of regional-scale aquifer properties is possible from three existing data types: hydraulic heads, 14C concentrations, and driller logs. Estimation is carried out with inverse groundwater modeling using measured heads, by model calibration using estimated water ages based on 14C, and by statistical analysis of driller logs. Similar estimates of hydraulic conductivities result from all three data types; a resulting typical value of vertical anisotropy (ratio of horizontal to vertical conductivity) is 104. The vertical anisotropy estimate is supported by simulation of flow through geostatistical fields consistent with driller log data. The high estimated value of vertical anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity indicates that even disconnected aquitards, if numerous, can strongly control the equivalent hydraulic parameters of an aquifer system. ?? US Government 2009.

  18. Hygiene on maternity units: lessons from a needs assessment in Bangladesh and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Cross

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the proportion of deliveries in health institutions increases in low- and middle-income countries, so do the challenges of maintaining standards of hygiene and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs in mothers and babies. Adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH and infection prevention and control (IPC in these settings should be seen as integral parts of the broader domain of quality care. Assessment approaches are needed which capture standards for both WASH and IPC, and so inform quality improvement processes. Design: A needs assessment was conducted in seven maternity units in Gujarat, India, and eight in Dhaka Division, Bangladesh in 2014. The WASH & CLEAN study developed and applied a suite of tools – a ‘walkthrough checklist’ which included the collection of swab samples, a facility needs assessment tool and document review, and qualitative interviews with staff and recently delivered women – to establish the state of hygiene as measured by visual cleanliness and the presence of potential pathogens, and individual and contextual determinants or drivers. Results: No clear relationship was found between visually assessed cleanliness and the presence of pathogens; findings from qualitative interviews and the facility questionnaire found inadequacies in IPC training for healthcare providers and no formal training at all for ward cleaners. Lack of written policies and protocols, and poor monitoring and supervision also contributed to suboptimal IPC standards. Conclusions: Visual assessment of cleanliness and hygiene is an inadequate marker for ‘safety’ in terms of the presence of potential pathogens and associated risk of infection. Routine environmental screening of high-risk touch sites using simple microbiology could improve detection and control of pathogens. IPC training for both healthcare providers and ward cleaners represents an important opportunity for quality improvement. This should

  19. Hygiene on maternity units: lessons from a needs assessment in Bangladesh and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Suzanne; Afsana, Kaosar; Banu, Morsheda; Mavalankar, Dileep; Morrison, Emma; Rahman, Atiya; Roy, Tapash; Saxena, Deepak; Vora, Kranti; Graham, Wendy J

    2016-01-01

    Background As the proportion of deliveries in health institutions increases in low- and middle-income countries, so do the challenges of maintaining standards of hygiene and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) in mothers and babies. Adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and infection prevention and control (IPC) in these settings should be seen as integral parts of the broader domain of quality care. Assessment approaches are needed which capture standards for both WASH and IPC, and so inform quality improvement processes. Design A needs assessment was conducted in seven maternity units in Gujarat, India, and eight in Dhaka Division, Bangladesh in 2014. The WASH & CLEAN study developed and applied a suite of tools – a ‘walkthrough checklist’ which included the collection of swab samples, a facility needs assessment tool and document review, and qualitative interviews with staff and recently delivered women – to establish the state of hygiene as measured by visual cleanliness and the presence of potential pathogens, and individual and contextual determinants or drivers. Results No clear relationship was found between visually assessed cleanliness and the presence of pathogens; findings from qualitative interviews and the facility questionnaire found inadequacies in IPC training for healthcare providers and no formal training at all for ward cleaners. Lack of written policies and protocols, and poor monitoring and supervision also contributed to suboptimal IPC standards. Conclusions Visual assessment of cleanliness and hygiene is an inadequate marker for ‘safety’ in terms of the presence of potential pathogens and associated risk of infection. Routine environmental screening of high-risk touch sites using simple microbiology could improve detection and control of pathogens. IPC training for both healthcare providers and ward cleaners represents an important opportunity for quality improvement. This should occur in conjunction with

  20. Vietnam; Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    This document summarizes the main energy facts and data about Vietnam: institutions and energy policy, energy companies (Petrovietnam (oil), Vietgas (gas), Electricity of Vietnam (EVN), Vinacoal (coal)), energy production (resources, electricity, oil, natural gas, coal), energy prices (motor fuels and electricity), energy consumption, and future energy issues and prospects (exploitation of new fossil fuel resources, building of new refineries and power stations). The main economic, supply and demand, and energy balance indicators are summarized in tables and graphics. (J.S.)

  1. Facilitators and barriers for retention in HIV care between testing and treatment in Asia-A study in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Lao, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Koirala

    Full Text Available The need for efficient retention in HIV care is more evident than ever because of the expansion of earlier ART initiation and the shift towards 'Test and Treat'. This study assesses factors affecting participation in the HIV care cascade among people living with HIV (PLHIV in the Asia-Pacific Region.A total of 7843 PLHIV aged 18-50 years were recruited using targeted and venue-based sampling between October 1, 2012, and May 31, 2013, across 59 sites in 7 countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam. Statistically significant associations between demographic and health system determinants, and various steps in the HIV care cascade were computed using a generalized structural equation model.A high proportion of PLHIV (40-51% presented late for HIV care and delayed linkage to care in all seven countries. However, once PLHIV enrolled in care, retention in the various steps of the care cascade including adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART was satisfactory. The proportion still engaged in HIV care at 36 months post HIV diagnosis, varied from 78% in Nepal to >90% in Lao PDR. Similarly, the proportion of ART initiation who also were adherent to ART ranged from 91% in Bangladesh to >95% in Philippines/ Vietnam and from 70% in Lao PDR to 89% in the Philippines respectively. The following factors enhanced the likelihood of ART initiation and high adherence to HIV care and ART: good client-provider communication, high HIV treatment literacy, a referral from a health worker and TB/HIV co-infection. The following barriers were identified: young age, sex work, imprisonment, transgender identity, illiteracy, rural residence, alcohol/ injecting drug use, perceived poor health status, lack of health insurance, fear of confidentiality breach, self-referral for HIV testing, and public hospital as the place of HIV diagnosis.HIV programme planners should ensure easy access to HIV testing

  2. Facilitators and barriers for retention in HIV care between testing and treatment in Asia—A study in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Lao, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampaisan, Oranuch; Marrone, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The need for efficient retention in HIV care is more evident than ever because of the expansion of earlier ART initiation and the shift towards ‘Test and Treat’. This study assesses factors affecting participation in the HIV care cascade among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the Asia-Pacific Region. Methods A total of 7843 PLHIV aged 18–50 years were recruited using targeted and venue-based sampling between October 1, 2012, and May 31, 2013, across 59 sites in 7 countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam). Statistically significant associations between demographic and health system determinants, and various steps in the HIV care cascade were computed using a generalized structural equation model. Results A high proportion of PLHIV (40–51%) presented late for HIV care and delayed linkage to care in all seven countries. However, once PLHIV enrolled in care, retention in the various steps of the care cascade including adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) was satisfactory. The proportion still engaged in HIV care at 36 months post HIV diagnosis, varied from 78% in Nepal to >90% in Lao PDR. Similarly, the proportion of ART initiation who also were adherent to ART ranged from 91% in Bangladesh to >95% in Philippines/ Vietnam and from 70% in Lao PDR to 89% in the Philippines respectively. The following factors enhanced the likelihood of ART initiation and high adherence to HIV care and ART: good client-provider communication, high HIV treatment literacy, a referral from a health worker and TB/HIV co-infection. The following barriers were identified: young age, sex work, imprisonment, transgender identity, illiteracy, rural residence, alcohol/ injecting drug use, perceived poor health status, lack of health insurance, fear of confidentiality breach, self-referral for HIV testing, and public hospital as the place of HIV diagnosis. Conclusions HIV programme planners

  3. Consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the NDS service area: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the NDS service area is presented for the following countries: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Yugoslavia

  4. Analysis of stakeholders networks of infant and young child nutrition programmes in Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Shahadat; Mahmood, Hana; Senarath, Upul; Zahiruddin, Quazi; Karn, Sumit; Rasheed, Sabrina; Dibley, Michael

    2017-06-13

    Effective public policies are needed to support appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) to ensure adequate child growth and development, especially in low and middle income countries. The aim of this study was to: (i) capture stakeholder networks in relation to funding and technical support for IYCF policy across five countries in South Asia (i.e. Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan); and (ii) understand how stakeholder networks differed between countries, and identify common actors and their patterns in network engagement across the region. The Net-Map method, which is an interview-based mapping technique to visualise and capture connections among different stakeholders that collaborate towards achieving a focused goal, has been used to map funding and technical support networks in all study sites. Our study was conducted at the national level in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, as well as in selected states or provinces in India and Pakistan during 2013-2014. We analysed the network data using a social network analysis software (NodeXL). The number of stakeholders identified as providing technical support was higher than the number of stakeholders providing funding support, across all study sites. India (New Delhi site - national level) site had the highest number of influential stakeholders for both funding (43) and technical support (86) activities. Among all nine study sites, India (New Delhi - national level) and Sri Lanka had the highest number of participating government stakeholders (22) in their respective funding networks. Sri Lanka also had the highest number of participating government stakeholders for technical support (34) among all the study sites. Government stakeholders are more engaged in technical support activities compared with their involvement in funding activities. The United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) were highly engaged stakeholders for both funding and

  5. Analysis of stakeholders networks of infant and young child nutrition programmes in Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahadat Uddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective public policies are needed to support appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF to ensure adequate child growth and development, especially in low and middle income countries. The aim of this study was to: (i capture stakeholder networks in relation to funding and technical support for IYCF policy across five countries in South Asia (i.e. Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan; and (ii understand how stakeholder networks differed between countries, and identify common actors and their patterns in network engagement across the region. Methods The Net-Map method, which is an interview-based mapping technique to visualise and capture connections among different stakeholders that collaborate towards achieving a focused goal, has been used to map funding and technical support networks in all study sites. Our study was conducted at the national level in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, as well as in selected states or provinces in India and Pakistan during 2013–2014. We analysed the network data using a social network analysis software (NodeXL. Results The number of stakeholders identified as providing technical support was higher than the number of stakeholders providing funding support, across all study sites. India (New Delhi site – national level site had the highest number of influential stakeholders for both funding (43 and technical support (86 activities. Among all nine study sites, India (New Delhi – national level and Sri Lanka had the highest number of participating government stakeholders (22 in their respective funding networks. Sri Lanka also had the highest number of participating government stakeholders for technical support (34 among all the study sites. Government stakeholders are more engaged in technical support activities compared with their involvement in funding activities. The United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO

  6. Chemical and environmental vector control as a contribution to the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian subcontinent: cluster randomized controlled trials in Bangladesh, India and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Pradeep

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh, India and Nepal are working towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL by 2015. In 2005 the World Health Organization/Training in Tropical Diseases launched an implementation research programme to support integrated vector management for the elimination of VL from Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The programme is conducted in different phases, from proof-of-concept to scaling up intervention. This study was designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the three different interventions for VL vector management: indoor residual spraying (IRS; long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN; and environmental modification (EVM through plastering of walls with lime or mud. Methods Using a cluster randomized controlled trial we compared three vector control interventions with a control arm in 96 clusters (hamlets or neighbourhoods in each of the 4 study sites: Bangladesh (one, India (one and Nepal (two. In each site four villages with high reported VL incidences were included. In each village six clusters and in each cluster five households were randomly selected for sand fly collection on two consecutive nights. Control and intervention clusters were matched with average pre-intervention vector densities. In each site six clusters were randomly assigned to each of the following interventions: indoor residual spraying (IRS; long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN; environmental management (EVM or control. All the houses (50-100 in each intervention cluster underwent the intervention measures. A reduction of intra-domestic sand fly densities measured in the study households by overnight US Centres for Disease Prevention and Control light trap captures (that is the number of sand flies per trap per night was the main outcome measure. Results IRS, and to a lesser extent EVM and LLINs, significantly reduced sand fly densities for at least 5 months in the study households irrespective of type of walls or whether or

  7. Generating Insights from Trends in Newborn Care Practices from Prospective Population-Based Studies: Examples from India, Bangladesh and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Sonya; Prost, Audrey; Hossen, Munir; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Roy, Swati; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Saville, Naomi; Sen, Aman; Sikorski, Catherine; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Pagel, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Delivery of essential newborn care is key to reducing neonatal mortality rates, yet coverage of protective birth practices remains incomplete and variable, with or without skilled attendance. Evidence of changes over time in newborn care provision, disaggregated by care practice and delivery type, can be used by policymakers to review efforts to reduce mortality. We examine such trends in four areas using control arm trial data. We analysed data from the control arms of cluster randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh (27 553 births), eastern India (8 939), Dhanusha, Nepal (15 344) and Makwanpur, Nepal (6 765) over the period 2001-2011. For each trial, we calculated the observed proportion of attended births and the coverage of WHO essential newborn care practices by year, adjusted for clustering and stratification. To explore factors contributing to the observed trends, we then analysed expected trends due only to observed shifts in birth attendance, accounted for stratification, delivery type and statistically significant interaction terms, and examined disaggregated trends in care practice coverage by delivery type. Attended births increased over the study periods in all areas from very low rates, reaching a maximum of only 30% of deliveries. Newborn care practice trends showed marked heterogeneity within and between areas. Adjustment for stratification, birth attendance and interaction revealed that care practices could change in opposite directions over time and/or between delivery types - e.g. in Bangladesh hygienic cord-cutting and skin-to-skin contact fell in attended deliveries but not home deliveries, whereas in India birth attendant hand-washing rose for institutional deliveries but fell for home deliveries. Coverage of many essential newborn care practices is improving, albeit slowly and unevenly across sites and delivery type. Time trend analyses of birth patterns and essential newborn care practices can inform policy-makers about effective

  8. Generating Insights from Trends in Newborn Care Practices from Prospective Population-Based Studies: Examples from India, Bangladesh and Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Crowe

    Full Text Available Delivery of essential newborn care is key to reducing neonatal mortality rates, yet coverage of protective birth practices remains incomplete and variable, with or without skilled attendance. Evidence of changes over time in newborn care provision, disaggregated by care practice and delivery type, can be used by policymakers to review efforts to reduce mortality. We examine such trends in four areas using control arm trial data.We analysed data from the control arms of cluster randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh (27 553 births, eastern India (8 939, Dhanusha, Nepal (15 344 and Makwanpur, Nepal (6 765 over the period 2001-2011. For each trial, we calculated the observed proportion of attended births and the coverage of WHO essential newborn care practices by year, adjusted for clustering and stratification. To explore factors contributing to the observed trends, we then analysed expected trends due only to observed shifts in birth attendance, accounted for stratification, delivery type and statistically significant interaction terms, and examined disaggregated trends in care practice coverage by delivery type. Attended births increased over the study periods in all areas from very low rates, reaching a maximum of only 30% of deliveries. Newborn care practice trends showed marked heterogeneity within and between areas. Adjustment for stratification, birth attendance and interaction revealed that care practices could change in opposite directions over time and/or between delivery types - e.g. in Bangladesh hygienic cord-cutting and skin-to-skin contact fell in attended deliveries but not home deliveries, whereas in India birth attendant hand-washing rose for institutional deliveries but fell for home deliveries.Coverage of many essential newborn care practices is improving, albeit slowly and unevenly across sites and delivery type. Time trend analyses of birth patterns and essential newborn care practices can inform policy-makers about

  9. Is There an Enabling Environment for Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture in South Asia? Stakeholder Perspectives from India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bold, Mara; Kohli, Neha; Gillespie, Stuart; Zuberi, Samar; Rajeesh, Sangeetha; Chakraborty, Barnali

    2015-06-01

    Almost half of all children in South Asia are stunted. Although agriculture has the potential to be a strong driver of undernutrition reduction and serves as the main source of livelihood for over half of South Asia's population, its potential to reduce undernutrition is currently not being realized. The Leveraging Agriculture for Nutrition in South Asia (LANSA) research consortium seeks to understand how agriculture and agrifood systems can be better designed to improve nutrition in South Asia. In 2013 and 2014, LANSA carried out interviews with stakeholders influential in, and/or knowledgeable of, agriculture-nutrition policy in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, to gain a better understanding of the institutional and political factors surrounding the nutrition sensitivity of agriculture in the region. Semistructured interviews were carried out in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan with a total of 56 stakeholders representing international organizations, research, government, civil society, donors, and the private sector. The findings point to mixed perspectives on countries' policy sensitivity toward nutrition. There was consensus among stakeholders on the importance of political commitment to nutrition, improving nutrition literacy, strengthening capacities, and improving the use of financial resources. Although there are different ways in which South Asian agriculture can improve its impact on nutrition, sensitizing key influencers to the importance of nutrition for the health of a country's population appears as a critical issue. This should in turn serve as the premise for political commitment, intersectoral coordination to implement nutrition-relevant policies, adequately resourced nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive programs, and sufficient capacities at all levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Climate Variability over India and Bangladesh from the Perturbed UK Met Office Hadley Model: Impacts on Flow and Nutrient Fluxes in the Ganges Delta System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P. G.; Caesar, J.; Crossman, J.; Barbour, E.; Ledesma, J.; Futter, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    A semi-distributed flow and water quality model (INCA- Integrated Catchments Model) has been set up for the whole of the Ganges- Brahmaputra- Meghna (GBM) River system in India and Bangladesh. These massive rivers transport large fluxes of water and nutrients into the Bay of Bengal via the GBM Delta system in Bangladesh. Future climate change will impact these fluxes with changing rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration and soil moisture deficits being altered in the catchment systems. In this study the INCA model has been used to assess potential impacts of climate change using the UK Met Office Hadley Centre GCM model linked to a regionally coupled model of South East Asia, covering India and Bangladesh. The Hadley Centre model has been pururbed by varying the parameters in the model to generate 17 realisations of future climates. Some of these reflect expected change but others capture the more extreme potential behaviour of future climate conditions. The 17 realisations have been used to drive the INCA Flow and Nitrogen model inorder to generate downstream times series of hydrology and nitrate- nitrogen. The variability of the climates on these fluxes are investigated and and their likley impact on the Bay of Begal Delta considered. Results indicate a slight shift in the monsoon season with increased wet season flows and increased temperatures which alter nutrient fluxes. Societal Importance to Stakeholders The GBM Delta supports one of the most densely populated regions of people living in poverty, who rely on ecosystem services provided by the Delta for survival. These ecosystem services are dependent upon fluxes of water and nutrients. Freshwater for urban, agriculture, and aquaculture requirements are essential to livelihoods. Nutrient loads stimulate estuarine ecosystems, supporting fishing stocks, which contribute significantly the economy of Bangladesh. Thus the societal importance of upstream climate driven change change in Bangladesh are very

  11. Methylated and unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in street dust from Vietnam and India: occurrence, distribution and in vitro toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, Le Huu; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Viet, Pham Hung; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Ramanathan, Alagappan; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-11-01

    Methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MePAHs), unsubstituted PAHs and AhR-mediated activities were determined in street dust collected from Vietnam and India using a combined approach of chemical analysis and in vitro reporter gene assay. MePAHs and PAHs diagnostic ratios indicated that the main sources of MePAHs in Vietnam were pyrogenic emissions, whereas in India there were mixed sources of pyrogenic and petrogenic emissions. AhR-mediated activities determined by using DR-CALUX assay were observed in urban street dust at mean 40, 29 and 20 ng CALUX-TEQ/g dw for Hanoi, Bangalore and New Delhi, respectively. MePAHs and PAHs contributed only 5% or less to AhR-mediated activity in street dust, indicating the occurrence of unknown AhR agonists. The principal contributors to Theoretical-TEQs among target compounds were methyl benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]- and benzo[k]fluoranthene. The present study indicates importance of MePAHs in evaluation of toxic risk related to AhR-mediated activity in urban polluted areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Situation Report--Ghana, Guyana, India, Japan, Kenya, Khmer Republic, Nepal, Niger, Republic of Vietnam, Senegal, Thailand, and Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ghana, Guyana, India, Japan, Kenya, Khmer Republic, Nepal, Niger, Republic of Vietnam, Senegal, Thailand, and Trinidad and Tobago. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family…

  13. Status of coral reefs in South Asia: Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Sri Lanka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasuriya, A.; Zahir, H.; Muley, E.V.; Subramanian, B.R.; Venkataraman, K.; Wafar, M.V.M.; Khan, S.M.M.H.; Whittingham, E.

    management. There is also a lack of awareness of the value and importance of coral reefs among government agencies and local communities, although some academic institutions have conducted reef research. Thus, there is still a need for more coordinated... resources of Bangladesh and Pakistan, and a brief status report on the vast Chagos Archipelago. The first summary report for this region was presented at the International Coral Reef Initiative, South Asia workshop held in the Maldives in December, 1995...

  14. Bangladesh v. India: A Positive Step Forward in Public Order of the Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    delimitation, Bangladesh would have been deprived of considerable sea space and multiple outlets to the high seas. This important adjustment demonstrates...policies.33 In this respect, the decision was important because it established a firewall against future judicial meandering. UNCLOS does not dictate how...nevertheless proceeded to fix the delimitation line in a rather arbitrary fashion.”44 The tribunal did, however, live up to its statement that “ the

  15. Cross-Sectional Time Series Analysis of Associations between Education and Girl Child Marriage in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, 1991-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus; Silverman, Jay G.; Rusch, Melanie L. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Girl education is believed to be the best means of reducing girl child marriage (marriage 20%) of girl child marriage- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Methods Cross-sectional time series analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 1991 to 2011 in the four focal nations. Analyses were restricted to ever-married women aged 20–24 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of highest level of education received (none, pr...

  16. Impact of Macro Environmental Factors on Garments Industry That Drives Export in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It goes without saying that Garments industry of Bangladesh has drawn a special attention to the mass people in the world because of being both cost leader and quality leader at the same time. The purpose of this research paper is to analyze the garments industry in Bangladesh which is going to be an emerging tiger in the world economy. It also aims to assess the impact of macro-environmental factors affecting the industry by PESTEL analysis. Again, five forces model has been analyzed to assess the impacts of competitive external factors on the Garments industry in Bangladesh. Furthermore, Garments sector competitive responses to the primary issues affecting the industry have been evaluated here. It also outlines the primary external influences to which this industry is subject. In this case, SWOT analysis has been conducted to assess the competitive position of this industry in comparison with the global perspective. The study suggests that total export is highly correlated with the exports of garments. It also finds that there is severe lacking in the safety and security compliance, wages and compensations and code of conduct of the current organizations. Moreover, GSP facility withdrawn can impact severely on the ready made garments of Bangladesh to compete with price in the international market with China, India and Vietnam etc. The ready made garments sector of Bangladesh is enjoying cost leadership as a source of completive advantage because of cheap labor. Finally, the study would like to recommend for further improvement of garment sector in Bangladesh.

  17. Measuring Learning Quality in Ethiopia, India and Vietnam: From Primary to Secondary School Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Padmini; Moore, Rhiannon

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the way in which learning quality has been conceptualised and measured in school effectiveness surveys conducted by Young Lives, a longitudinal study of child poverty. Primary school surveys were conducted in Vietnam in 2010-11 and Ethiopia in 2012-13, and surveys at upper-primary and secondary level were conducted in Ethiopia,…

  18. Construction of avulsion potential zone model for Kulik River of Barind Tract, India and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debabrata; Pal, Swades

    2018-04-21

    Avulsion is a natural fluvial process but considered it as a hazard in the populated region due to the chance of immense failure of lives and properties. So, early warning indicates that the zone of avulsion can facilitate the people living there. About 317 numbers of local and regional historical imprints of channel cutoff along river Kulik claim the need of this work. The present study tried to identify avulsion potential zone (APZ) of Kulik river of Indo-Bangladesh using multi-parametric weighted combination approach. Analytic hierarchy approach (AHP) is applied for weighting the used parameters. Avulsion potential model clearly exhibits that 9.51-km stream segment of middle and lower catchment is highly susceptible for avulsion especially during sudden high discharge and earthquake incidents. There is also high chance of channel avulsion following the existing Paleo-avulsion courses and left channels. Hard points can also be erected alongside the main channel for resisting channel avulsion propensity.

  19. Biophysical and Socioeconomic State and Links of Deltaic Areas Vulnerable to Climate Change: Volta (Ghana, Mahanadi (India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Cazcarro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the similarities and differences of specific deltaic areas in parallel, under the project DEltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation (DECCMA. The main reason for studying Deltas is their potential vulnerability to climate change and sea level rise, which generates important challenges for livelihoods. We provide insights into the current socioeconomic and biophysical states of the Volta Delta (Ghana, Mahanadi Delta (India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (India and Bangladesh. Hybrid methods of input-output (IO construction are used to develop environmentally extended IO models for comparing the economic characteristics of these delta regions with the rest of the country. The main sources of data for regionalization were country level census data, statistics and economic surveys and data on consumption, trade, agricultural production and fishing harvests. The Leontief demand-driven model is used to analyze land use in the agricultural sector of the Delta and to track the links with final demand. In addition, the Hypothetical Extraction Method is used to evaluate the importance of the hypothetical disappearance of a sector (e.g., agriculture. The results show that, in the case of the Indian deltas, more than 60% of the cropland and pasture land is devoted to satisfying demands from regions outside the delta. While in the case of the Bangladeshi and Ghanaian deltas, close to 70% of the area harvested is linked to internal demand. The results also indicate that the services, trade and transportation sectors represent 50% of the GDP in the deltas. Still, agriculture, an activity directly exposed to climate change, plays a relevant role in the deltas’ economies—we have estimated that the complete disappearance of this activity would entail GDP losses ranging from 18 to 32%.

  20. Changes in the policy environment for infant and young child feeding in Vietnam, Bangladesh, and Ethiopia, and the role of targeted advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jody; Frongillo, Edward A; Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Menon, Purnima

    2017-06-13

    There is limited literature examining shifts in policy environments for nutrition and infant and young child feeding (IYCF) over time, and on the potential contribution of targeted advocacy to improved policy environments in low- and middle-income countries. This study tracked changes in the policy environment over a four-year period in three countries, and examined the role of targeted nutrition and IYCF advocacy strategies by a global initiative. Qualitative methods, including key informant interviews, social network mapping, document and literature review, and event tracking, were used to gather data on nutrition and IYCF policies and programs, actor networks, and perceptions and salience of nutrition as an issue in 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Vietnam. Theoretical frameworks from the policy sciences were used to analyze policy change over time, and drivers of change, across countries. The written policy environment improved to differing extents in each country. By 2014, the discourse in all three countries mirrored international priorities of stunting reduction and exclusive breastfeeding. Yet competing nutrition priorities such as acute malnutrition, food insecurity, and nutrition transitions remained in each context. Key actor groups in each country were government, civil society, development partners and the private sector. Infant formula companies, in particular, emerged as key players against enforcement of IYCF legislation. The role of a targeted IYCF advocacy and policy support initiative was well-recognized in supporting multiple facets of the policy environment in each country, ranging from alliances to legislation and implementation support. Despite progress, however, government commitment to funding, implementation, and enforcement is still emerging in each country, thus challenging the potential impact of new and improved policies. Targeted policy advocacy can catalyze change in national nutrition and IYCF policy environments

  1. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Household Food Security and Child Anthropometry at Ages 5 and 8 Years in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L; Dearden, Kirk A; Crookston, Benjamin T; Fernald, Lia C; Stein, Aryeh D; Woldehanna, Tassew; Penny, Mary E; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor childhood nutritional status has lifetime effects and food insecurity is associated with dietary practices that can impair nutritional status. Objectives: We assessed concurrent and subsequent associations between food insecurity and height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index–for-age z scores (BMI-Zs); evaluated associations with transitory and chronic food insecurity; and tested whether dietary diversity mediates associations between food insecurity and nutritional status. Methods: We used data from the Young Lives younger cohort composed of children in Ethiopia (n = 1757), India (n = 1825), Peru (n = 1844), and Vietnam (n = 1828) recruited in 2002 (round 1) at ∼1 y old, with subsequent data collection at 5 y in 2006 (round 2) and 8 y in 2009 (round 3). Results: Children from food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs in all countries at 5 y (Ethiopia, −0.33; India, −0.53; Peru, −0.31; and Vietnam, −0.68 HAZ; all P anthropometry in Vietnam, but mediated to a lesser degree (8.4–19.3%) in other countries. Conclusions: In 4 countries, food insecurity at 5 y of age was associated with both HAZ and BMI-Z at age 8 y, although the association was attenuated after adjusting for other household factors and anthropometry at age 5 y, and remained significant only for the HAZ in Vietnam. PMID:26084361

  2. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Household Food Security and Child Anthropometry at Ages 5 and 8 Years in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L; Dearden, Kirk A; Crookston, Benjamin T; Fernald, Lia C; Stein, Aryeh D; Woldehanna, Tassew; Penny, Mary E; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-08-01

    Poor childhood nutritional status has lifetime effects and food insecurity is associated with dietary practices that can impair nutritional status. We assessed concurrent and subsequent associations between food insecurity and height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index-for-age z scores (BMI-Zs); evaluated associations with transitory and chronic food insecurity; and tested whether dietary diversity mediates associations between food insecurity and nutritional status. We used data from the Young Lives younger cohort composed of children in Ethiopia (n = 1757), India (n = 1825), Peru (n = 1844), and Vietnam (n = 1828) recruited in 2002 (round 1) at ∼1 y old, with subsequent data collection at 5 y in 2006 (round 2) and 8 y in 2009 (round 3). Children from food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs in all countries at 5 y (Ethiopia, -0.33; India, -0.53; Peru, -0.31; and Vietnam, -0.68 HAZ; all P anthropometry in Vietnam, but mediated to a lesser degree (8.4-19.3%) in other countries. In 4 countries, food insecurity at 5 y of age was associated with both HAZ and BMI-Z at age 8 y, although the association was attenuated after adjusting for other household factors and anthropometry at age 5 y, and remained significant only for the HAZ in Vietnam. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  4. Possible dietary protective factors in relation to the distribution of duodenal ulcer in India and Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaraj, A P; Tovey, F I; Clark, C G

    1980-01-01

    In India there are regions of high incidence and regions of low incidence of duodenal ulcer. Rats prefed for two weeks on diets from low incidence areas developed significantly fewer rumenal ulcers after pyloric ligation than rats fed on diets from high incidence areas. The protective action was found in various individual items of food taken from the diets of low incidence areas. Unrefined wheat and rice, certain pulses (black gram, green gram, horse gram), some millets (sava, kutki, ragi), ...

  5. Cross-sectional time series analysis of associations between education and girl child marriage in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, 1991-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Raj

    Full Text Available Girl education is believed to be the best means of reducing girl child marriage (marriage 20% of girl child marriage- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan.Cross-sectional time series analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS from 1991 to 2011 in the four focal nations. Analyses were restricted to ever-married women aged 20-24 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of highest level of education received (none, primary, secondary or higher on age at marriage (<14, 14-15, 16-17, 18 and older.In Bangladesh and Pakistan, primary education was not protective against girl child marriage; in Nepal, it was protective against marriage at <14 years (AOR = 0.42 but not for older adolescents. Secondary education was protective across minor age at marriage categories in Bangladesh (<14 years AOR = 0.10; 14-15 years AOR = .25; 16-17 years AOR = 0.64 and Nepal (<14 years AOR = 0.21; 14-15 years AOR = 0.25; 16-17 years AOR = 0.57, but protective against marriage of only younger adolescents in Pakistan (<14 years AOR = 0.19; 14-15 years AOR = 0.23. In India, primary and secondary education were respectively protective across all age at marriage categories (<14 years AOR = 0.34, AOR = 0.05; 14-15 years AOR = 0.52, AOR = 0.20; 16-17 years AOR = 0.71, AOR = 0.48.Primary education is likely insufficient to reduce girl child marriage in South Asia, outside of India. Secondary education may be a better protective strategy against this practice for the region, but may be less effective for prevention of marriage among older relative to younger adolescents.

  6. The hydrocarbon potential of the West Bengal basin of Eastern India and Western Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.V.; Lenengerger, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    Within the Bengal Basin is an extensively developed Eocene shelf system with fair to good potential for stratigraphic oil accumulations. The best quality data available to evaluate this play are from the Bogra Shelf area of Bangladesh. Within this general area Stanvac participated in the drilling of 13 wells in the late 1950's, including critical wells on the Bogra Shelf. This well data, combined with modern excellent quality seismic data, has allowed definition of a geological and geophysical constrained hydrocarbon system model. Potential source, reservoir and seal units can be identified or postulated from both well and seismic data within the Eocene depositional systems tracts. The most promising potential source rock unit identified on the Bogra Shelf to date are Upper Jalangi (Early Ecocene) shales containing oil-prone kerogens that average 4.7% TOC. Four wells, structurally up-dip of the defined play area, have good oil shows in thermally immature Jalangi sands indicating possible up dip migration. Reservoir strata have not been penetrated on the Bogra Shelf. Based basin modelling and seismic data, however, a foraminiferal grain stone facies within the Middle Eocene Sylthet Limestone carbonate buildups could provide a suitable reservoir. The tight micritic facies within the Sylhet Limestone and the overlying late Eocene Kopilli Shale form the updip, lateral and top seals for these stratigraphic traps. Exploration risks associated with this play include the following: (1) Limited drainage areas for the identified leads; (2) Carbonate build-ups may be perched on impermeable strata, precluding vertical charging; (3) presence, and up-dip limit of reservoir is speculative. (author)

  7. The ‘Agency of Mapping’ in South Asia: Galle-Matara (Sri Lanka, Mumbai (India and Khulna (Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Shannon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The territories – cities and landscapes – of South Asia are under incredible transformation due to man-made and natural conditions. Globalisation is spatially leaving its imprint as cities and landscapes are progressively being built by an ever-more fragmented, piecemeal and ad-hoc project modus – funded by established and new-found fortunes of national and international developers and lenders, development aid projects and (often corrupt governments. At the same time, ‘natural’ disasters are increasing in severity and frequency – due to climate change and the flagrant disregard of the environment in the relentless dive to impose imported terms of reference for modernisation and urbanisation. The challenges and strategic importance of realising urban design in South Asia’s contemporary context of borrowed visions, abstract land-use planning and a diminishing political will are, obviously, innumerable. How to qualitatively intervene as an urbanist in such a context? This paper will argue that an understanding of contexts, based on fieldwork, is necessary in order to project feasible urban visions and strategic urban design projects that can make more evident particular sites’ inherent qualities and creatively marry ecological, infrastructural, and urbanisation issues by solutions that cut across multiple scales and sectoral divisions. Interpretative mapping is a first step to transform a territory. An understanding of the context and the reading of sites are necessary in order to create modifications that have logic and relate to the particularities of places and situations. Three scales of mapping (territorial, urban, and tissue will be presented. The territories/cities investigated are the southwest (Galle-Matara coast of Sri Lanka, Mumbai, the economic engine of India, and Khulna, the third largest city in Bangladesh.

  8. Cross-Sectional Time Series Analysis of Associations between Education and Girl Child Marriage in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, 1991-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus; Silverman, Jay G.; Rusch, Melanie L. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Girl education is believed to be the best means of reducing girl child marriage (marriage Asia, where the majority of girl child marriages occur, substantial improvements in girl education have not corresponded to equivalent reductions in child marriage. This study examines the levels of education associated with female age at marriage over the previous 20 years across four South Asian nations with high rates (>20%) of girl child marriage- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Methods Cross-sectional time series analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 1991 to 2011 in the four focal nations. Analyses were restricted to ever-married women aged 20–24 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of highest level of education received (none, primary, secondary or higher) on age at marriage (education was not protective against girl child marriage; in Nepal, it was protective against marriage at education was protective across minor age at marriage categories in Bangladesh (education were respectively protective across all age at marriage categories (education is likely insufficient to reduce girl child marriage in South Asia, outside of India. Secondary education may be a better protective strategy against this practice for the region, but may be less effective for prevention of marriage among older relative to younger adolescents. PMID:25203635

  9. Cross-sectional time series analysis of associations between education and girl child marriage in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, 1991-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus; Silverman, Jay G; Rusch, Melanie L A

    2014-01-01

    Girl education is believed to be the best means of reducing girl child marriage (marriage globally. However, in South Asia, where the majority of girl child marriages occur, substantial improvements in girl education have not corresponded to equivalent reductions in child marriage. This study examines the levels of education associated with female age at marriage over the previous 20 years across four South Asian nations with high rates (>20%) of girl child marriage- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Cross-sectional time series analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 1991 to 2011 in the four focal nations. Analyses were restricted to ever-married women aged 20-24 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of highest level of education received (none, primary, secondary or higher) on age at marriage (education was not protective against girl child marriage; in Nepal, it was protective against marriage at education was protective across minor age at marriage categories in Bangladesh (education were respectively protective across all age at marriage categories (education is likely insufficient to reduce girl child marriage in South Asia, outside of India. Secondary education may be a better protective strategy against this practice for the region, but may be less effective for prevention of marriage among older relative to younger adolescents.

  10. Perceived effectiveness of text and pictorial health warnings for smokeless tobacco packages in Navi Mumbai, India, and Dhaka, Bangladesh: findings from an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Reid, Jessica L; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Dhumal, Gauri; Nargis, Nigar; Hussain, Akm Ghulam; Hammond, David

    2016-07-01

    To examine the perceived effectiveness of text and pictorial smokeless tobacco health warnings in India and Bangladesh, including different types of message content. An experimental study was conducted in Navi Mumbai, India (n=1002), and Dhaka, Bangladesh (n=1081). Face-to-face interviews were conducted on tablets with adult (≥19 years) smokeless tobacco users and youth (16-18 years) users and non-users. Respondents viewed warnings depicting five health effects, within one of the four randomly assigned warning label conditions (or message themes): (1) text-only, (2) symbolic pictorial, (3) graphic pictorial or (4) personal testimonial pictorial messages. Text-only warnings were perceived as less effective than all of the pictorial styles (p<0.001 for all). Graphic warnings were given higher effectiveness ratings than symbolic or testimonial warnings (p<0.001). No differences were observed in levels of agreement with negative attitudes and beliefs across message themes, after respondents had viewed warnings. Pictorial warnings are more effective than text-only messages. Pictorial warnings depicting graphic health effects may have the greatest impact, consistent with research from high-income countries on cigarette warnings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Initial Teacher Training: South Asian Approaches. Quality in Basic Education: Professional Development of Teachers. Papers Prepared for a South Asian Colloquium on Teacher Training in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (Colombo, Sri Lanka, April 1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This publication is one of two prepared for a South Asian Colloquium on issues related to teacher training in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The papers in this volume focus on innovations and alternative strategies designed to improve quality in teacher education at preservice phase. The publication is in five sections. The first four…

  12. bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    End Date: 28 septembre 2015. Sujet: SMALL ENTERPRISES, TAX EXEMPTIONS, EMPLOYMENT CREATION, WOMEN, POLICY MAKING, INDIA, PAKISTAN, SRI LANKA, NEPAL, BANGLADESH. Région: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan. Programme: Emploi et croissance.

  13. Institutional and Regulatory Economics of Electricity Market Reforms: the Evidence from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bipulendu

    Five South Asian countries-- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka -- embarked on electricity market reforms in the 1990's. The dissertation uses the framework of New Institutional Economics to assess the effects on electricity sector performance of both observables elements of reform (i.e. privatization, unbundling, establishment of independent regulatory agencies etc.) as well as the unobservable elements (informal beliefs, habit, norms and culture of the actors involved in reforms). The first part of the dissertation -- econometric analysis of the relationship between observable electricity market reform measures and performance indicators -- finds that for the most part electricity market reforms in South Asia are having a positive impact on the performance of the sector. This is particularly the case for reforms that have increased private sector participation in generation and distribution and have vertically unbundled utilities into generation, transmission and distribution entities. Many of the reforms are positively correlated with higher tariffs, indicating a cost to the consumers from the reforms. The relationship between independent regulation and performance indicators , however, is not established. The second part of the dissertation - analytical narrative of the reform experiences of Gujarat and Nepal -- examines the informal elements (such as beliefs, norms, culture) that motivate behavior and explains how and why reform outcomes differed in these two places. The dissertation finds that the strength of formal institutions rules and the nature of social norms and customs have a significant influence on the outcome of reforms. Aided by the strength of its formal institutional framework and more evolved social norms and customs that encouraged people to follow formal rules, reforms in the Indian state of Gujarat were a success. The weakness of the formal institutional framework and the predominance of relation-based norms and customs in

  14. Identifying, monitoring and implementing "sustainable" agricultural practices for smallholder farmers over large geographic areas in India and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.; Nair, D.; Esteves, T.; Rudek, J.; Thu Ha, T.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small-holder farms (size partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and tens of thousands of farming families, we have worked actively in five states in India and two provinces in Vietnam for the last five years to understand how sustainable and climate smart farming practices can be monitored at small-holder farms. Here, any approach to monitor farming must begin by accounting for the tremendous management variability from farm to farm and also the current inability to ground-truth remote sensing data due to lack of relaible basic parameters (e.g., yields, N use, farm boundaries) which are necessary for calibrating empirical/biogeochemical models. While we continue to learn from new research, we have found that it is crucial to follow some steps if sustainable farming programs are to succeed at small-holder farms Demographic data collection and GPS plot demarcation to establish farm size and ownership Baseline nutrient, water & energy use and crop yield determination via surveys and self-reporting which are verifiable through farmer networks given the importance of peer to peer learning in the dissemination of new techniques in such landscapes "Sustainable" practice determination in consultation with local universities/NGO experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or empirical equations and establish which practices are truly "sustainable" (e.g., GHG emission reduction varies from 0-7 tCO2e/acre for different sustainable practices). Propagation of sustainable practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments after analyzing the replicability of identified farming practices in the light of local financial, cultural or socio-political barriers. We will present results from representative plots (including soil and weather parameters, GHG emissions, yields

  15. Career, collections, reports and publications of Dr Francis Buchanan (later Hamilton), 1762-1829: natural history studies in Nepal, Burma (Myanmar), Bangladesh and India. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark F; Noltie, Henry J

    2016-10-01

    During his 20-year career as a surgeon-naturalist with the British East India Company, Francis Buchanan (later Hamilton, known in botany as Buchanan-Hamilton and in ichthyology as Hamilton-Buchanan) undertook pioneering survey explorations in several diverse regions of the Indian subcontinent. A naturalist at heart, his collections of plants and animals are often the first from such regions, notably Nepal, Burma (Myanmar) and Bangladesh. Buchanan had wide-ranging interests beyond natural history, using his talent for observation and meticulous recording to amass a huge body of information on the lands and peoples he encountered. However, much of this information remains unpublished in his survey reports, journals and other manuscripts, and so his role in the building of knowledge for these areas has been under-appreciated. Although a keen and able botanist, it is ironic that his multitudinous botanical discoveries are particularly poorly known, with the vast majority of his material on this subject languishing unpublished in archival collections. These include his original records and working notes which show the methods he used when dealing with 'information overload' and arranging his syntheses ready for publication. Notable is his experimentation with Jussieu's Natural System for classifying his Nepalese plants, and his recognition of biogeographic links of the Nepalese flora with Europe and Japan - both ahead of his fellow countrymen in Britain and India. The life of Francis Buchanan awaits the attention of a biographer who can do justice to his many interests, activities and influences. This is the first of two papers covering his life, providing an empirical baseline for future research and correcting misinformation that abounds in the literature. These papers outline Buchanan's professional career, concentrating on his activities in the exploration of natural history, and placing them in the wider context of botanical research in India.

  16. Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Household Salt Iodine Content at the Sub-National Level in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Knowles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Regression analyses of data from stratified, cluster sample, household iodine surveys in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal were conducted to identify factors associated with household access to adequately iodised salt. For all countries, in single variable analyses, household salt iodine was significantly different (p < 0.05 between strata (geographic areas with representative data, defined by survey design, and significantly higher (p < 0.05 among households: with better living standard scores, where the respondent knew about iodised salt and/or looked for iodised salt at purchase, using salt bought in a sealed package, or using refined grain salt. Other country-level associations were also found. Multiple variable analyses showed a significant association between salt iodine and strata (p < 0.001 in India, Ghana and Senegal and that salt grain type was significantly associated with estimated iodine content in all countries (p < 0.001. Salt iodine relative to the reference (coarse salt ranged from 1.3 (95% CI 1.2, 1.5 times higher for fine salt in Senegal to 3.6 (95% CI 2.6, 4.9 times higher for washed and 6.5 (95% CI 4.9, 8.8 times higher for refined salt in India. Sub-national data are required to monitor equity of access to adequately iodised salt. Improving household access to refined iodised salt in sealed packaging, would improve iodine intake from household salt in all four countries in this analysis, particularly in areas where there is significant small-scale salt production.

  17. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    This discussion of India focuses on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. India's government views the population problem in the country as extremely serious particularly in relation to the alleviation of poverty. It was the 1st country to introduce a family planning program at the national level. Development plans have consistently treated the population situation as a priority issue. A relatively comprehensive system of data collection for demographic purposes has existed in India for a long time. The 1st census was conducted in 1872. The government has continually worked to maintain the integration of population concerns within overall development planning. The government regards population growth as an impediment to development and views the slow growth in per capita income as being due largely to the rapid population increase which continues to outpace the increases in the gross national product. The government perceives the current rate of population growth as unsatisfactory because it is too high. Mortality levels have dropped considerably, but the government still considers the situation with regard to mortality as unacceptable. In 1980 the UN estimated the infant mortality rate was 128.9 infant deaths/1000 live births for the 1975-80 period. The total fertility rate, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have dropped from 6.3 births per woman in 1960 to 6.0 in 1970 and 5.0 in 1980. The government has continuously indicated concern with fertility levels, perceiving the situation as unsatisfactory because its

  18. Understanding the causes and consequences of injuries to adolescents growing up in poverty in Ethiopia, Andhra Pradesh (India), Vietnam and Peru: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Virginia; Barnett, Inka; Vujcich, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that almost half of all premature deaths among 15- to 19-year olds can be attributed to injuries with most (95%) fatal injuries occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Yet the evidence base for adolescent injuries in low-income countries is poor. This article uses a mixed method approach to gain an understanding of patterns, causes and consequences of unintentional injuries among adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years in four low-income country settings. Survey data collected in 2009 in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam (from ~900 adolescents in each country) were integrated with qualitative research (conducted between 2007 and 2011) with a nested sample of older cohort children in Ethiopia (n = 25) and India (n = 25) using an iterative process. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine potential risk factors for injuries. Injuries were a concern for adolescents in all countries and occurred during work, recreation and sports or transportation. Being male was associated with an increased risk for all types of injuries, whereas being poor was only significantly associated with work injuries. Area of residence (urban vs rural) made a difference in some countries and for some kinds of injuries as did perceived health status. Qualitative findings highlight the consequences of injuries not only for the adolescents but also for the social and economic status of the entire household. Injury prevention programmes need to be specific to cultural and environmental settings, expectations of adolescent's responsibilities and responsive to the context of poverty.

  19. The burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam: baseline assessment for a rotavirus vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Dang Duc; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Fischer, Thea K; Canh, Do Gia; Minh, Truong Tan; Tho, Le Huu; Van Man, Nguyen; Luan, Le Thi; Kilgore, Paul; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Glass, Roger I

    2006-01-01

    In Vietnam, rotavirus is seen as a priority disease because studies have demonstrated that >50% of children hospitalized for treatment of diarrhea have rotavirus as the pathogen. To anticipate the availability of new vaccines, we have examined our field area in Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam, as a potential site to conduct a field trial of a future rotavirus vaccine. Data from a population census, incidence rates of diarrhea from a previous cholera vaccine trial and hospitalization rates from computerized records collected from the 2 main hospitals in the province were reviewed to estimate the burden of rotavirus-related diarrhea that might be expected during a field trial of a rotavirus vaccine. For a birth cohort of approximately 5000 children, we would expect approximately 2500 clinic visits and 650-850 hospitalizations for treatment of diarrhea, of which approximately 375-425 would be attributable to rotavirus. For the Vietnamese birth cohort of 1,639,000 children, these numbers translate into approximately 820,000 clinic visits, 122,000-140,000 hospitalizations and 2900-5400 deaths annually attributable to rotavirus-related diarrhea. Vietnam is an early adaptor of new vaccines, has high national coverage rates (>85%) for childhood immunization and receives international donor support for the introduction of new vaccines. We found the epidemiologic features of rotavirus in rural Vietnam to be more similar to those of rotavirus in a developed country than to those of rotavirus in India or Bangladesh.

  20. Intuitive weights of harm for therapeutic decision making in smear-negative pulmonary Tuberculosis: an interview study of physicians in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Rahman, Mahbubur; Harsha Kumar, H N; Shah, Mohsin; Hossain, Ahmed Manadir; Sayem, Md Abu; Moreira, Juan M; Van den Ende, Jef

    2014-08-08

    To estimate the amount of regret and weights of harm by omission and commission during therapeutic decisions for smear-negative pulmonary Tuberculosis. An interviewer-administered survey was done among young physicians in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh with a previously used questionnaire. The physicians were asked to estimate probabilities of morbidity and mortality related with disease and treatment and intuitive weights of omission and commission for treatment of suspected pulmonary Tuberculosis. A comparison with weights based on literature data was made. A total of 242 physicians completed the interview. Their mean age was 28 years, 158 (65.3%) were males. Median probability (%) of mortality and morbidity of disease was estimated at 65% (inter quartile range [IQR] 50-75) and 20% (IQR 8-30) respectively. Median probability of morbidity and mortality in case of occurrence of side effects was 15% (IQR 10-30) and 8% (IQR 5-20) respectively. Probability of absolute treatment mortality was 0.7% which was nearly eight times higher than 0.09% reported in the literature data. The omission vs. commission harm ratios based on intuitive weights, weights calculated with literature data, weights calculated with intuitive estimates of determinants adjusted without and with regret were 3.0 (1.4-5.0), 16 (11-26), 33 (11-98) and 48 (11-132) respectively. Thresholds based on pure regret and hybrid model (clinicians' intuitive estimates and regret) were 25 (16.7-41.7), and 2(0.75-7.5) respectively but utility-based thresholds for clinicians' estimates and literature data were 2.9 (1-8.3) and 5.9 (3.7-7.7) respectively. Intuitive weight of harm related to false-negatives was estimated higher than that to false-positives. The mortality related to treatment was eightfold overestimated. Adjusting expected utility thresholds for subjective regret had little effect.

  1. Gendered effects of siblings on child malnutrition in South Asia: cross-sectional analysis of demographic and health surveys from Bangladesh, India, and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus P; Silverman, Jay G

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of number and sex of siblings on malnutrition of boys and girls under-5 in South Asia. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys data on children under-5 in Bangladesh (N = 7,861), India (N = 46,655) and Nepal (N = 2,475). Data were pooled across countries, and multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between number and sex of siblings and malnutrition outcomes (wasting, stunting, underweight; based on anthropometric data), adjusting for country and key social and maternal-child health indicators in sex stratified analyses. Number of brothers increased the odds for severe wasting [1 vs. 0 brothers adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.31, 95 % CI = 1.11, 1.55; 2 vs. 0 brothers AOR = 1.36, 95 % CI = 1.07, 1.73] for girls but not boys. Having more male siblings and more female siblings increased the odds of stunting for boys and girls, but effect of 3+ sisters on severe stunting was significantly stronger for girls than boys (girls- 3+ vs. 0 sisters AOR = 2.25, 95 % CI = 1.88, 2.70; boys- 3+ vs. 0 sisters AOR = 1.37, 95 % CI = 1.13, 1.67). For underweight, three or more sisters increased the odds for severe underweight for girls (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI = 1.04, 1.57) but not boys. Having brothers heightens girl risk for acute malnutrition (wasting), where having multiple sisters increases girl risk for chronic malnutrition (stunting/underweight). Boy malnutrition is less affected by siblings. Findings suggest that issues of son preference/daughter aversion may affect child malnutrition in South Asia.

  2. Epidemic of HIV coupled with hepatitis C virus among injecting drug users of Himalayan West Bengal, Eastern India, Bordering Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Kamalesh; Bal, Baishali; Mukherjee, Rita; Chakraborty, Sekhar; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Saha, Malay Kumar; Bhattacharya, Sujit Kumar

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted in June 2004 to find out the epidemiology of HIV infection among injecting drug users (IDUs) of Darjeeling District of West Bengal, eastern India. The district headquarter, Darjeeling town, also known as "Queen of Hills," is a beautiful spot situated in Himalayan West Bengal that attracts a large number of tourists each year from all over the world. Another unique feature of the district is that it has international boundaries with three countries, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. Siliguri, the part of the district on plains, acts as a transit station for these countries as well as to the entire Himalayan region of West Bengal and neighboring state, Sikkim. It is also a transit point to all northeastern states of India: Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, and Tripura. Two hundred twenty-eight study subjects (IDUs) were included in this community-based cross-sectional study from all four subdivisions of the district. Informed consent was obtained, and then personal interviews, followed by blood testing were performed using unlinked anonymous procedure. The study revealed that overall HIV seroprevalence among IDUs was 11.8% (n = 27; 95% confidence interval, 7.9-16.7), whereas seroprevalence of hepatitis C was found to be 47.7% (n = 97). Prevalence of HIV was higher in subjects from hill districts (13.5%) compared with subjects from the plains (9.2%). It also revealed that most IDUs (75.3%) used "brown sugar," an impure form of heroin, as their major addictive substance followed by injection norphine. Sharing of injecting equipment was found to be as high as 67% among IDUs, and sharing of drugs from common ampules was found to be 35.5% of the studied subjects (n = 93). Most subjects (96%) were found to clean their injecting paraphernalia with plain water. Most IDUs (98%) were found to inject intravenously. About 52% of IDUs visited sex workers one or more times within the last 1 year, and 15% of the interviewed subjects

  3. Vietnam Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, George

    1990-01-01

    Reflections of an Associated Press special correspondent on a return visit to Vietnam 15 years after the war. Discusses the social and economic impact of the war on Vietnam. Examines the plight of the Vietnamese who served in the U.S. military, discussing the problems of Amerasians. Recounts the efforts of U.S. veterans to rebuild Vietnam. (RW)

  4. Digital Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Masudul Alam Choudhury

    2013-01-01

    The present fever to launch an extensive digitalization program is sweeping the Bangladesh political, business, and elitist minds. In the face of an overarching outlook of sustainable development the Bangladesh digitalization program runs into some grave questions. The paper points out that ethics as a strongly endogenous force in development is indispensable to keep in view the simultaneity of attaining growth and social justice. These targets are variously manifested in different sectors an...

  5. Bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan. Financement total : CA$ 390,500.00. Évaluation des politiques de lutte contre le tabagisme au Bangladesh. Projet. En 2005, le Bangladesh a adopté sa première loi de vaste portée visant à contrer la prévalence élevée du ...

  6. Relative importance of 13 correlates of child stunting in South Asia: Insights from nationally representative data from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rockli; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Corsi, Daniel J; Aguayo, Víctor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-08-01

    Optimal growth and development in early childhood is determined by a complex interplay of child, maternal, household, environmental, and socioeconomic factors that influence nutritional intake, but interventions to reduce child undernutrition sometimes target specific risk factors in isolation. In this analysis, we assess the relative importance of 13 correlates of child stunting selected based on a collective review of existing multi-factorial frameworks: complementary feeding, breastfeeding, feeding frequency, dietary diversity, maternal height, body mass index (BMI), education, age at marriage, child vaccination, access to improved drinking source and sanitation facilities, household indoor air quality, and household wealth. The analytic sample consisted of nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys for Bangladesh (2014), India (2005), Nepal (2011), and Pakistan (2013), and from the National Nutrition Survey for Afghanistan (2013). In the mutually adjusted logistic regression model for 3,159 infants aged 6-8 months, short maternal stature (OR: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.93-4.46) and lack of complementary foods (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.12-1.93) were associated with significantly higher risk of stunting. For 18,586 children aged 6-23 months, the strongest correlates of child stunting were: maternal height (OR: 3.37, 95% CI: 2.82-4.03), household wealth (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.72-2.94), maternal BMI (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.27-2.00), minimum dietary diversity (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.27-1.72), maternal education (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.18-1.56), and age at marriage (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.30). Full vaccination and minimum dietary frequency were also found to be important for severe stunting for children of this age group. Some differences were found in the relative ordering and statistical significance of the correlates in country-specific analyses. Our findings indicate that comprehensive strategies incorporating a broader progress

  7. Using Theories of Change to inform implementation of health systems research and innovation: experiences of Future Health Systems consortium partners in Bangladesh, India and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paina, Ligia; Wilkinson, Annie; Tetui, Moses; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Barman, Debjani; Ahmed, Tanvir; Mahmood, Shehrin Shaila; Bloom, Gerry; Knezovich, Jeff; George, Asha; Bennett, Sara

    2017-12-28

    The Theory of Change (ToC) is a management and evaluation tool supporting critical thinking in the design, implementation and evaluation of development programmes. We document the experience of Future Health Systems (FHS) Consortium research teams in Bangladesh, India and Uganda with using ToC. We seek to understand how and why ToCs were applied and to clarify how they facilitate the implementation of iterative intervention designs and stakeholder engagement in health systems research and strengthening. This paper combines literature on ToC, with a summary of reflections by FHS research members on the motivation, development, revision and use of the ToC, as well as on the benefits and challenges of the process. We describe three FHS teams' experiences along four potential uses of ToCs, namely planning, communication, learning and accountability. The three teams developed ToCs for planning and evaluation purposes as required for their initial plans for FHS in 2011 and revised them half-way through the project, based on assumptions informed by and adjusted through the teams' experiences during the previous 2 years of implementation. All teams found that the revised ToCs and their accompanying narratives recognised greater feedback among intervention components and among key stakeholders. The ToC development and revision fostered channels for both internal and external communication, among research team members and with key stakeholders, respectively. The process of revising the ToCs challenged the teams' initial assumptions based on new evidence and experience. In contrast, the ToCs were only minimally used for accountability purposes. The ToC development and revision process helped FHS research teams, and occasionally key local stakeholders, to reflect on and make their assumptions and mental models about their respective interventions explicit. Other projects using the ToC should allow time for revising and reflecting upon the ToCs, to recognise and document the

  8. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION, MIGRATION, GENDER ANALYSIS, POLICY MAKING, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT, ADAPTATION, Gender. Region: Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana, India. Program: Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia. Total Funding: CA$ 12,455,362.00.

  9. All projects related to bangladesh | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Climate change, MIGRATION, GENDER ANALYSIS, POLICY MAKING, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT, ADAPTATION. Region: Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana, India. Program: Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 12,455,362.00. Himalayan Adaptation, Water, and Resilience. Project. This research project ...

  10. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand. Total Funding: CA$ ... Topic: TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS, INFORMATION CENTRES, COMMUNITY FACILITIES. Region: Far ... Topic: TOBACCO, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, CROP DIVERSIFICATION. Region: ...

  11. An export gas pipeline for Bangladesh; Un gazoduc d'exportation pour le Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-08-01

    Unocal, one of the few foreign company operating in Bangladesh, has submitted in November 2001 a proposal of gas pipeline for the export of natural gas towards India and which should link the Bibiyana field to the main gas network of India: the Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) gas pipeline. However, the project of export of natural gas to India is a subject of controversy and the government has postponed several times its decision. (J.S.)

  12. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  13. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  14. Telecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The second generation of telecentres has seen the emergence of national-level networks in various parts of the word including the Ugandan Telecentre Network, Mission 2007 in India and Mission Swaabhimaan in Nepal. Telecentre stakeholders in Bangladesh would like to replicate the methodology used in Mission 2007, ...

  15. Doctoral level research and training capacity in the social determinants of health at universities and higher education institutions in India, China, Oman and Vietnam: a survey of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farhad; Shet, Arun; Yan, Weirong; Al-Maniri, Abdullah; Atkins, Salla; Lucas, Henry

    2017-09-02

    Research capacity is scarce in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. Social determinants of health research (SDH) is an area in which research capacity is lacking, particularly in Asian countries. SDH research can support health decision-makers, inform policy and thereby improve the overall health and wellbeing of the population. In order to continue building this capacity, we need to know to what extent training exists and how challenges could be addressed from the perspective of students and staff. This paper aims to describe the challenges involved in training scholars to undertake research on the SDH in four Asian countries - China, India, Oman and Vietnam. In-depth interviews were conducted with research scholars, research supervisors and principal investigators (n = 13) at ARCADE partner institutions, which included eight universities and research institutes. In addition, structured questionnaires (n = 70) were used to collect quantitative data relating to the courses available, teaching and supervisory capacity, and related issues for students being trained in research on SDH. Simple descriptive statistics were calculated from the quantitative data and thematic analysis applied to the qualitative data. We identified a general lack of training courses focusing on SDH. Added to this, PhD students studying related areas reported inadequate supervision, with limited time allocated to meetings and poor interpersonal communication. Supervisors cited interpersonal communication problems and student lack of skills to perform high quality research as challenges to research training. Further challenges reported included a lack of research funding to include SDH-related topics. Finally, it was suggested that there was a need for institutions to define clear and appropriate standards regarding admission and supervision of students to higher education programs awarding doctoral degrees. There are gaps in training for research on the SDH at the surveyed

  16. India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Interest has grown recently in the issues of third tier or emerging nuclear suppliers. These are states that could export nuclear equipment, services, or technology but are outside the export control framework of the London Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG). The concern is that they may conduct nuclear trade without adequate safeguards, thus weakening the nonproliferation regime or even contributing to nuclear proliferation. The volume of nuclear sales by emerging suppliers is still minuscule, and it is unclear how far their export practices will diverge from the NSG framework. This case study of Indian nuclear supplier capability and practice is an effort to discern the type of path India is likely to adopt. This paper examines four aspects of India's nuclear activity for clues to India's potential role as an emerging nuclear supplier: foreign transactions; nuclear decision making; policy norms; and nuclear industrial capabilities

  17. What can dissaving tell us about catastrophic costs? Linear and logistic regression analysis of the relationship between patient costs and financial coping strategies adopted by tuberculosis patients in Bangladesh, Tanzania and Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Jason; Lönnroth, Knut; Laokri, Samia; Squire, Stephen Bertel

    2015-10-22

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem which affects poorest individuals the worst. A high proportion of patients incur 'catastrophic costs' which have been shown to result in severe financial hardship and adverse health outcomes. Data on catastrophic cost incidence is not routinely collected, and current definitions of this indicator involve several practical and conceptual barriers to doing so. We analysed data from TB programmes in India (Bangalore), Bangladesh and Tanzania to determine whether dissaving (the sale of assets or uptake of loans) is a useful indicator of financial hardship. Data were obtained from prior studies of TB patient costs in Bangladesh (N = 96), Tanzania (N = 94) and Bangalore (N = 891). These data were analysed using logistic and linear multivariate regression to determine the association between costs (absolute and relative to income) and both the presence of dissaving and the amounts dissaved. After adjusting for covariates such as age, sex and rural/urban location, we found a significant positive association between the occurrence of dissaving and total costs incurred in Tanzania and Bangalore. We further found that, for patients in Bangalore an increase in dissaving of $10 USD was associated with an increase in the cost-income ratio of 0.10 (p total costs of $7 USD (p costs that does not require usage of complex patient cost questionnaires. It also offers an informative indicator of financial hardship in its own right, and could therefore play an important role as an indicator to monitor and evaluate the impact of financial protection and service delivery interventions in reducing hardship and facilitating universal health coverage. Further research is required to understand the patterns and types of dissaving that have the strongest relationship with financial hardship and clinical outcomes in order to move toward evidence-based policy making.

  18. in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwel Rana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . About 8,900 people are living with HIV/AIDS, and 1,000 AIDS-related deaths had been reported in Bangladesh by the end of 2014. Objectives . The study investigates the social determinants of awareness and behavior regarding STDs and HIV/AIDS among ever married women in Bangladesh. Material and methods. This cross-sectional research extracted data concerning 17,828 ever married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS in 2014. The chi-square (χ2 and multinomial logistic regression model were used to identify the factors associated with knowledge, awareness and behavior concerning STDs and HIV/AIDS. Results . Overall, 28.6% of examined ever married women have never heard of STDs or HIV/AIDS nor any of their prevention methods. Also, only 15.6% of reported women were the decision makers regarding the use of contraception during sexual intercourse, and 91.3% of women had the capacity to refuse sexual contact with their STD-infected husband/partner. Women who belong to households classified as lower class (OR = 0.525, 95% CI = 0.461–0.598 or middle class (OR = 0.643, 95% CI = 0.564–0.733 had less comprehensive knowledge and awareness of STDs and HIV/AIDS than those categorized as upper class. Women at a level of education below secondary (OR = 0.200, 95% CI = 0.179–0.223 also had less comprehensive knowledge and awareness than highly educated women. Moreover, women living in an urban residence (OR = 1.141, 95% CI = 1.003–1.297 were more likely to make the decision of using contraception and (OR = 1.546, 95% CI = 1.351–1.770 more likely to refuse sexual contact with an STD-infected husband/partner than their rural counterparts. Formally unemployed women (OR = 0.894, 95% CI = 0.793–1.010 were less likely to refuse sexual intercourse with an STD-infected husband than employed women. Conclusions . Social determinants such as education, wealth and media exposure determine the level of knowledge and awareness

  19. Spotlight: Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Vietnam, with 57 million people, ranks as the world's 13th most populous country with much of the population concentrated in the rice producing areas of the coastal lowlands and the Mekong and Red River valleys. Since reunification, economic recovery has been difficult. Following the failure of the 1976-80 5-Year Plan, the 1981-85 Plan calls for increased food production and the attainment of self sufficiency. Part of this policy is the reduction of the population growth rate. Vietnam's labor force is about 70% agricultural, with women making up about 2/3 of the farm work force. Most heavy industry is in the North and, although badly damaged in the war, has regained much of its capacity. Coal continues to be Vietnam's leading export. The country's extensive forests also provide great potential for the lumber industry and Vietnam has recently begun offshore oil production. Yet, recovery has been elusive. Foreign aid now comes from the Soviet Union, China, Eastern Europe, and France. In recent years the foreign trade balance has improved, but there have been some setbacks in food production. Efforts to raise food production by encouraging private development of unused land have not been very successful, partly because of the continuing shortage of fertilizers, farm machinery, and insecticides. It is also likely that economic progress has been retarded by large military expenditures necessitated by the wars with Cambodia and China. 1 of the government's major efforts has been a large scale population redistribution from urban areas to the less densely inhabited provinces. New Economic Zones have been established in these areas in the hope that new residents will become self sufficient as soon as possible. As part of its national policy, the government has set a goal to reduce the rate of population growth to 1.5% by 1981 through the National Family Planning Program. Officially reported crude birthrates reflect a decline in fertility from about 40/1000 population in

  20. 76 FR 23972 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ..., Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders AGENCY: Import... People's Republic of China (PRC), Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam) would be... orders on shrimp from Brazil, India, the PRC, Thailand, and Vietnam, pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

  1. Bangladeshi gas misses India's energy drive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaraswamy, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    By allowing gas exports to be hijacked by partisan politics, Bangladesh not only failed to adopt a professional approach to a sensitive issue but also enabled India to look for attractive alternative markets. (author)

  2. Using Observational Data to Estimate the Effect of Hand Washing and Clean Delivery Kit Use by Birth Attendants on Maternal Deaths after Home Deliveries in Rural Bangladesh, India and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Nadine; Prost, Audrey; Copas, Andrew; Corbin, Marine; Li, Leah; Colbourn, Tim; Osrin, David; Neuman, Melissa; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Cortina-Borja, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Globally, puerperal sepsis accounts for an estimated 8-12% of maternal deaths, but evidence is lacking on the extent to which clean delivery practices could improve maternal survival. We used data from the control arms of four cluster-randomised controlled trials conducted in rural India, Bangladesh and Nepal, to examine associations between clean delivery kit use and hand washing by the birth attendant with maternal mortality among home deliveries. We tested associations between clean delivery practices and maternal deaths, using a pooled dataset for 40,602 home births across sites in the three countries. Cross-sectional data were analysed by fitting logistic regression models with and without multiple imputation, and confounders were selected a priori using causal directed acyclic graphs. The robustness of estimates was investigated through sensitivity analyses. Hand washing was associated with a 49% reduction in the odds of maternal mortality after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.93). The sensitivity analysis testing the missing at random assumption for the multiple imputation, as well as the sensitivity analysis accounting for possible misclassification bias in the use of clean delivery practices, indicated that the association between hand washing and maternal death had been over estimated. Clean delivery kit use was not associated with a maternal death (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 0.62-2.56). Our evidence suggests that hand washing in delivery is critical for maternal survival among home deliveries in rural South Asia, although the exact magnitude of this effect is uncertain due to inherent biases associated with observational data from low resource settings. Our findings indicating kit use does not improve maternal survival, suggests that the soap is not being used in all instances that kit use is being reported.

  3. The role of negative affect and message credibility in perceived effectiveness of smokeless tobacco health warning labels in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh: A moderated-mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti-Packer, Seema; Reid, Jessica L; Thrasher, James F; Romer, Daniel; Fong, Geoffrey T; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Nargis, Nigar; Hammond, David

    2017-10-01

    There is strong evidence showing that pictorial health warnings are more effective than text-only warnings. However, much of this evidence comes from high-income countries and is limited to cigarette packaging. Moreover, few studies have identified mechanisms that might explain the impact of warnings. The current study examined the potential mediating role of negative affect and the moderating influence of message credibility in perceived effectiveness of smokeless tobacco warnings in two low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Field interviews were conducted in India and Bangladesh, with adult (19+ years) smokeless tobacco users (n=1053), and youth (16-18years) users (n=304) and non-users (n=687). Respondents were randomly assigned to view warnings in one of four conditions: (1) Text-only, (2) pictorial with symbolic imagery, (3) pictorial with graphic images of health effects, or (4) pictorial with personalized graphic images plus a personal testimonial. The findings provide support for the mediating influence of negative affect in perceived effectiveness, for adult and youth smokeless tobacco users who viewed pictorial warnings (vs. text-only), and graphic health warnings (vs. personal testimonials). Among adults, message credibility moderated the indirect effect; the association was stronger when credibility was high and weaker when it was low. Among youth users and non-users, message credibility did not moderate the indirect effect. Consistent with research from high-income countries, these findings highlight the importance of selecting imagery that will elicit negative emotional reactions and be perceived as credible. Differential effects among adults and youth highlight the importance of pre-testing images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Observational Data to Estimate the Effect of Hand Washing and Clean Delivery Kit Use by Birth Attendants on Maternal Deaths after Home Deliveries in Rural Bangladesh, India and Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Seward

    Full Text Available Globally, puerperal sepsis accounts for an estimated 8-12% of maternal deaths, but evidence is lacking on the extent to which clean delivery practices could improve maternal survival. We used data from the control arms of four cluster-randomised controlled trials conducted in rural India, Bangladesh and Nepal, to examine associations between clean delivery kit use and hand washing by the birth attendant with maternal mortality among home deliveries.We tested associations between clean delivery practices and maternal deaths, using a pooled dataset for 40,602 home births across sites in the three countries. Cross-sectional data were analysed by fitting logistic regression models with and without multiple imputation, and confounders were selected a priori using causal directed acyclic graphs. The robustness of estimates was investigated through sensitivity analyses.Hand washing was associated with a 49% reduction in the odds of maternal mortality after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.93. The sensitivity analysis testing the missing at random assumption for the multiple imputation, as well as the sensitivity analysis accounting for possible misclassification bias in the use of clean delivery practices, indicated that the association between hand washing and maternal death had been over estimated. Clean delivery kit use was not associated with a maternal death (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 0.62-2.56.Our evidence suggests that hand washing in delivery is critical for maternal survival among home deliveries in rural South Asia, although the exact magnitude of this effect is uncertain due to inherent biases associated with observational data from low resource settings. Our findings indicating kit use does not improve maternal survival, suggests that the soap is not being used in all instances that kit use is being reported.

  5. Expansion of syndromic vaccine preventable disease surveillance to include bacterial meningitis and Japanese encephalitis: evaluation of adapting polio and measles laboratory networks in Bangladesh, China and India, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Sandhu, Hardeep S; Hyde, Terri B; Johnson, Barbara W; Fischer, Marc; Mayer, Leonard W; Clark, Thomas A; Pallansch, Mark A; Yin, Zundong; Zuo, Shuyan; Hadler, Stephen C; Diorditsa, Serguey; Hasan, A S M Mainul; Bose, Anindya S; Dietz, Vance

    2015-02-25

    Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis with laboratory confirmation has been a key strategy in the global polio eradication initiative, and the laboratory platform established for polio testing has been expanded in many countries to include surveillance for cases of febrile rash illness to identify measles and rubella cases. Vaccine-preventable disease surveillance is essential to detect outbreaks, define disease burden, guide vaccination strategies and assess immunization impact. Vaccines now exist to prevent Japanese encephalitis (JE) and some etiologies of bacterial meningitis. We evaluated the feasibility of expanding polio-measles surveillance and laboratory networks to detect bacterial meningitis and JE, using surveillance for acute meningitis-encephalitis syndrome in Bangladesh and China and acute encephalitis syndrome in India. We developed nine syndromic surveillance performance indicators based on international surveillance guidelines and calculated scores using supervisory visit reports, annual reports, and case-based surveillance data. Scores, variable by country and targeted disease, were highest for the presence of national guidelines, sustainability, training, availability of JE laboratory resources, and effectiveness of using polio-measles networks for JE surveillance. Scores for effectiveness of building on polio-measles networks for bacterial meningitis surveillance and specimen referral were the lowest, because of differences in specimens and techniques. Polio-measles surveillance and laboratory networks provided useful infrastructure for establishing syndromic surveillance and building capacity for JE diagnosis, but were less applicable for bacterial meningitis. Laboratory-supported surveillance for vaccine-preventable bacterial diseases will require substantial technical and financial support to enhance local diagnostic capacity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam..., Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.\\1\\ Currently, the... From the People's Republic of China,Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist...

  7. Basic investigation project for energy consumption efficiency improvement in developing countries. Invitation of engineers from developing countries (Vietnam, Philippines, and India); Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa nado jigyo. Hatten tojokoku gijutsusha shohei jigyo (Betonamu, Philippines, Indo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The International Center of Environmental Technology Transfer has invited seven engineers from Vietnam, eight from Philippines and two from India for human resource education project for environmental preservation in developing countries. Those who were invited are administrative officials and engineers who work at administrative agents, research institutes and corporations related to energy conservation and environment preservation. In this invitation program, lecturers were invited from governmental offices, universities and corporations according to their expertise fields to carry out lectures and site training. With respect to energy conservation, lectures were given on a `summary of energy saving methods` by a lecturer invited from the Chubu Governmental Department of Trade and Industry, and on an `introduction to new energies` by Prof. Shimizu at the Engineering Faculty of the Mie University. Both lecturers emphasized the necessity of energy conservation, and importance of new energies as clean energies. The trainees showed strong interest when they visited a `cement factory` and a `coal burning thermal power plant` as the key industries. Their experience would be reflected strongly on guiding operations of factories in their own countries. 56 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-09-05

    Telecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011. Project. The second generation of telecentres has seen the emergence of national-level networks in various parts of the word including the Ugandan Telecentre Network, Mission 2007 in India and Mission Swaabhimaan in Nepal. Start Date: September 5, 2007.

  9. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan. Total Funding: CA$ 257,800.00. Human Rights and Peace Audit on Partition in South Asia - Phase II. Project. In South Asia, people's social, political and cultural aspirations often get articulated as movements for territorially defined political ...

  10. Bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: TOBACCO, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, CROP DIVERSIFICATION. Région: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Lebanon, Malawi, Viet Nam ... Mouvements transfrontaliers, migration des femmes et droits de la personne - une évaluation postcoloniale. Projet. Jusqu'à récemment, les femmes ont été exclues des analyses ...

  11. Bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet de recherche permettra à des femmes, des hommes et des enfants pauvres et vulnérables de faire face et de s'adapter aux changements climatiques dans la région asiatique de l'Hindu Kush-Himalaya. Sujet: ADAPTATION. Région: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan. Programme: Initiative de recherche ...

  12. Lancement d'un réseau de télécentres au Bangladesh - Mission 2011

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Telecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011. The second generation of telecentres has seen the emergence of national-level networks in various parts of the word including the Ugandan Telecentre Network, Mission 2007 in India and Mission... View moreTelecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011 ...

  13. Climate Change and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    strategy proposes programs for addressing food and water security, as well as greenhouse gas emission reductions. 19 Within the government, that...while mitigation issues may often be associated with industrial emissions, in Vietnam the principal sources of greenhouse gasses (GHG) are found in...Vietnam,” IFAD, accessed 15 October 2013, http://www.ifad.org. 12 Indonesia , Thailand in Vietnam. Within Vietnam specifically, ACCCRN is active in

  14. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  15. India’s strategic interests in South Asia and its aid to Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Nemova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Providing foreign aid to developing countries is one of the most important aspects of contemporary foreign politics. The article studies relations between India and Bangladesh from the perspective of foreign aid flows and discovers conditions, forms, mechanisms, and trends of India’s aid to Bangladesh from 1971 until today. The research uses the approach of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD towards foreign aid and understands it as financial assistance, technical assistance, as well as aid in goods in the form of grants and soft loans with the aim to provide economic development and well-being. The author analyzes factors of the geopolitical significance of Bangladesh for India and studies India’s aid to Bangladesh in the context of the history of bilateral relations between the two countries. As a result, a certain correlation is discovered between aid flows and the state of bilateral relations. China’s growing interest is seen as one of additional factors, which cause India to increase volumes of its aid to the neighboring countries, including Bangladesh. China and India are understood as emerging donors who are competing to increase their influence in the world. The two Asian giants have recently taken considerable aid commitments to Bangladesh which indicates that Bangladesh starts to play a more important role in the regional geopolitics. In this context, the article predicts a further growth in the volumes of Indian aid to Bangladesh in the future and concludes that India uses its foreign aid programs as a tool to promote its own economic, political, and strategic interests. Foreign aid, including official development assistance (ODA, is becoming a means of India’s economic diplomacy although some researchers point to the fact that the country’s policymakers still lack coordination to make aid efficient in terms of political gains.

  16. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Mohsin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130. Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80% of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not

  17. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Suri, Sushil; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kumar, H N Harsha; Rahman, Mahbubur; Islam, Md R; Pereira, Xavier V; Shah, Mohsin; Sathian, Brijesh; Shetty, Ullasa; Vaswani, Vina R

    2010-11-16

    Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130). Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80%) of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not systematically and should be included as a separate module

  18. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  19. A suture delta: the co-evolution of tectonics and sedimentology as a remnant ocean basin closes; the Indo Burman ranges, northeast India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Betka, P. M.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Zoramthara, C.

    2017-12-01

    The closure of an ocean basin involves the interplay of tectonics and sedimentology, whereby thick successions of fluvio-deltaic and shallow marine sediment accumulate in the closing gap between the subduction zone and passive margin. The transition from subduction to collision involves processes that are inherently time-transgressive and co-evolve to influence the nature of the developing tectonic wedge. The Indo-Burman Ranges (IBR) of eastern India present a unique opportunity to examine this scenario on a variety of spatial (10-2­­­-105 m2) and temporal (1 a-10 Ma) scales. Recent field mapping campaigns in the IBR have illuminated analogous depositional environments expressed in the Neogene outcrops of the IBR and the Holocene sediment archive of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD). Six distinct lithofacies are present in shallow-marine to fluvial strata of the IBR, containing sedimentary structures that reflect depositional environments correlative with the modern delta. Cyclical alternations of fine sands and silts in packages on the order of 15-20 cm thick define part of the shallow-marine section (M2 facies) that we interpret to represent the foreset beds of the ancient subaqueous delta. The overall scale and sedimentary structures of M2 compare favorably with modern foreset deposits in the Bay of Bengal. Tan-orange medium-grained, well sorted fluvial sandstone that contain large scale (1-10 m) tabular and trough cross bedding represent large-river channel deposits (F2 facies) that overlie the shallow marine strata. F2 deposits bear a striking resemblance in scale and character to bar deposits along the modern Jamuna River. Preliminary grain size analyses on the F2 facies yield grain size distributions that are remarkably consistent with Brahmaputra-sourced mid-Holocene sediments from Sylhet basin within the GBMD. Current research on the GBMD has revealed quantifiable trends in bed thicknesses, downstream fining, and grain size within fluvial

  20. Statistical coherence of primary schooling in IPUMS-International integrated population samples for China, India, Vietnam, and ten other Asia-Pacific countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaa, Robert; Cleveland, Lara; Kelly-Hall, Patricia; Ruggles, Steven; Sobek, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    IPUMS-International www.ipums.org/international disseminates harmonized census microdata for more than 80 countries at no cost, although access is restricted to bona-fide researchers and students who agree to the stringent conditions of use license. Currently over 270 samples are available, totalling more than 600 million person records. Each year 15-20 additional samples are released, as more countries cooperate with the IPUMS initiative and the integration of 2010 round census samples is completed. With so much microdata so readily available, questions of data quality naturally arise. This paper focusses on the concept of statistical coherence over time for a single concept, primary schooling completed. From an analysis of the percentage completing primary schooling by birth year for pairs of samples for thirteen Asia-Pacific countries, we find outstanding coherence for four-China, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Indonesia-with mean differences of less than 0.5 percentage points, regression coefficient (b) ranging from 0.93 to 1.07 and R 2 =.99. For the thirteen countries as a group there is considerable variation overall with mean absolute difference as high as 16 percentage points, b ranging from 0.62-1.44 and R 2 =.65-.99. As a whole, statistical coherence of primary schooling is outstanding. Nonetheless, to make expert use of the harmonized microdata, researchers are cautioned to carefully study the IPUMS integrated metadata as well as the original source documentation. National Statistical Offices not currently cooperating or that have not yet entrusted 2010 round census microdata are invited to do so.

  1. Statistical coherence of primary schooling in IPUMS-International integrated population samples for China, India, Vietnam, and ten other Asia-Pacific countries1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaa, Robert; Cleveland, Lara; Kelly-Hall, Patricia; Ruggles, Steven; Sobek, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    IPUMS-International www.ipums.org/international disseminates harmonized census microdata for more than 80 countries at no cost, although access is restricted to bona-fide researchers and students who agree to the stringent conditions of use license. Currently over 270 samples are available, totalling more than 600 million person records. Each year 15–20 additional samples are released, as more countries cooperate with the IPUMS initiative and the integration of 2010 round census samples is completed. With so much microdata so readily available, questions of data quality naturally arise. This paper focusses on the concept of statistical coherence over time for a single concept, primary schooling completed. From an analysis of the percentage completing primary schooling by birth year for pairs of samples for thirteen Asia-Pacific countries, we find outstanding coherence for four—China, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Indonesia—with mean differences of less than 0.5 percentage points, regression coefficient (b) ranging from 0.93 to 1.07 and R2 =.99. For the thirteen countries as a group there is considerable variation overall with mean absolute difference as high as 16 percentage points, b ranging from 0.62–1.44 and R2=.65–.99. As a whole, statistical coherence of primary schooling is outstanding. Nonetheless, to make expert use of the harmonized microdata, researchers are cautioned to carefully study the IPUMS integrated metadata as well as the original source documentation. National Statistical Offices not currently cooperating or that have not yet entrusted 2010 round census microdata are invited to do so. PMID:26478685

  2. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  3. Country report INDIA - MFS II EVALUATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R.; Bedi, A.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Ghosh, N.; Goderis, B.; Kumar Yadav, B.; Meesters, A.; Prasad Mohapatra, B.; Rao Sahib, P.; Sethi, S.; Sharma, P.; Srinivasan, S.; Klaver, D.C.; Desalos, C.B.; Hofstede, M.; Wadhwa, S.; Pandey, R.; Madaan, A.; Kalra, A.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Bhargava, S.; Buizer, N.N.; Kishore Das, A.; Wilson Bhatra, R.; Sen, P.; Bulte, E.; Pradhan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report on India is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - Eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - A synthesis report (covering

  4. 78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... (Preliminary)] Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan... reason of imports from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine..., Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam. Accordingly...

  5. All projects related to India | Page 14 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: WOMEN, MIGRANTS, FRONTIER MIGRATION, MIGRATION LAW, MIGRATION POLICY, IMMIGRATION LAW, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, GENDER EQUALITY. Region: Asia, Bangladesh, South and Central Asia, India, Nepal. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 136,000.00. Understanding Trauma and ...

  6. All projects related to India | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION, MIGRATION, GENDER ANALYSIS, POLICY MAKING, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT, ADAPTATION, Gender. Region: Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana, India. Program: Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia. Total Funding: CA$ 12,455,362.00.

  7. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Issue of Prisoners of War (POWS, 1971 and Recognition of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available After the surrender of Pakistan army, near about 93,000 Pakistani military personnel and civilians were taken to India as Prisoners of war (POWs. The UNO Security Council passed a resolution on December 21, 1971 calling upon the parties to observe the Geneva Convention and not to attach any conditions to the repatriation of the POWs. Article 118 of the Geneva Convention (1949 puts it as a condition that Prisoners of War must be repatriated immediately after the cessation of active hostilities. It also stipulates that detaining power is obliged to work out a plan for their repatriation. India declared as an afterthought that Pakistan Army had surrendered to joint command of India and Bangladesh and therefore it was not within the jurisdiction of India to repatriate the prisoners of war at her own. Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman, on the other hand, had declared that he would not take part in any meeting, bi-lateral or tri-lateral, unless Bangladesh was recognized by Pakistan. On August 28, 1973 India and Pakistan signed an agreement in Delhi to repatriate 93000 civil and military prisoners of war to Pakistan. Bengalis in Pakistan were to be returned to Bangladesh. Mujib Ur Rahman clung to his demand of trial of 195 war criminals. Bhutto insisted that Pakistan would not recognize Bangladesh until all prisoners of war were released. Recognition of Bangladesh by Pakistan in February 1974 led to rapprochement between the two countries. A tripartite agreement between India-Pakistan-Bangladesh signed in April 1974 resolved all contentious issues related to 1971 war and paved the way for return of 195 war criminals as well. The last batch of prisoners of war reached Lahore in April 1974.

  9. IDRC in Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC began supporting research in. Vietnam in the early 1990s, shortly after reforms known as Doi Moi launched the country's transition to a market economy. .... more information visit the regional office for Southeast and east Asia website: www.idrc.org.sg. Subscribe to the IDRC Bulletin: www.idrc.ca/idrcbulletin/. VIETNAM.

  10. Doing Business in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Thi Thu Yen; Nguyen, Hung Vo

    2005-01-01

    still reflects inheritances from the central plan system, Vietnam today has a vibrant economy with small businesses springing up at every street corner. Foreign investors have been flogging to Vietnam since the early 1990s, with a new peak of FDI inflow in 2004. This paper reviews the Vietnamese economy...

  11. Bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    À mesure que les pays de l'Asie du Sud s'acheminent vers une plus grande intégration économique, on voit apparaître tout un éventail de difficultés interreliées ayant trait aux garanties constitutionnelles et aux garanties des droits de la personne. End Date: 17 mars 2016. Sujet: PRISONS. Région: Bangladesh, India, Nepal ...

  12. bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adaptation, eau et résilience dans l'Himalaya. Projet. Ce projet de recherche permettra à des femmes, des hommes et des enfants pauvres et vulnérables de faire face et de s'adapter aux changements climatiques dans la région asiatique de l'Hindu Kush-Himalaya. Sujet: ADAPTATION, Gender. Région: Bangladesh, India ...

  13. bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand. Financement total : CA$ 137,926.00 ... L'économie du Malawi repose essentiellement sur la culture du tabac, qui représente plus de 70 % des revenus d'exportation. Date de début : 7 février 2008. End Date: 31 mai ...

  14. Bangladesh Jobs Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Farole, Thomas; Cho, Yoonyoung

    2017-01-01

    This Jobs Diagnostic presents the characteristics and constraints of the labor market in Bangladesh, identifies the objectives of the jobs agenda, and proposes a policy framework to progress toward them. This multisectoral diagnostic assesses the relationships between supply- and demand-side factors that interact to determine job creation, quality, and inclusion outcomes. Understanding the...

  15. To Arm or Not to Arm: The Case Against Arming Vietnam and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    India and the United States. While militarily weaker than China , Vietnam has asserted its claims most forcefully, and has a lengthy history of... China Sea is Unprecedented,” Business Insider India , http://www.businessinsider .in/ Chinas -Escalation-In-The-South- China -Sea-Is-Unprecedented...and separatist elements, other South China Sea rivals that are arming, and an India that increasingly appears to lean toward the United States. As

  16. Wheat Blast: A New Fungal Inhabitant to Bangladesh Threatening World Wheat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abu Sadat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available World wheat production is now under threat due to the wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh in early March 2016. This is a new disease in this area, indicating the higher possibility of this pathogen spreading throughout the Asia, the world’s largest wheat producing area. Occurrence of this disease caused ~3.5% reduction of the total wheat fields in Bangladesh. Its economic effect on the Bangladesh wheat market was little because wheat contributes to 3% of total cereal consumption, among which ~70% have been imported from other countries. However, as a long-term perspective, much greater losses will occur once this disease spreads to other major wheat producing areas of Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan due to the existing favorable condition for the blast pathogen. The wheat blast pathogen belongs to the Magnaporthe oryzae species complex causing blast disease on multiple hosts in the Poaceae family. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Bangladesh outbreak strains and the Brazil outbreak strains were the same phylogenetic lineage, suggesting that they might be migrated from Brazil to Bangladesh during the seed import. To protect wheat production of Bangladesh and its neighbors, several measures including rigorous testing of seed health, use of chemicals, crop rotation, reinforcement of quarantine procedures, and increased field monitoring should be implemented. Development of blast resistant wheat varieties should be a long-term solution and combination of different methods with partial resistant lines may suppress this disease for some time.

  17. VIETNAM AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: POTENTIALS ANDCHALLENGES ON THE LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Homlong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For several years Vietnam has been receiving attention as an attractive businesslocation for foreign companies. But in spite of overall positive economicdevelopments, foreign companies in Vietnam also experience challenges, e.g.connected to bureaucracy and corruption. Another issue that is of crucialimportance for foreign companies in foreign markets are the conditions on thelabor market. This paper investigates questions about the potentials andchallenges for foreign companies on the Vietnamese labor market, and of howattractive Vietnam’s labor market is compared to India and China.Educationlevels, productivity, wage levels, and number of strikes are among theindicators that are used to compare the attractiveness of Vietnam’s labor market tothe labor markets of China and India. Furthermore the results of almost 30interviews conducted withcompanies from Austria, Germany and Switzerland ontheir experiences with doing business in Vietnam are used to shed light on thestrengths and weaknesses of the labor market in Vietnam.

  18. First record of Ratanaworabhans’s Fruit Bat Megaerops niphanae Yenbutra & Felten, 1983 (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nurul Islam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This note provides a morphological confirmation of the occurrence of Ratanaworabhans’s Fruit Bat Megaerops niphanae in Bangladesh. Although previously recorded in neighbouring territories in India, this constitutes the first country record for the taxon and highlights the current incompleteness of faunal knowledge and potential for future discoveries in the country. Greater survey effort and sustained investments into developing taxonomic capacity and museum collections in Bangladesh are required to realize this potential however. 

  19. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, R.; Maluszynski, Y.; Maudarbocus, Y.; Cherif, H.S.; Morre, P.

    1993-12-01

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  20. Physics in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, Monica Pepe

    1994-01-01

    Vietnam is a country in rapid evolution, opening up communications with the rest of world and encouraging foreign investors. Although there is more ground to make up, the heady mixture of communism and free market they are aiming for is along the same lines as China. Jean Tran Thanh Van , who left Vietnam about forty years ago, judged that it was the right time to bring together Western and Vietnamese physicists. He promoted and organized the ''Rencontres du Vietnam'' on high energy physics and cosmology, which from December 13-18 brought together about one hundred physicists, half from Vietnam and half from abroad, in Hanoi for an intense programme to review the status of particle physics and its deep implications for cosmology

  1. Census in North Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1960-01-01

    This population census decree aims at collecting the most fundamental and accurate data on the population situation of North Vietnam to lay the foundation for all plans and public administration policies...

  2. Vietnam Report No. 2382

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    .... This document contains articles on Vietnam. Some topics discussed are military affairs and public security, international relations, trade, aid, economic planning, trade and finance, agriculture, heavy industry, construction, transportation...

  3. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  4. [Family planning in Bangladesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S

    1981-03-01

    The author participated in the family planning project in Bangladesh from August 1, 1977 to December 31, 1979. The population of Bangladesh was 81 million in 1977 with annual increase of 3%, and the government was aiming at zero population growth. The government guidelines emphasized family planning as an effort integrated with other community programs. The use of adult education classes, mass media, and agricultural field workers and the training of paramedical personnel were proposed. The project members' activities involved motivating the public to delay marriages, to space births and to limit the family size to two children (average family size 6.5 children) as well as distributing contraceptives, promoting IUD and sterilization. Sterilization campaign for women in DNN district, 30 km south of Dacca, was carried out as follows. The women who had signed up in advance arrived at the elementary school classroom, where 2 medical teams performed operations using the teachers' desks and the equipment rented from a hospital in Dacca. The general procedure involved a physical examination by a female doctor, checking blood pressure, changing into a brand new native gown, premedication by injection, total anesthesia and operation itself. The equipment was sterilized by boiling. The patients were carried on the stretchers to the other classroom where they recuperated, staying overnight on the straw mats on the mud floor. They went home on foot the next day. The shortage of food and resources, high unemployment rate and low standard of living are some of the social problems Bangladesh faces along with overpopulation.

  5. Motivating women. Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Integrated Family Development Program (IFDP) in Bangladesh is expanding from the original project areas in Panchdona Union and Dhalian Union into four neighboring unions under the initiative of the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB). The JOICFP-executed project entered its second cycle this year as part of the UNFPA-supported regional Capacity Building for Sustainable Community-based Reproductive Health/Family Planning (FP) Project Emphasizing Quality of Care. The community-based project has won wide acceptance from people at the grass roots who have helped fuel its expansion into other villages. In particular, villagers have welcomed the comprehensive approach of the project which integrates a range of components such as reproductive health including FP/maternal and child health (MCH), income-generating activities, skills and literacy education for women and children and primary health care including parasite control. The success of the project also convinced the Japanese Embassy in Bangladesh to extend funding under the Japanese government's Grant Assistance for Grass Roots Cooperation Projects. With the funds, FPAB will establish a Women's Multipurpose Training Center in Panchdona Union. The sum of US$68,157 was officially handed over to FPAB on March 29 by Japanese Ambassador Yoshikazu Kaneko. The center, which is to open within this year, will contribute to improving reproductive health and promoting the empowerment of women. Once completed, it will be used for such activities as training in health care, literacy and skills for income generation for women's empowerment. full text

  6. IS VIETNAM THE NEW ASIAN TIGER? SCOREBOARD ANDMACROECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE ATTRACTIVENESS FORFOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Homlong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Followingeconomies like China and India,alsoVietnamhas managed toincreaseits attractiveness for foreign direct investmentsin recent years. In contrast tomany European economies Vietnam had overcome the financial and economiccrisisin 2008 quicklyand turned back to high growth rates already in 2010/11.Nevertheless many European economies and companies still regard Vietnam as anunstable and fragile economy. Therefore the questions arisewhich generalinvestment conditions are of importance for companies that are investing abroad,and which factors make Vietnam attractive asa business locationfor foreigncompanies? After a presentation of stylized facts about Vietnam and a discussionof location theories and location factors, we develop a scoring method to evaluategeneral investment conditions. Eight of the member states of the European Unionin Central and Eastern Europeare used as reference groups to test the scoreboardrating tool, before it is applied for Vietnam.

  7. All projects related to india | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. A number of studies in recent years have reported disturbingly high levels of violence against women in the workplace. Region: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 675,900.00. Know Violence in Childhood – India: Advocacy, communication and media ...

  8. All projects related to India | Page 17 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-06-19

    End Date: June 19, 2008. Topic: TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS, INFORMATION CENTRES, COMMUNITY FACILITIES. Region: Far East Asia, Philippines, Central Asia, South Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal. Total Funding: CA$ 103,338.00. Informal Employment, Poverty and Growth in India and China.

  9. Formal and Informal Employment Growth in Manufacturing (India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agent(e) responsable du CRDI. Rodriguez, Mr. Edgard. Financement total. CAD$ 257,300. Pays. Asie du sud, Asie centrale, Extrême-Orient, Bangladesh, Inde. Chargé(e) de projet. Dr. Sandip Sarkar. Institution. Institute for Human Development. Pays d' institution. India. Extrants. Documents. Employment problem in India ...

  10. Formal and Informal Employment Growth in Manufacturing (India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research project focuses on the informal and formal manufacturing labour forces of India and Bangladesh, which comprise most of the poor in South Asia. ... IDRC is investing in local solutions to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.

  11. All projects related to india | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SOCIAL CONFLICTS, Governance, PEACE KEEPING, SAFETY, ETHNIC GROUPS, INTERETHNIC RELATIONS, POLICY MAKING. Region: Sri Lanka, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan. Total Funding: CA$ 25,200.00. Preparing States in India for Universal Health Coverage.

  12. MEDIA CONCERN AND TRENDS OF FERTILITY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Morad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how the media interprets Bangladeshian fertility trends by analyzing 11 online available articles from two Bangladeshi leading dailies, The Daily Star and the Prothom Alo. The exploration of the newspaper articles reveals that print media in Bangladesh has shown concern notably on the present scenario of the country’s declining fertility trend. It has been observed from the newspaper clippings that both population growth rate and fertility rate are gradually declining in Bangladesh which they explain as a matter of great satisfaction. Drawing on examples from South Asia, the articles explain that Bangladesh has a remarkable achievement in fertility reduction compared to India and Pakistan. However, almost all of the articles have expressed concern over the population bomb of Bangladesh. The newspapers also report that though fertility is declining at the national level, significant variation exists at the regional level and among different socio economic groups. The fertility rate is reported to be very high in the urban shanties and poverty-stricken rural areas. In this regard, the clippings have often criticized the government activities, especially governmental population control programme.

  13. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  14. india : tous les projets | Page 18 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: WOMEN, MIGRANTS, FRONTIER MIGRATION, MIGRATION LAW, MIGRATION POLICY, IMMIGRATION LAW, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, GENDER EQUALITY. Région: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 136,000.00.

  15. "He Doesn't Listen to My Words at All, So I Don't Tell Him Anything"-A Qualitative Investigation on Exposure to Second Hand Smoke among Pregnant Women, Their Husbands and Family Members from Rural Bangladesh and Urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cath; Huque, Rumana; Satyanarayana, Veena; Nasreen, Shammi; Kaur, Manpreet; Barua, Deepa; Bhowmik, Prashanta Nath; Guha, Mithila; Dherani, Mukesh; Rahman, Atif; Siddiqi, Kamran; Chandra, Prabha S

    2016-11-08

    Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy is associated with poor pregnancy and fetal outcomes. To design interventions to reduce exposure, an in depth understanding of social and cultural factors of smoking behavior at home is important, especially in South Asia where SHS exposure is high. This study aimed to explore pregnant women's, their husbands' and other family members' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding home SHS exposure. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 participants in Comilla, Bangladesh and 31 in Bangalore, India (36 pregnant women, 18 husbands, and 10 family members). Data were analyzed using the Framework approach. Husbands smoked in various living areas inside the home, often in the presence of their pregnant wives. Most had never tried to stop smoking at home. Knowledge of the risks was generally poor. Most women had repeatedly asked their husband to smoke outside with little success and only few family members had reprimanded the husbands. Husbands who had stopped did so because of requests from children and their mother. Potential strategies to decrease SHS exposure at home were educating the husband about risks and supporting the pregnant women in negotiation. Interventions must also enlist family support to enhance the woman's self-efficacy.

  16. “He Doesn’t Listen to My Words at All, So I Don’t Tell Him Anything”—A Qualitative Investigation on Exposure to Second Hand Smoke among Pregnant Women, Their Husbands and Family Members from Rural Bangladesh and Urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cath Jackson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Second hand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy is associated with poor pregnancy and fetal outcomes. To design interventions to reduce exposure, an in depth understanding of social and cultural factors of smoking behavior at home is important, especially in South Asia where SHS exposure is high. This study aimed to explore pregnant women’s, their husbands’ and other family members’ knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding home SHS exposure. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 participants in Comilla, Bangladesh and 31 in Bangalore, India (36 pregnant women, 18 husbands, and 10 family members. Data were analyzed using the Framework approach. Husbands smoked in various living areas inside the home, often in the presence of their pregnant wives. Most had never tried to stop smoking at home. Knowledge of the risks was generally poor. Most women had repeatedly asked their husband to smoke outside with little success and only few family members had reprimanded the husbands. Husbands who had stopped did so because of requests from children and their mother. Potential strategies to decrease SHS exposure at home were educating the husband about risks and supporting the pregnant women in negotiation. Interventions must also enlist family support to enhance the woman’s self-efficacy.

  17. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    This paper discusses the changing relationship between the EU and Vietnam, and asks whether there is a shift from a “parental” to a “competitive” relationship. The focus of the paper is on the shift from aid to trade as the main interface between the EU and Vietnam. Aid relationships are often...... understood as hierarchical, linking a benevolent donor to a needy recipient, whereas commercial relationships are typically expected to involve a more competitive relationship. However, we argue that the bilateral relationship was never a “parental” one, even at the time when Vietnam’s relation to the EU...... was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...

  18. Caring for Vietnam Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Veterans of the Vietnam era are now the largest group of United States Veterans, and are at or approaching Social Security and Medicare eligibility. As a result, it is likely that home care clinicians will be caring for many patients who are Vietnam Veterans. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of the unique healthcare needs of Vietnam Veterans. Having an understanding of military and Veteran culture can help inform home healthcare clinicians in ways to manage the unique healthcare needs of Veterans and engage previously learned behaviors and attitudes from military service. In addition, knowing the types of exposures and health risks specific to this era could be beneficial in identifying potential problems that may have not yet been addressed.

  19. A survey of arsenic in foodstuffs on sale in the United Kingdom and imported from Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Rmalli, S.W.; Haris, P.I.; Harrington, C.F.; Ayub, M.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element and its presence in food composites is a matter of concern to the well being of both humans and animals. Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is often used in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India) to irrigate crops used for food and animal consumption, which could potentially lead to arsenic entering the human food chain. In this study, we used graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy to determine the total arsenic concentrations in a range of foodstuffs, including vegetables, rice and fish, imported into the United Kingdom from Bangladesh. The mean and range of the total arsenic concentration in all the vegetables imported from Bangladesh were 54.5 and 5-540 μg/kg, respectively. The highest arsenic values found were for the skin of Arum tuber, 540 μg/kg, followed by Arum Stem, 168 μg/kg, and Amaranthus, 160 μg/kg. Among the other samples, freshwater fish contained total arsenic levels between 97 and 1318 μg/kg. The arsenic content of the vegetables from the UK was approximately 2- to 3-fold lower than those observed for the vegetables imported from Bangladesh. The levels of arsenic found in vegetables imported from Bangladesh in this study, in some cases, are similar to those previously recorded for vegetables grown in arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India, although lower than the levels reported in studies from Bangladesh. While the total arsenic content detected in our study in vegetables, imported from Bangladesh, is far less than the recommended maximum permitted level of arsenic, it does provide an additional source of arsenic in the diet. This raises the possibility that the level of arsenic intake by certain sectors of the UK population may be significantly higher then the general population and requires further investigations

  20. Molecular detection and genetic diversity of Babesia gibsoni in dogs in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Masashi; Akter, Shirin; Yasin, Md Golam; Nakao, Ryo; Kato, Hirotomo; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Katakura, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Babesia gibsoni is a tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasite of dogs that often causes fever and hemolytic illness. Detection of B. gibsoni has been predominantly reported in Asian countries, including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Bangladesh and India. The present study shows the first molecular characterization of B. gibsoni detected from dogs in Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected on FTA® Elute cards from 50 stray dogs in Mymensingh District in Bangladesh. DNA eluted from the cards was subjected to nested PCR for the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia species. Approximately 800bp PCR products were detected in 15 of 50 dogs (30%). Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and direct sequencing of the PCR products, all parasite isolates were identified as B. gibsoni. Furthermore, the BgTRAP (B. gibsoni thrombospondin-related adhesive protein) gene fragments were detected in 13 of 15 18S rRNA gene PCR positive blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the BgTRAP gene revealed that B. gibsoni parasites in Bangladesh formed a cluster, which was genetically different from other Asian B. gibsoni isolates. In addition, tandem repeat analysis of the BgTRAP gene clearly showed considerable genetic variation among Bangladeshi isolates. These results suggested that B. gibsoni parasites in a different genetic clade are endemic in dogs in Bangladesh. Further studies are required to elucidate the origin, distribution, vector and pathogenesis of B. gibsoni parasites circulating in dogs in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronological trends in maximum and minimum water flows of the Teesta River, Bangladesh, and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sanaul H. Mondal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh shares a common border with India in the west, north and east and with Myanmar in the southeast. These borders cut across 57 rivers that discharge through Bangladesh into the Bay of Bengal in the south. The upstream courses of these rivers traverse India, China, Nepal and Bhutan. Transboundary flows are the important sources of water resources in Bangladesh. Among the 57 transboundary rivers, the Teesta is the fourth major river in Bangladesh after the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna and Bangladesh occupies about 2071 km2 . The Teesta River floodplain in Bangladesh accounts for 14% of the total cropped area and 9.15 million people of the country. The objective of this study was to investigate trends in both maximum and minimum water flow at Kaunia and Dalia stations for the Teesta River and the coping strategies developed by the communities to adjust with uncertain flood situations. The flow characteristics of the Teesta were analysed by calculating monthly maximum and minimum water levels and discharges from 1985 to 2006. Discharge of the Teesta over the last 22 years has been decreasing. Extreme low-flow conditions were likely to occur more frequently after the implementation of the Gozoldoba Barrage by India. However, a very sharp decrease in peak flows was also observed albeit unexpected high discharge in 1988, 1989, 1991, 1997, 1999 and 2004 with some in between April and October. Onrush of water causes frequent flash floods, whereas decreasing flow leaves the areas dependent on the Teesta vulnerable to droughts. Both these extreme situations had a negative impact on the lives and livelihoods of people dependent on the Teesta. Over the years, people have developed several risk mitigation strategies to adjust with both natural and anthropogenic flood situations. This article proposed the concept of ‘MAXIN (maximum and minimum flows’ for river water justice for riparian land.

  2. Mass media tours Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In May 1998, representatives of Japan's mass media toured Bangladesh to learn about the country's reproductive health and population programs. The goal of the visit was for the journalists to spread information about the projects to their peers, to government officials, and parliamentarians responsible for allocations of foreign aid. The 1st stage of the visit involved meetings with program officials and organizers. In the 2nd stage, the journalists toured: 1) Matlab, where the International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research has been implementing an intensive family planning (FP) program; 2) the Panchdona IP area, where the Integrated Family Development Project is being conducted with funding from the Japanese government; 3) an FP office and satellite clinic; and 4) a site where voluntary organizations are providing FP/maternal-child health care. The journalists also learned about how micro-credit loans operate. Participating journalists reported that they were very impressed with the people of Bangladesh, and that they had gained a new understanding of the relationship between reproductive health and human rights.

  3. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  4. Bangladesh floods, cyclones and ENSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, A.M.

    1994-04-01

    It has been found that in general there is a reduction of rainfall in all the regions of Bangladesh in all the seasons - premonsoon, monsoon and post monsoon during El Nino years. It has also been observed that in strong El Nino year Bangladesh is not hit by a catastrophic flood or a catastrophic cyclone. In the past, occurrence of famines in this region of the world coincided with El Nino years. The years of weak El Nino or when the El Nino index is positive seem to be favourable for the occurrence of floods and cyclones in Bangladesh. A theory of the modulation of the monsoon in Bangladesh by the Walker circulation has been described in the paper. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  5. Case Study: Bangladesh Bank Heist

    OpenAIRE

    Md Ahsan Habib

    2017-01-01

    Cyber crime is a threat to our E- commerce . A hacker group named "Lazarus" hacked $951 million from Bangladesh Bank's account. This is the short case study of this incident with professional ethical view.

  6. Bangladesh : Growth and Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Bangladesh's growth over the past two decades or more, in terms of developing-country standards, has been notable. Such record of progress is one guide to the country's potential to grow, and to score well in world markets. To this end, i.e., to make the most of its export opportunities on a changing international playing field, Bangladesh needs to follow a strategic game plan, invest in infrastructure, technology and skills, streamline policies, and improve quality and safety standards. This...

  7. Dietary Arsenic Exposure in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kile, Molly L.; Houseman, E. Andres; Breton, Carrie V.; Smith, Thomas; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Christiani, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Millions of people in Bangladesh are at risk of chronic arsenic toxicity from drinking contaminated groundwater, but little is known about diet as an additional source of As exposure. Methods We employed a duplicate diet survey to quantify daily As intake in 47 women residing in Pabna, Bangladesh. All samples were analyzed for total As, and a subset of 35 samples were measured for inorganic arsenic (iAs) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with a dynamic rea...

  8. IDRC in Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Internet and first online education service. In 1994 Netnam, a government ... In the early 2000s, Vietnam's Fisheries. College No. 4 and Canada's College of the North Atlantic created the country's first Internet-based, distance education service for rural learners. ... benefits many, in particular, women and children. But these ...

  9. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...

  10. English in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    The growing use of English in Vietnam is reviewed, along with the nation's linguistic history that exemplifies the close relationship between language and politics. The English curriculum in Vietnamese schools is described, and the future role of Outer Circle countries in English language teaching is considered. (19 references) (Author/LB)

  11. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...

  12. VIETNAM: 'N BLOEDIGE LEERSKOOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 Apr 1975 ... en Algerie, Brittanje in Palestina en die VSA in. Vietnam. Dieselfde patroon ontwikkel deurentyd: aanvanklike openbare steun, uitgerekte stryd sonder resultaat, verminderde openbare steun, verandering in die regering en onttrekking. Waar die deursnee. Amerikaner homself in hierdie situasie bevind het ...

  13. Vietnam Report 2014

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Vudddn

    2014 is the second consecutive year Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry (VCCI) ...... APPENDIX 4: ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY AND PERCEPTIONS IN GEM EOCONOMIES IN 2014. BY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. UNIT: %. Economies. Na scen t. Entrep reneurship ra te. New Business ow nership ra te. E a.

  14. Bangladesh becomes "success story".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The State Minister for Health and Family of Bangladesh, Dr. Mohammed Amanullah, highlighted some of the successes being achieved by his country in lowering fertility and improving the lives of the people since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Some of these successes include practical measures to eliminate violence against women; introduction of a quota for women in public sector employment; and launching of the Health and Population Sector Program to provide a one-stop, full range of essential reproductive health, family planning and child health services through an integrated delivery mechanism. Moreover, the Minister informed the Forum participants that their success is attributable to many factors which include support from the government, from non-governmental organizations, civil society, mass media, religious and other community leaders, intersectoral collaboration, microcredit and income-generation activities.

  15. Discovery of Paragonimus skrjabini in Vietnam and its phylogenetic status in the Paragonimus skrjabini complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, P N; Hien, H V; Nonaka, N; Horii, Y; Nawa, Y

    2013-12-01

    Two members of the Paragonimus skrjabini complex, P. skrjabini and P. miyazakii, are now considered as two sub-species, P. skrjabini skrjabini and P. skrjabini miyazakii. They are well known as important pathogens for human paragonimiasis in China and Japan. Recently, members of this species complex have been reported from India. Here we report the first discovery of P. skrjabini from freshwater crab hosts in Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam. For morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies, adult worms were obtained by experimental infection in cats and dogs. Molecular analyses of metacercariae and adults revealed that the P. skrjabini population from Thanh Hoa, Vietnam was almost completely identical with that from Yunnan province, China. Those populations from Thanh Hoa, Vietnam and Yunnan, China and those from Manipur, India were significantly different from P. skrjabini populations reported from other localities of China in cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene sequences, indicating considerable genetic variation within the P. skrjabini complex. Moreover, low bootstrap values in the CO1 tree suggested that more variant genotypes belonging to P. skrjabini complex may be found in other Asian countries in between Vietnam and India, such as Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. Since P. skrjabini is known as a pathogen for humans, paragonimiasis cases caused by P. skrjabini might be found in Vietnam and other Asian countries.

  16. Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset is the second round of Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS). The BIHS is the only nationally representative survey in Bangladesh that collects...

  17. Nutritional Problems and Intervention Strategies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    India, officially the Republic of India is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area. it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. The major religions are Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. India has a total population of 1,198,003,000, a gr...

  18. All projects related to bangladesh | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 438,600.00. Reducing dietary related risks associated with non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. Project. Bangladesh is undergoing a rapid demographic and epidemiological transition. Region: Bangladesh, Canada. Program: Food, Environment, and Health.

  19. Fisheries resources of Bangladesh: Present status and future direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mostafa Shamsuzzaman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is considered one of the most suitable regions for fisheries in the world, with the world's largest flooded wetland and the third largest aquatic biodiversity in Asia after China and India. This paper reviews the performance of fisheries in Bangladesh using data collected from the Bangladesh Department of Fisheries, and related un-published grey literatures. The findings within describe recent growth within Bangladeshi inland fisheries, primarily in the inland aquaculture sector (2014–2015. This increase in the aquaculture production has been made possible with the implementation of scientific and technological modernization. From 2000 and 2016, aquaculture production increased from 712,640 and 2,060,408 metric t, a much larger quantity than wild capture production (1.023 million t in 2016. There has also been a recent increase in the value of fishery exports, with more than US $34.08 billion in 2010 rising to more than US $46.60 billion in 2015. However, fisheries production is well below production targets despite the large gains seen in the aquaculture sector.

  20. Opportunities for Partnership in the Pacific Rim: Reflections on a Visit to Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Abel B., Jr.

    Community colleges are poised to play a vital role in Vietnam and other Pacific Rim nations currently seeking to develop their business sectors and economies. Projects and partnerships with U.S. community colleges are currently in progress in India, Malaysia, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Korea. In addition, the Vietnamese Ministry of Education and…

  1. Cryptic Rhinolophus pusillus Temminck, 1834 (Chiroptera, Rhinolophidae): a new distribution record from the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Anik; Feeroz, Mohammed Mostafa; Hasan, Md Kamrul

    2017-01-01

    Rhinolophus pusillus is a common species of India and Nepal in South Asia. Here, we report a new record of this bat captured in the mixed evergreen forest in Rangamati, southeastern part of Bangladesh. The identification was based on external morphology along with cranio-dental measurements. Roost counts was conducted through direct observation. 

  2. Le CRDI au Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    des agriculteurs trouvent des solutions de rechange à la culture du tabac. □ des responsables de politiques agissent pour réduire la pauvreté. Soutien accordé par le CRDI depuis 1991. 111 activités d'une valeur de 30 millions cad. CRDI. Le CRDI au Vietnam centre de recherches pour le développement international ...

  3. Vietnam and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, N.T.; Hong, L.V.

    1997-01-01

    Economy of Vietnam is developing fast and the electricity demand is growing drastically, last five years about 12.5% per year. The Government puts high target for the future with GDP rating about 8% per year up to 2020. In this case, the electricity demand in 2020 will be tenfold bigger in comparison with 1995's level. The deficient of domestic resources and the security of energy supply invoke the favorable consideration on nuclear power. (author)

  4. Devario in Bangladesh: Species diversity, sibling species, and introgression within danionin cyprinids (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Danioninae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Norén, Michael; Mollah, Abdur Rob

    2017-01-01

    Four species of Devario are recorded from Bangladesh: D. aequipinnatus, D. anomalus, D. coxi, new species, and D. devario. Devario aequipinnatus has a wide distribution in northern India and Bangladesh. Devario coxi, from southeastern Bangladesh near Cox’s Bazar, differs from D. aequipinnatus in mtDNA (COI, p-distance 1.8%), colouration, proportional measurements, and meristics. The minor morphological differences and low frequency of overlapping meristics suggest relatively recent separation of D. coxi from other D. aequipinnatus. Devario anomalus occurs only in southeastern Bangladesh and is here reported from localities in addition to the type locality. It differs from the similar D. xyrops in adjacent Myanmar by slender body shape and by 2.3% p-distance in the COI gene. Specimens of D. anomalus from the Sangu River were found to have the mitochondrial genome of D. aequipinnatus from Bangladesh, but agree with other D. anomalus in the nuclear RAG1 gene. Devario devario has a wide distribution on the Indian Peninsula and border regions; in Bangladesh it is restricted in distribution to the Ganga, Brahmaputra, and Meghna drainages. Reports of D. assamensis and D. malabaricus from Bangladesh are misidentifications. Perilampus ostreographus M’Clelland, 1839, is tentatively synonymized with D. aequipinnatus. Phylogenetic analysis of 14 species of striped devarios based on the COI gene results in a polytomy with four unresolved clades. Devario deruptotalea from the Chindwin basin is the sister group of D. aequipinnatus+D. coxi. Devario devario is the sistergroup of D. xyrops+D. anomalus. PMID:29166410

  5. Spatial and temporal analysis of a 17-year lightning climatology over Bangladesh with LIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Ashraf; Ongee, Emmanuel T.; Rahman, Md. Masudur; Mahmood, Rezaul; Yamane, Yusuke

    2017-10-01

    Using NASA's TRMM Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data from 1998 to 2014, this paper presents a 17-year lightning climatology of Bangladesh, at 0.5° × 0.5° spatial resolution. Diurnal, seasonal, monthly and annual variations in the occurrence of lightning flashes were explored. The diurnal regime of lightning is dominated by afternoon/evening events. Overall, peak lightning activity occurs in the early morning (0200 LST) and evening (1900 LST). The distribution of lightning flash counts by season over Bangladesh landmass is as follows: pre-monsoon (69.2%), monsoon (24.1%), post-monsoon (4.6%) and winter (2.1%). Flash rate density (FRD) hotspots were primarily located in the north and north-eastern parts of Bangladesh, with a maximum of 72 fl km-2 year-1. Spatially, the distribution of FRD increases from the Bay of Bengal in the south to relatively higher elevations (of the Himalayan foothills) in the north. A spatial shift in FRD hotspots occurs with change in season. For example, in monsoon season, hotspots of lightning activity move in a south-westerly direction from their pre-monsoon location (i.e. north-eastern Bangladesh) towards West Bengal in India. South and south-eastern parts of Bangladesh experience high lightning activity during post-monsoon season due to regional orographic lifting and low-pressure systems (i.e. cyclone) in the Bay of Bengal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study focused on LIS-based lightning climatology over Bangladesh. This baseline study, therefore, is an essential first step towards effective management of lightning-related hazards in Bangladesh.

  6. Geospatial Technology: A Tool to Aid in the Elimination of Malaria in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Kirk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a malaria endemic country. There are 13 districts in the country bordering India and Myanmar that are at risk of malaria. The majority of malaria morbidity and mortality cases are in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, the mountainous southeastern region of Bangladesh. In recent years, malaria burden has declined in the country. In this study, we reviewed and summarized published data (through 2014 on the use of geospatial technologies on malaria epidemiology in Bangladesh and outlined potential contributions of geospatial technologies for eliminating malaria in the country. We completed a literature review using “malaria, Bangladesh” search terms and found 218 articles published in peer-reviewed journals listed in PubMed. After a detailed review, 201 articles were excluded because they did not meet our inclusion criteria, 17 articles were selected for final evaluation. Published studies indicated geospatial technologies tools (Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing were used to determine vector-breeding sites, land cover classification, accessibility to health facility, treatment seeking behaviors, and risk mapping at the household, regional, and national levels in Bangladesh. To achieve the goal of malaria elimination in Bangladesh, we concluded that further research using geospatial technologies should be integrated into the country’s ongoing surveillance system to identify and better assess progress towards malaria elimination.

  7. Child abuse in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, a large number of children are deprived of their basic human rights due to unacceptable health, nutrition, education as well as social conditions. In addition, children are exposed to severe forms of sexual, physical and mental abuses at home, in the work place, in institutions and other public places. The nature and extent of violence against children irrespective of age, sex and class has been increasing day by day. These include physical torture, rape, homicide and sometimes heinous attacks with acid. Children are also victims of child labor and trafficking, both of which are treated as the most severe form of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. This review article is aimed to focus on the present situation of various forms of child abuses in our country. Data collection is based on secondary sources of information from Dhaka Medical College Hospital, One Stop Crisis Center (OCC,UNICEF, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, several Dhaka based organizations and news paper clipping. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2015; 9(1: 18-21

  8. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  9. Teaching Vietnam through Vietnamese Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, David M.

    1985-01-01

    An approach that teaches secondary students about Vietnam within the framework of the world history/world culture course is described. By reading and studying Vietnamese fiction and poetry, students learn about Vietnam from a Vietnamese perspective instead of the usual exclusive Western viewpoint. (RM)

  10. Biofertilizer for food legumes: Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Bangladesh grain legumes are the protein meat substitute of the poor, and an integral part of the daily diet. Yet present yields cannot meet demand and every year about 25% of the country's grain legumes' requirements have to be imported at a cost of about US $23 million in hard-earned foreign exchange. This money could easily be saved by increasing production in the country. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, in Bangladesh to find ways of increasing yields of grain legumes using efficient strains of biofertilizers. (IAEA)

  11. India : tous les projets | Page 15 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand. Financement total : CA$ 137,926.00. Vérification publique des fonds ... End Date: 24 juin 2009. Sujet: POLITICIANS, FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, CORRUPTION, Governance. Région: India, Central Asia, Far East Asia, ...

  12. india : tous les projets | Page 15 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand. Financement total : CA$ 137,926.00. Vérification publique des fonds ... End Date: 24 juin 2009. Sujet: POLITICIANS, FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, CORRUPTION, Governance. Région: India, Central Asia, Far East Asia, ...

  13. India : tous les projets | Page 11 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: India, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan. Programme: ... Sujet: VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, POLICE, JUDICIAL SYSTEM, Gender. Région: India ... En Inde, la caste des dalits est depuis toujours victime d'une discrimination sociale et économique dévastatrice. Date de début ...

  14. 76 FR 78615 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ..., the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Postponement of Preliminary... India, the Sultanate of Oman (``Oman''), The United Arab Emirates (``the UAE''), and the Socialist... of Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of...

  15. 77 FR 15718 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ..., the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Postponement of Preliminary... and tube from India, the Sultanate of Oman (Oman), the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and the Socialist... Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

  16. All projects related to bangladesh | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Internet, LANGUAGE BARRIER, ASIAN LANGUAGES, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, INFORMATION SOCIETY. Region: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, ... From Tobacco to Food Production: Constraints and Transition Strategies in Bangladesh. Project. Bangladesh is one of the many ...

  17. Modern population trends in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul-basher, M M

    1985-01-01

    Population growth trends in Bangladesh in the 1871-1981 period were analyzed, with emphasis on fertility and mortality differentials, to provide a basis for population planning. Following proclamation of British Imperial Rule in 1857, mortality rates in Bangladesh began to decline as a result of preventive measures against natural disasters such as draught and famine, but the fertility rate remained unaltered. The demographic pattern was unstable over time, reflecting the impact of the influenza epidemic of 1918-19, war, migration, and economic development. Population growth accelerated greatly during the 1961-74 period, when industrialization emerged and job opportunities were created in the urban centers. Economic hardship, food shortages, and the introduction of family planning curbed urban growth drastically and total growth to some extent in 1974-81. On the average, growth has been higher in the Dhaka and Chittagong Divisions of Bangladesh than in the Khulna and Rajshahi Divisions. Differences in population growth among the regions are attributable largely to internal and external migration. The regression polynomial model best fits past population trends in Bangladesh and can reproduce the observed population by 99.60%. This polynomial is most suitable for graduation and prediction of population trends.

  18. Seismicity and tectonics of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    Northern and eastern Bangladesh and surrounding areas belong to a seismically active zone and are associated with the subduction of the Indian plate. The seismicity and tectonics have been studied in detail and the observations have been correlated to understand the earthquake phenomenon in the region. The morphotectonic behaviour of northern Bangladesh shows that it is deeply related to the movement of the Dauki fault system and relative upliftment of the Shillong plateau. Contemporary seismicity in the Dauki fault system is relatively quiet comparing to that in the Naga-Disang-Haflong thrust belt giving rise to the probability of sudden release of energy being accumulated in the vicinity of the Dauki fault system. This observation corresponds with the predicted average return period of a large earthquake (1897 type) and the possibility of M > 8 earthquake in the vicinity of the Dauki fault within this century should not be ruled out. The seismicity in the folded belt in the east follows the general trend of Arakan-Yoma anticlinorium and represents shallow and low-angled thrust movements in conformity with the field observation. Seismotectonic behaviour in the deep basin part of Bangladesh demonstrates that an intraplate movement in the basement rock has been taking place along the deep-seated faults causing relative upliftment and subsidence in the basin. Bangladesh has been divided into three seismic zones on the basis of morphotectonic and seismic behaviour. Zone-I has been identified as the zone of high seismic risk. (author). 43 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Sustainable urbanization in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakakis-smith, D; Dixon, C

    1997-01-01

    "This paper examines the nature of [urban-based economic growth in Vietnam] and contends that the present size of Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi are much greater than official figures suggest. It then goes on to review the situation with regard to urban poverty, basic needs and the environment to illustrate the extent to which this unacknowledged growth is not only threatening the sustained expansion of those cities, but also the sustainability of the economic growth on which the country is so reliant." excerpt

  20. Tobacco control in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D T; Kosik, R O; Mandell, G A; Chen, Y A; Su, T P; Chiu, A W; Fan, A P

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the use of tobacco in Vietnam. Review study. Data were collected through a review of tobacco-related literature in Vietnam. Grey literature and web content from agencies such as the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were consulted. Tobacco smoking is still common in Vietnam, although numerous policies have been issued and implemented over the last two decades. Based on the most recent data (2010), the prevalence of smoking among adults aged >15 years was 23.8%, with a higher percentage among males (47.4%) than females (1.4%). The prevalence of smoking among students aged 13-15 was 3.8% (2007), with a similar gender pattern. The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke is of concern, with 73.1% and 55.9% of adults reporting exposure to secondhand smoke at home and at work or other places, respectively. Of the adult respondents, 55.5% believed that smoking may cause lung cancer, stroke and heart disease. Most students (93.4%) and adults (91.6%) had seen anti-smoking media messages. Of the students, 56.4% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements on billboards, 36.9% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements in newspapers or magazines, and 8.2% had been offered free cigarettes by tobacco company representatives. The price of cigarettes decreased by approximately 5% between 1995 and 2006, whereas gross domestic product per capita increased by more than 150%. On average, smokers smoked 13.5 cigarettes per day, and spent US$86 on cigarettes per year. Despite such high levels of tobacco exposure in Vietnam, the total tax on cigarettes remains at 45% of the retail price. Furthermore, only 29.7% of smokers had been advised to quit by a healthcare provider in the past 12 months. Strong enforcement and evidence-based regulations which rounded on MPOWER are needed to help protect current smokers and non-smokers from the devastating effects of tobacco. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by

  1. Policies and strategies. Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, N

    1992-08-01

    Bangladesh has a population of nearly 108 million on a landmass of 143,998 sq km. The rate of population growth peaked at around 35 in the 1960s. The population increased from about 43 million in 1951 to 68 million in 1970 and to about 90 million in 1981. In 1976 a national policy for population control and family planning (FP) was announced which employed thousands of full-time field workers, and developed information, education, and motivation activities. The implementation strategy entailed the integration of health and FP, maternal child health (FP/MCH) service delivery systems at subdistrict (upazila) levels with a wide choice of contraceptive methods and expanded good quality services. Greater emphasis on MCH services included immunization, oral rehydration, and training of traditional birth attendants. Even if the goal of net reproductive rate of 1 is achieved by 2005, the population will rise to about 137 million by 2000. The Fourth 5 year Plan (1990-95) seeks to lower the growth rate from 2.15 in 1990 to 1.8% by 1995; to cut the crude birth rate of 34.5 live births/1000 people in 1990 to 30.1/1000 by 1995; and to reduce the crude death rate of 13.6/1000 population in 1990 to 11.9/1000 by 1995. The reduction of the total fertility rate from 4.30 in 1990 to 3.40 by 1995 would require increasing the contraceptive prevalence rate of 40% in 1991 to 50% in 1995. It is also planned to raise the number of the continuous users of contraceptives from 8.8 million in 1991 to 12.3 million acceptors by 1995. The government has been providing continuous institutional support to a network of FP clinics in rural areas which the Family Planning Board started to operate in 1965. The present field structure is composed of the division level (4 divisions in the country), district level (64 districts), upazila level (460 upazilas), and union level (4500 rural unions).

  2. CASE STUDY: Vietnam — Information brings progress to Vietnam's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Vietnam, a community-based monitoring system builds on existing official poverty surveys to better target the poor. The additional data has led to improvements in communities, and in the lives of women in particular.

  3. Vietnam: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Tien Duc

    1999-01-01

    The Vietnamese Government's successful development of the National Population and Family Planning Program has contributed in raising people's awareness on population issues and changing their attitudes and behavior regarding fostering small families. It has also been found to be very effective in substantially decreasing fertility level. In addition, economic levels of many households have been greatly improved since the adoption of a renovation policy. The advancement of welfare accompanied by the provision of better basic social services, including health services, has boost people's health. Several factors behind the achievements of the National Population and Family Planning Program include: 1) Strengthening of the political commitment of national and local leaders; 2) Nationwide mobilization of mass organizations and NGOs; 3) A strong advocacy and information, education and communication program; 4) Provision of various kinds of contraceptives; 5) Effective management of the program by priority; and 6) Support of the international community. Despite such successes, Vietnam is facing a number of new issues such as enlargement of the work force, shifting migration patterns and accelerating urbanization, aging of population, and change of household structure. Nevertheless, the Government of Vietnam is preparing a New Population Strategy aimed to address these issues.

  4. Pharmacy Education in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717

  5. India | Page 92 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A study on mobile phone use by the poor has resulted in the cancellation of a plan to tax mobile usage in Bangladesh. Surveys on mobile expenditures in several ... for many low-income households in India. To kill the germs, people pour water into clear plastic bottles and then leave them out in the sun for several hours.

  6. AHP 45: REVIEW: FOUNDING AN EMPIRE ON INDIA'S NORTH-EASTERN FRONTIERS 1790-1840

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Howes

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly researched and carefully constructed monograph focuses on what is now north-eastern India, an irregularly-shaped region joined only by a narrow neck of land to the remainder of the Indian subcontinent and jostled (or nestled, depending on one's point of view) between Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and Tibet. Crucially, author Gunnel Cederlöf argues, this representation of northeast India on modern maps - an island in constant danger of drifting away from mainland India, h...

  7. Predicate Offences of Money Laundering and Anti Money Laundering Practices in Bangladesh Among South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Mohammad Saiful

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the main reasons of money laundering in Bangladesh among the twenty seven predicate offences of money laundering prescribed by Bangladesh Bank and position of Bangladesh among South Asian Countries regarding anti-money laundering practices. Besides, an anti-money laundering model has been developed to combat against money laundering as 14 percent bankers think that only existing know your customer form and transaction profile of banking sector are not enough to detect money laundering. To conduct the study, 91 bankers have been surveyed to take response through structured questionnaire regarding their opinion about the predicate offences of money laundering and sufficiency of existing KYC form of banking sector to detect money laundering. From the responses, factor analysis, test of hypothesis, correlation and regression analysis have been conducted using SPSS software. The study identifies that predicate offences of money laundering can be minimized mainly through scrutinizing the activities of local criminals with foreign network and strict anti-corruption measures through automation in National Board of Revenue, strict policy adoption of criminal detection and support from foreign experts. Besides, regression model shows that only six predicate offences of money laundering explains 87.2 percent of money laundering that should get more emphasize to combat against money laundering. From the comparative analysis, it has been found that Bangladesh in holding better position just after India among six South Asian Countries according to Basel AML Index score. This study provides a complete understanding of the position of Bangladesh in case of money laundering and anti-money laundering practices. The integration of four domains, i.e. AML model development, factor analysis, econometric analysis and comparative analysis of AML index will provide insights to managers and policy makers about the money laundering

  8. America in Vietnam: Containment Lost

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merrill, Roy

    2002-01-01

    This research project examines world events leading up to United States involvement in Vietnam with the purpose of determining whether these events were instrumental in the shaping of the decision to enter the conflict...

  9. Vietnam's population: current notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, S E

    1984-06-01

    In an effort to curb the population growth rate, currently estimated at 2.5%/year, the government of Vietnam has stepped up its campaign to implement a national family planning program. 1979 census figures indicate a population of 52.76 million. There is increasing government awareness of the interaction between population growth, employment, and manpower utilization. The demographic realities of Vietnam necessitate a drastic decrease in fertility rates and family size, a redistribution of the population either through internal migration to new economic zones or transborder migration, and a more efficient use of land and exploitation of natural and human resources to support the growing population. Assuming a natural increase rate of less than 2% by 1984-85, the government estimates a total population of nearly 60 million by the end of 1985. It is hoped that a natural growth rate of 1% can be attained in the early 1990s, to achieve a population size below 75 million by the year 2000. However, if the 3-child family remains the norm, the population will approach 80-85 million by 2000. Changes in shortterm fertility patterns seem unlikely without a carefully thought out and sensitively implemented policy involving a deliberate scheme of incentives and disincentives. The Vietnam Fatherland Front (VFF) has recognized the need for a more regorous fertility control campaign and has requested that the Council of Ministers set up a coordinated population and family planning structure with direct linkages from Hanoi to provincial governments and communal administrations. Also recommended were regulations on birth control, population targets and norms, and a system of incentives and disincentives. Data from family planning services in Ho Chi Minh City for 1976-82 suggest a recent decline in IUD, condom, and pill users, largely as a result of procurement difficulties. The number of abortions has also declined because of successful family planning education. The ideal family

  10. Cancer care scenario in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. M. Kamal Uddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a developing country that is facing many challenges, especially in the health sector. Cancer management is a priority due to the current trend of increased incidence in this region. In this article, the current scenario of cancer in Bangladesh and its management with brief history is outlined. The combined effort of government and private sector is highlighted with the gradual progress in cancer management. Recent introduction of the state-of-the-art facilities and the training facilities for human resource development are also outlined. The existing challenges and cooperation from local NGOs and other overseas sources are also highlighted to provide an insight regarding possible ways to tackle these challenges to ensure a better future.

  11. Cancer care scenario in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, A F M Kamal; Khan, Zohora Jameela; Islam, Johirul; Mahmud, Am

    2013-04-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country that is facing many challenges, especially in the health sector. Cancer management is a priority due to the current trend of increased incidence in this region. In this article, the current scenario of cancer in Bangladesh and its management with brief history is outlined. The combined effort of government and private sector is highlighted with the gradual progress in cancer management. Recent introduction of the state-of-the-art facilities and the training facilities for human resource development are also outlined. The existing challenges and cooperation from local NGOs and other overseas sources are also highlighted to provide an insight regarding possible ways to tackle these challenges to ensure a better future.

  12. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation

  13. Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Akanda, Abdul Mannan; Tsuno, Kazunori; Maeda, Takanori; Wakimoto, Satoshi; 津野, 和宣; 前田, 孚憲; 脇本, 哲

    1991-01-01

    As many as 92 different samples belonging to 15 botanical families, showing virus disease-like symptom were collected from various locations of Bangladesh in 1986-87. Plant samples were lyophilized or dried lvith calcium chloride and preserved at 4℃. Since inactivation of most of the samples was observed in mechanical inoculation to original or closely related host plants in 1989, the dried samples were subjected to double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and do...

  14. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  15. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar

    2001-01-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation processing

  16. A Human Rights and History Education Model for Teaching about Historical Events of Mass Violence: The 1947 British India Partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Meenakshi

    2017-01-01

    This article examines singular historical narratives of the 1947 British India Partition in four history textbooks from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Britain, respectively. Drawing on analysis and work in the field, this study proposes a seven-module "integrated snail model" with a human rights orientation that can be applied to…

  17. Energy in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Huu Ninh; Nguyen Minh Due; Hoang Minh Hien

    1991-01-01

    Energy production and distribution play an important role in Vietnam's development. Due to difficulties in investment, management and modern technology applications for energy exploitation and uses, energy demand for production and domestic use has not been satisfied. This will persist in the future. Independent of the difficulties in the exploitation of traditional sources of energy, by the year 2010, untraditional sources including solar, tidal, wind and biomass will still make little contribution to the country's energy balance. No long-term and exhaustive policies are in place to reduce the consumption of wood, especially in mountainous and rural areas, where it leads to serious environmental consequences and uncontrolled deforestation, causing large areas of bare hills. 2 tabs

  18. Hypertension in Bangladesh: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Monwarul Islam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension (HTN is an increasingly important medical and public health problem. In Bangladesh, approximately 20% of adult and 40–65% of elderly people suffer from HTN. High incidence of metabolic syndrome, and lifestyle-related factors like obesity, high salt intake, and less physical activity may play important role in the pathophysiology of HTN. The association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene polymorphism and low birth weight with blood pressure has been studied inadequately. Studies have found relationship between mass arsenic poisoning and HTN. Hypovitaminosis D presumably plays role in the aetiopathogenesis of HTN in Bangladeshi population. South Asians appear to respond to antihypertensive therapy in a similar manner to the Whites. The latest National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guideline advocates a calcium-channel blocker as step 1 antihypertensive treatment to people aged > 55 years and an ACE inhibitor or a low-cost angiotensin-II receptor blocker for the younger people. Calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers have been found to be the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive drugs in Bangladesh. Non-adherence to the standard guidelines and irrational drug prescribing are likely to be important. On the other hand, non-adherence to antihypertensive treatment is quite high. At the advent of the new millennium, we are really unaware of our real situation. Large-scale, preferably, nation-wide survey and clinical research are needed to explore the different aspects of HTN in Bangladesh.

  19. Inequality in disability in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ismail Tareque

    Full Text Available To investigate inequality in disability in Bangladesh.The study used both household level and individual level data from a large nationally representative data set, Bangladesh's Household Income and Expenditure Survey-2010. Principal component analysis was used to construct a wealth index based on household assets from household level data. Then, using data from 49,809 individuals aged 5 years and over, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to test the association between wealth level and disability.Women and older people are significantly more likely to report having disabilities than men and younger people. For middle and rich families, respectively, there is a 14 percent lower likelihood of reporting disabilities than for poor families. Changes in the probability of having disabilities are linear with increasing wealth. In addition, the study identifies some significant factors affecting disability, namely, age, sex, education, marital status, and place of residence including divisional differences.In Bangladesh, worse health among the poor argues for policies prioritizing this group while at the same time giving special attention to women and the elderly.

  20. Bangladesh mission sees great benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A JOICFP 2-member mission visited Bangladesh during August 9-22 to monitor the progress of cooperative projects in Narsingdhi and Feni districts, implemented by the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), and to discuss the implementation of Postal Savings for International Voluntary Aid (POSIVA) funds. POSIVA is in its 4th year of providing funds to Bangladesh. The Population Reference Bureau's (PRB) Japan Representative joined the mission on a study tour during August 9-17 to directly observe reproductive health and family planning, women's empowerment, and micro-credit at the grassroots level. The representative hopes to raise the Japanese public's awareness of international nongovernmental organization (NGO) partnerships in order to encourage them to help rural populations in developing countries. The offices of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the International Secretariat of Partners in Population and Development, UNFPA, Population Council, OECF, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and the Grammin Bank were visited, as well as the project areas of Panchdona and Dhalia Unions of the Integrated Family Development Project. ODA assistance should be strengthened to improve grassroots activities, with a focus upon women's empowerment, maternal and child health, and alleviating poverty through NGOs working together with communities. A project to build capacity in reproductive health in Jessore District is described.

  1. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.

    2011-01-01

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. - Research Highlights: →We estimate energy poverty for rural Bangladesh adopting a demand-based approach. →Findings suggest that energy poverty does not necessarily follow the same pattern as income poverty. →Access to modern energy and efficient use of traditional energy help alleviate energy poverty. →Energy poverty indicator can help track the effectiveness of a wide range of energy policies.

  2. Profile of Vietnam War Veterans (2015).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Profile of Vietnam War Veterans uses the 2015 ACS to provide a view into the demographic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions of the Vietnam War Veteran...

  3. Emergence and Distribution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A and O in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S P; Rahman, M Z; Momtaz, S; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Bangladesh and is predominantly due to FMDV serotype O. In 2012, FMD outbreaks were identified in five different districts of Bangladesh. Of 56 symptomatic cattle epithelial tissue samples, diagnostic PCR assay based on 5'-URT detected 38 FMDV infections. Viral genotyping targeting VP1-encoding region confirmed emergence of two distinct serotypes, A and O with an abundance of serotype A in Chittagong and Gazipur districts and serotype O in Pabna and Faridpur. Only single lineage of both A and O was retrieved from samples of five different regions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences revealed that serotype O sequences were closely related to the Ind 2001 sublineage of Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype that was previously circulating in Bangladesh, and serotype A sequences belonging to the genotype VII that was dominant in India during the last decade. The results suggest that extensive cross-border animal movement from neighbouring countries is the most likely source of FMDV serotypes in Bangladesh. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Challenges of Women in Science: Bangladesh Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    Challenges of Women in Science: Bangladesh Perspectives. Professor Shamima K Choudhury. Department of Physics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh. And. Director, Bose Centre for Advanced Study and Research in Natural Sciences shamima@univdhaka.edu; skc.phy@gmail.com ...

  5. All projects related to Bangladesh | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Total Funding: CA$ 1,245,177.00. Preventing early marriage in urban poor settlements in Bangladesh. Project. Child marriage among girls is most common in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, with Bangladesh having the highest rate of marriage involving girls under age 15. Topic: MARRIAGE, GIRLS, POLICY MAKING, ...

  6. Study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Huu Tan

    2000-01-01

    The report presents main results of the study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam which have been carried out at Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission in collaboration with Ministry of Industry of Vietnam and other countries like Japan, Canada and Korea. The study covers all topics related to the nuclear power introduction into Vietnam such as electricity demands and supply, economics, finance, technology, safety, manpower, site selection etc. (author)

  7. Decarbonization scenarios in the electricity sector in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Van Thanh

    2016-01-01

    envisages a rapid shift in policy choices to face the needs of an accelerated but sustainable economic development. Six scenarios were constructed on the basis of a reference scenario, focusing successively on energy efficiency, nuclear, CCS, renewables and a more balanced electricity mix. Environmental constraints (CO 2 emissions reduction) have priority in the scenario building process. This multi-criteria approach is very new in Vietnam, a country more familiar with supply cost-based approach. Scenarios analyzed here take into account the carbon intensity reduction of Vietnam's power sector. It is proposed as the benchmark threshold, the emission level of 50-80 g/kWh (similar to reference level studied in two of Vietnam's neighboring Asian economies such as Indonesia and India). In our research, the different mix of electricity generation offer relevant solutions. They allow meeting the economic and environmental challenges related to the expansion of the Vietnam's electricity sector. The analysis takes into account several dimensions such as the increasing demand pressure, fuels supply security with alternative choices, reduced high electrical production total costs, control of external bill, considered social impact (especially on health of citizens) and land use and, finally, compliance with standards related to the regional, national and global environment/climate protection. (author) [fr

  8. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  9. Vietnam and the regional crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Pietro Paolo

    2002-01-01

    The paper explores the linkages between Vietnam and the regional economy before and after the East Asian financial crisis of 1997 and 1998, indicating that the country is more closely associated with the region than normally assumed. Thus, key indicators, such as falling foreign direct investment...... (including a restructuring of the so-called 'flying geese' pattern) Vietnam's chances of benefitting from closer integration in the world economy will depend on a clearcut industrial and trade policy, rather than on embarking a so-called 'neutral trade regime'. Preliminary evidence seems to indicate...... that Vietnam can successfully exploit market niches opened up by postcrisis regional economic reorganisation, thus offering some optimism for the country's immediate economic future....

  10. Cooperation project: medical physics in cancer diagnosis and therapy in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quast, Ulrich; Zakaria, Golam Abu; Hoever, Karl-Heinz; Ahmad, Gias uddin; Akhter, Shaheen

    1999-01-01

    Bangladesh requires 200 radiotherapy facilities, 4 are in use; 400 medical physicists are needed, 3 are employed. On a private basis, a DGMP working group started in 1996, annual workshops on medical physics in cancer diagnosis and treatment, joined by many working physicists interested to become medical physicists. Basic topics were the principles, applications, acceptance, dosimetry and planning of 60 Co radiotherapy. In 1998, the Bangladesh association of physicists in medicine (BMPA) was founded, a young scientific society requiring international co-operation. The long experience in Medical Physics in India, its neighbouring country, could be very helpful in providing excellent medical physics courses. To absorb new technology and science, it is necessary to change the education policy; creativity and innovativeness must be valued more than the old knowledge, being replaced quickly by new knowledge and new technologies. (author)

  11. Optimization of stocking weight in carp polyculture ponds under drought prone Barind area of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golam Sarowar Talukder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Fisheries Journal of Fisheries Keywords Clarias gariepinus India Macrobrachium rosenbergii Maharashtra Padma River Penaeus monodon Production condition factor conservation feed fish diversity fishing methods growth growth performance oxbow lake population trend production proximate composition survival threatened fish water quality About The Authors Mohammad Golam Sarowar Talukder Department of Fisheries Bangladesh ABM Mohsin University of Rajshahi Bangladesh Md. Akhtar Hossain University of Rajshahi Bangladesh Md. Rafiqual Islam Khan University of Rajshahi Bangladesh Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Other Journals Article Tools Print this article Indexing metadata How to cite item Email this article Email the author Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians User You are logged in as... jfish My Journals My Profile Log Out Home About User Home Search Current Archives Announcements Indexing Submissions Home > Vol 5, No 3 (2017 > Talukder Optimization of stocking weight in carp polyculture ponds under drought prone Barind area of Bangladesh Mohammad Golam Sarowar Talukder, ABM Mohsin, Md. Akhtar Hossain, Md. Rafiqual Islam Khan Abstract Increased temperature, decreased water level and reduced culture period of the ponds are considered as major problems for aquaculture promotion in drought prone Barind area of Bangladesh. In order to address these problems, an experiment was conducted to optimize the stocking weight for carp polyculture ponds in Tanore upazila of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. Three different stocking weights were tested under three treatments (T1: 25±0.12g; T2: 50± 0.15g; and T3: 100±0.19g, each with three replications. Fish growing period (July-December, carp species (C. catla, H. molitrix, A. nobilis, L. rohita and C. mrigala, stocking density (7,410 fishes/ha, lime and ash treatment, fertilization and feeding were same for all the treatments. Water quality (water

  12. Greening textile industry in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong, L.

    2011-01-01

    The textile and garment industry has made a remarkable contribution to the economic development of Vietnam and employs currently a large labor force of 2.5 million people.However, the textile industry is also seen as a most polluting and unsustainable industry due to the use of

  13. Universal service policy in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten; Von Salakpi, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    Universal service provision is a key to bridge the digital divide. This paper provides an empirical examination of the Vietnamese universal policy introduced in 2015 for implementation up to 2020. Using the framework of King et al. (1994) the paper analyses the universal services policy in Vietnam...

  14. Vietnam--the Textbook Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, William; Marciano, John

    1980-01-01

    Maintains that textbooks have not accurately reported the Vietnam War. Findings are based on an analysis of 28 high school texts widely used in social studies and history courses. Shortcomings of the textbooks include bias, omission, dearth of specific information on U. S. involvement, and avoidance of inquiry and analysis. Textbooks are listed at…

  15. Greening textile industry in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong, L.

    2011-01-01

        The textile and garment industry has made a remarkable contribution to the economic development of Vietnam and employs currently a large labor force of 2.5 million people.However, the textile industry is also seen as a most polluting and unsustainable industry due to the use of

  16. Air Force Heroes in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Forces of the United States and South Vietnam. A modified version was employed for psychological warfare, including leaflet drops and loudspeaker...out of that spot ten seconds when mortars started dropping directly on it," he remembers. "That was a real thriller . I figured they just got zeroed in

  17. The Vietnam Experience in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurse, Ronald J.; Fleming, Dan B.

    1982-01-01

    Ten recent editions of secondary school-level United States history textbooks were analyzed to determine coverage and balance of the Vietnam War. Treatment of topics such as Vietnamese culture, the roles of wartime leaders, the aims of the United States government, the antiwar movement, and costs of the war are discussed. (PP)

  18. From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

  19. Bangladesh: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughn, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    .... Bangladesh has been a largely moderate and democratic country. This status is increasingly under threat from a combination of political violence, weak governance, poverty, corruption, and rising Islamist militancy...

  20. Understanding children’s work in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    UCW

    2011-01-01

    Child labour constitutes an important obstacle to achieving Universal Primary Education and other Millennium Development Goals in Bangladesh. The current report provides an overview of the child labour phenomenon in Bangladesh – its extent and nature, its determinants, and its consequences on education. The report also addresses the national response to child labour and policy option for its elimination. The analysis considers the various causes of child labour and follows a cross-sectoral ap...

  1. Health Consequences of Child Labour in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Salma; Ray, Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of b...

  2. Targeted Killings in Bangladesh: Diversity at Stake

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Jawad

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, Bangladesh has repeatedly been in headline news across the world due to systematic and incessant targeted killings. In the mainstream media, both in South Asia and the West, the focus has been generally on high profile murders of secular and progressive bloggers. This includes the recent worldwide broad coverage on the tragic murder of Xulhaz Mannan, editor of Bangladesh's first LGBT rights magazine. However, not many know that these killings are only one part of the story. Secula...

  3. Malaria Prevalence in Endemic Districts of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Ubydul; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Shahed; Huda, Mamun; Hossain, Awlad; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Mondal, Dinesh; Khan, Wasif Ali; Khalequzzaman, Mohammod; Haque, Rashidul

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) and ...

  4. Global Warming: Threat to Sundarbans and the Silence of Indo-Bangladesh Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Basu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sundarbans or the ‘beautiful forest’ is a cluster of low-lying islands in the Bay of Bengal, considered as one of the natural wonders of the world, which is facing the problem of global warming since the past few decades. Global warming, climate change, increasing water level and salinity of the river as well as inlet areas are some recognized threats to the Sundarbans. This is threatening species survival, the health of natural systems and causing extinction of biodiversity. This study is a modest attempt to examine the factors because of which the burning issues of Sundarbans are almost excluded from the attention of the media in India as well as Bangladesh. This is despite the fact that various initiatives have been taken by the governments and at the private level in these two countries to conserve the Sundarbans ecosystem. The research paper summarizes findings of newspaper reports on Sundarbans, from Earth Day to World Environment Day 2017 (22 April to 5 June of two reputed broadsheets dailies i.e. The Daily Prothom Alo (Dhaka, Bangladesh and The Ei Samay Sangbadpatra (Kolkata, India. The youngest member of the mass communication family, the film has also been included in this paper. This is because the joint production of the two Bengali film industries has already made a lot of cinema. There is going to be more in the near future, where many issues of India and Bangladesh are getting priority, but the destruction of Sundarbans has never been the subject of any such media intervention.

  5. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  6. Ecological Determinants of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed S. U.; Ersbøll, Annette K.; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Christensen, Jens P.; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Background The agro-ecology and poultry husbandry of the south Asian and south-east Asian countries share common features, however, with noticeable differences. Hence, the ecological determinants associated with risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI-H5N1) outbreaks are expected to differ between Bangladesh and e.g., Thailand and Vietnam. The primary aim of the current study was to establish ecological determinants associated with the risk of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks at subdistrict level in Bangladesh. The secondary aim was to explore the performance of two different statistical modeling approaches for unmeasured spatially correlated variation. Methodology/Principal Findings An ecological study at subdistrict level in Bangladesh was performed with 138 subdistricts with HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks during 2007–2008, and 326 subdistricts with no outbreaks. The association between ecological determinants and HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks was examined using a generalized linear mixed model. Spatial clustering of the ecological data was modeled using 1) an intrinsic conditional autoregressive (ICAR) model at subdistrict level considering their first order neighbors, and 2) a multilevel (ML) model with subdistricts nested within districts. Ecological determinants significantly associated with risk of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks at subdistrict level were migratory birds' staging areas, river network, household density, literacy rate, poultry density, live bird markets, and highway network. Predictive risk maps were derived based on the resulting models. The resulting models indicate that the ML model absorbed some of the covariate effect of the ICAR model because of the neighbor structure implied in the two different models. Conclusions/Significance The study identified a new set of ecological determinants related to river networks, migratory birds' staging areas and literacy rate in addition to already known risk factors, and clarified that the generalized concept of free grazing duck and

  7. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  8. The Vietnam-U.S. Normalization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-17

    agreement to resume U.S. adoptions of Vietnamese children , which Hanoi halted in 2002. There are a number of possible reasons Vietnam seeks to upgrade its...abandoned or orphaned children ) for Vietnam; agreed to restore direct telecommunications with Vietnam; agreed to allow U.S. commercial sales to meet...Commissioner for Refugees; (3) resolve the issue of the estimated several thousand Amerasians (whose fathers are Americans and whose mothers are

  9. Training human resource for NPP in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Trung Tinh; Dam, Xuan Hiep

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam will establish the first NPP in the near future. With us the first important thing is the human resource, but now there is no university in Vietnam training nuclear engineers. In EPU (Electric Power University), now we are preparing for training nuclear engineers. In this paper, we review the nuclear man power and the way to train the high quality human resource for NPP and for other nuclear application in Vietnam. (author)

  10. Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas - Cambodia and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Michael; Stengel, Caroline; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Hung Viet, Pham; Sampson, Mickey L.; Leng, Moniphea; Samreth, Sopheap; Fredericks, David

    2007-01-01

    Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paper presents an overview of groundwater arsenic pollution in the Mekong delta: arsenic concentrations ranged from 1-1610 μg/L in Cambodia (average 217 μg/L) and 1-845 μg/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 μg/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation in Red River delta where groundwater arsenic concentrations vary from 1-3050 μg/L (average 159 μg/L). In addition to rural areas, the drinking water supply of the city of Hanoi has elevated arsenic concentrations. The sediments of 12-40 m deep cores from the Red River delta contain arsenic levels of 2-33 μg/g (average 7 μg/g, dry weight) and show a remarkable correlation with sediment-bound iron. In all three areas, the groundwater arsenic pollution seem to be of natural origin and caused by reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron phases buried in aquifers. The population at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning is estimated to be 10 million in the Red River delta and 0.5-1 million in the Mekong delta. A subset of hair samples collected in Vietnam and Cambodia from residents drinking groundwater with arsenic levels > 50 μg/L have a significantly higher arsenic content than control groups (< 50 μg/L). Few cases of arsenic related health problems are recognized in the study areas compared to Bangladesh and West Bengal. This difference probably relates to arsenic contaminated tube-well water only being used substantially over the past 7 to 10 years in Vietnam and Cambodia. Because symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning usually take more than 10 years to develop, the number of future arsenic related ailments in Cambodia and Vietnam is likely to increase. Early mitigation measures should be a high priority

  11. India : tous les projets | Page 17 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: SOCIAL PARTICIPATION, CIVIL SOCIETY, DEFENCE POLICY, MILITARY EXPENDITURE, WEAPON PROCUREMENT. Région: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 76,500.00. Synthèse de ...

  12. India : tous les projets | Page 12 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: GENDER ANALYSIS, Poverty, ECONOMIC POLICY, Economic and social development, DEVELOPMENT PLANNING ... Vérification du point de vue des droits de la personne et de la paix de la partition en Asie du Sud - phase II ... Région: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia.

  13. Burden of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, H C; Denning, D W; Rahim, R; Sadat, A; Belal, M; Mahbub, M S

    2017-06-01

    In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature. We estimated the number of affected people from populations at risk and local epidemiological data. Bangladesh has a population of ∼162.6 million, 31% children and only 6% over the age of 60 years. The pulmonary TB caseload reported in 2014 was 119,520, and we estimate a prevalence of 30,178 people with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 80% attributable to TB. An anticipated 90,262 and 119,146 patients have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Only 8,000 people are estimated to be HIV-infected, of whom 2900 are not on ART with a CD4 count Bangladesh. Candida bloodstream infection was estimated based on a 5 per 100,000 rate (8100 cases) and invasive aspergillosis based primarily on leukemia and COPD rates, at 5166 cases. Histoplasmosis was documented in 16 cases mostly with disseminated disease and presumed in 21 with HIV infection. This study constitutes the first attempt to estimate the burden of several types of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

  14. Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh. Bangladesh introduced its first comprehensive tobacco control act in 2005, in an attempt to address the country's high prevalence of tobacco use. ... Institution. University of Dhaka. Pays d' institution. Bangladesh. Site internet. http://www.univdhaka.edu ...

  15. Local Expert Perceptions of Migration as a Climate Change Adaptation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Stojanov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available People have long migrated for many reasons, often with a combination of forced and voluntary reasons combining to push them away from current situations and to pull them towards new situations. Bangladesh is one example where environmental changes have long been amongst the multitude of reasons for migrating, with contemporary climate change suggested as a major impetus towards more migration. This paper examines local expert perceptions of migration as a climate change adaptation strategy for Bangladeshis. Seventeen in-depth interviews were conducted with local experts in Bangladesh and Assam (India on environmental change and migration to understand the perspectives of those with formal education and expert-related jobs who come from the areas being directly affected by Bangladeshi migration. Findings show that local experts consider that migration is used and will be used for climate change adaptation in Bangladesh, but migration is not solely for climate change adaptation, instead interweaving with all other factors influencing migration-related decisions.

  16. Mutation Spectrum of β-Thalassemia and Other Hemoglobinopathies in Chittagong, Southeast Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tridip; Chakravarty, Amit; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chowdhury, Mahmood Ahmed; Sultana, Razia

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive blood disorders in the world. It shows a variety of clinical expression, starting from asymptomatic to severe blood transfusion dependence. More than 500 alleles have been characterized in or around the β-globin region. Moreover, most geographical regions have their own characteristics, frequency and availability of these alleles, predominantly circulating within the communities present in that particular region. In this study, we explored the spectrum of β-thalassemia (β-thal) alleles present in Chittagong, Southeast Bangladesh. This study comprises β-thal and Hb E (HBB: c.79 G > A) patients from in and around the area of Chittagong. Not only exploring the complete β-globin mutation spectrum of the area, but we also tried to look at the origin of the mutated alleles. The β-thal mutations of Bangladesh show a relatively wide spectrum of alleles, which further demonstrates the heterogeneity of the disease in this country. Although our study showed that the majority of the mutations have their origin in neighboring countries such as India, countries of Southeast Asia, Pakistan, etc., some unusual alleles do not originate in neighboring countries and put a little more diversity in the overall spectrum of β-thal-specific alleles. Overall, this study demonstrates the mutation spectrum related to β-thal in Chittagong, Southeast Bangladesh.

  17. Possibility of regional fuel cycle centres in the context of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innas, A.M.; Ahsan, M.; Husain, S.R.; Chowdhury, R.K.; Rahman, A.

    1977-01-01

    The region consisting of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Ceylon, Bangladesh, Burma, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Indonesia is considered for a model study on the possibility of establishing regional fuel cycle centres. Nuclear power generation capacity for this region is estimated and projected through 2000 A.D. and accordingly the demands for various nuclear fuel cycle services are determined. Preliminary calculations show that for the region conversion and fuel fabrication plants may be economically feasible before 1990 whereas reprocessing plants may become feasible only after 1990. The possibility of enrichment plant is even more uncertain. Ore, enrichment and fabrication in future may constitute more than 95-98% of the total fuel cycle cost. For fuel cycle economy, therefore, regional cooperation should be emphasized for these services. Reprocessing has to be considered because of the valuable fissile materials present in the spent fuel. Assuming that regional fuel cycle centre/centres may be established in Bangladesh, the study considered the local advantages and disadvantages of such an effort. Though no major problem could be identified in the case of conversion and fabrication plants, considerable difficulty is anticipated from a large reprocessing plant because of waste management and disposal problems. Bangladesh does not appear to have any suitable waste disposal site in view of the present technology. However, if the long term leaching problemns of solidified wastes are resolved then wastes may be dumped in the sea-canyon in the Bay of Bengal (called the ''Swatch of no ground'') or in the deep underground caverns

  18. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  19. IAEA Perspectives on Future of Nuclear Energy, 11 March 2013, Mumbai, India, Indian Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2013-01-01

    It is a great pleasure for me to address the Indian Nuclear Society once again. When I last spoke to you, in January 2011, the nuclear world looked somewhat different from today. There was still talk of a global nuclear renaissance. Dozens of countries were thinking about introducing nuclear power. Many of the 30 or so existing users planned to build additional plants. Then came the Fukushima Daiichi accident, two years ago today. It caused profound public anxiety and damaged confidence in nuclear power. Some people predicted that nuclear power would go into decline. However, the evidence suggests that this will not be the case. Some European countries announced plans to move away from nuclear power. But, globally, nuclear power looks set to continue to grow steadily, although more slowly than we expected before the Fukushima Daiichi accident. There are 437 operating nuclear power reactors in the world today. The latest IAEA projections, which are based on what Member States tell us, suggest that number could increase by 80 or 90 in the next 20 years. It could even double. At the moment, there are 66 new reactors under construction. Seven of them are in India. I understand your country plans continued expansion in the coming decades. Other major users of nuclear power such as China and Russia also have significant expansion plans. A number of countries have taken the decision to introduce nuclear power, including Bangladesh, Egypt, Jordan, Nigeria, Poland, Turkey and Vietnam. The United Arab Emirates has started building a nuclear power plant, the first new country to do so for 27 years. I visited the site in January and was impressed by the progress being made. Ladies and Gentlemen, This audience understands better than most the many benefits which nuclear power offers. Nuclear power can help to improve energy security. It can reduce the impact of volatile fossil fuel prices and mitigate the effects of climate change. For a rapidly developing economy such as India

  20. Language as a Symbol of Identity and a Tool of Politics and Power in Pakistan and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rácová Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to demonstrate the roles that domestic and foreign languages have played and play as signs of national or religious identity and social prestige and as tools of political and economic power in multilingual Pakistan and Bangladesh. Before the countries gained independence from the British Empire in 1947 and before the formation of the Indian Union and Pakistan (which was divided into Pakistan and Bangladesh in 1971, the role of an official language, remote to the majority of population in Indian subcontinent, had been gradually played by Sanskrit, Persian, and English. After gaining independence, the new countries decided to replace English as the official language with domestic languages. Their efforts encountered many problems and resulted in various solutions. Urdu became the state language in Pakistan, which caused resistance in local ethnolinguistic groups because the language had been imported by refugees from India. This resistance was the strongest in East Pakistan, where a strong national and language awareness eventually contributed to the formation of an independent Bangladesh with Bengali as the state language. Despite struggle for the dominance of domestic languages, English has preserved its prestigious position both in Pakistan and Bangladesh, as a symbol of higher social position, a language of education and science, and a tool of economic and political power.

  1. Strongyloides stercoralis seroprevalence in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Thai, Pham Quang; Trang, Nghiem Nguyen Minh; Jäger, Julia; Fox, Annette; Horby, Peter; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Anh, Dang Duc; Mai, LE Thi Quynh; VAN Doorn, H Rogier; Nadjm, Behzad

    2017-11-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30-100 million people worldwide. Many Southeast-Asian countries report a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection, but there are little data from Vietnam. Here, we evaluated the seroprevalence of S. stercoralis related to geography, sex and age in Vietnam through serological testing of anonymized sera. Sera (n = 1710, 1340 adults and 270 children) from an anonymized age-stratified serum bank from four regions in Vietnam between 2012 and 2013 were tested using a commercial Strongyloides ratti immunoglobulin G ELISA. Seroreactivity was found in 29·1% (390/1340) of adults and 5·5% (15/270) of children. Male adults were more frequently seroreactive than females (33·3% vs. 24·9%, P = 0·001). The rural central highlands had the highest seroprevalence (42·4% of adults). Seroreactivity in the other regions was 29·9% (Hue) and 26·0% and 18·2% in the large urban centres of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, respectively. We conclude that seroprevalence of S. stercoralis was high in the Vietnamese adult population, especially in rural areas.

  2. 4th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Toan, Nguyen; Khoa, Truong; Phuong, Tran; Development of Biomedical Engineering

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam which was held in Ho Chi Minh City as a Mega-conference. It is kicked off by the Regenerative Medicine Conference with the theme “BUILDING A FACE” USING A REGENERATIVE MEDICINE APPROACH”, endorsed mainly by the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society (TERMIS). It is followed by the Computational Medicine Conference, endorsed mainly by the Computational Surgery International Network (COSINE) and the Computational Molecular Medicine of German National Funding Agency; and the General Biomedical Engineering Conference, endorsed mainly by the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE). It featured the contributions of 435 scientists from 30 countries, including: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Malaysia, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Ru...

  3. Newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Tajul Islam,1 Nazrul Islam,2 Yukie Yoshimura,1 Monjura Khatun Nisha,3 Nawzia Yasmin4 1Safe Motherhood Promotion Project, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b; 4Department of Public Health, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh Background: Neonatal mortality is high in Bangladesh. Most of the neonatal deaths are preventable through simple and cost-effective essential newborn care interventions. Studies to document the determinants of unhealthy newborn care practices are scarce. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the pattern of neonatal care practices and their determinants in rural Bangladesh. Methodology: This study is based on baseline data of a community-based intervention to assess impact of limited postnatal care services on maternal and neonatal health-seeking behavior. Data from 510 women, who had a live birth at home 1 year prior to survey, of six randomly selected unions of an Upazila (subdistrict were analyzed. Results: Majority of the respondents were at an age group of 20–34 years. Only 6% had delivery by skilled providers. Immediate drying and wrapping, and giving colostrums to newborns were almost universal. Unhealthy practices, like unclean cord care (42%, delayed initiation of breastfeeding (60%, use of prelacteals (36%, and early bathing (71% were very common. Muslims were more likely to give early bath (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–3.59; P=0.018 and delay in initiating breastfeeding (adjusted OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.18–1.78; P<0.001 to newborns. Practice of giving prelacteals was associated with teenage mothers (adjusted OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.19–4.28; P=0.013 and women’s lack of education (adjusted OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.46–4.77; P=0

  4. Increasing Choice or Inequality? Pathways through Early Education in Andhra Pradesh, India. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 58. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streuli, Natalia; Vennam, Uma; Woodhead, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This working paper is part of the Studies in Early Transitions series emerging from "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores recent trends for children growing up in Andhra Pradesh, one of India's most populous states, based on Young Lives survey data collected for…

  5. CSM a success in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Bangladesh Social Marketing Project (SMP), providing contraceptives at an annual rate of 931,000 couple years of protection (CYP) as of June 1983, is a success. This figure has grown markedly since the start of the program in late 1975, when the SMP provided 80,000 CYPs, or 8% of nonclinical protection provided. The SMP has contributed to the steadily increasing national nonclinical contraceptive distribution. Currently, SMP distribution accounts for as much as the government and nongovernment programs combined. When clinical methods (including sterilizations) are added to national distribution, the SMP share represents about 28% of total contraceptive use. The SMP does not provide clinical methods, but the entire increase in nonclinical protection provided by the national program since 1975 has been the result of SMP product sales. The SMP utilizes the available mass media for promotion, including print, radio, television, as well as outdoor media and point of purchase materials. Mobile Film Units (MFUs) are an innovative promotional method employed by the SMP. Approximately 80 night time outdoor showings are organized each month in rural areas by SMP promoters. Typically, several short films, usually a popular story with a family planning theme, are run. Between each film the SMP products are of advertised. Products are often sold during and after the films. Retail outlets for SMP products include general stores, pharmacies, and other small shops. When products were introduced in 1975 retail outlets totaled 7500. By August 1983 the number of country wide retailers carrying SMP products had grown to nearly 100,000. In 1982 a marketing strategy emphasizing the role of doctors and rural medical practitioners (RMPs) was introduced. There are between 70,00-100,000 RMPs in Bangladesh. They are well known and respected "doctors" in their villages and add an extensive family planning outreach to the SMP system. The most important advantage of using the RMPs is their

  6. Bangladesh (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the population of Bangladesh increased from 76.4 million in 1974 to 89.9 million in 1981 and if the annual estimated growth rate of 2.4% continues unchecked, the population will be 111.5 million by 1990. Rapid population growth increases the man-land ratio, while the undesirable age structure entails a high dependency burden and provides a large base for further population growth. The huge investment in food production is neutralized and educational facilities remain unavailable for most of the nation's 15.6 million school-age children. Even under the most optimistic population projection, the total will increase by more than 60% by the year 2015, exacerbating the already serious problems of poverty and unemployment. The urban population is expected to increase from 17.5 million at present to 37.3 million by 2000, including a multitude of squatters with no visible income-earning opportunities. The population policy adopted by the government in June 1976 was directed toward influencing demographic behavior primarily through information, education, and motivation activities and a wide array of family planning services provided at maternal-child health and family planning centers. The government has taken some steps to increase economic productivity and create employment, and has made administrative changes including upgrading the smallest administrative units and creating directorates for primary education and women's affairs. Health and population control strategies will include establishing primary health care and maternal-child health and family planning centers throughout the country, expanding the family planning worker to population ratio, and integrating the family planning programs with all development oriented programs. The National Council for Population Control and several other organizational structures have been created

  7. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... “Vietnam conflict” for purposes of payment of interest on missing military service members' deposits in the... ending date for the Vietnam conflict for purposes of determining eligibility for compensation under 50 U...

  8. Vietnam: The Political Economy of Education in a "Socialist" Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Jonathan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article I examine historic changes in the goals, conduct and outcomes of education policies in Vietnam from the 1940s to the present, under the Communist Party of Vietnam. Recent studies of Vietnam's education system centre on econometric and demographic analysis of education data dating back to the early 1990s, when Vietnam began an…

  9. Vietnam kan nieuwe bron voor kokkels worden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Wageningse onderzoekers gaan Vietnam helpen om de puntjes op de i te zetten bij hun monitoringsprogramma voor de voedselveiligheid van schaal- en schelpdieren, en ze bijscholen in risicomanagement en HACCP-audits. Want Vietnam wil graag de controles op visproductie verbeteren en meer kokkels,

  10. Perspectives on the Teaching of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, David M.

    1986-01-01

    Too often seen through the lens of the United States experience in the Vietnam War, this article offers an alternative approach to teaching Vietnam through the development of a cultural and historical perspective. Provides a brief summary of literature on Vietnamese cultural history which is appropriate to high school students. (JDH)

  11. Counting Women's Work in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-07-31

    Jul 31, 2017 ... The Institute of Labor Science and Social Affairs, in the Vietnamese Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs, carried out the research in Vietnam. To learn more: Read the report "Counting Women's Work in Vietnam" · View the infographic · See the IDRC's project profile of Counting Women's Work · Visit ...

  12. Causes of Acute Water Scarcity in the Barind Tract, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bazlar Rashid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Barind tract is an elevated landmass (about 11-48 m amsl comprised with Pleistocene terraces and is situated in the northwestern part of Bangladesh. At present, this area faces scarcity of water. The present study is an attempt to unveil the causes of water scarcity of the area. Several aspects like change in climatic condition, irrigation practice and drainage characteristics of major rivers are the prime factors for water scarcity. Interpretation of recent satellite imagery and historical records reveal that the major rivers of the area like Ganges (Padma, Tista and Kosi have remarkably migrated from Barind tract during last few hundred years. Shifting of these rivers causes great change in hydrodynamics of the Barind tract. As a result, flow of other related rivers of the area like the Mahananda, Kulic, Tangon, Punarbhaba, Atrai, Little Jamuna, Karatoya and Nagar reduces remarkably in the dry season. As a result aquifers in the area are not recharged sufficiently by river water in the dry season. India constructed Farakka barrage on the Ganges (Padma river in 1975 to divert the flow of water from Bangladesh to the other parts of India. This diversion of water also leads to the decreasing of water in the area. Climatic data interpretation of the last 50 years also reveals that annual rainfall in the area is decreasing while overall temperature is increasing. To boost up the cropping intensity (117% to 200% compared to national average of 174% and to meet present demand 74% of cultivable lands are being irrigated with 96% share of groundwater owing to unavailability or scarcity of rainfall and hence surface water. Irrigation by groundwater has dramatically been increased (250 times in the last 30 years. Due to over exploitation, water table progressively declined (av. rate 0.10 m/year which ultimately leads the area to water scarcity zone. The aquifers are confined or semi-confined and do not get appreciable vertical recharge through clay

  13. Understanding the transmission dynamics of Leishmania donovani to provide robust evidence for interventions to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India the LCNTDR Collection : Advances in scientific research for NTD control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Cameron (Mary M.); A. Acosta-Serrano (Alvaro); C. Bern (Caryn); M. Boelaert (Marleen); M. Den Boer (Margriet); S. Burza (Sakib); L.A.C. Chapman (Lloyd A. C.); A. Chaskopoulou (Alexandra); M. Coleman (Michael); O. Courtenay (Orin); S. Croft (Simon); P.K. Das (P.); E. Dilger (Erin); G. Foster (Geraldine); R. Garlapati (Rajesh); L. Haines (Lee); A. Harris (Angela); J. Hemingway (Janet); T.D. Hollingsworth (T. Déirdre); S. Jervis (Sarah); G.F. Medley (Graham F.); M. Miles (Michael); M. Paine (Mark); A. Picado (Albert); R. Poché (Richard); P. Ready (Paul); M. Rogers (Matthew); M. Rowland (Mark); S. Sundar (Shyam); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); D. Weetman (David)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVisceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected vector-borne disease. In India, it is transmitted to humans by Leishmania donovani-infected Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. In 2005, VL was targeted for elimination by the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh by 2015. The elimination

  14. Health consequences of child labour in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of being injured or becoming ill. Intensity of injury or illness is significantly higher in construction and manufacturing sectors than in other sectors. Health disadvantages for different age groups are not essentially parallel. Conclusions: The results obtained in this paper strengthen the need for stronger enforcement of laws that regulate child labour, especially given its adverse consequences on health. Although the paper focuses on Bangladesh, much of the evidence presented has implications that are relevant to policymakers in other developing countries.

  15. Future demand scenarios of Bangladesh power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Md. Alam Hossain; Boie, Wulf; Denich, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Data on the future electricity demand is an essential requirement for planning the expansion of a power system. The purpose of this study is to provide a general overview of electricity consumption in Bangladesh, forecast sector-wise electricity demand up to 2035 considering the base year 2005, and compare the results with official projections. The Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model with three scenarios, namely low gross domestic product (GDP) growth, average GDP growth and high GDP growth, is applied in this study. In the low to high GDP growth scenarios, the extent of industrial restructuring and technical advancement is gradually increased. The findings have significant implications with respect to energy conservation and economic development. The study also compares the projected per capita electricity consumption in Bangladesh with the historical growth in several other developing countries. Such an evaluation can create awareness among the planners of power system expansion in Bangladesh to meet the high future demand.

  16. A Probabilistic Typhoon Risk Model for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseemkunju, A.; Smith, D. F.; Brolley, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Annually, the coastal Provinces of low-lying Mekong River delta region in the southwest to the Red River Delta region in Northern Vietnam is exposed to severe wind and flood risk from landfalling typhoons. On average, about two to three tropical cyclones with a maximum sustained wind speed of >=34 knots make landfall along the Vietnam coast. Recently, Typhoon Wutip (2013) crossed Central Vietnam as a category 2 typhoon causing significant damage to properties. As tropical cyclone risk is expected to increase with increase in exposure and population growth along the coastal Provinces of Vietnam, insurance/reinsurance, and capital markets need a comprehensive probabilistic model to assess typhoon risk in Vietnam. In 2017, CoreLogic has expanded the geographical coverage of its basin-wide Western North Pacific probabilistic typhoon risk model to estimate the economic and insured losses from landfalling and by-passing tropical cyclones in Vietnam. The updated model is based on 71 years (1945-2015) of typhoon best-track data and 10,000 years of a basin-wide simulated stochastic tracks covering eight countries including Vietnam. The model is capable of estimating damage from wind, storm surge and rainfall flooding using vulnerability models, which relate typhoon hazard to building damageability. The hazard and loss models are validated against past historical typhoons affecting Vietnam. Notable typhoons causing significant damage in Vietnam are Lola (1993), Frankie (1996), Xangsane (2006), and Ketsana (2009). The central and northern coastal provinces of Vietnam are more vulnerable to wind and flood hazard, while typhoon risk in the southern provinces are relatively low.

  17. Malaria prevalence in endemic districts of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubydul Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM, provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%. The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18% were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the

  18. REVALUATION OF WOMEN'S WORK IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Nuimuddin

    1986-01-01

    The paper seeks to revalue women's nonmarket work in the context of parts of rural Bangladesh, v} ich is where most of her women folk live. It raises relevant conceptual and methodological considerations relating to revaluation of women's work, reviews various sets of evidence on the pattern of time use of women in Bangladesh, and then puts up a broad order of magnitude as to the value of women's nonmarket work. For this purpose, it taken the sexual division of labour and sexual differential ...

  19. Multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 variant El Tor isolated in northern Vietnam between 2007 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Munirul; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Nguyen, Hong Ha; Pham, Van Ca; Ansaruzzaman, Mohammad; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Bhuiyan, Nurul A.; Dao, Tuyet Trinh; Endtz, Hubert P.; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007, there has been a re-emergence of cholera outbreaks in northern Vietnam. To understand the molecular epidemiological relatedness and determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of responsible V. cholerae O1 outbreak strains, a representative collection of 100 V. cholerae O1 strains was characterized. V. cholerae O1 strains isolated from diarrhoeal patients in northern Vietnam between 2007 and 2010 were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility and characterized by using phenotypic and genotypic tests, including PFGE analysis. Ten clinical V. cholerae O1 isolates from Bangladesh and Zimbabwe were included for comparison. The results revealed that all isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid, 29 % were resistant to tetracycline and 1 % were resistant to azithromycin. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin–sulbactam, doxycycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin and 95 % were susceptible to azithromycin. MIC values did show reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and 63 % of the strains were intermediately resistant to tetracycline. The isolates expressed phenotypic traits of both serogroup O1 Ogawa and El Tor and harboured an rstR El Tor and ctxB classical biotype. Among the outbreak isolates, only a single PFGE pattern was observed throughout the study period. This study shows that multi-drug resistant V. cholerae altered El Tor producing classical CT strains are now predominant in northern Vietnam. PMID:22016560

  20. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Abortion in Present day Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the abortion rate in Vietnam has been likely rising. In rural area, this rate is a bit higher than in urban one. Young age groups’ abortion rate is relatively high and ofter higher than older age groups. The main reason is due to their limited awareness of contraceptive methods. Low education level also affects the abortion. The abortion of people at low education level is relatively high, but people with elementary school graduation has the lowest rate of abortion. The North...

  2. Monitoring the 2004 Flood in the Meghna River Basin in Bangladesh Using Ground Data, RADARSAT Imagery and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Roxana; Nakayama, Daichi; Matsuyama, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Jun

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated an unusual flood event of 2004 in Bangladesh. The unusual early flood occurred in the 2nd week of April, and flood situation became worst when the greater Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) rivers were coincidently synchronized their peaks on 24th of July. Flood hazard becomes a regular phenomenon in Bangladesh. In order to investigate the flood of 2004, we conducted a comparative analysis between major historical flood of 1998 with 2004 flood, using remote sensing, GIS and ground data. Five RADARSAT yearly maximum inundation images from 2000 to 2004 and three time series images of 2004 were used to identify wide flooding area around Bhairab Bazar, including northeastern Bangladesh. The result indicates that on 24th of July 2004, inundated areas in the northeastern region were about 29,900.72 km2. This result as well corresponded with the GBM rivers discharge, water level and rainfall anomaly maps. In 2004, about 5027.0 mm of annual rainfall found around Bhairab Bazar and 14816.8 mm at Cherrapunji in India. The annual rainfall anomaly maps from 2000 to 2005 illustrate that exceptionally high rainfall contributes severe flooding of northeastern Bangladesh. In 2004, the water level of the Meghna River at Bhairab Bazar station found that higher than that in 1998. In 2004, inundation period of Bhairab Bazar was longer than that in Bahadurabad of Brahmaputra River. From the flood damage maps and hazard maps, it was clarified that study area was very much vulnerable for flood disasters. It is crucial for Bangladesh to be able to monitor and assess the flood disasters using remote sensing and GIS techniques, to reduce the cost of general survey and hazard mapping services.

  3. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  4. Possible impacts of the pre-monsoon dry line and sea breeze front on nocturnal rainfall over northeast Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller-Reeve, Mathew; Toniazzo, Thomas; Kolstad, Erik; Spengler, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The northeast region of Bangladesh receives a large amount of rainfall before the large-scale monsoon circulation begins. For example, in April (a "pre-monsoon" month) 2010, 804 mm of rain fell in the regional capital Sylhet. It was the second wettest month of the entire year. From our conversations with the local people, we know that this pre-monsoon rainfall is extremely important to their livelihoods. We therefore need to understand it's triggering mechanisms. Several theories have been published, all of which are likely to be at play. However, in this work we look more closely at how the sea breeze front and prominent pre-monsoonal dry line in this region may play a role. If these mechanisms play a role in the convection, then it is likely that they trigger convection further afield, and then the resulting systems then propagate towards northeast Bangladesh. We believe this because rainfall associated with dry line/sea-breeze front convection often occurs during the late afternoon, but the rainfall over northeast Bangladesh shows a clear late-night/early-morning maxima. At present, the temporal and spatial resolution of the regional observations is inappropriate for examining these possible mechanisms. We therefore use a numerical model (WRF) to investigate the possible links between the convection and the sea breeze front and dry line. We use April 2010 as a case study since it was such a wet pre-monsoon month. The simulation shows that a sea breeze circulation often develops during the day in the coastal zone of Bangladesh and northeast India. After sunset the sea breeze front propagates inland pushing back the hot, dry air over India. On several days during the simulation, convection is triggered along the sea breeze front, which then propagates towards northeast Bangladesh and intensifies across the topography surrounding the Sylhet region. From our simulations, it appears that nocturnal convection over northeast Bangladesh is triggered by several

  5. Challenges of Women in Science: Bangladesh Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    Women in Bangladesh very often face discrimination in career in every field of Science and Engineering. • A study was undertaken to see the barriers limiting the. A study was undertaken to see the barriers limiting the appointment, retention, and advancement of women faculty in the Universities, Administration and other.

  6. Indigenous Plasmodium ovale malaria in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Starzengruber, Peter; Swoboda, Paul; Khan, Wasif Ali; Matt, Julia; Ley, Benedikt; Thriemer, Kamala; Haque, Rashidul; Yunus, Emran Bin; Hossain, Shah Monir; Walochnik, Julia; Noedl, Harald

    2010-07-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of malaria in Southeastern Bangladesh, there remains a significant shortage of information regarding the presence of three of five human malaria parasites: Plasmodium ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi. The presence of P. ovale and P. knowlesi has previously never been reported from Bangladesh. We used a genus- and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction, targeting highly conserved regions of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, to investigate the presence of malaria parasites in a total number of 379 patient samples in a survey of patients with febrile illnesses in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Southeastern Bangladesh. We identified the first cases of P. ovale in Bangladesh. They were confirmed by sequence analysis; 189 of 379 samples (49.9%; 95% confidence interval = 44.9-54.9%) were positive for Plasmodium sp. by PCR. P. falciparum monoinfections accounted for 68.3% (61.3-74.5%), followed by P. vivax (15.3%; 10.9-21.2%), P. malariae (1.6%; 0.5-4.6%), P. ovale (1.6%; 0.5-4.6%), and mixed infections (13.2%; 9.1-18.8%). We found no evidence of P. knowlesi in this region.

  7. eyes on bangladesh's disappearing coasts: proposed constitutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    mph has an eye at the centre of the storm, which is the calmest part of the storm. National ... 1. INTRODUCTION. Although Bangladesh is not a significant emitter of greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change, the coastal country is suffering ..... situation.61 Her mud and bamboo hut was washed away by the cyclone.

  8. Pangolin distribution and conservation status in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Trageser

    Full Text Available Asian pangolins are a highly-threatened species group, mainly due to the perceived medicinal value of their scales. Increased demand from China has resulted in pangolins being the most trafficked mammal in the world. Three pangolin species are reported to occur in Bangladesh: Manis pentadactyla, M. crassicaudata, and M. javanica. No peer-reviewed studies exist detailing these species' current distribution or status within Bangladesh. A literature review was conducted resulting in the clarification of conflicting reports and misidentified observations and specimen records. In this paper, we also report the current status of pangolins (Manis spp. in Bangladesh based on semi-structured interviews, camera trapping, media queries, and field surveys employing traditional ecological knowledge and non-randomized transect surveys. Ethnozoological knowledge pertaining to the natural history of M. pentadactyla is also reported from experienced Mro tribal hunters. The critically endangered M. pentadactyla was verified to occur in northwest, northeast, and southeast Bangladesh in natural and degraded habitats. Interviews with the Mro tribe in the southeast indicate that pangolin populations there were likely extirpated in 2014 due to skilled commercial collection beginning in 2010. Evidence of extant M. crassicaudata and M. javanica populations remain unverified and questionable, and historical records of M. crassicaudata and M. javanica are likely a result of misidentification.

  9. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; Kamal, A. H. M.; Ali, K. S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  10. REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN CHILD MARRIAGE IN BANGLADESH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Kamrul; Haque, Md Rabiul; Hossain, Mohammad Bellal

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the regional variations in the prevalence of child marriage in Bangladesh with a view to providing recommendations for division-specific policy interventions. Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Substantial regional variations in child marriage were found in Bangladesh. Rangpur and Khulna had more than four times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (4.57 and 4.11 times, respectively). Barisal and Rajshahi had more than three times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (3.70 and 3.48 times, respectively). Chittagong and Dhaka had about two times odds of child marriage than Sylhet (1.98 and 2.67 times, respectively), even after controlling for selected socio-demographic, economic and cultural characteristics. Respondent's education, employment status, husband's education and wealth index were inversely associated with the prevalence of child marriage. The policy implications of these findings are discussed in the context of Bangladesh.

  11. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  12. Epidemiology of Drowning in Bangladesh: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Alonge, Olakunle; Bhuiyan, Al-Amin; Agrawal, Priyanka; Salam, Shumona Sharmin; Talab, Abu; Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-Ur; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-05-05

    Over one-quarter of deaths among 1-4 year-olds in Bangladesh were due to drowning in 2003, and the proportion increased to 42% in 2011. This study describes the current burden and risk factors for drowning across all demographics in rural Bangladesh. A household survey was carried out in 51 union parishads of rural Bangladesh between June and November 2013, covering 1.17 million individuals. Information on fatal and nonfatal drowning events was collected by face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Fatal and non-fatal drowning rates were 15.8/100,000/year and 318.4/100,000/6 months, respectively, for all age groups. The highest rates of fatal (121.5/100,000/year) and non-fatal (3057.7/100,000/6 months) drowning were observed among children 1 to 4 years of age. These children had higher rates of fatal (13 times) and non-fatal drowning (16 times) compared with infants. Males had slightly higher rates of both fatal and non-fatal drowning. Individuals with no education had 3 times higher rates of non-fatal drowning compared with those with high school or higher education. Non-fatal drowning rates increased significantly with decrease in socio-economic status (SES) quintiles, from the highest to the lowest. Drowning is a major public health issue in Bangladesh, and is now a major threat to child survival.

  13. Bangladesh | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since 1974, we have supported researchers' efforts to improve lives in Bangladesh. As local concerns evolve, so does our focus. Information and communication technologies have been at the heart of many of our activities. In the late 1990s, IDRC-supported research provided low-cost Internet connectivity to schools and ...

  14. Survey of Hypertension in Dhaka, Bangladesh: Changing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess changes in the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive drugs and lifestyle factors associated with hypertensive patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 hypertensive patients in various heart disease hospitals and the consulting rooms of 10 cardiologists ...

  15. Defining and Predicting Heat Waves in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nissan, H.; Burkart, K.; Coughlan, E.R.; van Aalst, M.; Mason, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a heat-wave definition for Bangladesh that could be used to trigger preparedness measures in a heat early warning system (HEWS) and explores the climate mechanisms associated with heat waves. A HEWSrequires a definition of heat waves that is both related to human health outcomes

  16. Gender, Parenting, and Adolescent Functioning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sunita Mahtani; Bond, Michael Harris; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Ma, Stefan S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined associations of self-esteem, relationship harmony, and academic achievement with perceptions of parents' styles and supervisory practices among 212 adolescents in Islamic Bangladesh. Found that parental supervisory practices were associated with a warm parental style for girls and parental dominating control for boys. Girls' (but not…

  17. English, Education, and Globalisation: A Bangladesh Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akteruzzaman, Mohammad; Islam, Rakibul

    2017-01-01

    As a third world country and a former British colony, Bangladesh has seen a dramatic upsurge in the use of the English language. Built on the concept of imperialistic aspects of the English language, this paper draws on responses from anonymous survey results and interviews and attempts to provide deeper insights into the global aspects of English…

  18. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-12

    BANGLADESH OBSER VER 18 Jul] ...................................................................................... 7 Rahman Returns From ECOSOC Session, Meets...French Secretary of State for Humanitarian Affairs Ber- and Social Commission ( ECOSOC ) had endorsed Bang- nard Kouchner, who chaired the one-day...Geneva via London at the Zia international The World Bank and the Asian Development Bank were airport after attending the ECOSOC special session. among

  19. Protozoal enteric infections among expatriates in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, P.; Ljungström, I.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the prevalence, incidence, and symptoms of infections with Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, we followed 251 expatriates in Bangladesh over a 1-year period. Microscopic examination of fecal specimens was performed upon enrollment, at 3-month intervals, and during episodes

  20. Making healthcare accessible in Bangladesh | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... View infographics. Even so, the country is still far from its goal of universal health coverage. Bangladesh aims to provide all citizens and communities with the health services they need, at a price they can afford, by 2032. Among the challenges in achieving this goal are rapid urbanization, deep poverty, and ...

  1. First case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromoblastomycosis is a rare and chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by black fungi and mostly reported in tropical and subtropical areas. Here we report the first case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh. Molecular biology permitted to identify Fonsecaea nubica, and the patient responded well to antifungal treatment alone.

  2. French Policies towards the Chinese in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Amer, Ramses

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the patterns of Chinese migration to and from Vietnam as well as the demographic changes relating to the Chinese residing in the country. It also outlines how the French authorities responded to the arrival of the Chinese and how they treated them. The focus is on the period of French control over the whole of Vietnam from 1883 to 1954. The French authorities did pay considerable attention to the Chinese migration to Vietnam. The policies of the French aimed at keeping a c...

  3. Comprehensive update on cancer scenario of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Md Akram Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh, at 142 million people, is the ninth most populous country in the world. There are 13 to 15 lakh cancer patients in Bangladesh, with about two lakh patients newly diagnosed with cancer each year. As an overview, lung cancer and mouth-oropharynx cancer rank as the top two prevalent cancers in males. Other types of cancers are esophagus cancer and stomach cancer. In women, cancer cervix uteri and breast cancer are most prevalent. Other cancer types, which affect women, are mouth and oropharynx cancer, lung cancer, and esophagus cancer. There are around 150 qualified clinical oncologists and 16 pediatric oncologists working in the different parts of the country. Regular cancer treatment is available in 19 hospitals and 465 hospital beds are attached as indoor or day care facilities for chemotherapy in the oncology/radiotherapy departments. There are about 15 linear accelerators, 12 Co-60 teletherapy and 12 brachytherapy units currently available. Approximately, 56 cancer chemotherapeutic agents are obtainable in Bangladesh. Research facilities are available at tertiary care centers and a few multi country collaborative research activities are ongoing. Bangladesh has a unique National Cancer Control Strategy and Plan of Action 2009-2015 formulated with the assistance of WHO with an objective to develop and implement continuum of cancer care through a comprehensive cancer control programe. Preventive measures taken to reduce the incidence of cancer include reduced tobacco smoking, change of dietary habit and reduced food adulteration, ensuring reproductive hygiene, increased physical activity, and reduced occupational hazard. Awareness buildup and media campaign are going on by organizing the general people, opinion leaders of the society, and boy and girl scout. Training of general physicians on cancer warning signs and setup of early cancer detection centers at each medical college and district levels are ongoing. Beside these, some

  4. Comprehensive update on cancer scenario of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Md Akram

    2013-10-01

    Bangladesh, at 142 million people, is the ninth most populous country in the world. There are 13 to 15 lakh cancer patients in Bangladesh, with about two lakh patients newly diagnosed with cancer each year. As an overview, lung cancer and mouth-oropharynx cancer rank as the top two prevalent cancers in males. Other types of cancers are esophagus cancer and stomach cancer. In women, cancer cervix uteri and breast cancer are most prevalent. Other cancer types, which affect women, are mouth and oropharynx cancer, lung cancer, and esophagus cancer. There are around 150 qualified clinical oncologists and 16 pediatric oncologists working in the different parts of the country. Regular cancer treatment is available in 19 hospitals and 465 hospital beds are attached as indoor or day care facilities for chemotherapy in the oncology/radiotherapy departments. There are about 15 linear accelerators, 12 Co-60 teletherapy and 12 brachytherapy units currently available. Approximately, 56 cancer chemotherapeutic agents are obtainable in Bangladesh. Research facilities are available at tertiary care centers and a few multi country collaborative research activities are ongoing. Bangladesh has a unique National Cancer Control Strategy and Plan of Action 2009-2015 formulated with the assistance of WHO with an objective to develop and implement continuum of cancer care through a comprehensive cancer control programe. Preventive measures taken to reduce the incidence of cancer include reduced tobacco smoking, change of dietary habit and reduced food adulteration, ensuring reproductive hygiene, increased physical activity, and reduced occupational hazard. Awareness buildup and media campaign are going on by organizing the general people, opinion leaders of the society, and boy and girl scout. Training of general physicians on cancer warning signs and setup of early cancer detection centers at each medical college and district levels are ongoing. Beside these, some other major cancer

  5. Education for All Summit of Nine High-Population Countries (New Delhi, India, December 12-16, 1993). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Chitra, Ed.; And Others

    This final report on an international conference of nine high population developing countries on education for all (EFA) begins with a declaration of goals by the representatives of each of the nine nations represented. Participating nations were Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, and Pakistan. After a scene…

  6. Jasminum extensum Wall. ex G. Don (Oleaceace, a New Record to the Flora of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Hong Quang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One rare, poorly known species from India, South China and Thailand - Jasminum extensum Wall. ex G. Don is recently discovered in Vietnam representing a new record to the flora of the country. The plant differs from its closely related species viz. Jasminum pierreanum in having coriaceous leaves and 5–6 primary veins in each side of the mid-rib. Detailed information on taxonomy, types, morphology, habitat, ecology, distribution and studied voucher specimens, as well as illustrations are provided here for species identification.

  7. Negotiating triple roles as activists, managers and researchers in Vietnam's LGBT movement

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, T.A.; Oosterhoff, P.; Lalor, K.; Mills, E.; Sánchez García, A.; Haste, P.

    2016-01-01

    The contributions to this Edited Collection reveal the complexity of the deceptively simple question posed by its title: Gender, Sexuality and Social Justice: What’s Law Got to Do With It? Many of those involved in this publication are directly involved in and affected by the issues to which the Edited Collection’s title speaks. From activists working with women in Assam’s tea gardens in India or young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender leaders in Vietnam, to lawyers fighting the Anti-Hom...

  8. Focus on Civil Rights; Vietnam; Women's Liberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Terry H.

    1985-01-01

    Information to help secondary history teachers select appropriate readings on three of the most important issues of the sixties--civil rights, the Vietnam War, and women's liberation--is provided. Significant books on these topics are discussed. (RM)

  9. Negotiations on Vietnam, 1954-1966

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hesse, Richard J

    1966-01-01

    .... The four elements of the Geneva Accords were the Viet-Minh-French armistice, the joint declaration of the participating nations, and the unilateral position statements by South Vietnam and the United States...

  10. Records of Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Peter B; Suddee, Somran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The monotypic genus Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) has been thought to be endemic to Hainan, China. This paper reports on historic records of Wenchengia alternifolia collected from Vietnam. The recent recuration and modernisation of the Paris herbarium greatly facilitated this discovery. New information During preparatory work supporting the account for the Lamiaceae of the Flora of Thailand, three specimens of Wenchengia from central Vietnam were found in the Herbarium of the Musuem National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (P), and subsequently two duplicates were found in the Herbarium at Kew (K, abbreviations following Thiers 2016). The specimens were collected in and before 1927 and it is not known if the species is still extant in Vietnam. Searches for extant populations should focus in the Ba Na Hills or Bach Ma National Park, central Vietnam. PMID:27660535

  11. MEASURING THE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-01-01

    The banking sector has been playing a significant role in achieving the economic growth of Bangladesh, where contribution of Islamic Banking Sector is remarkable. Islamic Banking Sector shows a substantial growth position in Bangladesh. Customer satisfaction is the most significant affecting phenomenon in determining the banking growth. Thus, this study attempts to measure the existing level of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banks in Bangladesh, using the Structural Equation Model (SEM). Th...

  12. Trends in international migration and remittance flows: Case of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, K.S; Mozumdar, L.; Kabir, M.S; Hossain, K.B

    2009-01-01

    International migration from Bangladesh has become a defining characteristic of the country. Especially since 1980s, large scale labour migration has become a common phenomenon of Bangladesh. This paper examines the various issues of international migration and remittance flows of Bangladesh on the basis of the secondary data generated from various reports of government and non-government organizations and of various publications of home and abroad. With a few exceptions, manpower export has ...

  13. Global Financial Crisis, Remittances, Exports and Poverty in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Raihan, Selim

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the impacts of reduced inflow of remittances and export earnings in the face of global financial crisis on the economy of Bangladesh. There is no denying the fact that remittances have emerged as a key driver of macroeconomic stability, economic growth and poverty reduction in Bangladesh. Also, Bangladesh experienced robust growth in export earnings, especially through the remarkable growth in readymade garments, over the last two decades. The study suggests that remittanc...

  14. Solar energy and rural development in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Photovoltaic systems have already been present in Vietnam for numerous years. Since 1994 the projects intensified with the launch of the Energy-Solidarity-Vietnam program which has just been concluded in 1999. This paper deals with the different stages of this project: choice of photovoltaic power, the partners engagement, obstacles overcome and the help of the electricity for the economic development. (A.L.B.)

  15. An ongoing earthquake sequence near Dhaka, Bangladesh, from regional recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, M.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Kim, W.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes in and around the syntaxial region between the continent-continent collision of the Himalayan arc and oceanic subduction of the Sunda arc result primarily from the convergence of India and Eurasia-Sunda plates along two fronts. The northern front, the convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates, has produced the Himalayas. The eastern front, the convergence of the Indian and Sunda plates, ranges from ocean-continent subduction at the Andaman Arc and Burma Arc, and transitions to continent-continent collision to the north at the Assam Syntaxis in northeast India. The India-Sunda convergence at the Burma Arc is extremely oblique. The boundary-normal convergence rate is ~17 mm/yr while the boundary-parallel rate is ~45 mm/yr including the well-known Sagaing strike-slip fault, which accommodates about half the shear component. This heterogeneous tectonic setting produces multiple earthquake sources that need to be considered when assessing seismic hazard and risk in this region. The largest earthquakes, just as in other subduction systems, are expected to be interplate events that occur on the low-angle megathrusts, such as the Mw 9.2 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the 1762 earthquake along the Arakan margin. These earthquakes are known to produce large damage over vast areas, but since they account for large fault motions they are relatively rare. The majority of current seismicity in the study area is intraplate. Most of the seismicity associated with the Burma Arc subduction system is in the down-going slab, including the shallow-dipping part below the megathrust flooring the accretionary wedge. The strike of the wedge is ~N-S and Dhaka lies at its outer limit. One particular source relevant to seismic risk in Dhaka is illuminated by a multi-year sequence of earthquakes in Bangladesh less than 100 km southeast of Dhaka. The population in Dhaka (now at least 15 million) has been increasing dramatically due to rapid urbanization. The vulnerability

  16. Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Vietnam: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes.

  17. ICT and agriculture in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Balasubramanian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have contributed in one way or the other to many transformations in contemporary society. The contexts and the impacts of such transformations are particularly significant for developing societies like India. The relevance of new computing technologies and their effective implementation in developing countries is widely debated, both at policy and community level. Needless to say, FOSS (Free Open Source Software has encouraged the participation of civil society, creating potential for developing specific information technology tools. In this context, the OSCAR-project (Open Source Simple Computer for Agriculture in Rural Areas is an initiative from European and South Asian Institutions to assist decision making in agriculture. OSCAR developed a weed identification system for the major weed species in rice-wheat cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGPs covering Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. An integral part of the OSCAR-project is its applicability to three categories of potential users: farmers, extension officers, and, scientists and students in agricultural sciences. OSCAR was evaluated through extensive interactions with farmer groups, extension personnel, IT specialists, NGO and UN staff, government officials, scientific researchers and PhD students in various disciplines and MSc students from various programs in all the four IGP countries. The experience from OSCAR is helpful in understanding the larger contexts and the impact of ICT interventions in an interdisciplinary framework.

  18. Water, climate change and society in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Aßheuer, Tibor; Simmer, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    Due to its location in the extensive Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river delta, Bangladesh faces multiple natural hazards, in particular flooding, droughts and sea-level rise. In addition to climate change, transboundary water sharing issues resulting from dam structures such as Farakka Barrage complicate a prognosis on how the rapidly growing population will be affected in the 21st century. This is particularly important as our previous research suggests that the Greater Dhaka population already experiences a significant increase in mortality during droughts (Thiele-Eich et al., 2015). We attempt to explore the complex interactions between the hydrological system under climate change and anthropogenic impacts due to dams as well as a growing population. Our approach consists of a quantitative assessment of climate change using over fourty years of meteorological data (Bangladesh Meteorological Department) and hydrological data (Bangladesh Water Development Board), and CCSM4 climate model output (NCAR, 1950-2100). In addition to an extensive literature review, we also conducted qualitative interviews with slum dwellers in the megacity Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Results show that significant changes in flood characteristics are expected for the later part of the 21st century, although they are difficult to quantify down to exact numbers due to large uncertainties. These changes take place over longer stretches of time and thus enable the population of Bangladesh to adapt slowly. Resources such as social capital, which is one of the main tools for slum dwellers to be able to cope with flooding can be altered over time, and as such the system can be considered overall stable and resilient. The presented results will also focus on how the riparian and coastal population is impacted by the interplay of natural changes such as sea-level rise and anthropogenic changes such as Farakka Barrage and the associated reduction in dry season flow. Thiele-Eich, I.; Burkart, K

  19. A survey of White-rumped Vultures Gyps bengalensis in Gujarat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-02

    Sep 2, 2007 ... and lopping of nesting tree species must be halted, a captive breeding programme ... The White-rumped. Vulture (WRV) Gyps bengalensis occurs in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal,. Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia,. Laos, Cambodia, southern Vietnam and ... Nepal and Bangladesh (Oaks et al.

  20. Updating Poverty Maps of Vietnam using Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2002 and Population Census 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Viet, Cuong; Van der Weide, Roy; Tran, Ngoc Truong

    2007-01-01

    Poverty map is an important for poverty targeting in developing countries. In this study, we combine the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) in 2002 and the Population Census in 1999 to estimate poverty and inequality indexes of all provinces and districts of Vietnam in the year 2002.

  1. [An analysis of the pharmaceuticals market in Vietnam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, D

    2001-01-01

    This article sheds a light on the Vietnamese pharmaceutical market. The progress that has been made in the recent years following the opening of the Vietnamese regime to the western world, although not easy, brought a certain number of opportunities for domestic firms and foreign investors. The pharmaceutical Vietnamese industry started to emerge at the beginning of the 1990s. Although, the consumption of drugs is low, it does reach the sum of $ 5.5 per capita. As the majority of these products are imported, foreign companies tend to dominate the market both in volume and in diversity. The state has always played an important role with the implementation of a strict price control strategy and most national drug companies remain state-owned. The production and consumption of drugs were also largely influenced by state policies as the latter also control hospitals. In the second half of the eighties, the progressive liberalisation of the country allowed private drug pharmacies to appear and advertisement campaigns became legal. Because the lack of specific products like antibiotics was clear, the government increased the flow of imports, including private imports by citizens. Sources of imports have become more diverse, although France remains an important source of supply. Fournier, Lipha and Pierre Fabre are among the French drug manufacturers located in Vietnam. Other foreign companies include from India, South Korea, Thailand and Germany. Joint ventures were also created with French and Japanese companies. The import of medical materials is subjected to authorisations from the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Foreign Trade as it is necessary to obtain a licence to do so. Licences are issued on the basis of the production of drugs that do not currently exist on the local market. But Vietnam also exports pharmaceutical products to Laos, Cambodia, and Cuba. Local resources constitute an important source of new products and have stirred a strong interest among

  2. Potential Economic Impacts of the Vietnam-Korea Free Trade Agreement on Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Hoan Phan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an assessment of the potential economic impacts of the Vietnam-Korea free trade agreement on Vietnam, by using general equilibrium modeling. The results show that Vietnam-Korea FTA will increase aggregate welfare for both countries in the long run. The most important gains accrue from better allocation of resources consequent to trade liberalization. All the sectoral differences and changes are consistent with the trade profiles of the two countries, and the long-run results are more pronounced than those of the short-run. In comparison with other ASEAN countries, the CGE analysis suggests that Vietnam's agriculture exports to Korea would especially rise in the long run. However, there will be strong competition in this sector among ASEAN members. Thus, an earlier conclusion of a comprehensive FTA with Korea is expected to be a good strategy for Vietnam, so as to avoid the direct competition with ASEAN members in the future.

  3. Sun-Earth System Interaction studies over Vietnam: an international cooperative project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Amory-Mazaudier

    2006-12-01

    CHAMP satellite at the height of 400 km in the Vietnamese longitude sector. In this paper we compare the ground magnetic observations of the Indian and Vietnamese magnetometer networks. This comparison highlights the regional structure of the amplitude of the equatorial electrojet, which is stronger in Vietnam than in India.

    Concerning the monsoon: Vietnam exhibits a strong monsoon and has mainly one rainy season peaking in August, hence associated with the southwest monsoon flow. But some monsoon variability from one place to another is related to the orography. In the mountainous northern regions of Vietnam, there is an "early" monsoon peaking in July. In the coastal regions between 12° N and 19° N the monsoon season is centered on October.

    Concerning lightning: Vietnam is a country of strong atmospheric storms with some areas of very intense lightning in North Vietnam (22,5° N, 105° E and in South Vietnam (11° N, 107° E. In North Vietnam strong lightning is associated with the most intense rainy region.

  4. Sun-Earth System Interaction studies over Vietnam: an international cooperative project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Amory-Mazaudier

    2006-12-01

    of 400 km in the Vietnamese longitude sector. In this paper we compare the ground magnetic observations of the Indian and Vietnamese magnetometer networks. This comparison highlights the regional structure of the amplitude of the equatorial electrojet, which is stronger in Vietnam than in India. Concerning the monsoon: Vietnam exhibits a strong monsoon and has mainly one rainy season peaking in August, hence associated with the southwest monsoon flow. But some monsoon variability from one place to another is related to the orography. In the mountainous northern regions of Vietnam, there is an "early" monsoon peaking in July. In the coastal regions between 12° N and 19° N the monsoon season is centered on October. Concerning lightning: Vietnam is a country of strong atmospheric storms with some areas of very intense lightning in North Vietnam (22,5° N, 105° E and in South Vietnam (11° N, 107° E. In North Vietnam strong lightning is associated with the most intense rainy region.

  5. Farmers’ Education and Farmers’ Wealth in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of farmers’ education is examined with a view to evaluate the actual situation of farmers’ education in Bangladesh. Fifty samples were collected from two sub districts of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. The selection of the study sites and collection of the samples such as the years of schooling of the farm household head, total income, farm size, number of earners of farm families, family size, years of farming experience of farm household head, number of times extension contacts and rice yield were done purposively. It is cleared from the study that education is necessary for farmers to raise their wealth. Results were derived through regression analysis. The study has also shown that size of family and years of farming experience contributed significantly to the wealth accumulation of farmers.

  6. Development Dynamics of Remittances in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munim K. Barai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remittance inflows in the economy of Bangladesh are getting larger every passing year, matching with the increasing external demand for its manpower. The ensuing development impacts of remittances, as a means of transfer of wealth, on socioeconomic factors are increasingly viewed with importance. Remittances have helped improve the social and economic indicators like nutrition, living condition and housing, education, health care, poverty reduction, social security, and investment activities of the recipient households. The relative weight of remittances has also increased against most of the macroeconomic variables alongside the contribution to GDP. Moreover, Bangladesh has been able to avoid any serious imbalances in BOP’s current account, although it has persistent merchandize trade deficits. Not only that, the export tradable sector has thus far remained unaffected from the Dutch Disease effects of remittances.

  7. Career choices among medical students in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, SM Moslehuddin; Majumdar, Md Anwarul Azim; Karim, Rezina; Rahman, Sayeeda; Rahman, Nuzhat

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Information regarding career choices of medical students is important to plan human resources for health, design need-based educational programs, and ensure equitable and quality health care services in a country. Aim The aim of the study is to identify career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices of Bangladesh medical students. Method First-, third-, and fifth-year students of Bangladesh Medical College and Uttara Adhunik Medical College completed a self-report questionnaire on career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices. The students were requested to choose three long-term choices from the given specialties. Results A total of 132 students responded (46 males and 86 females) and response rate was 75%. The popular choices (first choice) among males and females were medical specialty, surgical specialty, obstetrics and gynecology, and general practice. For first, second, and third choices altogether, male students chose surgical specialties and female students preferred medical specialties. The leading reasons for selecting a specialty were personal interest and wide job opportunity. More than 67% of respondents wanted to join private services and about 90% chose major cities as practice locations. About 43% of respondents expressed willingness to practice medicine in Bangladesh, whereas 51% of total respondents wanted to practice abroad. Discussion Majority of students intended to specialize in established clinical specialties and subsequently practice in major cities, and more than half wanted to immigrate to other countries. Basic medical subjects and service-oriented (lifestyle-related) and preventive/social medical specialties were found to be less attractive. If this pattern continues, Bangladesh will suffer a chronic shortage of health personnel in certain specialties and in rural areas. Conclusions Reorientation of health care and medical

  8. Comparative advantage in Bangladesh crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Shahabuddin, Quazi; Dorosh, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    "This study uses data from 1996/97 through 1998/99 to examine the relative efficiency of production of crops in Bangladesh and their comparative advantage in international trade as measured by net economic profitability (the profitability using economic, rather than financial costs and prices), and the domestic resource cost ratio, (the amount of value of non-tradable domestic resources used in production divided by the value of tradable products). The economic profitability analysis demonstr...

  9. Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Viet Nam will make its strong effort to implement the UNFCCC through effective activities in order to reduce GHG emissions as well as enhance carbon sinks in the country. The UNEP/GEF Project `Economics of GHG Limitation - Phase 1: Establishment of a Methodological Framework for Climate Change Mitigation Assessment` developed by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in cooperation with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been deployed in Viet Nam since 1996. The project deals with GHG mitigation analysis and options, focusing on the main issues: a) Associated macro-economics, b) Energy, c) Land use and forestry. For this study, a number of different data related to energy, industry, forestry and agriculture sectors as well as Viet Nam socio-economic development up to the year 2030, are collected. Besides, several models such as MEDEE-S, EFOM-ENV, COMAP are applied for development and assessment of GHG mitigation options in the next decades. The MEDEE-S and EFOM-ENV models are used as a tool for determining the cost-effective strategies to abate GHG emissions for energy sector while COMAP model is applied for forestry sector. (au) 39 refs.

  10. Vietnam's Garment Industry – Origins and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Phuong, Dung

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the origin and future of Vietnam's garment industry. Recent research has shown that garments business have been shifting from china to Vietnam because in Vietnam, comparatively labor costs are more cheaper than china. The rearrangement of production amenities to Vietnam - with strong government support to the garments industry, increasing exports if textile product, strong trade relations and selected goals have helped to expand of textile and apparel industry in Vietn...

  11. OPPORTUNITIES OF DEVELOPING TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayub CHOWDHURY

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism appeal includes natural places like beaches, eco-parks, lakes, valleys, rivers, islands etc., archeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, picnic spots, forest and wildlife. Bangladesh is a riverine country having attractive panoramic beauty. There are hills, valley, canals, lake, eco-park and mangrove forests, rivers, so many islands and the longest beach in the world. In this country, the scope of nature based tourism, resource based tourism, culture based tourism and eco-tourism is quite evident. Bangladesh is trying hard to develop its tourism industry. Therefore the whole situation deserves to be seen from right perspectives. Role of government is positive since the last twenty years both private and public organizations have come forwarded to attract the local and foreign tourists. The cracks of problem could not identify accurately because of the paucity number of researches and investigations in our country. Developed and organized tourism industry could change the economic condition and contribute a big share in the GDP of Bangladesh. This study will impede the opportunities of developing tourism industry in the light of existing resources.

  12. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2017-08-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index ( SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( \\overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of \\overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  13. Trapped in Statelessness: Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Abul Hasnat; Rahman, Mijanur; Hussain, Sumaira; Jindal, Charulata; Choudhury, Sushmita; Akter, Shahnaz; Ferdousi, Shahana; Mouly, Tafzila Akter; Hall, John; Efird, Jimmy T

    2017-08-21

    The Rohingya people are one of the most ill-treated and persecuted refugee groups in the world, having lived in a realm of statelessness for over six generations, and who are still doing so. In recent years, more than 500,000 Rohingyas fled from Myanmar (Burma) to neighboring countries. This article addresses the Rohingya refugee crisis in Bangladesh, with special emphasis on the living conditions of this vulnerable population. We reviewed several documents on Rohingya refugees, visited a registered refugee camp (Teknaf), collected case reports, and conducted a series of meetings with stakeholders in the Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh. A total of 33,131 registered Rohingya refugees are living in two registered camps in Cox's Bazar, and up to 80,000 additional refugees are housed in nearby makeshift camps. Overall, the living conditions of Rohingya refugees inside the overcrowded camps remain dismal. Mental health is poor, proper hygiene conditions are lacking, malnutrition is endemic, and physical/sexual abuse is high. A concerted diplomatic effort involving Bangladesh and Myanmar, and international mediators such as the Organization of Islamic Countries and the United Nations, is urgently required to effectively address this complex situation.

  14. English, Education, and Globalisation: A Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akteruzzaman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a third world country and a former British colony, Bangladesh has seen a dramatic upsurge in the use of the English language. Built on the concept of imperialistic aspects of the English language, this paper draws on responses from anonymous survey results and interviews and attempts to provide deeper insights into the global aspects of English as a language and the credibility of this language in the minds of the populace. This paper assesses the English language as a feature of globalization where English is considered to be of the utmost value. Questionnaires were designed and interviews were arranged to evaluate the commercial and linguistic aspects of English in Bangladesh to reach a conclusion whether the mass perceives this very language as it should be or there are any other economic and cultural aspects. The findings were presented graphically and the study showed that English fails to meet the expectations of the stakeholders and policy makers of Bangladesh. The paper concludes with some recommendations that could help resolve the situation and present English to the people in a better light.

  15. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Sana

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  16. Flood characteristics of the Haor area in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Asadusjjaman; Bhattacharya, Biswa

    2013-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Bangladesh is a country, which is frequently suffering from flooding. The current research is conducted in the framework of a project, which focuses on the flooding issues in the Haor region in the north-east of Bangladesh. A haor is a saucer-shaped depression, which is used during the dry period (December to mid-May) for agriculture and as a fishery during the wet period (June-November), and thereby presents a very interesting socio-economic perspective of flood risk management. Pre-monsoon flooding till mid-May causes agricultural loss and lot of distress whereas monsoon flooding brings benefits. The area is bordering India, thereby presenting trans-boundary issues as well, and is fed by some flashy Indian catchments. The area is drained mainly through the Surma-Kushiyara river system. The terrain generally is flat and the flashy characteristics die out within a short distance from the border. Limited studies on the region, particularly with the help of numerical models, have been carried out in the past. Therefore, an objective of the current research was to set up numerical models capable of reasonably emulating the physical system. Such models could, for example, associate different gauges to the spatio-temporal variation of hydrodynamic variables and help in carrying out a systemic study on the impact of climate changes. A 1D2D model, with one-dimensional model for the rivers (based on MIKE 11 modelling tool from Danish Hydraulic Institute) and a two

  17. "Where Is Vietnam?" Antiwar Poetry and the Canon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Argues for the pervasive intervention of the Vietnam War in the cultural production of U.S. poetry. Questions the academic canon of post-World War II poetry and criticizes anthologies for ignoring Vietnam War poetry. Suggests why Vietnam War poetry has remained such an avoided subject. Lists anthologies including such poetry. (HB)

  18. Facilitating Alcohol Control Law Development in Vietnam | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... alcohol control legislation in Vietnam by examining: -existing national policies and international best practices related to alcohol taxation and pricing; -alcohol affordability in Vietnam and the likely impact of tax increases on alcohol consumption; -industry strategies and practices related to alcohol advertising in Vietnam; ...

  19. Rewriting the Vietnam Narrative: Strategic Partnership Opportunities in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    greater than their own.9 In 1858 the French invaded Vietnam pulling much of Southeast Asia under their control by the 1880’s. They...Rewriting the Vietnam Narrative: Strategic Partnership Opportunities in Southeast Asia by Lieutenant Colonel Scott Linton...Rewriting the Vietnam Narrative: Strategic Partnership Opportunities in Southeast Asia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  20. Girl prostitution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  1. INFLUENCE OF MICRO-FINANCE ON BANGLADESH RURAL PEOPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rasel

    2013-01-01

    KYMENLAAKSON AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU University of Applied Sciences International Business Bangladesh is a rising country located in the southern part of Asia. More than half of the population of it lives in rural areas and they are living under the poverty level. In Bangladesh rural people are not capable of getting loan facilities from the regular financial sector due to the guarantee r...

  2. Can Bangladesh produce enough cereals to meet future demand?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timsina, J.; Wolf, J.; Guilpart, N.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Grassini, P.; Wart, van J.; Hossain, A.; Rashid, H.; Islam, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2018-01-01

    Bangladesh faces huge challenges in achieving food security due to its high population, diet changes, and limited room for expanding cropland and cropping intensity. The objective of this study is to assess the degree to which Bangladesh can be self-sufficient in terms of domestic maize, rice and

  3. Seasonal forecasting of Bangladesh summer monsoon rainfall using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the development of a statistical forecasting method for summer monsoon rainfall over. Bangladesh is described. Predictors for Bangladesh summer monsoon (June–September) rainfall were identified from the large scale ocean–atmospheric circulation variables (i.e., sea-surface temperature, surface air ...

  4. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  5. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  6. Seasonal forecasting of Bangladesh summer monsoon rainfall using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the development of a statistical forecasting method for summer monsoon rainfall over Bangladesh is described. Predictors for Bangladesh summer monsoon (June–September) rainfall were identified from the large scale ocean–atmospheric circulation variables (i.e., sea-surface temperature, surface air ...

  7. Rainfall and temperature scenarios for Bangladesh for the middle of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mean surface air temperature projection for Bangladesh is experimentally obtained for 2050 and 2060. This work discloses that simulated ... seasonal and annual rainfall, and mean surface air temperature in Bangladesh. The projected change ... already being felt in South Asia and will continue to intensify (Haq et al 1998; ...

  8. Health Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Health Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh. Research on the links between tobacco farming and health problems among men, women, and children in Bangladesh will examine the health and socio-economic impact of tobacco cultivation. To date, the health hazards of growing tobacco have not been documented ...

  9. Glutoxylon Chowdhury (Anacardiaceae): the first record of fossil wood from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, I; Davies, C

    2001-04-01

    This paper documents the first record of silicified fossil wood from a previously undescribed wood-rich horizon in the Sitakund Anticline, Eastern Bangladesh. The outcrop is composed of cross-stratified, fine-medium grained sandstones with bidirectional cross stratification indicative of a tidal environment, deposited ca. 5-5.2 million years before present (Miocene/Pliocene). The wood is characterised by large solitary vessels with alternate intervascular pits, banded parenchyma, uniseriate rays, and multiseriate rays with one radial canal per ray. This character combination closely resembles the wood of extant Gluta L. of the Anacardiaceae. This specimen has been assigned to the organ genus Glutoxylon Chowdhury erected for fossil woods with anatomical similarity to Gluta (including Melanorrhoea Wall.). The excellent preservation of this mature wood specimen illustrates the potential for using fossil wood from the Sitakund locality for palaeoecological studies in terms of biodiversity and adaptational response to climate change. Moreover such investigations of fossil woods from Bangladesh will compliment studies undertaken on fossil plants in other parts of Central and Southeastern Asia which will further the understanding of plant migration routes between India and Southeast Asia during the Tertiary.

  10. Psychometric and cognitive validation of a social capital measurement tool in Peru and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Mary J; Harpham, Trudy; Tuan, Tran; Bartolini, Rosario; Penny, Mary E; Huttly, Sharon R

    2006-02-01

    Social capital is a relatively new concept which has attracted significant attention in recent years. No consensus has yet been reached on how to measure social capital, resulting in a large number of different tools available. While psychometric validation methods such as factor analysis have been used by a few studies to assess the internal validity of some tools, these techniques rely on data already collected by the tool and are therefore not capable of eliciting what the questions are actually measuring. The Young Lives (YL) study includes quantitative measures of caregiver's social capital in four countries (Vietnam, Peru, Ethiopia, and India) using a short version of the Adapted Social Capital Assessment Tool (SASCAT). A range of different psychometric methods including factor analysis were used to evaluate the construct validity of SASCAT in Peru and Vietnam. In addition, qualitative cognitive interviews with 20 respondents from Peru and 24 respondents from Vietnam were conducted to explore what each question is actually measuring. We argue that psychometric validation techniques alone are not sufficient to adequately validate multi-faceted social capital tools for use in different cultural settings. Psychometric techniques show SASCAT to be a valid tool reflecting known constructs and displaying postulated links with other variables. However, results from the cognitive interviews present a more mixed picture with some questions being appropriately interpreted by respondents, and others displaying significant differences between what the researchers intended them to measure and what they actually do. Using evidence from a range of methods of assessing validity has enabled the modification of an existing instrument into a valid and low cost tool designed to measure social capital within larger surveys in Peru and Vietnam, with the potential for use in other developing countries following local piloting and cultural adaptation of the tool.

  11. The Lessons of the Vietnam War: Unit 13. Teacher's Manual: Strategies and Resources for Teaching the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Social Studies Education, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This teacher's manual is designed to accompany the curriculum "The Lessons of the Vietnam War." For each of 12 units of the curriculum, this manual suggests projects for student research and classroom activities. The 12 units are entitled: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and…

  12. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  13. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  14. Assessment of natural radioactivity in the sea-beaches of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Shyamal Ranjan; Alam, Md. Kowsar

    2014-01-01

    The present research work was aimed to study the ambient radiation environment of the most popular sea-beaches of Bangladesh. The average activity concentrations of radioactive elements such as 232 Th, '2 38 U and 40 K of beach sand samples were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using an HPGe detector and found to be higher than the internationally accepted values. The absorbed γ dose rate levels of the study areas are similar to other monazite sand-bearing high background radiation areas (HBRAs) of southern and southwestern coastal regions of India and of the world. The estimated values of the radiological parameters of the present study areas were also higher than the internationally accepted values. Hence, Cox's bazaar, Kuakata and Potenga sea-beach regions can be considered as HBRAs and potential zones for monazite like radioactive sand. (author)

  15. Assessment of whole-body occupational radiation exposure in industrial radiography practices in Bangladesh during 2010-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M.S.; Hoque, A.; Khan, R.K.; Siraz, M.M.M., E-mail: msrahman74@hotmail.com [Health Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Shahbag, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Begum, A. [Physical Science Division, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-01

    Presently, ten industrial radiography facilities are operating in Bangladesh using X-ray or gamma-ray sources. During the last 5-year, 14 industrial radiography facilities were received individual monitoring service using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) from the Health Physics Division (HPD), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka under Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. HPD is the only individual monitoring service provider in Bangladesh due to external sources of ionizing radiation. The number of monitored industrial radiography facilities ranged from 7 to 14 while the number of worker ranged from 72 to 133 during the study period. The annual average effective doses received from external radiation in industrial radiography workers and the distributions of the annual effective doses by dose intervals are presented. The distribution of the occupational doses shows that the majority (about 75 %) of workers received doses below 1 mSv for the last 5-years. Even though, very few workers (about 1%) received doses higher than average annual dose limit (20 mSv), but no workers received doses higher than 100 mSv in 5 consecutive years. The average annual effective dose of industrial radiography workers in Bangladesh is higher than the corresponding values in Tanzania, Greece, Poland, Australia, UK and lower than in Bosnia and Herzegovina, USA and Canada. However, the average annual effective dose is comparable to the corresponding values in China, Brazil, Germany and India. The status and trends in occupational doses show that radiation protection situation at the majority of the workplace were satisfactory. In spite of that, additional measures are required due to big differences observed in the maximum individual doses over the last 5-year. (author)

  16. Women at war: The crucible of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Pless Kaiser

    2017-12-01

    Short-term (20 years; 12% and civilian women (13%. Additional differences regarding warzone experiences, homecoming support, and health outcomes were found among groups. All military and civilian women who served in Vietnam were less likely to have married or have had children than women from the general population, χ2 (8 = 643.72, p < .001. Career military women were happier than women in the general population (48% were “very happy”, as compared to 38%. Civilian women who served in Vietnam reported better health than women in the other groups. Regression analyses indicated that long-term physical health was mainly influenced by demographic characteristics, and that mental health and PTSD symptoms were influenced by warzone and homecoming experiences. Overall, this paper provides insight into the experiences of the understudied women who served in Vietnam, and sheds light on subgroup differences within the sample.

  17. Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamikazy Kume

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

  18. Lightning protection for wind turbines in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has become increasingly important in the total electrical energy supply mix in Vietnam over the last few years. Small, kW turbines were installed in isolated areas a decade ago, while wind farms of several MW to few hundred MW are now being connected directly to national grid, with many additional projects in planning or under construction to fulfill an objective of 6% of the total installed capacity by 2030 (approximately 6200 MW of wind energy component. The increase in wind farm generation results in increased damage from lightning. In this paper, the annual frequency of lightning strikes to wind turbines in Vietnam is calculated using electrogeometric model. Reported lightning incidents to three major wind farms in Vietnam are summarized. Possible causes of failure are discussed, and an EMTP simulation for each incident was performed accordingly. The simulations suggest the failure mechanisms as well the potential of improved grounding to reduce lightning induced damage in future windfarms.

  19. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2018-04-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  20. India Symposium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JNCASR

    The panel discussion is scheduled in the pre lunch session of the. India Symposium ... School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University,. New Delhi. 5. ... (1) Showcasing the work done by Indian Women Scientists. (2) Panel Discussion on Gender Issues in Indian Science. Program: 09.00 a.m. – 09.10 a.m.. : Welcome ...

  1. Women at war: The crucible of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless Kaiser, Anica; Kabat, Daniel H; Spiro, Avron; Davison, Eve H; Stellman, Jeanne Mager

    2017-12-01

    Relatively little has been written about the military women who served in Vietnam, and there is virtually no literature on deployed civilian women (non-military). We examined the experiences of 1285 American women, military and civilian, who served in Vietnam during the war and responded to a mail survey conducted approximately 25 years later in which they were asked to report and reflect upon their experiences and social and health histories. We compare civilian women, primarily American Red Cross workers, to military women stratified by length of service, describe their demographic characteristics and warzone experiences (including working conditions, exposure to casualties and sexual harassment), and their homecoming following Vietnam. We assess current health and well-being and also compare the sample to age- and temporally-comparable women in the General Social Survey (GSS), with which our survey shared some measures. Short-term (20 years; 12%) and civilian women (13%). Additional differences regarding warzone experiences, homecoming support, and health outcomes were found among groups. All military and civilian women who served in Vietnam were less likely to have married or have had children than women from the general population, χ 2 (8) = 643.72, p < .001. Career military women were happier than women in the general population (48% were "very happy", as compared to 38%). Civilian women who served in Vietnam reported better health than women in the other groups. Regression analyses indicated that long-term physical health was mainly influenced by demographic characteristics, and that mental health and PTSD symptoms were influenced by warzone and homecoming experiences. Overall, this paper provides insight into the experiences of the understudied women who served in Vietnam, and sheds light on subgroup differences within the sample.

  2. Strategy in the Vietnam War: Western Concepts, Eastern Conflict and the Roots of Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weland, James

    1990-01-01

    Critiques U.S. military assumptions concerning the war in Vietnam. Discusses the North Vietnamese strategic approach to gaining control of South Vietnam. Traces the history of the Vietnam War, analyzing specific U.S. military operations in Vietnam and reasons for their failure. Contends that U.S. strategic ethnocentrism lead to defeat in Vietnam.…

  3. Health issues in nursing in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristy, S J

    1995-01-01

    Major health concerns are not currently addressed in Vietnam as the country strives to upgrade its economic status. The current standard of medical care is rudimentary at best, as is the education and practice of Vietnamese nurses. The Ministry of Health in Vietnam has directed the Medical College of Hanoi to commence a 4-year degree in nursing in 1994. Historical, practical, political, economic, social, and cultural issues affect the development of nursing as a profession. Assistance from the West is sought by the Medical College in Hanoi.

  4. The role of trade unions in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    than non-members, and are more likely to receive social benefits.Within unionised firms, a substantial wage premium is revealed for workers employed in Southern firms, a finding which among other factors may be attributed to historical differences between the North and South of Vietnam.......On the basis of matched employer–employee data from 2007 to 2009, this paper examines the union wage gap among small and medium non-state manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. Controlling for both worker and firm characteristics, the results provide evidence that union members earn higher wages...

  5. india : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    À mesure que les pays de l'Asie du Sud s'acheminent vers une plus grande intégration économique, on voit apparaître tout un éventail de difficultés interreliées ayant trait aux garanties constitutionnelles et aux garanties des droits de la personne. End Date: 17 mars 2016. Sujet: PRISONS. Région: Bangladesh, India, Nepal ...

  6. Emerging Scenario of Trade Potentialities of North-East India: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Krishna Mandal

    2009-01-01

    The North-East Region (NER) of India which comprises of eight states, namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura shares most of its boundary with China, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Myanmar. The NER accounts for about eight per cent of the country's geographical area and about four per cent of population. Tribals account for more than 30 per cent of the total population of NER. Inadequate and poor infrastructure, inhospitable terrain and a com¬parativ...

  7. india : tous les projets | Page 17 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les mouvements de femmes en Inde ont du mal à résoudre les problèmes suscités par les changements rapides au chapitre des relations sociales et les vulnérabilités reliées, entre autres, au phénomène de la ... Région: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan.

  8. Vietnam 1964-65 Escalation Versus Vietnamization. ACSC Quick-Look 05-03

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cain, Anthony C

    2005-01-01

    In 1964 President Lyndon Johnson faced the defining decision of his administration, whether to abandon South Vietnam to Communist insurgents or to escalate US troop levels and roles in fighting the Communists...

  9. Harnessing pluralism for better health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Evans, Timothy G; Standing, Hilary; Mahmud, Simeen

    2013-11-23

    How do we explain the paradox that Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in health and human development, yet its achievements have taken place within a health system that is frequently characterised as weak, in terms of inadequate physical and human infrastructure and logistics, and low performing? We argue that the development of a highly pluralistic health system environment, defined by the participation of a multiplicity of different stakeholders and agents and by ad hoc, diffused forms of management has contributed to these outcomes by creating conditions for rapid change. We use a combination of data from official sources, research studies, case studies of specific innovations, and in-depth knowledge from our own long-term engagement with health sector issues in Bangladesh to lay out a conceptual framework for understanding pluralism and its outcomes. Although we argue that pluralism has had positive effects in terms of stimulating change and innovation, we also note its association with poor health systems governance and regulation, resulting in endemic problems such as overuse and misuse of drugs. Pluralism therefore requires active management that acknowledges and works with its polycentric nature. We identify four key areas where this management is needed: participatory governance, accountability and regulation, information systems, and capacity development. This approach challenges some mainstream frameworks for managing health systems, such as the building blocks approach of the WHO Health Systems Framework. However, as pluralism increasingly defines the nature and the challenge of 21st century health systems, the experience of Bangladesh is relevant to many countries across the world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda

    2015-08-01

    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  11. Economic development and population policy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R

    1984-09-01

    This paper deals with Bangladesh's growth rate and the policy implications for its economy. Despite its obvious influence on the economy, population has never been integrated as an endogenous variable in any planning model. Development planning is mostly supported by donor agencies, involving little micro-level planning and practically no trickle-down effect. This paper examines the interaction of population and other development variables in the country's planning process. Much of the rural population consists of landless farmers share croppers, so that the land ownership pattern contributes to low productivity. Population increase is making the rural masses even poorer. This process is further compounded by increasing foreign aid dependence, adverse terms of trade in the international market, low savings and investments, and the rural sector's worsening terms of trade. During 1950-1970 real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) increased only at a rate of 1% per annum and during 1950-1970 real growth of GDP fell behind the population growth rate. A cost benefit analysis of fertility reduction is needed. The cost benefit ratio of most countries varies between 1:10 to 1:30; for Bangladesh it is 1:16. Macro-model studies indicate that the higher the fertility reduction and shorter the period of required decline, the higher will be the benefits in terms of gains in per capita income. There is, however, a contradiction between national and household interests. The latter's decision to have more children has a negative spillover effect, which nullifies the gains of the community. The national family planning program suffered a serious setback during and after the liberation of Bangladesh, mainly due to lack of administrative leadership and support. In order for the population growth rate to be checked and to increase the quality of life for the entire population, the family planning program must be revitalized by mobilizing the entire government machinery and

  12. Water, climate change and society in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, I.; Simmer, C.

    2017-12-01

    Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh with a population of over 17 million people, is among the top five coastal cities most vulnerable to climate change, with over 30 % of the population living in slums. Effective disaster mitigation and adaptation requires an understanding how hazards such as flooding impact the population. The impacts of climate change on flooding and thus livelihoods in the complex delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers can not be treated isolated from other anthropogenic impacts due to e.g. the construction of dams as well as a growing population. We illustrate this by setting up a conceptual socio-hydrological causal network using the enhanced Driving force - Pressure - State - Impact - Response framework. The constructed socio-hydrological framework includes both natural and anthropogenic processes and their two-way feedbacks, allowing policy makers to know where available resources can be used effectively to increase resilience and reduce vulnerability. We conclude that climate change takes place over long stretches of time and thus enable the population of Bangladesh to adapt slowly. Resources such as social capital, which is one of the main tools for slum dwellers to be able to cope with flooding can be altered over time, and as such the system can be considered overall stable and resilient. However, transboundary water sharing issues during the dry season and other implications resulting from dam structures such as Farakka Barrage complicate a prognosis on how the rapidly growing population will be affected in the 21st century. This is particularly important in connection with previous findings, which suggest that the Greater Dhaka population already experience a significant increase in mortality during droughts. Climate change can thus be seen as an anthropogenic amplification of the socio-hydrological challenges already faced by Bangladesh today.

  13. Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Trends and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Islam, Md Kamrul; Hasan, Mohammad Sazzad; Hossain, Mohammad Bellal

    2017-01-01

    While studies on fertility and contraceptives issues are available, until recently adolescent motherhood has not received enough attention among policy makers in understanding adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh. We aimed to examine the trends and determinants of adolescent motherhood among women aged 15-49 years. For trend analysis we used all the 7 waves of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, 1993-2014) data but for multivariate analysis 4 waves of BDHS (2004-2014). Two separate analyses were carried out on ever married women aged 15-49: (1) teenage girls aged 15-19 and (2) adult women aged 20 and above. The prevalence of adolescent motherhood had declined to a slower pace from 1993 to2014 (from 33.0% to 30.8%). Lower spousal age gap and higher education were found to be associated with lower likelihood of adolescent motherhood both among teenage girls [OR 0.447 (0.374-0.533)] and adult women [OR 0.451 (0.420-0.484)]. Teenage girls in the poorest wealth quintile [OR 1.712 [1.350-2.173] were more likely to experience adolescent motherhood than the richest wealth quintile. Teenage girls who had no education were found to have 2.76 times higher odds of adolescent motherhood than their counterparts who had higher than secondary education. Concerning the time effect, the odds of adolescent motherhood among adult women was found to decline overtime. Despite substantial decrease in total fertility rate in Bangladesh adolescent motherhood is still highly prevalent though declining from 1993 to 2014. Social policies including those addressing poverty, ensuring greater emphasis on education for women; and adolescent mothers in rural areas are needed.

  14. 3D Fault modeling of the active Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. E.; Hubbard, J.; Akhter, S. H.; Shamim, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt (CMFB), located in eastern Bangladesh, eastern India and western Myanmar, accommodates east-west shortening at the India-Burma plate boundary. Oblique subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Plate since the Eocene has led to the development of a large accretionary prism complex, creating a series of north-south trending folds. A continuous sediment record from ~55 Ma to the present has been deposited in the Bengal Basin by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers, providing an opportunity to learn about the history of tectonic deformation and activity in this fold-and-thrust belt. Surface mapping indicates that the fold-and-thrust belt is characterized by extensive N-S-trending anticlines and synclines in a belt ~150-200 km wide. Seismic reflection profiles from the Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, indicate that the anticlines mapped at the surface narrow with depth and extend to ~3.0 seconds TWTT (two-way travel time), or ~6.0 km. The folds of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts are characterized by doubly plunging box-shaped en-echelon anticlines separated by wide synclines. The seismic data suggest that some of these anticlines are cored by thrust fault ramps that extend to a large-scale décollement that dips gently to the east. Other anticlines may be the result of detachment folding from the same décollement. The décollement likely deepens to the east and intersects with the northerly-trending, oblique-slip Kaladan fault. The CMFB region is bounded to the north by the north-dipping Dauki fault and the Shillong Plateau. The tectonic transition from a wide band of E-W shortening in the south to a narrow zone of N-S shortening along the Dauki fault is poorly understood. We integrate surface and subsurface datasets, including topography, geological maps, seismicity, and industry seismic reflection profiles, into a 3D modeling environment and construct initial 3D surfaces of the major faults in this

  15. The United States and Vietnam Relationship: Benefits and Challenges for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    countries’ political systems, cultures , perspectives, and beliefs. It is impossible that either Vietnam or the U.S. would change their system or beliefs...the central factor in the development of the country. Vietnam will focus on education, training, healthcare, and other social areas to enhance the...that social regime, and that country’s history, customs, and cultures . Therefore, there is no copy of a country’s market economy model that is

  16. Near-Vertical Moho Reflections Under the Hanoi Basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, T. V.; Harder, S. H.

    2008-12-01

    Surface expression of the Red River fault, a major strike-slip fault originating from the India-Eurasian collision, terminates as a large pull-apart basin in northern Vietnam. The onshore part is called the Hanoi basin and is an extension of the larger offshore Song Hong basin. Rifting in these basins began early Eocene with inversion in the late Miocene and continued subsidence today. Gravity studies indicate crustal thinning under the Hanoi basin, however both the Hanoi and Song Hong basins are in near isostatic balance resulting in relatively small gravity anomalies from large crustal-scale features. Hence, seismic methods would seem to be a more appropriate method for studying crustal structure in this situation. In January 2008 we shot the first deep crustal seismic lines in Southeast Asia in and near the Hanoi basin. Crustal seismic experiments in densely populated areas are challenging because of the high cultural noise levels and the lack of available space for shotpoints. This experiment however produced an unusually strong near-vertical reflection from the Moho under the Hanoi basin as well as a number of other arrivals. Analyses of these arrivals indicate the crust is 27 km thick, thinner than estimated from gravity data. They also show the Moho is a complex reflector with a high impedance contrast.

  17. Pharmaceutical Industry in Vietnam: Sluggish Sector in a Growing Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelino, Antonio; Khanh, Do Ta; An Ha, Nguyen; Pham, Tuan

    2017-08-29

    Vietnam is a fast growing economy in the Asian region with a significantly high population (over 92 million in 2015). Although still expanding (about 1.1% on average during 2000-2015), the Vietnamese population is considered to be entering the ageing stage at a very high rate. The rapid expansion of the middle-income urban class and the ageing people ratio have dramatically pushed up the demand for healthcare goods, particularly in terms of pharmaceutical products. Since the early 1990s the government has addressed the necessities of rising demand for healthcare products by formulating a series of policies aimed at promoting the development of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the implementation of such policies does not seem to have been completely efficient given that the country still needs to import up to 90% of its pharmaceutical consumption. This paper aims to explore the development of the pharmaceutical industry during the years 1990-2015 and to identify a series of weaknesses in the government promotion of the industry. Future developments will also be discussed on how the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry could increase its participation in the regional supply chain, which is currently being dominated by big players like India and China.

  18. Pharmaceutical Industry in Vietnam: Sluggish Sector in a Growing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Angelino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is a fast growing economy in the Asian region with a significantly high population (over 92 million in 2015. Although still expanding (about 1.1% on average during 2000–2015, the Vietnamese population is considered to be entering the ageing stage at a very high rate. The rapid expansion of the middle-income urban class and the ageing people ratio have dramatically pushed up the demand for healthcare goods, particularly in terms of pharmaceutical products. Since the early 1990s the government has addressed the necessities of rising demand for healthcare products by formulating a series of policies aimed at promoting the development of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the implementation of such policies does not seem to have been completely efficient given that the country still needs to import up to 90% of its pharmaceutical consumption. This paper aims to explore the development of the pharmaceutical industry during the years 1990–2015 and to identify a series of weaknesses in the government promotion of the industry. Future developments will also be discussed on how the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry could increase its participation in the regional supply chain, which is currently being dominated by big players like India and China.

  19. Pharmaceutical Industry in Vietnam: Sluggish Sector in a Growing Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelino, Antonio; Khanh, Do Ta; An Ha, Nguyen; Pham, Tuan

    2017-01-01

    Vietnam is a fast growing economy in the Asian region with a significantly high population (over 92 million in 2015). Although still expanding (about 1.1% on average during 2000–2015), the Vietnamese population is considered to be entering the ageing stage at a very high rate. The rapid expansion of the middle-income urban class and the ageing people ratio have dramatically pushed up the demand for healthcare goods, particularly in terms of pharmaceutical products. Since the early 1990s the government has addressed the necessities of rising demand for healthcare products by formulating a series of policies aimed at promoting the development of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the implementation of such policies does not seem to have been completely efficient given that the country still needs to import up to 90% of its pharmaceutical consumption. This paper aims to explore the development of the pharmaceutical industry during the years 1990–2015 and to identify a series of weaknesses in the government promotion of the industry. Future developments will also be discussed on how the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry could increase its participation in the regional supply chain, which is currently being dominated by big players like India and China. PMID:28850083

  20. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  1. Social marketing of contraceptives in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellstede, W P; Ciszewski, R L

    1984-01-01

    Since 1975 there has been a family planning program operating in Bangladesh which advertises and commercially distributes contraceptive products in both rural and urban areas throughout the country. The program, known as the Social Marketing Project (SMP) and managed by Population Services International (PSI), now serves almost 1 million acceptors per month at an annual cost per couple of less than US$6.50, including the cost of donated contraceptives. This paper looks at the evolution of the project and its growth through the years, and addresses some primary concerns of planners of social marketing programs.

  2. Status of radiation curing in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss Ali, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Bangladesh is a small country covering about 148 thousand square kilometer area with a population of 120 million. It has only 15% urban area; most of the people live in the rural area. It is neither industrial nor developed. It is trying hard to stand on its feet combating all damages caused by frequent natural calamities like cyclones and floods. Thus, most of the technological activities are still being carried out on turnkey basis. However, some research and development institutions have already been developed to such an extent that transfer of technology can occur and the local industries can also benefit out of this endeavour

  3. Ladies without lamps: nurses in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Shahaduz

    2009-03-01

    In this article, I explore the experiences and concerns of Bangladeshi nurses. I have based this on a larger ethnographic study that was conducted in a ward of a government teaching hospital in Bangladesh. The study shows how the values and norms of Bangladeshi society have shaped the life of Bangladeshi nurses, that they do scarcely any nursing work, and that they suffer from various negative social images. I argue, through this article, that the role, image, and concerns of Bangladeshi nurses have changed dramatically from the ideal image of nursing, and are dissimilar from the ways nursing is practiced in many other parts of the world.

  4. Radon and thoron anomalies along Mat fault in Mizoram, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    may be due to the capping effect of the wet soil layers at the surface which prevents radon from escaping into .... 158. 4.5. Imphal. 13.10.2011. 90th day. 24.0. ◦. N, 91.5. ◦. E. 158. 175. 3.7. India (Tripura)–Bangladesh. Border region. 17.10.2011. 94th day. 27.3. ◦. N, 88.4. ◦. E. 628. 644. 3.5. Sikkim. 21.10.2011. 98th day. 24.8.

  5. Digital Divide between Teachers and Students in Urban Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Telecom boom since 2000 and ‘Digital Bangladesh’ campaign since late 2008 created significant nationwide hype, resulting rapid increase in the use of digital devices. While studies are being conducted to use the ability of “power users of technology” for reducing digital divide, there is hardly any...... data available on them in Bangladesh context. A study was conducted to study the digital divide and ICT usage pattern among the urban students and teachers of schools and colleges in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. About 75 students enrolled in probability and statistics course of Independent...... into digital divide and associated reasons in four different educations systems in Bangladesh....

  6. Treatment Failure for Malaria in Vietnam

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-06-05

    WHO malaria expert, Dr. Charlotte Rasmussen, discusses anti-malarial drug resistance in Vietnam.  Created: 6/5/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/5/2017.

  7. Morphodynamic modelling for Thuan An inlet, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, T.N.; Stive, M.J.; Verhagen, H.J.; Wang, Z.B.

    2006-01-01

    Thuan An is a tidal inlet located in Vietnam in a tropical monsoon area. The inlet is very dynamic and variable under the influences of not only tides and waves from the sea but also flows and floods from upstream rivers. Therefore, morphodynamic behaviour of the inlet is very complicated and not

  8. Universal service in Vietnam: An institutional approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Applying institutional theory to look at the Program 74 (a universal service policy) in Vietnam, this paper concludes that the Vietnamese universal service policy was strongly affected by formal institutional factors (the international agreements and the directives of the Communist Party of Vietn...

  9. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01


    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect

  10. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Vietnam. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 throug...

  11. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were…

  12. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  13. Journalism Training in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Notes that both journalism and journalism training are undergoing major changes in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. Offers insights and practical guidance for trainers, elements of which could apply to most developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Highlights some of the problems encountered by a short-term foreign guest lecturer, albeit one who…

  14. Urbanization, migration, and Vietnam's spatial structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, D

    1996-04-01

    In North Vietnam during the war years from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, cities were evacuated to minimize damage from bombing. As such, the urbanization process was checked. In the South, however, urban areas grew rapidly as people fled the fighting in the villages. Reunification of the country led to an outflow of residents from the largest southern cities back to the North or into new economic zones. From the mid-1970s to the early 1980s, Vietnam's total urban population remained static before beginning to increase slowly during the latter half of the 1980s. The rate of urbanization accelerated in the first half of the 1990s, although that process is not reflected in the available statistics. During 1979-89, the smaller cities grew faster than the larger ones, while most interprovincial migration occurred from North to South. Unemployment is a major problem in Vietnam's growing cities. The country's economic reforms require a more fluid labor market with fewer restrictions upon labor mobility. These needs are gradually undermining the strategy designed to contain urbanization, forcing planners to rethink urban development. The author discusses developing Vietnam's three main urban development corridors.

  15. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their

  16. The Vietnam War: History, Learning, and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tricia

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the curriculum entitled "Echoes from the Wall: History, Learning and Leadership through the Lens of the Vietnam War Era." Discusses the purpose of the materials. States that the curriculum incorporates primary resources into the classroom while making history more immediate to students. (CMK)

  17. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterstein, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    On May 6-7, 2000, the Foreign Policy Research Institute's (FPRI's) sixth History Institute convened with more than 40 high school and college history teachers to seek answers to the question: "How should we teach the history of the Vietnam War to our children today?" Not surprisingly, no simple answers were forthcoming. This conference…

  18. New Species of Orchids from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. Averyanov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of herbarium specimens collected in course of field exploration works in Vietnam during 2005-2007 revealed ten species of orchids new for science. Illustrated descriptions are provided for each discovered species, which are named as Anoectochilus papillosus, Arundina caespitosa, Bulbophyllum paraemarginatum, B. sinhoënse, Cheirostylis foliosa, Goodyera rhombodoides, Liparis rivularis, Oberonia multidentata, O. trichophora and Sunipia nigricans.

  19. Value Chain Development of Avocado in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.; Quaedackers, P.; Nguyen Trung Anh,; Wijk, van S.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid economic development, urbanisation and rising income levels, in Vietnam offer potential for pro-poor development, by creating new market opportunities for producers, traders and retailers. This article describes the process of value chain development, which involves all actors in the broad

  20. Development research in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-11

    Jan 11, 2011 ... Vietnam has embarked on a far-reaching transition of unusual character — an attempt to transform the country's economy, through market liberalization, without altering its centralized political structure. Doi Moi, (roughly, “reconstruction”), the term adopted in 1986, described a set of policies designed to ...

  1. Tuberculosis Acquired Outside of Households, Rural Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buu, T.N.; van Soolingen, D.; Huyen, M.N.T.; Lan, N.N.T.; Quy, H.T.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Borgdorff, M.W.; Cobelens, F.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Using population-based data from rural Vietnam, we assessed tuberculosis (TB) transmission within and outside of households. Eighty-three percent of persons with recent household TB were infected by different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis than were their household members. This result argues

  2. Demography of threatened tree species in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chien, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Demography of threatened tree species in Vietnam (Summary for the library) Effective conservation of threatened tree species requires information on natural dynamics and future prospects of populations of these species. Such information can be obtained from demographic studies. We investigated the

  3. Gender patterns in Vietnam's child mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Pham, T.; Kooreman, P.; Koning, R.H.; Wiersma, D.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze child mortality in Vietnam focusing on gender aspects. Contrary to several other countries in the region, mortality rates for boys are substantially larger than for girls. The mortality rate of boys appears to be more sensitive to parents’ education levels than the mortality rate of

  4. Gender patterns in Vietnam's child mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thong Le Pham, [No Value; Kooreman, Peter; Koning, Ruud H.; Wiersma, Doede

    We analyze child mortality in Vietnam focusing on gender aspects. Contrary to several other countries in the region, mortality rates for boys are substantially larger than for girls. The mortality rate of boys appears to be more sensitive to parents' education levels than the mortality rate of

  5. Vietnam | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the early 2000s, Vietnam's Fisheries College No. 4 and Canada's College of the North Atlantic created the country's first Internet-based distance education service for rural learners. We continue to support online education through regional research to improve the quality of distance education. Total IDRC Support ...

  6. Connecting Vietnam's isolated communities to improve healthcare ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... View infographics. Researchers from Vietnam's Institute of Population, Health and Development (PHAD) piloted an innovative mHealth (mobile health) program to reach these remote populations. Tested in eight communes in the mountainous Dinh Hoa district of Thai Nguyen province in northeastern ...

  7. India Symposium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JNCASR

    Science and a few young women scientists as well who will give a perception of those who are entering the field now. The panel discussion is scheduled in the pre lunch session of the. India Symposium which will start at 9.00 a.m. We envisage a talk by each panelist for about 5-7 minutes, followed by a discussion and then ...

  8. Environmental considerations in Vietnam's energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy conservation is at the centre of an environmental debate in Vietnam, whose rapidly growing economy in recent years has resulted in rising energy consumption and environmental degradation. This article reviewed the actual state of Vietnam's energy system, with consideration of the country's energy policies and their impact on the environment. Vietnam's energy resources consist of a vast network of rivers that hold potential for hydroelectric power; reserves that are proven to have oil, natural gas and coal; and, other renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy. The energy sector plays a major role in the economic and social aspects of the country. Since its economic reform, coal and crude oil exports have brought in foreign money to the national revenue. Vietnam exploits four commercial types of energy, namely coal, oil, natural gas and hydroelectricity. These traditional energy sources play a major role in providing energy for the rural and mountainous regions in the country. The increase in energy demand in Vietnam is currently greater than that of its gross national product. The energy intensity in Vietnam is 1.5 times greater than that of Thailand, and twice the average world consumption. Energy demands are increasing at a regular rate due to a low rate of energy efficiency and to growth in industrialization and modernization. In addition, the government provides subsidies to the already low price of energy. It was concluded that although Vietnam has a low rate of energy consumption compared to other regions of the world, there exists a serious imbalance between energy use and economic and social growth. This imbalance could have a negative impact on fossil resources and the environment, especially if the high demand for energy is maintained. Presently, all negative impacts on the environment are related to the energy sector. An environmental assessment and strategic proposals to manage this problem locally and globally, have constituted the

  9. On nuclear manpower development in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung Van Duan

    2007-01-01

    Vietnam began to be interested in education and training on nuclear sciences and related subjects since the early 1960's. A department of Nuclear Physics and Engineering was established in 1970 at the Hanoi University of Technology (HUT), which is the biggest interdisciplinary technological education centre of the country. In Vietnam there are several institutions where exist programmes of education on nuclear sciences and nuclear engineering. But HUT has been being since 1970 the only institution that has underway programme of education on nuclear engineer degree. Although the Department was renamed and its education programme was adjusted, but the objectives of its education programme have been being followed without changes. These objectives are as follows: 1) To develop peaceful applications of atomic energy in Vietnam; 2) To train up engineers on nuclear instrumentation for supporting the first objective; and 3) To prepare initial manpower for introduction of Nuclear Power in Vietnam. Nuclear community of Vietnam is still not so large. Total number of its members increased until 1986, and then decreases up to now. Present average age of members of the community is of 45. In 15 coming years at least 500-700 young people must be educated on programmes on nuclear engineer degree and on nuclear bachelor degree. This is a very difficult task for a developing country such as Vietnam. From a point of view of development, the above-mentioned number is too small, and it must be much more. This makes the task much more difficult. In addition, education on nuclear engineering in the country at present is in a hard situation because of lacking in experienced people, as well as in teaching material and equipment, and, because of weakness of the education programme. So, it may be impossible to achieve success in realization of the task without a large and effective international cooperation in education on nuclear science and engineering. That is why the Asian Network for

  10. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  11. Towards the effective plastic waste management in Bangladesh: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourshed, Monjur; Masud, Mahadi Hasan; Rashid, Fazlur; Joardder, Mohammad Uzzal Hossain

    2017-12-01

    The plastic-derived product, nowadays, becomes an indispensable commodity for different purposes. A huge amount of used plastic causes environmental hazards that turn in danger for marine life, reduces the fertility of soil, and contamination of ground water. Management of this enormous plastic waste is challenging in particular for developing countries like Bangladesh. Lack of facilities, infrastructure development, and insufficient budget for waste management are some of the prime causes of improper plastic management in Bangladesh. In this study, the route of plastic waste production and current plastic waste management system in Bangladesh have been reviewed extensively. It emerges that no technical and improved methods are adapted in the plastic management system. A set of the sustainable plastic management system has been proposed along with the challenges that would emerge during the implementation these strategies. Successful execution of the proposed systems would enhance the quality of plastic waste management in Bangladesh and offers enormous energy from waste.

  12. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-04-30

    ... English language and North American culture. Start Date: April 30, 2007. End Date: June 26, 2012. Topic: Internet, LANGUAGE BARRIER, ASIAN LANGUAGES, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, INFORMATION SOCIETY. Region: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Far East Asia, Cambodia, ...

  13. bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INFECTIOUS DISEASES, DISEASE VECTORS, Disease control, SOCIAL ASPECTS, ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH. Région: Bangladesh, Central ... Sujet: ATTITUDES, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, GENDER RELATIONS, GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY, Gender. Région: ...

  14. Poverty-led higher population growth in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakibullah, A; Rahman, A

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the issue whether population growth is exogenous or endogenous in the economic development of Bangladesh. Overpopulation adversely affects food supplies, foreign exchange, and human resources. Moreover, it depresses savings per capita and retards growth of physical capital per labor. Underdeveloped countries, like Bangladesh, are faced with the problem of allocating resources between infrastructure, education, and health service that are essential for human capital development and population control measures. With this, determination whether fertility is exogenous or endogenous is important for policy purposes in the context of Bangladesh. Results showed that there is a correlation between population growth and real gross domestic products per capita. Based on Granger causality test, population growth is endogenous in the development process of Bangladesh and its overpopulation is due to poverty. Thus, there is a need for appropriate policy to take measures to improve human capital and decrease fertility rates.

  15. Republic of Vietnam. A Study of Higher Education in the Republic of Vietnam and Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Vietnam in United States Educational Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmon, Hattie; And Others

    This 1970 study of higher education in the Republic of Vietnam looks at an educational system based on the old French colonial system, superimposed on the Chinese Mandarin system, with some evidence of change to prepare students for lives in a modern technological age. Each university and college in Vietnam is reviewed and recommendations for…

  16. Understanding arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Babar

    2001-01-01

    The problem of water contamination by naturally occurring arsenic confronts governments, public and private utilities, and the development community with a new challenge for implementing operational mitigation activities under difficult conditions of imperfect knowledge - especially for arsenic mitigation for the benefit of the rural poor. With more than a conservative estimate of 20 million of its 130 million people assumed to be drinking contaminated water and another 70 million potentially at risk, Bangladesh is facing what has been described as perhaps the largest mass poisoning in history. High concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic have already been found in water from tens of thousands of tube wells, the main source of potable water, in 59 out of Bangladesh's 64 districts. Arsenic contamination is highly irregular, so tube wells in neighboring locations or even different depths can be safe. Arsenic is extremely hazardous if ingested in drinking water or used in cooking in excess of the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/liter over an extended period of time. Even in the early 1970s, most of Bangladesh's rural population got its drinking water from surface ponds and nearly a quarter of a million children died each year from water-borne diseases. Groundwater now constitutes the major source of drinking water in Bangladesh with 95% of the drinking water coming from underground sources. The provision of tube well water for 97 percent of the rural population has been credited with bringing down the high incidence of diarrheal diseases and contributing to a halving of the infant mortality rate. Paradoxically, the same wells that saved so many lives now pose a threat due to the unforeseen hazard of arsenic. The provenance of arsenic rich minerals in sediments of the Bengal basin as a component of geological formations is believed to be from the Himalayan mountain range. Arsenic has been found in different uncropped geological hard rock formations

  17. Exploring the communication barriers in private commercial banks of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Nahneen; Abdullah, Abu Md.; Tabassum, Ayesha

    2013-01-01

    In Bangladesh, lots of private commercial banks are contributing for economic growth. The performance of the banks depends on a well-structured communication system. So by maintaining an effective communication system, the banks can gain competitive advantage. Thus the study aims to investigate the communication barriers that should be removed for effective communication in the private commercial banks of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire survey based on 5-point Likert-scale was conducte...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF BOND MARKET IN BANGLADESH: ISSUES, STATUS AND POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR; S.M. Nasrul QUADIR

    2010-01-01

    Bond market acts as buffer of equity market. This market in Bangladesh has been found very inefficient with respect to number of issues, volume of trade, number of participant, long-term yield curve, interest rate policy etc. In view of this, the present study has been undertaken aiming at identifying the problems that impedes the growth and development of Bond Market in Bangladesh. Researchers have collected both primary and secondary data and analysed the same by employing descriptive measu...

  19. Taming the Jamuna : Effects of river training in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryant, S.; Mosselman, E.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; de Ruijsscher, T.V.; Geertsema, T.J.; Makaske, B.; Wallinga, J.; Candel, J.H.J.; Poelman, J.

    2017-01-01

    The 10 km wide Jamuna river in Bangladesh is  one of the most morphologically active rivers in  the world, with bank erosion rates of up to 500  m per year (Mutton and Haque 2004). Such  extreme river migration in the center of  Bangladesh, one of the most densely 

  20. Consequences of Climate Change and Gender Vulnerability: Bangladesh Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zayeda Sharmin; Mohammad Samiul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh’s geographic location and geo-morphological conditions have made the country one of the most vulnerable to weather and climate induced changes. Bangladesh is a land of wetlands, which occupy around 50 percent of the country. Wetlands play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance of ecosystems, but wetland habitats of Bangladesh are under constant threats due to climate induced changes and anthropogenic activities. Climate change is causing a rise in sea levels, which al...

  1. Enhancing Public Service Ethics in Bangladesh: Dilemmas and Deterrents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Pan-Suk; Monem, Mobasser; Baniamin, Hasan Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    There may be many factors that diminish or destroy trust in governmental institutions. However, none may destroy trust easier or faster than unethical behavior or blatant corruption by public officials. Bangladesh is rated as one of the most corrupt countries in the world by different organizations. One of the most fundamental obstacles to building trust in Bangladesh is the pervasive nature of corruption at many levels. A glance at the newspapers or a glimpse of the news on the television sh...

  2. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera of leafminer flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Mazumdar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine hymenopteran parasitoids attacking leafminers (Agromyzidae: Diptera in Bangladesh.  Four parasitoid species, viz. Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood and Cirrospilus sp. belonging to family Eulophidae and Opius sp. under family Braconidae of the order Hymenoptera are reported as new to the fauna of Bangladesh.  All parasitoids were reared from three agromyzid flies namely Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, Melanagromyza obtusa Mallochand and Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon. 

  3. Epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and domestic ruminants in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, AKM Anisur

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world’s most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting both, public health and animal production. It is endemic in many developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America including Bangladesh. Since the first report in 1970, a lot of brucellosis seroprevalence reports are available in cattle, goats, sheep and humans in Bangladesh. Most of the previously reported prevalence studies were based on non-random samples, which may not give a tr...

  4. Chiffrer le travail des femmes au Vietnam | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 juil. 2017 ... En mai, un atelier tenu à Hanoi a mis en lumière la question de la double charge de travail au Vietnam, où elle est particulièrement sérieuse en ... L'Institut du travail et des affaires sociales, du ministère du Travail, des Invalides de guerre et des Affaires sociales du Vietnam, a effectué l'étude au Vietnam.

  5. U.S.-Vietnam Military Relations: Game Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    South China Sea. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Military Relations, the South China Sea, Game Theory , Strategic Moves, China, the United States, Vietnam 15...the U.S. cannot compel Vietnam toward a more formalized military relationship. I will use game theory , specifically Strategic Moves, to test these...comes to the game theory analysis, this thesis will only focus on a two by two (2x2) decision matrix of Strategic Moves between the U.S. and Vietnam

  6. Suspended futures : the Vietnamization of South Vietnamese history and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Long Thanh

    2011-01-01

    In 1969, President Richard Nixon announced the "Vietnamization" of the Vietnam War, a handover of responsibility for winning the war from the U.S. to its allies, the South Vietnamese. Vietnamization articulated the challenges of achieving political freedom and historical agency for South Vietnamese people. Conceptualizing this term in the early 21st century, I seek to address the ways the war (and its subjects) is called into the present to speak about the representability and addressability ...

  7. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Trends Over Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, A.

    2016-12-01

    An important omission in the Southeast Asian observing network is the border region with the Indian subcontinent. Significant amounts of pollution are generated and transported down the Indo-Gangenic Plain into the Bay of Bengal. High population density in a semi-arid region leads to the development of a complex mixture of absorbing pollution coupled with dust. Transport patterns of this mixture takes pollutants into Bangladesh, where more pollution is added to the atmosphere-leading to what is one of the highest non urban emission loading in the world (AOD500= 0.75 during the premonsoon season). Bangladesh is essentially a riverine country, and atmospheric outflow is over delta regions fed by over 500 rivers, including the Ganges, Bramaputra, Jamuna, and Padma systems forming the massive Meghna river. This combination of atmospheric and riverine components makes for an optically complex littoral region which challenges a host of environmental sensors and modeling systems. Data is needed to understand the sources, transport and optical characteristics of aerosol particles in the region. Dhaka (23.8103° N, 90.4125° E) is the capital of Bangladesh with a population of about 16 million. It has been growing rapidly with all the problem of a mega city. We have installed a sun photometer with NASA Aeronet project at the roof of the Chemistry Department, Dhaka University with other aerosol particles and gas measuring instruments. Bhola is an Island of the Bay of Bengal. It is surrounded by the Meghna River on the north and east, the Tatulia River on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the south. The observatory is located at Charfashion Bazar, Bhola (N 22o10´01″, E 90o45´00″, 3m asl). There is very little influence from traffic and industrial emissions. A Cimel sunphotometer (NASA AERONET) was installed for AOD measurements at this locations since 2013. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) trends between 2012 and 2016 at two different locations (Dhaka and Bhola) will be

  8. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  9. MEASURING THE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector has been playing a significant role in achieving the economic growth of Bangladesh, where contribution of Islamic Banking Sector is remarkable. Islamic Banking Sector shows a substantial growth position in Bangladesh. Customer satisfaction is the most significant affecting phenomenon in determining the banking growth. Thus, this study attempts to measure the existing level of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banks in Bangladesh, using the Structural Equation Model (SEM. This study uses the 22 dimensions of customer satisfaction which used in the earlier studies in different countries for measuring the customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector. A total of 385 samples have been taken from six full pledged Islamic Banks in Bangladesh. It reveals form the study that Human Resources and Systemization Service Delivery is the strongest indicator of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh followed by Core Product, Service Capability and Social Responsibility. The findings therefore, may be helpful for policy-makers of banking authorities who have been making serious endeavor to sustain the growth of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh.

  10. Good governance and political culture: A case study of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic system it is essential to have a competitive, and a tolerant party system, but Bangladesh has experienced an intolerant and a confrontational party system that has created a deadlock and brought uncertainty to the whole country. Since 1990, except 2014, Bangladesh has witnessed four systematic peaceful free elections, one each--in 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2008. On January 5, 2014, however, a controversial election took place in which major opposition political parties did not participate except the ruling alliance parties. The two dominant parties—the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP and the Awami League (AL—each won two previous free and fair elections, with the BNP winning in1991, and a BNP-led 4-party coalition in 2001, and the AL in 1996, and an AL-led 14 party alliance in 2008. However, from 2014 Bangladesh is heading towards an authoritarian system. All these are happening due to the lack of good governance. This article intends to emphasize that the political culture emanating from the party politics is retarding good governance in Bangladesh. This article argues that the cultural traits developed in the last four decades in various dimensions,, particularly in more recent years, have worked as an “earth-worm” in the fabrics of democracy in Bangladesh preventing ‘good governance’.

  11. Equity and Quality? Challenges for Early Childhood and Primary Education in Ethiopia, India and Peru. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 55. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses…

  12. Bombay, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  13. Sowing the Seeds of Soft Power: The United States and India in the Next Great Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    adopting the American ideal of female beauty and the objectification of women as sexual objects, which, when imprinted on a society with a...Unclassified 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 ii THIS PAGE...United States could be used by India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea , Russia, or Vietnam to contain Chinese power.33 While these nations may not

  14. Determinants of Food Consumption During Pregnancy in Rural Bangladesh: Examination of Evaluative Data from the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaul Karim; Deepa Bhat; Lisa Troy; Sascha Lamstein; F. James Levinson

    2002-01-01

    The common practice of reducing food consumption during pregnancy is recognized as a primary cause of poor pregnancy outcomes and, in turn, malnutrition among young children in many developing countries including Bangladesh. This paper analyzes data from the 1998 Mid-Term Evaluation of the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project (BINP) to identify the determinants of pregnancy food consumption. The analysis found that information available to the mother (through project-based counseling) was ...

  15. Description of two new Calicnemia from Vietnam and central Laos with notes on their congeners in Vietnam (Odonata: Platycnemididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Quoc Toan; Kompier, Tom; Karube, Haruki

    2017-02-16

    Descriptions are given of two new species of Calicnemia: C. akahara sp. nov. from central and southern Vietnam and C. hamata sp. nov. from central Laos. C. soccifera Yu & Chen, 2013, and C. haksik Wilson & Reels, 2003, are recorded for the first time from Vietnam; C. uenoi Asahina, 1997, is redescribed with new illustrations provided of its anal appendages and genital ligula; and the occurrence of C. mortoni (Laidlaw, 1917) in Vietnam is discussed.

  16. Wetland agribusiness aspects and potential in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Aurup Ratan; Islam, Md Monirul; Jannat, Arifa; Ahmed, Jasim Uddin

    2018-02-01

    The study was conducted to document farmers' livelihood aspects and agribusiness potentials in wetland areas of Bangladesh. A total of 120 farmers and 24 service providers were interviewed for data collection. Most of the farmers were small farmers having less than 1.0 ha of cultivable land. The differences in productivity of crop farming and poultry rearing between wetland area and main land were statistically significant. Favorable farm environment and proper utilization of agricultural resources were major strength and opportunity. The data may be helpful for formation of agribusiness clusters involving input suppliers, credit/financial organizations and different support service providers for more income, better nutrition and improved livelihood of the wetland people.

  17. Bangladesh: new directions for achieving national target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Professor A.Q.M. Badruddoza Chowdhury, Minister for Health and Population Control, says there is much work to be done in Bangladesh in the field of family planning. Although 67,000 couples had reportedly been sterilized in the previous 6 months, officials claim that the number of acceptors should be an impetus to accelerate the pace of all measures being taken to arrest the population boom. An action program is being formulated by the government to broaden and effectuate the family planning program to contain population to 10 crore (1 crore is 10 million) by the year 2000. The population explosion negates the developments in health, nutrition, education, clothing, housing, communication, and the environment.

  18. Aflatoxin contamination in food commodities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Monika; Harris, Julie; Afreen, Sadia; Deak, Eszter; Gade, Lalitha; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Park, Benjamin; Chiller, Tom; Luby, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    During September 2009, we performed a rapid cross-sectional study to investigate the extent of aflatoxin contamination among common Bangladeshi foods. We collected eight common human food commodities (rice, lentils, wheat flour, dates, betelnut, red chili powder, ginger and groundnuts) and poultry feed samples from two large markets in each of three cities in Bangladesh. We quantified aflatoxin levels from pooled subsamples using fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography. Aflatoxin levels were highest in dates and groundnuts (maximum 623 and 423 ng/g), respectively. Samples of betelnut (mean 30.6 ng/g), lentils (mean 21.2 ng/g) and red chili powder (>20 ng/g) also had elevated levels. The mean aflatoxin level among poultry feed samples was 73.0 ng/g. Aflatoxin levels were above the US maximum regulatory levels of 20 ng/g in five of eight commonly ingested human food commodities tested.

  19. India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks · India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas · Broadband Access Options for India · Broadband driven by DSL: ...

  20. Gingivitis in primary school children of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuma Pervin Mishu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Though early diagnosis and intervention of gingivitis in school children can eliminate progression to frank periodontal diseases, no such measures in Bangladesh are in place to detect gingivitis at an early stage in school children. This survey was conducted in 2007 in the primary schools of rural, suburban and urban areas of Bangladesh to evaluate oral hygiene with special emphasis on gingivitis prevalent among 6-13 years school children. The clinical examination of the gingiva was carried out using a mouth mirror and a periodontal probe. A total of 1,820 primary school students (m/f = 946/873 took part in the investigation. The crude prevalence of gingivitis, AS* and plaque were 17.5%, 9.2% and 56.0% respectively. The prevalence of gingivitis was significantly higher in males than females (20.3 vs. 14.3%, p<0.001, lower than upper social class (21.1 vs. 12.6%, p<0.001 and in rural than urban plus suburban children (22.5 vs. 15.1%, p<0.001. Likewise, the prevalence of AS was higher in females, lower social class and rural children. Significantly lower prevalence of gingivitis, AS and plaque was found among those who used tooth brush and tooth paste than those who did not (15.4% vs 22.4%, p<0.001. The study concludes that the prevalence of oro-dental diseases is high in Bangladeshi children. The male children of low social class of rural communities are the most vulnerable group. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2009; 3(2: 71-74

  1. DNA barcoding of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA barcoding revealed the presence of the polyphagous leafminer pest Liriomyza sativae Blanchard in Bangladesh. DNA barcode sequences for mitochondrial COI were generated for Agromyzidae larvae, pupae and adults collected from field populations across Bangladesh. BLAST sequence similarity searches ...

  2. Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical microbiology during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Michael; Brown, Matthew; Palys, Thomas; Tyner, Stuart; Bowden, Robert

    2009-11-01

    During the period of 1965-1968, over two dozen Army microbiologists were deployed to various locations in Southeast Asia in support of the Vietnam War. Their role was to serve both a clinical laboratory mission/function at the mobile Army surgical hospital and mobile laboratory level as well as to perform research roles in all of the facilities. They were essential to the formulation of medical intelligence as well as to the practice of operational medicine in the deployed environment. The results of their laboratory investigations provided commanders and military physicians with critical medical information for patient care, outbreak investigation, and forensic analysis. As with many soldiers in support of the infantry and armor combat forces, most of the work occurs behind the scenes and their contributions are often left out of the historical literature. This article presents a brief overview of microbiology performed by Army microbiologists during the Vietnam War.

  4. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Vietnam: some clarifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Le

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recently published comment on a report of Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Vietnam states that this may not accurately represent the situation in the study area because the PCR primers used may cross-hybridize with Plasmodium vivax. Nevertheless, P. knowlesi infections have been confirmed by sequencing. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree based on the 18S S-Type SSUrRNA gene shows that the Vietnamese samples clearly cluster with the P. knowlesi isolates identified in Malaysia and are distinct from the corresponding P. vivax sequences. All samples came from asymptomatic individuals who did not consult for fever during the months preceding or following the survey, indicating that asymptomatic P. knowlesi infections occur in this population, although this does not exclude the occurrence of symptomatic cases. Large-scale studies to determine the extent and the epidemiology of P. knowlesi malaria in Vietnam are further needed.

  5. Determinants of Elderly Poverty in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Giang, Thanh Long; Pfau, Wade Donald

    2008-01-01

    By using household data in 2004, this paper identifies the determinants of the elderly poverty in Vietnam. We find that urban and rural elderly are substantially different, and thus they should be analyzed separately. The results for urban areas generally show that higher ages, unmarried status, residential regions, and working status have significant impacts on the likelihood of poverty for the elderly. In rural areas, higher ages, female, unmarried status, ethnic minorities, res...

  6. Area Handbook Series: Vietnam: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    norms influenced the evolution of Vietnam as a hierarchic, authoritarian society in which Confucian scholarship, monarchi- cal absolutism, filial piety ...Vietnamese life well into the 1980s. These beliefs, which were derived partly from Confucianism, stressed the virtues of filial piety , loyalty, family... classical literature and to use the Chinese system of ideographs in writing. Emperor Gia Long, in a particu- larly obvious act of imitation in the

  7. Vietnam Land Policy - Adjusting to Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    the Late- Socialist Period," Pacific Affairs: vol 84, no. 3, (2011): 439-440, accessed 30 September 2013, EBSCO Discovery Service. 37 U.S...Society,” Contemporary Southeast Asia vol 31, no. 1 (2009): 21, accessed 15 October 2013, EBSCO Discovery Service. 81 Legal Information... EBSCO Discovery Service. Fforde, Adam. "Vietnam in 2012: The End of the Party." Asian Survey 53, no. 1 (2013): 101-108. Accessed 30

  8. Income Inequality and Migration in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN, Tien Dung

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the recent trends in income inequality, internal and international migrations and investigated the impact of migration on income distribution in Vietnam. Our analysis shows that the effects of migration on income inequality vary with different types of migration, depending on who migrate and where they migrate. Foreign remittances tend to flow toward more affluent households, and they increase income inequality. By contrast, domestic remittances accrue more to ...

  9. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  10. Gender Patterns in Vietnam's Child Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thong Le; Kooreman, Peter; Koning, Ruud H.; Wiersma, Doede

    2011-01-01

    We analyze child mortality in Vietnam focusing on gender aspects. Contrary to several other countries in the region, mortality rates for boys are substantially larger than for girls. A large rural-urban mortality difference exists, but much more so for boys than for girls. A higher education level of the mother reduces mortality risk, but the effect is stronger for girls than for boys.

  11. FDI Climate in India

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Varun

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 1991, after the external payment crisis in India, there has been liberalization of various policies by the Government of India. Due to this there has been rapid surge of FDI inflows in India. The current investment climate has attracted many foreign investors to India in various sectors. India is considered as one of the favorable destination of FDI. However the country also suffers from few weaknesses and constraints in terms of policy and regulatory framework, which rest...

  12. Discovery of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam and its molecular phylogenetic status in P. westermani complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2009-04-01

    Paragonimus westermani is the most well-known species among the genus Paragonimus. It is widely distributed in Asia with considerable genetic diversity to form P. westermani species complex. While P. westermani distributed in Japan, Korea, China, and Taiwan are genetically homogeneous to form the East Asia group, those found in other geographic areas are heterogeneous and would be divided into several groups. Recent discoveries of P. westermani in India and Sri Lanka highlighted new insights on molecular phylogenetic relationship of geographic isolates of this species complex. Since Vietnam is located at the east end of Southeast Asia, the intermediate position between South and East Asia, it is of interest to see whether P. westermani is distributed in this country. Here, we report that P. westermani metacercariae were found in mountainous crabs, Potamiscus sp., collected in Quangtri province in the central Vietnam. Adult worms were successfully obtained by experimental infection in cats. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. westermani of Vietnamese isolates have high similarities with those of East Asia group.

  13. Mimaporia, a new genus of Epicopeiidae (Lepidoptera), with description of a new species from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chia-Hsuan; Yen, Shen-Horn

    2017-04-20

    The Epicopeiidae is a small geometroid family distributed in the East Palaearctic and Oriental regions. It exhibits high morphological diversity in body size and wing shape, while their wing patterns involve in various complex mimicry rings. In the present study, we attempted to describe a new genus, and a new species from Vietnam, with comments on two assumed congeneric novel species from China and India. To address its phylogenetic affinity, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the family by using sequence data of COI, EF-1α, and 28S gene regions obtained from seven genera of Epicopeiidae with Pseudobiston pinratanai as the outgroup. We also compared the morphology of the new taxon to other epicopeiid genera to affirm its taxonomic status. The results suggest that the undescribed taxon deserve a new genus, namely Mimaporia gen. n. The species from Vietnam, Mimaporia hmong sp. n., is described as new to science. Under different tree building strategies, the new genus is the sister group of either Chatamla Moore, 1881 or Parabraxas Leech, 1897. The morphological evidence, which was not included in phylogenetic analyses, however, suggests its potential affinity with Burmeia Minet, 2003. This study also provides the first, although preliminary, molecular phylogeny of the family on which the revised systematics and interpretation of character evolution can be based.

  14. Population policies and reproductive patterns in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Hoa, H T; Lap, N T; Diwan, V; Eriksson, B

    1996-06-01

    Vietnam's population policy since the 1980s had stipulated a limit on family size to two children, born 3-5 years apart, and recommends a minimum age of 19 for the mother of a first child. We analysed trends in the timing of marriages and births, and in fertility and abortion rates, among women born between 1945 and 1970, to assess the impact of these policies on reproductive patterns. Reproductive histories were recorded in a random sample of 1432 married women aged 15-49 in a rural province in northern Vietnam. Mean age at marriage and at birth of the first child, birth intervals, fertility, and abortion rates were examined in relation to the woman's year of birth. Later-born women married and had their first child at a younger age than women born earlier. Birth intervals had increased among later-born women but 25% still had only a 1-year interval between first and second child. Fertility had gradually decreased while abortion ratios had increased rapidly. Childbearing patterns had become "earlier, longer, and fewer" rather than "later, longer, and fewer" as stipulated by the policies. The results also show that women with more schooling married and had their first child later. Women involved in farming had shorter spacing between children. There are signs that Vietnam's population policy has focused too strongly on contraception and abortion while ignoring the connection between fertility and women's opportunities for education and employment. In these respects, rural women are at particular risk.

  15. VIETNAM IN 1948: AN INTERNATIONAL HISTORY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Cheng Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the year 1948 in an effort to determine whether 1948 can be considered the starting point of the Cold War in Vietnam. Historical periodisation is a tricky affair, and it is often difficult to pinpoint the genesis of events. By reconstructing the political and military developments in 1948 from the indigenous perspective as well as from regional and international perspectives that directly impinged on Vietnam, I hope to ascertain whether Vietnam’s war of liberation was indeed transformed into a “Cold War” from 1948 onwards—in other words, whether it was in 1948 that the Vietnamese struggle assumed an ideological complexion that shifted from nationalist/anti-colonial sentiment to include communist/anti-capitalist sentiment as well. Before we embark on our consideration of the year 1948, it is useful to recount in broad brush-strokes some key developments in Vietnam leading up to 1948. In order to put the year 1948 in context, it is also necessary to consider in some detail two key developments in 1947.

  16. Comparison of the pathogenicity of Nipah virus isolates from Bangladesh and Malaysia in the Syrian hamster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair L DeBuysscher

    Full Text Available Nipah virus is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are not well described. The first Nipah virus outbreak occurred in Malaysia, where human disease had a strong neurological component. Subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India and transmission and disease processes in these outbreaks appear to be different from those of the Malaysian outbreak. Until this point, virtually all Nipah virus studies in vitro and in vivo, including vaccine and pathogenesis studies, have utilized a virus isolate from the original Malaysian outbreak (NiV-M. To investigate potential differences between NiV-M and a Nipah virus isolate from Bangladesh (NiV-B, we compared NiV-M and NiV-B infection in vitro and in vivo. In hamster kidney cells, NiV-M-infection resulted in extensive syncytia formation and cytopathic effects, whereas NiV-B-infection resulted in little to no morphological changes. In vivo, NiV-M-infected Syrian hamsters had accelerated virus replication, pathology and death when compared to NiV-B-infected animals. NiV-M infection also resulted in the activation of host immune response genes at an earlier time point. Pathogenicity was not only a result of direct effects of virus replication, but likely also had an immunopathogenic component. The differences observed between NiV-M and NiV-B pathogeneis in hamsters may relate to differences observed in human cases. Characterization of the hamster model for NiV-B infection allows for further research of the strain of Nipah virus responsible for the more recent outbreaks in humans. This model can be used to study NiV-B pathogenesis, transmission, and countermeasures that could be used to control outbreaks.

  17. Implementation of the ANISA Protocol in Sylhet, Bangladesh: Challenges and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Dipak K; Mahmud, Arif; Begum, Nazma; Rafiqullah, Iftekhar; Roy, Arunangshu; Moin, Syed Mamun Ibne; Islam, Maksuda; Quaiyum, Md Abdul; Ferdous, Jannatul; Applegate, Jennifer A; Saha, Samir K; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2016-05-01

    Despite the high rate of deaths in young infants (0-59 days) attributable to infections in resource-poor countries, data on bacterial and viral etiologies of community-acquired infections in this age group are limited. These data are needed to develop appropriate preventive strategies and suitable antibiotic treatment regimens for reducing the number of young infant deaths from infections. The Aetiology of Neonatal Infection in South Asia (ANISA) study is designed to generate these critical data and is being implemented in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. The Sylhet site in Bangladesh was selected because neonatal mortality is high in this country and particularly in Sylhet District. In this article, we describe the contextual challenges in implementing the ANISA study in Sylhet, as well as the strategies developed by our team to address these challenges. The major challenge in implementing the ANISA protocol in Sylhet is conducting the first postnatal visit within 24 hours of birth. This problem stems from several social, cultural and geographical characteristics of the study population and its demographic profile. In this area, most births take place at home, referral compliance for newborn illness to health facilities is low and the blood culture contamination rate is high. Community mobilization, cellphone-based birth notification by families, delivery of quality services at study hospitals and referral support to families in need were some of the strategies adopted by the Sylhet site team for overcoming these challenges during study implementation. Quality control in specimen collection, transportation and processing also plays a role in ensuring satisfactory performance. Our research team, with support from the ANISA coordination center, has successfully addressed these challenges and is implementing the study protocol while maintaining the high quality benchmark set by the coordination center.

  18. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrell, Asunción; Tornero, Victoria; Bhattacharjee, Dola; Aguilar, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ 15 N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. - Highlights: • Trace elements were determined in organisms from the Sundarbans mangrove. • The levels found were similar to those determined in wildlife from other mangroves. • Levels in three edible species were close to threshold limits for human consumption. • Except for Cr, As and Hg

  19. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Asunción, E-mail: xonborrell@ub.edu [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Tornero, Victoria [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Bhattacharjee, Dola [Indian Institute of Science Education & Research — Kolkata, Department of Biological Sciences, Mohanpur Campus, Nadia, West Bengal (India); Aguilar, Alex [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ{sup 15}N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. - Highlights: • Trace elements were determined in organisms from the Sundarbans mangrove. • The levels found were similar to those determined in wildlife from other mangroves. • Levels in three edible species were close to threshold limits for human consumption. • Except for Cr, As and Hg

  20. India’s Relations with the Great Powers and Pakistan: Present Status and Implications for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-15

    masses were turbulent. The highpoint of her popularity came in late ll when the Indian Army moved against Pakistan troops trying to quell the...separatist movement in then -ast Pakistan. The victory created Bangladesh. By 1974, however, her popularity was waning due to economic stagnancy and...another alternativa to achieving its objectives. d’hile there are n,.erous ways for relations to improve between India and the United States, the danger

  1. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by

  2. The Effectiveness of Farm Programmes on Bangladesh Betar in Educating Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Mahedi; Mondal, Md. Nazrul Islam; Islam, Md. Nurul; Hoque, Md. Aminul

    2017-01-01

    Farm programmes (FPs) of varied categories have been developed and aired over several decades by Bangladesh Betar, the national radio of Bangladesh for the diffusion of farm technologies. The study aimed to produce an in-depth academic evaluation of their effectiveness in educating farmers in Bangladesh. A sample of 465 respondents from the Khulna…

  3. 78 FR 56211 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ...-Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd., aka Grobest & I-Mei Industry (Vietnam) Co., Ltd., aka Grobest 0.00... Vuong Co., Ltd., Hoang Hai Company Ltd., Hua Heong Food Industries Vietnam Co. Ltd., Hoa Phat Aquatic... Company, Tien Tien Garment Joint Stock Company, Tithi Co., Ltd., Trang Corporation, Vietnam Northern...

  4. The Future of Patriotism: The War Film, The Cinema Industry, and the Vietnam Veteran Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Examines the media's effect on attitudes about Vietnam veterans. Discusses the relationship between media and culture. Analyzes the film industry's ideological battle over Vietnam. Critiques the media's treatment of the Vietnam experience, and considers the impact of media portrayals of the war on the Vietnam Veteran's movement. (RW)

  5. 31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified in this section are authorized... relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam, Cambodia, or a country to which...

  6. 77 FR 1053 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... Economy Country Status In every case conducted by the Department involving Vietnam, Vietnam has been... Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

  7. 77 FR 76170 - Presumption of Exposure to Herbicides for Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans Not Supported

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... during the Vietnam War. After careful review of the IOM report, the Secretary determines that the... served in deep-water naval vessels off the coast of Vietnam during the Vietnam War are referred to as... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Presumption of Exposure to Herbicides for Blue Water Navy Vietnam...

  8. 77 FR 3737 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... the Social Republic of Vietnam and the Imposition of Countervailing Duties Against Steel Wire Garment... From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation AGENCY: Import... of Vietnam (Vietnam) filed in proper form by M&B Metal Products Company, Inc., Innovative Fabrication...

  9. Education and Economic, Political, and Social Change in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Pham Lan; Fry, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the complex relations among history, education, political economy, and social change in Vietnam. Vietnam has a long history of education and a literate culture. The evolution of Vietnamese culture and society is characterized by both persistence and change. Social and political persistence and change have been…

  10. The Making of "The Lessons of the Vietnam War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the development of "The Lessons of the Vietnam War," a set of units which cover legal, cultural, and historical questions of the war in greater depth than do survey textbooks. Examples of the 12 topics are "Introduction to Vietnam: Land, Culture, and History" and "Taking Sides: The War at Home." (GEA)

  11. Transgender at Work: Livelihoods for Transgender People in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.A.; Oosterhoff, P.

    2016-01-01

    The laws in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam promote equality for all citizens and refer to ‘persons’ rather than ‘men’ or ‘women’. However, because of traditional gender norms, transgender people in Vietnam are facing severe stigma and discrimination in public, in schools, at home and in the

  12. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment... Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam. Background The Commission instituted these...

  13. Emergence of Integrated Water Resources Management : Measuring implementation in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, M.; Khanh, N.T.; Witter, M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the changes in laws and regulations, such as the revised Law on Water Resources in 2012, have sought to provide a legal framework for the internationally recognized practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Vietnam. With IWRM being a novel approach for Vietnam, it would

  14. Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

  15. Corporate governance in Vietnam : a system in transition

    OpenAIRE

    Hai, Bui Xuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at the development of company law and corporate governance in Vietnam – a transitional economy in South East Asia. It argues that corporate governance is a newly introduced concept but has become increasingly important in Vietnam, especially by the introduction of the new company legislation in 2005.

  16. Teaching the New Vietnam: It's a Country, Not a War

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCornac, Dennis C.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has made remarkable progress over the past two decades in its transition to a market economy resulting in numerous changes to both its social and economic institutions. It is a nation at peace focusing on economic development and integrating into the world economy. Although the tragic events in Vietnam's history cannot be forgotten, the…

  17. A list of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Sergey G

    2015-01-01

    A species list of identified oribatid mite taxa (Acari, Oribatida) in the fauna of Vietnam is provided. During 1967-2015, a total of 535 species/subspecies from 222 genera and 81 families was registered. Of these, 194 species/subspecies were described as new for science from Vietnam.

  18. Strategies for Long Term Economic Growth in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Report Vietnam," EBSCO Host, April 4, 2013, Accessed September 6, 2013, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=86710391&-site...IHS Global Insight. "Country Report Vietnam." EBSCO Host. April 4, 2013. Accessed September 6, 2013. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct

  19. State governance of pesticide use and trade in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van Hoi,; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is facing serious challenges with respect to the amount and toxicity of the pesticides used. With hardly any domestic pesticides production, Vietnam experienced an exponential growth of both the quantity and the value of imported pesticides in recent years. And the increasing import of newly

  20. Masculinity and Punishment: Men's Upbringing of Boys in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydstrom, Helle

    2006-01-01

    This article examines men's use of physical punishment when interacting with their sons or grandsons in rural Vietnam. By drawing on two periods of anthropological fieldwork in a northern Vietnamese commune, the article analyses the ways in which violence is informed by, while also perpetually reinforcing, a masculine discourse. Vietnam has…