WorldWideScience

Sample records for bangladesh ii history

  1. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (II: history of torture and other traumatic experience of violence and functional assessment of victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Shuvodwip

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organised crime and political violence (OPV and human rights violations have marred Bangladesh history since 1971. Little is known about the consequences for the oppressed population. This study describes the patterns of OPV and human rights violations in a disturbed area of Bangladesh and assesses the physical, emotional and social functioning of victims. Methods A total of 236 of selected participants in a household survey in Meherpur district were recruited for a detailed study. Interviews and physical examinations were used to obtain information about history of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (TCIDTP, and about injuries, pain frequency and intensity. Handgrip strength and standing balance performance were measured. The "WHO-5 Well-being" scale was used to assess the subjective emotional well-being of study participants. Results The majority of the reported cases of TCIDTP occurred in 2000-2008, 51% of incidents occurred during winter; 32.0% between 20:00 and midnight. Police involvement was reported in 75% of cases. Incidents took place at victims' homes (46.7%, or at the police station, military camp, in custody or in prison (21.9%. Participants experienced 1-10 TCIDTP methods and reported 0-6 injury locations on their bodies; 77.5% reported having at least two injuries. Less than half of the participants were able to stand on one leg for 30 seconds. Only 7.5% of males aged 25-44 had handgrip strength in both hands exceeding average values for healthy people at the same age. Over 85% of participants scored low ( Conclusion A detailed picture of characteristics of the victimisation is presented. The participants showed poor emotional well-being and reduced physical capacity. The results indicated that the simple and rapid method of assessment used here is a promising tool that could be used to monitor the quality and outcome of rehabilitation.

  2. History and Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raihan Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one of the smaller states in Asia. But it has a long and rich history of nuclear medicine for over sixty years. The progress in science and technology is always challenging in a developing country. In 1958, work for the first Nuclear Medicine facility was commenced in Dhaka in a tin-shed known as ‘Radioisotope Centre’ and was officially inaugurated in 1962. Since the late 50s of the last century nuclear medicine in Bangladesh has significantly progressed through the years in its course of development, but still the facilities are inadequate. At present there are 20 nuclear medicine establishments with 3 PET-CTs, 42 gamma camera/SPECTs with 95 physicians, 20 physicists, 10 radiochemists and 150 technologists. The Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh (SNMB was formed in 1993 and publishing its official journal since 1997. Bangladesh also has close relationships with many international organizations like IAEA, ARCCNM, AOFNMB, ASNM, WFNMB and WARMTH. The history and the present scenario of the status of nuclear medicine in Bangladesh are being described here.

  3. History and Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Raihan Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the smaller states in Asia. But it has a long and rich history of nuclear medicine for over sixty years. The progress in science and technology is always challenging in a developing country. In 1958, work for the first Nuclear Medicine facility was commenced in Dhaka in a tin-shed known as ‘Radioisotope Centre’ and was officially inaugurated in 1962. Since the late 50s of the last century nuclear medicine in Bangladesh has significantly progressed through the years in its...

  4. Tech Area II: A history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  5. Dinetah: Navajo History. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessel, Robert A., Jr.

    Using archaeological data, written chronicles of Spanish explorers and missionaries, and oral narratives and legends, the book traces the history of the Navajo people to their original homeland, Dinetah, located primarily off the present reservation in an area south and east of Farmington, New Mexico. The book discusses various theories on Navajo…

  6. Spent Fuel Management Program in the 3MW TRIGA MARK-II Research Reactor of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been operating a 3 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor since 1986. The reactor was installed in the campus of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Savar, Dhaka. It is one of the main nuclear research facilities in the country. The reactor uses TRIGA LEU fuel with uranium content of 20% by weight. The enrichment level of the fuel is 19.7%. The reactor has so far been operated for 7834 hours with a total cumulative burn up of 15898 MWh (662.5 MWd). The total burn up life of the present core is 1200 MWd. The main areas of use are: training of man-power for nuclear power plant applications, radioisotope (RI) production, neutron activation analysis (NAA), neutron radiography (NR) and neutron scattering. The government of Bangladesh has taken decision to establish nuclear power programme in the country. There is an ADP (Annual Development Project) to accomplish necessary activities for construction of medium size nuclear power plant (NPP) in the western zone of the country. Now, with regard to the safe management, storage of spent fuel and disposal of radioactive waste arising from operation of the research reactor and also from the proposed NPP expected to be constructed in future, BAEC is drawing up short and long-term plans and programs. At present, there does not exist any spent fuel element in the reactor facility. It is to be mentioned that Bangladesh is aware of the US DOE’s ‘Take Back Program’ in connection with the research reactor spent fuel of US origin, and is very much interested to take part in this program. The paper presents the current status of handling and storage facilities available for spent fuel and strategy for the safe management of spent fuel to be generated from the research reactor in near future. (author)

  7. Probing Our Heliospheric History II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Katherine; Redfield, S.

    2012-05-01

    A physical relationship between our local interstellar medium (ISM), galactic cosmic rays (GCR), and our planetary environment has long been a subject of interest to the astronomical community. Clouds of sufficient density to compress the heliosphere to within 1 AU are commonly seen throughout the galactic environment, including within the Local Bubble (LB). Such a compression would lead to an increase in the GCR flux at 1 AU and would have drastic consequences for many planetary processes such as atmospheric chemistry, lightning production, cloud cover, and DNA mutation rates for surface organisms. Prior to this work, we derived a column density profile of the ISM toward 49 bright stars along a narrow cone centered on the historical solar path. High resolution spectra were taken of NaI and CaII absorption out to a distance of 610 pc, with a median separation distance of 11 pc between adjacent stars. No absorption is seen out to a distance of 120 pc (consistent with the LB), but a complex number of absorbers is seen beyond. We now present the detection of several distinct clouds, their associated column densities, radial velocities, inferred distances, and size constraints. This combination of cloud properties allows us to derive a volume density profile of the ISM in the Sun's “rear-view mirror,” which represents one plausible record of actual ISM encounters for the Sun. We also make use of empirical relations to determine the effect these clouds would have on the historical heliosphere. Our analysis suggests that within the last 10 million years, if the Sun encountered a cloud with the same properties as we have detected along the solar historical trajectory, the Sun's termination shock would have resided inside the orbit of Uranus, with a GCR flux at Earth an order of magnitude greater than it is currently.

  8. Status of spent fuel in the 3MW BAEC MK-II research reactor facility of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh has been operating a 3 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor since 1986. The reactor is installed in the campus of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Savar, which is located about 40 km northwest of Dhaka. It is one of the main nuclear research facilities in the country. The reactor uses TRIGA LEU fuel with uranium content of 20% by weight. The enrichment level of the fuel is 19.7%. So far the reactor has been operated for 5624 hours with a total cumulative burnup (BU) of 10 690 MWh (445 MWd). The main areas of use are: training of man-power for research reactor operation and applications, radioisotope (RI) production, neutron activation analysis (NAA), neutron radiography (NR) and neutron scattering. Radioisotopes produced to date are: I-131, Sc-46 and Tc-99m. Bangladesh is a peace loving country with a strong commitment towards nuclear nonproliferation. Accordingly, it has signed several multilateral and bilateral agreements, protocols, treaties, etc. prevailing in the International Nuclear Non-proliferation regime. Bangladesh has also signed a Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with the USA on 17 September 1981, which facilitated export of nuclear technology from the USA to Bangladesh. The research reactor was procured under the provisions of this agreement. In 2003, the tenure of the Agreement was extended up to 2012. At present, there does not exist any spent fuel element in the reactor facility. However, with the recently undertaken RI production enhancement program, it is expected that the reactor will start generating spent fuels from the year 2012. It is to be mentioned that Bangladesh is aware of the US DOE's 'Take Back Program' in connection with the research reactor spent fuel of US origin, and is very much interested to take part in this program. The paper presents the current status of handling and storage facilities available for spent fuel and strategy for the safe management spent fuel to be generated from the research reactor in

  9. HISTORY OF THE ENDOCRINE SURGERY (II)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Tarcoveanu; A. Vasilescu; Oana Epure

    2005-01-01

    The history of the endocrine surgery is recent, with the discovery of glands and hormones at the beginning of the twentieth century. Most of the major endocrine glands were described anatomically around 1900. The hormones were identified during the first decades of the twentieth century. In 1922 a Romanian doctor, Paulescu, discovered a hypoglycemiant hormone, the insulin. Other hormones like aldosterone and cortisol were discovered after a few years. The diffuse gastrointestinal glandular sy...

  10. Experience and challenges on safeguards practices and approaches for BAEC 3 MW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor and other establishment of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh is deeply committed to nuclear non-proliferation signing and accesses to different unilateral protocols, agreements and treaties like Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), Safeguards Agreements, Nuclear Cooperation Agreements with the USA and other countries etc. are the manifestations of such commitment. The first of such agreements, the NPT was signed in August 1979. NPT is a national commitment that the signatory country will not engage in activities related on nuclear detonations. Subsequently a bilateral agreement entitled 'Safeguards Agreements' was signed with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in June 1982. This provides for international verification of facilities and balancing of nuclear materials. 3MW TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor Facility of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is inspected physically by the IAEA Safeguards Inspectors on an annual basis. For this purpose, a subsidiary arrangement was made with the IAEA, which had defined the scope of such verification. Bangladesh has also signed a Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with the USA on September 17, 1981, which facilitated export of nuclear technology from USA to Bangladesh. Bangladesh also signed another bilateral agreement entitled 'Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreements' with the IAEA in March 30, 2001. The main purpose of this agreement is to provide the IAEA with information on 'so called dual-purpose materials and facilities' including the front end and back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Its enforcement required filing of an initial declaration, draft of which has been sent to the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology (MOSICT) for approval and transmittal to IAEA through the office of the permanent mission in Geneva. This protocol till to-date is the highest level of verification under the nonproliferation regime. The commitment of Bangladesh to non-proliferation is adequately reflected

  11. Refurbishment, Modernization and Ageing Management Program of The 3MW TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, M. A. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2013-07-01

    The 3 MW TRIGA MK-II research reactor of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) achieved its first criticality on 14 September 1986. The reactor has been used for manpower training, radioisotope production and various R and D activities in the field of neutron activation analysis, neutron radiography and neutron scattering. Reactor Operation and Maintenance Unit (ROMU) is responsible for operation and maintenance of the research reactor. During the past twenty seven years ROMU carried out several refurbishments, replacement, modification and modernization activities in the reactor facility. The major tasks carried out under refurbishment program were replacement of the corrosion damaged N-16 decay tank by a new one, replacement of the fouled shell and tube type heat exchanger by a plate type one, modification of the shielding arrangements around the N-16 decay tank and ECCS system and solving the radial beam port-1 leakage problem. All of these refurbishment activities were performed under an annual development project (ADP) funded by Bangladesh government. BAEC research reactor (RR) was operated by analogue console system from its commissioning to July, 2011. Old analog based console has been replaced by digital console on June, 2012. Modernization program for the reactor control console due to obsolescence and unavailability of spare parts of I and C system was vital to restore the safe operation of the reactor. Considering these facts, installation of a digital control console and I and C system based on the state-of-the-art digital technology became necessary. Reactor digital console system installation tasks were performed under another ADP funded project by Bangladesh government. Now the reactor is operating with the digital control system. Besides this, the Neutron Radiography (NR) facility has been modernized by the addition of a digital neutron radiography set-up at the tangential beam port. The Neutron Scattering (NS) facility also has been upgraded

  12. Diet History Questionnaire II & Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Web-based DHQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Web-based versions of DHQ II and C-DHQ II are identical in content to the paper forms. By automating the DHQ II and providing versions on the Web for public use, researchers have another tool to collect and analyze food frequency questionnaire data.

  13. A high performance neutron powder diffractometer at 3 MW Triga Mark-II research reactor in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, I.; Yunus, S. M.; Datta, T. K.; Zakaria, A. K. M.; Das, A. K.; Aktar, S.; Hossain, S.; Berliner, R.; Yelon, W. B.

    2016-07-01

    A high performance neutron diffractometer called Savar Neutron Diffractometer (SAND) was built and installed at radial beam port-2 of TRIGA Mark II research reactor at AERE, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Structural studies of materials are being done by this technique to characterize materials crystallograpohically and magnetically. The micro-structural information obtainable by neutron scattering method is very essential for determining its technological applications. This technique is unique for understanding the magnetic behavior in magnetic materials. Ceramic, steel, electronic and electric industries can be benefited from this facility for improving their products and fabrication process. This instrument consists of a Popovicimonochromator with a large linear position sensitive detector array. The monochromator consists of nine blades of perfect single crystal of silicon with 6mm thickness each. The monochromator design was optimized to provide maximum flux on 3mm diameter cylindrical sample with a relatively flat angular dependence of resolution. Five different wave lengths can be selected by orienting the crystal at various angles. A sapphire filter was used before the primary collimator to minimize the first neutron. The detector assembly is composed of 15 linear position sensitive proportional counters placed at either 1.1 m or 1.6 m from the sample position and enclosed in a air pad supported high density polythene shield. Position sensing is obtained by charge division using 1-wide NIM position encoding modules (PEM). The PEMs communicate with the host computer via USB. The detector when placed at 1.1 m, subtends 30˚ (2θ) at each step and covers 120˚ in 4 steps. When the detector is placed at 1.6 m it subtends 20˚ at each step and covers 120˚ in 6 steps. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The diffractometer is a state-of-the art technology

  14. Diet History Questionnaire II and Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Coding Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    A questionnaire data file is an ASCII text file containing data from completed Diet History Questionnaires. If using paper forms, this file can be created by a scanner or a data entry system. If using DHQ*Web, the questionnaire data file is created automatically.

  15. An Oral History Project: World War II Veterans Share Memories in My Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, David W.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how the author developed and implemented a course on World War II that has an oral history component. The author describes the format of the World War II course and the oral history component within the course framework. The author uses classroom presentations by veterans to enliven his World War II history class and enhance…

  16. Experience and challenges on safeguards practices and approaches for BAEC 3 MW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor and other establishment of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh is deeply committed to nuclear non-proliferation. Signing and accesses to different unilateral protocols, agreements and treaties like Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), Safeguards Agreements, Nuclear Cooperation Agreements with the USA and other countries etc. are the manifestations of such commitment. The first of such agreements, the NPT was signed in August 1979. Subsequently a bilateral agreement entitled 'Safeguards Agreements' was signed with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in June 1982. This provides for international verification of facilities and balancing of nuclear materials and the facility, TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor Facility of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is inspected physically by the IAEA Safeguards Inspectors on an annual basis. For this purpose, a subsidiary arrangement was made with the IAEA, which had defined the scope of such verification. Bangladesh has also signed a Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with the USA on September 17, 1981, which facilitated export of nuclear technology from USA to Bangladesh. Bangladesh also signed another bilateral agreement entitled 'Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreements' with the IAEA in March 30, 2001. This protocol till to-date is the highest level of verification under the non-proliferation regime. The commitment of Bangladesh to non-proliferation is adequately reflected in this document. IAEA would decide on the modalities, frequency and scope of conducting its verification program on the basis of the declaration. Bangladesh signed the CTBT in October 1996. The Treaty was ratified in March 2000. This is a manifestation of Bangladesh's potential nuclear capabilities and by signing this Bangladesh has adequately and convincingly reiterated its commitment to the international community about its peaceful intentions. Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) is the largest R and D establishment of the BAEC. It is

  17. History of respiratory mechanics prior to World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2012-01-01

    The history of respiratory mechanics is reviewed over a period of some 2,500 years from the ancient Greeks to World War II. A cardinal early figure was Galen (130-199 AD) who made remarkably perceptive statements on the diaphragm and the anatomy of the phrenic nerves. The polymath Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) contributed observations on pulmonary mechanics including the pleural space and bronchial airflow that still make good reading. Vesalius (1514-1564) produced magnificent illustrations of the lung, ribcage, and diaphragm. In the 17th century, the Oxford School including Boyle, Hooke, Lower, and Mayow were responsible for many contributions on mechanical functions including the intercostal muscles and the pleura. Hales (1677-1761) calculated the size and surface area of the alveoli, the time spent by the blood in the pulmonary capillaries, and intrathoracic pressures. Poiseuille (1799-1869) carried out classical studies of fluid mechanics including one of the first demonstrations of flow limitation in collapsible vessels. The culmination of the pre-World War II period was the outstanding contributions of Rohrer (1888-1926) and his two Swiss countrymen, Wirz (1896-1978) and von Neergaard (1887-1947). Rohrer developed the first comprehensive, quantitative treatment of respiratory mechanics in the space of 10 years including an analysis of flow in airways, and the pressure-volume behavior of the respiratory system. von Neergaard performed landmark studies on the effects of surface tension on pressure-volume behavior. Progress over the 2,500 years was slow and erratic at times, but by 1940 the stage was set for the spectacular developments of the next 70 years. PMID:23728981

  18. Thermal hydraulic transient study of 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor of Bangladesh using the EUREKA-2/RR code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Reactor power transition time depends on magnitude and form of reactivity. ► This time also depends on existing reactor power during reactivity insertion. ► Pattern of power transition depends on form of reactivity insertion. ► Doppler’s effect is seen for lower reactivity insertion when reactor power is low. ► EUREKA-2/RR code performs well for RIA and LOFA of TRIGA Mark-II research reactor. - Abstract: EUREKA-2/RR code has been used for the analyses of reactivity insertion accident (RIA) and loss of flow accident (LOFA) of 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor of Bangladesh. Transient characteristics of different parameters such as core power, fuel temperature, clad temperature, departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) due to the different form and magnitude of reactivity insertion has been focused. It is found from the analysis that the magnitude of insertion reactivity and the reactor operating power during this insertion impose a total effect on the core safety. Also, transient effects on reactor were studied for 15% loss of flow of the primary coolant. Provided the scram system is available, the reactor is found to shutdown safely in both cases. From these two studies in series, it is seen that EUREKA-2/RR is well suited for the analyses of reactor safety parameters with good approximations.

  19. Spotlight: Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, L

    1998-01-01

    This brief article highlights the progress made in Bangladesh in reducing fertility and improving women's status. The mid-1997 population was an estimated 122.2 million persons. The land area is 50,260 square miles. Population density was 2432 people per square mile. Births were 31 per 1000 persons. Deaths were 11 per 1000 persons. Infant deaths were 77 per 1000 live births. Natural increase was 2% per year. The total fertility rate was 3.3 births per woman. Life expectancy was 58 years for males and females. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world and has about 50% of US population situated on land the size of Wisconsin. Average annual income is about $240. Livelihoods from agriculture are affected by monsoons and natural disasters. Bangladesh has reduced its fertility by half since the mid-1970s. Almost 50% of married women relied on contraception during 1996-97, compared to only 8% of married women in 1975. Increases in contraceptive prevalence are attributed to the family planning program and parents' desire for smaller families. The government has made slowing population growth a priority since the 1970s. The 35,000 field workers provide door-to-door contraception and counseling. Mass media has promoted messages about the economic and health advantages of limiting or spacing births. Women continue to play a subordinate role to men, despite their improved control over fertility. Under 30% of women are literate compared to 50% of men. Islamic practices still confine women to the home. Programs are directed to improving women's financial status through credit programs. Women now hold many jobs in the new garment industry, which is the largest nonagricultural employer.

  20. Energy history chronology from World War II to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, P.C.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a basic guide to the major Presidential, Legislative, Judicial, and Federal agency actions relating to energy policy, research, development, and regulation in recent years. The chronology is arranged synoptically, allowing users to reference easily the historical context in which each event occurred. Summaries of Presidential, Legislative, and Judicial actions relating to energy, rosters of federal energy officials, and a genealogy of federal energy agencies are also provided in separate appendices. The Energy History Chronology was prepared in conjunction with the History Division's series of pamphlets on the Institutional Origins of the Department of Energy. The series includes concise histories of the Department of Energy, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Energy Administration, and the Atomic Energy Commission. All significant events and achievements noted in the institutional history are also listed.

  1. Validation Studies for the Diet History Questionnaire II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data show that the DHQ I instrument provides reasonable nutrient estimates, and three studies were conducted to assess its validity/calibration. There have been no such validation studies with the DHQ II.

  2. Generalized sums over histories for quantum gravity (II). Simplicial conifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Kristin; Witt, Donald M.

    1993-08-01

    This paper examines the issues involved with concretely implementing a sum over conifolds in the formulation of euclidean sums over histories for gravity. The first step in precisely formulating any sum over topological spaces is that one must have an algorithmically implementable method of generating a list of all spaces in the set to be summed over. This requirement causes well known problems in the formulation of sums over manifolds in four or more dimensions; there is no algorithmic method of determining whether or not a topological space is an n-manifold in five or more dimensions and the issue of whether or not such an algorithm exists is open in four. However, as this paper shows, conifolds are algorithmically decidable in four dimensions. Thus the set of 4-conifolds provides a starting point for a concrete implementation of euclidean sums over histories in four dimensions. Explicit algorithms for summing over various sets of 4-conifolds are presented in the context of Regge calculus.

  3. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES. II. H II REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schombert, James [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); McGaugh, Stacy [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Maciel, Tamela, E-mail: jschombe@uoregon.edu, E-mail: stacy.mcgaugh@case.edu, E-mail: tm419@cam.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    The luminosities, colors, and H{alpha} emission for 429 H II regions in 54 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are presented. While the number of H II regions per galaxy is lower in LSB galaxies compared to star-forming irregulars and spirals, there is no indication that the size or luminosity function of H II regions differs from other galaxy types. The lower number of H II regions per galaxy is consistent with their lower total star formation rates. The fraction of the total L{sub H{alpha}} contributed by H II regions varies from 10% to 90% in LSB galaxies (the rest of the H{alpha} emission being associated with a diffuse component) with no correlation with galaxy stellar or gas mass. Bright H II regions have bluer colors, similar to the trend in spirals; their number and luminosities are consistent with the hypothesis that they are produced by the same H II luminosity function as spirals. Comparison with stellar population models indicates that the brightest H II regions in LSB galaxies range in cluster mass from a few 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} (e.g., {rho} Oph) to globular-cluster-sized systems (e.g., 30 Dor) and that their ages are consistent with clusters from 2 to 15 Myr old. The faintest H II regions are comparable to those in the LMC powered by a single O or B star. Thus, star formation in LSB galaxies covers the full range of stellar cluster mass.

  4. [A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy. II. Aspirin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasero, G; Marson, P

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of aspirin, an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, undoubtedly represents a milestone in the history of medical therapy. Since ancient times the derivatives of willow (Salix alba) were used to treat a variety of fevers and pain syndromes, although the first report dates back to 1763 when the English Reverend Edward Stone described the effect of an extract of the bark willow in treating malaria. In the XIX century many apothecaries and chemists, including the Italian Raffaele Piria and Cesare Bertagnini, developed the biological processes of extraction and chemical synthesis of salicylates, and then analyzed their therapeutic properties and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. In 1899 the Bayer Company, where Felix Hoffmann, Heinrich Dreser and Arthur Eichengrün worked, recorded acetyl-salicylic acid under the name "Aspirin". In the XX century, besides the definition of the correct applications of aspirin in the anti-rheumatic therapy being defined, Lawrence L. Crawen identified the property of this drug as an anti-platelet agent, thus opening the way for more widespread uses in cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Validation of eureka-2/rr code for analysis of pulsing parameters of triga mark ii research reactor in bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some parametric studies on pulsing mode for fresh core of TRIGA Mark II research reactor in AERE, Savar, have been carried out with coupled thermal-hydraulics code EUREKA-2/RR in association with neutronics code SRAC. At the beginning, role of some important parameters in pulsing like delayed neutron fraction (beta eff) and reactivity insertion have been studied keeping prompt neutron life time (lp) fixed at 33.4 micro-sec. After a series of experiments, we found that the pulsing peak that is consistent with the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is for the delayed neutron fraction (beta eff) of 0.007 and reactivity insertion of 2. Study has determined the pulsing peak of the fresh core for this particular condition to be 857.86 MW which is 852 MW according to SAR. Experiment also shows the pulsing peak increases with the increase of reactivity insertion whereas decreases with increase of delayed neutron fraction. With the utilization of the particular values of these parameters, pulsing parameters like prompt energy released, reactor period, pulse width at half maxima, alongwith safety parameters including peak power and clad maximum temperature, have been analyzed. The clad maximum temperature for fresh core is simulated to be 144.54 MW, which is much less than the SAR Value, ensuring the validity of codes and the safety of pulsing in that particular condition. (author)

  6. World War II in Ukrainian School History Textbooks: Mapping the Discourse of the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, Lina

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the conceptualisation of a textbook as a site of memory, a discourse and a genre. This paper investigates the semantic and linguistic elements of the discourse of World War II in Ukrainian school history textbooks for the 11th grade, centring on the following distinct key themes: the…

  7. Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

  8. Bangladesh : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices within the broader context of the Bangladesh institutional framework and capacity needed to ensure the quality of corporate financial reporting. The accounting and auditing practices in Bangladesh suffer from institutional weaknesses in regulation, compliance, and enforcement of standards and rules. The preparation of ...

  9. Debating Diversity in Provision of Universal Primary Education in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sabur, Zia-Us; Ahmed, Manzoor

    2010-01-01

    Multiple providers (including state, quasi-state and non-state ones) have contributed to raising initial enrolment and improving gender balance in Bangladesh. The critical question is how multiplicity and diversity of provision can contribute to achieving truly universal primary education with high completion rates and acceptable levels of learning. In this paper, these questions are addressed in the context of history and circumstances of educational development in Bangladesh, as the Governm...

  10. Economic Development of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country in the South Asia. Its illiterate and unskilled large population is a burden to the country. Agriculture is the main source of the income of the country. Government of the country is taking various steps to decrease poverty, but yet about one-third of people of Bangladesh are living below the national poverty line. More than half of the children of Bangladesh are underweight. The gross domestic product (GDP) is hovering around 6% for the last decade. Migrate...

  11. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  12. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nowsher Ali; Sanjida Akhter; Nur Hossain; Nashid Tabassum Khan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape) represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crim...

  13. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  14. Perspectives on history: military dietetics in the Philippines during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, P A

    1992-07-01

    The history of the profession of dietetics is a history of caring, dedicated, and capable individuals. This article examines the experiences of three dietitians during World War II in the Philippines--their pre-war status and their changing environments as the Japanese invaded the Philippines in overwhelming numbers. It recounts the extreme hardships they endured for 3 years as prisoners of war of the Japanese at Santo Tomas Internment Camp (formerly Santo Tomas University) in Manila. The article covers the time before Army dietitians had military status and concludes shortly after the former prisoners returned to the United States, when they were commissioned and promoted to the rank of first lieutenant. PMID:1624653

  15. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Papavero; Márcia Souto Couri

    2012-01-01

    Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century). Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also...

  16. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.

  17. War, Nation, Memory: International Perspectives on World War II in School History Textbooks. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Keith A., Ed.; Foster, Stuart J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The Second World War stands as the most devastating and destructive global conflict in human history. More than 60 nations representing 1.7 billion people or three quarters of the world's population were consumed by its horror. Not surprisingly, therefore, World War II stands as a landmark episode in history education throughout the world and its…

  18. Cancer Control in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Banglade...

  19. Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: a public health emergency.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, A. H.; Lingas, E. O.; Rahman, M.

    2000-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is the largest poisoning of a population in history, with millions of people exposed. This paper describes the history of the discovery of arsenic in drinking-water in Bangladesh and recommends intervention strategies. Tube-wells were installed to provide "pure water" to prevent morbidity and mortality from gastrointestinal disease. The water from the millions of tube-wells that were installed was not tested for arsenic contamination. ...

  20. Bangladesh; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents statistical data on gross domestic product, agricultural production, manufacturing production, energy statistics, retail prices of petroleum products, consumer price index, central government operations, revenues, and central expenditure in Bangladesh. It also presents the central government food account, consolidated accounts and profits of nonfinancial public enterprises, government domestic securities, monetary survey, balance sheet of the monetary authorities, interest ...

  1. Made In Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUCHEN

    2004-01-01

    It is nothing new for global consumers to find the tag ‘Made in China' on the back of products from famous brands such as Nike or Panasonic.or will it surprise North American or European customers to find clothes from big brands like Esprit or GAP containing the mark ‘Made in Bangladesh'.

  2. Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults in Bangladesh and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender; Pennycook, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, sub-textual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices,…

  3. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  4. Commemoration, Race, and World War II: History and Civil Rights at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site

    OpenAIRE

    Renée Ater

    2015-01-01

    History and civil rights are intertwined at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site at Moton Field in Tuskegee, Alabama. Moton Field was a training flight facility for African American pilot candidates in the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II, operating from 1941–45. Through the extant buildings and interpretive exhibits, the National Park Service commemorates the Tuskegee Airmen’s contributions to World War II, recognizing the first African American military aviators and their strug...

  5. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  6. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  7. Financing reproductive health in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khanna, A.; Pradhan, J.; Rashid, H.A.; Beekink, E.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is the signatory of both, International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) programme of action and Millennium Development goals (MDGs). The Government of Bangladesh has set ambitious agendas for improving Reproductive Health (RH) services, to achieve the targets till 2015. In

  8. Lyssavirus Surveillance in Bats, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Carroll, Darin S.; Keeler, Natalie; Hossain, Mohammed Jahangir; Breiman, Robert F.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    Lyssavirus surveillance in bats was performed in Bangladesh during 2003 and 2004. No virus isolates were obtained. Three serum samples (all from Pteropus giganteus, n = 127) of 288 total serum samples, obtained from bats in 9 different taxa, neutralized lyssaviruses Aravan and Khujand. The infection occurs in bats in Bangladesh, but virus prevalence appears low.

  9. Poisoning the Mind: Arsenic Contamination of Drinking Water Wells and Children's Educational Achievement in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Asadullah, M. Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh has experienced the largest mass poisoning of a population in history owing to contamination of groundwater with naturally occurring inorganic arsenic. Prolonged drinking of such water risks development of diseases and therefore has implications for children's cognitive and psychological development. This study examines the effect of arsenic contamination of tubewells, the primary source of drinking water at home, on the learning outcome of school-going children in rural Bangladesh...

  10. Challenges for Sustainable Development: Rapid Urbanization, Poverty and Capabilities in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, haider

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the causes and consequences -- in particular, the policy implications -- of the ongoing urbanization in Bangladesh. Like many other Asian developing countries, a rapidly increasing share of the population of Bangladesh migrates to urban centers in search for employment opportunities outside agriculture in industrial enterprises or the services sector. For the first time in its history, the urban population is growing faster than the rural...

  11. Shakespearean Histories and Greek History: Henry V and Richard II at the Greek National Theatre (1941, 1947)

    OpenAIRE

    Krontiris, Tina

    2007-01-01

    Henry V and Richard II made their first and only appearance on the Greek stage in the turbulent 1940s. The first was performed in March 1941, just before the arrival of the German nazis, and the second in November 1947, a year after the problematic referendum on the future of the Greek monarchy and in the midst of the Greek civil war. The producer in both times was the state-funded National Theatre of Greece. The article argues that the national stage appropriated these plays i...

  12. Human rabies in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M; Ahmed, K; Bulbul, T; Hossain, S; Rahman, A; Biswas, M N U; Nishizono, A

    2012-11-01

    Rabies is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where most of the population live in rural areas. However, there is little epidemiological information on rabies in rural Bangladesh. This study was conducted in 30 upazilas (subdistricts) covering all six divisions of the country, to determine the levels of rabies and animal bites in Bangladesh. The total population of these upazilas was 6 992 302. A pretested questionnaire was used and data were collected by interviewing the adult members of families. We estimated that in Bangladesh, 166 590 [95% confidence interval (CI) 163 350-170 550] people per year are bitten by an animal. The annual incidence of rabies deaths in Bangladesh was estimated to be 1·40 (95% CI 1·05-1·78)/100 000 population. By extrapolating this, we estimated that 2100 (95% CI 1575-2670) people die annually from rabies in Bangladesh. More than three-quarters of rabies patients died at home. This community-based study provides new information on rabies epidemiology in Bangladesh.

  13. Role of the state in implementing IFRSs in a developing country : the case of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nurunnabi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine what factors have been affecting the implementation of IFRSs in Bangladesh from 1998 to 2010. The study seeks to answer these specific research questions: (1) What is the relative impact of accounting regulatory frameworks and politico-institutional factors on the implementation of IFRSs in Bangladesh?; 2(a): How do (i) training opportunities in the accounting profession and (ii) the state of corruption, as outcomes of culture in Banglade...

  14. The history of the IEA volume II: major policies and actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II of the History of the International Energy Agency (IEA) continues the story which began with the Origins and Structure of the Agency in Volume I. After examining the industrial countries'energy policies leading up to the 1973-1974 crisis, the current Volume focuses on the new policies adopted in the IEA during its first twenty years.The first part of this book deals with a section on 'Energy Policy Origins of the 1973-1974 Oil Supply Vulnerability : The Optimistic-Passive Approach to Oil Policy'. The main events and developments leading up to the crisis are briefly outlined together with a short presentation of the policy views and critical conclusions that were made on that situation by some of the most knowledgeable oil specialists of the period. The second part surveys IEA oil security, beginning with the oil Emergency Sharing System. The IAE's long-term policies for reducing its Members'dependence on imported oil are the subject of the third part. In this part is described the development of some of the leading IEA work in the field of energy and the environment, the Agency's far-reaching reviews of Members'policies in this sector and a discussion of the 'free markets' policy and of the IEA Shared Goals of 1993. The fourth part deals with the still longer-term Energy Research and Development in the IEA and is a review of the internal organization of IEA work in the R and D field. The fifth part follows with a discussion of the Oil Market policies and practices of the Agency, where the main and durable goals are 'transparency and information dissemination'. The last part addresses the Agency's policies and actions with respect to Co-operation with Non-Member Countries. Then, it takes up Members'policies and activities in connection with the oil producer and consumer country dialogue of 1976-1977 and outlines its disappointing outcome. (O.L.). 2 figs., 13 tabs

  15. H&m i Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Refsøe, Anna; Sørensen, Johan; Skytte, Josephine; Skovgaard, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Outsourcing remains an increasingly attractive strategy for many large companies. The enormous distance between the companies and its suppliers, has resulted in a hazy labor policy in the companies suppliers' production factories. Companies find it difficult to maintain ideal working conditions in developing countries due to the geographical distance. This project, focus on H&M's outsourcing to Bangladesh. Bangladesh is interesting because H&M gets 25% of their products produced in the cou...

  16. Breaking Away from the Textbook, Volume II: Creative Ways to Teach World History. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ron H.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching history should not simply be an endless recitation of irrelevant facts, entombed between the covers of a textbook. Instead, "Breaking Away from the Textbook" offers a fascinating journey through world history. Not a comprehensive, theory-heavy guide, this book instead focuses on exciting classroom activities, methods for students to…

  17. UC Berkeley Seismic Guidelines, Appendix II: Ground Motion TimeHistories for the UC Berkeley Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2003-06-03

    Three sets of ten time histories each were developed to represent the ground motions for each of the three return periods. All of the time histories are provided as pairs of fault-normal and fault-parallel components. The ground motion time histories are provided in two forms: unmodified, and spectrally modified to match the probabilistic response spectra. The unmodified time histories can be scaled to match the probabilistic response spectra at a specified period, such as the first mode period of the structure being analyzed, while leaving the shape of the response spectrum unmodified. This approach preserves the particular characteristics of the individual time history, together with the peaks and troughs of its response spectrum. These individual characteristics are modified in the spectrally matched time histories, resulting in a suite of ten time histories (for a given return period) that all have the same response spectrum for a given component (fault normal or fault parallel) that follows the smooth shape of the probabilistic response spectrum.

  18. UC Berkeley Seismic Guidelines, Appendix II: Ground Motion Time Histories for the UC Berkeley Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    2003-06-03

    Three sets of ten time histories each were developed to represent the ground motions for each of the three return periods. All of the time histories are provided as pairs of fault-normal and fault-parallel components. The ground motion time histories are provided in two forms: unmodified, and spectrally modified to match the probabilistic response spectra. The unmodified time histories can be scaled to match the probabilistic response spectra at a specified period, such as the first mode period of the structure being analyzed, while leaving the shape of the response spectrum unmodified. This approach preserves the particular characteristics of the individual time history, together with the peaks and troughs of its response spectrum. These individual characteristics are modified in the spectrally matched time histories, resulting in a suite of ten time histories (for a given return period) that all have the same response spectrum for a given component (fault normal or fault parallel) that follows the smooth shape of the probabilistic response spectrum.

  19. Dynamics of Rural Growth in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Madhur; Faruqee, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    The rural economy in Bangladesh has powerfully advanced economic growth and substantially reduced poverty, especially since 2000, but the remarkable transformation and unprecedented dynamism in rural Bangladesh remain an underexplored, underappreciated, and largely untold story. Dynamics of Rural Growth in Bangladesh: Sustaining Poverty Reduction tells that story and inquires what specific actions Bangladesh might take—given the residual poverty and persistent malnutrition—to accelerate and c...

  20. Energy History Chronology from World War II to the Present [1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, P. C.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a basic guide to the major Presidential, Legislative, Judicial, and Federal agency actions relating to energy policy, research, development, and regulation in recent years. The chronology is arranged synoptically, allowing users to reference easily the historical context in which each event occurred. Summaries of Presidential, Legislative, and Judicial actions relating to energy, rosters of federal energy officials, and a genealogy of federal energy agencies are also provided in separate appendices. The Energy History Chronology was prepared in conjunction with the History Division's series of pamphlets on the Institutional Origins of the Department of Energy. The series includes concise histories of the Department of Energy, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Energy Administration, and the Atomic Energy Commission. All significant events and achievements noted in the institutional history are also listed.

  1. GR 290 (Romano’s Star). II. Light History and Evolutionary State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Maryeva, O.; Nesci, R.; Calabresi, M.; Chieffi, A.; Galleti, S.; Gualandi, R.; Haver, R.; Mills, O. F.; Osborn, W. H.; Pasquali, A.; Rossi, C.; Vasilyeva, T.; Viotti, R. F.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the past light history of the luminous variable star GR 290 (M33/V532, Romano’s Star) in the M33 galaxy, and collected new spectrophotometric observations in order to analyze links between this object, the LBV category, and the Wolf–Rayet stars of the nitrogen sequence. We have built the historical light curve of GR 290 back to 1901, from old observations of the star found in several archival plates of M33. These old recordings together with published and new data on the star allowed us to infer that for at least half a century the star was in a low luminosity state, with B ≃ 18–19, most likely without brighter luminosity phases. After 1960, five large variability cycles of visual luminosity were recorded. The amplitude of the oscillations was seen increasing toward the 1992–1994 maximum, then decreasing during the last maxima. The recent light curve indicates that the photometric variations have been quite similar in all the bands and that the B – V color index has been constant within ±0.1m despite the 1.5m change of the visual luminosity. The spectrum of GR 290 at the large maximum of 1992–94 was equivalent to late-B-type, while, during 2002–2014, it varied between WN10h-11h near the visual maxima to WN8h-9h at the luminosity minima. We have detected, during this same period, a clear anti-correlation between the visual luminosity, the strength of the He ii 4686 Å emission line, the strength of the 4600–4700 Å lines’ blend, and the spectral type. From a model analysis of the spectra collected during the whole 2002–2014 period, we find that the Rosseland radius R2/3, changed between the minimum and maximum luminosity phases by a factor of three while Teff varied between about 33,000 and 23,000 K. We confirm that the bolometric luminosity of the star has not been constant, but has increased by a factor of ∼1.5 between minimum and maximum luminosity, in phase with the apparent luminosity variations. Presently, GR 290

  2. 44 years of operation - The successful fuel history of the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given on the fuel element situation of the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna after 44 years of operation. Since March 7th, 1962, the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna operates with an average of 263 MWh per year, which corresponds to a uranium burn-up of 11.5 g per year. Presently we have 82 TRIGA fuel elements in the core, 51 of them are old aluminium clad elements from the initial criticality while the rest are stainless steel clad elements which had been added later to compensate the uranium consumption. (author)

  3. MANHATTAN DISTRICT HISTORY PROJECT Y THE LOS ALAMOS PROJECT VOL. II AUGUST 1945 THROUGH DECEMBER 1946

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truslow, E. C.; Smith, R. C.

    1961-12-01

    THESE TWO VOLUMES CONSTITUTE A RECORD OF THE TECHNICAL, ADMINISTRATIVE , AND POLICY-MAKING ACTIVITIES OF THE LOS ALAMOS PROJECT (PROJECT Y) FROM ITS INCEPTION UNDER THE MANHATTAN DISTRICT THROUGH THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ATOMIC BOMB (VOL. I), AND DURING THE PERIOD FOLLOWING THE END OF WORLD WAR II UNTIL THE MANHATTAN DISTRICT RELINQUISHED CONTROL TO THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION AS OF JANUARY 1947 (VOL. II). ALTHOUGH SEC URITY REGULATIONS HAVE REQUIRED SOME DELETIONS IN THE ORIGINAL TEXT OF THE TWO VOLUMES, EVERY EFFORT HAS BEEN MADE TO RETAIN THE ORIGINAL LANGUGAGE AND EXPERSSIONS OF THE AUTHORS.

  4. Savannah River Plant - Project 8980 engineering and design history. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    This volume provides an engineering and design history of the 100 area of the Savannah River Plant. This site consisted of five separate production reactor sites, 100-R, P, L, K, and C. The document summarizes work on design of the reactors, support facilities, buildings, siting, etc. for these areas.

  5. Analysis of the utilization history and the planning and the participation profiles of the shaft plant Asse II. Final report; Analyse der Nutzungsgeschichte und der Planungs- und Beteiligungsformen der Schachtanlage Asse II. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipsen, Detlev; Kost, Susanne; Weichler, Holger

    2010-03-08

    The report on the utilization history of Asse II covers the following issues: Historical facts of the purchase of the shaft plant Asse II, decision sequences and line of arguments, research mine or final repository? Emplacement of radioactive materials (inventory), stability of the mine layout and water ingress, risk assessment - accident analysis, communication and public information, conclusions and recommendations.

  6. A family history of deoxyribonuclease II: surprises from Trichinella spiralis and Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLea, Kyle S; Krieser, Ronald J; Eastman, Alan

    2003-02-13

    Deoxyribonuclease IIalpha (DNase IIalpha) is an acidic endonuclease found in lysosomes and nuclei, and it is also secreted. Though its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog, NUC-1, is required for digesting DNA of apoptotic cell corpses and dietary DNA, it is not required for viability. However, DNase IIalpha is required in mice for correct development and viability, because undigested cell corpses lead to lesions throughout the body. Recently, we showed that, in contrast to previous reports, active DNase IIalpha consists of one contiguous polypeptide. To better analyze DNase II protein structure and determine residues important for activity, extensive database searches were conducted to find distantly related family members. We report 29 new partial or complete homologs from 21 species. Four homologs with differences at the purported active site histidine residue were detected in the parasitic nematodes Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis. When these mutations were reconstructed in human DNase IIalpha, the expressed proteins were inactive. DNase II homologs were also identified in non-metazoan species. In particular, the slime-mold Dictyostelium, the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, and the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei all contain sequences with significant similarity and identity to previously cloned DNase II family members. We report an analysis of their sequences and implications for DNase II protein structure and evolution. PMID:12594037

  7. ROLE OF PLANTS FOUND IN NORTH EAST INDIA AND BANGLADESH IN CONTROLLING POPULATION GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhimly Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Being part of the Indian subcontinent both the North Eastern region of India and the Bangladesh share a long common cultural, economic and political history. One of the most critical problems of developing countries like India as well as Bangladesh is their enormous increase in human population. Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR of India is 48.3 and that of Bangladesh is 53.8. As the large majority of population of both the countries belong to rural area, the family planning programmes have largely remained unsuccessful because of many factors including lack of availability of contraceptive drugs in rural markets, lack of accessibility of rural people to medical personnel as well as the lack of acceptability of synthetic drugs due to various socio-cultural and religious perceptions prevailing among many ethnic communities. These contributed to a growing interest among researchers in developing contraceptives of natural origin and at present natural herbal contraception have become one of the major focuses of modern contraceptive research. Since time immemorial herbal drugs are being practiced by various rural communities and ethnic tribes in North East India as well as in Bangladesh, and hence the acceptability of herbal contraceptives is expected to be much higher among rural folk. In different parts of North East India and Bangladesh, ethnic communities are using plant based medicinal products till today. This study aims at highlighting the contraceptive property of some plants found in North-Eastern India as well as in Bangladesh.

  8. Comparing M31 and Milky Way satellites: The extended star formation histories of Andromeda II and Andromeda XVI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Vía Láctea s/n., E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); McConnachie, Alan; Stetson, Peter B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Bernard, Edouard J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Boylan-Kolchin, Michael [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Cassisi, Santi [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Cole, Andrew A. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Irwin, Mike [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Universit de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universit, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Mayer, Lucio [Institut für Theoretische Physik, University of Zurich, Zürich (Switzerland); Navarro, Julio F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    We present the first comparison between the lifetime star formation histories (SFHs) of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites. Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we obtained deep optical imaging of Andromeda II (And II; M{sub V} = –12.0; log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 6.7) and Andromeda XVI (And XVI; M{sub V} = –7.5; log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 4.9) yielding color-magnitude diagrams that extend at least 1 mag below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, and are similar in quality to those available for the MW companions. And II and And XVI show strikingly similar SFHs: both formed 50%-70% of their total stellar mass between 12.5 and 5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 5-0.5) and both were abruptly quenched ∼5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 0.5). The predominance of intermediate age populations in And XVI makes it qualitatively different from faint companions of the MW and clearly not a pre-reionization fossil. Neither And II nor And XVI appears to have a clear analog among MW companions, and the degree of similarity in the SFHs of And II and And XVI is not seen among comparably faint-luminous pairs of MW satellites. These findings provide hints that satellite galaxy evolution may vary substantially among hosts of similar stellar mass. Although comparably deep observations of more M31 satellites are needed to further explore this hypothesis, our results underline the need for caution when interpreting satellite galaxies of an individual system in a broader cosmological context.

  9. Comparing M31 and Milky Way satellites: The extended star formation histories of Andromeda II and Andromeda XVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first comparison between the lifetime star formation histories (SFHs) of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites. Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we obtained deep optical imaging of Andromeda II (And II; MV = –12.0; log(M */M ☉) ∼ 6.7) and Andromeda XVI (And XVI; MV = –7.5; log(M */M ☉) ∼ 4.9) yielding color-magnitude diagrams that extend at least 1 mag below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, and are similar in quality to those available for the MW companions. And II and And XVI show strikingly similar SFHs: both formed 50%-70% of their total stellar mass between 12.5 and 5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 5-0.5) and both were abruptly quenched ∼5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 0.5). The predominance of intermediate age populations in And XVI makes it qualitatively different from faint companions of the MW and clearly not a pre-reionization fossil. Neither And II nor And XVI appears to have a clear analog among MW companions, and the degree of similarity in the SFHs of And II and And XVI is not seen among comparably faint-luminous pairs of MW satellites. These findings provide hints that satellite galaxy evolution may vary substantially among hosts of similar stellar mass. Although comparably deep observations of more M31 satellites are needed to further explore this hypothesis, our results underline the need for caution when interpreting satellite galaxies of an individual system in a broader cosmological context.

  10. A demographic study on vitiligo (sheti in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Hafizur Rahman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is quite prevalent and constitutes a major psychological health problem in Bangladesh. To determine the effects and extent distribution of Vitiligo among the people, we mainly focused on the sociodemographic studies on Vitiligo in Bangladesh. The patients volunteered in this study were randomly selected from the Skin and Venereal disease department of Rajshahi Medical college hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh during 2009-2011. In this sociodemographic studies 125 vitiligo patients of different age groups were carried out. Age distribution, Sex incidence, occupation, itching, life living status, food allergy, social problem were studied. In this study, disease incidence was the highest 44% among 11-20 years age group. In case of sex incidence the female patients were 56%, on the other hand, male recorded 44%. The demographic characteristic showed that the students were the highest percentage (48% suffering with Vitiligo by occupation. Family history was the most important survey in this study. 32% patients said they had prior to family history. The maximum patients had living status of middle class (40%. In this study 24% patient complained about Food allergy and the participant patient also complained the social problem of Vitiligo. Eighty percent patients reported that most of the person avoids them because general people know that Vitiligo is an infectious disease. This study will give the social consciousness about Vitiligo i.e. it is not an infectious disease. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(2.000: 123-128

  11. Insulin-like signaling (IIS) responses to temperature, genetic background, and growth variation in garter snakes with divergent life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Dawn M; Addis, Elizabeth A; Palacios, Maria G; Schwartz, Tonia S; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2016-07-01

    The insulin/insulin-like signaling pathway (IIS) has been shown to mediate life history trade-offs in mammalian model organisms, but the function of this pathway in wild and non-mammalian organisms is understudied. Populations of western terrestrial garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) around Eagle Lake, California, have evolved variation in growth and maturation rates, mortality senescence rates, and annual reproductive output that partition into two ecotypes: "fast-living" and "slow-living". Thus, genes associated with the IIS network are good candidates for investigating the mechanisms underlying ecological divergence in this system. We reared neonates from each ecotype for 1.5years under two thermal treatments. We then used qPCR to compare mRNA expression levels in three tissue types (brain, liver, skeletal muscle) for four genes (igf1, igf2, igf1r, igf2r), and we used radioimmunoassay to measure plasma IGF-1 and IGF-2 protein levels. Our results show that, in contrast to most mammalian model systems, igf2 mRNA and protein levels exceed those of igf1 and suggest an important role for igf2 in postnatal growth in reptiles. Thermal rearing treatment and recent growth had greater impacts on IGF levels than genetic background (i.e., ecotype), and the two ecotypes responded similarly. This suggests that observed ecotypic differences in field measures of IGFs may more strongly reflect plastic responses in different environments than evolutionary divergence. Future analyses of additional components of the IIS pathway and sequence divergence between the ecotypes will further illuminate how environmental and genetic factors influence the endocrine system and its role in mediating life history trade-offs. PMID:27181752

  12. Bangladesh Policy Note : Procurement Management Capacity Development in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Bangladesh has reshaped the landscape of procurement policy reform and capacity development over the last several years, and has taken lead in the South Asia region. Though reasonably good progress has been made in policy reform, yet its application has proven to be relatively inconsistent. Effective implementation of the law requires a public and a private sector that have the skills and ...

  13. The History of the Construction and Operation of the German KNK II Fast Breeder Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a historical review of the German KNK fast breeder project, from its beginnings in 1957 up to permanent plant shutdown in 1991. The original design was for the sodium cooled thermal reactor KNK I, which was commissioned on the premises of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The conversion into a fast nuclear power plant however was a process, which had to overcome considerable licensing difficulties. KNK II attained high fuel element burnups, and the completion of the fuel cycle was achieved. Various technical problems encountered in specific components are described in detail. After the termination of the SNR 300 fast breeder project in Kalkar for political reasons, KNK II was shutdown in August 1991

  14. The history of the construction und operation of the KNK II German Fast Breeder Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the German KNK fast breeder project from its beginnings in 1957 until permanent shutdown in 1991. The initial design provided for a sodium-cooled, but thermal reactor. Already during the commissioning of KNK I on the premises of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center modification into a fast nuclear power plant was decided. Considerable difficulties in licensing had to be overcome. KNK II reached high burnup values in the fuel elements and closing of the fuel cycle was achieved. A number of technical problems concerning individual components are described in detail. After the politically motivated discontinuation of the SNR 300 fast breeder project at Kalkar, KNK II was shut down for good in August 1991. (orig.)

  15. Comparing M31 and Milky Way Satellites: The Extended Star Formation Histories of Andromeda II and Andromeda XVI

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Hidalgo, Sebastian L; Monelli, Matteo; Dolphin, Andrew E; McConnachie, Alan; Bernard, Edouard J; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Cassisi, Santi; Cole, Andrew A; Ferguson, Henry C; Irwin, Mike; Martin, Nicolas F; Mayer, Lucio; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Navarro, Julio F; Stetson, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    We present the first comparison between the lifetime star formation histories (SFHs) of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites. Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope, we obtained deep optical imaging of Andromeda II (M$_{V} = -$12.0; log(M$_{\\star}$/M$_{\\odot}$) $\\sim$ 6.7) and Andromeda XVI (M$_{V} = -$7.5; log(M$_{\\star}$/M$_{\\odot}$) $\\sim$ 4.9) yielding color-magnitude diagrams that extend at least 1 magnitude below the oldest main sequence turnoff, and are similar in quality to those available for the MW companions. And II and And XVI show strikingly similar SFHs: both formed 50-70% of their total stellar mass between 12.5 and 5 Gyr ago (z$\\sim$5-0.5) and both were abruptly quenched $\\sim$ 5 Gyr ago (z$\\sim$0.5). The predominance of intermediate age populations in And XVI makes it qualitatively different from faint companions of the MW and clearly not a pre-reionization fossil. Neither And II nor And XVI appears to have a clear analog among MW companions, and the degree of si...

  16. Bangladesh Development Update, April 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is to update the Government of Bangladesh, think tanks and researchers, the general public as well as the Bank’s senior management on the state of the economy, outlook, risks, progress on structural policy reforms, and key challenges the economy is currently facing. The coverage includes developments in the real sector focusing on growth, inflation, and poverty...

  17. Women in physics in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Shamima K.

    2013-03-01

    Bangladesh has had a glorious physics tradition since the beginning of the last century, when the physicist S.N. Bose published a groundbreaking paper with Albert Einstein on Bose-Einstein statistics. However, women in Bangladesh traditionally have not been able to make their way in the realm of science in general and physics in particular. Since Bangladesh achieved independence in 1971, the situation has gradually changed and more and more women choose physics as an academic discipline. The percentage of women students in physics rose from 10% in 1970 to almost 30% in 2010. In recent years, women physicists have actively participated in many activities promoting science and technology, creating awareness among the public about the importance of physics education. The present status of women physicists in academic, research, and administrative programs in the government and private sectors in Bangladesh is reported. The greater inclusion of women scientists, particularly physicists, in policy-making roles on important issues of global and national interest is suggested.

  18. Wind Energy Potential in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z.A. Saifullah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is encountering difficulties in supplying energy to maintain its economic growth. Government of Bangladesh is looking for renewable energy sources to meet up the total power demand in this country. The present study aims to assess wind energy potential in Bangladesh as a sustainable solution to overcome the energy crisis. Wind speed at six coastal zones Patenga, Cox’s Bazar, Teknaf, Char Fassion, Kuakata and Kutubdia at Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh have been analyzed. A near shore wind farm has been considered at these locations having a coastal line of 574 km. The turbines are spaced 7D apart in the prevailing wind direction, and 3D apart in the perpendicular direction, where D is rotor diameter. This near shore wind farm with an array of 5104 horizontal axis wind turbines with hub height of 100 m and rotor diameter of 75 m with a wind speed of 7 m/sec is capable to generate 1855.25 MW of electrical power. This can mitigate 55.93 per cent of energy shortage in 2016. By developing renewable energy sources it is possible to compensate 11.25 per cent of total power demand by 2020.

  19. Modern population trends in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul-basher, M M

    1985-01-01

    Population growth trends in Bangladesh in the 1871-1981 period were analyzed, with emphasis on fertility and mortality differentials, to provide a basis for population planning. Following proclamation of British Imperial Rule in 1857, mortality rates in Bangladesh began to decline as a result of preventive measures against natural disasters such as draught and famine, but the fertility rate remained unaltered. The demographic pattern was unstable over time, reflecting the impact of the influenza epidemic of 1918-19, war, migration, and economic development. Population growth accelerated greatly during the 1961-74 period, when industrialization emerged and job opportunities were created in the urban centers. Economic hardship, food shortages, and the introduction of family planning curbed urban growth drastically and total growth to some extent in 1974-81. On the average, growth has been higher in the Dhaka and Chittagong Divisions of Bangladesh than in the Khulna and Rajshahi Divisions. Differences in population growth among the regions are attributable largely to internal and external migration. The regression polynomial model best fits past population trends in Bangladesh and can reproduce the observed population by 99.60%. This polynomial is most suitable for graduation and prediction of population trends. PMID:12280834

  20. Unknown history of Slovenian librarianship: Celje Public Library during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjetka Šelih

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate and present the activities of the Public Library in Celje during German occupation during World War II. The research is based on a survey of archival sources – relevant documents are available in Celje Historical Arcives (Zgodovinski arhiv Celje – ZAC. The article is divided in two parts, the first one presenting the condition of librarianship in Nazi Germany in general, and the second one focusing on a case study: the conditions of librarianship in occupied Slovenian city of Celje. The city was an important administrative, commercial, industrial, traffic and educational centre in the area of Styria during the occupation. Its library operated according to standards and models applied to libraries in Germany. This was reflected in the overall library operation: selection and processing of material, layout, employee selection and work with users. Public libraries were founded by individual municipalities or groups of municipalities, which took care of the operation of libraries. Special government advisory centres (Staatliche Volksbuechereistelle provided library’s additional materials. Consequently, libraries played an important role in dissemination of the German language and culture in new border areas, which was regarded as their major aim. War conditions did not deter users from visiting libraries and employee complaints about the lack of financial means were not recorded. Towards the end of the war only the lack of paper was noticed. Key words: Public libraries, World War II, occupation, German librarianship, Celje

  1. A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Akira

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan. PMID:24573258

  2. Between History and Myth: The Figure of Ramesses II against Enemies in Reliefs and Texts of the Battle of Kadesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Horacio Gerván

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to what has been called “history of sense” (Assmann, 2005, every society has a cultural form that is inherent and it is precisely in here where historical events become meaningful, understandable only through the discourses produced. The reliefs and inscriptions from Battle of Kadesh, during the reign of Ramesses II (1279-1213 BC are a clear example of remembrance and manifestation of these discourses. In this paper, we propose to analyze them as examples of the construction process of the “cultural memory” (Assmann, 2008, taking as categories of analysis the postulates of semiotics of Umberto Eco (1994 [1973]; 2013 [1968] and the image analysis of Martine Joly (2012 [1993]. As a basic premise, we consider the reliefs and inscriptions accompanying them as a narrative total unity, as speeches complete and complement, to be effective.

  3. Prevalence and diagnostic test comparison of brucellosis in cattle in pabna and mymensingh districts of bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle of Pabna and Mymensingh districts in Bangladesh. A total of 260 cattle sera samples were collected from Pahna and Mymensingh districts. The epidemiological data were collected by structured questionnaire. RBT and SAT were used as screening tests and further confirmed by 1-ELISA. The seroprevalence of Bruce/Ia ill cattle was estimated to be 4.23%, 3.07% and 2.31% by RBT, SAT and 1-ELISA, respectively. The comparison of the serological tests result revealed the highest prevalence in RBT than SAT and 1-EL ISA. The prevalence of Brucella was 2.5% in Pabna and 2.14% in Mymensingh. It was observed that, a higher prevalence of Bruce/la was found in female (2.67%) than in male (1.82%), natural breeding (2.67%) than artificial breeding (1.81%), in aged animals (3.33%) than young (1.25 degree percent). But these differences were not statistically significant. There exists significant difference between prevalence of Bruce/II in cattle with history of abortion than without history of abortion (P value=0.013). (author)

  4. Poisoning the Mind: Arsenic Contamination of Drinking Water Wells and Children's Educational Achievement in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, M. Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh has experienced the largest mass poisoning of a population in history owing to contamination of groundwater with naturally occurring inorganic arsenic. Prolonged drinking of such water risks development of diseases and therefore has implications for children's cognitive and psychological development. This study examines the effect of…

  5. Community Learning Circles: Promoting Positive Development for Early Primary Children in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyson, Marilou; Hossain, Kamal; Chowdhury, Didarul Anam

    2010-01-01

    One of the poorest and most densely populated countries in the world, Bangladesh has faced many challenges during its almost 40-year history as an independent nation. Yet the country has recently made substantial progress in improving young children's survival and protection. It now provides health care, nutrition, immunization, and education…

  6. Drivers for plant species diversity in a characteristic tropical forest landscape in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbauer, Manuel; Uddin, Mohammad Bela; Jentsch, Anke;

    2016-01-01

    The importance of understanding biotic patterns in managed tropical landscapes is increasingly recognised. Bangladesh is a country with a long human land-use history and constitutes almost a blind spot in vegetation science on the landscape scale. Here, we analyse patterns and drivers of plant...

  7. Push-Pull Factors of Undocumented Migration from Bangladesh to West Bengal: A Perception Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pranati

    2004-01-01

    Movement is an integral part of human existence. While talking about transborder migration from Bangladesh to India, we are, however, aware that this is a controversial subject. The partition of Bengal in 1947 was the cruelest partition in the history of the world and caused forced illegal migration from erstwhile East Pakistan. It is estimated…

  8. Commemoration, Race, and World War II: History and Civil Rights at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Ater

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available History and civil rights are intertwined at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site at Moton Field in Tuskegee, Alabama. Moton Field was a training flight facility for African American pilot candidates in the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II, operating from 1941–45. Through the extant buildings and interpretive exhibits, the National Park Service commemorates the Tuskegee Airmen’s contributions to World War II, recognizing the first African American military aviators and their struggle for civil rights during the 1940s. This essay examines the way in which race, personal narratives, historical objects, and sensorial experience (sight, sound, touch, and smell are used at the historic site to suggest the significance of the Tuskegee Airmen. Despite the segregation and racism that they experienced in the U.S. military, the African American pilots and the men and women who worked alongside them believed staunchly in the idea of service to the nation as a means of participating in democracy and gaining full citizenship.

  9. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. II. Searching for signatures of reionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We search for signatures of reionization in the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies (104 < M* < 109 M☉). The SFHs are derived from color-magnitude diagrams using archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. Only five quenched galaxies (And V, And VI, And XIII, Leo IV, and Hercules) are consistent with forming the bulk of their stars before reionization, when full uncertainties are considered. Observations of 13 of the predicted 'true fossils' identified by Bovill and Ricotti show that only two (Hercules and Leo IV) indicate star formation quenched by reionization. However, both are within the virial radius of the Milky Way and evidence of tidal disturbance complicates this interpretation. We argue that the late-time gas capture scenario posited by Ricotti for the low mass, gas-rich, and star-forming fossil candidate Leo T is observationally indistinguishable from simple gas retention. Given the ambiguity between environmental effects and reionization, the best reionization fossil candidates are quenched low mass field galaxies (e.g., KKR 25).

  10. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. II. Searching for signatures of reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We search for signatures of reionization in the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies (10{sup 4} < M{sub *} < 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}). The SFHs are derived from color-magnitude diagrams using archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. Only five quenched galaxies (And V, And VI, And XIII, Leo IV, and Hercules) are consistent with forming the bulk of their stars before reionization, when full uncertainties are considered. Observations of 13 of the predicted 'true fossils' identified by Bovill and Ricotti show that only two (Hercules and Leo IV) indicate star formation quenched by reionization. However, both are within the virial radius of the Milky Way and evidence of tidal disturbance complicates this interpretation. We argue that the late-time gas capture scenario posited by Ricotti for the low mass, gas-rich, and star-forming fossil candidate Leo T is observationally indistinguishable from simple gas retention. Given the ambiguity between environmental effects and reionization, the best reionization fossil candidates are quenched low mass field galaxies (e.g., KKR 25).

  11. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies II. Searching For Signatures of Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Williams, Benjamin F

    2014-01-01

    We search for signatures of reionization in the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies (10$^4$ $<$ M$_{\\star}$ $<$ 10$^9$ M$_{\\odot}$). The SFHs are derived from color-magnitude diagrams using archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. Only five quenched galaxies (And V, And VI, And XIII, Leo IV, Hercules) are consistent with forming the bulk of their stars before reionization, when full uncertainties are considered. Observations of 13 of the predicted `true fossils' identified by Bovill & Ricotti show that only two (Hercules and Leo IV) indicate star formation quenched by reionization. However, both are within the virial radius of the Milky Way and evidence of tidal disturbance complicates this interpretation. We argue that the late-time gas capture scenario posited by Ricotti for the low mass, gas-rich, and star-forming fossil candidate Leo T is observationally indistinguishable from simple gas retention. Given the ambiguity between environment...

  12. The Massive Star Population in M101. II. Spatial Variations in the Recent Star Formation History

    CERN Document Server

    Grammer, Skyler

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the star formation history (SFH) as a function of radius in M101 using archival HST/ACS photometry. We derive the SFH from the resolved stellar populations in five 2' wide annuli. Binning the SFH into time frames corresponding to stellar populations traced by H$\\alpha$, far ultraviolet (FUV), and near ultraviolet (NUV) emission, we find that the fraction of stellar populations young enough to contribute in H$\\alpha$ is 15%-35% in the inner regions, compared to less than 5% in the outer regions. This provides a sufficient explanation for the lack of H$\\alpha$ emission at large radii. We also model the blue to red supergiant ratio in our five annuli, examine the effects that a metallicity gradient and variable SFH have on the predicted ratios, and compare to the observed values. We find that the radial behavior of our modeled blue to red supergiant ratios is highly sensitive to both spatial variations in the SFH and metallicity. Incorporating the derived SFH into modeled ratios, we find that we a...

  13. The Evolutionary Status of Isolated Dwarf Irregular Galaxies II. Star Formation Histories and Gas Depletion

    CERN Document Server

    Van Zee, L

    2001-01-01

    The results of UBV and H alpha imaging of a large sample of isolated dwarf irregular galaxies are interpreted in the context of composite stellar population models. The observed optical colors are best fit by composite stellar populations which have had approximately constant star formation rates for at least 10 Gyr. The galaxies span a range of central surface brightness, from 20.5 to 25.0 mag arcsec^{-2}; there is no correlation between surface brightness and star formation history. Although the current star formation rates are low, it is possible to reproduce the observed luminosities without a major starburst episode. The derived gas depletion timescales are long, typically ~20 Gyr. These results indicate that dwarf irregular galaxies will be able to continue with their slow, but constant, star formation activity for at least another Hubble time. The sample of isolated dIs is compared to a sample of star bursting dwarf galaxies taken from the literature. The star bursting dwarf galaxies have many similar ...

  14. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, P=0.02. The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, P=0.04. Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P>0.05. Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh.

  15. Monsoon definition discrepancies in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, M. A.; Chu, P.-S.

    2012-04-01

    This study applies different definitions of what previous authors have called the monsoon over Bangladesh. The aim is to identify the definitions that most resemble the perceptions of the local rural communities and how they define the monsoon. Considering how the local communities define the monsoon is extremely important since these populations are most vulnerable to future changes in climate and more specifically monsoon rainfall. It has been pointed out previously that the monsoon research community had not reached a consensus on a unified definition of the monsoon rainy season. This problem seems to be profound in Bangladesh where results from the application of different definitions show very large discrepancies. Since these discrepancies exist, confusing terms such as monsoon, summer rainy season, and monsoon rainy season can have large implications for impact studies and interpretations of future climate projections. The results in this paper show that these terms need to be explicitly and carefully defined with regards to Bangladesh. Wind-, rain- and OLR-based definitions are applied to several different datasets to show how large these discrepancies can be over Bangladesh. Differences in onset dates are found to be around 8-9 pentads (40-45 days) in some regions of the country. The largest differences are seen in the north-east region, where rain-based definitions give much earlier onsets than wind- or OLR-based definitions. The results show that mesoscale phenomena could be influencing the climate in the north-east part of Bangladesh and causing much earlier summer rainfall. According to the results from a previous social study, the local communities in fact consider this early rainfall as the monsoon onset. By identifying the definition that best resembles the local community perceptions through out Bangladesh, then future information can be constructed, so that it is more easily understood by and applicable to the millions of people climate change will

  16. Understanding arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of water contamination by naturally occurring arsenic confronts governments, public and private utilities, and the development community with a new challenge for implementing operational mitigation activities under difficult conditions of imperfect knowledge - especially for arsenic mitigation for the benefit of the rural poor. With more than a conservative estimate of 20 million of its 130 million people assumed to be drinking contaminated water and another 70 million potentially at risk, Bangladesh is facing what has been described as perhaps the largest mass poisoning in history. High concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic have already been found in water from tens of thousands of tube wells, the main source of potable water, in 59 out of Bangladesh's 64 districts. Arsenic contamination is highly irregular, so tube wells in neighboring locations or even different depths can be safe. Arsenic is extremely hazardous if ingested in drinking water or used in cooking in excess of the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/liter over an extended period of time. Even in the early 1970s, most of Bangladesh's rural population got its drinking water from surface ponds and nearly a quarter of a million children died each year from water-borne diseases. Groundwater now constitutes the major source of drinking water in Bangladesh with 95% of the drinking water coming from underground sources. The provision of tube well water for 97 percent of the rural population has been credited with bringing down the high incidence of diarrheal diseases and contributing to a halving of the infant mortality rate. Paradoxically, the same wells that saved so many lives now pose a threat due to the unforeseen hazard of arsenic. The provenance of arsenic rich minerals in sediments of the Bengal basin as a component of geological formations is believed to be from the Himalayan mountain range. Arsenic has been found in different uncropped geological hard rock formations

  17. Awareness and control of hypertension in Bangladesh: follow-up of a hypertensive cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Dewan Shamsul; Chowdhury, Muhammad Ashique Haider; Siddiquee, Ali Tanweer; Ahmed, Shyfuddin; Niessen, Louis Wilhelmus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of awareness and advice to seek care on blood pressure (BP) control among patients with hypertension in Bangladesh. Design Longitudinal study. Setting The study was carried out in icddr,b surveillance sites at rural Matlab in Chandpur district and semi-urban Kamalapur in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Participants Randomly selected men and non-pregnant women aged 20 years or older without any acute illness or history of any vascular events such as stroke or acute myocardia...

  18. [The history of antitobacco actions in the last 500 years. Part. II. Medical actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco was brought to Europe by Christopher Columbus, who discovered it in Cuba in October, 1492. Spread of tobacco consumption was initiated by the French diplomat Jean Nicot de Villemain, who in 1560 recommended it in the form of powdered tobacco leaves to the French Queen Catherine de Medice to combat her migraine headaches, and introduced the term Nicotiana tobaccum. Tobacco consumption greatly rose after the I World War, and after the II World War it became very common, especially among man. In the first half of the 20th century the sale of tobacco products rose by 61%, and cigarettes dominated the market of tobacco products. At the beginning of the 20th century cigarettes constituted only 2% of the total sale of tobacco products, while in the middle of the 20th century--more than 80%. Although the first epidemiological papers indicating that "smoking is connected with the shortening of life span" were published in the first half of the 20th century, not until 1950 did Hill and Doll in Great Britain, and Wynder and Graham in USA in 1951 show a statistically significant correlation between cigarettes smoking and lung cancer occurrence. Many controversies according the use of tobacco accompanied it from the beginning of its presence in Europe. The conflicting opinions according to its influence to health coexisted in the 16th to 19th centuries. In this period, especially in the 19th century dominated moral and religious arguments against tobacco. In the 20th century however, and particularly in its second part, development in medical research was enhanced by civil voluntary actions against advertisement and passive smoking. This lead to the significant limitation of tobacco expansion in Europe, USA and Canada in the end of the 20th century.

  19. History matters in microfinance

    OpenAIRE

    Seibel, Hans Dieter

    2003-01-01

    Microfinance is not a recent development, and neither is the development of regulation and supervision of microfinance institutions (MFIs). Every now developed country has its own history of microfinance. It is important to recognize this because it presents a view different from that of many in the microfinance community who associate microfinance with credit NGOs and believe that microfinance was invented in Bangladesh some 20-odd years ago. Attributing the origin of microfinance to recent ...

  20. Energy Flow in Agriculture: Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. R.; K. K. Islam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a qualitative energy flow analysis in Bangladesh agriculture has been made for a period from 1980-81 to 2000-01 to evaluate the impact of energy input to produce output. Human & animal muscle power and machinery energy for tillage operation, electricity and diesel energy for irrigation, fertilizer and pesticides energy for growth and protection are taken into account. Energy values are calculated by multiplying respective quantity by their respective energy equivalents with...

  1. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  2. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation processing

  3. Bangladesh; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    The Sixth Five Year Plan, as outlined in Bangladesh's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, targets strategic growth and employment. The medium-term macroeconomic framework plan entails the involvement of both the private and public sectors. Human resources development strategy programs reaching out to the poor and the vulnerable population, as well as environment, climate change, and disaster risk management, have been included in the plan. Managing regional disparities for shared growth and str...

  4. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation

  5. Great Potentials for China and Bangladesh to Develop Trade and Economic Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Bangladesh is the friendly neighboring country of China. Since two countries established diplomatic relations 30 years ago, along with the constant development of friendly relations, the trade and economic cooperation between the two countries has been closer and closer. In 2000, the trade volume of the two countries was only US$920 million; in 2004 the trade volume of the two sides was up to US$1.96billion, over 100% more than that of 2000 and the highest record in history. At present,Bangladesh has become China's third largest trading partner in South Asia.In the first two months of this year, the trade volume of the two countries continued to grow at a rate of 40%; the trade volume in 2005 will top US$2billion and will be about US$2.5 billion. Since 2000, the trade and economic cooperation between China and Bangladesh has the following features:

  6. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND TRENDS OF DRY DAYS IN SYLHET REGION OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mustakim Ali Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rainfall distribution in Bangladesh is not uniform and refl ecting topography. Hilly Sylhet region receives substantial rainfall every year compare to other regions of Bangladesh. Though Sylhet region is less vulnerable to drought but weather pattern is not constant and changing day by day. Hence as a part of drought an alysis, behavior of dry days is important. This study focuses on dry days pattern and associ ated changes from daily records of last 54 years for Sylhet region. Monthly, yearly and seasonal variations of dry days were analyzed to check for major changes. In order to inve stigate extreme dry events, time history of monthly dry days data were transformed into fre quency domain using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. Variability of dry days in tim e scale was also checked from filtered signals which is very useful for drought a nalysis, agricultural development and disaster management for the north-east region of Bangladesh.

  7. Energy Flow in Agriculture: Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Alam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a qualitative energy flow analysis in Bangladesh agriculture has been made for a period from 1980-81 to 2000-01 to evaluate the impact of energy input to produce output. Human & animal muscle power and machinery energy for tillage operation, electricity and diesel energy for irrigation, fertilizer and pesticides energy for growth and protection are taken into account. Energy values are calculated by multiplying respective quantity by their respective energy equivalents with the use of relevant conversion factors. Energy flow studied based on some energy dependent indicators: energy input per ha, energy output per ha, energy output to input ratio, mechanization index, energy input to generate per unit GDP output as well as per unit output in energy term and solar energy conversion efficiency. During the study period, energy input and output to Bangladesh agriculture were increased from 6.4 to 17.32 GJ ha-1 and 72.22 to 130.05 GJ ha-1, respectively. It is found that energetic efficiency (energy output to input ratio was declined from 11.28% to 8.1%, which indicates that the energy input increased faster than energy output. It is expected that sustainable energy flow in Bangladesh agriculture can be ascertained by this study.

  8. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. - Research Highlights: →We estimate energy poverty for rural Bangladesh adopting a demand-based approach. →Findings suggest that energy poverty does not necessarily follow the same pattern as income poverty. →Access to modern energy and efficient use of traditional energy help alleviate energy poverty. →Energy poverty indicator can help track the effectiveness of a wide range of energy policies.

  9. Arsenical keratoses in Bangladesh--update and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M; Ahsan, Habibul; Shea, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is considered a Class I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer because of its increased risk for skin cancer, as well as internal cancers, such as lung and bladder cancer. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in Bangladesh has been called the "largest mass poisoning of a population in history." This inorganic arsenic contamination is of natural origin, with arsenic thought to be released to the groundwater from the surrounding sediment. Arsenicosis and its risk factors and prevention and management are discussed in this article.

  10. Arsenical keratoses in Bangladesh--update and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M; Ahsan, Habibul; Shea, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is considered a Class I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer because of its increased risk for skin cancer, as well as internal cancers, such as lung and bladder cancer. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in Bangladesh has been called the "largest mass poisoning of a population in history." This inorganic arsenic contamination is of natural origin, with arsenic thought to be released to the groundwater from the surrounding sediment. Arsenicosis and its risk factors and prevention and management are discussed in this article. PMID:21095527

  11. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany. PMID:25866161

  12. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany.

  13. Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O139: Isolation from Cholera Patients and Asymptomatic Household Family Members in Bangladesh between 2013 and 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahima Chowdhury

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is endemic in Bangladesh, with outbreaks reported annually. Currently, the majority of epidemic cholera reported globally is El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae isolates of the serogroup O1. However, in Bangladesh, outbreaks attributed to V. cholerae serogroup O139 isolates, which fall within the same phylogenetic lineage as the O1 serogroup isolates, were seen between 1992 and 1993 and in 2002 to 2005. Since then, V. cholerae serogroup O139 has only been sporadically isolated in Bangladesh and is now rarely isolated elsewhere.Here, we present case histories of four cholera patients infected with V. cholerae serogroup O139 in 2013 and 2014 in Bangladesh. We comprehensively typed these isolates using conventional approaches, as well as by whole genome sequencing. Phenotypic typing and PCR confirmed all four isolates belonging to the O139 serogroup.Whole genome sequencing revealed that three of the isolates were phylogenetically closely related to previously sequenced El Tor biotype, pandemic 7, toxigenic V. cholerae O139 isolates originating from Bangladesh and elsewhere. The fourth isolate was a non-toxigenic V. cholerae that, by conventional approaches, typed as O139 serogroup but was genetically divergent from previously sequenced pandemic 7 V. cholerae lineages belonging to the O139 or O1 serogroups.These results suggest that previously observed lineages of V. cholerae O139 persist in Bangladesh and can cause clinical disease and that a novel disease-causing non-toxigenic O139 isolate also occurs.

  14. Temporal trends in severe malaria in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maude Richard

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological data on malaria in Bangladesh are sparse, particularly on severe and fatal malaria. This hampers the allocation of healthcare provision in this resource-poor setting. Over 85% of the estimated 150,000-250,000 annual malaria cases in Bangladesh occur in Chittagong Division with 80% in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT. Chittagong Medical College Hospital (CMCH is the major tertiary referral hospital for severe malaria in Chittagong Division. Methods Malaria screening data from 22,785 inpatients in CMCH from 1999–2011 were analysed to investigate the patterns of referral, temporal trends and geographical distribution of severe malaria in Chittagong Division, Bangladesh. Results From 1999 till 2011, 2,394 malaria cases were admitted, of which 96% harboured Plasmodium falciparum and 4% Plasmodium vivax. Infection was commonest in males (67% between 15 and 34 years of age. Seasonality of malaria incidence was marked with a single peak in P. falciparum transmission from June to August coinciding with peak rainfall, whereas P. vivax showed an additional peak in February-March possibly representing relapse infections. Since 2007 there has been a substantial decrease in the absolute number of admitted malaria cases. Case fatality in severe malaria was 18% from 2008–2011, remaining steady during this period. A travel history obtained in 226 malaria patients revealed only 33% had been to the CHT in the preceding three weeks. Of all admitted malaria patients, only 9% lived in the CHT, and none in the more remote malaria endemic regions near the Indian border. Conclusions The overall decline in admitted malaria cases to CMCH suggests recent control measures are successful. However, there are no reliable data on the incidence of severe malaria in the CHT, the most endemic area of Bangladesh, and most of these patients do not reach tertiary health facilities. Improvement of early treatment and simple supportive care for

  15. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. PMID:9280385

  16. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  17. Sexual violence towards married women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2013-05-01

    This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men. PMID:23254953

  18. Sexual violence towards married women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2013-05-01

    This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.

  19. Arsenic poisoning of Bangladesh groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickson, Ross; McArthur, John; Burgess, William; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Ravenscroft, Peter; Rahmanñ, Mizanur

    1998-09-01

    In Bangladesh and West Bengal, alluvial Ganges aquifers used for public water supply are polluted with naturally occurring arsenic, which adversely affects the health of millions of people. Here we show that the arsenic derives from the reductive dissolution of arsenic-rich iron oxyhydroxides, which in turn are derived from weathering of base-metal sulphides. This finding means it should now be possible, by sedimentological study of the Ganges alluvial sediments, to guide the placement of new water wells so they will be free of arsenic.

  20. Rice price instability in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mili, Jobaida Yeasmin

    2012-01-01

    In the 2000s, the global attention was concentrated at the food price stability because of the rapid increase in cereal and other food prices. This rapid increase of food price has become a burden for the developing countries as well as for Bangladesh where households spend a large share of their income on food. Among the cereals rice has a strategic importance because it is the central to food security and economic and political stability of the country. Fluctuation in rice prices is not rar...

  1. Bridging Digital Divide: case study of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Shuva, Nafiz Zaman

    2010-01-01

    Bangladesh emerged as an independent and sovereign country in 1971 following a nine month war of liberation. It is one of the largest deltas of the world with a total area of 147,570 sq km. With a unique communal harmony, Bangladesh has a population of about 140 million, making it one of the densely populated countries of the world. The literacy rate of Bangladeshi people is 43.1%. Over 98% of the people speak in Bengali, English however is widely spoken (National Web Portal of Bangladesh, 20...

  2. Converting Bangladesh's influential religious leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaz, A

    1996-01-01

    While the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) introduced family planning to Bangladesh in 1953, very little progress was achieved before the 1980s. It was noticed during the 1980s that despite solid service delivery efforts with interpersonal communication at the community level and expanding choices of contraceptive methods, program success was impeded by religious leader opposition. Religious leader claims that family planning was against Islam reinforce male opposition to contraception. In an effort to win the support of religious leaders, the FPAB established an Islamic Research Cell (IRC) in 1984 and launched targeted advocacy and orientation programs. An expert with religious education and background ran the IRC. The leaders were taught that Islam directly or indirectly promotes family welfare from the viewpoint of the health and economic needs of the family, and that the Qur'an nowhere argues that family planning is forbidden. The Qur'an actually encourages prolonged breastfeeding and the avoidance of unwanted births. Orientation courses, seminars, a national conference, and the distribution of educational printed media eventually convinced the religious leaders to support family planning. Male involvement in family planning is essential in such a male-dominated society.

  3. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  4. Surface Geology of Bangladesh (geo8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the geologic age and type of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Bangladesh. It also includes...

  5. Rohingyas and refugee status in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Prytz Phiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rohingya refugees from northern Rakhine Statein Myanmar are living in a precarious situation in theircountry of asylum, Bangladesh, but have seen significantimprovements in recent times.

  6. Fertility Status of Bangladesh Soils -A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md.; Salma, Laizoo; Egashira, Kazuhiko

    1997-01-01

    Fertility status of Bangladesh soils was critically evaluated by reviewing the studies which have been carried out in universities and research institutes of Bangladesh. Almost all upland soils are low in organic matter and deficient in N. Availability of P to the crops is a problem mainly in calcareous soils of Ganges floodplain and acidic soils of terrace and hill areas. Status of K is not a great problem in floodplain areas, but terrace and Piedmont soils are not capable of supplying enoug...

  7. A Study of Bangladesh Telecom Market

    OpenAIRE

    Alamgir, Rana; Anand, Nitin

    2008-01-01

    Target Audience: The management of TeliaSonera is our main target audience. Also students from management, marketing and business administration are our secondary concern. Problem Statement: “How suitable is Bangladesh telecom market for an internationalized telecom company (TeliaSonera), and what could be a preferable entry strategy for such market?” Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate Bangladesh telecom market in order to find out the potentiality of the market which could ...

  8. Modeling the Macro-Economy of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Montague J.

    2002-01-01

    The study develops a parsimonious representation of the macro economy of Bangladesh. It aims to serve a dual purpose. First, it provides a framework for making rational and consistent predictions about Bangladesh's overall economic activity, the standard components of the balance of payments, the expenditure concepts of the national accounts, and the financial sector balances. Secondly, it offers a means of quantitatively evaluating the impact of alternative policy reforms on the economy, and...

  9. Climate change -- Its impacts on Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predictions regarding the possible effects of global warming on Bangladesh's climate are uncertain. However, the predictions for 2030 made by four General Circulation Models all suggest that there might be increased precipitation, with estimates ranging between 5 and 100% increases in rainfall. Increases of these magnitudes, if they were to occur, would have significant implications for agriculture, flooding, river sediment loads, and flood protection works. Increased flooding of the coastal areas of countries like Bangladesh is a possibility, and enormous health and economic distress and human suffering may follow. With the change in temperature, there may be unpredictable change in bacterial and viral morphology with health hazards of unpredictable limits. It has been estimated that a 100 cm rise in sea level in the Bay of Bengal would result in 12--18% of land areas of Bangladesh being lost to the sea, including most of the Sundarbans. Although it is difficult to predict the timing and magnitude of all the global changes including sea-level rise, climate change, etc., it is anticipated that one of the most serious consequence for Bangladesh would be the reduction of already minimal land: person ratio and consequently exacerbating pressure on the remaining natural resources. Bangladesh is in favor of an international agreement for assistance to vulnerable countries like Bangladesh to take necessary preparations and adopt measures to survive a sea-level rise, climate change, increased flooding, and more frequent storm surges

  10. [Children and bankers in Bangladesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B

    1991-06-01

    This critique of the World Bank's role in developing country population programs begins with a description of a 1987 case in which an 80-year- old Bangladeshi man was persuaded to undergo vasectomy and then robbed of his incentive payment by the health agent. For over 20 years, the World Bank has pressured 3rd World governments to implement population control programs. Although there are divergent opinions within the World Bank, the most dominant is the neomalthusian view that the poor through their high fertility help perpetuate their own poverty. This view hides the real source of poverty in the Third World: the unequal distribution of resources within these countries and between the developed and developing countries. The World Bank has always been blind to the inequalities, and has associated with the elites of developing countries who monopolize the resources of their countries and thereby impede authentic development. Furthermore, the emphasis on population control distorts social policy and hinders the implementation of safe and voluntary family planning services. In many countries the World Bank has required governments to give greater priority to population control than to basic health services. It has pressured them to relax contraceptive prescription norms and has promoted the more effective methods without regard to proper use or side effects. In Bangladesh the World Bank has sponsored sterilization programs that rely on coercion and incentives. In that country of enormous inequities, 10% of landowners control over 50% of lands, while nearly half the population is landless and chronically underemployed. Political power is concentrated in the military government, which annually receives over 1.5 billion dollars in external aid. External aid primarily benefits the wealthy. 3/4 of the population are undernourished and less than 1/3 are literate or have access to basic health care. The poor of Bangladesh, as in many other countries, feel that their only

  11. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  12. Everyday forms of collective action in Bangladesh: Learning from Fifteen Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Peter

    2009-01-01

    "This paper examines fifteen cases of collective action in six villages in rural Bangladesh. Collective action was defined broadly and identified from significant episodes in previous life-history research in the same villages. The types of collective action identified were catalyzed by marriage; dowry and domestic violence; disputes over land; illness, injury and death in accidents; and theft and cheating. The role of development NGOs was less significant than would be expected considering t...

  13. Fatal Outbreak from Consuming Xanthium strumarium Seedlings during Time of Food Scarcity in Northeastern Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Gurley, Emily S.; Mahmudur Rahman; M Jahangir Hossain; Nazmun Nahar; M Abul Faiz; Mr. Nazrul Islam; Rebeca Sultana; Selina Khatun; Mohammad Zashim Uddin; M Sabbir Haider; M. Saiful Islam; Be-Nazir Ahmed; Muhammad Waliur Rahman; Utpal Kumar Mondal; Luby, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An outbreak characterized by vomiting and rapid progression to unconsciousness and death was reported in Sylhet Distrct in northeastern Bangladesh following destructive monsoon floods in November 2007. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified cases presenting to local hospitals and described their clinical signs and symptoms. We interviewed patients and their families to collect illness histories and generate hypotheses about exposures associated with disease. An epidemiological study ...

  14. Burkholderia pseudomallei: Its Detection in Soil and Seroprevalence in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jilani, Md. Shariful Alam; Robayet, Jamshedul Alam Mohammad; Mohiuddin, Md.; Hasan, Md. Rokib; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Haq, Jalaluddin Ashraful

    2016-01-01

    Background Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an endemic disease in Bangladesh. No systematic study has yet been done to detect the environmental source of the organism and its true extent in Bangladesh. The present study attempted to isolate B. pseudomallei in soil samples and to determine its seroprevalence in several districts in Bangladesh. Methodology and Results Soil samples were collected from rural areas of four districts of Bangladesh from where culture confirmed me...

  15. Regulations, Policies and Strategies for LLRW Management in Bangladesh - 12368

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated from various nuclear applications in Bangladesh. The major sources of radioactive waste in the country are at present: (a) the 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor; (b) the radioisotope production facility; (c) the medical, industrial and research facilities that use radionuclides; and (d) the industrial facility for processing monazite sands. Radioactive waste needs to be safely managed because it is potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. According to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Act-93, the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the governmental body responsible for the receipt and final disposal of radioactive wastes in the whole country. Waste management policy has become an important environmental, social, and economical issue for LLW in Bangladesh. Policy and strategies will serve as a basic guide for radioactive waste management in Bangladesh. The waste generator is responsible for on-site collection, conditioning and temporary storage of the waste arising from his practice. The Central Waste Processing and Storage Unit (CWPSU) of BAEC is the designated national facility with the requisite facility for the treatment, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste until a final disposal facility is established and becomes operational. The Regulatory Authority is responsible for the enforcement of compliance with provisions of the waste management regulation and other relevant requirements by the waste generator and the CWPSU. The objective of this paper is to present, in a concise form, basic information about the radioactive waste management infrastructure, regulations, policies and strategies including the total inventory of low level radioactive waste in the country. For improvement and strengthening in terms of operational capability, safety and security of RW including spent radioactive sources and overall security of the facility (CWPSF), the facility is expected to serve

  16. IMMUNE STATUS OF CHILDREN TWO MONTHS TO SIX YEARS OLD TO POLIOVIRUSES I, II AND III INA RURAL AREA OF TEHRAN RELATED TO HISTORY OF VACCINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sabouri

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A serum survey was conducted to determine the immune status of children 2 months to 6 Years old to polio virus type I, II and III related to the history of oral polio vaccination in Fashapouye (A rural area in the south of Teheran. 566 serum samples were obtained from children in 9 different villages and microneutra lization test was performed on 1;10 dilution of these sera. The study revealed that 62 per cent had received three or more doses of vaccine, 8.3 per cent two doses, 13 per cent one dose 5.6 per cent were not vaccinated. On the entire study group prevalence of immunity (serum titer 1; 10 irrespective to the history of vaccination was 90, 94 and 86 per cent for polio I, II and III respectively. The highest rate of unvaccinated and nonimmune children was in 2 to 6 months old group. The percentage of children lacking antibody to polio, I, II and III in nonvaccinated is 41, 25 and 34 percent respectively and these rates decrease in vaccinated children to reach the level of 6, 2 and 10 percent in those who have received three or more doses of vaccine. Over all results suggest that an adequate response to oral polio vaccination is observed in this rural region but an increased effort must be made for covering a higher percentage of children in all age groups especially in 2 months to one year old.

  17. Emerging Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Rumana, Nahid; Pervin, Kumkum; Azad, Muhammad Chanchal; Shahana, Nahid; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Zaman, M Mostafa; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    As a result of an epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases for last few decades, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are being considered as an important cause of mortality and morbidity in many developing countries including Bangladesh. Performing an extensive literature search, we compiled, summarized, and categorized the existing information about CVD mortality and morbidity among different clusters of Bangladeshi population. The present review reports that the burden of CVD in terms of mortality and morbidity is on the rise in Bangladesh. Despite a few non-communicable disease prevention and control programs currently running in Bangladesh, there is an urgent need for well-coordinated national intervention strategies and public health actions to minimize the CVD burden in Bangladesh. As the main challenge for CVD control in a developing country is unavailability of adequate epidemiological data related to various CVD events, the present review attempted to accumulate such data in the current context of Bangladesh. This may be of interest to all stakeholder groups working for CVD prevention and control across the country and globe. PMID:26686566

  18. CSM a success in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Bangladesh Social Marketing Project (SMP), providing contraceptives at an annual rate of 931,000 couple years of protection (CYP) as of June 1983, is a success. This figure has grown markedly since the start of the program in late 1975, when the SMP provided 80,000 CYPs, or 8% of nonclinical protection provided. The SMP has contributed to the steadily increasing national nonclinical contraceptive distribution. Currently, SMP distribution accounts for as much as the government and nongovernment programs combined. When clinical methods (including sterilizations) are added to national distribution, the SMP share represents about 28% of total contraceptive use. The SMP does not provide clinical methods, but the entire increase in nonclinical protection provided by the national program since 1975 has been the result of SMP product sales. The SMP utilizes the available mass media for promotion, including print, radio, television, as well as outdoor media and point of purchase materials. Mobile Film Units (MFUs) are an innovative promotional method employed by the SMP. Approximately 80 night time outdoor showings are organized each month in rural areas by SMP promoters. Typically, several short films, usually a popular story with a family planning theme, are run. Between each film the SMP products are of advertised. Products are often sold during and after the films. Retail outlets for SMP products include general stores, pharmacies, and other small shops. When products were introduced in 1975 retail outlets totaled 7500. By August 1983 the number of country wide retailers carrying SMP products had grown to nearly 100,000. In 1982 a marketing strategy emphasizing the role of doctors and rural medical practitioners (RMPs) was introduced. There are between 70,00-100,000 RMPs in Bangladesh. They are well known and respected "doctors" in their villages and add an extensive family planning outreach to the SMP system. The most important advantage of using the RMPs is their

  19. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  20. [Pharmaceutical history of capuchin monastery in Prague-Hradčan Part II. Capuchin balsam (Balsamum capucinorum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesměrák, Karel; Kunešová, Jana

    2015-06-01

    The history of traditional capuchin balsam is the focal point of the second part of the article on the unknown history of pharmacy at the capuchin monastery in Prague-Hradčany. Capuchin balsam, a medicinal speciality, was being manufactured in the monastery from the end of the 18th century till the year 1950. It is a spirit tincture, its prescription originating from the formulation by Oswald Croll. Balsamum Peruvianum, Gummiresina myrrha, Gummiresina olibanum, and Styrax are the main ingredients, besides assorted plants. The balsam was taken as an antiseptic, antiphlogistic, and analgesic. The balsam was a favoured rustic medicine, and it was sold also abroad (Germany, Poland, USA, Ireland, Belgium). The profit made from the sale of the balsam supported the reconstruction and the maintenance of the monastery and the local theological studies. Other medical formulations connected with the name of the capuchin order are also mentioned.Key words: pharmaceutical history capuchins capuchin balsam monastics pharmacies.

  1. Providing hope: midwifery teaching in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Bangladesh is recognised as a resource-poor country that has made some very positive steps to reducing maternal mortality over the last decade. However the death rate of women directly caused by pregnancy and childbirth still remains much higher than countries such as the UK, often due to lack of access to good quality and affordable basic health care. In this article, Anna Kent writes of her experiences teaching obstetric emergency clinical skills to Bangladesh's first ever student midwives. The students were recruited from rural villages to complete a three-year fully funded Midwifery Diploma Programme at one of seven education centres across the country. The goal of the programme is for the students to eventually return and practise as midwives in their home communities, enabling greater access for women to good quality basic health care, directly reducing maternal mortality across Bangladesh. PMID:26638653

  2. The accretion history of dark matter halos II: The connections with the mass power spectrum and the density profile

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Camila A; Schaye, Joop; Duffy, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    We explore the relation between the structure and mass accretion histories of dark matter halos using a suite of cosmological simulations. We confirm that the formation time, defined as the time when the virial mass of the main progenitor equals the mass enclosed within the scale radius, correlates strongly with concentration. We provide a semi-analytic model for halo mass history that combines analytic relations with fits to simulations. This model has the functional form, $M(z) = M_{0}(1+z)^{\\alpha}e^{\\beta z}$, where the parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ are directly correlated with concentration. We then combine this model for the halo mass history with the analytic relations between $\\alpha$, $\\beta$ and the linear power spectrum derived by Correa et al. (2014) to establish the physical link between halo concentration and the initial density perturbation field. Finally, we provide fitting formulas for the halo mass history as well as numerical routines, we derive the accretion rate as a function of halo ma...

  3. Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Charles F.; Swartz, Christopher H.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Keon-Blute, Nicole; Yu, Winston; Ali, M. Ashraf; Jay, Jenny; Beckie, Roger; Niedan, Volker; Brabander, Daniel; Oates, Peter M.; Ashfaque, Khandaker N.; Islam, Shafiqul; Hemond, Harold F.; Ahmed, M. Feroze

    2002-11-01

    High levels of arsenic in well water are causing widespread poisoning in Bangladesh. In a typical aquifer in southern Bangladesh, chemical data imply that arsenic mobilization is associated with recent inflow of carbon. High concentrations of radiocarbon-young methane indicate that young carbon has driven recent biogeochemical processes, and irrigation pumping is sufficient to have drawn water to the depth where dissolved arsenic is at a maximum. The results of field injection of molasses, nitrate, and low-arsenic water show that organic carbon or its degradation products may quickly mobilize arsenic, oxidants may lower arsenic concentrations, and sorption of arsenic is limited by saturation of aquifer materials.

  4. Spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A H; Huq, S M; Mesbah-us-Saleheen

    1993-05-01

    This paper depicts the spatial patterns of mortality of the administrative upazilas of Bangladesh. Due to the absence of adequate data on mortality rates from across the country, the mortality rates of the upazilas are calculated from the age sex structure of the population of the respective upazilas employing the standardized mortality rates of divisional headquarters. Crude death rates are used to determine spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh. The patterns portray strong regional differences. Such differentiation is accounted for by traditional differences in demographic and socio-economic factors. Also, regression analysis is used to assist in explaining spatial variations.

  5. Spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A H; Huq, S M; Mesbah-us-Saleheen

    1993-05-01

    This paper depicts the spatial patterns of mortality of the administrative upazilas of Bangladesh. Due to the absence of adequate data on mortality rates from across the country, the mortality rates of the upazilas are calculated from the age sex structure of the population of the respective upazilas employing the standardized mortality rates of divisional headquarters. Crude death rates are used to determine spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh. The patterns portray strong regional differences. Such differentiation is accounted for by traditional differences in demographic and socio-economic factors. Also, regression analysis is used to assist in explaining spatial variations. PMID:8511618

  6. Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: a public health emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A H; Lingas, E O; Rahman, M

    2000-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is the largest poisoning of a population in history, with millions of people exposed. This paper describes the history of the discovery of arsenic in drinking-water in Bangladesh and recommends intervention strategies. Tube-wells were installed to provide "pure water" to prevent morbidity and mortality from gastrointestinal disease. The water from the millions of tube-wells that were installed was not tested for arsenic contamination. Studies in other countries where the population has had long-term exposure to arsenic in groundwater indicate that 1 in 10 people who drink water containing 500 micrograms of arsenic per litre may ultimately die from cancers caused by arsenic, including lung, bladder and skin cancers. The rapid allocation of funding and prompt expansion of current interventions to address this contamination should be facilitated. The fundamental intervention is the identification and provision of arsenic-free drinking water. Arsenic is rapidly excreted in urine, and for early or mild cases, no specific treatment is required. Community education and participation are essential to ensure that interventions are successful; these should be coupled with follow-up monitoring to confirm that exposure has ended. Taken together with the discovery of arsenic in groundwater in other countries, the experience in Bangladesh shows that groundwater sources throughout the world that are used for drinking-water should be tested for arsenic.

  7. Natural history and role of radiation in patients with supratentorial and infratentorial WHO grade II ependymomas: results from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Ayal A; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Nguyen, Paul L; Macdonald, Shannon M; Yock, Torunn I; Tarbell, Nancy J; Shih, Helen A; Loeffler, Jay S; Oh, Kevin S

    2013-12-01

    Patients with World Health Organization (WHO) grade II supratentorial ependymomas are commonly observed after gross total resection (GTR), although supporting data are limited. We sought to characterize the natural history of such tumors. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify 112 patients ages 0-77 diagnosed with WHO grade II ependymomas between 1988 and 2007, of whom 63 (56 %) and 49 (44 %) had supratentorial and infratentorial primaries, respectively. Inclusion criteria were strict to ensure patient homogeneity. Of 33 patients with supratentorial tumors after GTR, 18 (55 %) received adjuvant radiation therapy and 15 (45 %) did not. Ependymoma-specific mortality (ESM) was the primary endpoint. With a median follow up of 4.5 years, only 1 of 33 patients with supratentorial ependymoma died of their disease after GTR; the 5-year estimate of ESM in this population was 3.3 % (95 % CI 0.2-14.8 %). Among patients with infratentorial ependymomas after GTR, the 5-year estimate of ESM was 8.7 % (95 % CI 1.4-24.6 %). In patients with subtotally resected tumors, 5-year estimates of ESM in patients with supratentorial and infratentorial primaries were 20.1 % (95 % CI 8.0-36.2 %) and 12.3 % (95 % CI 2.9-28.8 %), respectively. Among the whole cohort, on both univariable and multivariable regression, extent of resection was predictive of ESM, while tumor location and use of radiation were not. After GTR, patients with WHO grade II supratentorial ependymomas have a very favorable natural history with low associated cancer-specific mortality. Observation, with radiation reserved as a salvage option, may be a reasonable postoperative strategy in this population.

  8. Perspectives on history: Army dietitians in the European, North African, and Mediterranean theaters of operation in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, P A

    1996-06-01

    World War II necessitated the mobilization of hundreds of dietitians to serve in military hospitals in the United States and in theaters of war all over the globe. Although initially military dietitians had civilian status, on December 22, 1942, Congress passed Public Law 828, which authorized military status for Army dietitians with relative rank in the Medical Department for the duration of the war and 6 months thereafter. This article chronicles the role of Army dietitians who supported the allied troops in military hospitals in England, Europe, and North Africa during World War II. Recollections of military dietitians who served in the war are included to illustrate the circumstances under which these professionals lived and the dedication with which they worked. PMID:8655909

  9. Genome-wide association study identifies SNPs in the MHC class II loci that are associated with self-reported history of whooping cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, George; Ring, Susan M; Davey-Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2015-10-15

    Whooping cough is currently seeing resurgence in countries despite high vaccine coverage. There is considerable variation in subject-specific response to infection and vaccine efficacy, but little is known about the role of human genetics. We carried out a case-control genome-wide association study of adult or parent-reported history of whooping cough in two cohorts from the UK: the ALSPAC cohort and the 1958 British Birth Cohort (815/758 cases and 6341/4308 controls, respectively). We also imputed HLA alleles using dense SNP data in the MHC region and carried out gene-based and gene-set tests of association and estimated the amount of additive genetic variation explained by common SNPs. We observed a novel association at SNPs in the MHC class II region in both cohorts [lead SNP rs9271768 after meta-analysis, odds ratio [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] 1.47 (1.35, 1.6), P-value 1.21E - 18]. Multiple strong associations were also observed at alleles at the HLA class II loci. The majority of these associations were explained by the lead SNP rs9271768. Gene-based and gene-set tests and estimates of explainable common genetic variation could not establish the presence of additional associations in our sample. Genetic variation at the MHC class II region plays a role in susceptibility to whooping cough. These findings provide additional perspective on mechanisms of whooping cough infection and vaccine efficacy.

  10. Genome-wide association study identifies SNPs in the MHC class II loci that are associated with self-reported history of whooping cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, George; Ring, Susan M.; Davey-Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Whooping cough is currently seeing resurgence in countries despite high vaccine coverage. There is considerable variation in subject-specific response to infection and vaccine efficacy, but little is known about the role of human genetics. We carried out a case–control genome-wide association study of adult or parent-reported history of whooping cough in two cohorts from the UK: the ALSPAC cohort and the 1958 British Birth Cohort (815/758 cases and 6341/4308 controls, respectively). We also imputed HLA alleles using dense SNP data in the MHC region and carried out gene-based and gene-set tests of association and estimated the amount of additive genetic variation explained by common SNPs. We observed a novel association at SNPs in the MHC class II region in both cohorts [lead SNP rs9271768 after meta-analysis, odds ratio [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] 1.47 (1.35, 1.6), P-value 1.21E − 18]. Multiple strong associations were also observed at alleles at the HLA class II loci. The majority of these associations were explained by the lead SNP rs9271768. Gene-based and gene-set tests and estimates of explainable common genetic variation could not establish the presence of additional associations in our sample. Genetic variation at the MHC class II region plays a role in susceptibility to whooping cough. These findings provide additional perspective on mechanisms of whooping cough infection and vaccine efficacy. PMID:26231221

  11. Contrasting epidemic histories reveal pathogen-mediated balancing selection on class II MHC diversity in a wild songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Hawley

    Full Text Available The extent to which pathogens maintain the extraordinary polymorphism at vertebrate Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes via balancing selection has intrigued evolutionary biologists for over half a century, but direct tests remain challenging. Here we examine whether a well-characterized epidemic of Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis resulted in balancing selection on class II MHC in a wild songbird host, the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus. First, we confirmed the potential for pathogen-mediated balancing selection by experimentally demonstrating that house finches with intermediate to high multi-locus MHC diversity are more resistant to challenge with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Second, we documented sequence and diversity-based signatures of pathogen-mediated balancing selection at class II MHC in exposed host populations that were absent in unexposed, control populations across an equivalent time period. Multi-locus MHC diversity significantly increased in exposed host populations following the epidemic despite initial compromised diversity levels from a recent introduction bottleneck in the exposed host range. We did not observe equivalent changes in allelic diversity or heterozygosity across eight neutral microsatellite loci, suggesting that the observations reflect selection rather than neutral demographic processes. Our results indicate that a virulent pathogen can exert sufficient balancing selection on class II MHC to rescue compromised levels of genetic variation for host resistance in a recently bottlenecked population. These results provide evidence for Haldane's long-standing hypothesis that pathogens directly contribute to the maintenance of the tremendous levels of genetic variation detected in natural populations of vertebrates.

  12. Women's Struggle against Tradition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Mainus

    1994-01-01

    In rural Bangladesh, women's participation in a literacy program was opposed by Mullahs for several reasons: content encouraged decision making, monopoly of the Qur'anic schools was threatened, Mullahs' leadership and spiritual roles were potentially subverted, and it conflicted with the practice of polygamy. (SK)

  13. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  14. Gender Disparities in Secondary Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Molla; Rahman, Pk Md. Motiur

    2008-01-01

    Enrolment and success rates are very crucial for any educational system in the world but they are more important for the developing countries like Bangladesh. Gender differences in enrolment and success rates are also emerging issues. This study investigated the enrolment and success rate's status in secondary educational system of Bangladesh…

  15. Gender, Parenting, and Adolescent Functioning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sunita Mahtani; Bond, Michael Harris; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Ma, Stefan S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined associations of self-esteem, relationship harmony, and academic achievement with perceptions of parents' styles and supervisory practices among 212 adolescents in Islamic Bangladesh. Found that parental supervisory practices were associated with a warm parental style for girls and parental dominating control for boys. Girls' (but not…

  16. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh K Biswas; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S.U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S.M.S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Nitish C Debnath

    2008-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

  17. Bangladesh : Climate Change and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    The study examines Bangladesh's extreme vulnerability to climate change, whose low-lying topography, and funnel-shaped coast, further exposes the land to cyclones, and tidal surges, resulting in seasonal floods. These factors, and the large population base, widespread poverty, aggravated by the lack of strong institutional development, makes the country particularly vulnerable to climate v...

  18. Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin J Olival; Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Jonathan H Epstein; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.

  19. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; A. H. M. Kamal; Ali, K.S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  20. REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN CHILD MARRIAGE IN BANGLADESH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Kamrul; Haque, Md Rabiul; Hossain, Mohammad Bellal

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the regional variations in the prevalence of child marriage in Bangladesh with a view to providing recommendations for division-specific policy interventions. Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Substantial regional variations in child marriage were found in Bangladesh. Rangpur and Khulna had more than four times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (4.57 and 4.11 times, respectively). Barisal and Rajshahi had more than three times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (3.70 and 3.48 times, respectively). Chittagong and Dhaka had about two times odds of child marriage than Sylhet (1.98 and 2.67 times, respectively), even after controlling for selected socio-demographic, economic and cultural characteristics. Respondent's education, employment status, husband's education and wealth index were inversely associated with the prevalence of child marriage. The policy implications of these findings are discussed in the context of Bangladesh. PMID:27076200

  1. First case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromoblastomycosis is a rare and chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by black fungi and mostly reported in tropical and subtropical areas. Here we report the first case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh. Molecular biology permitted to identify Fonsecaea nubica, and the patient responded well to antifungal treatment alone.

  2. Poverty Maps of Bangladesh 2010 : Key Findings

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; World Food Programme; Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics

    2010-01-01

    Poverty mapping is a statistical exercise to estimate the incidence of poverty at sub-national levels to enable the government, civil society organizations, and development partners to accurately identify locations with a relatively higher concentration of poor people. The current poverty mapping exercise was initiated in September 2012 by the Bangladesh bureau of statistics (BBS), the Wor...

  3. Poverty Maps of Bangladesh 2010 : Technical Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB); World Food Programme; Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics

    2010-01-01

    Poverty mapping is a statistical exercise to estimate the incidence of poverty at sub-national levels to enable the government, civil society organizations, and development partners to accurately identify locations with a relatively higher concentration of poor people. The current poverty mapping exercise was initiated in September 2012 by the Bangladesh bureau of statistics (BBS), the Wor...

  4. The natural history of Caroline Atoll, Southern Line Islands. Part II. Seabirds, other terrestrial animals, and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, C.B.; Kepler, A.K.; Ellis, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    conclusion: Lushly wooded Caroline Atoll, with the majority of its 39 islets (399 ha of land) either in near-pristine condition or having recovered remarkably from past disturbance, is one of the least spoiled atolls in the Pacific. Uninhabited, it harbors plant ecosystems and breeding seabirds (Pt. II) of national and international importance. Its marine and terrestrial ecosystems are prime outdoor ecological laboratories for research on geological processes including ground water, sea level changes, the dynamics of motu formation, fish poisoning, and numerous facets of ecology including plant succession and Pisonia growth rates. Caroline boasts prime coral reefs thickly studded with Tridacna clams, substantial numbers of coconut crabs, breeding sites for green turtles, wintering grounds for shorebirds including the rare Bristle-thighed Curlew, ancient Tuamotuan marae, and a crystalline, unpolluted lagoon. The variety, abundance, and quality of its flora and fauna qualify it for status as an officially recognized international preserve (Pt. II, Sect. G). Efforts toward its conservation have thus far been unsuccessful: in 1992 it was leased to a private French businessman who is currently fishing the reefs for commercial profit, as well as disturbing seabird, turtle and coconut crab populations.

  5. Societal impacts and vulnerability to floods in Bangladesh and Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Tanvir H. Dewan

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh and Nepal lie between the Himalayas and low-lying coasts of the Bay of Bengal and are traversed by hundreds of rivers and tributaries. Historical data shows that, since 1970, the scale, intensity and duration of floods have increased in Bangladesh and Nepal, causing grave human suffering; disruptions in normal life and activity, damages of infrastructure, crops and agricultural land with severe impacts on the economy. Bangladesh is affected by torrential rain, glacier melt, upstrea...

  6. Child Labour in Bangladesh: Trends, Patterns and Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Khanam, Rasheda

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the trends, patterns and policy options of child labour in Bangladesh particularly during the 1990s. The striking finding in the trend and incidence of child labour in Bangladesh is that while child labour is on a declining trend in other South Asian countries – India and Pakistan and in the world, it has been increasing in Bangladesh. This increasing trend in the incidence of child labour particularly focuses on the irrelevance or inadequacy of existing child labour laws...

  7. Preference for Institutional Delivery and Caesarean Sections in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, S M Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    In Bangladesh, preference for place of delivery and socioeconomic factors associated with caesarean section are not well-understood. This paper examines the socioeconomic correlates of preference for institutional delivery and caesarean sections in Bangladesh. The study used data from the nationally-representative 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Both bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were constructed to assess the effect of sociodemographic factors on...

  8. The prospects and challenges of plastic industries in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Pintu, MD. Nazmul Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Plastic is one of the most used engineered material in Bangladesh that has come out as im-portant industrial sector during the last few decades. The size of Domestic market is more than thousands of billions euros. The available cheap labor, vast population and fast development of plastics wastes recycling industries have given Bangladesh a huge potential advantages to compete in the global market. Although, plastics sector is one of the most growing markets in Bangladesh, but still it is fac...

  9. Factors associated with repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh: qualitative and quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayedul Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis is an acute, febrile disease of warm blooded animals including humans. Social norms and poverty in addition to climatic factors such as soil conditions, seasons of year, ambient temperature and rainfall influence the persistence of the B. anthracis and anthrax outbreaks. The present study was designed to reveal the factors influencing the repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh. Considering the previous outbreaks of anthrax, Sirajganj, Bogra, Kushtia, Tangail and Mymensingh districts of Bangladesh were selected for this study. To elucidate the factors, qualitative data relating to the animal management, knowledge and behavior of the people; and quantitative data relating to soil conditions, ambient temperature and rainfall were acquired, and analyzed critically. Based on the outbreak histories, a year was divided into two seasons, anthrax prone season (May-November and anthrax dry season (December-April. Anthrax spores could be isolated from 11.67% (n=14/120 of the soil samples collected from the study areas. The present study revealed that poor knowledge, lack of awareness, improper carcass disposal, inadequate vaccination, high Ca content and moisture in the soil along with high ambient temperature and rainfall during the anthrax prone season were the possible influencing factors of repeated outbreaks of anthrax in the study areas. Intensive propaganda to create public awareness of anthrax together with proper vaccination may reduce anthrax outbreaks in Bangladesh.

  10. Assessment of Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater and Health Problems in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K. Mitra

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Excessive amounts of arsenic (As in the groundwater in Bangladesh and neighboring states in India are a major public health problem. About 30% of the private wells in Bangladesh exhibit high concentrations of arsenic. Over half the country, 269 out of 464 administrative units, is affected. Similar problems exist in many other parts of the world, including the Unites States. This paper presents an assessment of the health hazards caused by arsenic contamination in the drinking water in Bangladesh. Four competing hypotheses, each addressing the sources, reaction mechanisms, pathways, and sinks of arsenic in groundwater, were analyzed in the context of the geologic history and land-use practices in the Bengal Basin. None of the hypotheses alone can explain the observed variability in arsenic concentration in time and space; each appears to have some validity on a local scale. Thus, it is likely that several bio-geochemical processes are active among the region’s various geologic environments, and that each contributes to the mobilization and release of arsenic. Additional research efforts will be needed to understand the relationships between underlying biogeochemical factors and the mechanisms for arsenic release in various geologic settings.

  11. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population's access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies.

  12. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population's access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies.

  13. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md.; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population’s access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies. PMID:26891310

  14. Experience of Climate Change Adaptation; Emic Perception of Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Programs in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathana peou van den Heuvel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over 40 years (I/ NGOs together with the Government of Bangladesh (GoB have been working to build the capacity of population at risk to cope with natural disasters. From a response rationale to preparedness one, (I/NGOs together with the GoB struggled to integrate adaptation frame into Disaster Risk Reduction program. Those initial steps were mainly lead by a top down approach. Bangladesh usually pointed as the most vulnerable country in the world, has a long history of different frame of actions and practices toward building both community and individual resilience. Structural poverty and low good governance mechanisms are just some of the factors that jeopardize the gains of development project in general in Bangladesh. Donors and (I/NGO play major roles by shaping not only the national discourse but as well by leading the practices and the methodology that needs to be used at the field. Within couple of years, community based approach has been largely adopted by different institutions as being the right way to deliver intervention that aims at reducing the vulnerability and the enhancing the resilience. It is in this context that this paper offers an insight on how DRR and adaptation is translated at the field level. Through an emic perspective this research aims at confronting the realities of the practices of DRR/ Adaptation by (I/NGOs to the discourse that they communicate.

  15. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakir Md. Yunus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs under four domains: (1 extent of arsenic contamination; (2 health consequences; (3 mitigation and technologies and (4 future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population’s access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies.

  16. In vivo analysis of toxic effect of hydrose used in food preparations in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuhin Reza; Asafudullah; Farjana Nikkon; Khaled Hossain; Zahangir Alam Saud; Sharmin Aktar; Hasan Al Amin; Mashiur Rahman; Afroza Arefin; Nayan Chandra Mohanto; Shahnur Alam; Abdullah Al Mamun; Anwar Habib

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose used in the molasses preparation in Bangladesh.Methods:Molasses were collected from open markets in different parts of Bangladesh. The presence of hydrose in selected molasses was detected using commercial kit. To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose, Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. Group I was used as control, while Groups II, III and IV received hydrose mixing food (5, 10 and 25 g/kg food), respectively, and these supplementations were continued to the end of the study (16 weeks). Blood was collected from thoracic arteries of the mice under ether anesthesia and then organs were taken. To determine the effect of hydrose on host, blood indices related to liver, heart and kidney dysfunctions were measured.Results:Creatinine and urea levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased in a dose dependent manner in hydrose treated mice, whereas calcium level was significantly decreased in hydrose exposed mice compared to control mice. Histological study of kidney showed the glomeruler inflammation, increased diameter of renal glomeruli and enlargement of proximal tubular lumen of kidneys of mice exposed to hydrose compared to that of control animals. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that use of hydrose in molasses and other food preparations in Bangladesh may cause kidney impairment.

  17. Assessing the economic aspects of biogas plants. A case study in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy crisis has become one of the most concerning issues throughout the world including emerging developing country like Bangladesh. Scientific community has unequivocally agreed that renewable energy is the only solution to face this challenge. A number of researches on renewable energy (e.g., solar, wind, hydro energy and biogas) have been carried out in Bangladesh. So far, biogas and solar energy has been proved to be the best alternative to meet the daily energy demand. However, Bangladesh could achieve more success with biogas in rural areas if socioeconomic, technical and regulatory issues were addressed appropriately. This study analyzed not only these factors but also (i) the present situation of the biogas production, (ii) ways to improve the efficiency and economic benefits of small-scale or farm-scale biogas production, (iii) existing problem associated with small-scale/farms-scale biogas production, (iv) reason behind not using and not using of biogas by the people nearby the user of biogas, (v) economic benefits of small biogas plants and (vi) the ways to improve efficiency by intervening feed stock quality and composition of the small-scale/farms-scale biogas plants.

  18. The ISLAndS project II: The Lifetime Star Formation Histories of Six Andromeda dSphs

    CERN Document Server

    Skillman, Evan D; Weisz, Daniel R; Hidalgo, Sebastian L; Aparicio, Antonio; Bernard, Edouard J; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Cassisi, Santi; Cole, Andrew A; Dolphin, Andrew E; Ferguson, Henry C; Gallart, Carme; Irwin, Mike J; Martin, Nicolas F; Martinez-Vazquez, Clara E; Mayer, Lucio; McConnachie, Alan W; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Navarro, Julio F; Stetson, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    The Initial Star formation and Lifetimes of Andromeda Satellites (ISLAndS) project uses Hubble Space Telescope imaging to study a representative sample of six Andromeda dSph satellite companion galaxies. The main goal of the program is to determine whether the star formation histories (SFHs) of the Andromeda dSph satellites demonstrate significant statistical differences from those of the Milky Way, which may be attributable to the different properties of their local environments. Our observations reach the oldest main sequence turn-offs, allowing a time resolution at the oldest ages of ~ 1 Gyr, which is comparable to the best achievable resolution in the MW satellites. We find that the six dSphs present a variety of SFHs that are not strictly correlated with luminosity or present distance from M31. Specifically, we find a significant range in quenching times (lookback times from 9 to 6 Gyr), but with all quenching times more than ~ 6 Gyr ago. In agreement with observations of Milky Way companions of similar ...

  19. The Cosmological Impact of Luminous TeV Blazars II: Rewriting the Thermal History of the Intergalactic Medium

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The Universe is opaque to extragalactic very high-energy gamma rays (VHEGRs, E>100 GeV) because they annihilate and pair produce on the extragalactic background light. The resulting ultra-relativistic pairs are assumed to lose energy through inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons. In Broderick et al. (2011, Paper I of this three paper series), we argued that instead powerful plasma instabilities in the ultra-relativistic pair beam dissipate the kinetic energy of the TeV-generated pairs locally, heating the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we explore the effect of this heating upon the thermal history of the IGM. We collate the observed extragalactic VHEGR sources to determine a local VHEGR heating rate and correct for the pointed nature of VHEGR observations using Fermi observations of high and intermediate peaked BL Lacs. Because the local extragalactic VHEGR flux is dominated by TeV blazars, we tie the TeV blazar luminosity density to the quasar luminosity density, and produce a VHEGR heating rate as a ...

  20. Being WISE II: Reducing the Influence of Star Formation History on the Mass-to-Light Ratio of Quiescent Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Mark A; Schinnerer, Eva; Crain, Robert A; Meidt, Sharon; Groves, Brent; Bower, Richard G; Furlong, Michelle; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Stellar population synthesis models can now reproduce the photometry of old stellar systems (age $>$ 2 Gyr) in the near-infrared (NIR) bands at 3.4 and 4.6$\\mu$m (WISE W1 $\\&$ W2 or IRAC 1 $\\&$ 2). In this paper we derive stellar mass-to-light ratios for these and optical bands, and confirm that the NIR M/L shows dramatically reduced sensitivity to both age and metallicity compared to optical bands, and further, that this behavior leads to significantly more robust stellar masses for quiescent galaxies with [Fe/H] > -0.5 regardless of star formation history (SFH). We then use realistic early-type galaxy SFHs and metallicity distributions from the EAGLE simulations of galaxy formation to investigate two methods to determine the appropriate M/L for a galaxy: 1) We show that the uncertainties introduced by an unknown SFH can be largely removed using a spectroscopically inferred luminosity-weighted age and metallicity for the population to select the appropriate single stellar population (SSP) equivalent ...

  1. The Massive Star Forming Region Cygnus OB2. II. Integrated Stellar Properties and the Star Formation History

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Drew, Janet E; Vink, Jorick S

    2010-01-01

    Cygnus OB2 is the nearest example of a massive star forming region, containing over 50 O-type stars and hundreds of B-type stars. We have analysed the properties of young stars in two fields in Cyg OB2 using the recently published deep catalogue of Chandra X-ray point sources with complementary optical and near-IR photometry. Our sample is complete to 1 Msun (excluding A and B-type stars that do not emit X-rays), making this the deepest study of the stellar properties and star formation history in Cyg OB2 to date. From Siess et al. (2000) isochrone fits to the near-IR color-magnitude diagram, we derive ages of 3.5 (+0.75/-1.0) and 5.25 (+1.5/-1.0) Myrs for sources in the two fields, both with considerable spreads around the pre-MS isochrones. The presence of a stellar population somewhat older than the present-day O-type stars, also fits in with the low fraction of sources with inner circumstellar disks (as traced by the K-band excess) that we find to be very low, but appropriate for a population of age ~5 My...

  2. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. II. The Star-formation History of the Starburst Region NGC 2070 in 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignoni, M.; Sabbi, E.; van der Marel, R. P.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D. J.; Aloisi, A.; de Marchi, G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Smith, L. J.; Zeidler, P.

    2015-10-01

    We present a study of the recent star formation (SF) of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the panchromatic imaging survey Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. In this paper we focus on the stars within 20 pc of the center of 30 Doradus, the starburst region NGC 2070. We recovered the SF history by comparing deep optical and near-infrared color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with state-of-the-art synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PAdova and TRieste Stellar Evolution Code (PARSEC) models, which include all stellar phases from pre-main-sequence to post-main-sequence. For the first time in this region we are able to measure the SF using intermediate- and low-mass stars simultaneously. Our results suggest that NGC 2070 experienced prolonged activity. In particular, we find that the SF in the region (1) exceeded the average LMC rate ≈ 20 Myr ago, (2) accelerated dramatically ≈ 7 Myr ago, and (3) reached a peak value 1-3 Myr ago. We did not find significant deviations from a Kroupa initial mass function down to 0.5 {M}⊙ . The average internal reddening E(B-V) is found to be between 0.3 and 0.4 mag. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  3. The UK Infrared Telescope M33 monitoring project. II. The star formation history in the central square kiloparsec

    CERN Document Server

    Javadi, Atefeh; Mirtorabi, Mohammad Taghi

    2011-01-01

    We have conducted a near-infrared monitoring campaign at the UK InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT), of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33 (Triangulum). The main aim was to identify stars in the very final stage of their evolution, and for which the luminosity is more directly related to the birth mass than the more numerous less-evolved giant stars that continue to increase in luminosity. In this second paper of the series, we construct the birth mass function and hence derive the star formation history. The star formation rate has varied between ~0.002 and 0.007 M ̇ yr^-1 kpc^-2. We give evidence of two epochs of a star formation rate enhanced by a factor of a few -- one that happened \\geq 6 Gyr ago and produced \\geq 80% of the total mass in stars, and one around 250 Myr ago that lasted ~ 200 Myr and formed \\leq 6% of the mass in stars. We construct radial and azimuthal distributions in the image plane and in the galaxy plane for populations associated with old first-ascent red giant branch (RGB) stars, intermedia...

  4. Spitzer IRS Observations of Class I/II Objects in Taurus: Composition, Temperature and Thermal History of the Circumstellar Ices

    CERN Document Server

    Zasowski, G; Watson, Dan M; Furlan, E; Bohac, C J; Hull, C; Green, J D

    2007-01-01

    We present observations of Taurus-Auriga Class I/II protostars obtained with the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph. Detailed spectral fits to the 6 and 15 micron features are made, using publicly-available laboratory data, to constrain the molecular composition, abundances, and levels of thermal processing along the lines of sight. We provide an inventory of the molecular environments observed, which have an average composition dominated by water ice with ~12% CO_2 (abundance relative to H_2O), >~2-9% CH_3OH, <~14% NH_3, ~4% CH_4, ~2% H_2CO, ~0.6% HCOOH, and ~0.5% SO_2. We find CO_2/H_2O ratios nearly equivalent to those observed in cold clouds and lines of sight toward the galactic center. The unidentified 6.8 micron profile shapes vary from source to source, and it is shown to be likely that even combinations of the most common candidates (NH_4+ and CH_3OH) are inadequate to explain the feature fully. We discuss correlations among SED spectral indices, abundance ratios, and thermally-processed ice fractions ...

  5. Farmers’ Education and Farmers’ Wealth in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of farmers’ education is examined with a view to evaluate the actual situation of farmers’ education in Bangladesh. Fifty samples were collected from two sub districts of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. The selection of the study sites and collection of the samples such as the years of schooling of the farm household head, total income, farm size, number of earners of farm families, family size, years of farming experience of farm household head, number of times extension contacts and rice yield were done purposively. It is cleared from the study that education is necessary for farmers to raise their wealth. Results were derived through regression analysis. The study has also shown that size of family and years of farming experience contributed significantly to the wealth accumulation of farmers.

  6. Agribusiness Potentials for Bangladesh — an Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahboob Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh cannot sustain long-run economic progress without having a strong agricultural sector accompanied by a dynamic agribusiness sub-sector. This study has been undertaken as an exploratory study to assess the role and significance of agribusiness in Bangladesh along with the current status and future potentials. Various institutional and other weaknesses and challenges were deemed to exist in the country that prevents full realization of the potentials of this industry. At a general level, the paper recommends various structural, institutional, and market-friendly policy reforms accompanied by infrastructural developments in order to encourage entrepreneurship, innovation, and investments along with better and more effective strategic management of this sector. Such reforms are expected to promote better utilization of scarce resources to promote a strong, dynamic, and sustainable agribusiness sector that would be able to contribute substantially to industrialization and economic development of the country.

  7. Burial history and kinetic modeling for hydrocarbon generation, Part II: Applying the Galo model to Saharan basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markhous, M.; Galushkin, Y. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation); Lopatin, N. [Geosystems Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    The GALO basin evolution model described in Makhous et al. is applied to evaluate hydrocarbon generation and migration histories in several Saharan basins. Three basins, the Oued el-Mya, Ghadames, and Illizi, are located in the central and eastern parts of the Saharan platform and are investigated in detail. The Ahnet, Mouydir, Timimoun, Reggane, and other basins located in the southern and western parts of the platform are also studied. The modeling results, combined with geochemical data, are used in a synthesis of the regional framework. The thermal gradients in the Ghadames and Illizi basins are greater than those in the Oued el-Mya basin. This difference is attributed to differences in sedimentation and subsidence rates, to less Hercynian erosion, and to fewer occurrences of evaporates in the Akfadou region of the Ghadames basin and in the Mereksen region of the Illizi basin. In the southern and western parts of the Illizi province, the major subsidence occurred before Hercynian uplift. Very moderate Hercynian uplift in the Ghadames and Illizi basins did not involve a significant decrease of temperatures, and organic matter maturation continued, but at slower rates. As a result, the realization of hydrocarbon potential appears to be higher than would be expected. Favorable traps are located near subsided areas where the source shales (particularly the Devonian) were not subjected to uplift and erosion. In this respect, the eastern Sahara including the Ghadames and Illizi basins is a favored province. Analysis of the distribution of present-day temperatures and paleotemperatures in the Paleozoic sediments of the Triassic province (Oued el-Mya, Ghadames, Trias, and north Illizi basins), combined with effective source rock occurrences, shows that favorable conditions for hydrocarbon generation during the Paleozoic occurred essentially in the southern and southwestern parts of the province.

  8. Microfinance, Efficiency and Agricultural Production in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, K. M. Zahidul

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to make a detailed and systematic empirical analysis of microfinance borrowers and non-borrowers in Bangladesh and also examine how efficiency measures are influenced by the access to agricultural microfinance. In the empirical analysis, this study used both parametric and non-parametric frontier approaches to investigate differences in efficiency estimates between microfinance borrowers and non-borrowers. This thesis, based on five articles, applied data obt...

  9. Natural disasters and population mobility in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Clark L.; Mueller, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of environmental change for human migration have gained increasing attention in the context of climate change and recent large-scale natural disasters, but as yet relatively few large-scale and quantitative studies have addressed this issue. We investigate the consequences of climate-related natural disasters for long-term population mobility in rural Bangladesh, a region particularly vulnerable to environmental change, using longitudinal survey data from 1,700 households spa...

  10. ESTIMATION OF POTATO DEMAND ELASTICITIES IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Huq, A. S. M. Anwarul; ALAM, SHAMSUL; Sabur, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    The study estimated potato demand elasticities in Bangladesh by using AIDS model with corrected Stone price index. The income elasticity of demand for potato was 0.632. The compensated and uncompensated own price elasticities indicated that all food items were price inelastic. The estimated own price elasticity indicated that if the potato price fell by 10 per cent, demand for potato would increase by 8.82 percent. The estimates of cross price elasticities indicated that the substitution effe...

  11. Case Study: The Myanmar and Bangladesh Maritime Boundary Dispute in the Bay of Bengal and Its Implications for South China Sea Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi A. Balaram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to review the pertinent Myanmar and Bangladesh history in overlapping maritime territorial claims leading up to the September 2011 International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS case: Dispute Concerning Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary Between Bangladesh and Myanmar in the Bay of Bengal. It will dissect the legal proceedings as primary source documents and apply the relevant judgement findings to analyse the implications for the respective countries and for South China Sea maritime boundary disputes. While the judgements of this case set certain legal precedents that may be more easily applied to bilateral disputes, the implications, nevertheless, impinge on multilateral claims as well. To the extent that the Bangladesh-Myanmar ITLOS judgement provides a pathway to third-party, independent, and peaceful resolution to the potentially explosive and escalating tensions in the South China Sea, this paper argues that findings are relevant, but limited.

  12. Floods in Bangladesh and Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For the past month heavy monsoon rains have led to massive flooding in eastern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, which have killed over 500 people and left millions homeless. This false-color image acquired on August 5, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft shows the extent of this flooding. In the upper right-hand corner of the image, the swollen Brahmaputra River runs east to west through the Indian state of Assam. Normally, the river and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines. Moving to the upper left-hand corner, flooding can be seen along the Ganges River in the state of Bihar, India. Both of these rivers flow into Bangladesh along with many others from India and Nepal. Heavy monsoon rains from all across the region have inundated the small country with water this year. Floodwaters have all but covered northeastern Bangladesh, which is usually dry. The Jamuna River, which runs down the center of the country off of the Brahmaputra River, now resembles a narrow lake. Millions of dollars in crops have been destroyed and thousands have been left stranded in their villages or on rafts. Forecasters are warning that flooding could get worse. In the false-color image, land is green, and water is black and dark brown. Clouds appear pink, red and white. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Type 1 diabetes: The Bangladesh perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishwar Azad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common endocrine disorder among children and adolescents in Bangladesh. The latest International Diabetes Federation atlas estimated the incidence of type 1 DM (T1DM in Bangladesh as 4.2 new cases of T1DM/100,000 children (0-14 years/year, in 2013. Diabetes, being a lifelong disease, places a huge burden on the economy of the most densely populated, and resource-poor country of the world. The Diabetic Association of Bangladesh (BADAS, the largest of its kind in the world, provides comprehensive care to the biggest number of diabetics at any one centre and is engaged in advocacy. Although sounding grandiose, it′s aims that ′no diabetic shall die untreated, unfed or unemployed, even if poor′ is pursued with a passion. Recently BADAS has been supported in its endeavor for children and adolescents by two programmes; viz the Changing Diabetes in Children program (a joint initiative of BADAS, the World Diabetes Foundation and Novo Nordisk, and the Life for a Child Programme (LFAC supported by the IDF. Numerous studies from the prosperous countries have demonstrated the incidence of T1DM is increasing. Data from the CDiC clinic at BIRDEM shows a rising trend in patients presenting with classical T1DM. In addition, the pattern of DM is changing.

  14. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  15. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana [Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1999-09-01

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  16. OPPORTUNITIES OF DEVELOPING TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayub CHOWDHURY

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism appeal includes natural places like beaches, eco-parks, lakes, valleys, rivers, islands etc., archeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, picnic spots, forest and wildlife. Bangladesh is a riverine country having attractive panoramic beauty. There are hills, valley, canals, lake, eco-park and mangrove forests, rivers, so many islands and the longest beach in the world. In this country, the scope of nature based tourism, resource based tourism, culture based tourism and eco-tourism is quite evident. Bangladesh is trying hard to develop its tourism industry. Therefore the whole situation deserves to be seen from right perspectives. Role of government is positive since the last twenty years both private and public organizations have come forwarded to attract the local and foreign tourists. The cracks of problem could not identify accurately because of the paucity number of researches and investigations in our country. Developed and organized tourism industry could change the economic condition and contribute a big share in the GDP of Bangladesh. This study will impede the opportunities of developing tourism industry in the light of existing resources.

  17. Applying Natural Sciences to Studying History: Regarding the Example of England and the Industrial Revolution Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Badalian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the previous article of this series we presented a bio-ecological approach to studying history. It was shown that societies from the first civilizations to our days are techno-ecosystems (coenoses and do not differ much from the natural ecosystems of a lake or a forest, which are also restricted by their supplies of food. Historically, a succession of distinctive nestled geo-climatic zones was domesticated as the older ones were exhausted due to growing demographic pressure. In this context, evolution is not synonymous with competition. Cooperation of mutually dependent species is crucial for domesticating a new ecosystem, while at specific moments in its lifecycle, competition intensifies leading to speciation. In this article, we use this concept for analyzing a specific society. We show that the Industrial Revolution was England’s specific adaptation to the limitations of its geo-climatic zone. Timber, the main resource of the pre-industrial age, was essential for ship building and metal smelting. It was abundant in its main rival’s, France’s, geo-climatic habitat, but scarce in deforested England. Using its abundant local resource, coal, in an innovative way, this particular society, just like an emergent biological species, gained an evolutionary edge over its neighbors by opening access to new sources of food. The “workshop of the world” started with export-oriented textile production and ended as the major colonial power of its time. At the start of its rise to supremacy, during the 1805 battle at Trafalgar, Lord Nelson smashed the combined French-Spanish navies using short and light cast-iron cannons. They were much less precise than the long bronze ones favored by Napoleon, but, in the right hands, gave the first taste of industrial might to the England’s foes. Under Britain’s dominance, the 19th century’s Oikumene was completely remade and covered with smokestacks. We show subsequent stages of England

  18. Country report INDONESIA - MFS II EVALUATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, D.C.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Pradhan, M.; Vigh, M.; Groot Bruinderink, M.; Rossum, van I.; Böhnke, L.; Wallaart, K.; Malamas, S.; Berkhout, E.; Ni Wayan Suriasatini,; Sikoki, B.; Ginting, M.B.; Mulia, M.; Ningsih, K.; Pujiastuti, S.; Dwi Andari, B.; Suprobo, N.; Priyahita, W.; Sihombing, R.R.; Rokhmatulloh, S.W.; Rosita, I.; Wieriks, M.; Smidt, H.; Nugroho, K.; Prasetyo, K.; Larastiti, C.; Amir, S.; Sutikno,

    2015-01-01

    This report on Indonesia is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - a synthesis report (cover

  19. Country report INDIA - MFS II EVALUATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R.; Bedi, A.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Ghosh, N.; Goderis, B.; Kumar Yadav, B.; Meesters, A.; Prasad Mohapatra, B.; Rao Sahib, P.; Sethi, S.; Sharma, P.; Srinivasan, S.; Klaver, D.C.; Desalos, C.B.; Hofstede, M.; Wadhwa, S.; Pandey, R.; Madaan, A.; Kalra, A.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Bhargava, S.; Buizer, N.N.; Kishore Das, A.; Wilson Bhatra, R.; Sen, P.; Bulte, E.; Pradhan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report on India is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - Eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - A synthesis report (covering

  20. Country report ETHIOPIA - MFS II EVALUATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R.; Asenso-Okyere, K.; Bahiigwa, G.; Cao, De E.; Eriksen, S.; Jemaneh, S.; Gutu, T.; Hansen, N.; Lutz, C.; Tadesse, G.; Tefera, W.; Yirga, C.; Zerfu, E.; Berg, van der M.; Klaver, D.C.; Jacobs, J.; Hofstede, M.; Ingen, van T.; Getew, H.; Tigabu, A.; Babu, S.; Buizer, N.N.; Desalos, C.B.; Kefyalew, D.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Bulte, E.; Pradhan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report on Ethiopia is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - Eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - A synthesis report (coveri

  1. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  2. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. II. Optical and Near Infrared Star Formation History of the Starburst Cluster NGC 2070 in 30 Doradus

    CERN Document Server

    Cignoni, M; van der Marel, R P; Tosi, M; Zaritsky, D; Anderson, J; Lennon, D J; Aloisi, A; de Marchi, G; Gouliermis, D A; Grebel, E K; Smith, L J; Zeidler, P

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the recent star formation of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the panchromatic imaging survey Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). In this paper we focus on the stars within 20 pc of the center of the massive ionizing cluster of 30 Doradus, NGC 2070. We recovered the star formation history by comparing deep optical and NIR color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with state-of-the-art synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PARSEC models, which include all stellar phases from pre-main sequence to post- main sequence. For the first time in this region we are able to measure the star formation using intermediate and low mass stars simultaneously. Our results suggest that NGC2070 experienced a prolonged activity. In particular, we find that the star formation in the region: i) exceeded the average LMC rate ~ 20 Myr ago; ii) accelerated dramatically ~ 7 Myr ago; and iii) reached a peak value 1-3 Myr ago. We did not find significant deviations from a Kroupa initial mass funct...

  3. Harnessing pluralism for better health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Evans, Timothy G; Standing, Hilary; Mahmud, Simeen

    2013-11-23

    How do we explain the paradox that Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in health and human development, yet its achievements have taken place within a health system that is frequently characterised as weak, in terms of inadequate physical and human infrastructure and logistics, and low performing? We argue that the development of a highly pluralistic health system environment, defined by the participation of a multiplicity of different stakeholders and agents and by ad hoc, diffused forms of management has contributed to these outcomes by creating conditions for rapid change. We use a combination of data from official sources, research studies, case studies of specific innovations, and in-depth knowledge from our own long-term engagement with health sector issues in Bangladesh to lay out a conceptual framework for understanding pluralism and its outcomes. Although we argue that pluralism has had positive effects in terms of stimulating change and innovation, we also note its association with poor health systems governance and regulation, resulting in endemic problems such as overuse and misuse of drugs. Pluralism therefore requires active management that acknowledges and works with its polycentric nature. We identify four key areas where this management is needed: participatory governance, accountability and regulation, information systems, and capacity development. This approach challenges some mainstream frameworks for managing health systems, such as the building blocks approach of the WHO Health Systems Framework. However, as pluralism increasingly defines the nature and the challenge of 21st century health systems, the experience of Bangladesh is relevant to many countries across the world. PMID:24268003

  4. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda

    2015-08-01

    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  5. Bovine Brucellosis: An Epidemiological Study at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchandan Sikder*, AKM Anisur Rahman1, Mohammad Rayhan Faruque, Mohammad Abdul Alim2, Shubhagata Das2, Aungshuman Das Gupta3, Bhajan Chandra Das, Mohammad Inkeyas Uddin4 and Mohammad Abdul Matin Prodhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological survey was conducted to identify probable risk factors and prevalence of brucellosis in commercial and backyard dairy cows at Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 500 milk samples were collected (250 commercial and 250 backyards for Milk Ring Test (MRT. The MRT positive cows were subjected to sera collection and Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and indirect ELISA were done for confirmatory diagnosis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle was 5% (7.6% in commercial and 2.4% in backyard. Significantly higher (P<0.05 prevalence was found in the zero grazing (5.74%, pregnant cows (7.53% and cows with history of retained placenta (7.89% or abortion (5.88% or both (11.76% than non-pregnant (2.68% and without any reproductive disorder (4.44%. A total of 420 farm attendants and owners were interviewed where 93.55 and 99.08% commercial and backyard personnel were found to have no knowledge of brucellosis and 9.67 and 87.77% consumed raw milk and yogurt respectively were highly vulnerable to zoonotic brucellosis. The results showed that brucellosis is widely distributed locally, underscoring the need for further studies including biovar determination.

  6. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 mu g=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 mu g=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100 - 500 mu g=L) in real Bangladesh tube well water

  7. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  8. Marriage and its transition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A U

    1986-01-01

    The author examines developments in marriage patterns in Bangladesh in light of social, cultural, and economic conditions. Previous literature on the subject is used to discuss Muslim marriage, Hindu marriage, child marriage, mate selection and social mobility, and the question of a marriage squeeze. "The analysis presents evidence that the society is experiencing a change in its family formation, mating process and family type. This transition is to some extent towards the characteristics of [the] Western World, but in a poor economy. Part of this transition is due to the effect of modernization and part due to increasing poverty."

  9. Flood characteristics of the Haor area in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Asadusjjaman; Bhattacharya, Biswa

    2013-04-01

    -dimensional model (based on MIKE 21 modelling tool from Danish Hydraulic Institute) for the haors were developed. While the 1D model was calibrated well the calibration of 2D model was an issue due to the non-availability of measured data. The flood extent of the 2D model was calibrated to a limited extent with the remote sensing images. In order to keep the computing load within feasible limits the most-flood prone area of the region, often loosely defined as the deeply flooded area, consisting of about 15 haors was chosen as the model domain. Based on the simulation results corresponding to the 2004 pre-monsoon and monsoon floods the flood propagation within the model domain was studied and the characteristics of rivers (and areas) with fast and slow responses to flood waves were identified. The following three characteristics of a flood hydrograph were considered: i) rising curve gradient ii) flood magnitude ratio (in terms of the average discharge) and iii) time to peak. The parameters were normalised in a scale of 0 to 1 and summed up to compute the normalised flood index. The normalised flood index is an aggregated indicator based on the flood hydrograph characteristics. The spatial and temporal distribution of the index have been studied. Initial studies on climate change indicate substantial impact on the region. Future studies will evolve around making use of remotely sensed data in improving the understanding of the hydro-meteorological characterisation of the area. Keywords: flood characteristics, flood index, Haor, Bangladesh.

  10. Development of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh: a case-control study on risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuza Rifat

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors for developing multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh. METHODS: This case-control study was set in central, district and sub-district level hospitals of rural and urban Bangladesh. Included were 250 multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients as cases and 750 drug susceptible tuberculosis patients as controls. We recruited cases from all three government hospitals treating MDR-TB in Bangladesh during the study period. Controls were selected randomly from those local treatment units that had referred the cases. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and record reviews. Unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Previous treatment history was shown to be the major contributing factor to MDR-TB in univariate analysis. After adjusting for other factors in multivariable analysis, age group "18-25" (OR 1.77, CI 1.07-2.93 and "26-45" (OR 1.72, CI 1.12-2.66, some level of education (OR 1.94, CI 1.32-2.85, service and business as occupation (OR 2.88, CI 1.29-6.44; OR 3.71, CI 1.59-8.66, respectively, smoking history (OR 1.58, CI 0.99-2.5, and type 2 diabetes (OR 2.56 CI 1.51-4.34 were associated with MDR-TB. Previous treatment was not included in the multivariable analysis as it was correlated with multiple predictors. CONCLUSION: Previous tuberculosis treatment was found to be the major risk factor for MDR-TB. This study also identified age 18 to 45 years, some education up to secondary level, service and business as occupation, past smoking status, and type 2 diabetes as comorbid illness as risk factors. National Tuberculosis programme should address these risk factors in MDR-TB control strategy. The integration of MDR-TB control activities with diabetes and tobacco control programmes is needed in Bangladesh.

  11. Social implications of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M Manzurul; Atkins, Peter J; Dunn, Christine E

    2005-11-01

    Besides its toxicity, groundwater arsenic contamination creates widespread social problems for its victims and their families in Bangladesh. There is, for instance, a tendency to ostracise arsenic-affected people, arsenicosis being thought of as a contagious disease. Within the community, arsenic-affected people are barred from social activities and often face rejection, even by their immediate family members. Women with visible arsenicosis symptoms are unable to get married and some affected housewives are divorced by their husbands. Children with symptoms are not sent to school in an effort to hide the problem. This paper employs mainly qualitative methods to interpret people's understandings about the toxic impact of groundwater arsenic poisoning on their social lives. Arsenic-affected patients in southwest Bangladesh were asked to determine their 'own priorities' in measuring arsenic toxicity on their social activities and to explore their perceptions about their own survival strategies. We found that patients' experiences reveal severe negative social impacts, and a sharp difference of perceptions about arsenic and social issues between arsenicosis patients and unaffected people.

  12. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  13. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  14. THE COS/UVES ABSORPTION SURVEY OF THE MAGELLANIC STREAM. II. EVIDENCE FOR A COMPLEX ENRICHMENT HISTORY OF THE STREAM FROM THE FAIRALL 9 SIGHTLINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the Magellanic Stream (MS), a massive gaseous structure in the Local Group that is believed to represent material stripped from the Magellanic Clouds. We use ultraviolet, optical and radio data obtained with HST/COS, VLT/UVES, FUSE, GASS, and ATCA to study metal abundances and physical conditions in the Stream toward the quasar Fairall 9. Line absorption in the MS from a large number of metal ions and from molecular hydrogen is detected in up to seven absorption components, indicating the presence of multi-phase gas. From the analysis of unsaturated S II absorption, in combination with a detailed photoionization model, we obtain a surprisingly high α abundance in the Stream toward Fairall 9 of [S/H] = –0.30 ± 0.04 (0.50 solar). This value is five times higher than what is found along other MS sightlines based on similar COS/UVES data sets. In contrast, the measured nitrogen abundance is found to be substantially lower ([N/H] = –1.15 ± 0.06), implying a very low [N/α] ratio of –0.85 dex. The substantial differences in the chemical composition of MS toward Fairall 9 compared to other sightlines point toward a complex enrichment history of the Stream. We favor a scenario, in which the gas toward Fairall 9 was locally enriched with α elements by massive stars and then was separated from the Magellanic Clouds before the delayed nitrogen enrichment from intermediate-mass stars could set in. Our results support (but do not require) the idea that there is a metal-enriched filament in the Stream toward Fairall 9 that originates in the LMC

  15. THE COS/UVES ABSORPTION SURVEY OF THE MAGELLANIC STREAM. II. EVIDENCE FOR A COMPLEX ENRICHMENT HISTORY OF THE STREAM FROM THE FAIRALL 9 SIGHTLINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Philipp; Fechner, Cora [Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Haus 28, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, D-14476 Golm (Potsdam) (Germany); Fox, Andrew J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wakker, Bart P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ben Bekhti, Nadya [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the Magellanic Stream (MS), a massive gaseous structure in the Local Group that is believed to represent material stripped from the Magellanic Clouds. We use ultraviolet, optical and radio data obtained with HST/COS, VLT/UVES, FUSE, GASS, and ATCA to study metal abundances and physical conditions in the Stream toward the quasar Fairall 9. Line absorption in the MS from a large number of metal ions and from molecular hydrogen is detected in up to seven absorption components, indicating the presence of multi-phase gas. From the analysis of unsaturated S II absorption, in combination with a detailed photoionization model, we obtain a surprisingly high {alpha} abundance in the Stream toward Fairall 9 of [S/H] = -0.30 {+-} 0.04 (0.50 solar). This value is five times higher than what is found along other MS sightlines based on similar COS/UVES data sets. In contrast, the measured nitrogen abundance is found to be substantially lower ([N/H] = -1.15 {+-} 0.06), implying a very low [N/{alpha}] ratio of -0.85 dex. The substantial differences in the chemical composition of MS toward Fairall 9 compared to other sightlines point toward a complex enrichment history of the Stream. We favor a scenario, in which the gas toward Fairall 9 was locally enriched with {alpha} elements by massive stars and then was separated from the Magellanic Clouds before the delayed nitrogen enrichment from intermediate-mass stars could set in. Our results support (but do not require) the idea that there is a metal-enriched filament in the Stream toward Fairall 9 that originates in the LMC.

  16. Development of community based curriculum on ophthalmology for under graduate medical course in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A K; Hussain, A Z M I

    2012-08-01

    The curriculum represents the expression of educational ideas in practice. Ophthalmic education is the corner stone to improve eye care globally. Curriculum needs continuous modification varying in different geographic locations. Though 90% of common conditions are either preventable or curable but emphasis on the common conditions is inadequate. This is a stepwise descriptive study aiming to develop a community based ophthalmology curriculum for undergraduate medical course in Bangladesh conducted during March 2007 to February 2008 at UniSA School of Public Health and Life Sciences, University of South Asia, Banani, Dhaka. Delphi technique, a modified qualitative method was used to accumulate data and reaching a consensus opinion for developing the curriculum. Study approach includes two iterative rounds and finally a workshop. Iteration of round-I was "What are the eye diseases with overall knowledge of their management one MBBS physician should acquire"; followed by a list of eye diseases and topics for expert opinion. The response was collated. Iteration round-II was "How much a MBBS student should have percentage of knowledge, attitude and skills on each topic while being taught". The response was collated and presented to panel of expert ophthalmologists for discussion and validation. In the round-I Delphi, 400 (62%) out to total 641 ophthalmologist were randomly selected dividing in categories (62% in each) of Professor-22, Associate Professor-12, Assistant Professor-26, Consultant-27, ophthalmologists working in NGO-56 and ophthalmologists in private sector-257. Sixty (15%) responded with opinion. In the round-II, 200 (31%) including 60 of round-I, selected randomly but proportionately as before. Forty five (22.5%) responded with opinion. Result collated. The results and opinion of respondents were presented at a workshop attended by 24 (80%), out of 30 invited expert ophthalmic specialists for discussion, criticism, opinion, addition, modification and

  17. Map Service Showing Geologic and Geophysical Data of Bangladesh

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, major faults, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in Bangladesh. This compilation is part of an interim product of the...

  18. Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of Bangladesh (grav8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs and arc labels that hold the Bouguer Gravity anomaly value for contours and type contours of the original map of Bangladesh with the...

  19. Aeromagnetic Anomaly Map of Bangladesh (mag8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs and arc labels that hold the Aeromagnetic anomaly value for contours and type contours of the original map of Bangladesh with the same...

  20. Flooding in Bangladesh under global warming and future flood defence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, M.M.Q. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Inst. for Environmental Studies

    2000-07-01

    Bangladesh is very vulnerable to flooding due to its unique location in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) basins and their hydrological characteristics. On average, annually floods inundate 21 percent area of the country and in exceptional cases, this may exceed 60 per cent. Global warming, due to the enhanced greenhouse effect, is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basins that might ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. Use of climate change scenarios from four General Circulation Models in hydrological models demonstrates substantial increases in peak discharges in the GBM rivers. Therefore, Bangladesh may well experience a larger flooded area and a longer flooding period. The simulated results further indicate that more land could be deeply flooded under future climate change. Bangladesh needs a shift in flood management policy paradigm in the context of global warming in order to reduce increased flood hazards. (orig.)

  1. Weather Impact on Nursery Diseases of Mango Saplings in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. H. Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the period of July 2010 to April 2012 to find out the effect of weather prevalence of seedling diseases ofmango in different areas of Bangladesh. The locations were Mymensingh Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari. Altogether 12 nurseries in fourdistricts of Bangladesh were surveyed and mango seedling diseases were recorded. Incidence and severity of important seedling diseases ofhas been studied under different geographical locations (viz. Mymensingh, Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari of Bangladesh. The effects oftemperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on the incidence and severity of noted diseases were observed the aforesaid locations of Bangladesh.The studied diseases were anthracnose, leaf spot, red rust, powdery mildew, scab, bacterial leaf blight and malformation of mango seedlings.The graphs of weather parameters and incidence and severity of diseases were performed to determine the relationship between differentcomponents of climatic factor and seedling diseases of mango.

  2. Epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and domestic ruminants in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, AKM Anisur

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world’s most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting both, public health and animal production. It is endemic in many developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America including Bangladesh. Since the first report in 1970, a lot of brucellosis seroprevalence reports are available in cattle, goats, sheep and humans in Bangladesh. Most of the previously reported prevalence studies were based on non-random samples, which may not give a tr...

  3. Analyzing The Factors For Rejection Of Leather In Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md.Farhad Ali; Umme Habiba Bodrun Naher; Md Mahamudul Hasan; Md.Shakil Nawze; Shahanama Ferdous

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Leather plays a vital role in earning the foreign currency for Bangladesh. Export of finished leather and leather products have an important impact on the economy of Bangladesh. Mainly cow goat sheep and buffalo leathers are produced in this country. Different defects of leather due to numerous numbers of diseases of animals of poor management of people deteriorate the quality of leather which has negative impact in this sector. This paper analyses the magnitude and category of major...

  4. Aspects of microfinance system of Grameen Bank of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Jamal; Mohajan, Haradhan; Datta, Rajib

    2012-01-01

    The microfinance system of Grameen Bank is a revolutionary tool to eradicate poverty of the rural people especially the women of Bangladesh. At present GB is the largest microfinance bank in Bangladesh and probably the biggest microcredit organization in the world. It provides loans to assetless and landless poor people whom no commercial bank give loan. Microcredit is the most useful and popular financial system in the world to face financial crisis of the poor people. Grameen Bank loan dist...

  5. State of Governance in Bangladesh: Problems and Prospects.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Sayed Javed

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems and issues on the political failures in Bangladesh as well as identifies some possible solutions. The approach here is analytical mostly reviewing current news, reports and other related materials. A comparative study is also done between the present and proposed system to get a quick glimpse on the overall situation. The idea here is to seek out reasonable and practical solutions that would yield better result for Bangladesh and bring about positive changes ...

  6. Potential of Wind and Solar Electricity Generation in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Swapan Kumar Roy; Himangshu Ranjan Ghosh; Mohammad Nasirul Hoque; Sanjoy Kumar Nandi

    2012-01-01

    Wind and solar energies are the alternative energy sources that can be used to supplement the conventional energy sources particularly in Bangladesh. In this work, the aim is to assess the current wind and solar energy potential in Bangladesh. The wind data for the five stations obtained from Local Government Engineering Department have been assessed, but only two of them seem to be eligible for energy production. Annual average, monthly average, and hourly average wind speeds and wind power ...

  7. JOB SATISFACTION AND RELATED CHARACTERISTICS OF BANGLADESH AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY GRADUATES

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, A. Rashid; Ahmad, Muzaffer

    1992-01-01

    This article is intended to focus on the extent of job satisfaction and its relationship with other characteristics of Bangladesh agricultural University (BAU) graduates in Bangladesh labour market. Further, it aims at exploring important characteristics which have influence on job satisfaction- of BAU graduates. The related characteristics include age, place of birth, year of graduation, highest degree, academic excellence, place of posting, professional training, publications, length of ser...

  8. Tracing the Poverty Impact of Market Reforms in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Mohammad Jahangir; Bhuiyan, Nazmul; Begum, Ismat Ara; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyse the impact of market reforms on poverty in Bangladesh. To estimate the poverty impact at household level, a binary logit model has been estimated with two latest waves of household income and expenditure data from Bangladesh. The results show that a significant improvement has been made in reducing poverty in the recent decades. As a net importing country, liberalization might has direct impact on household’s real income through the changes of real rice prices. The results a...

  9. Female labour force participation in Bangladesh : trends, drivers and barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Rushidan I; Islam, Rizwanul

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the stylized implications of the U-shaped hypothesis, there has been an increase in female labour force participation in Bangladesh, alongside the acceleration in economic growth since the 1990s. In this regard, Bangladesh has witnessed a substantial increase in female employment in labour- intensive export-oriented industries in urban areas. The study also finds that the rapid expansion of micro-finance in rural areas has supported women’s employment. However, the economy in g...

  10. Causes of Maternal Mortality Decline in Matlab, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Kalim, Nahid; Koblinsky, Marge

    2009-01-01

    Bangladesh is distinct among developing countries in achieving a low maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 322 per 100,000 livebirths despite the very low use of skilled care at delivery (13% nationally). This variation has also been observed in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, where longitudinal data on maternal mortality are available since the mid-1970s. The current study investigated the possible causes of the maternal mortality decline in Matlab. The study analyzed 769 maternal deaths and...

  11. Existing and Expected Service Quality of Grameenphone Users in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Azmat Ullah; Md. Hasebur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The Grameenphone (GP) is a market leader in the telecommunication industry in Bangladesh. This study investigates the existing and expected service quality of Grameenphone users in Bangladesh. The Study reveals that there are significant gap between existing and expected perceived service network, 3G, customer care, physical facilities, billing cost, information service, mobile banking and GP offers. The study concludes that customer satisfaction is a dynamic phenomenon. Maintaining...

  12. Tourism in Bangladesh: Present Status and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Chandra Roy; Mallika Roy

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh is full of natural beauty. Rivers, coasts and beaches, archaeological sites, religious places, hills, forests, waterfalls, tea gardens surround it. The Sundarban, Historic Mosque in city of Bagerhat, Ruins of the Buddihist Vihara at Paharpur are the three world heritage sites in Bangladesh among 1007. To observe the beauty of nature, huge amount of domestic and foreign tourists visit the country and its tourist attraction sites. In 2012, around six-lakh (6 hundred thousand) tourist...

  13. Prevalence and correlates of smokeless tobacco consumption among married women in rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakhawat Hossain

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of smokeless tobacco consumption among married rural women with a history of at least one pregnancy in Madaripur, Bangladesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey using an interviewer administered, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. All women living in the study area, aged 18 years and above with at least one pregnancy in their lifetime, who were on the electoral roll and agreed to participate were included in the study. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and smokeless tobacco consumption was collected. Smokeless tobacco consumption was categorized as 'Current', 'Ever but not current' and 'Never'. Associations between smokeless tobacco consumption and the explanatory variables were estimated using simple and multiple binary logistic regression. RESULTS: 8074 women participated (response rate 99.9%. The prevalence of 'Current consumption', 'Ever consumption but not current', and 'Never consumption' was 25%, 44% and 31%, respectively. The mean age at first use was 31.5 years. 87% of current consumers reported using either Shadapata or Hakimpuree Jarda. Current consumption was associated with age, level of education, religion, occupation, being an income earner, marital status, and age at first use of smokeless tobacco. After adjustment for demographic variables, current consumption was associated with being over 25 years of age, a lower level of education, being an income earner, being Muslim, and being divorced, separated or widowed. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption is high among rural women in Bangladesh and the age of onset is considerably older than that for smoking. Smokeless tobacco consumption is likely to be producing a considerable burden of non-communicable disease in Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco control strategies should be implemented.

  14. MEASURING THE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector has been playing a significant role in achieving the economic growth of Bangladesh, where contribution of Islamic Banking Sector is remarkable. Islamic Banking Sector shows a substantial growth position in Bangladesh. Customer satisfaction is the most significant affecting phenomenon in determining the banking growth. Thus, this study attempts to measure the existing level of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banks in Bangladesh, using the Structural Equation Model (SEM. This study uses the 22 dimensions of customer satisfaction which used in the earlier studies in different countries for measuring the customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector. A total of 385 samples have been taken from six full pledged Islamic Banks in Bangladesh. It reveals form the study that Human Resources and Systemization Service Delivery is the strongest indicator of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh followed by Core Product, Service Capability and Social Responsibility. The findings therefore, may be helpful for policy-makers of banking authorities who have been making serious endeavor to sustain the growth of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh.

  15. Molecular dating of HIV-1 subtype C from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontell, Irene; Sarker, Md Safiullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Afrad, Mokibul Hassan; Sönnerborg, Anders; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has an overall low HIV prevalence of Bangladesh and related strains from other countries, and thereby clarify when and from where subtype C was introduced in the country and how it subsequently spread within Bangladesh. The phylogenetic analysis included 118 Bangladeshi gag sequences and 128 sequences from other countries and was performed using the BEAST package. Our analysis revealed that the vast majority of Bangladeshi sequences (97/118, 82%) fall into a large regional cluster of samples from Bangladesh, India, China and Myanmar, which dates back to the early 1960's. Following its establishment in the region, this strain has entered Bangladesh multiple times from around 1975 and onwards, but extensive in-country transmission could only be detected among drug users and not through sexual transmission. In addition, there have been multiple (at least ten) introductions of subtype C to Bangladesh from outside this region, but no extensive spread could be detected for any of these. Since many HIV-infections remain undetected while asymptomatic, the true extent of the transmission of each strain remains unknown, especially among hard to reach groups such as clients of sex workers and returning migrants with families.

  16. Reactive transport modeling of subsurface arsenic removal systems in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Bakker, M; Patty, C H L; Hassan, Z; Röling, W F M; Ahmed, K M; van Breukelen, B M

    2015-12-15

    Subsurface Arsenic Removal (SAR) is a technique for in-situ removal of arsenic from groundwater. Extracted groundwater is aerated and re-injected into an anoxic aquifer, where the oxygen in the injected water reacts with ferrous iron in the aquifer to form hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Subsequent extraction of groundwater contains temporarily lower As concentrations, because As sorbs onto the HFO. Injection, storage, and extraction together is called a cycle. A reactive transport model (RTM) was developed in PHREEQC to determine the hydrogeochemical processes responsible for As (im)mobilization during experimental SAR operation performed in Bangladesh. Oxidation of Fe(II) and As(III) were modeled using kinetic-rate expressions. Cation exchange, precipitation of HFO, and surface complexation, were modeled as equilibrium processes. A best set of surface complexation reactions and corresponding equilibrium constants was adopted from previous studies to simulate all 20 cycles of a SAR experiment. The model gives a reasonable match with observed concentrations of different elements in the extracted water (e.g., the r(2) value of As was 0.59 or higher). As concentrations in the extracted water are governed by four major processes. First, As concentration decreases in response to the elevated pH of injection water and likewise increases when native neutral pH groundwater flows in. Second, the sorption capacity for As increases due to the gradual buildup of HFO. Third, As sorption is enhanced by preferential removal of As(V). Fourth, competitive sorption of Si limits the capacity of freshly precipitated HFO for As sorption. Transferability of the developed reactive transport model was demonstrated through successful application of the model, without further calibration, to two additional SAR sites in Bangladesh. This gives confidence that the model could be useful to assess potential SAR performance at locations in Bangladesh based on local hydrogeochemical conditions. PMID

  17. Reactive transport modeling of subsurface arsenic removal systems in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Bakker, M; Patty, C H L; Hassan, Z; Röling, W F M; Ahmed, K M; van Breukelen, B M

    2015-12-15

    Subsurface Arsenic Removal (SAR) is a technique for in-situ removal of arsenic from groundwater. Extracted groundwater is aerated and re-injected into an anoxic aquifer, where the oxygen in the injected water reacts with ferrous iron in the aquifer to form hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Subsequent extraction of groundwater contains temporarily lower As concentrations, because As sorbs onto the HFO. Injection, storage, and extraction together is called a cycle. A reactive transport model (RTM) was developed in PHREEQC to determine the hydrogeochemical processes responsible for As (im)mobilization during experimental SAR operation performed in Bangladesh. Oxidation of Fe(II) and As(III) were modeled using kinetic-rate expressions. Cation exchange, precipitation of HFO, and surface complexation, were modeled as equilibrium processes. A best set of surface complexation reactions and corresponding equilibrium constants was adopted from previous studies to simulate all 20 cycles of a SAR experiment. The model gives a reasonable match with observed concentrations of different elements in the extracted water (e.g., the r(2) value of As was 0.59 or higher). As concentrations in the extracted water are governed by four major processes. First, As concentration decreases in response to the elevated pH of injection water and likewise increases when native neutral pH groundwater flows in. Second, the sorption capacity for As increases due to the gradual buildup of HFO. Third, As sorption is enhanced by preferential removal of As(V). Fourth, competitive sorption of Si limits the capacity of freshly precipitated HFO for As sorption. Transferability of the developed reactive transport model was demonstrated through successful application of the model, without further calibration, to two additional SAR sites in Bangladesh. This gives confidence that the model could be useful to assess potential SAR performance at locations in Bangladesh based on local hydrogeochemical conditions.

  18. Informal allopathic provider knowledge and practice regarding hypertension in urban and rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Parr

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Describe informal allopathic practitioner (IAP knowledge and practice about management of hypertension and identify gaps in IAP knowledge and practice amenable to interventions. METHODS: A cross sectional descriptive survey of 642 IAPs in Kamalapur (urban and Mirsarai (rural Bangladesh was conducted from March to April, 2011. Using a structured, pre-tested questionnaire sociodemographic, training, knowledge and practice data about management of hypertension was collected. Comparative statistics were preformed to show differences between urban and rural practitioners using SAS 8.0. FINDINGS: 99.4% of IAPs were male, mean age was 37.5 (12.5 SD years. Greater than 65% correctly identified the upper limit of normal blood pressure. 50.2% underestimated lower limit of systolic hypertension. 79.8% allowed age to affect their treatment approach. As blood pressure increased, willingness to treat with medication decreased and tendency to refer increased. Sedative/sleeping pills, antidepressants, and beta blockers were the most commonly prescribed medications for prehypertension (58.7%, 50.3% and 53.7% respectively, stage I hypertension (55.0%, 38.6%, 49.8% respectively and stage II hypertension (42.4%, 23.7%, and 28.8% respectively. Rural IAPs were more likely than urban IAPs to treat (84.7% vs 77.7%, order tests (27.1% vs 6.0% and write prescriptions (60.4% vs 18.7%. CONCLUSION: While IAPs are crucial to Bangladesh's pluralistic healthcare system, gaps in knowledge and practice could cause unnecessary harm. To include IAPs in the public sector's fight against the chronic disease epidemic, interventions aimed at standardizing IAPs knowledge and practice will be essential. Successfully utilizing IAPs will have beneficial implications not only for Bangladesh, but for all developing countries.

  19. Past and future flooding in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Hopson, Thomas; Simmer, Clemens; Simon, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Currently, an average of about 20 % of the land surface in Bangladesh is flooded each year, affecting one of the most densely populated regions in the world. We aim to understand the processes currently determining flooding in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin, in particular the role of precipitation and sea-level rise, as well as to assess how climate change might impact flood characteristics in the future. Water level and discharge data were provided by the Bangladesh Water Development Board on a daily basis for a period of 1909-2009. Monthly maps based on daily sea level anomalies from the Data Unification Altimeter Combination System DUACS are available on a 0.25° by 0.25° grid for the time period 1993-2014. Ensemble model output for upper catchment precipitation and annual mean thermosteric sea-level rise is taken from historical and RCP scenario runs conducted with the CCSM4. We first analyzed daily water levels of the past 100 years in order to detect potential shifts in extremes. The available observations are then used to set up a generalized linear model to detect how precipitation influences flooding in the GBM basin. This model can then be used to give a prognosis on changes in future flooding. Our analysis suggests that water levels have indeed changed over the course of the past century. While the magnitude and duration of average flood events decreased, the frequency of extreme flood events has increased. Low water levels have also changed, with a significant decrease in the annual minimum water level most noticeable when we compare the time periods 1909-1939 and 1979-2009. For the future, first results confirm the decrease in return periods of strong flood events found in previous studies. The impact of climate change on flooding will also be compared to the impact of man-made structures such as Farakka barrage, built across the Ganges on the border between India and Bangladesh and operating since 1975. This is of particular interest as

  20. Changing Climate; Bangladesh Facing the Challenge of Severe Flood Problems; A Comparison of Flood Management between Bangladesh and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    BISWAS, KALLOL KUMAR

    2010-01-01

    Both Bangladesh and the Netherlands are the most flood prone countries in two continents Asia and Europe. Bangladesh is known to be highly vulnerable to floods. Frequent floods have put enormous constraints on its development potential. Unfortunately, the frequency of high intensity floods is increasing every year. So far the country has struggled to put a sizeable infrastructure in place to prevent flooding in many parts of the country with limited success. Where, the Netherlands has develop...

  1. Hazardous Consequences of Polygamy, Contraceptives and Number of Childs on cervical cancer in a low incoming country: Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed ASADUZZAMAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the one of the most alarming disease among female in the low incoming country like Bangladesh. The societies of Bangladesh are conservative because of lacking education and consciousness. The information on Bangladeshi female’s cervical cancer factors is not available. Purpose: To retrieve the associations among the factors with cervical cancer and to raise awareness among the women of society. Methods: A case-control study has been acquitted on 426 participants of both patients and non-patients from February 2014 till July 2014. Through a precise questionnaire based on former study the whole data collection process done. For analyzing of data some tasks like binary logistic regression, odds ratio, crosstabs and p-value tests have executed. Results: Factors like First sex at the age below 16, Lack of knowledge about cervical cancer, number of children above 3, STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection affection, previous cervical cancer history are founded highly significant on the other hand oral contraception taken, contraception used and vaccine taken factors are significantly lower than the previous factors. Conclusions: The analysis would help to predict the risk factors of the cervical cancer and may help to diminish the cancer not only from Bangladesh but all over the world.

  2. Bangladesh, a state at permanent flood risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, J.U. [Bangladesh Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Inst. of Flood Control and Drainage Research

    2000-07-01

    Bangladesh is in a setting of large floodplain-delta complex at the junctions of three large rivers the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna. Flood is an annual phenomenon here. Flood proofing was the strategy of flood management in ancient times. Major flood control projects started in the country 36 years ago. These projects have prevented normal floods, but not been able to reduce the risk of larger floods, rather caused increased flood risk in many areas. In view of social and environmental consequences of these projects, flood management policy has been changed a number of times. As per recent change, instead of new flood control project, flood proofing would be encouraged in rural areas. (orig.)

  3. Radon measurements in some areas in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Khan, M.A. [Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 164, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: hamidkhan1950@yahoo.com; Chowdhury, M.S. [Physics Department, Dhaka University, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2008-08-15

    A survey of radon level measurements using CR-39 has been carried out in some of urban and rural residential areas and one gas explosion area in Bangladesh. The lowest level of radon concentration was found to be 49Bqm{sup -3} inside a hospital in Cox's Bazar district and the highest level was found to be 835Bqm{sup -3} inside a mud-made old residential house in Sylhet city. It was observed that old residential houses were found to have higher levels of radon concentrations compared to newly built houses. The radon level at the gas explosion area at Magurchara in Moulvibazar district was found to be 408{+-}98Bqm{sup -3}.

  4. Rural Development Policy and Administrative Patterns in Bangladesh : A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Taufiqul Islam; 大森, 賢一; Yoshizuka, Tohru

    2005-01-01

    The study examines the current framework implementation of rural development policy and administrative pattern in Bangladesh. Majority of the people in Bangladesh live in rural areas where problems of unemployment, inequality and poverty are common. Bangladesh has been undertaking rural development programs both at the government and non-government organizational levels. However, within the existing framework, rural development policies and poverty reduction programs in Bangladesh have been u...

  5. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, N

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by this industry, impacts of implementation of various international trade rules on the apparel industry, consequences of Bangladesh's attempts to enter in bilateral and regional free trade agreements...

  6. Pond Fish Production Through People's Participation in Rural Bangladesh 【Article】

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Masudul Hoq; Maharjan, Keshav Lall

    2001-01-01

    Aquaculture is currently responsible for a significant proportion of total fish production in Bangladesh. Fish is the main animal sources of protein for the rural people of Bangladesh. However,given increasing demand for fish, the per capita production of fish is declining. The present studyhighlights the development of fresh water pond fish culture through grassroots level organization inBangladesh. The study was conducted in rural area of Bangladesh. The result of the study reveals that,man...

  7. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Solar Irrigation Plants Installed in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmul Hoque

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the summer season, irrigation sector in Bangladesh suffers a lot due to the country wide electricity crisis. Solar pump offers a clean and simple alternative to the conventional fuel fired engine or grid electricity driven pump in this regard to resolve the issue. In this paper, the techno-economic analyses of solar irrigation plants installed in Bangladesh are evaluated.  It was observed that systems were running around 70% to 80% of the rated power which was quite acceptable. A 10 hp pump was able to pump 600 liter of water per minute which was also satisfactory to irrigate the land. Average operating time was found to be 8 hour/day. It was found that the overall efficiency of the systems were in between 11.39% to 16.52% whereas the typical average value of lit/Wp/year was 9200. On the other hand, the cost of irrigation to cultivate paddy in 0.161 hectares’ land for one season was 1,750 BDT by solar irrigation which was found to be lower than that of other available modes. This charge for grid electricity based irrigation was about 3,000 to 3500 BDT per 0.161 hectares’ and 2,300 to 2,600 BDT per 0.161 hectares’ for diesel engine based irrigation. According to the current financial scheme (15% equity investment, 35% credit support and remaining 50% from government through IDCOL the average value of payback period was 5.43 years, NPV in the range from 7 to 15% and IRR was 18%. By considering 100% equity investment, however, these projects were not economically attractive. The payback period for this case was about 18 years. Study also revealed that each solar irrigation plant reduces 42.8 kg of CO2 emission per day compare to diesel engine operated pump and 2566.24 kg/day compared to grid electricity operated pump. A comprehensive effort from the Government as well as from all the stakeholders is required for further expansion of solar irrigation plants in Bangladesh. Article History: Received Sept 05, 2015; Received in revised form

  8. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER — RESULTS OF PROTOTYPE FIELD TESTS IN BANGLADESH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowolik, K; Addy, S.E.A.; Gadgil, A.

    2009-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 50 million people in Bangladesh drink arsenic-laden water, making it the largest case of mass poisoning in human history. Many methods of arsenic removal (mostly using chemical adsorbents) have been studied, but most of these are too expensive and impractical to be implemented in poor countries such as Bangladesh. This project investigates ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) as an affordable means of removing arsenic. Experiments were performed on site in Bangladesh using a prototype termed “sushi”. This device consists of carbon steel sheets that serve as electrodes wrapped into a cylinder, separated by plastic mesh and surrounded by a tube-like container that serves as a holding cell in which the water is treated electrochemically. During the electrochemical process, current is applied to both electrodes causing iron to oxidize to various forms of iron (hydr)oxides. These species bind to arsenic(V) with very high affi nity. ECAR also has the advantage that As(III), the more toxic form of arsenic, oxidizes to As(V) in situ. Only As(V) is known to complex with iron (hydr)oxides. One of the main objectives of this research is to demonstrate the ability of the new prototype to reduce arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh groundwater from >200 ppb to below the WHO limit of 10 ppb. In addition, varying fl ow rate and dosage and the effect on arsenic removal was investigated. Experiments showed that ECAR reduced Bangladeshi water with an initial arsenic concentration as high as 250 ppb to below 10 ppb. ECAR proved to be effective at dosages as high as 810 Coulombs/Liter (C/L) and as low as 386 C/L (current 1 A, voltage 12 V). These results are encouraging and provide great promise that ECAR is an effi cient method in the remediation of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. A preliminary investigation of arsenic removal trends with varying Coulombic dosage, complexation time and fi ltration methods is

  9. Contribution of Sediment Compaction/Loading to the Ganges-Bangladesh Delta Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpytchev, Mikhail; Krien, Yann; Ballu, Valerie; Becker, Melanie; Calmant, Stephane; Spada, Giorgio; Guo, Junyi; Khan, Zahirul; Shum, Ck

    2016-04-01

    A pronounced spatial variability characterizes the subsidence/uplift rates in the Ganges-Bangladesh delta estimated from both sediment cores and modern geodetic techniques. The large variability of the subsidence rates suggests an interplay of different natural and anthropogenic processes including tectonics, sediment loading and sediment compaction, groundwater extaction among many others drivers of the delta vertical land movements.In this study, we focus on estimating the subsidence rates due to the sediments transported by the Ganges-Brahmaputra since the last 18 000 years. The delta subsidence induced by the sediment loading and the resulting sea level changes are modelled by the TABOO and SELEN software (Spada, 2003; Stocchi and Spada, 2007) in the framework of a gravitationally self-consistent Earth model. The loading history was obtained from available sediment cores and from the isopach map of Goodbread and Kuehl (2000). The results demonstrate that the delta loading enhanced by the Holocene sedimention can be responsable for a regular subsidence across the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta with an amplitude of 1-5 mm/yr along the Bengal coast. These estimates demonstrate that the contribution of the Holocene as well as modern sediment loading should be taken into account in climate change mitigation politicy for Bangladesh.

  10. Community-based cross-sectional seroprevalence study of hepatitis A in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samir K Saha; Setarunnahar Saha; Salim Shakur; Mohammed Hanif; Md Ahsan Habib; Sanjoy K Datta; Hans L Bock

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the age-distribution of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence across different socioeconomic status (SES) categories in Bangladesh which,despite scarce data, is generally deemed to have high endemicity.METHODS: Blood samples of 818 subjects from a strati-fied sample of schools and hospitals, comprising different age categories and SES were collected. They were assayed for total anti-HAV antibodies. Social and medical history data were obtained using a questionnaire.RESULTS: Overall anti-HAV seroprevalence was 69.6%, increasing with age from 1-5 years (40.4%) to > 30 years (98.4%). Seroprevalence was lowest (49.8%) in the high SES group and highest (96.5%) in the rural lower-middle SES group. Among subjects aged 6-20 years, anti-HAV seroprevalence was lowest in urban private school children (43.0%), followed by urban government school children (76.2%) and rural school children (96.5%) ( P < 0.01). Within the high SES group, anti-HAV seroprevalence was 32.3% in subjects < 10 years and 51.7% in those aged 11-20 years. Until now Bangladesh has been deemed to have high endemicity for HAV.CONCLUSION: The transition from high to intermediate HAV endemicity may be underway; high SES adolescents and adults remain particularly at risk of symptomatic illness. Preventive measures need consideration.

  11. Changes in Cyclone Pattern with Climate Change Perspective in the Coastal Regions of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Masud Rana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has started to alter the way how climatic events take place on the earth. Occurrence and distribution of extreme climatic events are now more frequent and undoubtedly Bangladesh is experiencing the effects of climate change among which the extreme events manifest in a more evident and devastating way. This paper aims at eliciting evidences of the effect of climate change on the characteristics of cyclones of this region.   Recent histories of cyclones that formed at the Bay of Bengal and made landfall on the coasts of Bangladesh, ranging from 1795 to 2009, were studied. Frequency of the cyclones has shown an increasing trend along with their intensity. Frequency of weaker cyclones is decreasing and although intensity of the weaker storm is rising, they are rising at a greater rate for the stronger storms and hence there will be large differences among the intensity of the future cyclones. Storm surges show a positive correlation with the intensity of the storms hence greater storm surges can be expected in the future. Storms tracks seem to remain unaltered for a long tract of time. These analyses implicate the necessity to decelerate climate change and also increase awareness among the highly dense population of the coastal regions of the developing countries to reduce damages due to such extreme events.

  12. A critical review and database of biomass and volume allometric equation for trees and shrubs of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, H.; Siddique, M. R. H.; Akhter, M.

    2016-08-01

    Estimations of biomass, volume and carbon stock are important in the decision making process for the sustainable management of a forest. These estimations can be conducted by using available allometric equations of biomass and volume. Present study aims to: i. develop a compilation with verified allometric equations of biomass, volume, and carbon for trees and shrubs of Bangladesh, ii. find out the gaps and scope for further development of allometric equations for different trees and shrubs of Bangladesh. Key stakeholders (government departments, research organizations, academic institutions, and potential individual researchers) were identified considering their involvement in use and development of allometric equations. A list of documents containing allometric equations was prepared from secondary sources. The documents were collected, examined, and sorted to avoid repetition, yielding 50 documents. These equations were tested through a quality control scheme involving operational verification, conceptual verification, applicability, and statistical credibility. A total of 517 allometric equations for 80 species of trees, shrubs, palm, and bamboo were recorded. In addition, 222 allometric equations for 39 species were validated through the quality control scheme. Among the verified equations, 20%, 12% and 62% of equations were for green-biomass, oven-dried biomass, and volume respectively and 4 tree species contributed 37% of the total verified equations. Five gaps have been pinpointed for the existing allometric equations of Bangladesh: a. little work on allometric equation of common tree and shrub species, b. most of the works were concentrated on certain species, c. very little proportion of allometric equations for biomass estimation, d. no allometric equation for belowground biomass and carbon estimation, and d. lower proportion of valid allometric equations. It is recommended that site and species specific allometric equations should be developed and

  13. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by

  14. Establishment of an Indirect Genetic Transformation Method for Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulbul AHMED

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, which is adopted as a model plant for genetic research. Agrobacterium tumifaciensmediated transformation method for A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh was established. Leaf discs of A. thaliana were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing chimeric nos. nptII. nos and intron-GUS genes. Following inoculation and co-cultivation, leaf discs were cultured on selection medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin + 50 mg/l cefotaxime + 1.5 mg/l NAA and kanamycin resistant shoots were induced from the leaf discs after two weeks. Shoot regeneration was achieved after transferring the tissues onto fresh medium of the same combination. Finally, the shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin. Incorporation and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis. Using this protocol, transgenic A. thaliana plants can be obtained and indicates that genomic transformation in higher plants is possible through insertion of desired gene. Although Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation is established for A. thaliana, this study was the conducted to transform A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh.

  15. ADDRESSING RATIONAL PRESCRIBERS THROUGH THE PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS COURSE WORK OF MBBS SYLLABUS IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdus Salam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacology is most rapidly expanding science in medical discipline which leads to the development of many important drugs to treat many medical conditions that was previously untreatable. This paper focuses on the necessity of integration of pharmacology in the medical curriculum in all clinical phases and ethical aspects of medicine in terms of irrational prescribing. Irrational prescribing of drugs is a major global health problem in medical practice. Currently Pharmacology is taught at phase-II, a 2 year period in a 5 years undergraduate medical Programme in Bangladesh under the name ‘Pharmacology and Therapeutics’. Indiscriminate use of clinically inappropriate and ineffective medicines are a serious problem. Medicines in Bangladesh are inappropriately prescribed, again all kinds of drugs including controlled products are dispensed and sold out frequently without prescription. Henceforth there are regular violation of medical ethics and professionalism. As only pharmacology and therapeutics deals with the correct selection of drugs, the subject should be continued to teach up to phase-III. In addition, therapeutic discussion should be incorporated with proper logbook during internship in order to make safe and efficient prescribers. Supreme priority should be given to legal and ethical aspects of medicine. Medical professionals must uphold social order by ensuring ethical practices of medicine and appropriate role modelling especially by the faculty.

  16. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  17. Tesettür Tartışmalarının Dünü: II. Meşrutiyet Dönemi History Of Controversies Over Veil: Era Of Constitutional Monarchy II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek ÖKSÜZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, discussions over tesettur ( the umbrella term for hijabin Turkey is not only an issue of the recent history. The issue which isalmost as old as Turkish Modernization History has been brought toTurks' agenda through various issues for almost one and a halfcenturies. One of the goals under Westernisation was to have womenparticipate in social life and to increase their educational and culturallevel. In this context, the discussions starting in a narrow field as ofTanzimat Reforms, appeared in every platform with the freedom of 2ndConstitutional Monarchy. It is important to lay the discussion on thetable in terms of knowing the historical course of tesettur and realizingissue on solid grounds. Because, the participation of women in sociallife and tesettur issue which was considered as a means of thisparticipation give some clues in terms of understanding the problemswhich the supporters of Modernization encountered in the OttomanState and Turkey. Ultimately, although Modernization was consideredas an initiative limited to science and technology at first, the attitude ofthe religion and the culture was placed in the centre of the discussionin further stages inevitably. The tension that appeared at this pointestablished the historical dialectic of Modernization efforts.Modernization and religious-cultural protectionism, which expressedthemselves through women and women clothes, discussed the incidentshappened during the course of the participation of women in social lifeunder the framework of conflicts between Modernization anddegeneration. In a short time, the issue slipped onto a discussionground whose most powerful dimension was religion. That's why, withthis dimension tesettur issue gives certain clues as to some radicaldiscussions about the social life steering aspect of the religion at thebeginning of 20th century while its other dimension is about womenclothes and related habits and the efforts to change them. The parts ofthe issue

  18. A history of the Water Resources Branch of the United States Geological Survey: vol. II, years of increasing cooperation, July 1, 1919 to June 30, 1928

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follansbee, Robert

    1953-01-01

    This volume of the History of the Water Resources Branch of the United States Geological Survey by Robert Follansbee covers the period from July 1, 1919, to June 30, 1928. In conformity with the practice

  19. Determinants of drinking arsenic-contaminated tubewell water in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M H; Aklimunnessa, Khandoker; Kabir, M; Mori, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    Bangladesh has already experienced the biggest catastrophe in the world due to arsenic contamination of drinking water. This study investigates the association of drinking arsenic-contaminated water (DACW) with both personal and household characteristics of 9116 household respondents using the household data of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2004. Here DACW means that arsenic level in the drinking water is greater than the permissible limit (50 microg/l) of Bangladesh. The overall rate of DACW was 7.9%. It was found to be significantly associated with education, currently working, and division of Bangladesh, either by cross tabulation or multivariate logistic regression analyses or both. Similarly, household characteristics -- namely television, bicycle, materials of the wall and floor, total family members, number of sleeping rooms, and availability of foods -- were significantly associated in bivariate analyses. Many household characteristics -- namely electricity, television, wall and floor materials, and number of sleeping rooms -- revealed significant association in the logistic regression analysis when adjusted for age, education and division. This study indicates that respondents from Chittagong division and lower socio-economic groups (indicated by household characteristics) are at significantly higher risk of DACW. These findings should be taken into account during the planning of future intervention activities in Bangladesh.

  20. The environment associated with significant tornadoes in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikos, Dan; Finch, Jonathan; Case, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the environmental parameters favoring significant tornadoes in Bangladesh through a simulation of ten high-impact events. A climatological perspective is first presented on classifying significant tornadoes in Bangladesh, noting the challenges since reports of tornadoes are not documented in a formal manner. The statistical relationship between United States and Bangladesh tornado-related deaths suggests that significant tornadoes do occur in Bangladesh so this paper identifies the most significant tornadic events and analyzes the environmental conditions associated with these events. Given the scarcity of observational data to assess the near-storm environment in this region, high-resolution (3-km horizontal grid spacing) numerical weather prediction simulations are performed for events identified to be associated with a significant tornado. In comparison to similar events over the United States, significant tornado environments in Bangladesh are characterized by relatively high convective available potential energy, sufficient deep-layer vertical shear, and a propensity for deviant (i.e., well to the right of the mean flow) storm motion along a low-level convergence boundary.

  1. Determinants of drinking arsenic-contaminated tubewell water in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M H; Aklimunnessa, Khandoker; Kabir, M; Mori, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    Bangladesh has already experienced the biggest catastrophe in the world due to arsenic contamination of drinking water. This study investigates the association of drinking arsenic-contaminated water (DACW) with both personal and household characteristics of 9116 household respondents using the household data of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2004. Here DACW means that arsenic level in the drinking water is greater than the permissible limit (50 microg/l) of Bangladesh. The overall rate of DACW was 7.9%. It was found to be significantly associated with education, currently working, and division of Bangladesh, either by cross tabulation or multivariate logistic regression analyses or both. Similarly, household characteristics -- namely television, bicycle, materials of the wall and floor, total family members, number of sleeping rooms, and availability of foods -- were significantly associated in bivariate analyses. Many household characteristics -- namely electricity, television, wall and floor materials, and number of sleeping rooms -- revealed significant association in the logistic regression analysis when adjusted for age, education and division. This study indicates that respondents from Chittagong division and lower socio-economic groups (indicated by household characteristics) are at significantly higher risk of DACW. These findings should be taken into account during the planning of future intervention activities in Bangladesh. PMID:17584808

  2. Modeling and forecasting natural gas demand in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas is the major indigenous source of energy in Bangladesh and accounts for almost one-half of all primary energy used in the country. Per capita and total energy use in Bangladesh is still very small, and it is important to understand how energy, and natural gas demand will evolve in the future. We develop a dynamic econometric model to understand the natural gas demand in Bangladesh, both in the national level, and also for a few sub-sectors. Our demand model shows large long run income elasticity - around 1.5 - for aggregate demand for natural gas. Forecasts into the future also show a larger demand in the future than predicted by various national and multilateral organizations. Even then, it is possible that our forecasts could still be at the lower end of the future energy demand. Price response was statistically not different from zero, indicating that prices are possibly too low and that there is a large suppressed demand for natural gas in the country. - Highlights: → Natural gas demand is modeled using dynamic econometric methods, first of its kind in Bangladesh. → Income elasticity for aggregate natural gas demand in Bangladesh is large-around 1.5. → Demand is price insensitive, indicating too low prices and/or presence of large suppressed demand. → Demand forecasts reveal large divergence from previous estimates, which is important for planning. → Attempts to model demand for end-use sectors were successful only for the industrial sector.

  3. Bangladesh Enterprises Continue to Participate in Trade Promotion Events in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ On March 26, 2007,Bangladesh celebrated its 36th anniversary of the Independence and National Day.China and Bangladesh enjoy time tested friendly relations. The bilateral relations are characterized by sustained efforts to further broaden the nature and scope of the cooperation. In 2005, China emerged as the biggest source of import for Bangladesh, outstripping the volume of import from Bangladesh's other immediate neighbors. Bangladesh is the third largest trading partner of China in South Asia. The total bilateral trade volume has reached beyond US$ 3 billion in 2006.

  4. Stresses and storms: the case of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N

    1993-01-01

    The problems of women and environmental degradation have recently come to be addressed by women's groups, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and government policies in Bangladesh. NGOs have been the most active, with 600 registered organizations: 40% international, 38% national, and 22% local. NGOs have promoted the recent inclusion of environmental concerns into development plans. About 100 NGOs are engaged in forestry projects. The National Association for Resource Improvement, for example, involves women in tree planting along roadsides and income-generating activities. About 75% of upazilas (administrative units) have environmental and women's projects, but under 20% of all villages are affected and 1% of landless people are reached. Women's groups have created awareness of women's problems and advocated for socioeconomic changes. Women, despite cultural and social restrictions on their social behavior, have changed environmental and economic conditions. Women's leadership and organizing abilities have contributed to public awareness of environmental degradation. Because Bangladesh is a delta, a rise in sea level from greenhouse effects would have serious consequences for the land and population. Global warming has contributed to river flooding and climate changes that have increased rainfall and tropical storms. Deforestation upriver adds to the water runoff problems. About 20% of the cultivable land area is affected by natural disasters. Population density is 760 persons per sq km. About 50% of forested areas have been destroyed within the past 20 years. 4% of gross domestic product comes from forest activity. The lack of wood fuel limits the ability of people to boil water and contributes to the increased incidence of diarrhea, other intestinal problems, and less nutritious food. Drought is another problem. Urban migration has overwhelmed the ability of urban centers to provide basic services. Coastal areas have been settled by 20% of total population

  5. Carbon dioxide emission from brickfields around Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Imran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken at six divisions of Bangladesh to investigate the CO2 emission from brickfields. to explore the rate of carbon emission over the last 10 years, based on existing technology for brick production. The finding reveals that there were more than 45,000 Brick kilns in Bangladesh which together account for about 95% of operating kilns including Bull's Trench Kiln, Fixed Chimney Kiln, Zigzag Kiln and Hoffman Kiln. These kilns were the most carbon emitting source but it varies on fuel type, kiln type and also for location. It has been found that, maximum carbon emission area was Chittagong, which was 93.150 with percentage of last 10 years and 9.310 per cent per year. Whereas Sylhet was lower carbon emission area indicating percentage 17.172 of last 10 years and 4.218 percent per year. It has been found that total annual amount of CO2 emission for 4 types brick kilns from Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulana, Sylhet and Barisal were 8.862 Mt yr-1, 10.048 Mt yr-1, 12.783 Mt yr-1, 15.250 Mt yr-1, in the year of 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2010 respectively. In Mymensingh district, the maximum CO2 emission and coal consumption was obtained in Chamak brick field, which was 1882 tons and 950 tons, respectively and minimum was obtained in Zhalak brick field, which was 1039.5 tons and 525.0 tons, respectively during the year of 2013. The percentage in last 10 years of CO2 emission was 72.784 and per cent per year 7.970, which is very alarming for us. The estimates obtained from surveys and on-site investigations indicate that these kilns consume an average of 240 tons of coal to produce 1 million bricks. This type of coal has a measured calorific value of 6,400 KJ, heating value of coal is 20.93 GJ t-1 and it produces 94.61 TJ t-1 and 56.1 TJ t-1 CO2 from coal and natural gas, respectively.

  6. FAMILY HISTORY STUDY OF THE FAMILIAL COAGGREGATION OF BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER WITH AXIS I AND NON-BORDERLINE DRAMATIC CLUSTER AXIS II DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Barison, Leah K.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Reich, D. Bradford; Hudson, James I

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the familial coaggregation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with a full array of axis I disorders and four axis II disorders (antisocial personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and sadistic personality disorder) in the first-degree relatives of borderline probands and axis II comparison subjects. Four hundred and forty-five inpatients were interviewed about familial psychopathology using the Revi...

  7. Board Composition and Firm Performance: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzalur Rashid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of corporate board composition in the form of representation of outsideindependent directors on firm economic performance in Bangladesh. Two hypotheses are developed toexamine the relationship among composition of board memberships including independent directors andfirm performance. An observation of 274 Bangladeshi firm-years is used in the study. A linear regressionanalysis is used to test the hypotheses. Results reveal that the outside (independent directors cannot addpotential value to the firm’s economic performance in Bangladesh. The idea of the introduction ofindependent directors may have benefits for greater transparency, but the non-consideration of theunderlying institutional and cultural differences in an emerging economy such as Bangladesh may not resultin economic value addition to the firm. The findings provide an insight to the regulators in their quest forharmonization of international corporate governance practices.

  8. Applicability of Telemedicine in Bangladesh: Current Status and Future Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Nessa, Ahasanun; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    Telemedicine refers to the use of information and communication technology to provide and support health care mainly for the purpose of providing consultation. It is also a way to provide medical procedures or examinations to remote locations. It has the potential to improve both the quality and the access to health care services delivery while lowering costs even in the scarcity of resources. Understanding the potentiality of telemedicine, many developing countries are implementing telemedicine to provide health care facility to remote area where health care facilities are deficient. Bangladesh is not an exception to this either. In this paper we mention the reasons why Bangladesh has to move for telemedicine. We also present the past and on-going telemedicine activities and projects in Bangladesh. Analyzing these projects we have found out some factors which should be assessed carefully for successful implementation of telemedicine application. Finally we propose a prototype telemedicine network for Banglad...

  9. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  10. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Tulsiani, Suhella;

    The role of in-house transmission on the incidence of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly waterborne pathogen, is still not developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible contamination routes in household domain for effective cholera control in Bangladesh. To examine the prevalence...... and water supply may be the reason behind this relatively high presence of virulence factors in food plates and water pots. Direct exposure routes of disease transmission should be a major consideration in cholera prevention policies. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh........ Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305215719_Investigation_of_household_contamination_of_Vibrio_cholerae_in_Bangladesh [accessed Oct 14, 2016]....

  11. Floods in Bangladesh: a geo-environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, B.; Sultan-Ul-Islam [Rajshahi Univ. (Bangladesh). Dept. of Geology and Mining

    2000-07-01

    Flood is a major natural devastating annual hazard that made Bangladesh familiar to the world community as a land of endemic natural disaster. It causes a tremendous hindrance to the sustainable development of the country within her limited wealth. Peoples are living with this inevitable natural hazard since prehistoric time and adopted their living and farming habits accordingly. The floodplains of the three mighty rivers - the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna constitute about 80% of the whole country. The land is located at the lower reaches and around the confluence of these rivers which makes a single conduit through Bangladesh discharging enormous amount of water from the extensive catchment area of 1.7 million sq. km of Bangladesh and surrounding countries. (orig.)

  12. The Effects of Remittances on Inflation: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like many developing countries, remittances are relatively larger capital inflows in Bangladesh in the recent years. Hence, understanding the impact of remittances on the macroeconomic variables such as inflation is essential for the policy makers of the recipient economy. Incorporating remittances as an exogenous variable to the standard inflation function, this paper verifies how it affects the inflation rate in Bangladesh in the 1972-2010 periods. Applying Vector Autoregressive (VAR techniques, the empirical results find that a one percent increase in remittances inflows increases inflation rate by 2.48 percent in the long run, whereas no significant relationship is evident between these two variables in the short-run in Bangladesh.

  13. 3D Fault modeling of the active Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. E.; Hubbard, J.; Akhter, S. H.; Shamim, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt (CMFB), located in eastern Bangladesh, eastern India and western Myanmar, accommodates east-west shortening at the India-Burma plate boundary. Oblique subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Plate since the Eocene has led to the development of a large accretionary prism complex, creating a series of north-south trending folds. A continuous sediment record from ~55 Ma to the present has been deposited in the Bengal Basin by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers, providing an opportunity to learn about the history of tectonic deformation and activity in this fold-and-thrust belt. Surface mapping indicates that the fold-and-thrust belt is characterized by extensive N-S-trending anticlines and synclines in a belt ~150-200 km wide. Seismic reflection profiles from the Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, indicate that the anticlines mapped at the surface narrow with depth and extend to ~3.0 seconds TWTT (two-way travel time), or ~6.0 km. The folds of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts are characterized by doubly plunging box-shaped en-echelon anticlines separated by wide synclines. The seismic data suggest that some of these anticlines are cored by thrust fault ramps that extend to a large-scale décollement that dips gently to the east. Other anticlines may be the result of detachment folding from the same décollement. The décollement likely deepens to the east and intersects with the northerly-trending, oblique-slip Kaladan fault. The CMFB region is bounded to the north by the north-dipping Dauki fault and the Shillong Plateau. The tectonic transition from a wide band of E-W shortening in the south to a narrow zone of N-S shortening along the Dauki fault is poorly understood. We integrate surface and subsurface datasets, including topography, geological maps, seismicity, and industry seismic reflection profiles, into a 3D modeling environment and construct initial 3D surfaces of the major faults in this

  14. NEW TRENDS IN LEGAL EDUCATION AT BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid FERDOUSI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, Formal legal education is provided by either a department of a university or an affiliated college. There are four public universities and above twenty six private universities in our country with law as a regular subject of teaching. Besides, the National University imparts teaching of law through law colleges in the country. All public and private universities providing law graduate degree by conventional system but many people deprived from this opportunities. Thus to increase equitable access to education and to develop the human resources of the country the Bangladesh Open University playing significant role. Large numbers of students of rural areas, particularly women, out of school and adults who must do work to support their families are include with the university. Bangladesh Open University is the only institution in Bangladesh which imparts education in open and distance mode and offers 23 formal programmes, the demand for the introduction of LL.B programme for the benefit of those who have been, for various reasons, deprived of the opportunity of undertaking graduate course in law in conventional mode of education. The decision to offer the programme in distance mode is being taken in response to the earnest desire of the relevant quarters expressed in various dailies and formal applications submitted to the university authority as the learners in the open and distance mode learn at his own place and any time whenever he feels convenient to learn and is not for restricted by time, space or age. Distance learning is, indeed, presently considered as a viable alternative of the conventional system of education to fulfill the growing demand for legal education.This paper presents the new academic trends in Bangladesh Open University by distance learning Bachelor of Laws (LL.B. degree and modern aspects of the legal education at School of Law in Bangladesh Open University.

  15. FORMAL TRADE BETWEEN INDIA AND BANGLADESH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K.S. YADAV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of improving trade flows between India and Bangladesh is not only beneficial to them, but for the whole SAARC region, given that Bhutan and Nepal utilise Bangladesh ports as gateways to trade outside the region. Bangladesh’s overall exports are dominated by labour-intensive manufacturing and its imports to India by primary commodities. The shares of manufactured goods in country’s overall export were about 92 and 91 percent in 2001 and 2011 respectively. However, the composition of bilateral trade between these two countries has been changing over time. Addition and removal in the list of products of trade basket is a usual process. Consistent products in the trade basket of Bangladesh are ready made garments and sea food, whereas those of India are raw cotton, cereals and products and machinery of iron and steel. Expansion of trade of these countries with outside world, but not with each other confirms the prevalence of certain barriers, physical or non-physical in nature, rendering many potential products remain untraded. India and Bangladesh being geographically proximate to each other possess huge scope to trade. Specifically as both the countries are rich in natural resources and are competent in the production of small-scale manufacturing and agrarian supplies, mostly from the eastern parts of India and Bangladesh, both possess huge potential for bilateral trade. Many items having high trade potential are still not able to get market exposure in the neighbouring country because of various non-tariff barriers prevailing in current trade scenario, which have hiked up the cost of doing business to unacceptable proportions and as most of the highly tradable products are still kept under the sensitive lists of Bangladesh. There are numerous bottlenecks in the current trade infrastructure which turns out to be physical barrier to trade. The present paper highlights the import export and Exchange Rate change and prospects of

  16. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaduzzaman, M. [Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1996-12-31

    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.

  17. Informal Institutional Responses to Government Interventions: Lessons from Madhupur National Park, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, H. M. Tuihedur; Sarker, Swapan Kumar; Hickey, Gordon M.; Mohasinul Haque, M.; Das, Niamjit

    2014-11-01

    Madhupur National Park is renowned for severe resource ownership conflicts between ethnic communities and government authorities in Bangladesh. In this study, we applied the Institutional Analysis and Development framework to identify: (i) past and present informal institutional structures within the ethnic Garo community for land resource management; (ii) the origin of the land ownership dispute; (iii) interaction mechanisms between formal and informal institutions; and (iv) change in land management authority and informal governance structures. We identify that the informal institutions of the traditional community have undergone radical change due to government interventions with implications for the regulation of land use, informal institutional functions, and joint-decision-making. Importantly, the government's persistent denial of the role of existing informal institutions is widening the gap between government and community actors, and driving land ownership conflicts in a cyclic way with associated natural resource degradation.

  18. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-06-01

    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Sustainable agriculture: a challenge in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Faroque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of conventional agriculture in Bangladesh is under threat from the continuous degradation of land and water resources, and from declining yields due to indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals. Government is pursuing efforts to promote sustainable agriculture with emphasis on better use of on-farm resources and the reduction of external inputs. This paper presents four dimensions of agricultural sustainability as productivity, environmental stability, economical profitability, and social and economic equity. Six characters were selected to evaluate sustainability. Significant differences were found between the two systems (conventional and sustainable agriculture in crop diversification, soil fertility management, pests and diseases management, use of agro-chemicals and environmental issues. However, no significant variations were found in other indicators such as land-use pattern, crop yield and stability, risk and uncertainties, and food security. Although crop yield and financial return were found to be slightly higher in the conventional system, the economic return and value addition per unit of land did not show any difference. It can be suggested that sustainable agriculture has a tendency towards becoming environmental, economically and socially more sound than conventional agriculture, as it requires considerably less agro-chemicals, adds more organic matter to the soil, provides balanced food, and requires higher local inputs without markedly compromising output and financial benefits. Broad-policy measures, including the creation of mass awareness of adverse health effects of agrochemical-based products, are outlined for the promotion of sustainable agriculture.

  20. Coalbed Methane prospect of Jamalganj Coalfield Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five major Gondwana coalfields have been discovered in the half-graben type basins in the subsurface in the Precambrian platform area of the Northwest Bangladesh. The Jamalganj coalfields with an estimated reserve of about 1053 millions tons of coal, has seven coal seams in the depth range between 640 to 1158m below the ground surface. Compared to the other coalfields of the area, with coal occurring at 150 to 500m depth, Jamalganj coal is considered to be too deep to be exploited by conventional underground or open pit mining. Instead, developing coal bed methane from Jamalganj coalfield may be considered as a viable option for its exploitation. The positive factors of Jamalganj coal bed methane development include high net thickness of coal with at least one very thick (40m+) and widely developed seam, coal seam burial depth within optimum range, large coal reserves, indication of significant gas content from drilling data, and poor permeability in the rocks above and surrounding the coal layers. The thickest seam III can be primary target for CBM development especially where it combines with seam IV in the eastern part of coalfield. However, there are a number of unknown factors like actual gas content of coal, permeability, and in-seam pressure that need to be evaluated before deciding the viability of the project. An initial attempt to collect these base line data should include drilling test well or wells in the primary target area where seam III is most thick and widely developed. (author)

  1. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  2. Engineering education in Bangladesh - an indicator of economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz

    2012-05-01

    Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although limited progress was made in humanities, basic sciences, agriculture and medical sciences, a vast gap is left in technical and engineering education. This paper describes the present condition of engineering education in the country and explores ways to improve engineering education in order to meet the national as well as global skills demand.

  3. Existing and Expected Service Quality of Grameenphone Users in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The Grameenphone (GP is a market leader in the telecommunication industry in Bangladesh. This study investigates the existing and expected service quality of Grameenphone users in Bangladesh. The Study reveals that there are significant gap between existing and expected perceived service network, 3G, customer care, physical facilities, billing cost, information service, mobile banking and GP offers. The study concludes that customer satisfaction is a dynamic phenomenon. Maintaining desired level of customer satisfaction requires corporate proactive responsiveness in accessing, building & retaining satisfied customers for sustainable competitive advantages in the marketplace.Keywords: Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction, Existing Service Quality, Expected Service Quality, Grameenphone 

  4. DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS OF BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rashedul Hoque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector of Bangladesh is flourishing and contributing to its economy. In this aspect measuring efficiency is important. Data Envelopment Analysis technique is used for this purpose. The data are collected from the annual reports of twenty four different banks in Bangladesh. Data Envelopment Analysis is mainly of two types - constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale. Since this study attempts to maximize output, so the output oriented Data Envelopment Analysis is used. The most efficient bank is one that obtains the highest efficiency score.

  5. Serum lipid profile and its association with hypertension in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury KN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kamrun Nahar Choudhury,1 AKM Mainuddin,2 Mohammad Wahiduzzaman,3 Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam4,51Department of Epidemiology, National Centre for Control of Rheumatic Fever and Heart Disease, 2Center for Communicable Diseases, International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, 3Department of Cardiology, Bangladesh Institute of Health Science, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4Center for Control of Chronic Diseases, International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 5Center for International Health, University of Munich, Munich, GermanyBackground: Hypertension and dyslipidemia are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, accounting for the highest morbidity and mortality among the Bangladeshi population. The objective of this study was to determine the association between serum lipid profiles in hypertensive patients with normotensive control subjects in Bangladesh.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 234 participants including 159 hypertensive patients and 75 normotensive controls from January to December 2012 in the National Centre for Control of Rheumatic Fever and Heart Disease in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographic factors, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL.Results: The mean (± standard deviation systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the participants were 137.94±9.58 and 94.42±8.81, respectively, which were higher in the hypertensive patients (P<0.001. The serum levels of TC, TG, and LDL were higher while HDL levels were lower in hypertensive subjects compared to normotensives, which was statistically significant (P<0.001. Age, waist circumference, and body mass index showed significant association with hypertensive patients (P<0.001 but not with normotensives. The logistic regression analysis showed

  6. A rainfall simulation model for agricultural development in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayedur Rahman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A rainfall simulation model based on a first-order Markov chain has been developed to simulate the annual variation in rainfall amount that is observed in Bangladesh. The model has been tested in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Few significant differences were found between the actual and simulated seasonal, annual and average monthly. The distribution of number of success is asymptotic normal distribution. When actual and simulated daily rainfall data were used to drive a crop simulation model, there was no significant difference of rice yield response. The results suggest that the rainfall simulation model perform adequately for many applications.

  7. Human Resources Development for Rooppur Nuclear Power Programme in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: • Bangladesh faces a huge challenge in implementing the Rooppur NPP and its total nuclear power; • A preliminary assessment has been chalked out a plan to find out methods that can be applied to find out our gaps and then fill them up; • Bangladesh seeks cooperation from the Russian Federation in the form assistance package like National training courses, Seminar/Workshop, Expert Mission/Review and other form of bilateral arrangements in establishing infrastructure for “Rooppur NPP” building;

  8. Transposable DNA elements and life history traits: II. Transposition of P DNA elements in somatic cells reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, R C; Thompson, J N; Barker, J S; Huai, H

    1999-01-01

    Some transposable DNA elements in higher organisms are active in somatic cells, as well as in germinal cells. What effect does the movement of DNA elements in somatic cells have on life history traits? It has previously been reported that somatically active P and mariner elements in Drosophila induce genetic damage and significantly reduce lifespan. In this study, we report that the movement of P elements in somatic cells also significantly reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster. If other elements cause similar changes in life history traits, it is doubtful if transposable DNA elements remain active for long in somatic cells in natural populations.

  9. Hepatitis E virus is a leading cause of acute-on-chronic liver disease:experience from a tertiary centre in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamun-Al Mahtab; Salimur Rahman; Mobin Khan; Md. Fazal Karim

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is common in Bangladesh. Acute viral E hepatitis is sporadically encountered in this country each year, with a rising incidence in the rainy season. This study aimed to identify the etiology of ACLF in Bangladesh. METHODS:In this retrospective study, 69 ACLF patients were included. They presented to our department at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University in Dhaka. History of diseases was recorded and appropriate investigations were conducted in all patients. RESULTS:Acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection was positive in 21.7% (15/69) of the patients, while 14.5%(10/69) had septicemia. Upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage was seen in 4.3% of the patients (3/69), while another 4.3% (3/69) had a positive history for alcohol or drugs. None of the patients tested positive for hepatitis A virus infection and no evidence of hepatitis B virus lfare was found in any patient. No speciifc cause for ACLF could be identiifed. CONCLUSIONS:Acute HEV infection is a leading cause of ACLF in Bangladesh. Many patients were thought to have decompensation of cirrhosis, but subsequently were recognized as having ACLF by a retrospective review according to the deifnition of the Asian Paciifc Association for the Study of the Liver Working Party Meeting on ACLF in New Delhi in early 2008.

  10. Reactive Transport Modeling of Subsurface Arsenic Removal Systems in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, M.; Rahman, M. M.; van Breukelen, B. M.; Ahmed, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in the groundwater of the shallow aquifers of Bangladesh are a major public health concern. Subsurface Arsenic Removal (SAR) is a relatively new treatment option that can potentially be a cost effective method for arsenic removal for community-based drinking water supplies. The basic idea of SAR is to extract water, aerate it, and re-inject it, after which groundwater with reduced arsenic concentrations may be extracted. The main process for As reduction is sorption to Hydrous Ferric Oxides (HFO) that forms after injection of the aerated water. The purpose of this poster is to investigate the major geochemical processes responsible for the (im)mobilization of As during SAR operation. SAR was applied at a test site in Muradnagar upazila in Comilla district about 100 km southeast of Dhaka in Bangladesh. Multiple extraction/aeration/re-injection cycles were performed and water samples were analyzed. A PHREEQC reactive transport model (RTM) was used in a radial flow setting to try to reproduce the measurements. Kinetic oxidation/dissolution reactions, cation exchange, and surface complexation were simulated. The simulation of different reactions enables the possibility to discern the reaction parameters involved in the im(mobilization) of As. The model fit has reasonable agreement with the observed data for major ions and trace elements. The model suggests an increasing sorption capacity due to the gradual development of HFO precipitates resulting from the injection phases. Modeled breakthrough curves of As, Fe(II), and Mn, match the measured increase of As, Fe(II), and Mn removal with successive cycles. The model illustrates that the pH of groundwater during SAR operation has a great impact on As sorption in the subsurface. The surface complexation modeling suggests that competitive displacement of As by H4SiO4 is an important factor limiting As removal during SAR operation.

  11. Intellectual History, Social History, Cultural History...and Our History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, David Paul

    1990-01-01

    Defines and explores the links among intellectual, social, and cultural history. Warns that an adequate foundation must be laid in the economic and institutional social history of mass media before communication historians jump into cultural history. (SR)

  12. Bohmian Histories and Decoherent Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Hartle, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories -- sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their ...

  13. Abundance of sardine fish species in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Bikram Jit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during January, 2012 to December 2012 in the sardine fisheries which is occurred both in artisanal and industrial fishing sector in the marine water of the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. During this study period the total landing amounts by weight of sardines were 7352.99 MT, among these 23.76% (1747.22 MT was exploited by the artisanal mechanized boats and 76.24% (5605.77 MT captured through different industrial fishing trawlers and contributed 17.51% of the total marine fish production by commercial fish trawlers during the study period. 4 sardine species have been recorded from our marine territory. Among them, 2 sardine species are highly abundant, Sardinella fimbriata total production volumes was 5495.79 MT (74.74% contributed 1747.22MT (31.79% from the artisanal and 3748.57MT (68.21% from the industrial sector and Dussumieria acuta production amounts was 1857.20MT (25.26% contributed only from the industrial fishing sector.Species wise contribution shows that S. fimbriata contributed 100% in the artisanal sector and in the industrial fishing S. fimbriata contributed 66.87% and D. acuta contributed the rest 33.13%. The distribution of the S. fimbriata is within 10-20 meters depth and abundance was observed in the southern part of the South patches and South of south patches (N: 210.09// -22, E: 920.04/-07 to N: 200.45/-25, E: 920.18/-56 and 10-50m depth in onshore and off shore areas in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point -N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57. The distribution of the D. acuta is within 40-60 m. depth and abundance was observed in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground areas (Kohinoor point - N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57 and south-west to south-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point- N: 200-17/.29, E: 900.15/.21 to N: 200.29/.56, E: 910.24/.22 in the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. The peak capture season of

  14. Iodized salt induced thyrotoxicosis: Bangladesh perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, S; Latif, S A; Kamal, M M; Asaduzzaman, M; Akther, A; Laila, Z H

    2009-07-01

    The effects of iodized and non-iodized salt on the thyroid gland and its hormones T3, T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were studied in 200 individuals who were the residents of plain areas of greater Mymensingh district. The subjects were collected from the Center for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Mymensingh. Out of 200 individuals 150 were using iodized salt and 50 were using non-iodized salt. The iodized and non-iodized salt users were marked as study and control groups respectively. Blood samples were taken from both the groups and T3 and T4 in blood serum were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) while TSH was determined by immunoradiometricassay (IRMA). The mean concentration of T3 were 2.633 nmol/L and 2.223 nmol/L and T4 concentration were 122.444 nmol/L and 110.355 nmol/L in study and control group respectively. The mean TSH concentration was 5.044 mIU/L and 9.622 mIU/L in study and control group respectively. The data indicated that continuous and long term use of iodized salt increased both T3 and T4 and decreased TSH in study group. The results were significant (piodinated salt induced thyrotoxicosis (ISIT) in peoples living in plain areas of Bangladesh. We suggest close regular monitoring of T3, T4 and TSH and urinary excretion of iodine of individuals who are using iodized salt for better management of iodinated salt program in our setting. PMID:19623141

  15. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN3). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using 51Cr-EDTA and 125I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come

  16. IMPACT OF MARKETING STRATEGIES ON SACHET PRODUCTS IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A product is anything that can be accessible to the market for satisfaction. The basic objective of marketing is maximum satisfaction since satisfaction of consumer and business performance is positively related to each other. For satisfaction, product is diversified in different categories i.e. generic product, product type product, substitute product and product line etc. Sachet product is one of the expansions of product line. The term ‘Sachet’ is originated from the French word which means “mini”. In Bangladesh, sachet product has a strong market share. Thus, this study attempts to determine the exiting share of sachet product and measure the impact of marketing strategies on sachet product in Bangladesh. This study uses the selective 22 dimensions to favor the sachet product on the basis of 4Ps (Product, Price, Place and Promotion. To accomplish the study, 125 samples have been taken from selective markets in Cosmopolitan city, Chittagong. The study found that sachet product has strong market position comparative with other categories of products, where promotional effect is the dominant factor who played the vital role to sustain the sachet product in Bangladesh. The results of this study will be constructive for executives and policy-makers of business organization who works with fast moving consumer good (FMCG items effectively in Bangladesh.

  17. Skill Intensity and Skills Development in Bangladesh Manufacturing Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on recent research into enterprise skill profiles and workplace training practices in the Bangladesh manufacturing industry. The article presents survey and interview data for 37 enterprises across eight manufacturing sectors collected during a study for the International Labour Organisation. The research analysed enterprise and…

  18. Financial Liberalization, Savings and the Banking Sector in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); I.A. Robin (Iftekhar Ahmed)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis article explores the consequences of financial liberalization policy on the banking sector in Bangladesh. Following a motivating portfolio selection theor-etical model on the impact of liberalization, it applies time series techniques with annual banking sector data for the period 1

  19. Enhanced Ties with China Can Help Bangladesh Develop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihabur; Rahman

    2013-01-01

    <正>Construction of a deep seaport in Chittagong and establishment of Chittagong-Kunming rail and road communications have been a much-talked-about issue following Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s visit to China.She went for the trip in the rising economic superpower in one and a half years of her assuming office early 2009.During

  20. Neoliberalism, Policy Reforms and Higher Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ariful Haq

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has introduced neoliberal policies since the 1970s. Military regimes, since the dramatic political changes in 1975, accelerated the process. A succession of military rulers made rigorous changes in policy-making in various sectors. This article uses a critical approach to document analysis and examines the perceptions of key…

  1. Distributing and Showing Farmer Learning Videos in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Jeffery W.; Van Mele, Paul; Harun-ar-Rashid, Md.; Krupnik, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of showing farmer learning videos through different types of volunteers. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews with volunteers from different occupational groups in Bangladesh, and a phone survey with 227 respondents. Findings: Each occupational group acted differently. Shop keepers, tillage…

  2. Children's Rights and the Imagination of Community in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that sharply divergent images of children in Bangladesh reflect different "imagined communities" of society and polity, local and global. Universal concepts of "the rights of the child" contrast strongly with a local culture of "guardianship", as the key social institution that governs children's lives. How might bringing these…

  3. Antimalarial drug resistance in Bangladesh, 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ubydul; Glass, Gregory E; Haque, Waziul; Islam, Nazrul; Roy, Shyamal; Karim, Jahirul; Noedl, Harald

    2013-12-01

    Malaria remains an important health problem in Bangladesh, with approximately 14 million people at risk. Antimalarial drug resistance is a major obstacle to the control of malaria in endemic countries. In 2012, Bangladesh reported an estimated 29 522 malaria episodes, of which 94% were reported as being caused by Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we reviewed and summarized antimalarial drug resistance data from Bangladesh published until June 2013. We searched published sources for data referring to any type of P. falciparum drug resistance (in vivo, in vitro, or molecular) and found 169 articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Of these, 143 articles were excluded because they did not meet our inclusion criteria. After detailed review of the remaining 26 articles, 14 were selected for evaluation. Published studies indicate that P. falciparum shows varying levels of resistance to chloroquine, mefloquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Combination therapy of chloroquine and primaquine has proven ineffective and combinations of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine with either quinine or chloroquine have also shown poor efficacy. Recent studies indicate that artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate, remain highly efficacious in treating P. falciparum malaria. Available data suggest that artemisinins, quinine, doxycyline, mefloquine-artesunate and azithromycin-artesunate combination therapy remain efficacious in the treatment of P. falciparum malaria in Bangladesh.

  4. International Briefing 24: Training and Development in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Monowar; Akhter, Salma

    2011-01-01

    Training and development activities in Bangladesh have yet to be systematic and able to fulfil the needs of the economy and industry. The national educational and training system failed to provide adequate knowledge and skills to the workforce. However, private sector organizations are undertaking different initiatives to cope with the industry…

  5. Private University Librarian's Experience on Procurement of Books in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Muhammad Hossam Haider

    2011-01-01

    The private universities in Bangladesh are playing an important role in modernizing the higher education system in the country and the role of librarians is also different and challenging. Specially, procuring books and monographs is an exigent function being this lost its demand very quickly. In some cases, titles bear only one semester…

  6. Living with infertility : Experiences among urban slum populations in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papreen, N; Sabin, K; Begum, L; Ahsan, SK; Baqui, AH

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the perceived causes of infertility, treatment-seeking for infertility and the consequences of childlessness, particularly for women, among a predominantly Muslim population in urban slums of Dhaka in Bangladesh. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women and GO men randoml

  7. Impact of an aquaculture extension project in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an impact study of key short- and long-run effects of the Danida supported Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project (MAEP) in Bangladesh, applying different matching and double difference estimators. Results are mixed. First, the paper finds a positive short-run impact on pond...

  8. Living Sexualities: Negotiating Heteronormativity in Middle Class Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Karim (Shuchi)

    2012-01-01

    textabstract‘Living Sexualities’ is a study of erotic desires, practices and identities, lived within the heteronormative and marriage-normative socio-sexual structures of the urban middle class in contemporary Bangladesh. The study is based on two years fieldwork during which data was generated thr

  9. Quality and Processes of Bangladesh Open University Course Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tofazzal; Rahman, Morshedur; Rahman, K. M. Rezanur

    2006-01-01

    A new member of the mega-Universities, Bangladesh Open University (BOU) introduced a course team approach for developing effective course materials for distance students. BOU teaching media includes printed course books, study guides, radio and television broadcasts, audiocassettes and occasional face-to-face tutorials. Each course team…

  10. Caesarean of Lion (Panthera leo at Dulahajra Safari Park, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M.M. Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A six years eight months pregnant lioness at the Dulahajara Safari Park, Chakoria, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, was presented with dystocia. This paper described the pre-, intra- and postoperative procedures including anesthetic protocol carried out and performing a caesarean section to remove dead fetuses and the successful recovery of the lioness without complications.

  11. New Trends in Legal Education at Bangladesh Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdousi, Nahid

    2008-01-01

    In Bangladesh, formal legal education is provided by either a department of a university or an affiliated college. There are four public universities and above twenty six private universities in our country with law as a regular subject of teaching. Besides, the National University imparts teaching of law through law colleges in the country. All…

  12. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SOME LEAFY VEGETABLES OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Karmakar, Tanvir Muslim* and Md. Azizur Rahman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of six different leafy vegetables of Bangladesh was investigated. The amount of bound fatty acids was found to be higher than the free fatty acids in all the leafy vegetables. Different fatty acids were identified and their relative proportions were determined by GLC from the leafy vegetables.

  13. Alcoholic Beverages in Bangladesh-How Much We Know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, N.; Ferdous, N.; Nesha, K.; Rasker, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the names and alcohol content or strength of different alcoholic beverages used in different parts of Bangladesh and also to determine contamination with heavy metals and bacteria in some samples. Methods: Eight different types of alcoholic beverages co

  14. Infant Mortality in Rural Bangladesh : State Dependence vs. Unobserved Heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, U.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data of the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Matlab, Bangladesh, covering the time period 1982 – 2005, and exploiting dynamic panel data models, we analyze siblings’ death at infancy, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity and a causal effect of death of one

  15. E-Banking of Economical Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azizul Baten

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s due to emerging global economy, e-commerce and e-business have increasingly become a necessary component of business strategy and a strong catalyst for economic development. The new information technology is becoming an important factor in the future development of financial services industry, and especially banking industry. As a third-world developing country, Bangladesh is far behind to reach the expected level in global banking system. So it is our urgent need to upgrade its banking system. This paper is aimed at to determine economical prospects of e-banking and to explain the present scenario of banking sectors in Bangladesh and at the same time it demonstrates the scope and benefits of e-banking compared with the existing system. This paper also tries to present actual sit uation of e-banking in the marketing point of view in Bangladesh. The results of th is study shows that e-banking serves several advantages to Bangladeshi banking sector, however, the study also shows that the Bangladeshi customers have not enough knowledge regarding e-banking which is rendering by banking sector in Bangladesh. A discussion of the implications of these results and limitations are provided at the end.

  16. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattar, M.A. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN{sub 3}). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA and {sup 125}I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come 32 refs., 1 tab.

  17. On the history of Ludwig von Bertalanffy's "general systemology", and on its relationship to cybernetics - Part II: Contexts and developments of the systemological hermeneutics instigated by von Bertalanffy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouvreau, David

    2014-02-01

    The history of "general system theory" is investigated in order to clarify its meanings, vocations, foundations and achievements. It is characterized as the project of a science of the systemic interpretation of the "real", renamed here "general systemology". The contexts and modes of its elaboration, publication and implementation are discussed. The paper mostly focuses on the works of its instigator: Ludwig von Bertalanffy. However, general systemology was a collective project: the main contributions of other "systemologists", from the 1950s until the 1970s, are hence also considered. Its solidarity with the history of the Society for General Systems Research is notably discussed. A reconstruction of the systemological hermeneutics is undertaken on this basis. It finds out the potential systematic unity underlying the diversity of the contributions to this both scientific and philosophical project. Light is thus shed on the actual scope of von Bertalanffy's works.

  18. Societal impacts and vulnerability to floods in Bangladesh and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir H. Dewan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh and Nepal lie between the Himalayas and low-lying coasts of the Bay of Bengal and are traversed by hundreds of rivers and tributaries. Historical data shows that, since 1970, the scale, intensity and duration of floods have increased in Bangladesh and Nepal, causing grave human suffering; disruptions in normal life and activity, damages of infrastructure, crops and agricultural land with severe impacts on the economy. Bangladesh is affected by torrential rain, glacier melt, upstream water flow and tidal surges. In 1988, Bangladesh experienced one of the most severe floods of the twentieth century which aroused significant concern internationally and triggered the Bangladesh Action Plan for Flood Control. The Government of Bangladesh (GOB has so far constructed a number of flood shelters and carried out 482 water and flood control projects involving flood protection embankments, drainage channels, sluice gates and regulators on different rivers and canals. These also provided safety measures against inundation by tidal waves, storm-surges and flooding. The Terai region of Nepal is highly prone to hydrological risks including torrential rain, floods, glaciers resulting in erosion and landslides. The Government of Nepal (GON has implemented different mitigation measures mainly early warning awareness, rescue measure, relief, and post-flood rehabilitation programs etc. Disaster Management Bureaus of both the countries have already conducted many trainings, workshops and seminars to disseminate scientific knowledge and coping up practices to disaster managers and to create public awareness. Besides the contemporary approaches to mitigating flood effects, people of these countries have coped with floods through generations relying on traditional/indigenous knowledge and other local adaptation practices. It is crucial that along with scientific process, indigenous, traditional and conventional practices are to be integrated for a national

  19. The Collision of Romanticism and Modernism in Post-World War II American Cinema: A Theoretical Defense of Intellectual History in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daniel Hunter

    2013-01-01

    The post-World War II era in the United States, which ran from 1945 to 1970, has long been divided into two distinct periods; the late 1940s and 1950s and the 1960s. Out of this separation has come a view of the late 1940s and 1950s as a time dominated by a conservative conformist culture that did little to rival pre-war norms. On the other hand,…

  20. Modelling income distribution impacts of water sector projects in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, C S; Jones, S

    1991-09-01

    Dynamic analysis was conducted to assess the long-term impacts of water sector projects on agricultural income distribution, and sensitivity analysis was conducted to check the robustness of the 5 assumptions in this study of income distribution and water sector projects in Bangladesh. 7 transitions are analyzed for mutually exclusive irrigation and flooding projects: Nonirrigation to 1) LLP irrigation, 2) STW irrigation, 3) DTW irrigation, 4) major gravity irrigation, and manually operated shallow tubewell irrigation (MOSTI) and Flood Control Projects (FCD) of 6) medium flooded to shallow flooded, and 7) deeply flooded to shallow flooded. 5 analytical stages are involved: 1) farm budgets are derived with and without project cropping patterns for each transition. 2) Estimates are generated for value added/hectare from each transition. 3) Assumptions are made about the number of social classes, distribution of land ownership between classes, extent of tenancy for each social class, term of tenancy contracts, and extent of hiring of labor for each social class. 4) Annual value added/hectare is distributed among social classes. 5) Using Gini coefficients and simple ratios, the distribution of income between classes is estimated for with and without transition. Assumption I is that there are 4 social classes defined by land acreage: large farmers (5 acres), medium farmers (1.5-5.0), small farmers, (.01-1.49), and landless. Assumption II is that land distribution follows the 1978 Land Occupancy Survey (LOS). Biases, if any, are indicated. Assumption III is that large farmers sharecrop out 15% of land to small farmers. Assumption IV is that landlords provide nonirrigated crop land and take 50% of the crop, and, under irrigation, provide 50% of the fertilizer, pesticide, and irrigation costs and take 50% of the crop. Assumption V is that hired and family labor is assumed to be 40% for small farmers, 60% for medium farmers, and 80% for large farmers. It is understood that

  1. CERN's Early History Revisited

    CERN Multimedia

    Schopper, Herwig Franz; Krige, Gerhard John

    2005-01-01

    As a member of the group of historians charged to write the history of the founding of CERN, John Krige particularly underlines the important role I.I. Rabi played. The first author, former Director General of CERN add a few comments. S.A. Khan gives precisions about the role played by E. Amaldi and P. Auger; then J. Krige replies

  2. The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towfiqua Mahfuza Islam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. Objective: We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. Methods: We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. Results: One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–2.8 times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0–3.0 times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.0 times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4–2.3 times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. Conclusions: This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh.

  3. Perceptions of Ayurvedic medicine by citizens in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Yoshida, Yasuko; Alim, Md Abdul

    2016-02-01

    Bangladesh is now facing the public health problems of deficiency of iron and iodine, especially for women. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of Bangladesh has implemented strong countermeasures to enhance the health condition of the nation. On the other hand, based on the concept of the Declaration of Alma-Ata, complementary and alternative medicine should be used more vigorously to enhance public health in the world. The usage of complementary and alternative medicine such as ayurvedic medicine (AM) should be increased in Bangladesh. Therefore we conducted the study on perceptions of AM by citizens in Dhaka, Bangladesh in order to promote and enhance the effective usage of AM, including herbal medicines as medical resources, from December 2010 to January 2011. This study showed younger citizens (61.1%) did not get more benefit from AM than elder citizens (48.0%). On the other hand, younger citizens (76.8%) did not get more harm from AM than elder citizens (70.1%). We think that in terms of effectiveness of AM, the younger generation in Dhaka seems to be more skeptical to AM than the elder generation in Dhaka, even though the younger generation are more satisfied with AM than the elder generation. With viewpoint of enhancement of usage of AM in Dhaka, we think that scientifically sound information on AM should be collected rigorously and brought to the citizens vigorously to remove the skeptical feeling of AM from younger citizen in Dhaka. In terms of the effective utilization of limited medical resources, AM should be used appropriately in Bangladesh, Asia and the world. PMID:27019531

  4. Non-power application of nuclear energy: Bangladesh perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various fields. All over the world, this non-power nuclear energy is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation processing of polymeric materials, non-destructive testing, nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques, radiation sterilization of medical products and human tissue allografts, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, nuclear technology in agriculture and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in the planning and development of non-power nuclear technology for peaceful uses in the fields of food, agriculture, medicine, industry and environment. Both food preservation and medical sterilization of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. Application of nuclear techniques in agriculture is also quite intensive. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. Bangladesh has also made a very good progress in the fields of non-destructive testing, tracer technology, nuclear analytical techniques and nucleonic control. The impact of non-power nuclear energy in selected areas will no doubt be significant in coming years. (Author)

  5. Jobs, gender and small enterprises in Bangladesh : factors affecting women entrepreneurs in small and cotage industries in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Nilufer A

    2001-01-01

    Analyses the constraints faced by women entrepreneurs in Bangladesh, followed by an overview on programmes and projects supporting women entrepreneurs, including training, advice on technology, marketing and financial support. Suggests practical solutions and recommendations that could ease the situation of women in small and cottage industries.

  6. Arsenic and heavy metal concentrations in surface soils and vegetables of Feni district in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, R A; Hossain, S M; Miah, M M H; Nehar, K; Mubin, M S H

    2008-10-01

    An investigation of various heavy metals including the arsenic (As) poisoning in soils and vegetables in five upazillas under Feni district of Bangladesh was performed by neutron activation technique using the neutron irradiation facilities of TRIGA MARK II research reactor at Bangladesh Atomic Energy Research Establishment (BAERE), Savar, Dhaka. A total of 30 samples (15 surface soils and 15 foodstuffs) were studied in five Upazillas namely as, Sonagazi, Dagan Bhuiya, Feni Sadar, Fulgazi and Parsuram of Feni district taking three samples of each kind from each upazilla. Samples of each kind together with the standard reference material (SRM) were irradiated in the same neutron flux and the gamma-rays of nuclides from the irradiated samples were assessed and screened for As, Br, U, Th, Cr, Sc, Fe, Zn and Co in soils and As, Br, Na, K, Cr, Sc, Fe, Zn and Co in vegetables (i.e; eddoe, taro, green papaya, plantain, potato, callaloo, bottle ground and carambola). The measurement of gamma-rays was carried out by means of a calibrated high resolution HPGe detector. The concentration of product nuclides containing in the irradiated samples was determined from the peak count-rates of prominent gamma-lines for the corresponding nuclides. Among all contaminants, only As, Zn and Cr for both samples were focused because of their higher values compared with the local as well as the world typical values. The present results revealed that the mean levels of As in Parsuram, Feni Sadar and Pulgazi upazillas are higher than the world typical value of 2 mg/kg. The mean values of Zn and Cr for all upazillas are higher than the world typical values 32 and 27.9 mg/kg, respectively. For the case of vegetables, the mean concentration of As is found only in Eddoe (5.33 ppm) and Taro (1.46 ppm) collected from Sonagazi and Feni Sadar upazilla; which are higher than the values in Samta (0.1 ppm for eddoe and 0.44 ppm for taro) under Jessore district of Bangladesh. The mean concentrations of

  7. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  8. "One Grand Pursuit": A Brief History of the American Philosophical Society's First 250 Years. 1743-1993 by Edward C. Carter II. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Woodbury

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The American Philosophical Society (APS was founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin (then only 37 years old and is North America's oldest scholarly organization. The archaeological interests of Thomas Jefferson, who became its third president in 1797, are not mentioned in this history but it is worth noting that besides his well known pioneering excavation of a burial mound in 1784 he sent out a circular letter for the APS to secure information on archaeological remains, stating, "The American Philosophical Society have [sic] always considered the antiquity, changes, and present state of their own country as primary objects of their research".

  9. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. II. Optical and Near Infrared Star Formation History of the Starburst Cluster NGC 2070 in 30 Doradus

    OpenAIRE

    Cignoni, M.; Sabbi, E.; van der Marel, R. P.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D.J.; Aloisi, A.; De Marchi, G.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Grebel, E. K.; Smith, L. J.; Zeidler, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the recent star formation of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the panchromatic imaging survey Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). In this paper we focus on the stars within 20 pc of the center of the massive ionizing cluster of 30 Doradus, NGC 2070. We recovered the star formation history by comparing deep optical and NIR color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with state-of-the-art synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PARSEC models, which include a...

  10. Prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh: Results from STEPS survey 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mostafa Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nationally representative data on noncommunicable disease (NCD risk factors are lacking in Bangladesh. This study was done to determine the prevalence of common risk factors for major NCDs among men and women of rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: This survey was done with 9,275 individuals aged 25 years or older randomly drawn from all over the country. Information on diet, physical activity, tobacco and alcohol, and treatment history for hypertension and diabetes were collected. Height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure (BP were measured. Results: There were 4,312 men and 4,963 women with the mean age of 42 years (standard deviation 13 years. Half of them (54% used tobacco in some form, <1% consumed alcohol within the past 30 days, 92% did not consume adequate fruit and vegetables (five servings or more, and 35% had low physical activity level [<600 metabolic equivalent (MET min per week]. Documented diabetes was found in 4% of the participants. Seventeen percent were overweight [body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 and 21% had abdominal obesity (men ≥94, women ≥80 cm. Overall, 21% people had hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or medication. Physical inactivity, alcohol intake, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes were more prevalent in urban areas, as opposed to tobacco. Tobacco intake showed a decreasing gradient, but hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and low physical activity showed an increasing gradient across the wealth quartiles. Conclusion: Risk factors are widely prevalent in Bangladeshi people across sexes and across both rural and urban areas of residences. NCD prevention through risk factor control, and early detection and treatment of hypertension and diabetes are warranted.

  11. Arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh: spatial mitigation planning with GIS and public participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M Manzurul

    2005-11-01

    A PPGIS (Public Participatory Geographical Information System) has recently been developed in combination with PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) and GIS (Geographical Information Systems) methodologies to utilise GIS in the context of the needs of communities that are involved with, and affected by development programmes. The impact of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh is 'tragic and painful' on patients' health and their social life what was described as the 'worse mass poisoning in human history' in a WHO report. Deep tubewell is said to be a source of arsenic-free safe drinking water and people are mainly interested in deep tubewell water rather than rainwater harvesting, dug-wells, and pond-sand-filters (PSF) approved by the BAMWSP (Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation Water Supply Project). This paper mainly explores the application and suitability of GIS with local community participation in deep tubewell planning for arsenic mitigation. The relevant data for this study were collected from the field survey. The PRA methods were used to obtain social and resource information; while a GIS was used to organise, analyse, and display the information. Participants from three different focus-groups were asked to determine their 'own priorities' for spatial planning of deep tubewell for arsenic-free water. The study results valuable community perspectives on deep tubewell planning and reveals the suitability of PPGIS in spatial planning for arsenic mitigation with local community mapping overlay. The process of dialogue and preparation of mental mapping within each focus-group participants lead to enhance information about community needs of deep tubewell in the study area.

  12. CSR in the Textile Sector: European Fashion Firms and the Bangladesh Safety Accord

    OpenAIRE

    Aridov, Mikhail; Becker, Vanessa; Liu, Jiyue; Werner, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The textile industry has long been criticized for irresponsible and dangerous labour conditions in its global supply chain, particularly in very poor Asian countries like Bangladesh. The April 2013 collapse of the Rana Plaza building in Bangladesh came to be a catalyst for reaching an agreement with international labour unions: the Bangladesh Safety Accord was created. This article analyses the Accord, the involvement of European fashion companies such as Primark, H&M and Inditex, the connect...

  13. Delinking of Local and International Prices: Exploring Competition in the Bangladesh Rice Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud, Minhaj; Wadood, Syed Naimul

    2012-01-01

    We take a broader perspective on the issue of recent price increases in the domestic rice market in Bangladesh. The query that follows is that: what exactly is the nature of competition at different stages of the domestic rice market of Bangladesh? This can be addressed only if we examine the agents, their strategies and incentives at different stages of the rice market value chain. The structure of rice markets in Bangladesh is generally considered to be competitive. But it is entirely possi...

  14. Cross-Cultural Age Ascription between Muslim and Santal Communities in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Emaj Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    This study compares ideal age ascription across family life Muslim and Santal cultures in rural Bangladesh. We hypothesized that age ascription for family life situation occurs earlier in the Santal culture than in the Muslim culture in rural Bangladesh. One hundred couples (70 Muslim and 30 Santal) were selected by cluster random sampling from the Kalna village situated in the Tanore Upazila of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh, and were intensively interviewed by author. Results reveal signific...

  15. Birds in Kurigram district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Khan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the birds in the area adjacent to the Dharala and Brahmaputra rivers in Kurigram District, Bangladesh, was conducted between November 2000 and February 2002. A total of 105 species of birds belonging to 12 orders, 35 families and 77 genera were recorded. Out of 105 species, 51 (48.6% were non-passerine and 54 (51.4% passerine, 33 (31.4% migratory and 72 (68.6% resident. Of the non-passerine birds, 15 (29.4% were migratory and 36 (70.6% were resident, while, among the passerines 18 (33.3% were migratory and 36 (66.7% were resident. Of the total (105 species 14 (13.3% were found to be very common, 30 (28.6% common, 25 (23.8% fairly common and 36 (34.3% were rare or few. Out of 105 species, 30 (28.6% were aquatic and semiaquatic birds and 75 (71.4% were terrestrial. Among 105 species, 52 (49.5% were widely distributed in Kurigram, 31 (29.5% restricted only to the northern side, five (4.8% to the central side, eight (7.6% to the southern side, and nine (8.6% species were common in two or three parts of the study area. Among the three canopy categories, 16 (15.2% species were observed in lower canopy, 32 (30.5% species were recorded from both lower and middle canopies, 19 (18.1% species from upper and middle canopies and only one (1% species was recorded from upper canopy. In the study area 37 (35.2% species of birds used all levels of the canopy. Out of 105 species, 48 (45.7% were insectivorous, 11 (10.4% were grainivorous, five (4.8% frugivorous, 10 (9.5% were piscivorous, five (4.8% were predatory, and 19 (18.1% species of birds were omnivorous. Only one (1% was vegetarian and the diet of 6 (5.7% species could not be determined.

  16. Responsive complementary feeding in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Anna C; Akhter, Sadika; Aboud, Frances E

    2006-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that malnutrition can partly be attributed to caregiver-child interaction during feeding episodes. Current conceptual frameworks emphasize the importance of responsiveness (including active and social behaviour), psychomotor abilities of the child to self-feed, and a non-distracting feeding environment. The present observational study had three main objectives: (1) to define operationally key terms such as responsive and active feeding and observe their frequency in a rural Bangladesh sample; (2) to examine whether self-feeding, responsive and active behaviours of the mother and child varied with child's age and amounts eaten; and (3) to determine associations between mother and child behaviours. Fifty-four mother-child pairs were observed during one feeding episode and behaviours were coded for 5 categories, namely self-feeding, responsive, active, social and distracting behaviours. Children were between 8 and 24 months of age. Results indicated that the five behaviours could be observed and reliably coded. Two-thirds of mothers had an active feeding style but only a third were responsive; the two styles did not overlap. With older children, mothers encouraged more eating and more self-feeding, but children did not feed themselves more; instead older children were more negatively responsive (refusing offered food). Positively responsive mothers tended to have active children who explicitly signaled their desire for food or water, and who ate more mouthfuls of food. Positively active mothers adopted different strategies to encourage eating, such as verbally directing the child to eat, focusing, and temporarily diverting. These mothers tended to have children who were negatively responsive and refused food. Children accepted on average 5.31 mouthfuls of food and rejected 2.13. Mothers who used intrusively active strategies (e.g. force feeding) tended to have children who were both positively and negatively responsive, thus partially

  17. Cervical Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Clinico-demographic Profiles of Patients in a Secondary Level Hospital of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Mohammad Shah; Hoque, Md. Hafiz Ehsanul; Chowdhury, Fazle Rabbi; Farzana, Rubina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in Bangladesh since long. The present incidence and prevalence rates of all forms of TB are 227 and 404/100,000 population respectively. The aim of this study was to find out the clinical characteristics of involved cervical lymph nodes, demographic characteristics of the patients and response to treatment of Cervical Tuberculous Lymphadenitis (CTL) cases. Methods: A prospective study was performed in Shaheed Shamsuddin Ahmed Hospital, Sylhet, Bangladesh from June 2012 to June 2014. Total 65 patients having CTL attending outpatient department of the hospital were enrolled. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 5 to 60 years with a mean of 25.6 years. Two third (67.7%) of the patients were female. Male: Female ratio was 1:2.1. More than half of the patients came from rural areas (53.8%) and from low socio-economic conditions (58.5%). Most of the patients presented with unilateral (87.7%), multiple (82.3%), matted (68.6%) lymph nodes, <3cm diameter (54%), commonly in right side (57.9%). Abscess was found in 21.5% cases. Discharging sinus was found in 9.2% cases. Most commonly involved lymph node group was level V (59.4%) followed by level II (42.2%). Systemic features were found in 63.07% patients. Associated lung lesion was found in 3.1% cases. FNAC was found positive for tuberculosis in 83.9% cases. Most of the patients (78.46%) were cured with six months anti-tubercular chemotherapy. Conclusions: Early diagnosis and treatment is critical in reducing the overall prevalence. It is essential to have awareness regarding common presentations of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis among the general population as well as healthcare professionals working in the resource poor primary and secondary level hospitals. PMID:27375699

  18. Seeing the Attitude of the Countries to History of World War II through Memorial Hall%通过纪念馆看各国对二战历史的态度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳敏

    2014-01-01

    World War II has gone away from us , but it brings the great disaster and trauma to all mankind , which can never be forgotten .After the war , many countries in the world have established memorial halls about World War II-themed ,this paper through the exposition of the background , overview , content of exhibition and commemoration of establishment of these famous World War II Memorial halls , reflects the addition of individual authorities do not respect the facts and distort the history of aggression in addition , most countries in the world are thought to Memorial relying on the memory of World War II history , love of good hope for peace , while it also urges people to a profound understanding of the cruelty of war and brings in grave disaster to mankind , I hope the relevant authorities can respect the past ,and cherish peace .%第二次世界大战的战火已经离我们远去,但是它给全人类带来的深重灾难和心灵创伤永不能忘。战后世界上许多国家都建立了以二战为主题的纪念馆,本文通过对这些著名二战类纪念馆成立背景、概况、展示内容及纪念活动的阐述,反映出除个别当局不尊重事实、歪曲侵略历史外,世界大部分国家都是以纪念馆为依托,表达缅怀二战历史、热爱和平的美好希冀;同时,也呼吁人们深刻认识到战争的残酷和给全人类带来的深重灾难,希望有关当局尊重过往、珍爱和平。

  19. Seeing the Attitude of the Countries to History of World War II through Memorial Hall%通过纪念馆看各国对二战历史的态度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳敏

    2014-01-01

    第二次世界大战的战火已经离我们远去,但是它给全人类带来的深重灾难和心灵创伤永不能忘。战后世界上许多国家都建立了以二战为主题的纪念馆,本文通过对这些著名二战类纪念馆成立背景、概况、展示内容及纪念活动的阐述,反映出除个别当局不尊重事实、歪曲侵略历史外,世界大部分国家都是以纪念馆为依托,表达缅怀二战历史、热爱和平的美好希冀;同时,也呼吁人们深刻认识到战争的残酷和给全人类带来的深重灾难,希望有关当局尊重过往、珍爱和平。%World War II has gone away from us , but it brings the great disaster and trauma to all mankind , which can never be forgotten .After the war , many countries in the world have established memorial halls about World War II-themed ,this paper through the exposition of the background , overview , content of exhibition and commemoration of establishment of these famous World War II Memorial halls , reflects the addition of individual authorities do not respect the facts and distort the history of aggression in addition , most countries in the world are thought to Memorial relying on the memory of World War II history , love of good hope for peace , while it also urges people to a profound understanding of the cruelty of war and brings in grave disaster to mankind , I hope the relevant authorities can respect the past ,and cherish peace .

  20. ‘Towards an “exakte Kunstwissenschaft”(?. Part II: The new German art history in the nineteenth century: a summary of some problems'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Muthesius

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on what has been outlined in ‘Part I’ and on additional references to other new German work, as well as to articles by two of the protagonists of the 1870s and 1880s, Anton Springer and Moritz Thausing. The central issue is the nineteenth century’s desire for a Verwissenschaftlichung of the subject, to render the subject ‘purely scientific’. Principally this concerns the way in which older kinds of connoisseurship were juxtaposed to the new claims of a strictly ‘historical’ approach. Much shorter sections touch on aspects of style, iconography and form, as well as on the history of the provision of illustrations.

  1. A history of the Water Resources Branch of the United States Geological Survey: volume 4, years of World War II, July 1, 1939 to June 30, 1947

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follansbee, Robert

    1939-01-01

    This period extends from July 1, 1939, to June 30, 1947, and is called the years of World War II, although it was not until December 1941 that the United States entered the war which began in Europe in September 1939. By the beginning of the period, it was evident that this country might be drawn into the conflict and a rearmament program including the draft act , effective in September 1940, was started and prosecuted vigorously prior to December 1941, when the attack on Pearl Harbor forced us into the war. Although the war was not officially ended by June 1947, President Truman proclaimed the end of hostilities on December 31, 1946, thus terminating some of his war-time powers, and by further action terminated other war-time powers as of June 30, 1947.

  2. Characteristics of children and adolescents at onset of type 2 diabetes in a Tertiary Hospital in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedowra Zabeen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent data show that the prevalence of diabetes among children and adolescents is increasing in some ethnic groups. The worldwide epidemic of childhood obesity has been accompanied by an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D in youth. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the baseline characteristics of children and adolescents diagnosed ≤18 years who had features of T2D and presented at  Changing Diabetes in Children, Paediatric Diabetes Clinic at Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation of Diabetes, Endocrine, and Metabolic Disorders. All patients who were newly diagnosed and came to the clinic from March 2011 to March 2015 were included. Results: Among 939 newly registered patients, 77 (8% had a diagnosis of T2D. The age at diagnosis was 9-10 years in 11 patients (14%, 11-14 years in 46 (60% and 15-17 years in other 20 patients (26%. Majority of the children had a positive family history of T2D (94% and 58% were obese. Median fasting insulin (27.9 [17.3-99.3] was high in 76% patients. Insulin was started initially along with metformin in 40 patients and could be stopped in six patients in 3 months. Conclusion: Our study reflects that T2D is emerging as a problem in children and adolescents in Bangladesh.

  3. Characteristics of children and adolescents at onset of type 2 diabetes in a Tertiary Hospital in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabeen, Bedowra; Nahar, Jebun; Tayyeb, Samin; Mohsin, Fauzia; Nahar, Nazmun; Azad, Kishwar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Recent data show that the prevalence of diabetes among children and adolescents is increasing in some ethnic groups. The worldwide epidemic of childhood obesity has been accompanied by an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in youth. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the baseline characteristics of children and adolescents diagnosed ≤18 years who had features of T2D and presented at Changing Diabetes in Children, Paediatric Diabetes Clinic at Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation of Diabetes, Endocrine, and Metabolic Disorders. All patients who were newly diagnosed and came to the clinic from March 2011 to March 2015 were included. Results: Among 939 newly registered patients, 77 (8%) had a diagnosis of T2D. The age at diagnosis was 9–10 years in 11 patients (14%), 11–14 years in 46 (60%) and 15–17 years in other 20 patients (26%). Majority of the children had a positive family history of T2D (94%) and 58% were obese. Median fasting insulin (27.9 [17.3–99.3]) was high in 76% patients. Insulin was started initially along with metformin in 40 patients and could be stopped in six patients in 3 months. Conclusion: Our study reflects that T2D is emerging as a problem in children and adolescents in Bangladesh. PMID:27730073

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows in north and south regions of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Swapan Chandra; Parvin, Mst Sonia; Rahman, A K M Anisur; Islam, Md Taohidul

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the potential risk factors for subclinical mastitis (SCM) in lactating dairy cows in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was carried out on randomly selected 212 smallholder dairy farms of Sadar upazilas of Rangpur, Mymensingh, and Satkhira districts of Bangladesh during January to October 2011. The direct interview using a structured questionnaire and physical examination of the cows were done to collect data on 15 variables. Milk samples collected from study cows were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT). The diagnosis of SCM was based on the results of CMT and physical examination of udder and milk. The bivariable followed by multivariable analysis was done using SPSS 17.0. Of the total cows examined, 20.2 % had subclinical mastitis. In bivariable analysis, eight risk factors were identified. However, in the final model of multivariable analysis, four potential risk factors were identified. These were history of previous clinical mastitis (odds ratio (OR) 10.51, pmastitis, which need to be considered in the control of the disease. However, particular emphasis should be given on grass feeding and BCS because these traits can be modified or improved to allow prevention of SCM. PMID:23274695

  5. Analysis and Evaluation of Government-Websites’ Accessibility: Bangladesh Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhra Prosun Paul

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Web is a progressively more important resource in many aspects of life: education, employment, government, commerce, healthcare, recreation, and more. It is essential that the web be accessible to people with equal access and equal opportunity to all also with disabilities. An accessible web can also help people with disabilities more actively contribute in society. This paper concentrates on mainly two things; firstly, it briefly examines accessibility guidelines, evaluation methods and analysis tools. Secondly, it analyzes and evaluates the web accessibility of e-Government websites of Bangladesh according to the „W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines‟. We also present a recommendation for improvement of e-Government website accessibility in Bangladesh.

  6. Bangladesh: currently the worst, but possibly the future's best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Garrett

    2015-02-01

    Garment workers in Bangladesh producing clothing for international brands have experienced repeated factory fires and building collapses in the last 10 years, resulting in more than 1,600 deaths and hundreds of disabling injuries. After the Tazreen Fashion fire in December 2012 and the Rana Plaza building collapse in April 2013, more than 190 international clothing brands and retailers signed an "Accord on Fire and Building Safety" with two international union federations. Full implementation of the provisions of the Accord would change "business as usual" in Bangladesh's garment industry and set a positive example for other countries and other industries with global supply chains. The components, challenges, and controversies of the Accord are detailed in the article.

  7. Observations of cyclone-induced storm surge in coastal Bangladesh

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Soyee

    2015-01-01

    Water level measurements from 15 tide gauges in the coastal zone of Bangladesh are analyzed in conjunction with cyclone tracks and wind speed data for 54 cyclones between 1977 and 2010. Storm surge magnitude is inferred from residual water levels computed by subtracting modeled astronomical tides from observed water levels at each station. Observed residual water levels are generally smaller than reported storm surge levels for cyclones where both are available, and many cyclones produce no obvious residual at all. Both maximum and minimum residual water levels are higher for west-landing cyclones producing onshore winds and generally diminish for cyclones making landfall on the Bangladesh coast or eastward producing offshore winds. Water levels observed during cyclones are generally more strongly influenced by tidal phase and amplitude than by storm surge alone. In only 7 of the 15 stations does the highest plausible observed water level coincide with a cyclone. While cyclone-coincident residual water level ...

  8. Job Satisfaction of University Woman Teachers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed S. Alam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between job satisfaction, individual job facets, and socio-demographic variables in the public universities in Bangladesh. The research was conducted through mail survey. The sample consists of 500 teachers from two large universities in Bangladesh. Among the 500 questionnaires, 21 were returned, of the remaining 479 questionnaires, 232 usable responses were received, for a final response rate of 46.6%. This study identified whether female university teachers are satisfied or not compare to their counterpart. The results of Mann-Whitney U test also indicate that female are more satisfied than their counterpart. One major finding is that female employees were found to be more satisfied with promotion, fringe benefits and support of teaching but less satisfied with interpersonal relation with colleagues. The results also indicated that job satisfaction is not independent in all facets and that satisfaction with one facet might lead to satisfaction with another.

  9. Does the Labor Market Reward Easy Certificates? Evidence from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Munshi Sulaiman

    2012-01-01

    Using a "natural experiment" in the secondary school exit exam in Bangladesh, this paper evaluates the labor market effects of lowering exam difficulty. When exam standards are high, passing the exit exam increases the likelihood of attaining formal employment by 12-13 percentage points (compared to those who completed a similar number of years of education but did not pass the exam) for the male sample and by about 7 percentage points for females. When exam standards are low, these labor mar...

  10. Self-medication among medical and pharmacy students in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Naznin; Saffoon, Nadia; Uddin, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional survey examined the pattern of self-medication and factors associated with this practice among medical and pharmacy students in context to Bangladesh. Methods The study used a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 500; 250 medical and 250 pharmacy, students participated in the study. As it is a comparative analysis between the medical and pharmacy students, we used independent t test and Chi square test. Results The findings indicated that the impact of s...

  11. Civil Society, Health, and Social Exclusion in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Schurmann, Anna T; Mahmud, Simeen

    2009-01-01

    Civil society has the potential to have a positive impact on social exclusion and health equity through active monitoring and increased accountability. This paper examines the role of civil society in Bangladesh to understand why this potential has not been realized. Looking at two models of civil society action—participation in decentralized public-sector service provision and academic think-tank data analysis—this analysis examines the barriers to positive civil society input into public po...

  12. Iron in tubewell water and linear growth in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briend, A; Hoque, B A; Aziz, K M

    1990-02-01

    The growth of 694 children from rural Bangladesh was studied. Children drinking water containing greater than 1 mg iron/l (n = 628) were significantly taller than those drinking less than 1 mg iron/l (n = 66): their mean (SD) height for age Z score was -2.10 (1.34) compared with -2.45 (1.24), p less than 0.05. This suggests that iron deficiency may contribute to growth retardation in poor communities.

  13. Bangladesh: an Emerging Centre for Terrorism in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjan M. Gohel

    2014-01-01

    This Research Note examines the political developments that have occurred in Bangladesh in 2013 and explores how these have fed into the rise of religious militancy. The ongoing conflicts not only intensify the instability and schisms within the country, but also illustrate that there is a rise in religious militancy that the country can ill afford at this juncture. Furthermore, it highlights how some members of the Bangladeshi diaspora in the United States and United Kingdom have been recrui...

  14. Sexual Health of Women with Spinal Cord Injury in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Huib Cornielje; Reshma Parvin Nuri; Noortje Pauline Maria Lubbers; van Brakel, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify factors influencing the sexual health of women with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Bangladesh.Methods: This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The quantitative part used a case-control design. Cases were women with SCI and controls were age-matched women without SCI.  Questionnaires were used to collect data concerning the sexual health status of women. Multivariate logistic regression was done to determine which factors had an independent effect on sexual...

  15. Inside Productivity of Microcredit in Bangladesh: A Surgical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Mahmudul Alam; Rafiqul Islam Molla

    2012-01-01

    Microcredit typically refers to petty collateral-free credits given to groups of poor members in the society for their socioeconomic emancipation. It is claimed to be an effective tool for enhancing income of the poor primarily through creation of self-employment opportunities for them in a variety of small economic activities. However, in this survey of microcredit borrowers in Bangladesh it is found that when self-employed family labor is paid wages at market rate, under the framework of ec...

  16. Investigating the Performance of Islamic Banks in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Ibrahim; Kazi Deen Mohammad; Nazamul Hoque; Mohammad Aktaruzzaman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Around the world Islamic banking system is getting popularity gradually due to its multidimensional benefits. Consequently, many tradition banks have been converted (such as FSIBL and EIBBL) into Islamic Sharia’h based banks for the superiority of Islamic banking system. Thus, it is the curiosity of the investors, depositors, researchers and policy makers to know the performance of Islamic banks operating in Bangladesh. So, taking secondary data from the annual reports of the sample banks, th...

  17. Heterogeneous effects of international migration: evidences from Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Traverso, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Despite the general consensus regarding the important role played by international migration in the development of Bangladesh, little has been done to quantitatively estimate its effects. Within the framework of Rubin's causal model, this paper contributes to the literature estimating the net impact of international migration on the welfare of the members of households with migration experience. By taking advantage of the non-parametric nature of matching estimators, the effect of migration i...

  18. Lead poisoning: an alarming public health problem in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amal K; Haque, Akhlaque; Islam, Manirul; Bashar, S A M K

    2009-01-01

    To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs) from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105) of those tested had BLLs >or= 10 microg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs >or= 10 microg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 +/- 10.32, 7.24 +/- 6.31, and 2.47 +/- 3.32 microg/dL, respectively; p <0.001). Weight-for-age z-scores of the urban children were significantly lower than that of the rural children (-1.41 +/- 1.88 vs. 0.20 +/- 1.16, p <0.001). Children with elevated BLLs had poorer nutritional status (p = 0.05) than those with normal BLLs. Over 90% of the parents did not know that lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh.

  19. Lead Poisoning: An Alarming Public Health Problem in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. K. Bashar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105 of those tested had BLLs ≥10 µg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs ≥10 µg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 ± 10.32, 7.24 ± 6.31, and 2.47 ± 3.32 µg/dL, respectively; p <0.001. Weight-for-age z-scores of the urban children were significantly lower than that of the rural children (-1.41 ± 1.88 vs. 0.20 ± 1.16, p <0.001. Children with elevated BLLs had poorer nutritional status (p = 0.05 than those with normal BLLs. Over 90% of the parents did not know that lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh.

  20. Perinatal mortality attributable to complications of childbirth in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Kusiako, T.; Ronsmans, C.; van der Paal, L

    2000-01-01

    Very few population-based studies of perinatal mortality in developing countries have examined the role of intrapartum risk factors. In the present study, the proportion of perinatal deaths that are attributable to complications during childbirth in Matlab, Bangladesh, was assessed using community-based data from a home-based programme led by professional midwives between 1987 and 1993. Complications during labour and delivery--such as prolonged or obstructed labour, abnormal fetal position, ...

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON INTEGRATED FARMING IN BANGLADESH AND OTHER COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Mohammad Taj; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates the different variations of integrated farming that are prevalent in developing countries in Asia. A cross-country comparison was done using productivity analysis on duck-fish integrated farming in India, poultry-fish in Thailand, rice-fish in the Philippines, and crop-livestock-fish-homestead integrated farming in Vietnam. The study findings indicate farmers in Bangladesh could add additional components to their on-going farming practices to increase not only the product...

  2. Municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    A.Z.A. SAIFULLAH; Md. Tasbirul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Dhaka is the capital city of Bangladesh, with the highest population density (129,501 people/square km) in the world. Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the city is 4634.52 tons/day. This study aims to explore current MSW management scenario which is found one of the most underestimated sectors of Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) – the responsible authority for MSW management. Overall operational and collection efficiency of DCC MSW management is 45% and 60%, respectively. Vehicle fleet...

  3. E-Banking of Economical Prospects in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Azizul Baten; Anton Abdulbasah Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Now a day’s due to emerging global economy, e-commerce and e-business have increasingly become a necessary component of business strategy and a strong catalyst for economic development. The new information technology is becoming an important factor in the future development of financial services industry, and especially banking industry. As a third-world developing country, Bangladesh is far behind to reach the expected level in global banking system. So it is our urgent n...

  4. Ethical reporting in Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (1983–2010).

    OpenAIRE

    Belal, A.; Abdelsalam, O.; Nizamee, S.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to undertake a critical examination of the ethical and developmental performance of an Islamic bank as communicated in its annual reports over a period of 28 years (1983–2010). Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited’s (IBBL hereafter) ethical performance and disclosures are further analyzed through interviews conducted with the bank’s senior management. The key findings include an overall increase in ethical disclosures during the study period. However, the focus on vari...

  5. RURAL MARKETS IN BANGLADESH AND THE RURAL MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, M. Mosleh; Kabir, M.; Alam, M. Mostafa; Boss, G. K.

    1989-01-01

    This study describes the Impact of rural maintenance programme on rural markets in Bangladesh. Rural Maintenance programme (RMP) is a year-round programme for maintenance ol 16 miles earthen roads In each selected union. The programme is run by crews consisting of 15 destitute women. The findings suggest that better road maintenance by RMP in the programme areas has resulted in more traffic f low through which the markets in the programme areas have been expanded. Better supply of services su...

  6. Social networking in Bangladesh: Boon or curse for academic engagement?

    OpenAIRE

    Mouri Dey; Ali Arshad Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    The number of social networking services (SNSs) users in Bangladesh is increasing at an accelerating rate. There are many who argue that SNS usage is destroying the students’ future by diminishing their academic engagement. The authors aim to investigate whether there is any relationship between students’ academic performance and their SNS usage. The study chose Facebook as a representative of SNSs because this is the most popular platform for online social connectivity and conducted a survey...

  7. Determinants of Customer Satisfaction of Banking Industry in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Belal Uddin; Bilkis Akhter

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate, through the development and operationalized constructs of service quality, service charge, perceived value, and customer satisfaction; customersatisfaction and its determinants of the banking industry in Bangladesh. An exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling was used to analyze data. Measurement model and structural model indicate that service quality and fair service charge both havepositive direct impact on customer satisfaction in a mass...

  8. Inflation and Financial Sector Correlation: The Case of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu N.M. Wahid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of inflation on financial development in case of Bangladesh for the period of 1985-2005. In doing so, ARDL bounds testing approach and Error Correction Method (ECM have been employed. Empirical findings reveal that high trends of inflation impede the performance of financial markets. GDP per capita promotes development of financial sector through its causal channels.

  9. Factors Determining Inpatient Satisfaction with Hospital Care in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Laila Ashrafun; Mohammad Jasim Uddin

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with satisfaction among inpatients receiving medical and surgical care for urinary, cardiovascular, respiratory, and ophthalmology diseases at Dhaka Government Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh. The data of this study is collected from 190 inpatients by using a patient judgments questionnaire covering 10 dimensions of satisfaction (appointment waiting time for doctor after admission, doctor’s treatment and behavior, behavior and...

  10. Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development in Bangladesh (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

    2013-11-01

    Bangladesh is widely considered to be one of the nations most threatened by climate change. With two-thirds of the country less than 20 feet above sea level, the intrusion of salt into freshwater wells, frequent flooding, and the displacement of people from their homes is an ongoing threat. At the same time, the country's cities are rapidly growing, and the demand for energy is increasing at a corresponding rate.

  11. Secondary Educational Institution Centered Diffusion of ICT in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents a holistic approach for exploring, analyzing, solving, and circumventing the barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in relation to the learning environments of secondary educational institutions in rural Bangladesh. It contributes to the fields of ICT for development (ICT4D) and educational technology in the scope and findings as follows. The current literature lacks a holistic understanding of the complexities of the barriers that are rooted and entangled ...

  12. Forest-based Tourism in Bangladesh: Status, Problems and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Mahbubul; Furukawa, Yasushi; Akter, Salma

    2009-01-01

    Bangladesh is a land of diverse forest-based natural attractions throughout the evergreen, semi-evergreen, and mangrove forest ecosystems. The article attempts at exploring various dimensions of ecotourism industry and critically analyzes the relationship among the stakeholders, overall strength-weakness of ecotourism sector and impediments hindering its development. National Parks, Ecoparks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves, and the like have been developed in the natural forest ecosystem...

  13. Chinese Rice Planting Technique Ensures Optimum Wheat Yield in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Spring wheat is the second option of cereal crop to feed the growing population in Bangladesh. This crop can yield more than 5.0 ton ha-1 with optimum management on 6.1 million ha of land - 2.6 million ha with irrigation and 3.5 million ha without irrigation. However, the present average wheat yield is near 1.5 ton ha-1, and only 10% of the potential area are under wheat cultivation for various reasons.

  14. Improvement of Deep Tubwell Irrigation Project Performance in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Miah, Md. Mirjahan

    1984-01-01

    A computer model for use in predicting the impact of various improvement options on command area expansion of a deep tubewell irrigation system has been developed. A field study was conducted on 11 selected deep tubewells located at two sites, namely Dhamrai and Thakurgaon, in Bangladesh to collect necessary physical data to provide irrigation engineering insight and a basis for testing and application of the model. The results of the investigation revealed that the actual discharge of most o...

  15. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF TOXOPLASMA, RUBELLA, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS AND HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS -2 IN WOMEN WITH BAD OBSTETRIC HISTORY. PART II. CYTOMEGALOVIRUS AND HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulghani Mohamed Alsamarai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bad obstetric history (BOH is reported worldwide and is associated with social and psychological impacts. Cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus play an important role in the induction of adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Highest CMV IgG prevalence rate was reported for India (91.05%, while the lowest rate was reported for Iran (14.28%. Unfortunately, six studies in Iraq reported a high prevalence of CMV IgM in non-married, pregnant and women with BOH. The range of recent CMV infection in pregnant women with BOH was from 1.4% in Jordan to 60.2% in Iraq. In women with BOH, the highest HSV 2 prevalence (16.8% was noted in India, while the lowest rate (1.69% was reported in India also. In Arab countries, among women with BOH, HSV 2 IgG and IgM seroprevalence higher rates were reported for Iraq. This literature review highlights the high bacterial and viral maternal infection rate in the developing world. Urgent, concerted action is required to reduce the burden of these infections. In addition to raising awareness about the severity of the problem of maternal infections in the developing world, data from this review will be beneficial in guiding public health policy, research interests and donor funding towards achieving improvement in health care delivery.

  16. Status of zinc nutrition in Bangladesh: the underlying associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sabuktagin; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Alam, Nurul; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Ireen, Santhia; Chowdhury, Ireen Akhter; Chowdhury, Fatima Parveen; Rahman, S M Mustafizur

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is a country with a high burden of micronutrient malnutrition. Stunting affects 41 % of children aged under 5 years. Zn is one of the key micronutrients that is associated with stunting. The present study, as part of the national micronutrient survey 2011-2012, revealed for the first time the nationally representative prevalence of Zn deficiency and determined the associations of the condition. A cross-sectional 'nationwide' survey was conducted in pre-school-age children (6-59 months; PSAC) and non-pregnant non-lactating women (15-49 years; NPNLW). Multistage random sampling was done in 150 clusters; fifty in each of the rural, urban and slum strata. Data were analysed on 662 PSAC and 1073 NPNLW. Serum Zn was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Zn deficiency was defined as serum Zn of origin Zn (β = -0·13; P = 0·038) determined higher and lower status of Zn in PSAC, respectively. Zn deficiency was highly prevalent in Bangladesh, and it was principally related to inadequate quality of diet. To improve Zn nutrition, Bangladesh needs to strengthen research and programmes related to Zn biofortification, fortification and phytate-reducing technologies in the food system in the short and medium term. In addition, promotion of animal-source Zn for all is important in the long run. PMID:27547388

  17. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  18. Mangrove wetland ecosystems in Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafi Noor ISLAM; Albrecht GNAUCK

    2008-01-01

    The Sundarbans is one of the productive man-grove wetland ecosystems in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh. The delta is undergoing rapid eco-logical changes due to human activity. In the present study, surface water salinity data from 13 rivers of the Sundarbans were collected in order to investigate the sal-ine water intrusion in the mangrove wetlands. Results demonstrate that saline water has penetrated the upstream area as river water salinity has increased signifi-cantly in 1976 compared to the year 1968. The soil and river water salinity data also shows that it has crossed the water salinity threshold line in most parts of the Sundarbans wetlands. These observations are due to the construction of Farakka Barrage in 1975, which reduced the water discharge of the Ganges River from 3700 m3/s in 1962 to 364 m3/s in 2006. The shortage of freshwater dis-charge to the deltaic area is trailing active ecosystems function, especially in the dry season in the south western region in Bangladesh. The objective of this study is to understand and analyze the present degraded mangrove wetland ecosystems and their negative impacts. The find-ings of this study would contribute to the formulation of the mangrove wetland ecosystems management plan inthe Ganges delta of Bangladesh.

  19. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  20. ENGLISH MEDIUM INSTRUCTION IN THE PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjurul Islam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: As it is viewed English Medium Instruction (EMI at tertiary level has emerged as a big educational issue in Bangladesh as well as many parts of the world. Hence, the present trend of Bangladeshi higher education has assessed some crucial reasons of the extended use of English as a medium of instruction. Although education researchers in other countries have worked in this area to understand this educational issue, there has been very little research on EMI at tertiary level in Bangladesh. That is why, this study reports a case study involving teachers and students in a private university in Bangladesh by critically examining the language practice and implementation of EMI policy within the context of Bangladeshi higher education. Based on the analysis of interview data, it is argued that through their language practices and beliefs students and teachers constructed their perception towards the accomplishment of EMI policy, educational choice and effectiveness of EMI policy. It is suggested that implications of MOI policies world-wide and the national level practices of students’ content knowledge and English proficiency development in a globalizing world where English is widely believed to hold mammoth prospective for individuals and societies because of its role in human capital development.

  1. THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Hassan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-governmental organizations are claimed to have impacts on the sustainable development in rural areas of the developing countries and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC is identified as an example. This study has considered BRAC as the case and has been aimed to critically outline the roles of this selected non-governmental organization (BRAC in sustainable development process. With this particular aim, this study has also explored the trends of current poverty situations in Bangladesh. In addition, impacts of the BRAC sustainable development initiatives have also been analyzed, to some extent. This study has selected two villages of the Chandpur district of Bangladesh, where BRAC has been operating intense programmes. This study has used both the qualitative and quantitative methods of research. Results suggest that programmes undertaken by NGOs are capable of having positive contributions in the sustainable development process to a certain level. The fact is that the programme implementation, where efficiency of the NGO employees is an indicator of success factor. The research is empirical and is expectedly fill the gap of literature.

  2. Prospects and problems of medical tourism in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Muhammad Z; Andaleeb, Syed Saad

    2013-01-01

    The growing trend of Bangladeshi patients travelling abroad for medical services has led to some soul-searching in policy circles. While other countries of the Southeast Asia region are profiting from medical tourism, Bangladesh not only lags behind, it also loses patients to these countries in a continuous stream. This exodus for medical treatment is seemingly driven by the higher perceived quality of treatment abroad, despite the fact that similar treatment is available more cost-effectively within the country. Certainly the Bangladesh health care system is not without its problenis, which have diminished the perception of quality in the sector. Thus, this study focuses on key factors for Bangladeshi health service providers to address. By doing so, they will be better able to develop the local health care sector and retain Bangladeshi patients within the country. Subsequently, by identifying strategic niches, Bangladesh could focus on delivering higher quality health care services to develop medical tourism and attract patients from abroad in specific categories of health care. PMID:23527458

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL CRITIQUE ON WATER SECTORAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water resources sector of Bangladesh relies on the Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs to assess the possible positive and negative impacts on the environmental and social components of the project affected areas. The motivation of this research was to identify the key environmental components, gaps and lapses of current EIA practices in water resources sector of Bangladesh. Under the motivation, this study has determined the effectiveness of a water resources EIA (Gorai River Restoration Project for sustainable implication of water resources development and management projects in Bangladesh. Component-based checklist method and effectiveness review framework were used in this study to draw conclusions and to make environmental decisions on the important sections of the studied EIA. Review of the key aspects and the analysis of the effectiveness framework disclosed that the studied EIA is well performed and have considered sufficient information for decision making, but the residual and unavoidable impacts were not identified for all the important environment components in the construction and operation phase. Inclusion of important environmental and social components under different intervention scenarios, consideration of alternative flow regimes, suggestions and analysis of different project interventions ensuring public participation were the key strengths of the studies EIA. The considered environmental issues and aspects of this study can be used as guidelines for the future EIAs under the similar geo-environmental contexts. The developed review framework can be implemented in water resources EIA review process to ensure long-term sustainability of water resources projects.

  4. Treatment delay period: the case of arsenicosis in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bimal Kanti; Brock, Vicki L Tinnon

    2006-12-01

    Arsenic concentrations of tubewell water that exceed acceptable limits poses a serious health problem in Bangladesh. Many Bangladeshis are now suffering from arsenic-related diseases. The objectives of this paper are to examine the extent of delay in seeking medical treatment by victims of arsenic poisoning and to identify factors contributing to this delay. Questionnaire survey successfully administered to 663 victims living in two rural areas of Bangladesh provided the major data source for this study. Analysis of survey data reveal that median delay period was 12 months, but the delay period ranged from 1 month to 18 years. Because of this extremely large range, the mean delay period was about 22 months. The study identified time of identification of symptoms of arsenicosis as the most significant determinant of treatment delay followed by treatment sought from members of mobile medical teams, perceived threat, and level of education. Based on the study findings, it is recommended that the Bangladesh government and NGOs involved in arsenic mitigation and prevention efforts should educate individuals at risk for arsenic poisoning about the benefits of seeking early treatment. This study also recommends to continue to dispatch mobile medical teams to the arsenic-impacted areas.

  5. Evaluation of the Apache II and the oncologic history, as indicative predictions of mortality in the unit of intensive care of the INC September 1996 -December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    They are multiple the indexes of severity that have been carried out to value the predict and the quality of a patient's life, especially when this it enters to the unit of intensive care (UIC); however, the oncologic patient presents particularities in their mobility, that it supposes a different behavior in the results of the Indexes. Presently work is compared the Apache scale and the oncologic history like morbid mortality as predictors in the UCI. 207 patients were included that entered the UCI between September of 1996 and December of 1997. It was a mortality of 29%, the stay of most of this group of patient smaller than 24 hours or bigger than 8 days. To the entrance, 50% of the patients presented superior averages at 15 in the Apache Scale and at the 48 hours, alone 30.4% continued with this value. The patients with hematologic neoplasia presented superior average at 15 in 87%, with a mortality of 63.3% with average between 15 and 24 to the entrance, the risk of dying was 9.8 times but that with inferior average. In the hematologic patient, the risk of dying was 5.7 times but regarding the solid tumors. The system but altered it was the breathing one, with an increase in the risk of dying from 2,8 times for each increment utility in the scale. Contrary to described in the literature, the oncologic diagnoses and the neoplasia statistic they didn't influence in the mortality of the patients

  6. Approaches to Increase Arsenic Awareness in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of an Arsenic Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; Islam, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from…

  7. Analysis of Quality in Public and Private Universities in Bangladesh and USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2014-01-01

    To meet the growing need for increased capacity in higher education, the government of Bangladesh encouraged development of private universities in 1992. Currently, there are sixty private universities, thirty-four public universities and three international universities in Bangladesh. Although the increased number of universities has provided…

  8. Epidemiology of childhood and adolescent cancer in Bangladesh, 2001-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Hossain (Mohammad Sorowar); M. Begum (Mamtaz); M.M. Mian (Md Mahmuduzzaman); S. Ferdous (Shameema); S. Kabir (Shahinur); H.K. Sarker (Humayun Kabir); S. Karim (Sabina); S. Choudhury (Salma); A. Khan (Asaduzzaman); Z.J. Khan (Zohora Jameela); H.E. Karim-Kos (Henrike)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cancer burden among children and adolescents is largely unknown in Bangladesh. This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview on childhood and adolescent cancers and to contribute to the future strategies to deal with these diseases in Bangladesh. Methods: Data on malign

  9. The Role of Pre-School Education on Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school education on learning achievement at primary level in Bangladesh. Evidence from learning achievement test and household and school-related data were obtained from 7093 pupils attending 440 primary schools in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a small proportion (15.3%) of primary school pupils attended…

  10. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of the Ultra-Poor in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Aktaruzzaman; Ali, Anees Janee

    2014-01-01

    Although microcredit is considered the main vehicle for increasing the income of the poor and alleviating poverty in Bangladesh, it is now well recognised that more than this is needed to reach the ultra poor in rural areas. Consequently, almost half of the Bangladesh population is in some way linked to non-governmental organizations'…

  11. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  12. Employment of Active Learning at HEIs in Bangladesh to Improve Education Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Faieza

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, education quality and quality assessment have received a great deal of attention at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Bangladesh. Most of the HEIs in Bangladesh face severe resource constraints and find it difficult to improve education quality by improving inputs, such as better infrastructure and modernized classroom…

  13. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A (H5N1) viruses, Bangladesh, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Tun, Hein Min; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Islam, Skm Azizul; Islam, Md Nurul; Giasuddin, Md; Osmani, Tabm Muzaffar Goni; Islam, Ariful; Thornton, Ronald Norman; Burgess, Graham William; Skerratt, Lee Francis; Selleck, Paul; Brun, Edgar; Debnath, Nitish Chandra; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the origins, evolution and patterns of spread of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in Bangladesh, we performed a phylogenetic reconstruction analysis using Bayesian methods. The analysis was conducted using 81 hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences from the H5N1 viruses isolated in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011, together with 264 publicly available HA sequences of clade 2.2, 2.3.2 and 2.3.4 retrieved from GenBank. Our study provides evidence that clade 2.2.2 viruses that caused outbreaks in Bangladesh were lineages independent from the viruses introduced earlier into India. Furthermore, the Bangladesh clade 2.2.2 descendents subsequently spread to India and Bhutan. This has implications for avian influenza control in southern Asia suggesting multiple routes of entry of the virus including one pathway that spread to neighboring countries via Bangladesh. PMID:23820377

  14. IMPACT OF CURRENCY DEVALUATION ON THE EXPORTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH AND INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Shahzad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the impact of currency devaluation on exports of three major economies of South Asian (i.e., Pakistan, Bangladesh and India over the period 1980 to 2012, by implementing the multiple regression models. Results reveales that currency devaluation encourages exports of Pakistan and Bangladesh. Lending interest rate significant negative effect in Pakistan and Bangladesh but insignificant in India. Government expenditure encouraged the export of Pakistan while not significaant in Bangladesh while depress in India. Money supply also enhanced the export of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. Result suggest that concerned authorities should manage and use the resources properly in such a way which may assist to develop the economies.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A (H5N1) viruses, Bangladesh, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Tun, Hein Min; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Islam, Skm Azizul; Islam, Md Nurul; Giasuddin, Md; Osmani, Tabm Muzaffar Goni; Islam, Ariful; Thornton, Ronald Norman; Burgess, Graham William; Skerratt, Lee Francis; Selleck, Paul; Brun, Edgar; Debnath, Nitish Chandra; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the origins, evolution and patterns of spread of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in Bangladesh, we performed a phylogenetic reconstruction analysis using Bayesian methods. The analysis was conducted using 81 hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences from the H5N1 viruses isolated in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011, together with 264 publicly available HA sequences of clade 2.2, 2.3.2 and 2.3.4 retrieved from GenBank. Our study provides evidence that clade 2.2.2 viruses that caused outbreaks in Bangladesh were lineages independent from the viruses introduced earlier into India. Furthermore, the Bangladesh clade 2.2.2 descendents subsequently spread to India and Bhutan. This has implications for avian influenza control in southern Asia suggesting multiple routes of entry of the virus including one pathway that spread to neighboring countries via Bangladesh.

  16. Case reports: arsenic pollution in Thailand, Bangladesh, and Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw; Visoottiviseth, Pornsawan; Bux, M Khoda; Födényi, Rita; Kováts, Nora; Borbély, Gábor; Galbács, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    Although arsenic contamination in the three countries described herein differs, a number of common themes emerge. In each country, the presence of arsenic is both long term and of geological origin. Moreover, in each of these countries, arsenic was only recently discovered to be a potential public health problem, having been first formally recognized in the 1980s or 1990s. In Bangledesh, exposure of the public to arsenic arose as a result of the search for microbially safe drinking water; this search resulted in the sinking of tube wells into aquifers. In Hungary, the natural bedrock geology was responsible for contamination of aquifer water. The genesis of arsenic contamination in Thailand arose primarily from small-scale alluvial mining activities, which mobilized geologically bound arsenic. Because of the complex chemistry of arsenic, and variability in where it is found and how it is bound, multiple mitigation methods must be considered for mitigating episodes of environmental contamination. The Ron Phibun region of Thailand has a 100-yr history of tin mining. A geological survey of the region was conducted in the mid-1990s by the Department of Mineral Resources and Department of Industry of Thailand, and was supported by the British Geological Society. Skin cancer in Thailand was first reported in 1987, in the southern part of the country; among other symptoms observed, there was evidence of IQ diminutions among the population. Arsenic water levels to 9,000 pg/L were reported; such levels are substantially above any guideline levels. A long-term plan to mitigate arsenic contamination was devised in 1998-2000. The plan involved removal of arsenic-contaminated land and improved management of mining wastes. However, at $22 million, the cost was deemed prohibitive for the regional Thai economy. An alternative solution of providing pipeline drinking water to the exposed population was also unsuccessful, either because arsenic contamination levels did not fall

  17. Learning history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Hilary speaks here with Professor Rik Peters an historian-philosopher who develops the Learning History as a method for engaging with socially relevant action in Holland. Thinking of history as a way to bridge to practical scenario planning, he is helping cities in Holland grapple with integration o

  18. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  19. Romerrigets historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t.......Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t....

  20. On Line Measurement of Reactivity Worth of TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor Control Rods

    OpenAIRE

    Nusrat Jahan; Mamunur M. Rashid; F. Ahmed; M. G. S. Islam; M. Aliuzzaman; Islam, S.M.A

    2011-01-01

    The reactivity worth measurement system for control rods of the TRIGA MARK-II research reactor of Bangladesh has been design and developed. The theory of the kinetic technique of measuring reactivity has been used by this measurement system. The system comprises of indigenous hardware and software for online acquisition of neutron flux signals from reactor console and then computes the reactivity worth accordingly. Here for the TRIGA MARK-II research reactor, the reactivity measurement system...

  1. Genotype Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Strains Circulating in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rume, Farzana Islam; Affuso, Alessia; Serrecchia, Luigina; Rondinone, Valeria; Manzulli, Viviana; Campese, Emanuele; Di Taranto, Pietro; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Fasanella, Antonio; Hugh-Jones, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is considered an endemic disease affecting ruminants with sporadic zoonotic occurrences in humans. Due to the lack of knowledge about risks from an incorrect removal of infected carcasses, the disease is not properly monitored, and because of the socio-economic conditions, the situation is under-reported and under-diagnosed. For sensitive species, anthrax represents a fatal outcome with sudden death and sometimes bleeding from natural orifices. The most common source of infection for ruminants is ingestion of spores during grazing in contaminated pastures or through grass and water contaminated with anthrax spores. Domestic cattle, sheep and goats can also become infected through contaminated bone meal (used as feed) originating from anthrax-infected carcasses. The present investigation was conducted to isolate B. anthracis organisms from 169 samples (73 soil, 1 tissue, 4 bone and 91 bone meal samples) collected from 12 different districts of Bangladesh. The sampling was carried out from 2012 to 2015. Twelve samples resulted positive for B. anthracis. Biomolecular analyses were conducted starting from the Canonical Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (CanSNP) to analyze the phylogenetic origin of strains. The analysis of genotype, obtained through the Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) with the analysis of 15 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR), demonstrated four different genotypes: two of them were previously identified in the district of Sirajganj. The sub-genotyping, conducted with Single Nucleotide Repeats analysis, revealed the presence of eight subgenotypes. The data of the present study concluded that there was no observed correlation between imported cattle feed and anthrax occurrence in Bangladesh and that the remarkable genetic variations of B. anthracis were found in the soil of numerous outbreaks in this country. PMID:27082248

  2. Fishing with Otters: a Traditional Conservation Practice in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mostafa Feeroz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishing with otters has been practiced in Bangladesh for the last two hundred years. This traditional practice plays an important role in otter conservation in Bangladesh. Among the three species of otters found in Bangladesh, only Lutra perspicillata is currently used for fishing by the fishermen in and around the Sundarbans. Noraile and Khulna districts, near the Sundarbans, are the only districts in the country where this species is bred in captivity, tamed, and used for fishing by the fishermen. These fishermen are completely dependent on this technique for their livelihood. These tamed otters are used for fishing in rivers inside the Sundarbans during winter and pre-monsoon. Fishing occurs outside the Sundarbans only during monsoon. The whole fishing system is unique, involving three people, a boat, a net, two adult tamed otters, and an immature trainee otter. The tamed otters generally do not catch fish by themselves during fishing rather they chase fish towards a special fishing net placed in the water away from the boat. Otters start driving fish to the net from different directions and when they come close to the net, the fishermen pull the net into the boat. Fishing with otters occurs at night, mostly between 2100h and 0500h. Fish are captured during 8 to 12 periods by each fishing group per night. The total nightly weight of captured fish varies from 4 to 12 kg. We recorded 176 otters of different age and sex classes in captivity belonging to 46 fishermen groups in two districts. Among these, 138 adult otters are actively involved in fishing. The remaining animals are infants, juveniles, or very old. These otters breed successfully in captivity and maintain their population. Approximately 300 people are directly involved in this fishing technique and another 2,000 people indirectly depend on this method of fishing for their livelihood. This species of otter is conserved traditionally both in captivity and in the wild in this area.

  3. Performing monkeys of Bangladesh: characterizing their source and genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Akhtar, Sharmin; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The acquisition and training of monkeys to perform is a centuries-old tradition in South Asia, resulting in a large number of rhesus macaques kept in captivity for this purpose. The performing monkeys are reportedly collected from free-ranging populations, and may escape from their owners or may be released into other populations. In order to determine whether this tradition involving the acquisition and movement of animals has influenced the population structure of free-ranging rhesus macaques in Bangladesh, we first characterized the source of these monkeys. Biological samples from 65 performing macaques collected between January 2010 and August 2013 were analyzed for genetic variation using 716 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA. Performing monkey sequences were compared with those of free-ranging rhesus macaque populations in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Forty-five haplotypes with 116 (16 %) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the performing monkeys. As for the free-ranging rhesus population, most of the substitutions (89 %) were transitions, and no indels (insertion/deletion) were observed. The estimate of the mean number of pair-wise differences for the performing monkey population was 10.1264 ± 4.686, compared to 14.076 ± 6.363 for the free-ranging population. Fifteen free-ranging rhesus macaque populations were identified as the source of performing monkeys in Bangladesh; several of these populations were from areas where active provisioning has resulted in a large number of macaques. The collection of performing monkeys from India was also evident. PMID:26758818

  4. Municipal solid waste (MSW management in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z.A. Saifullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dhaka is the capital city of Bangladesh, with the highest population density (129,501 people/square km in the world. Municipal solid waste (MSW generation in the city is 4634.52 tons/day. This study aims to explore current MSW management scenario which is found one of the most underestimated sectors of Dhaka City Corporation (DCC – the responsible authority for MSW management. Overall operational and collection efficiency of DCC MSW management is 45% and 60%, respectively. Vehicle fleet for waste transport showed considerably low efficiency in terms of load carrying capacity and fuel consumption. Residential waste is found potential source of composting. At present, a 500 tons/day compost plant has been operating since September 1998. Worth of recoverable recyclable material is found US$ 82,428,449.9989. Open dumping is a pressing problem leading to groundwater pollution, environmental contamination and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Each day, approximately, 1800 tons of MSW is dumped in the only official landfill site – Matuail. DCC spends 1.5% (601,350 Bangladesh Taka (BDT/day of the total budget for landfilling operation and management. Land required for disposal of MSW in Dhaka is estimated to be 110 ha per year. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM projects in waste sector in Bangladesh are found promising. This study urge to prepare a detailed plan for sustainable MSW management in Dhaka for source separation, large scale investment on composting and Waste to Energy (WTE projects, recycling, state of the art landfill development, and optimized reverse logistic operation

  5. Problems faced by Bangladesh in introducing a nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The per capita energy resources and consumption of energy in Bangladesh are among the lowest in the world as in the per capita GDP of the country. The need for and importance of nuclear power in providing cheaper and reliable energy for economic development of the country is discussed in the light of this situation. The constraints faced by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) in the initiation and development of a national nuclear power programme are detailed. Following the liberation of the country in 1971 its financial resources were mainly channelled to the rehabilitation and restoration of the economy. As the size of the national grid has remained relatively small, unit sizes in the range of 50-200MW(e) only could be considered for commissioning. Lack of vendor interest in such small sizes and the difficulty of arranging long-term investment for nuclear stations are the main constraints faced by the BAEC. Other bottlenecks are due to the uncertainty about the nature and extent of future economic development, pricing policy for available indigenous fossil fuel, and national energy planning criteria, which are mainly influenced by the limited financial resources, national priority for various essential non-development expenditures, which use up most of the country's own earnings and foreign aid, etc. Problems that are likely to be faced in future are discussed. These include public acceptability of nuclear power in Bangladesh, the obstacles to the transfer of nuclear technology that may be erected through the prospective growth of a cartel of nuclear-exporting countries, drainage of trained manpower, etc. (author)

  6. Energy productivity and efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in Bangladesh and production is highly sensitive to variations in the environment. We estimate productivity and energy efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh by applying a stochastic production frontier approach while accounting for the environmental constraints affecting production. Wheat farming is energy efficient with a net energy balance of 20,596 MJ per ha and energy ratio of 2.34. Environmental constraints such as a combination of unsuitable land, weed and pest attack, bad weather, planting delay and infertile soils significantly reduce wheat production and its energy efficiency. Environmental constraints account for a mean energy efficiency of 3 percentage points. Mean technical efficiency is 88% thereby indicating that elimination of inefficiencies can increase wheat energy output by 12%. Farmers' education, access to agricultural information and training in wheat production significantly improves efficiency, whereas events such as a delay in planting and first fertilization significantly reduce it. Policy recommendations include development of varieties that are resistant to environmental constraints and suitable for marginal areas; improvement of wheat farming practices; and investments in education and training of farmers as well as dissemination of information. - Highlights: • Bangladesh wheat farming is energy efficient at 20,596 MJha−1; energy ratio 2.34. • Environmental factors significantly influence productivity and energy efficiency. • Environmental factors must be taken into account when estimating wheat productivity. • Government policies must focus on ways of alleviating environmental factors. • Farmers' education, training and information sources increase technical efficiency

  7. Are 'Village Doctors' in Bangladesh a curse or a blessing?

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    Wahed Tania

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh is one of the health workforce crisis countries in the world. In the face of an acute shortage of trained professionals, ensuring healthcare for a population of 150 million remains a major challenge for the nation. To understand the issues related to shortage of health workforce and healthcare provision, this paper investigates the role of various healthcare providers in provision of health services in Chakaria, a remote rural area in Bangladesh. Methods Data were collected through a survey carried out during February 2007 among 1,000 randomly selected households from 8 unions of Chakaria Upazila. Information on health-seeking behaviour was collected from 1 randomly chosen member of a household from those who fell sick during 14 days preceding the survey. Results Around 44% of the villagers suffered from an illness during 14 days preceding the survey and of them 47% sought treatment for their ailment. 65% patients consulted Village Doctors and for 67% patients Village Doctors were the first line of care. Consultation with MBBS doctors was low at 14%. Given the morbidity level observed during the survey it was calculated that 250 physicians would be needed in Chakaria if the patients were to be attended by a qualified physician. Conclusions With the current shortage of physicians and level of production in the country it was asserted that it is very unlikely for Bangladesh to have adequate number of physicians in the near future. Thus, making use of existing healthcare providers, such as Village Doctors, could be considered a realistic option in dealing with the prevailing crisis.

  8. Is Knowledge Shared within Households? Theory and Evidence for Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik Basu; Ambar Narayan; Martin Ravallion

    2001-01-01

    A member of a collective-action household may or may not share knowledge with others in that household. Shared income gains from shared knowledge may well be offset by a shift in the balance of power within the family. Using household survey data for Bangladesh we find strong external effects of education on individual earnings. Holding a range of personal attributes constant, an illiterate adult earns significantly more in the non-farm economy when living in a family with at least one litera...

  9. Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh

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    Krishna Mohan Palipudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples. Results: The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9% (male-58.2% and female-51.7%, in workplace (63% (male-67.8% and female-30.4%, and in any public place (57.8% (male-90.4% and female-25.1% 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3% and health care facilities (5.8%; however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%, and restaurants (27.6%. SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups. Conclusions: Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on

  10. Analyzing The Factors For Rejection Of Leather In Bangladesh

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    Md.Farhad Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leather plays a vital role in earning the foreign currency for Bangladesh. Export of finished leather and leather products have an important impact on the economy of Bangladesh. Mainly cow goat sheep and buffalo leathers are produced in this country. Different defects of leather due to numerous numbers of diseases of animals of poor management of people deteriorate the quality of leather which has negative impact in this sector. This paper analyses the magnitude and category of major defects in case of cow goat and buffalo of Bangladesh. We have studied in sixteen tanneries of Hazaribagh Dhaka where 95 tanneries of the whole country are situated. This study found that in case of cow skin hair slip parasitic skin diseases wound and pox are mainly responsible for the defects in leather in raw condition. Again in case of the wet blue leather of cow flay cut pox mark parasitic diseases growth mark wound sun burn scratch dark mole are responsible for the defects. Further for crust leather of cow flay cut parasitic diseases pox looseness for bating scratch wrinkle grain damage are found as the reason of defects. In case of goat parasitic diseases pox growth mark mole scratch flay cut hair slip were found responsible mostly for the defects in Bangladesh. Moreover parasite pox wound branding growth mark wrinkle jam wrinkle mole scratch flay cut curing have been detected for the defects of buffalo in this country. Again in this study it is found that average leather grade A-D is 15 E-F is 25 G-H is 30 HH is 12.5 and again the rejection is 18.43. It is observed that most of the defects occur during animal life period. The rest of the defects happen during slaughter flaying preservation and processing period of hides and skins into leather. By proper caring of the farm level and at the point of slaughter and flaying desired quality of hides and skins could be obtained.

  11. Migration of female construction labourers to Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, R M

    1997-03-01

    The author analyzes migration patterns and processes of female construction workers in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, and considers the impact of this migration. "Interviews...reveal that the major goal of these female migrants, whose mobility and employment have traditionally been restricted, is to take responsibility in the struggle for livelihood.... Success of many migrations is linked with participation in construction work in the city. Employment in such activities is largely by women from male-headed households, indicating male support in the work, followed by females heading their own households."

  12. Genesis of avian influenza H9N2 in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganatham, Karthik; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Walker, David; Alam, SMRabiul; Hasan, MKamrul; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G

    2014-12-01

    Avian influenza subtype H9N2 is endemic in many bird species in Asia and the Middle East and has contributed to the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8, which are potential pandemic threats. H9N2 viruses that have spread to Bangladesh have acquired multiple gene segments from highly pathogenic (HP) H7N3 viruses that are presumably in Pakistan and currently cocirculate with HP H5N1. However, the source and geographic origin of these H9N2 viruses are not clear. We characterized the complete genetic sequences of 37 Bangladeshi H9N2 viruses isolated in 2011-2013 and investigated their inter- and intrasubtypic genetic diversities by tracing their genesis in relationship to other H9N2 viruses isolated from neighboring countries. H9N2 viruses in Bangladesh are homogenous with several mammalian host-specific markers and are a new H9N2 sublineage wherein the hemagglutinin (HA) gene is derived from an Iranian H9N2 lineage (Mideast_B Iran), the neuraminidase (NA) and polymerase basic 2 (PB2) genes are from Dubai H9N2 (Mideast_C Dubai), and the non-structural protein (NS), nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein (MP), polymerase acidic (PA) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1) genes are from HP H7N3 originating from Pakistan. Different H9N2 genotypes that were replaced in 2006 and 2009 by other reassortants have been detected in Bangladesh. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses suggest that the current genotype descended from the prototypical H9N2 lineage (G1), which circulated in poultry in China during the late 1990s and came to Bangladesh via the poultry trade within the Middle East, and that this genotype subsequently reassorted with H7N3 and H9N2 lineages from Pakistan and spread throughout India. Thus, continual surveillance of Bangladeshi HP H5N1, H7N3 and H9N2 is warranted to identify further evolution and adaptation to humans.

  13. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh

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    Nurshad Ali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32 and in a suburban (n = 22 area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18–7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON

  14. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-09-24

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  15. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-10-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  16. Women’s Status and Early Childhood Mortality in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mortuza Ahmmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article , an attempt has been taken to focus light on the status of women in Bangladesh and also see its effect on early childhood mortality controlling the effect of other associated determinants. This paper examines the proposition that constraints on women’s status adversely affect the survival of their children. BDHS 2007 data have been used to construct indices of women’s household autonomy and authority , which are then linked to longitudinal data on survival of their neonates.

  17. Long-term socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jina, A.

    2013-05-01

    Natural disasters lead to myriad negative impacts upon society, causing loss of life, property, and income. Among disasters, floods annually affect the most people, and lead to widespread negative outcomes, particularly in developing countries. While immediate effects of disasters are readily observed, long-term socioeconomic effects have received little attention. Recent work in development economics finds that environmental exposure in early life can have negative impacts upon later outcomes in health, education, and labor markets. Such research is problematic for disasters, however, as objective measurements of hazard exposure are difficult to obtain. This study develops a remote sensing method to detect flooding in Bangladesh, one of the most flood-prone countries, using MODIS 8-day composite data. This approach addresses one of the main problems in the literature on the social impacts of disasters by deriving an objective measure rather than using self-reported damages. Flood data from 2000-2012 is matched to geolocated social surveys conducted by the Bangladesh government to identify impacts of exposure to floods at critical periods of life. While flooding is noted to be a natural and important part of ecosystem functioning in Bangladesh, we aim to understand the impacts of a flood of greater than normal magnitude or abnormal timing to identify the effects on human capital formation. We find that an increase in flooding of one standard deviation (SD) above the mean in the birth month leads to a 3% increase in stunting (2 SD below cohort height). This has implications for physical and cognitive development, shown elsewhere to persist to adulthood. We find that children from households that are exposed to floods while in elementary school are more likely to drop out. Other impacts will be identified in the course of this research. The stated impacts suggest that the long-term health and economic fortunes of the rural poor in Bangladesh are significantly

  18. Assessing groundwater stoichiometric composition and its suitability in Northwestern Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jahidul Islam; Abdul Hakim; Mohamed Musa Hanafi; Abdul Shukor Juraimi; Ratna Rani Sarkar; AKM Mosharof Hossain; Indira Chowdhury; Jafor Ali; Abul Kashem

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality analyses included pH, EC, cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Fe3+ and As3+), anions (CO32-, HCO3-, NO3-, SO42-, PO43- and Cl-) and TDS of northwestern Bangladesh. The samples contained Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ as the dominant cations and HCO3- and Cl- were the dominant anions. Ratios of major cations and anions of water samples suggest the predominance of Ca and Mg-containing minerals over Na-containing minerals. According to TDS and SAR values, all samples were cla...

  19. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century Ensaios sobre a história da Dipterologia brasileira: II. notícias sobre os dípteros brasileiros (século XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.Ensaios sobre a história da Dipterologia brasileira. II. Notícias sobre os dípteros brasileiros (século XVII. Notícias dos dípteros brasileiros datadas do século XVII são provenientes principalmente de duas invasões estrangeiras ocorridas no Brasil, a primeira pelos franceses no Maranhão e a segunda pelos holandeses no nordeste do Brasil. Este artigo inclui uma súmula dos relatos dos padres Claude d'Abbeville, Yves d'Evreux e de Piso e Marcgrave, esses últimos consistindo nas primeiras ilustrações de dípteros brasileiros. Inclui ainda relatos de Frei Laureano de la Cruz, Padre João de Sotto Mayor e Maurício de Heriarte.

  20. Study of arsenic contents in human hair of contrast sites in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic concentrations in human hair samples of a highly polluted site namely Boro Dudpalila village, Damurhuda, Chuadanga and nonpolluted sites of Goainghat and Sylhet Sadar thanas were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. Samples were irradiated in the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor of Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh and PARR-2 of Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad, Pakistan at a thermal neutron flux of order 1012 n/cm2/s for 3 hours. Decay time was about 2 days. Measurement time was 2700 sec for Dhaka and 1800 sec for Islamabad laboratories. HPGe detectors were used for γ-ray measurement. Ranges of arsenic concentrations in Chuadanga and Sylhet samples were found to be 1.04±0.06 to 48.66±1.32 and <0.20 to 0.84±0.04 ppm, respectively. Minimum detection limit of arsenic in the hair samples was found to be 0.20 ppm. All Chuadanga samples exceeded the normal level of arsenic in human hair (1 ppm). In the study it was found that both males and females are affected and there was generally no consistency in the arsenic levels in hair of the members of the same family. (author)

  1. Population Dynamics of Coilia ramcarati from the Estuarine Set Bagnet Fishery of Bangladesh

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    Md. Sohel PARVEZ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Population parameters of Coilia ramcarati were estimated from length-frequency data collected from Estuarine Set Bag Net (ESBN Fishery of Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar region in Bangladesh from January to December, 2010. For the purpose of estimating the parameters FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tool (FiSAT II software was used. The asymptotic Length (L¥ and growth constant (K were estimated to be 22.58 cm for male, 19.43 cm for female and 0.49 y-1 for male, 2.10 y-1 for female, respectively. The male C. ramcarati found to attain larger body size compared to female. A slightly fluctuating positive trend was observed for mean weight. The value of exploitation rate depicts overfishing condition for this species in the ESBN fishery with high catching probability of the juveniles. The recruitment pattern of this species was found continuous throughout the year characterized by 2 peaks both for male and female.

  2. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and HIV in Overseas Job Seekers of Bangladesh with the Possible Routes of Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobayer, M; Chowdhury, S S; Shamsuzzaman, S M; Islam, M S

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis and AIDS are major public health problem globally. The aim of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of hepatitis B, C virus and HIV infection among Bangladeshi overseas job seekers. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh from February 2013 to August 2013. A total of 2254 adult (18-45 years) male job seekers to Malaysia attending for health check up were enrolled. HBsAg, Anti-HCV, Anti-HIV were detected from venous blood by ELISA method using commercial kits. From the positive people, further history and information were collected by predesigned questionnaire. Prevalence of HBV was 2.35%, HCV was 0.13% and none was found positive for HIV. Prevalence of hepatitis was higher in the age group of 21-30 year and infection was more prevalent in married group. No significant relationship was found between hepatitis infection and religion, localities, profession. Only a few cases had history of possible major known route of transmission of virus. But most of them had history of taking injection or sharing blades in barber shop and history of circumcision. About 96% population had no history of hepatitis B vaccination. None was co-infected with HBV and HCV. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in adult population appears to be on decline and hepatitis C and HIV infection is still low in Bangladesh. In majority of the positive person, routes of transmission of viruses were not well established. PMID:27612902

  3. The Determinants of Worker Remittance in Terms of Foreign Factors: The Case of Bangladesh

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    Rana Rezwanul Hasan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of worker remittance of Bangladesh. Instead of traditional approach of estimating the remittance determinants, here we propose to use foreign macroeconomic indicators as a proxy determinant to avoid endogeneity. We also used panel estimation technique in our study to incorporate country specific heterogeneity of remittance inflow of Bangladesh. According our study any changes in the number of labor force, consumer price index, export, import, government expenditure and devaluation or appreciation of host countries (origin of the remittance income currency can significantly influence the inward remittance income of Bangladesh.

  4. Representation and Dissemination of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Bangladesh through Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Chowdhury, MD Saiful Alam

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the next eleven countries and home to more than 160 million people. The country is experiencing an exponential growth of social media users due to the increase in affordability of smartphones, literacy rate, education level, and adoption of Internet services and applications....... Bangladesh, with its digital agenda, has a favorable environment for the transformation and development of digital media and culture. There exists unexplored, assumably underutilized, and potential roles of Internet-mediated communication about the two nominated ICH of Bangladesh. Towards the goal of...

  5. Geostatistical analysis of arsenic concentration in groundwater in Bangladesh using disjunctive kriging

    OpenAIRE

    Gaus, I.; Kinniburgh, D.G.; Talbot, J. C.; Webster, R

    2003-01-01

    The National Hydrochemical Survey of Bangladesh sampled the water from 3,534 tube wells for arsenic throughout most of Bangladesh. It showed that 27% of the shallow tube wells (less than 150 m deep) and 1% of the deep tube wells (more than 150 m deep) exceeded the Bangladesh standard for arsenic in drinking water (50 µg L–1). Statistical analyses revealed the main characteristics of the arsenic distribution. Concentrations ranged from less than the detection limit (0.5 µg L–1), to as much as ...

  6. Diet History Questionnaire II: Database Utility Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you need to modify the standard nutrient database, a single nutrient value must be provided by gender and portion size. If you have modified the database to have fewer or greater demographic groups, nutrient values must be included for each group.

  7. Diet History Questionnaire II: Size Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two serving size formats are used on the NCI versions of the DHQ as shown below. Format 1 is used for nearly all serving size questions. Format 2 is used only in special cases, where 'never' is allowed as a response.

  8. Diet History Questionnaire II: Missing & Error Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A missing code indicates that the respondent skipped a question when a response was required. An error character indicates that the respondent marked two or more responses to a question where only one answer was appropriate.

  9. Epidemiology, pathology and sensitive tools for the diagnosis of PPR in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) are an acute viral disease of small ruminants caused by Morbillivirus. In Bangladesh, outbreaks of PPR have been occurring in goats since 1993 and cause severe losses to small ruminant production and considering top most threats to about 22 million small ruminant population of the country. Although PPR has been prevalent in Bangladesh for more than a decade, the prevalence and epidemiology of the disease is not know and sensitive diagnostic method is not available. Therefore, the present study has been proposed with the following objectives: to study the descriptive epidemiology and sero-prevalence of PPR in Bangladesh, to adopt RT-PCR for quick detection of PPR virus and study the efficacy of locally produced PPR vaccine. Data were collected from the outbreaks in prescribed questionnaire for epidemiological investigation, 600 sera were collected from six different geographical locations of the country, 100 goats were vaccinated, sera were collected pre, 21st day post and 6 month post vaccination, and was analyzed by cELISA. Gross lesions were recorded at necropsy from confirmed cases and formalin fixed tissues were processed for histopathological study. Field samples (soaked with filter paper and extracted RNA) were subjected to RT-PCR for the amplification of the F gene. Mortality was higher in the young goat (<1 year). The overall morbidity and mortality was 51.35% and 13.51%, respectively. Weather changes like sudden high temperature, movement of animals and introduction of newly purchased animals from the market played an important rule in transmission and maintenance of the virus. Congested and consolidated pneumonic lungs, enlarged edematous lymph nodes, brush paint haemorrhages in the heart, intestine and atrophied congested spleen were main post mortem changes. Loss of tracheal lining with infiltration of mononuclear cells, lost of pneumocyte I and proliferation of pneumocyte II with infiltration of large mononuclear cell

  10. Effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) in rural coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Atikul; Azad, Abul Kalam; Akber, Md Ali; Rahman, Masudur; Sadhu, Indrojit

    2015-12-01

    Scarcity of drinking water in the coastal area of Bangladesh compels the inhabitants to be highly dependent on alternative water supply options like rainwater harvesting system (RWHS), pond sand filter (PSF), and rain-feed ponds. Susceptibility of these alternative water supply options to microbial contamination demands a low-cost water treatment technology. This study evaluates the effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) to treat drinking water from available sources in the southwest coastal area of Bangladesh. A total of 50 households from Dacope upazila in Khulna district were selected to investigate the performance of SODIS. Data were collected in two rounds to examine fecal coliform (FC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination of drinking water at the household water storage containers and SODIS bottles, and thereby determined the effectiveness of SODIS in reducing fecal contamination. All water samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity and salinity. SODIS significantly reduced FC and E. coli contamination under household conditions. The median health risk reduction by SODIS was more than 96 and 90% for pond and RWHS, respectively. Besides, turbidity of the treated water was found to be less than 5 NTU, except pond water. Only 34% of the participating households routinely adopted SODIS during the study.

  11. Women's experiences with medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Heather M; Biswas, Kamal; Griffin, Risa; Menzel, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Menstrual regulation has been legal in Bangladesh since 1974, but the use of medication for menstrual regulation is new. In this study, we sought to understand women's experiences using medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with rural and urban women between December 2013 and February 2014. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. The majority of women in our study had had positive experiences with medication for menstrual regulation and successful outcomes, regardless of whether they obtained their medication from medicine sellers/pharmacies, doctors or clinics. Women were strongly influenced by health providers when deciding which method to use. There is a need to educate not only women of reproductive age, but also communities as a whole, about medication for menstrual regulation, with a particular emphasis on cost and branding the medication. Continued efforts to improve counselling by providers about the dose, medication and side-effects of medication for menstrual regulation, along with education of the community about medication as an option for menstrual regulation, will help to de-stigmatise the procedure and the women who seek it.

  12. Arsenic incorporation into authigenic pyrite, Bengal Basin sediment, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowers, H.A.; Breit, G.N.; Foster, A.L.; Whitney, J.; Yount, J.; Uddin, Md. N.; Muneem, Ad. A.

    2007-01-01

    Sediment from two deep boreholes (???400 m) approximately 90 km apart in southern Bangladesh was analyzed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), total chemical analyses, chemical extractions, and electron probe microanalysis to establish the importance of authigenic pyrite as a sink for arsenic in the Bengal Basin. Authigenic framboidal and massive pyrite (median values 1500 and 3200 ppm As, respectively), is the principal arsenic residence in sediment from both boreholes. Although pyrite is dominant, ferric oxyhydroxides and secondary iron phases contain a large fraction of the sediment-bound arsenic between approximately 20 and 100 m, which is the depth range of wells containing the greatest amount of dissolved arsenic. The lack of pyrite in this interval is attributed to rapid sediment deposition and a low sulfur flux from riverine and atmospheric sources. The ability of deeper aquifers (>150 m) to produce ground water with low dissolved arsenic in southern Bangladesh reflects adequate sulfur supplies and sufficient time to redistribute the arsenic into pyrite during diagenesis.

  13. Spectrum of Acute Pharmaceutical and Chemical Poisoning in Northern Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendranath Sarkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute poisoning is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. It is a common method for suicide. A clear picture regarding clinical presentation, most commonly used toxic agents, background factors and outcome of poisoned patients is necessary in every region. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency and outcome of acute pharmaceutical and chemical poisoning cases in Northern Bangladesh. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study on poisoned patients with 18 years of age and above who were admitted to Rangpur Medical College Hospital during 1st December 2011 to 30th November 2012. Results: During the study period, a total of 956 patients were investigated. Males slightly outnumbered females (51.6%. The majority of patients (92% were in the 18-40 year age-group. Regarding occupation, housewives were the most frequent (33.6% followed by farmers (31.7% and students (20.9%. Organophosphate compounds (OPC were the most commonly used toxic agents (73.5%. Most of poisoning cases occurred following suicidal attempts (88%. Familial disharmony was the main cause of suicidal attempts (92.3%. Univariate Analysis showed that age less than 40 years, being married, living in rural areas and educational attainment below secondary level were significantly associated with an increased risk of poisoning (P

  14. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  15. Impact of Liquidity on Islamic Banks' Profitability: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limon Moinur Rasul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of liquidity on Islamic banks’ profitability during an 11 years period of 2001 to 2011. To explore and interpret the results the study has taken samples from five Islamic banks that have been in operation in Bangladesh on or before 2001 to till date. In order to construct the liquidity model it used four liquidity variables namely cash & due from banks to total assets (CDTA, cash & due from banks to total deposits (CDDEP, investment to total assets (INVSTA and investment to total deposits (INVSDEP. According to adjusted R squares profitability variables return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE and return on deposits (ROD are respectively 17.1%, 4.5% and 24.6% dependent on independent variables. The statistical results suggest that CDTA is found insignificant with all profitability variables, whereas CDDEP is individually significant with all profitability variables except ROE. On the other hand INVSTA and INVSDEP are recognized significant with all three profitability variables. However, when ROE stands for an insignificant relationship with the overall liquidity model, ROA and ROD are identified significantly correlated with the similar model at 1% significant level. Unsurprisingly the findings do strengthen the specification that the impact of liquidity reflects adequate imposition on profitability that the Islamic banks in Bangladesh must abide by.

  16. Rain Attenuation Prediction for Terrestrial Microwave Link in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN Sakir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rain attenuation is a major shortcoming of microwave transmission. As a subtropical country, Bangladesh is one of the highest rainy areas of the world. Thus, designing a terrestrial microwave link is a serious challenge to the engineers. In this paper, the annual rain rate and monthly variation of rate are predicted for different percentage of time of the year from the measured rainfall data. Using ITU rain model for terrestrial microwave communication, the rain attenuation is predicted for five major cities of Bangladesh, namely Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Sylhet, and Khulna. It is found that rain attenuation is the most severe in Sylhet and least in Rajshahi. The attenuation is estimated for different frequency and polarization. A horizontally polarized signal encounters 15% more rain attenuation than that of vertically polarized signal. It is also found that attenuation in Rajshahi is about 20% lesser than that in Sylhet. Thus, the horizontally polarized transmission in Rajshahi experiences about 5% less attenuation than the vertically polarized transmission in Sylhet.

  17. Factors Influencing Fecal Contamination in Pond of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappett, P. S.; Escamilla, V.; Layton, A.; McKay, L. D.; Emch, M.; Mailloux, B. J.; Williams, D. E.; Huq, M. R.; Alam, M.; Farhana, L.; Ferguson, A. S.; Sayler, G. S.; Ahmed, K.; Serre, M. L.; Akita, Y.; Yunus, M.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Occurrence of diarrheal disease in villages in rural Bangladesh remains relatively common, even though many households have switched to tubewell water for drinking and cooking. One factor contributing to this may be exposure to fecal contamination in ponds, which are often used for bathing and fishing. The objective of this study is to determine the dominant sources of fecal pollution in typical ponds and to explore the relationship between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were sampled and analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and for E. coli, Bacteroides and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation infrastructure were surveyed and compared to levels of pond fecal contamination. Molecular fecal source tracking using Bacteroides, determined that humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (pcattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is from humans, use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural Bangladesh.

  18. Arsenic in drinking water: not just a problem for Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. van Dijk

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade it has been known that shallow tube wells in Bangladesh are frequently contaminated with arsenic concentrations at a level that is harmful to human health. By now it is becoming clear that a disaster of an unheard magnitude is going on: the World Health Organization fears that in the near future 1 in every 10 adult deaths in Bangladesh will be caused by arsenic-related cancers. Other studies show that problems with arsenic in groundwater/drinking water occur in many more countries worldwide, such as in the USA and China. In Europe the focus on arsenic problems is confined to countries with high arsenic levels in their groundwater, such as Romania, Hungary and Italy. In most other European countries, the naturally occurring arsenic concentrations are lower than the drinking water standard of 10 μg L−1. However, from the literature review presented in this paper, it may also be concluded that using the European standard, health risks cannot be excluded. It is therefore recommended that the current arsenic standard be reconsidered.

  19. Exploring the communication barriers in private commercial banks of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana, Nahneen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, lots of private commercial banks are contributing for economic growth. The performance of the banks depends on a well-structured communication system. So by maintaining an effective communication system, the banks can gain competitive advantage. Thus the study aims to investigate the communication barriers that should be removed for effective communication in the private commercial banks of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire survey based on 5-point Likert-scale was conducted on 165 full-time employees of private commercial banks. The sample includes 15 private commercial banks. The Principal Component Analysis reveals three types of communication barriers; personal barriers, job barriers, and organizational barriers. Among these barriers, personal barriers are the most significant barriers according to the respondents of the study. Personal barriers include lack of English knowledge, local tone, opposite sex and hot temper. The second most important barriers are job barriers that include technical words, personal life and job monotony. The third most important barriers are organizational barriers which include defective technology and internal politics.

  20. Floristic composition and management of cropland agroforest in southwestern Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Hasanuzzaman; Mahmood Hossain; Mustafa Saroar

    2014-01-01

    Cropland agroforest is an important production system in the southwest region of Bangladesh. This study focused on the floristic composition and management of existing cropland agroforests. A total of 313 cropland agroforests were surveyed and 83%respondents practiced pure agroforestry while the remaining 17% practiced agroforestry with fisheries. A total of 18 forest trees and 2 shrubs were recorded from 11 families and 59 species of agricultural crops were from 28 families. A higher proportion (79%) of cropland agroforests were occupied small land areas (0.12-0.80 ha). About 63% of respondents planted trees for fruit production and 47%for timber production, and 35%of respondents engaged in commercial production (35%). Swietenia macrophylla was the most prevalent species (relative prevalence 20.83) followed by Man-gifera indica (relative prevalence 15.57) and Cocos nucifera (relative prevalence 7.08). Shorter spacing was used for timber and fuel wood species and wider spacing for fruit trees. A wide range of rotation periods, from 5 to 25 years, was observed for both cases. The use of chemical fertilizer was highest followed by cow dung and compost in cropland agroforests. Overall management practices of cropland agroforest in southwest Bangladesh were determined by the end product and local demand.

  1. Women's experiences with medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Heather M; Biswas, Kamal; Griffin, Risa; Menzel, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Menstrual regulation has been legal in Bangladesh since 1974, but the use of medication for menstrual regulation is new. In this study, we sought to understand women's experiences using medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with rural and urban women between December 2013 and February 2014. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. The majority of women in our study had had positive experiences with medication for menstrual regulation and successful outcomes, regardless of whether they obtained their medication from medicine sellers/pharmacies, doctors or clinics. Women were strongly influenced by health providers when deciding which method to use. There is a need to educate not only women of reproductive age, but also communities as a whole, about medication for menstrual regulation, with a particular emphasis on cost and branding the medication. Continued efforts to improve counselling by providers about the dose, medication and side-effects of medication for menstrual regulation, along with education of the community about medication as an option for menstrual regulation, will help to de-stigmatise the procedure and the women who seek it. PMID:26529099

  2. Bangladesh: an Emerging Centre for Terrorism in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjan M. Gohel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This Research Note examines the political developments that have occurred in Bangladesh in 2013 and explores how these have fed into the rise of religious militancy. The ongoing conflicts not only intensify the instability and schisms within the country, but also illustrate that there is a rise in religious militancy that the country can ill afford at this juncture. Furthermore, it highlights how some members of the Bangladeshi diaspora in the United States and United Kingdom have been recruited by al-Qaeda and its affiliates to plot mass casualty attacks. Significantly, it is argued that all these threads are tied together because of the murky role of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (JEI, which is Bangladesh’s largest religious political party. A further deterioration of Bangladesh’s democracy and political stability could create additional space within which Islamist militants may be increasingly free to operate not just for domestic terrorist activity but for preparing internationals plots as well.

  3. ANALYZING AND ESTIMATING PORTFOLIO PERFORMANCE OF BANGLADESH STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zobaer Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM is one of the most important developments in the finance literature. Simply, CAPM is a model that describes the relationship between risk and expected return. The theoretical validity of CAPM is well tested and accepted but the practical validity of CAPM is in questioned. This study is designed to analyze and estimate the portfolio performance of Bangladesh stock market in a CAPM framework. For this study, monthly stock returns from 80 companies for the period of January 2005 to December 2009 are chosen. In order to examine whether the CAPM is satisfied in the portfolio or not, the 80 stocks are arranged in descending order of beta and 10 portfolios are being made of eight stocks in each. The All Share Price Index (DSI is used as a proxy for the market portfolio and Bangladesh government 3-Month T-bill rate is used as the proxy for the risk-free asset. The results of this analysis show that the intercept terms are not significantly different from zero, linearity in the securities market line and insignificant unique risk for the 10 portfolios during the period. But, the results in term of slope contradict the CAPM hypothesis and indicate evidence against the CAPM in the portfolios. This analysis will obviously be used as a basis of reference for future investigates and the researchers and they will get proper instruction from this study.

  4. Modeling for Growth and Forecasting of Pulse Production in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niaz Md. FarhatRahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to estimate growth pattern and examine the best ARIMA model to efficiently forecasting pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production in Bangladesh. It appeared that the time series data for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea were 1st order homogenous stationary. Two types of models namely Box-Jenkins type Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA and deterministic type growth models, are examined to identify the best forecasting models for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production in Bangladesh. The study revealed that the best models were ARIMA (1, 1 and 1, ARIMA (0, 1 and 0 and ARIMA (1, 1 and 3 for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production, respectively. Among the deterministic type growth models, the cubic model is best for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production. The analysis indicated that short-term forecasts were more efficient for ARIMA models compared to the deterministic models. The production uncertainty of pulse could be minimized if production were forecasted well and necessary steps were taken against losses. The findings of this study would be more useful for policy makers, researchers as well as producers in order to forecast future national pulse production more accurately in the short run.

  5. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of response different climatic and manmade factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in a drought prone region in Bangladesh to understand the forcing mechanisms. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. The influence of land use patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land use. The result shows that drought intensity is more severe during the dry season (November to April) compared to the rainy season (May to October). The evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit has a significant effect on meteorological drought which has a direct relation with groundwater drought. Urbanization results in a decrease of groundwater recharge which increases groundwater drought severity. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation and recurrent meteorological droughts are the main causes of groundwater drought in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management. More detailed studies on climate change and land use change effects on groundwater drought are recommended. Keywords: Groundwater drought, SPI & RDI, Spatially distributed groundwater recharge, Irrigation, Bangladesh

  6. Nutrition: basis for healthy children and mothers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, A S G; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Islam, M Munirul; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Roy, S K; Alam, Nurul; Kabir, Iqbal; Sack, David A

    2008-09-01

    Recent data from the World Health Organization showed that about 60% of all deaths, occurring among children aged less than five years (under-five children) in developing countries, could be attributed to malnutrition. It has been estimated that nearly 50.6 million under-five children are malnourished, and almost 90% of these children are from developing countries. Bangladesh is one of the countries with the highest rate of malnutrition. The recent baseline survey by the National Nutrition Programme (NNP) showed high rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting. However, data from the nutrition surveillance at the ICDDR,B hospital showed that the proportion of children with stunting, underweight, and wasting has actually reduced during 1984-2005. Inappropriate infant and young child-feeding practices (breastfeeding and complementary feeding) have been identified as a major cause of malnutrition. In Bangladesh, although the median duration of breastfeeding is about 30 months, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding until the first six months of life is low, and practice of appropriate complementary feeding is not satisfactory. Different surveys done by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and Bangladesh Breastfeeding Foundation (BBF) showed a rate of exclusive breastfeeding to be around 32-52%, which have actually remained same or declined over time. The NNP baseline survey using a strict definition of exclusive breastfeeding showed a rate of exclusive breastfeeding (12.8%) until six months of age. Another study from the Abhoynagar field site of ICDDR,B reported the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding to be 15% only. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the rates of exclusive breastfeeding. Nationally, initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, feeding colostrum, and exclusive breastfeeding have been promoted through the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) implemented and supported by BBF and

  7. Linjefaget historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch-Christensen, Andreas

    Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning.......Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning....

  8. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  9. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  10. Subsurface iron and arsenic removal: Low-cost technology for community-based water supply in Bangladesh

    KAUST Repository

    Van Halem, Doris

    2010-12-01

    The principle of subsurface or in situ iron and arsenic removal is that aerated water is periodically injected into an anoxic aquifer through a tube well, displacing groundwater containing Fe(II). An oxidation zone is created around the tube well where Fe(II) is oxidised. The freshly formed iron hydroxide surfaces provide new sorption sites for soluble Fe(II) andarsenic. The system\\'s efficiency is determined based on the ratio between abstracted volume with reduced iron/arsenic concentrations (V) and the injected volume (Vi). In the field studypresented in this paper, the small-scale application of this technology was investigated in rural Bangladesh. It was found that at small injection volumes (>1m3) iron removal was successful and became more effective with every successive cycle. For arsenic, however, the system did not prove to be very effective yet. Arsenic retardation was only limited and breakthrough of 10mg/L (WHO guideline) was observed before V/Vi = 1, which corresponds to arrival of groundwater at the well. Possible explanations for insufficient arsenic adsorption are the short contact times within the oxidation zone, and the presence of competing anions, like phosphate. © IWA Publishing 2010.

  11. Undiscovered gas resources assessment unit boundaries for Bangladesh (au8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the undiscovered natural gas resources assessment unit boundaries of the Bangladesh. This...

  12. Undiscovered natural gas resources Total Petroleum System unit boundaries for Bangladesh (tps8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the Total Petroleum System boundaries of the natural gas resources of Bangladesh. This...

  13. Satellite altimetry and GRACE gravimetry for studies of annual water storage variations in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Berry, P.; Freeman, J.;

    2008-01-01

    Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh. The GRACE satellites...... measure the integrated mass change and hence the terrestrial soil moisture variations, which can also be estimated by a hydrological model (GLDAS). These types of observations enable the derivation of the integrated water storage in the entire region of Bangladesh. For all data types, the annual signal...... has been estimated from a common dataset spanning the period 2003 and 2004. All four different data observe that water storage in Bangladesh is largely dominated by an annual signal with a phase peaking in early September. The annual variations in river level peaks roughly two weeks earlier than...

  14. Representation and Dissemination of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Bangladesh through Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Chowdhury, MD Saiful Alam

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the next eleven countries and home to more than 160 million people. The country is experiencing an exponential growth of social media users due to the increase in affordability of smartphones, literacy rate, education level, and adoption of Internet services and applications....... Bangladesh, with its digital agenda, has a favorable environment for the transformation and development of digital media and culture. There exists unexplored, assumably underutilized, and potential roles of Internet-mediated communication about the two nominated ICH of Bangladesh. Towards the goal...... of strategically representing and diffusing ICH through social media, this research explores the current roles of social media in the transmission of ICH in the virtual world. The research question is: How are Baul song and Jamdani weaving as intangible cultural heritage of Bangladesh represented and disseminated...

  15. Ecological determinants of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) outbreaks in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Biswas, Paritosh K.;

    2012-01-01

    between Bangladesh and e. g., Thailand and Vietnam. The primary aim of the current study was to establish ecological determinants associated with the risk of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks at subdistrict level in Bangladesh. The secondary aim was to explore the performance of two different statistical modeling...... approaches for unmeasured spatially correlated variation. Methodology/Principal Findings: An ecological study at subdistrict level in Bangladesh was performed with 138 subdistricts with HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks during 2007-2008, and 326 subdistricts with no outbreaks. The association between ecological...... to river networks, migratory birds' staging areas and literacy rate in addition to already known risk factors, and clarified that the generalized concept of free grazing duck and duck-rice cultivation interacted ecology are not significant determinants for Bangladesh. These findings will refine current...

  16. Analysis of Recent Situation of Pesticide Poisoning in Bangladesh: Is There a Proper Estimate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourab Dewan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Pesticide poisoning is responsible for great number of admissions and deaths in Bangladesh. Creating a register of commercially available pesticides in each region for rapid identification of nature of the pesticide is recommended.

  17. How to finance investment in Bangladesh: Finding long-run factors in a bounds test method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biru Paksha Paula

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investment in Bangladesh has been at almost one-fourth of the country’s output since the early 2000s. Consequently, Bangladesh’s growth has also remained stagnant at around 6 percent since then. The question of how to increase investment in Bangladesh has been of crucial discussion of late. This study examines the long run determinants of investment in Bangladesh by applying the bounds test over 1976-2010. There should not be any policy dilemma about the effect of lending rates, which must be reduced to boost investment and domestic credit should be expanded. Further liberalization in trade and finance is recommended since economic openness and financial deepening show a positive impact on capital formation. The policy prescriptions for Bangladesh are not different from those for other nations that embarked on liberalization to augment investment for accelerating growth.

  18. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  19. Arsenic contamination in Bangladesh groundwater: a major environmental and social disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M G M; Allinson, G; Stagnitti, F; Tanaka, A; Westbrooke, M

    2002-09-01

    In attempting to eliminate disease caused by drinking polluted surface water, millions of shallow surface wells were drilled into the Ganges delta alluvium in Bangladesh. The latest statistics indicate that 80% of Bangladesh and an estimated 40 million people are at risk of arsenic poisoning-related diseases because the ground water in these wells is contaminated with arsenic. The clinical manifestations of arsenic poisoning are myriad, and the correct diagnosis depends largely on awareness of the problem. Patients with melanosis, leuco-melanosis, keratosis, hyperkeratosis, dorsum, non-petting edema, gangrene and skin cancer have been identified. The present article reviews the current arsenic contamination of ground water, hydrological systems, groundwater potential and utilization and environmental pollution in Bangladesh. This paper concludes by clarifying the main actions required to ensure the sustainable development of water resources in Bangladesh.

  20. Risk factors for HIV infection in Males who have Sex with Males (MSM in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Omar A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent surveillance data from Bangladesh indicate rising HIV infection among intravenous drug users (IDU in the country. We suggest a likely association between HIV risk factors in this group and other groups, such as males who have sex with males (MSM. Methods Data on MSM in Bangladesh was collected and analyzed from numerous primary and secondary sources, including government ministries, non-profit health organizations, and personal communications. Results The overall prevalence of HIV in Bangladesh is relatively low, but surveillance data indicate that infection has reached significant proportions in certain high-risk groups and may soon spread to other groups, specifically MSM. Conclusion The epidemiology of HIV infection in other countries suggests that increasing rates of HIV in higher-risk populations can precede an epidemic in the general population. We review the data concerning MSM, IDU and HIV in Bangladesh from a variety of sources and propose ways to prevent HIV transmission.

  1. Cultural history as polyphonic history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This texts offers a reflection on the origins and actual development of the field of cultural history through a comparison with the term that has served as title for this seminar: “polyphonic history”. The author provides an overview of the themes that have structured the seminar (the history of representations, the history of the body and the cultural history of science with the aim of making explicit and clarifying this plurality of voices in the field of history as well as its pervasiveness in other research areas.

    En este texto se ofrece una reflexión sobre el origen y actual desarrollo del campo de la historia cultural a través de una comparación con el término que ha dado título a este seminario: “historia polifónica”. El autor propone un recorrido por las áreas temáticas que han conformado la estructura del seminario (la historia de las representaciones, la historia del cuerpo y la historia cultural de la ciencia con el objeto de explicitar y explicar esta pluralidad de voces en el campo de la historia, así como su repercusión en otras áreas del conocimiento.

  2. Why History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the way in which studying history contributes to intellectual development. Identifies five mental attributes it enhances: perspective--gained from placing people, events, institutions against larger background; encounter--confronting great ideas, personalities, etc.; relativism in a pluralistic world--developed from immersion in other…

  3. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  4. Potted history

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, T. van

    2010-01-01

    The Jordan Valley was once populated by a people, now almost forgotten by historians, with whom the pharaoh of Egypt sought favour. That is the conclusion reached by Niels Groot, the first researcher to take a PhD at the Delft-Leiden Centre for Archaeology, Art History and Science.

  5. The impact of climate change on rice yield in Bangladesh: a time series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    IFTEKHAR UDDIN AHMED CHOWDHURY; MOHAMMAD ABUL EARSHAD KHAN

    2015-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of about 158 million people of Bangladesh, but the increasing climate change vulnerabilities and global warming are severely reducing the yield of various rice crops and may threaten the food security in the country. Therefore, this study is undertaken to examine the potential impact of climate change on the yield of three different rice crops (namely, Aus, Aman and Boro) in Bangladesh. A multiple regression analysis using OLS method is employed to assess the climate-c...

  6. The International Science Programme in Bangladesh : A case of self-interest, interdependence or social empowerment?

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze different forms of North-South development assistance with regard to its widespread critique and to examine whether the field of international research capacity building holds alternative development cooperation strategies that have the potential to reconcile some of the criticisms. The focus is on the International Science Programme (ISP) and the empirical research carried out in Bangladesh and Sweden on the ISP-Bangladesh collaboration in the form of sem...

  7. E-Business and on line banking in Bangladesh: an Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Mahboob Ali

    2010-01-01

    E-business has created tremendous opportunity all over the globe. On line banking can act as a complementary factor of e-business. Bangladesh Bank has recently argued to introduce automated clearing house system. This pushed upward transition from the manual banking system to the on line banking system. The study has been undertaken to observe present status of the e-business and as its complementary factor on line banking system in Bangladesh. The article analyzes the data that were collecte...

  8. Educational influences on student academic attainment: a multi-level analysis in the context of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jahan, Monira

    2012-01-01

    Bangladesh has made significant progress in terms of improving student access and gender disparity at primary and secondary levels of education. Currently, the major concern is the quality of education. In the national interest, the government of Bangladesh has undertaken a number of intervention programmes to increase the quality of primary and secondary education. Recently, researchers and practitioners are more engaged in investigating the quality of education, particularly at primary and ...

  9. Qualitative insights into promotion of pharmaceutical products in Bangladesh: how ethical are the practices?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohiuddin, Mahrukh; Rashid, Sabina Faiz; Shuvro, Mofijul Islam; Nahar, Nahitun; Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2015-01-01

    Background The pharmaceutical market in Bangladesh is highly concentrated (top ten control around 70 % of the market). Due to high competition aggressive marketing strategies are adopted for greater market share, which sometimes cross limit. There is lack of data on this aspect in Bangladesh. This exploratory study aimed to fill this gap by investigating current promotional practices of the pharmaceutical companies including the role of their medical representatives (MR). Methods This qualita...

  10. Farmers' view on soil organic matter depletion and its management in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M.Z

    2001-01-01

    Metadata only record Bangladesh is an agricultural country. About 80% of the total population lives in rural areas. The contribution of agriculture to the gross domestic product is 30%. Rice is the major food crop while jute, sugarcane and tea are the main cash crops. Other important crops are wheat, tobacco, pulses, vegetables and fruits. Overall productivity in Bangladesh is stagnating or declining. The implication of yield stagnation or declining productivity is severe, since these tren...

  11. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Lina, Taslima T.; Khajanchi, Bijay K.; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Mohammad Aminul Islam; Belal Mahmood; Mahmuda Akter; Atanu Banik; Rumana Alim; Armando Navarro; Gabriel Perez; Alejandro Cravioto; Talukder, Kaisar A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Resistance to cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae is mainly due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Little is known about ESBL-producing bacteria in Bangladesh. Therefore, the study presents results of phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from hospitals in Bangladesh. METHODS: A total of 339 E. coli isolated from patients with urinary tract and wound infections attending three different medical hospitals in urban a...

  12. Access to Microfinance: Does it Matter for Profit Efficiency Among Small Scale Rice Farmers in Bangladesh?

    OpenAIRE

    Sumelius, John; Islam, K. M. Zahidul; Sipilainen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    This paper measures profit efficiency and examines the effect of access to microfinance on the performance of rice firms in Bangladesh. An extended Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier profit function was used to assess profit efficiency and profit loss of rice farmers in Bangladesh in a survey data of 360 farms throughout the 2008-2009 growing seasons. Model diagnostics reveal that serious selection bias exists that justifies the uses of sample selection model in stochastic frontier models. Afte...

  13. Socio-economic Conditions of Tribal Female Workers of the Beauty Parlors in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nargis Akhter; Feroz Ahmed; Sohrab Hossain

    2011-01-01

    The study highlights the socio-economic conditions of tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh. The study consists of 240 sample tribal female workers of the different beauty parlors situated in six divisional towns of Bangladesh and judgment sampling technique was used to select this sample. The study reveals that tribal women working at beauty parlor draw competitively higher salary than other tribal people; they live at a comparatively healthy physical environment provided...

  14. A Novel Hierarchical Semi-centralized Telemedicine Network Architecture Proposition for Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, Samiul; Peterson, Carrie Beth; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis;

    2011-01-01

    One of the major functions of telemedicine is the prompt delivery of modern healthcare to the remotest areas with reduced cost and efficient use of communication resources. The establishment of a well organized telemedicine system is therefore exigent for the developing countries like Bangladesh ...... of Bangladesh. Finally, some features and services associated with the model have also been proposed which are pragmatic and easily implementable....

  15. Diabetes knowledge and glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Niessen, Louis W; Seissler, Jochen; Ferrari, Uta; Biswas, Tuhin; Islam, Anwar; Lechner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Aims To explore the association between knowledge on diabetes and glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 515 patients with type 2 diabetes attending a tertiary hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Trained interviewers were used to collect data on socioeconomic status, time since the onset of diabetes, co-morbidities, anthropometric measurements, blood tests, knowledge and perceptions about the causes, management, and c...

  16. Causes of adult female deaths in Bangladesh: findings from two National Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Quamrun; Arifeen, Shams El; Jamil, Kanta; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessment of causes of death and changes in pattern of causes of death over time are needed for programmatic purposes. Limited national level data exist on the adult female causes of death in Bangladesh. Method Using data from two nationally representation surveys, the 2001 and 2010 Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Surveys (BMMS), the paper examines the causes of adult female death, aged 15–49 years, and changes in the patterns of these deaths. In both surveys, all household deaths t...

  17. Bangladesh rice trade and price stabilization: Implications of the 2007/08 experience for public stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, Paul A.; Rashid, Shahidur

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which Bangladesh should rely on imports for rice price stabilization is a contentious policy issue. This issue was underscored in the wake of the 2007–08 world food crisis, during which international rice prices skyrocketed and rice import supplies from India were disrupted. For more than a dozen years, from 1994 to 2007, private-sector rice imports made a major contribution to price stabilization and food security in Bangladesh, adding to domestic supplies following productio...

  18. WATER MANAGEMENT IN BANGLADESH AGRICULTURE: OPTIMAL USE AND INVESTMENT POLICIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mohammad Ismail

    2011-01-01

    In Bangladesh, climatic change is likely to impact significantly upon surface and groundwater availability, as well as in other countries. The population of Bangladesh is projected to be double the current 2010 level by 2050. Demand for water will rise with the increasing demand for rice. This paper considers the optimal demand management of irrigation water with stochastic supply under climate change for a 3-year planning horizon. It also identifies the utilization of irrigation water from s...

  19. Educating the future: Raising the quality of primary schooling in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the low quality of primary school education in Bangladesh.. Literature and elite interviews suggest that GOB (Government of Bangladesh) primary schools fail to provide students with quality education, demonstrate poor teacher performance, have: overcrowded classrooms, and weak management and administration. Quantitative analysis of' parents with primary-aged children reveals that of the four principal primary schooling options available. GOB public primary schools are ...

  20. The Forms and Ecologies of Islamist militancy and terrorism in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Azizur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Islamist militancy and terrorism, a major sociopolitical issue of Bangladesh today, has largely remained under-researched. This paper mainly explores the forms and ecologies of Islamist militancy and terrorism based on the content analysis of media reports and interviews with some experts in Bangladesh. Ecologies, in this paper, refer to the multiple interrelated and interdependent environments: social, political, and religious, that foster, germinate and nurture the growth of militancy and t...

  1. The Framework for Implementing ECommerce: The Role of Bank and Telecom in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Laisuzzaman, Ijaj Md.; Imran, Nahid; Nahid, Abdullah Al; Ziaul, Md.; Alim, Md. Abdul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an effective framework for adapting electronic commerce or e-commerce services in developing countries like Bangladesh. The internet has opened up a new horizon for commerce, namely electronic commerce (e-commerce). It entails the use of the internet in the marketing, identification, payment and delivery of goods and services. At present internet facilities are available in Bangladesh. Slowly, but steadily these facilities are holding a strong position in every aspe...

  2. The present status of infectious diseases of laboratory animals in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul; Awal

    2005-01-01

    The commonlaboratory animals in Bangladesh are rabbit,guinea pig,rat&mice.Commoninfectious diseases of rabbitare pasteurellosis,infectious myxomatosis,pneumonia,tyzzer’s disease,nasal catarrh,Conjunctivitis(weepy eye)&abscess formation.Amongthem,laterthree diseases are most commonin most of the animal housesin Bangladesh.Ente-rotoxaemia,primarilya diarrhoeal disease of rabbit caused by Clostridiumspiroformoccurs during4-8weeks of age show-ing clinical signslikelassitude,rough hair coat,perianal regioncovere...

  3. The Determinants of Worker Remittance in Terms of Foreign Factors: The Case of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Rezwanul Hasan; Hashmi Rubayyat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of worker remittance of Bangladesh. Instead of traditional approach of estimating the remittance determinants, here we propose to use foreign macroeconomic indicators as a proxy determinant to avoid endogeneity. We also used panel estimation technique in our study to incorporate country specific heterogeneity of remittance inflow of Bangladesh. According our study any changes in the number of labor force, consumer price index, export, i...

  4. Predicting water consumption habits for seven arsenic-safe water options in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Inauen, Jennifer; Tobias, Robert; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Background: In Bangladesh, 20 million people are at the risk of developing arsenicosis because of excessive arsenic intake. Despite increased awareness, many of the implemented arsenic-safe water options are not being sufficiently used by the population. This study investigated the role of social-cognitive factors in explaining the habitual use of arsenic-safe water options.Methods: Eight hundred seventy-two randomly selected households in six arsenic-affected districts of rural Bangladesh, w...

  5. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman; Md. Nazmul Hoque; Anup Kumar Talukder; Ziban Chandra Das

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured...

  6. Feasibility of adopting aquaculture without detriment to existing farming practices: a case of Bangladesh farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M.; Rab, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Integrating agriculture aquaculture that would draw inputs from on farm sources is viewed as a viable option to improve the productivity, income and resource use efficiency of existing farms in Bangladesh. To assess the existing resource availability, use pattern and efficiency before introducing new aquaculture technology within the existing farm systems, a survey of 330 pond operating farm households was conducted in six selected unions from two thanas (subdistricts) of Bangladesh.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Learning Styles of Students of USA and Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Quamrul H. Mazumder

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare and evaluate the different learning styles of students in Bangladesh and the United States. The objective was to identify the similarities and differences among individual student learning styles using the Fielder-Silverman model and an index of learning styles, which was compiled using student response data from two universities in Bangladesh and one American university. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the factors affecting learning style, such...

  8. A GIS based Site Suitability Analysis for Shrimp Cultivation in the Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Syeed, Kazi

    2007-01-01

    Bangladesh geographically comprised one of the largest delta landscapes of the world. Almost 6.7% of country’stotal area (147570 sqkm.) is covered byrivers and inland water bodies. These water bodies being rich in fishproduction meet the majority of the demand of protein. Bangladesh produces world's fourth largest quantity of fishand it is collected from the inland water bodies. Though shrimps were easily available in the inland water bodies forhundreds of years but shrimp culture as an expor...

  9. Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Mainstream Primary Education of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Asim, Das

    2011-01-01

    Over the years Bangladesh has shown a remarkable progress in primary education. Inclusion of students with disabilities in mainstream primary education is also increasing year by year. But in the context of quality teachinglearning for all, Bangladesh is still a far away from effective inclusive education. Inclusive education requires some additional arrangement within the mainstream system that is really a challenge. The present paper reports on the prevailing situation of education of stude...

  10. A people-centred perspective on climate change, environmental stress, and livelihood resilience in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ayeb-Karlsson, Sonja; Geest, Kees van der; Ahmed, Istiakh; Huq, Saleemul; Warner, Koko

    2016-01-01

    The Ganges–Brahmaputra delta enables Bangladesh to sustain a dense population, but it also exposes people to natural hazards. This article presents findings from the Gibika project, which researches livelihood resilience in seven study sites across Bangladesh. This study aims to understand how people in the study sites build resilience against environmental stresses, such as cyclones, floods, riverbank erosion, and drought, and in what ways their strategies sometimes fail. The article applies...

  11. Feasibility of Natore Rubber Dam on Mahanonda River in Bangladesh and its Performance on Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Sazadul Hasan; Md. Imran Kabir

    2016-01-01

    Low rainfall in winter causes a great problem on irrigation. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC) started research on this problem from 1974. In 1994-95, Rubber Dam projects have been taken by BIC (Beijing IWHR Corporation) in Bangladesh as it is very convenience and effective in both irrigation and cultivation of crops in winter. After installing, it is very important and challenging task to study the suitability and effect of Rubber Dam on agriculture. In this research work, t...

  12. Assessment of occupational exposure in non-medical facilities of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nizam, QMR; Shill, S; Haider, M.

    2015-01-01

    The concern about occupational exposure is being increased by the worker and regulatory body day by day in Bangladesh. After establishment of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory Authority (BAERA) this type of study has been carried out extensively for creating database about the safety of occupational worker in different facilities. The present research work has been performed on major non-medical radiological facilities including non-destructive testing (NDT), nucleonic gauge and irradiation...

  13. Road March Searching a Better Alternative Way of Hartal Culture in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Mahbub Alam Prodip; A.H.M Kamrul Ahasan; Md. Liton Hossen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The political parties introduced various kinds of political cultures in the political avenue after the independence of Bangladesh in 1971. Hartal is one of the most indispensable measures that political parties use to achieve their goals as well as to ensure the desire and demand of mass people. It was vastly used to overthrow autocratic regime to retain the Parliamentary form of democracy and to introduce a Non-party Caretaker Government system in Bangladesh. However hartal is losin...

  14. Evaluation of an Arsenic Test Kit for Rapid Well Screening in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    George, Christine Marie; Zheng, Yan; Joseph H Graziano; Rasul, Shahriar Bin; Hossain, Zakir; Mey, Jacob L.; van Geen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic in groundwater via drinking remains unabated for millions of villagers in Bangladesh. Since a blanket testing campaign using test kits almost a decade ago, millions of new wells have been installed but not tested, thus affordable testing is needed. The performance of the Arsenic Econo-Quick (EQ) kit was evaluated by blindly testing 123 wells in Bangladesh and comparing with laboratory measurements; 65 wells were tested twice. A subset of the same 123 wells was also tested ...

  15. An ethnographic investigation on land and life of Santal community in Barind Tract, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akan, Mashiur Rahman; Al Mamun, Md Abdullah; Naznin, Tahmina;

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of life style of Santal community, one of the largest tribal communities in Bangladesh. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), participant observation, focus group discussions (FGD), and informal and semi-structured interviews were used to collect information. Santals......, social problems i.e., poverty, inequality, resource scarcity, illiteracy, maladjustment are more severe. Respecting the national constitution, Bangladesh should generate a multi-ethnic leadership to bring glory and protect Santal from all sorts of hazards and discriminations....

  16. Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh : An Analysis towards Motivating GHG Emission Reduction Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Asif; Fujiwara, Akimasa; Zhang, Junyi

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, road transport has been the dominant mode of transportation in Bangladesh, causing not only a burden on the economy through the import of gasoline, but also aggravating the environment through increased emission of greenhouse gasses. Road based energy-intensive transport system in Bangladesh has mainly evolved in absence of vision for long-term transport policy. Emission of green house gases (e.g. mainly CO,, N20 and CH4) resulting from transport fuel have been estimated in thi...

  17. Integration of Digital Technology in the Film Industry of Bangladesh: Readiness and Response Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, Muhammad Shajjad

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand how the integration of digital technology (DT) in the Bangladesh Film industry has been responded to by its production, distribution and exhibition related organisations. Since no research on digital integration has been considered in a developing country context, and specifically within the area of concentrating on the industry rather than the films themselves, this research therefore addresses the gaps within the knowledge field. The Bangladesh F...

  18. Sustainable Renewable Energy for Development: Access to Finance on Solar Energy for Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu, Nobinkhor

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh will achieve considerable success in acceleration of economic growth of course need for sustainable renewable energy for development. At the present Government of Bangladesh takes the different financing models that have been developed and tested for renewable energy projects, especially solar energy, in urban and rural communities and energy efficiency improvement projects. Logistic regressions have been presented with the dependent variable as an indicator of the probability gene...

  19. A Survey of Medicinal Plants Used by Kavirajes of Chalna Area, Khulna District, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Ferdausi, Dilara; Mollik, Ariful Haque; Jahan, Rownak; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Haque, Wahid Mozammel

    2009-01-01

    Kavirajes or traditional medicinal practitioners form the primary healthcare providers of the predominantly rural population of Bangladesh. Kavirajes use a variety of medicinal plants for treatment of different ailments. The formulations prepared from medicinal plants vary considerably between Kavirajes of different regions of the country. The objective of this study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey amongst the Kavirajes of Chalna area, Khulna district, Bangladesh. That area is known t...

  20. Reduced death rates from cyclones in Bangladesh: What more needs to be done?

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Ubydul; Hashizume, Masahiro; Kolivras, Korine; Overgaard, Hans J.; Das, Bivash; Yamamoto, Taro

    2012-01-01

    Tropical storms, such as cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons, present major threats to coastal communities. Around two million people worldwide have died and millions have been injured over the past two centuries as a result of tropical storms. Bangladesh is especially vulnerable to tropical cyclones, with around 718 000 deaths from them in the past 50 years. However, cyclone-related mortality in Bangladesh has declined by more than 100-fold over the past 40 years, from 500 000 deaths in 1970 t...