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Sample records for banded iron formations

  1. Band Iron Formations and Satellite Magnetic Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, K. A.; Wasilewski, P.

    2005-05-01

    Band Iron Formations (BIF) are mainly Precambrian (2.5-1.8 Ga) sedimentary deposits and are composed of alternating layers of iron rich material and silica (chert). Precambrian BIF mark growth in the level of free oxygen in the atmosphere and the ocean which happened about 2.2 Ga. Distribution of main BIF includes Hamersley Range, Australia; Transvaal-Griquatown, South Africa; Minas Gerais, Brazil; Labrador Trough, Canada, and Kursk-Krivoi Rog (Russia). Together these five very large BIF deposits constitute about 90 percent of Earth's total estimated BIF (5.76*10 14 ). On each continent these ancient rocks usually metamorphosed and crystallized include what are variously described as hematite-quartzites, banded iron formations, banded jaspers or calico-rocks. West African, Hudson Bay and Western Australian Satellite Magnetic Anomalies coincide with distribution BIF deposits. The Kursk Satellite Magnetic Anomaly (KMA) (about 22 nT at the altitude=400km, centered at 51o N, 37o E) also was identified by ground and aeromagnetic observations and is recognized as one of the largest magnetic anomaly on the Earth. Magnetic modeling shows that immense Precambrian iron ore deposits (iron bands) of Voronezh uplift are the main source of KMA. Magnetic properties of 10000 BIF samples outcropped in the KMA area have been measured and analyzed (Krutikhovskaya et al., 1964) Rockmag BIF dataset is presented at: http://core2.gsfc.nasa.gov/MPDB/datasets.html. Mean NRM value is about 42 A/M, Qn about 1.4. Demagnetization tests suggest that hard and stable NRM component is caused by hematite occurring in BIF in different forms and grain sizes. Hematite deposits discovered on Mars in western equatorial area with layered topography of Aram Chaos and Sinus Meridiani could be of hydrothermal origin and may be formed similar to hematite precipitated in BIF on Earth.

  2. Chemostratigraphy of Neoproterozoic Banded Iron Formation (BIF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaucher, Claudio; Sial, Alcides N.; Frei, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Sawawin BIF (Saudi Arabia), and the Jucurutu Formation of the Seridó Belt (NE Brazil). Lake Superior type BIFs are represented by the Tonian Shilu Group (South China) and the late Ediacaran Arroyo del Soldado Group (Yerbal and Cerro Espuelitas formations, Uruguay). Useful chemostratigraphic tools...

  3. Nd isotopic variations in Precambrian banded iron formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Stein B.; Pimentel-Klose, Mario R.

    1988-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Nd is reported for eight banded iron formations (BIFs) ranging in age from 0.65 to 3.4 Ga. The data suggest a trend of increasingly positive epsilon(Nd) values with age which is interpreted to reflect isotopic variations in Precambrian seawater. The Urucum (0.65 Ga) and the Gunflint (1.9 Ga) BIFs yield negative epsilon(Nd) values between -6 and 0. The remaining BIFs, with ages of 1.84 to 3.4 Ga, have predominantly positive values between -1 and +4. The Nd isotopic signature of BIFs changes from a principally continental source to a dominantly depleted mantle source from the present into the Archean.

  4. Identification of biologically recycled continental materials in banded iron formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Beard, B. L.; Johnson, C.

    2015-12-01

    The controversy on the origin of banded iron formations (BIFs) has lasted for many decades. Studies prior to the 1970s suggested that Fe in BIFs was supplied from continental riverine inputs[1], but discovery of midocean ridge hydrothermal systems in the 1970s and identification of positive Eu anomaly in BIF samples led to an alternative model where hydrothermal vents provided Fe in BIFs[2]. Although the latter model has became widely accepted, it should be noted that interpretations of Fe sources for BIFs using the abundance and isotopic composition of rare earth elements (REEs) are based on an assumption that transport and deposition of REEs and Fe were coupled. We address the question of Fe sources and pathways for BIFs by combining stable Fe isotopes with radiogenic Nd isotopes as well as REE measurements to test proposals that Fe in BIFs was hydrothermally sourced. The samples investigated are from a type section of the Dales Gorge member of the 2.5 Ga Brockman Iron Formation, the world's most extensive Superior-type BIF that represents the climax of BIF deposition in the geologic record. Large variations were observed in both Fe and Nd isotope compositions of the BIF samples, and there is a positive correlation between the bulk rock ɛNd and δ56Fe values. In addition, there is a negative corelation between ɛNd and Sm/Nd ratios. In order to explain the observed correlations in those isotopic and elemental data, a two-component model, where mixing between a high ɛNd, low Sm/Nd hydrothermal endmember and a low ɛNd, low δ56Fe, but high Sm/Nd continental endmember occurred prior to deposition of the BIF, is required. The low-δ56Fe, high-Sm/Nd endmember is best explained by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) in the coastal sediments, which fractionated Fe isotopes and REEs and released these components back to water column that were ultimately precipitated in BIFs. The range and distribution of ɛNdvalues in the BIF samples suggest that the amount

  5. Geochemistry of some banded iron-formations of the archean supracrustals, Jharkhand–Orissa region, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H N Bhattacharya; Indranil Chakraborty; Kaushik K Ghosh

    2007-06-01

    Banded iron-formations (BIF) form an important part of the Archean supracrustal belts of the Jharkhand–Orissa region, India. Major, trace and REE chemistry of the banded iron-formation of the Gandhamardan, Deo Nala, Gorumahisani and Noamundi sections of the Jharkhand–Orissa region are utilized to explore the source of metals and to address the thermal regime of the basin floor and the redox conditions of the archean sea. Hydrothermal fluids of variable temperatures might have contributed the major part of the Fe and other trace elements to the studied banded iron-formations. Diagenetic fluids from the sea floor sediments and river water might have played a subdued role in supplying the Fe and other elements for the banded iron-formations.

  6. Biologically recycled continental iron is a major component in banded iron formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Beard, Brian L; Johnson, Clark M

    2015-07-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) record a time of extensive Fe deposition in the Precambrian oceans, but the sources and pathways for metals in BIFs remain controversial. Here, we present Fe- and Nd-isotope data that indicate two sources of Fe for the large BIF units deposited 2.5 billion y ago. High-εNd and -δ(56)Fe signatures in some BIF samples record a hydrothermal component, but correlated decreases in εNd- and δ(56)Fe values reflect contributions from a continental component. The continental Fe source is best explained by Fe mobilization on the continental margin by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) and confirms for the first time, to our knowledge, a microbially driven Fe shuttle for the largest BIFs on Earth. Detailed sampling at various scales shows that the proportions of hydrothermal and continental Fe sources were invariant over periods of 10(0)-10(3) y, indicating that there was no seasonal control, although Fe sources varied on longer timescales of 10(5)-10(6) y, suggesting a control by marine basin circulation. These results show that Fe sources and pathways for BIFs reflect the interplay between abiologic (hydrothermal) and biologic processes, where the latter reflects DIR that operated on a basin-wide scale in the Archean.

  7. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ores from eastern India with implications on their genesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subrata Roy; A S Venkatesh

    2009-12-01

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–Langalata iron ore deposits, Singhbhum–North Orissa Craton, belonging to Iron Ore Group (IOG) eastern India have been studied in detail along with the geochemical evaluation of different iron ores. The geochemical and mineralogical characterization suggests that the massive, hard laminated, soft laminated ore and blue dust had a genetic lineage from BIFs aided with certain input from hydrothermal activity. The PAAS normalized REE pattern of Jilling BIF striking positive Eu anomaly, resembling those of modern hydrothermal solutions from mid-oceanic ridge (MOR). Major part of the iron could have been added to the bottom sea water by hydrothermal solutions derived from hydrothermally active anoxic marine environments. The ubiquitous presence of intercalated tuffaceous shales indicates the volcanic signature in BIF. Mineralogical studies reveal that magnetite was the principal iron oxide mineral, whose depositional history is preserved in BHJ, where it remains in the form of martite and the platy hematite is mainly the product of martite. The different types of iron ores are intricately related with the BHJ. Removal of silica from BIF and successive precipitation of iron by hydrothermal fluids of possible meteoric origin resulted in the formation of martite-goethite ore. The hard laminated ore has been formed in the second phase of supergene processes, where the deep burial upgrades the hydrous iron oxides to hematite. The massive ore is syngenetic in origin with BHJ. Soft laminated ores and biscuity ores were formed where further precipitation of iron was partial or absent.

  8. Preservation of Fe isotope heterogeneities during diagenesis and metamorphism of banded iron formation

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, C. D.; Friedhelm von Blanckenburg; R. Schönberg; Frost, B. R.; M. S. Swapp; [Egmont, John, 1st earl of] 

    2007-01-01

    We present the iron isotope composition of primary, diagenetic and metamorphic minerals in five samples from the contact metamorphosed Biwabik Iron Formation. These samples attained peak metamorphic temperatures of

  9. Early diagenetic quartz formation at a deep iron oxidation front in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific - A modern analogue for banded iron/chert formations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Patrick; Chapligin, Bernhard; Picard, Aude; Meyer, Hanno; Fischer, Cornelius; Rettenwander, Daniel; Amthauer, Georg; Vogt, Christoph; Aiello, Ivano W.

    2014-07-01

    concentration is locally decreased below opal-A and opal-CT saturation allowing for precipitation of the thermodynamically more stable phase: quartz. This mechanism of chert formation at the iron oxidation front in suboxic zones may explain why early-diagenetic microcrystalline chert only occurs sporadically in modern marine sediments. It may also serve as a modern analogue for the deposition of much more abundant banded iron/chert formations at the time of the great oxidation event around 2.4 Ga BP, which was probably the largest iron oxidation front in Earth's history.

  10. Using modern ferruginous habitats to interpret Precambrian banded iron formation deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeksoy, Elif; Halama, Maximilian; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Early Earth processes are typically identified through the study of mineralogical, elemental and isotopic features in the rock record, including Precambrian banded iron formations (BIF). However, post-depositional processes often obscure the primary geochemical signals, making the use of BIF as proxies for paleo-seawater and the paleo-biosphere potentially imprecise. Thus, alternative approaches are required to complement the information gained from the rock record in order to fully understand the distinctive biogeochemical processes on ancient Earth. Simulating these conditions in the laboratory is one approach, but this approach can never fully replicate the complexity of a natural environment. Therefore, finding modern environments with a unique set of geochemical and microbiological characteristics to use as analogues for BIF depositional environments can provide invaluable information. In this review, we provide an overview of the chemical, physical and biological parameters of modern, ferruginous lakes that have been used as analogue BIF environments.

  11. Do Secular Trends in the Nickel Content of Banded Iron Formation Record a Methanogen Famine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, S. V.; Pecoits, E.; Papineau, D.; Nisbet, E. G.; Barley, M. E.; Arndt, N. T.; Zahnle, K.; Kamber, B. S.; Konhauser, K. O.

    2008-12-01

    As ancient chemical sediments whose composition was dictated by contemporaneous seawater, Banded Iron Formations (BIF) may prove to be one of the most useful indicators of changing oceanic trace element concentrations over geological timescales. We report here new trace element analyses of over 20 BIF spanning roughly 3 billion years of ocean history. Our data indicate a progressive decline in nickel abundance in BIF with age; we suggest that after the most intense period of mantle plume magmatism and continental crustal growth in Earth's history ca. 2.7 billion years ago, a cooler upper mantle led to decreased eruption of Ni-rich ultramafic rocks (i.e., komatiites), and consequently a reduced flux of dissolved Ni to the oceans. These results, combined with experimentally-determined Ni partition coefficients between simulated Precambrian seawater and diverse iron oxides, indicate that dissolved Ni concentrations may have been as high as 400 nM throughout much of the Archean, but dropped significantly to ~120 nM by 2.5 Ga, and then slowly approached modern day values (~9 nM) by ~500 Ma. The observed decline in the availability of Ni, a key metal cofactor in the enzymes of methanogens, would have progressively stifled methanogenic activity in the oceans and severely disrupted the supply of biogenic methane sometime between 2.7 and 2.5 Ga. Did a nickel famine at the end of the Archean cause catastrophic collapse of atmospheric methane and thereby facilitate the rise of atmospheric oxygen at 2.4 billion years ago, the so-called 'Great Oxidation Event' (GOE)?

  12. Stable Ni Isotope Fractionation In Systems Relevant To Banded Iron-Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, H.; Spivak-Birndorf, L.; Newkirk, D.; Wasylenki, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    An important event in the evolution of life was the rise of atmospheric oxygen during the Proterozoic. Preceding the rise in O2 was a decline in atmospheric methane concentrations, likely due to decreased productivity of methanogenic Archaea. Based on Ni concentrations in banded iron formations (BIF), Konhauser et al. (2009) hypothesized that mantle cooling during the Archaean reduced the amount of Ni present in igneous rocks and in oceans, causing a Ni shortage for methanogens. Methanogens use Ni for cofactor F430, a catalyst during methanogenesis. To confirm Konhauser's hypothesis, a proxy for methanogen productivity in the rock record is necessary, in order to determine whether a decline in methanogen populations correlated with the observed decrease in maximum Ni contents in rocks from the Archaean. Ni isotope ratios recorded in BIF (oceanic sediments consisting of layered iron oxides and cherts) may provide evidence of a decline in methane production. Cameron et al. (2009) have shown that methanogens preferentially assimilate light Ni isotopes. Thus Ni isotopes in BIF have potential use as biomarkers for methanogenesis. Ferrihydrite was almost certainly the dominant Fe-oxide phase precipitating during BIF deposition. Ferrihydrite nanoparticles have large surface areas and are able to remove aqueous metals from solution through multiple sorption mechanisms. Thus we investigated experimentally the relationship between Ni isotopes in solution and Ni associated with ferrihydrite. We experimented with two different sorption mechanisms: adsorption of aqueous Ni onto surfaces of synthetic ferrihydrite and coprecipitation of aqueous Ni with ferrihydrite. Preliminary results indicate that light isotopes are preferentially associated with ferrihydrite in both adsorption and coprecipitation experiments, with an average fractionation of 0.3‰ in terms of δ60/58 Ni. Future experiments will investigate whether the observed isotope fractionations reflect kinetics or

  13. Biomarkers in Archaean banded iron formations : examples from Pilbara and Dhawar Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orberger, B.; Pinti, D. L.; Cloquet, C.; Hashizume, K.; Soyama, H.; Jayananda, M.; Wirth, R.; Gallien, J. P.; Massault, M.; Rouchon, V.

    The origin of Archeaen banded iron formations (BIF) and the role of biosphere in Fe precipitation is still highly debated. In order to elucidate these processes, detailed mineralogical and textural analyses combined with δ 15 N, δ 56 Fe and δ 13 C data were obtained on Fe-oxide bands from Marble Bar chert Unit (MB, 3.46 Ga, Pilbara craton, W. Australia) and a BIF from the Bababudan Group (BG, 2.7-2.9 Ga, Dhawar Craton, Southern India). Both samples are composed of alternating quartz and Feoxide bands with wavy micro-textures. CI-normalized REE patterns show that MB reflects hydrothermal fluid/basalt interactions, while BG precipitated from a hydrothermal fluid/seawater mixture. In MB, nano-cristalline hematite replaced magnetite, Mgcalcite and Fe-sulfides producing a matlike surface, preserving nanometric N-bearing amorphous carbon nodules. Measured C/N ratios (2.3 to 52) are typical of Precambrian organic matter. The δ 56 Fe of -0.40±0.02% suggests MOR-hydrothermal fluids as a Fe-source, while a δ 15 N of +7.4±0.4% is compatible with nitrification- denitrification processes and δ 13 C of -19.9±0.1% support an organic origin. BG is composed of intergrown magnetite and hematite. Disseminated grunerite and magnetite grew during low T metamorphism. Fe-oxide spherules compose vermicular- filaments that nucleated perpendicular to quartz surfaces. Fe-oxide spherule bunches are perfectly preserved in the silica bands forming micrometric mats, which contain heterogeneously distributed N (˜0.09at.%) and C (0.51 at.%, C/N=5.73). Bulk δ 13 C of -15.35%±0.10 points to an organic origin for C. The ?56 Fe in Fe and Si layers (0.75% to 2.16%) is compatible with a chemical precipitation for BIF. A negative correlation between ?56 Fe and the Th/U ratio suggests that Fe isotopic variations are related to fluid circulation and re-precipitation of Fe-oxides. High ?15 N, on one Feoxide layer, of +21.8±0.7%, corresponds to that observed for Archeaen BIFs and may be related

  14. SIMS analyses of silicon and oxygen isotope ratios for quartz from Archean and Paleoproterozoic banded iron formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Philipp R.; Huberty, Jason M.; Kita, Noriko T.; Ushikubo, Takayuki; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W.

    2011-10-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) are chemical marine sediments dominantly composed of alternating iron-rich (oxide, carbonate, sulfide) and silicon-rich (chert, jasper) layers. Isotope ratios of iron, carbon, and sulfur in BIF iron-bearing minerals are biosignatures that reflect microbial cycling for these elements in BIFs. While much attention has focused on iron, banded iron formations are equally banded silica formations. Thus, silicon isotope ratios for quartz can provide insight on the sources and cycling of silicon in BIFs. BIFs are banded by definition, and microlaminae, or sub-mm banding, are characteristic of many BIFs. In situ microanalysis including secondary ion mass spectrometry is well-suited for analyzing such small features. In this study we used a CAMECA IMS-1280 ion microprobe to obtain highly accurate (±0.3‰) and spatially resolved (˜10 μm spot size) analyses of silicon and oxygen isotope ratios for quartz from several well known BIFs: Isua, southwest Greenland (˜3.8 Ga); Hamersley Group, Western Australia (˜2.5 Ga); Transvaal Group, South Africa (˜2.5 Ga); and Biwabik Iron Formation, Minnesota, USA (˜1.9 Ga). Values of δ 18O range from +7.9‰ to +27.5‰ and include the highest reported δ 18O values for BIF quartz. Values of δ 30Si have a range of ˜5‰ from -3.7‰ to +1.2‰ and extend to the lowest δ 30Si values for Precambrian cherts. Isua BIF samples are homogeneous in δ 18O to ±0.3‰ at mm- to cm-scale, but are heterogeneous in δ 30Si up to 3‰, similar to the range in δ 30Si found in BIFs that have not experienced high temperature metamorphism (up to 300 °C). Values of δ 30Si for quartz are homogeneous to ±0.3‰ in individual sub-mm laminae, but vary by up to 3‰ between multiple laminae over mm-to-cm of vertical banding. The scale of exchange for Si in quartz in BIFs is thus limited to the size of microlaminae, or less than ˜1 mm. We interpret differences in δ 30Si between microlaminae as preserved from primary

  15. ^(40)Ar/^(39)Ar constraints on the age and thermal history of the Urucum Neoproterozoic banded iron-formation, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Piacentini, Thiago; Vasconcelos, Paulo M.; Farley, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Urucum is one of the youngest banded iron-formations (BIFs) yet its exact age remains uncertain. ^(40)Ar/^(39)Ar geochronology on late-diagenetic to early metamorphic cryptomelane from the Urucum sequence reveals a minimum depositional age of 587 ± 7 Ma. Metamorphic braunite age spectra yield flat segments defining apparent ages of 547 ± 3 Ma to 513 ± 4 Ma, interpreted as recrystallization or cooling ages. Metamorphic muscovite grains from a meta-arkose interbedded with the BIF yield reproduc...

  16. Geology and geochemistry of the Macheng Algoma-type banded iron-formation, North China Craton: Constraints on mineralization events and genesis of high-grade iron ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huaying; Niu, Xianglong; Zhang, Lianchang; Pirajno, Franco; Luo, Huabao; Qin, Feng; Cui, Minli; Wang, Changle; Qi, Min

    2015-12-01

    The Macheng iron deposit is located in the eastern Hebei province of the North China Craton (NCC). It is hosted in Neoarchean metamorphic rocks of Baimiaozi formation in the Dantazi Group, consisting of biotite-leptynite, plagioclase-gneiss, plagioclase-amphibolite, migmatite, migmatitic granite and quartz schist. Geochemical analyses of the host biotite leptynite and plagioclase amphibolites show that their protoliths are both volcanics, inferred to be trachytic basalt and basaltic andesite, respectively. Based on the geochemical signature of the host rocks, together with geology of the iron deposit, it is inferred that the Macheng BIF is an Algoma-type iron exhalative formation, formed in an arc-related basin in the Neoarchean. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized rare earth elements (REEs) plus yttrium (Y) concentrations of different BIF ores with gneissic, striated and banded structure in the Macheng deposit, show similar patterns with depletions in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and middle rare earth elements (MREEs) relative to heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and with apparently positive La, Y and Eu anomalies. Y/Ho ratios of the gneissic, striated and banded BIF ores vary from 37 to 56. These geochemical features of the BIF ores reveal their affinity with the sea water and the presence of a high-temperature hydrothermal component, indicating that both the seawater and high temperature hydrothermal fluids derived from alteration of oceanic basalts and komatiites may contribute to formation of the Macheng BIF. Geological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of the Macheng deposit recognized two kinds of high-grade iron ores. One is massive oxidized high-grade ore (Fe2O3T = 74.37-86.20 wt.%), mainly consisting of hematite with some magnetite, which shows geochemical characteristics of the gneissic, striated and banded BIF ores. The other type is magnetite high-grade ore, also massive and consisting of magnetite, with distinct characteristics

  17. Mineralogical Mapping of the Banded Iron Formations using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy and micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeeby, B. E.; Schoonen, M. A.; Glotch, T. D.; Ohmoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    Banded Iron Formations (BIFs) consist of thin alternating layers of iron-poor silica and iron-bearing phylosilicates, iron oxides, and carbonates and/or sulfides. BIFs are common in the Precambrian. Although BIFs have been the subject of numerous studies, the mechanism and environments of formation remains poorly understood. It has been hotly debated whether BIFs formed by microbes in Fe2+-rich oceans under a reducing atmosphere, or by reactions between locally discharged submarine hydrothermal fluids and O2-rich deep ocean water. The debates have continued mostly because of the lack of detailed studies on the paragenesis of minerals in BIFs to determine which minerals are primary precipitates, and which are diagenetic and metamorphic products. The purpose of this study is to explore the applications of FTIR spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy in micro-scale paragenetic studies of BIF samples. FTIR and Raman are vibrational spectroscopy techniques that provide insight into the chemical bonding within a compound. With these techniques it is possible to resolve the iron oxide, carbonate, and clay mineralogy within BIFs, which is difficult with techniques that rely on elemental analysis, such as TEM-EDAX. Samples used in this study are thin sections of the 2.7 Ga BIFs from Temagami in the Abitibi green stone belt, Ontario, Canada. FTIR analyses were conducted using a Nicolet iN10MX Micro-Imaging FTIR Spectrometer. This instrument is capable of collecting hyperspectral infrared images with a pixel size of 25 microns covering the range from 7000 to 715 cm-1. In addition, we collected point spectra measuring 50X50 microns over a spectral range from 4000 to 400 cm-1. These point spectra were used to distinguish among different iron minerals in the thin sections. Using the hyperspectral data, we created composite false color Images to show mineral variation across the samples. The spectra were modeled using a digital spectral library. After modeling and examination

  18. Source heterogeneity for the major components of ~3.7 Ga banded iron formations (Isua Greenstone Belt, Western Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Polat, Ali

    2006-01-01

    of the depositional environment and to the understanding of depositional mechanisms of these earliest chemical sediments. Rare earth element (REE)-yttrium (Y) patterns of the individual mesobands show features of modern seawater with diagnostic cerium (Ce/Ce ), presodymium (Pr/Pr ) and Y/holmium (Ho) anomalies. Very......We report trace element, samarium (Sm)-neodymium (Nd) and lead (Pb) isotopic data for individual micro-and mesobands of the Earth's oldest Banded Iron Formation (BIF) from the  3.7-3.8 Ga Isua Greenstone Belt (IGB, West Greenland) in an attempt to contribute to the characterization...... low high field strength elements (HFSE) concentrations indicate essentially detritus-free precipitation. Uranogenic Pb isotope data define a correlation line with a slope of 3691 ± 41 Ma, indicating that the uranium (U)-lead (Pb) system remained closed after the formation of this BIF. High 207Pb/204Pb...

  19. Archaean asteroid impacts, banded iron formations and MIF-S anomalies: A discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    on impact spherule size distribution ( Melosh, H.J., Vickery, A.M. [1991] Nature, 350, 494-497) suggest projectiles several tens of kilometers in diameter (Byerly and Lowe, 1994; Shukloyukov, A., Kyte, F.T., Lugmair, G.W., Lowe, D.R., Byerly, G.R. [2000]. In: Koeberl, C., Gilmour, I. (Eds.), Impacts and the Early Earth, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 99-116; Kyte, F.T., Shukloyukov, A., Lugmair, G.W., Lowe, D.R., Byerly, G.R. [2003] Geology, 31, 283-286). Due to incomplete preservation these impacts represent a minimum rate of the Archaean impact flux. High UV radiation associated with low ozone levels in the Archaean atmosphere may have been further enhanced by large impacts, accentuating MIF-S anomalies. The appearance of iron-rich sediments above late and mid-Archaean impact ejecta units (Glikson, A.Y. [2006] Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 246, 149-160; Glikson, A.Y., Vickers, J. [2007] Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 254, 214-226) may be related either to microbial oxidation of ferrous iron or, alternatively, photochemical oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron. Given post-2.45 Ga diluting of possible MIF-S anomalies by the oxygenating ocean sulfate reservoir (Pavlov, A.A., Kasting, J.F. [2002] Astrobiology, 2, 27-41), similar MIF-S anomalies may have been associated with Proterozoic and Phanerozoic impacts, although to date little evidence exists in this regard (Marouka, T., Koeberl, C., Newton, J., Gilmour, I., Bohor, B.F. [2002] Geological Society of America Special Paper 356, pp. 337-344; Koeberl, C., Thiemens, M. [2008] Multi-sulfur isotopes in cretaceous-tertiary boundary samples from the Western interior-search for photochemical effects 2008. Joint Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies with the Gulf Coast Section of SEPM. (abstract)). Detailed sampling and isotopic analyses across the impact ejecta fallout units are

  20. Interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic data for lineaments study and occurrence of Banded Iron Formation in Ogbomoso area, Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladunjoye, Michael Adeyinka; Olayinka, Abel Idowu; Alaba, Mustapha; Adabanija, Moruffdeen Adedapo

    2016-02-01

    The quest for solid mineral resource as an alternative for oil income in Nigeria presents opportunity to diversify the resource base of the country. To fill some information gap on the long abandoned Ajase and Gbede Banded Iron Formations (BIF) in Ogbomoso area, Southwestern Nigeria, high resolution aeromagnetic data of Ogbomoso - Sheet 222 was interpreted; to provide a better understanding of the mode of occurrence of the iron ore and associated structural features and geologic model. These were accomplished by subjecting reduced-to-pole (RTP) residual aeromagnetic intensity map to various data filtering and processing involving total horizontal derivative, vertical derivative, Upward Continuation (UC), Downward Continuation (DC), Euler Deconvolution at different Spectral Indices (SI), and Analytical signal using Geosoft Oasis Montaj 6.4.2 (HJ) data processing and analysis software. The resultants maps were overlain, compared and or plotted on RTP residual aeromagnetic intensity map and or geological map and interpreted in relation to the surface geological map. Positive magnetic anomalies observed on the RTP residual aeromagnetic intensity map ranged from 2.1 to 94.0 nT and associated with contrasting basement rocks, Ajase and Gbede BIF; while negative magnetic anomalies varied between -54.7 nT and -2.8 nT and are associated with intrusive bodies. Interpreted lineaments obtained from total horizontal derivative map were separated into two categories namely ductile and brittle based on their character vis-à-vis magnetic anomalies on RTP intensity map. Whilst the brittle lineaments were interpreted as fracture or faults; the ductile lineaments were interpreted as folds or representing the internal fabric of the rock units. In addition prominent magnetic faults mainly due to offset of similar magnetic domain/gradient were also interpreted. The iron ore mineralization is distributed within the eastern portion of the study area with Ajase BIF at relatively greater

  1. Crystallographic Fabrics, Grain Boundary Microstructure and Shape Preferred Orientation of Deformed Banded Iron Formations and their Significance for Deformation Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Carlos Fernando; Graça, Leonardo; Lagoeiro, Leonardo; Ferreira, Filippe

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of grain boundaries and shapes along with crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) are a key aspect of investigations of rock microstructures for their correlation with deformation mechanisms. Rapid developments have occurred in the studying rock microstructures due to recent improvements in analytical techniques such as Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). EBSD technique allows quick automated microtextural characteritzation. The deformed banded iron formations (BIFs) occurring in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF) province in Brazil have been studied extensively with EBSD. All studies have focused mainly in CPOs. The general agreement is that dislocation creep was the dominant process of deformation, for the strong c-axis fabric of hematite crystals. This idea is substantiated by viscoplastic self-consistent models for deformation of hematite. However there are limitations to analyzing natural CPOs alone, or those generated by deformation models. The strong c-axis fabric could be taken as equally powerful an evidence for other known deformation mechanisms. Some grain boundary types in BIFs of the QF are irregular and comprise equant grains in granoblastic texture (Figure 1a). CPOs for this kind are strong and consistent with a predominance of dislocation creep. Others are very regular and long parallel to basal planes of hematites forming large elongated crystals (lepidoblastic texture, Figure 1b). Such crystals are called specularite, and their formation has been previously attributed to dislocation creep. This is erroneous because of the high strains which would be required. Their shape must be due to anisotropic grain growth. Other types lie between the above end-textures. Both types of grain shape microstructures have the same core deformation mechanism. Describing their genetic differences is crucial, since specularite owe its shape to anisotropic grain growth. It is not possible yet to confirm that dislocation creep was the

  2. Petrology and geochemistry of the ~2.9 Ga Itilliarsuk banded iron formation and associated supracrustal rocks, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Rasmus; Frei, Robert; Stendal, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    seawater features with Post-Archaean Average Shale (PAAS)-normalised positive La- and Eu-anomalies, enrichment in heavy rare earth elements (HREE) relative to light rare earth elements (LREE) [(Pr/Yb)PAAS ...) and transition metals. The chemically pure BIF is characterised by alternating high iron (∼68 wt.%) and high silica (∼64 wt.%) bands with low total rare earths and yttrium (REY), Al2O3, TiO2 and HFSE contents, suggesting a low detrital component. The least altered bands of the BIF record diagnostic Archaean...... has been divided into two segments on the basis of major and trace elements chemistry: a shaley-BIF with a strong clastic component and a more chemically pure BIF. The shaley-BIF contains high terrigenous influx as reflected by elevated Al2O3 (up to 12 wt.%), TiO2, high field strength elements (HFSE...

  3. Phosphogenesis in the 2460 and 2728 million-year-old banded iron formations as evidence for biological cycling of phosphate in the early biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Liang; Sun, Si; Chan, Lung S

    2012-01-01

    The banded iron formation deposited during the first 2 billion years of Earth's history holds the key to understanding the interplay between the geosphere and the early biosphere at large geological timescales. The earliest ore-scale phosphorite depositions formed almost at ∼2.0-2.2 billion years ago bear evidence for the earliest bloom of aerobic life. The cycling of nutrient phosphorus and how it constrained primary productivity in the anaerobic world of Archean-Palaeoproterozoic eons are still open questions. The controversy centers about whether the precipitation of ultrafine ferric oxyhydroxide due to the microbial Fe(II) oxidation in oceans earlier than 1.9 billion years substantially sequestrated phosphate, and whether this process significantly limited the primary productivity of the early biosphere. In this study, we report apatite radial flowers of a few micrometers in the 2728 million-year-old Abitibi banded iron formation and the 2460 million-year-old Kuruman banded iron formation and their similarities to those in the 535 million-year-old Lower Cambrian phosphorite. The lithology of the 535 Million-year-old phosphorite as a biosignature bears abundant biomarkers that reveal the possible similar biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the Later Archean and Palaeoproterozoic oceans. These apatite radial flowers represent the primary precipitation of phosphate derived from the phytoplankton blooms in the euphotic zones of Neoarchean and Palaoeproterozoic oceans. The unbiased distributions of the apatite radial flowers within sub-millimeter bands do not support the idea of an Archean Crisis of Phosphate. This is the first report of the microbial mediated mineralization of phosphorus before the Great Oxidation Event when the whole biosphere was still dominated by anaerobic microorganisms.

  4. Geochemistry of banded iron formation (BIF) host rocks, Yishui county, North China : major element, REE and other trace element analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, I.; Lee, I.; Yang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Banded iron formation (BIF) in Yishui area, Western Shangdong Province in North China was formed from late Archean to early Paleoproterizoic (2.6Ga-2.5Ga). Amphibolite, metasediment (schist, gneiss) and migmatitic granite consist of host rocks of the BIF in North China. To find characteristics of BIF host rocks, major element, rare earth element and trace element analyses of whole rocks were conducted. Major elements are analyzed using X-ray Fluorescene Spectrometer (XRF) and REE and trace elements are analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plazma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Amphibolites show large negative Eu anomalies ([Eu]/[Eu*]=0.91~0.99) and ranges of REE are ∑REE=305~380 ppm. LREE/HREE ratios are (La/Lu)cn=21.07~26.12. SiO2 contents are 35.1~44.2 wt% and some samples have high Loss On Ignition values ([LOI]=8.35-10.06 wt%) compared to other amphibolites. LOI value is related to water and volatile contents in the rocks and it reflects amphibolite got high degree of alteration. The Fe and Mg mobility effects are shown by Fe2O3/MgO ratios which are 4.7~5.7. The Mg# varies from 25.6 to 29.3. Migmatitic granites have various range of ∑REE=21~241 ppm. They show both Eu negative anomalies ([Eu]/[Eu*]=0.53~0.71) and positive Eu anomalies ([Eu]/[Eu*]=1.95). Migmatitic granites have high SiO2 contents (68.8~72.2 wt%) and Al2O3 (13.4~14.2 wt%) contents. They have relatively low TiO2 (mine pit. Core samples have negative Eu anomalies ([Eu]/[Eu*]=0.27~0.62) and show enriched LREE than HREE ((La/Lu)cn=45.60~62.32). Mine pit samples have positive Eu anomalies ([Eu]/[Eu*]=1.64~2.87) and almost flatten pattern except Eu anomalies ((La/Lu)cn=2.19~2.37). Core samples have higher Al2O3, TiO2, Na2O and K2O contents than mine pit samples. But remarkably mine pit samples have high contents of Fe2O3 (>40.4 wt%). Schists are divided into two types following REE patterns. Some samples have distinct Eu anomalies ([Eu]/[Eu*]=1.65~2.86) and others show relatively indistinct Eu anomalies and

  5. Micro- and nanobands in late Archean and Palaeoproterozoic banded-iron formations as possible mineral records of annual and diurnal depositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Liang

    2014-04-01

    The microbands in Precambrian banded-iron formations (BIFs) have been conjectured to record annual or even diurnal depositions. However, these bands have rarely been observed in high resolution at their true (micro) scale. Here, I suggest that nanobands of fine-grained hematite represent possible diurnal depositions and that microbands of chert/jasper represent possible annual depositions in three sets of BIFs: 2460-Myr BIFs from the Kuruman Iron Formation, Transvaal Supergroup of South Africa; 2480-Myr BIFs from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation, Western Australia; and 2728-Myr BIFs from the Hunter Mine Group, Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Canada. Observations made using scanning electron microscopy indicate that hematite and chert were syngenetic, and that there was a hiatus between their precipitation and the genesis of the remainder of the minerals containing structural Fe(II). Spindle-like grains of hematite, monocrystals of magnetite, and ferro-dolomite formed microbands of ∼30-70 μm in thickness, which appear cyclically in the matrix of the chert. Neither the band-bound magnetite and dolomite nor the linear formations of the hematite spindles represent annual depositions due to their diagenetic features. The thinnest microbands (∼3-∼12 μm) were observed in the chert and jasper, and indicate depositional rates of 6.6-22.2 m/Myr in the BIFs. These rates are consistent with the integrated deposition rates calculated by geochronologic methods for the BIFs, if annual deposition is assumed. The ∼26-nm nanobands observed only in hematite grains reflect an annual deposition of ∼18.6 μm, or ∼18.6 m/Myr, which is also consistent with the depositional rate calculated by geochronologic methods. It is tentatively suggested that these ∼26-nm nanobands were formed from the diurnal precipitation of Fe(III) resulting from the circadian metabolism of Fe(II)-oxidizing or oxygen-evolving photosynthetic microorganisms, which slowed down the rise

  6. Melting in the FeOsbnd SiO2 system to deep lower-mantle pressures: Implications for subducted Banded Iron Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Chie; Hirose, Kei; Nomura, Ryuichi; Ballmer, Maxim D.; Miyake, Akira; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2016-04-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs), consisting of layers of iron oxide and silica, are far denser than normal mantle material and should have been subducted and sunk into the deep lower mantle. We performed melting experiments on Fe2SiO4 from 26 to 131 GPa in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell (DAC). The textural and chemical characterization of a sample recovered from the DAC revealed that SiO2 is the liquidus phase for the whole pressure range examined in this study. The chemical compositions of partial melts are very rich in FeO, indicating that the eutectic melt compositions in the FeOsbnd SiO2 binary system are very close to the FeO end-member. The eutectic temperature is estimated to be 3540 ± 150 K at the core-mantle boundary (CMB), which is likely to be lower than the temperature at the top of the core at least in the Archean and Paleoproterozoic eons, suggesting that subducted BIFs underwent partial melting in a thermal boundary layer above the CMB. The FeO-rich melts formed by partial melting of the BIFs were exceedingly dense and therefore migrated downward. We infer that such partial melts have caused iron enrichment in the bottom part of the mantle, which may have contributed to the formation of ultralow velocity zones (ULVZs) observed today. On the other hand, solid residues left after the segregation of the FeO-rich partial melts have been almost pure SiO2, and therefore buoyant in the deep lower mantle to be entrained in mantle upwellings. They have likely been stretched and folded repeatedly by mantle flow, forming SiO2 streaks within the mantle "marble cake". Mantle packages enhanced by SiO2 streaks may be the origin of seismic scatterers in the mid-lower mantle.

  7. Archean deep-water depositional system: interbedded and banded iron formation and clastic turbidites in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentner, Danielle; Lowe, Donald

    2013-04-01

    The 3.23 billion year old sediments in the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa include some of the world's oldest known deep-water deposits. Unique to this locality are turbidites interbedded with banded iron formation (BIF) and banded ferruginous chert (BFC). This unusual association may provide clues for reconstructing Archean deep-water depositional settings. For our study we examined freshly drilled core in addition to measuring ~500 m of outcrop exposures along road cuts. The stacking pattern follows an overall BIF to BFC to amalgamated turbidite succession, although isolated turbidites do occur throughout the sequence. The turbidites are predominately massive, and capped with thin, normally graded tops that include mud rip-ups, chert plates, and ripples. The lack of internal stratification and the amalgamated character suggests emplacement by surging high-density turbidity currents. Large scours and channels are absent and bedding is tabular: the flows were collapsing with little turbulence reaching the bed. In contrast, field evidence indicates the BIF and BFC most likely precipitated directly out of the water column. Preliminary interpretations indicate the deposits may be related to a pro-deltaic setting. (1) Deltaic systems can generate long-lived, high volume turbidity currents. (2) The contacts between the BIF, BFC, and turbidite successions are gradual and inter-fingered, possibly representing lateral facies relationships similar to modern pro-delta environments. (3) Putative fan delta facies, including amalgamated sandstone and conglomerate, exist stratigraphically updip of the basinal sediments.

  8. Anoxygenic growth of cyanobacteria on Fe(II) and their associated biosignatures: Implications for biotic contributions to Precambrian Banded Iron Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenteau, M.; Jahnke, L. L.; Cady, S. L.; Pierson, B.

    2011-12-01

    Banded Iron Formations (BIFs) are widespread Precambrian sedimentary deposits that accumulated in deep ocean basins or shallow platformal areas with inputs of reduced iron (Fe(II)) and silica from deep ocean hydrothermal activity. There is debate as to whether abiotic or biotic mechanisms were responsible for the oxidation of aqueous Fe(II) and the subsequent accumulation of ferric iron (Fe(III)) mineral assemblages in BIFs. Biotic Fe(II) oxidation could have occurred indirectly as a result of the photosynthetic production of oxygen by cyanobacteria, or could have been directly mediated by anoxygenic phototrophs or chemolithotrophs. The anoxygenic use of Fe(II) as an electron donor for photosynthesis has also been hypothesized in cyanobacteria, representing another biotic mechanism by which Fe(II) could be oxidized in BIFs. This type of photoferrotrophic metabolism may also represent a key step in the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Members of our group have speculated that an intermediate reductant such as Fe(II) could have acted as a transitional electron donor before water. The widespread abundance of Fe(II) in Archean and Neoproterozoic ferruginous oceans would have made it particularly suitable as an electron donor for photosynthesis. We have been searching for modern descendants of such an ancestral "missing link" cyanobacterium in the phototrophic mats at Chocolate Pots, a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park with a constant outflow of anoxic Fe(II)-rich thermal water. Our physiological ecology study of the Synechococcus-Chloroflexi mat using C-14 bicarbonate uptake and autoradiography experiments revealed that the cyanobacteria grow anoxygenically using Fe(II) as an electron donor for photosynthesis in situ. An initial set of similar experiments substituting C-13 bicarbonate as the tracer was used to characterize labeling of the community lipid biomarker signature and confirm the C-14 results. Under light conditions with and without Fe(II), the C

  9. The reliability of ∼2.9 Ga old Witwatersrand banded iron formations (South Africa) as archives for Mesoarchean seawater: Evidence from REE and Nd isotope systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehmann, Sebastian; Bau, Michael; Smith, Albertus J. B.; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Dantas, Elton L.; Bühn, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    Pure marine chemical sediments, such as (Banded) Iron Formations, (B)IFs, are archives of geochemical proxies for the composition of Precambrian seawater and may provide information about the ancient hydrosphere-atmosphere system. We here present rare earths and yttrium (REY) and high precision Sm-Nd isotope data of ∼2.90 Ga old Superior-type BIFs from the Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa, and compare those with data for near-contemporaneous BIFs from the correlative Pongola Supergroup (Superior-type BIF) and from the Pietersburg Greenstone Belt (Algoma-type IF), respectively. All Witwatersrand samples studied display the typical general REY distribution of Archean seawater, but their REY anomalies are less pronounced and their immobile element concentrations are higher than those of other pure (B)IFs. These observations indicate the presence of significant amounts of detrital aluminosilicates in the Witwatersrand BIFs and question the reliability of the Contorted Bed and Water Tower BIFs (Parktown Formation, West Rand Group) as archives of Mesoarchean seawater. Significant post-depositional alteration of the REY budget and the Sm-Nd isotope system is not observed. The Nd isotopic compositions of the purest BIF samples, i.e. the most reliable archives for Witwatersrand seawater, show initial εNd values between -3.95 and -2.25. This range is more negative than what is observed in ambient shales, indicating a decoupling of suspended and dissolved loads in the "near-shore" Witwatersrand Basin seawater. However, εNd range overlaps with that of the correlative Pongola BIF (Alexander et al., 2008). The deeper-water Algoma-type Pietersburg BIF shows more positive (i.e. more mantle-like) εNd2.9Ga values, supporting the hypothesis that a significant amount of its REY inventory was derived from black smoker-style, high-temperature hydrothermal fluids that had altered seafloor basalts. In marked contrast, the dissolved REY budgets (including the Nd isotopic

  10. 微生物参与前寒武纪条带状铁建造沉积的研究进展%Microbial mineralization in Precambrian banded iron formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文芳; 李一良; 潘永信

    2012-01-01

    地球演化早期太古代和早元古代大规模的条带状铁建造(BIF)是目前世界上最重要的铁矿资源.已有的稳定同位素组成、分子化石以及岩石磁学性质等证据支持早期微生物广泛参与了BIF的形成.本文评述了微生物参与BIF形成过程中铁搬运和沉淀及其同位素分馏、生物标志物和岩石磁学证据.深入地研究BIF成矿中的微生物矿化贡献,有助于解释BIF形成机制,反演前寒武纪大气-海洋环境演化,以及理解地球早期生命的过程.%Late Achaean to Palaeoproterozoic deposition of banded iron formations ( BIF) is the most important iron ore resource on Earth. As evident by stable isotopes compositions, fossil molecule, rock magnetic properties , microorganisms such as cyanobacteria, iron-oxidizing and iron-reducing bacteria are suggested to have participated in the deposition of BIF. In this review, we briefly introduced the global distribution of BIF and the environments of early Precambrian Earth; then we went through the recent studies on bacterial mineralization related to the deposition of banded iron, including oxygenic/anoxygenie photosynthesis and dissimilatory iron reduction. Finally,we proposed some challenges and prospectives. We suggest three approaches to understand the microbial mediated deposition of BIF; Searching for organic and inorganic signatures of bacterial mineralization, investigating the microbial participation in modern iron deposition in aquatic environments comparable to the microbial process of BIF, and laboratory microbial mineralization simulation, aiming at promoting the research on BIF formation mechanism.

  11. A compare geochemistry study for Algoma-and Superior-type banded iron formations%Algoma型和Superior型硅铁建造地球化学对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延河; 侯可军; 万德芳; 张增杰

    2012-01-01

    前寒武纪条带状硅铁建造(BIFs)是世界上最重要的铁矿资源类型和地球早期特有的化学沉积建造类型,广泛分布于太古代-古元古代(3.2~ 1.8Ga),记录了地球早期岩石圈、水圈、大气圈和生物圈的状态及演化.前人根据BIFs的岩石组合和构造地质环境将其划分为Algoma型和Superior型.本文对比研究了Algoma型和Superior型BIFs的硅、氧、铁和多硫同位素特征.不同时代和不同类型BIFs的硅氧同位素组成非常相似,强烈亏损30Si,δ30SiNBS-28为较大的负值.二者的铁同位素和硫同位素非质量分馏效应明显不同.Algoma型BIF的△33S多为负值,而Superior型BIF的△33S多为正值;Algoma型BIF富集重铁同位素,δ56FeIRMM-144多为高正值,而Superior型BIF相对富集轻铁同位素,δ56FeIRMM.144多为负值或小正值.研究提出无论是Algoma型,还是Superior型BIFs都是由地球早期的海底火山热液喷气作用形成的,二者属于同一成矿系统,相对而言,Algoma型BIF与火山活动关系更密切,距离同期火山活动中心更近,多形成于深水盆地,环境更加还原.%The Precambrian banded iron formations ( BIFs) are the most important type for iron resources in the world and extraordinary chemical marine sediments formation only occurred in the early Earth, which were concentrated during Archean to Early Proterozoic eras (3.2 ~ 1.8Ga) and recorded lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere status and evolvement then and there. The BIFs were classified into Algoma- and Superior-type on the basis of mineralogical composition and proposed tectonic setting. But contrastive studies about their geochemical characteristic, depositional environment and origin are little. So the silicon, oxygen, iron and multiple sulfur isotopic compositions of Algoma- and Superior-type BIFs were compared. The silicon isotopic compositions of BIFs of different types and ages are similar and strongly depleted in Si, the S Si

  12. Formation and Reactivity of Biogenic Iron Microminerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beveridge, Terrance J.; Ferris, F. Grant

    2001-08-15

    The overall purpose of the project was to explore and quantify the processes that control the formation and reactivity of biogenic iron microminerals and their impact on the solubility of metal contaminants. The research addressed how surface components of bacterial cells, extracellular organic material, and the aqueous geochemistry of the DIRB microenvironment impacts the mineralogy, chemical state and micromorphology of reduced iron phases.

  13. Formation and occurrence of biogenic iron-rich minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Danielle; Langley, Sean

    2005-09-01

    unidentified iron-rich mineral phase forms inside Shewanella cells during the anaerobic reduction of ferrihydrite. Several studies have clearly shown that biogenic iron oxides form in present-day environments, but they might also be important components of ancient geological formations, such as banded-iron formations (BIF). BIF formation is still being debated, but there is now strong evidence that bacteria, more specifically, phototrophic iron oxidizers and possibly iron reducers might have been involved. Biogenic iron oxides represent a potential tool in the search for past and present life on Earth and other planetary systems. Despite the promising use of Fe-isotopes and magnetosomes, there is still no clear proof that they can form only as a result of biological activity. In fact, Fe isotope fractionation of abiotic iron oxides is often similar to that of biogenic oxides and the specific mineralogical characteristics of magnetite crystals present inside magnetotactic bacteria can be reproduced under abiotic conditions. In summary, the role of bacteria in iron cycling has been the focus of several studies in the last few decades, but clearly, more research is needed in order to fully assess the role of microorganisms in their formation.

  14. The F'derik-Zouerate iron district: Mesoarchean and Paleoproterozoic iron formation of the Tiris Complex, Islamic Republic of Mauritania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Finn, Carol A.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Joud, Mohamed; Taleb Mohamed, Ahmed; Horton, John D.; Johnson, Craig A.; Bouabdellah, Mohammed; Slack, John F.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade hematitic iron ores (of HIF, containing 60-65 wt%Fe) have been mined in Mauritania since 1952 from Superior-type iron deposits of the F'derik-Zouerate district.  Depletion of the high-grade ores in recent years has resulted in new exploration projects focused on lower-grade magnetite ores occurring in Algoma-type banded iron formation (of BIF, containing ca. 35 wt% Fe).  Mauritania is the seventeenth largest iron producer in the world and currently has about 1.1 Gt of crude iron ore reserves. 

  15. Iron and Acinetobacter baumannii Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Gentile

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen, responsible for infection outbreaks worldwide. The pathogenicity of this bacterium is mainly due to its multidrug-resistance and ability to form biofilm on abiotic surfaces, which facilitate long-term persistence in the hospital setting. Given the crucial role of iron in A. baumannii nutrition and pathogenicity, iron metabolism has been considered as a possible target for chelation-based antibacterial chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of iron restriction on A. baumannii growth and biofilm formation using different iron chelators and culture conditions. We report substantial inter-strain variability and growth medium-dependence for biofilm formation by A. baumannii isolates from veterinary and clinical sources. Neither planktonic nor biofilm growth of A. baumannii was affected by exogenous chelators. Biofilm formation was either stimulated by iron or not responsive to iron in the majority of isolates tested, indicating that iron starvation is not sensed as an overall biofilm-inducing stimulus by A. baumannii. The impressive iron withholding capacity of this bacterium should be taken into account for future development of chelation-based antimicrobial and anti-biofilm therapies.

  16. Iron isotope composition of some Archean and Proterozoic iron formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, Noah; Rouxel, Olivier J.; Bekker, Andrey; Hofmann, Axel; Little, Crispin T. S.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2012-03-01

    Fe isotopes can provide new insight into redox-dependent biogeochemical processes. Precambrian iron formations (IF) are deserving targets for Fe isotope studies because they are composed predominantly of authigenic Fe phases and record a period of unprecedented iron deposition in Earth's history. We present Fe isotope data for bulk samples from 24 Archean and Proterozoic IF and eight Phanerozoic Fe oxide-rich deposits. These data reveal that many Archean and early Paleoproterozoic iron formations were a sink for isotopically heavy Fe, in contrast to later Proterozoic and Phanerozoic Fe oxide-rich rocks. The positive δ56Fe values in IF are best explained by delivery of particulate ferric oxides formed in the water column to the sediment-water interface. Because IF are a net sink for isotopically heavy Fe, there must be a corresponding pool of isotopically light Fe in the sedimentary record. Earlier work suggested that Archean pyritic black shales were an important part of this light sink before 2.35 billion years ago (Ga). It is therefore likely that the persistently and anomalously low δ56Fe values in shales are linked with the deposition of isotopically heavy Fe in IF in the deeper parts of basins. IF deposition produced a residual isotopically light dissolved Fe pool that was captured by pyritic Fe in shales. Local dissimilatory Fe reduction in porewater and associated diagenetic reactions resulting in pyrite and carbonate precipitation may have further enhanced Fe isotope heterogeneity in marine sediments, and an 'iron shuttle' may have transported isotopically light Fe from shelf sediments to the basin. Nevertheless, water-column processing of hydrothermally delivered Fe likely had the strongest influence on the bulk iron isotope composition of Archean and Paleoproterozoic iron formations and other marine sediments.

  17. Ultrafast band-gap oscillations in iron pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, B; Kolpak, AM

    2013-12-20

    With its combination of favorable band gap, high absorption coefficient, material abundance, and low cost, iron pyrite, FeS2, has received a great deal of attention over the past decades as a promising material for photovoltaic applications such as solar cells and photoelectrochemical cells. Devices made from pyrite, however, exhibit open circuit voltages significantly lower than predicted, and despite a recent resurgence of interest in the material, there currently exists no widely accepted explanation for this disappointing behavior. In this paper, we show that phonons, which have been largely overlooked in previous efforts, may play a significant role. Using fully self-consistent GW calculations, we demonstrate that a phonon mode related to the oscillation of the sulfur-sulfur bond distance in the pyrite structure is strongly coupled to the energy of the conduction-band minimum, leading to an ultrafast (approximate to 100 fs) oscillation in the band gap. Depending on the coherency of the phonons, we predict that this effect can cause changes of up to +/- 0.3 eV relative to the accepted FeS2 band gap at room temperature. Harnessing this effect via temperature or irradiation with infrared light could open up numerous possibilities for novel devices such as ultrafast switches and adaptive solar absorbers.

  18. Biogenicity of an Early Quaternary iron formation, Milos Island, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi Fru, E; Ivarsson, M; Kilias, S P; Frings, P J; Hemmingsson, C; Broman, C; Bengtson, S; Chatzitheodoridis, E

    2015-05-01

    A ~2.0-million-year-old shallow-submarine sedimentary deposit on Milos Island, Greece, harbours an unmetamorphosed fossiliferous iron formation (IF) comparable to Precambrian banded iron formations (BIFs). This Milos IF holds the potential to provide clues to the origin of Precambrian BIFs, relative to biotic and abiotic processes. Here, we combine field stratigraphic observations, stable isotopes of C, S and Si, rock petrography and microfossil evidence from a ~5-m-thick outcrop to track potential biogeochemical processes that may have contributed to the formation of the BIF-type rocks and the abrupt transition to an overlying conglomerate-hosted IF (CIF). Bulk δ(13) C isotopic compositions lower than -25‰ provide evidence for biological contribution by the Calvin and reductive acetyl-CoA carbon fixation cycles to the origin of both the BIF-type and CIF strata. Low S levels of ~0.04 wt.% combined with δ(34) S estimates of up to ~18‰ point to a non-sulphidic depository. Positive δ(30) Si records of up to +0.53‰ in the finely laminated BIF-type rocks indicate chemical deposition on the seafloor during weak periods of arc magmatism. Negative δ(30) Si data are consistent with geological observations suggesting a sudden change to intense arc volcanism potentially terminated the deposition of the BIF-type layer. The typical Precambrian rhythmic rocks of alternating Fe- and Si-rich bands are associated with abundant and spatially distinct microbial fossil assemblages. Together with previously proposed anoxygenic photoferrotrophic iron cycling and low sedimentary N and C potentially connected to diagenetic denitrification, the Milos IF is a biogenic submarine volcano-sedimentary IF showing depositional conditions analogous to Archaean Algoma-type BIFs.

  19. Geology of the Biwabik Iron Formation and Duluth Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, Mark A; Miller, James D; Morey, G B

    2008-10-01

    The Biwabik Iron Formation is a approximately 1.9 billion year-old sequence of iron-rich sedimentary rocks that was metamorphosed at its eastern-most extent by approximately 1.1 billion year-old intrusions of the Duluth Complex. The metamorphic recrystallization of iron-formation locally produced iron-rich amphiboles and other fibrous iron-silicate minerals. The presence of these minerals in iron-formation along the eastern part of what is known as the Mesabi Iron Range, and their potential liberation by iron mining has raised environmental health concerns. We describe here the geologic setting and mineralogic composition of the Biwabik Iron Formation in and adjacent to the contact metamorphic aureole of the Duluth Complex. The effects of metamorphism are most pronounced within a few kilometers of the contact, and decrease progressively away from it. The contact aureole has been divided into four metamorphic zones-each characterized by the composition and crystal structure of the metamorphic minerals it contains. The recrystallization of iron-formation to iron-rich amphibole minerals (grunerite and cummingtonite) and iron-pyroxene minerals (hedenbergite and ferrohypersthene) is best developed in zones that are most proximal to the Duluth Complex contact. PMID:17997209

  20. Formation of Degenerate Band Gaps in Layered Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey P. Vinogradov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the review, peculiarities of spectra of one-dimensional photonic crystals made of anisotropic and/or magnetooptic materials are considered. The attention is focused on band gaps of a special type—the so called degenerate band gaps which are degenerate with respect to polarization. Mechanisms of formation and properties of these band gaps are analyzed. Peculiarities of spectra of photonic crystals that arise due to the linkage between band gaps are discussed. Particularly, it is shown that formation of a frozen mode is caused by linkage between Brillouin and degenerate band gaps. Also, existence of the optical Borrmann effect at the boundaries of degenerate band gaps and optical Tamm states at the frequencies of degenerate band gaps are analyzed.

  1. A biological switch at the ocean surface as a cause of laminations in a Precambrian iron formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, K.; Pinti, D. L.; Orberger, B.; Cloquet, C.; Jayananda, M.; Soyama, H.

    2016-07-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) exhibit alternating silica- and iron-rich laminae, potentially reflecting the dynamics of the paleo-environments in which they were formed, although the exact mechanism remains unclear. Here the formation of a 2.7-2.9 Ga BIF from Dharwar Craton, India, is deciphered by analyzing the inter-band variations of the redox-sensitive isotope biomarkers, 15N/14N and 56Fe/54Fe. Organic matter with δ15N values as high as + 12.0 ± 0.8 ‰ appears to be trapped in silica. Iron oxides exhibit systematically positive δ56Fe values, ranging between + 0.80 ± 0.05 ‰ and + 1.67 ± 0.02 ‰. Compared to the iron-rich bands, silica-rich bands, which show higher δ56Fe values, exhibit an order of magnitude higher concentrations of 15N-rich organic nitrogen, normalized by the abundances of its host silica. The presence of 15N-rich organic matter may imply the emergence of a modern-like biological nitrogen cycle that requires the formation of oxidized nitrogen compounds. The higher concentration of 15N-rich organic nitrogen for the silica-rich bands possibly suggests that the photosynthetic activity was higher during the formation periods of these bands. The heavier iron isotope compositions of the silica-rich bands cannot be explained alone by iron oxidation through probable pathways. The relative 56Fe-enrichment in silica-rich bands is explained here by the progressive dissolution of iron oxides to the ocean, through iron reduction by 15N-rich organic matter actively produced at the ocean surface. The formation of iron-rich bands possibly corresponds to periods of reduced biological productivity, when precipitated iron was not effectively dissolved to the ocean. The observed shift in the organic concentration between Fe- and Si-rich bands could be the switch that triggered the BIF laminations. This shift could conceivably represent periodic fluctuations in the oxygen generation, which possibly occurred over periods of millennia, at the dawn of the

  2. Large format voltage tunable dual-band QWIP FPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Y.; Eker, S. U.; Kaldirim, M.; Besikci, C.

    2009-11-01

    Third generation thermal imagers with dual/multi-band operation capability are the prominent focus of the current research in the field of infrared detection. Dual band quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on various detection and fabrication approaches have been reported. One of these approaches is the three-contact design allowing simultaneous integration of the signals in both bands. However, this approach requires three In bumps on each pixel leading to a complicated fabrication process and lower fill factor. If the spectral response of a two-stack QWIP structure can effectively be shifted between two spectral bands with the applied bias, dual band sensors can be implemented with the conventional FPA fabrication process requiring only one In bump on each pixel making it possible to fabricate large format dual band FPAs at the cost and yield of single band detectors. While some disadvantages of this technique have been discussed in the literature, the detailed assessment of this approach has not been performed at the FPA level yet. We report the characteristics of a large format (640 × 512) voltage tunable dual-band QWIP FPA constructed through series connection of MWIR AlGaAs-InGaAs and LWIR AlGaAs-GaAs multi-quantum well stacks, and provide a detailed assessment of the potential of this approach at both pixel and FPA levels. The dual band FPA having MWIR and LWIR cut-off wavelengths of 5.1 and 8.9 μm provided noise equivalent temperature differences as low as 14 and 31 mK ( f/1.5) with switching voltages within the limits applicable by commercial read-out integrated circuits. The results demonstrate the promise of the approach for achieving large format low cost dual band FPAs.

  3. Band formation in coupled-resonator slow-wave structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Björn M; Woggon, Ulrike; Artemyev, Mikhail V

    2007-12-10

    Sequences of coupled-resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) have been examined as slow-wave structures. The formation of photonic bands in finite systems is studied in the frame of a coupled oscillator model. Several types of resonator size tuning in the system are evaluated in a systematical manner. We show that aperiodicities in sequences of coupled microspheres provide an additional degree of freedom for the design of photonic bands. PMID:19551030

  4. Limited Zn and Ni mobility during simulated iron formation diagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, LJ; Swanner, ED; Lalonde, SV; Eickhoff, M.; Paranich, ML; Reinhard, CT; Peacock, CL; Kappler, A.; Konhauser, KO

    2015-01-01

    Iron formations (IF) are iron- and silica-rich chemical precipitates that were deposited during the Precambrian. Several recent studies have demonstrated how the trace metal abundances in IF can be used as proxies for the bioavailability of trace metals in ancient seawater; with the ultimate goal being to understand first-order controls on the composition of the ancient biosphere. However, the utility of IF as proxies depends on the immobilization of trace metals during diagenesis. Here, we a...

  5. CORRELATION OF GALLSTONE FORMATION WITH SERUM IRON LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Bipin Bhadre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Gallstones are one of the most common problem associated with the gallbladder, affecting millions of people throughout the world. Bile is excreted from liver and gallbladder into Duodenum for digestion. After digestion, if the gallbladder is not emptied out completely, the Bile Juice that remains in the gallbladder can become too concentrated with cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. Cholesterol and calcium bilirubinate are the two main substances involved in gallstone formation. Gallstones derived from bile consists of mixture of cholesterol, bilirubin with or without calcium. Based on their chemical composition, gallstones found in the gallbladder are classified as cholesterol, pigmented or mixed stones. Iron deficiency has been shown to alter the activity of several hepatic enzymes, leading to increased gallbladder bile cholesterol saturation and promotion of cholesterol crystal formation. AIMS & OBJECTIVE Attempt to establish a correlation with gallstones and decreased serum iron levels. MATERIAL & METHODS This study was a prospective cohort study which included 100 consecutive patients with imaging studies suggestive of Cholelithiasis. The Gallstone surgically removed was crushed with mortar and pestle and then analysed for cholesterol, calcium, phosphate and bilirubin (pigment. Serum samples were analysed for Cholesterol, iron and iron binding capacity. RESULTS 86% patients had increased cholesterol levels (p=0.04 and 93% had decreased serum Iron levels (p=0.96. The most common type of gallstone was found to be Cholesterol type of gallstone followed by Mixed and Pigment gallstones. CONCLUSION Serum cholesterol levels were found to be raised in majority of the patients and serum iron was found to be low in these majority of the patients indicating iron deficiency may play a role in gallstone formation.

  6. Quasiparticle bands and structural phase transition of iron from Gutzwiller density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickling, Tobias; Bünemann, Jörg; Gebhard, Florian; Boeri, Lilia

    2016-05-01

    We use the Gutzwiller density-functional theory to calculate ground-state properties and band structures of iron in its body-centered-cubic (bcc) and hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) phases. For a Hubbard interaction U =9 eV and Hund's-rule coupling J =0.54 eV , we reproduce the lattice parameter, magnetic moment, and bulk modulus of bcc iron. For these parameters, bcc is the ground-state lattice structure at ambient pressure up to a pressure of pc=41 GPa where a transition to the nonmagnetic hcp structure is predicted, in qualitative agreement with experiment (pcexp=10 ,...,15 GPa ) . The calculated band structure for bcc iron is in good agreement with ARPES measurements. The agreement improves when we perturbatively include the spin-orbit coupling.

  7. Subsurface aeration of anaerobic groundwater : iron colloid formation and the nitrification process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthoorn, A.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Iron, anaerobic groundwater, groundwater purification, heterogeneous oxidation, iron colloid formation, electron microscopy, nitrification In anaerobic groundwater iron and ammonium can be found in relatively high concentrations. These substances need to be removed when groundwater is used

  8. Red Supergiant Stars as Cosmic Abundance Probes: NLTE Effects in J-band Iron and Titanium Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Bergemann, Maria; Plez, Bertrand; Davies, Ben; Lind, Karin; Gazak, Zach

    2012-01-01

    Detailed non-LTE calculations for red supergiant stars are presented to investigate the influence of NLTE on the formation of atomic iron and titanium lines in the J-band. With their enormous brightness at J-band red supergiant stars are ideal probes of cosmic abundances. Recent LTE studies have found that metallicities accurate to 0.15 dex can be determined from medium resolution spectroscopy of individual red supergiants in galaxies as distant as 10 Mpc. The non-LTE results obtained in this investigation support these findings. Non-LTE abundance corrections for iron are smaller than 0.05 dex for effective temperatures between 3400K to 4200K and 0.1 dex at 4400K. For titanium the non-LTE abundance corrections vary smoothly between -0.4 dex and +0.2 dex as a function of effective temperature. For both elements, the corrections also depend on stellar gravity and metallicity. The physical reasons behind the non-LTE corrections and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies are discussed.

  9. RED SUPERGIANT STARS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES: NLTE EFFECTS IN J-BAND IRON AND TITANIUM LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed non-LTE (NLTE) calculations for red supergiant (RSG) stars are presented to investigate the influence of NLTE on the formation of atomic iron and titanium lines in the J band. With their enormous brightness at J band RSG stars are ideal probes of cosmic abundances. Recent LTE studies have found that metallicities accurate to 0.15 dex can be determined from medium-resolution spectroscopy of individual RSGs in galaxies as distant as 10 Mpc. The NLTE results obtained in this investigation support these findings. NLTE abundance corrections for iron are smaller than 0.05 dex for effective temperatures between 3400 K and 4200 K and 0.1 dex at 4400 K. For titanium the NLTE abundance corrections vary smoothly between –0.4 dex and +0.2 dex as a function of effective temperature. For both elements, the corrections also depend on stellar gravity and metallicity. The physical reasons behind the NLTE corrections and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies are discussed.

  10. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to present...... and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...

  11. Study on numerical simulation of nodular graphite iron microstructure formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the mathematical and physical model was developed based on thermodynamics and solidification theory before the eutectoid transformation of nodular graphite iron occurred. The Local Element Substitute and Magnification Method was brought forward and 3-dimensional numerical simulation program based on the model and the new assistant algorithm was developed and used to calculate the samples. Results of calculation have good agreement with experimental data. To display the microstructure formation during solidification of nodular graphite iron, a 2-dimensional numerical simulation program combined with the result of the 3-dimensional numerical simulation of experimental samples was compiled.

  12. Petrography, Geochemistry and Proposed Genesis of Ordovician Oolitic Iron Formation Members of the Lashkarak Formation, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoore Maghsoudloo Mahalli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oolitic iron formations are sedimentary rocks with >5 vol.% oolites and >15 wt.% iron, corresponding to 21.4 wt.% Fe2O3 (Young, 1989; Petranek and Van Houten, 1997; Mucke and Farshad, 2005. In Iran, new iron oolite-bearing members have been identified in the Lashkarak Formation (lower-middle Ordovician in the Abarsej, Dehmola and Simehkuh sections, eastern Alborz (Ghobadi Pour et al., 2011. At present, the mineralogy and geochemistry of these members are not known. Consequently, research reported here was conducted to reveal the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of Ordovician oolitic iron formationmembers and to discuss their genesis and economic importance. Materials and Analyses Field geology and sampling was carried out to collect 25 samples from the ooliticiron formation members in the Abarsej, Dehmola and Simehkuh section in eastern Alborz. Samples were prepared for polished-thin sections (n=10, XRD analysis (n=15. Whole-rock chemical analysis (n=15 by XRF for major elements and by ICP-ES for trace elements was performed by laboratories at the SarCheshmeh copper mine complex, Kerman, Iran. One sample was analyzed by SEM at the Wales Museum, UK. Results Microscopic studies show that the oolitic iron formation members are hosted by carbonate argillite rocks. They are mainly composed of oolites rather than pisoliths (small bodies somewhat larger and more irregular than oolites, whereas oolites have mainly ellipsoidal forms and locally spherical shapes. Most (6 oolites show banding with a central core. Simple oolites without a core are scarce. Mineralogically, oolites are mainly chamositic and hematitic in composition; goethite, pyrite and glauconite occur in traces and siderite is absent. Quartz, calcite and zircon are accessory minerals which are present in the groundmass. Geochemically, TFeO % of the oolitic iron formation horizons ranges from 8 to 48 % with an average of 21%. The CaO content ranges from 2 to 37% and

  13. Formation of iron sulfide nodules during anaerobic oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    van Dongen, B. E.; Organic Geochemistry Unit, Bristol Biogeochemistry Research Centre, School of Chemistry, Cantock’s Close, Bristol University, Bristol BS8 1TS, United Kingdom; Roberts, A. P.; National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.; Schouten, S.; Department of Marine Biogeochemistry, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands; Jiang, W-T; Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, PR China; Florindo, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Pancost, R. D.; Organic Geochemistry Unit, Bristol Biogeochemistry Research Centre, School of Chemistry, Cantock’s Close, Bristol University, Bristol BS8 1TS, United Kingdom

    2007-01-01

    The biomarker compositions of iron sulfide nodules (ISNs; upper Pliocene Valle Ricca section near Rome, Italy) that contain the ferrimagnetic mineral greigite (Fe3S4) were examined. In addition to the presence of specific terrestrial and marine biomarkers, consistent with formation in coastal marine sediments, these ISNs contain compounds thought to originate from sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). These compounds include a variety of low-molecular-weight and branched alkanols and seve...

  14. Crystallographic Behavior of Iron Oxide Minerals in the Deformed Iron Formation of Quadrilátero Ferrífero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Lisboa, Filipe Augusto; Lagoeiro, Leonardo; Martins Graça, Leonardo; Ávila, Carlos Fernando; Ferreira Barbosa, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF) which is located in Brazil represents a mineral province of great importance for hosting Banded Iron Formation deposits (BIFs). The Alegria mine which belongs to Vale Company is located in the east part of Quadrilátero Ferrífero and it explores iron ore from a region of great structural complexity. A deformed BIF sample that presents a micro-fold on quartz and hematite bands was analyzed through Electron Backscatter Diffraction technique (EBSD) in order to relate the crystallographic orientations with the microstructures along the micro-fold envelop. For the sample orientation the Z-axis is taken parallel to the fold limb, Y-axis is perpendicular to the fold hinge and X-axis perpendicular to the YZ plane. In the limbs hematite grains are mostly stretched whereas at the hinge grains tend to be somewhat equant. On the other hand, quartz grain shapes are invariable along the fold, with a few exceptions in the hinge where grains are slightly elongated. Grains of hematite present a strong c-axis ({0001}) preferred orientation forming a subtle girdle somewhat parallel to the XY plane of the strain ellipsoid determined macroscopically (XY being the foliation plane), and a strong () crystallographic fabric approximately parallel to the Z-axis. Similarly, the poles to the prismatic planes ({m} or {10bar10}) also have a stronger crystallographic fabric parallel to the Z axis. It seems that there are two crossing planes for the orientation of and {m} with the two maxima at the intersection of the two planes. Typical hematite crystallographic fabrics are somewhat distinct, since {c} axis commonly forms a very strong fiber texture parallel to the pole of the foliation. Most studies regard such crystallographic texture as evidence for high activity of {c} slip. The {c} girdles observed here are common for mica grains under rigid body rotation in constriction strain, which mechanism is commonly observed in the hematite grains of the sample. The

  15. Standard free energy of formation of iron iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandkar, A.; Tare, V. B.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment is reported where silver iodide is used to determine the standard free energy of formation of iron iodide. By using silver iodide as a solid electrolyte, a galvanic cell, Ag/AgI/Fe-FeI2, is formulated. The standard free energy of formation of AgI is known, and hence it is possible to estimate the standard free energy of formation of FeI2 by measuring the open-circuit emf of the above cell as a function of temperature. The free standard energy of formation of FeI2 determined by this method is -38784 + 24.165T cal/mol. It is estimated that the maximum error associated with this method is plus or minus 2500 cal/mol.

  16. Formation of iron oxides from acid mine drainage and magnetic separation of the heavy metals adsorbed iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Jin; Kim, Young Hun [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Dong Woo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    There are a few thousand abandoned metal mines in South Korea. The abandoned mines cause several environmental problems including releasing acid mine drainage (AMD), which contain a very high acidity and heavy metal ions such as Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, and As. Iron oxides can be formed from the AMD by increasing the solution pH and inducing precipitation. Current study focused on the formation of iron oxide in an AMD and used the oxide for adsorption of heavy metals. The heavy metal adsorbed iron oxide was separated with a superconducting magnet. The duration of iron oxide formation affected on the type of mineral and the degree of magnetization. The removal rate of heavy metal by the adsorption process with the formed iron oxide was highly dependent on the type of iron oxide and the solution pH. A high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system successfully separated the iron oxide and harmful heavy metals.

  17. Structural mechanisms of formation of adiabatic shear bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Sokovikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the experimental and theoretical study of plastic deformation instability and localization in materials subjected to dynamic loading and high-velocity perforation. We investigate the behavior of samples dynamically loaded during Hopkinson-Kolsky pressure bar tests in a regime close to simple shear conditions. Experiments were carried out using samples of a special shape and appropriate test rigging, which allowed us to realize a plane strain state. Also, the shear-compression specimens proposed in were investigated. The lateral surface of the samples was investigated in a real-time mode with the aid of a high-speed infra-red camera CEDIP Silver 450M. The temperature field distribution obtained at different time made it possible to trace the evolution of plastic strain localization. Use of a transmission electron microscope for studying the surface of samples showed that in the regions of strain localization there are parts taking the shape of bands and honeycomb structure in the deformed layer. The process of target perforation involving plug formation and ejection was investigated using a high-speed infra-red camera. A specially designed ballistic set-up for studying perforation was used to test samples in different impulse loading regimes followed by plastic flow instability and plug ejection. Changes in the velocity of the rear surface at different time of plug ejection were analyzed by Doppler interferometry techniques. The microstructure of tested samples was analyzed using an optical interferometer-profilometer and a scanning electron microscope. The subsequent processing of 3D deformation relief data enabled estimation of the distribution of plastic strain gradients at different time of plug formation and ejection. It has been found that in strain localization areas the subgrains are elongated taking the shape of bands and undergo fragmentation leading to the formation of super-microcrystalline structure, in which the

  18. Iron-absorption band analysis for the discrimination of iron-rich zones. [infrared spectral reflectance of Nevada iron deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Most major rock units and unaltered and altered areas in the study area can be discriminated on the basis of visible and near-infrared spectral reflectivity differences recorded from satellite altitude. These subtle spectral differences are detectable by digital ratioing of the MSS bands and subsequent stretching to increase the contrast to enhance spectral differences. Hydrothermally altered areas appear as anomalous color patches within the volcanic-rock areas. A map has been prepared which can be regarded as an excellent reconnaissance exploration map, for use in targeting areas for more detailed geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies. Mafic and felsic rock types are easily discriminated on the color stretched-ratio composite. The ratioing process minimizes albedo effects, leaving only the recorded characteristic spectral response. The spectra of unaltered rocks appear different from those of altered rocks, which are typically dominated by limonite and clay minerals. It seems clear that differences in spectral shape can provide a basis for discrimination of geologic material, although the relations between visible and near-infrared spectral reflectivity and mineralogical composition are not yet entirely understood.

  19. Unveiling the broad band X-ray continuum and iron line complex in Mkr 841

    CERN Document Server

    Petrucci, P O; Matt, G; Longinotti, A L; Malzac, J; Mouchet, M; Boisson, C; Maraschi, L; Nandra, K; Ferrando, P

    2007-01-01

    Mkr 841 is a bright Seyfert 1 galaxy known to harbor a strong soft excess and a variable K$\\alpha$ iron line. It has been observed during 3 different periods by XMM for a total cumulated exposure time of $\\sim$108 ks. We present in this paper a broad band spectral analysis of the complete EPIC-pn data sets. We were able to test two different models for the soft excess, a relativistically blurred photoionized reflection (\\r model) and a relativistically smeared ionized absorption (\\a model). The continuum is modeled by a simple cut-off power law and we also add a neutral reflection. These observations reveal the extreme and puzzling spectral and temporal behaviors of the soft excess and iron line. The 0.5-3 keV soft X-ray flux decreases by a factor 3 between 2001 and 2005 and the line shape appears to be a mixture of broad and narrow components. We succeed in describing this complex broad-band 0.5-10 keV spectral variability using either \\r or \\a to fit the soft excess. Both models give statistically equivalen...

  20. Shear band formation in sub-microcrystalline Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beausir, Benoit; Hollang, Lutz; Skrotzki, Werner [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Dey, Suhash Ranjan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailaram-502205, Andhra Pradesh (India); Hieckmann, Ellen [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The stability of sub-microcrystalline nickel produced by pulsed electrodeposition without any additives was investigated during cyclic deformation at very high plastic strain amplitude of 1% at room temperature. The initial microstructure having an average grain size of 160 nm in the growth plane and a weak <110> fibre texture along the growth direction undergoes considerable grain growth during cyclic loading without significant changes in texture. After a certain number of loading cycles the specimen suddenly developed a single macro shear band. The shear band appeared in the tensile half cycle under 45 to the loading axis and acts as crack starter. Investigations in the scanning electron microscope using electron backscatter diffraction revealed that the main macro shear band consists of relaxed grains elongated along the shear plane displaying a texture induced by shear. The texture in the shear band was reproduced with the viscoplastic self-consistent polycrystal model using {l_brace}111{r_brace}<110> slip systems. Detailed investigations of the surrounding of the macro shear band reveal the existence of a large number of regularly spaced micro shear bands.

  1. Mechanisms of iron-silica aqueous interaction and the genesis of Precambrian iron formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, S. M.; Catalano, J. G.; Moynier, F.; Pringle, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Iron formations (IFs), Fe- and Si-rich chemical sediments common in Precambrian successions, preserve key information about the compositional, biological, and oxidative evolution of the Precambrian ocean. Stable Si isotopes (δ30Si) of IF have been used to infer paleo-oceanic composition, and secular variations in δ30Si may reflect ancient biogeochemical cycles. The δ30Si of primary Fe-Si precipitates that formed IF depends not only on the δ30Si of aqueous silica but also on the precipitation mechanism. Multiple formation mechanisms for these primary precipitates are plausible. Aqueous Si may have adsorbed on newly precipitated iron oxyhydroxide surfaces; alternatively, Fe and Si may have coprecipitated as a single phase. Here we explore variations in the Si isotope fractionation factor (ɛ) with Fe-Si aqueous interaction mechanism (adsorption vs. coprecipitation). In adsorption experiments, sodium silicate solutions (pH 8.1, 125-2000 µM Si) were reacted with iron oxide particles (hematite, ferrihydrite, goethite, and magnetite) for 24 to 72 hours. Resultant solutions had δ30Si between 0 and +6‰. Calculated ɛ varied significantly with oxide mineralogy and morphology. For ferrihydrite, ɛ = -1.7‰; for hematite, ɛ = -2 to -5‰, depending on particle morphology. Apparent ɛ decreased upon surface site saturation, implying a smaller isotope effect for polymeric Si adsorption than monomeric adsorption. In coprecipitation experiments, solutions of Na-silicate and Fe(II) chloride (0.4-10 mM) were prepared anaerobically, then air-oxidized for 3 days to induce precipitation. At low Si concentrations, magnetite formed; near silica saturation, lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite formed. The Si isotope fractionation factor for coprecipitation was within the range of ɛ observed for adsorption (ɛ = -2.3 ± 1.0‰). These results indicate that the mechanism of Fe-Si interaction affects ɛ, presumably due to varying silicate coordination environments. These isotopic

  2. White spot formation under orthodontic bands cemented with glass ionomer with or without Fluor Protector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, R P; Dermaut, L R

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an additional application of Fluor Protector before band cementation with glass ionomer cement reduces white spot formation compared with band cementation with glass ionomer cement. In the in vitro study, 80 premolars were divided in half, creating a control and a test group. All specimens were divided into four different groups to simulate different clinical situations and stored in a demineralizing solution to induce white spot formation. In the in vivo investigation, 18 orthodontic patients were incorporated in the study. One lower and one upper first molar band (randomly selected) were coated with Fluor Protector and then cemented with a glass ionomer cement (test group). The other two uncoated first molars were cemented with glass ionomer cement and served as the control group. The application of Fluor Protector in combination with Aquacem did not contribute to a reduction of white spot formation underneath molar bands compared with the use of Aquacem for banding.

  3. Formation and characterization of iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen as a potential iron supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jianjun; Chen, Fei; Fan, Daidi, E-mail: fandaidi@nwu.edu.cn; Zhu, Chenhui; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Xue, Wenjiao

    2013-10-01

    Iron incorporated into food can induce precipitation and unwanted interaction with other components in food. Iron-binding proteins represent a possibility to avoid these problems and other side effects, as the iron is protected. However, there are several technical problems associated with protein–iron complex formation. In this paper, the iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen (Fe-G6P-HLC) was prepared under physiological conditions through phosphorylated modification. One molecule of Fe-G6P-HLC possesses about 24 atoms of Fe. Spectroscopy analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and equilibrium dialysis techniques were employed to investigate the characteristics of the Fe-G6P-HLC. The binding sites (n{sub b}) and apparent association constant (K{sub app}) between iron and phosphorylated HLC were measured at n{sub b} = 23.7 and log K{sub app} = 4.57, respectively. The amount of iron (Fe{sup 2+} sulfate) binding to phosphorylated HLC was found to be a function of pH and phosphate content. In addition, the solubility and thermal stability of HLC were not significantly affected. The results should facilitate the utilization of HLC as a bioactive iron supplement in the food and medical industry and provide an important theoretical evidence for the application of HLC chelates. - Highlights: • The iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen (Fe-G6P-HLC) was prepared. • One molecule of Fe-G6P-HLC possesses about 24 atoms of Fe. • The binding properties could be modulated through alterations in pH and phosphate content presented in HLC. • A novel strategy for preparing iron-binding proteins was provided.

  4. Formation and characterization of iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen as a potential iron supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron incorporated into food can induce precipitation and unwanted interaction with other components in food. Iron-binding proteins represent a possibility to avoid these problems and other side effects, as the iron is protected. However, there are several technical problems associated with protein–iron complex formation. In this paper, the iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen (Fe-G6P-HLC) was prepared under physiological conditions through phosphorylated modification. One molecule of Fe-G6P-HLC possesses about 24 atoms of Fe. Spectroscopy analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and equilibrium dialysis techniques were employed to investigate the characteristics of the Fe-G6P-HLC. The binding sites (nb) and apparent association constant (Kapp) between iron and phosphorylated HLC were measured at nb = 23.7 and log Kapp = 4.57, respectively. The amount of iron (Fe2+ sulfate) binding to phosphorylated HLC was found to be a function of pH and phosphate content. In addition, the solubility and thermal stability of HLC were not significantly affected. The results should facilitate the utilization of HLC as a bioactive iron supplement in the food and medical industry and provide an important theoretical evidence for the application of HLC chelates. - Highlights: • The iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen (Fe-G6P-HLC) was prepared. • One molecule of Fe-G6P-HLC possesses about 24 atoms of Fe. • The binding properties could be modulated through alterations in pH and phosphate content presented in HLC. • A novel strategy for preparing iron-binding proteins was provided

  5. Changes in Gallbladder Motility and Gallstone Formation Following Laparoscopic Gastric Banding for Morbid Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal O Al-Jiffry

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbid obesity is associated with cholesterol gallstone formation, a risk compounded by rapid weight loss. Laparoscopic gastric banding allows for a measured rate of weight loss, but the subsequent risk for developing gallstones is unknown.

  6. A high-resolution, four-band SAR testbed with real-time image formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B.; Sander, G.; Thompson, M.; Burns, B.; Fellerhoff, R.; Dubbert, D.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the Twin-Otter SAR Testbed developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This SAR is a flexible, adaptable testbed capable of operation on four frequency bands: Ka, Ku, X, and VHF/UHF bands. The SAR features real-time image formation at fine resolution in spotlight and stripmap modes. High-quality images are formed in real time using the overlapped subaperture (OSA) image-formation and phase gradient autofocus (PGA) algorithms.

  7. Iron monosulfide accumulation and pyrite formation in eutrophic estuarine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraal, P.; Burton, E.D.; Bush, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) cycling in sediments from the eutrophic Peel–Harvey Estuary in Western Australia, which is subject to localized accumulation of strongly reducing, organic- and sulfide-rich sediments. Sedimentary iron was mostly present in highly reactive form (on ave

  8. Geochemical patterns and microbial contribution to iron plaque formation in the rice plant rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisch, Markus; Murata, Chihiro; Unger, Julia; Kappler, Andreas; Schmidt, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Rice is the major food source for more than half of the world population and 80 percent of the worldwide rice cultivation is performed on water logged paddy soils. The establishment of reducing conditions in the soil and across the soil-water interface not only stimulates the microbial production and release of the greenhouse gas methane. These settings also create optimal conditions for microbial iron(III) reduction and therefore saturate the system with reduced ferrous iron. Through the reduction and dissolution of ferric minerals that are characterized by their high surface activity, sorbed nutrients and contaminants (e.g. arsenic) will be mobilized and are thus available for uptake by plants. Rice plants have evolved a strategy to release oxygen from their roots in order to prevent iron toxification in highly ferrous environments. The release of oxygen to the reduced paddy soil causes ferric iron plaque formation on the rice roots and finally increases the sorption capacity for toxic metals. To this date the geochemical and microbiological processes that control the formation of iron plaque are not deciphered. It has been hypothesized that iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria play a potential role in the iron(III) mineral formation along the roots. However, not much is known about the actual processes, mineral products, and geochemical gradients that establish within the rhizosphere. In the present study we have developed a growth set-up that allows the co-cultivation of rice plants and iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria, as well as the visual observation and in situ measurement of geochemical parameters. Oxygen and dissolved iron(II) gradients have been measured using microelectrodes and show geochemical hot spots that offer optimal growth conditions for microaerophilic iron(II) oxidizers. First mineral identification attempts of iron plaque have been performed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and microscopy. The obtained results on mineraology and crystallinity have been

  9. Influence of Intermediate Principal Stress on Deformation Band Formation in Porous Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issen, K. A.; Ingraham, M. D.; Dewers, T. A.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, field observations of volumetric deformation bands (compaction bands and dilation bands) have prompted renewed laboratory and theoretical research efforts to understand conditions for deformation band formation. Historically, laboratory experiments have been conducted on cylindrical cores using axisymmetric stress states, where the intermediate principal stress is equal to either minimum or maximum compression. While experimentally convenient, it is not clear that these specialized stress states are common in field settings, where the intermediate principal stress likely falls between minimum and maximum compression. Additionally, theoretical predictions developed using a bifurcation approach to strain localization (Rudnicki and Rice, 1975) suggest that the deformation band type predicted to form (compaction, compactant shear, dilatant shear, dilation), and the orientation of the band relative to maximum compression, both depend on the magnitude of the intermediate principal stress relative to maximum and minimum compression. To examine the role of the intermediate principal stress in deformation band formation, a suite of true triaxial tests were conducted on Castlegate sandstone; this paper focuses on comparing theoretical predictions with experimental observations. Tests covered a wide range of mean stresses, from dilatant to compactant response. For a given mean stress, five stress states were tested, in which the intermediate principal stress was: A) equal to minimum compression, B) greater than the minimum but less than halfway to maximum compression, C) halfway between minimum and maximum compression, D) greater than halfway but less than maximum compression, and E) equal to maximum compression. Overall, reasonable agreement was found between predicted and observed band angles (defined as the angle between the band normal and maximum compression). Low mean stress tests produced the predicted high angles bands; at intermediate stresses

  10. Magnesium solubility in metallic iron during core formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badro, J.; Siebert, J.; Nimmo, F.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial core formation occurred by gravitational segregation of immiscible metal and silicate melts in an extensively molten proto-Earth. This stripped the bulk silicate Earth of most of its siderophile elements, which were concentrated in the core. The process occurs by virtue of partitioning through a redox reaction (e.g. [1]) whereby iron in the metal exchanges for a bonded siderophile element in the mantle. By performing metal-silicate equilibration experiments at extreme pressures and temperatures using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell, we find that the major lithophile component of the silicate Earth, namely MgO, can also become soluble in the metal. At close to 5000 K, our experiments show that up to 1.2 % MgO can be incorporated in the metal. We show that Mg incorporation in the metal isn't a redox reaction as with siderophile element partitioning, but rather a direct solubility of the MgO component as temperatures approach the metal-silicate solvus; in that respect, our results are fully consistent with the recently calculated Fe-MgO solvus [2]. This confirms that significant amounts of magnesium could have been added to the early core, provided that a giant impact had generated the necessary temperature increase. The subsequent exsolution of MgO driven by core cooling would have provided a significant buoyancy source, likely sufficient to drive core convection and producing an ancient magnetic field [3]. [1] J. Wade and B. J. Wood, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 236, 78-95 (2005) [2] S. M. Wahl and B. Militzer, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 410, 25-33 (2015) [3] D. J. Stevenson, DI11C-03, Fall AGU 2012.

  11. Formation of Iron Sulfide in Water-Body Sediment and Its Influence on Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Lei; SUMI Katsuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Iron sulfide is an important reductive pollutant in aquatic sediment, so that increasing attentions have been paid to it in recent years. In this paper, the formation of iron sulfide in water-body sediment was introduced. Moreover, its adverse influences upon environment were summarized, including direct contribution to deficiency of dissolved oxygen in water, association with eutrophication in water-bodies and impact on geochemical sulfur cycle. Since conventional chemical analysis for iron sulfide has several disadvantages, new technique for rapid determination of iron sulfide on-line was prospected.

  12. Spin-wave band-pass filters based on yttrium iron garnet films for tunable microwave photonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A. B.; Drozdovskii, A. V.; Nikitin, A. A.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The paper reports on development of tunable band-pass microwave filters for microwave photonic generators. The filters were fabricated with the use of epitaxial yttrium iron garnet films. Principle of operation of the filters was based on excitation, propagation, and reception of spin waves. In order to obtain narrow pass band, the filtering properties of excitation and reception antennas were exploited. The filters demonstrated insertion losses of 2-3 dB, bandwidth of 25-35 MHz, and tuning range of up to 1.5 GHz in the range 3-7 GHz.

  13. Experimental observation of incoherent-coherent crossover and orbital-dependent band renormalization in iron chalcogenide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. K.; Yi, M.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, J.; Yu, R.; Zhu, J.-X.; He, R.-H.; Chen, Y. L.; Hashimoto, M.; Moore, R. G.; Mo, S.-K.; Hussain, Z.; Si, Q.; Mao, Z. Q.; Lu, D. H.; Shen, Z.-X.

    2015-12-01

    The level of electronic correlation has been one of the key questions in understanding the nature of superconductivity. Among the iron-based superconductors, the iron chalcogenide family exhibits the strongest electron correlations. To gauge the correlation strength, we performed a systematic angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study on the iron chalcogenide series Fe1 +ySexTe1 -x (0 bands dominated by the dx y orbital character significantly decreases with increasing selenium ratio, as compared to the dx z/dy z orbital-dominated bands. The orbital-dependent change in the correlation level agrees with theoretical calculations on the band structure renormalization, and may help to understand the onset of superconductivity in Fe1 +ySexTe1 -x .

  14. Effects of texture on shear band formation in plane strain tension/compression and bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, M.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2007-01-01

    In this study, effects of typical texture components observed in rolled aluminum alloy sheets on shear band formation in plane strain tension/compression and bending are systematically studied. The material response is described by a generalized Taylor-type polycrystal model, in which each grain...... model analysis. Third, shear band developments in plane strain pure bending of a sheet specimen with the typical textures are studied. Regions near the surfaces in a bent sheet specimen are approximately subjected to plane strain tension or compression. From this viewpoint, the bendability of a sheet...... specimen may be evaluated, using the knowledge regarding shear band formation in plane strain tension/compression. To confirm this and to encompass overall deformation of a bent sheet specimen, including shear bands, finite element analyses of plane strain pure bending are carried out, and the predicted...

  15. Wave propagation in single column woodpile phononic crystals: Formation of tunable band gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunho; Yang, Jinkyu

    2014-11-01

    We study the formation of frequency band gaps in single column woodpile phononic crystals composed of orthogonally stacked slender cylinders. We focus on investigating the effect of the cylinders' local vibrations on the dispersion of elastic waves along the stacking direction of the woodpile phononic crystals. We experimentally verify that their frequency band structures depend significantly on the bending resonant behavior of unit cells. We propose a simple theoretical model based on a discrete element method to associate the behavior of locally resonant cylindrical rods with the band gap formation mechanism in woodpile phononic crystals. The findings in this work imply that we can achieve versatile control of frequency band structures in phononic crystals by using woodpile architectures. The woodpile phononic crystals can form a new type of vibration filtering devices that offer an enhanced degree of freedom in manipulating stress wave propagation.

  16. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF THE IRON CONTENT ON FORMATION OF IRON-BEARING PHASES IN FOUNDRY ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Gorbachiova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The microstructure and microhardness of aluminum and silumin аК12 with iron content of 0 to 12 mas.% produced by sand casting and mol casting have been investigated. For the Al–Si–Fe and Al–Si–Fe–Mn systems the portions of the liquidus surfaces, which correspond to commercial silumin compositions, have been calculated using the updated thermodynamic model of the Al– Si–Fe system and COST–507 database. The area of primary crystallization of the iron-containing a and b phases is assessed for the commercial silumin. It has been proved that manganese promotes the formation of the iron-containing a-phase in the commercial silumin.

  17. Formation of shear band in a granular material during triaxial compression test

    OpenAIRE

    Grochowicz M.; Ã…Âukaszuk J.; Horabik J.

    2000-01-01

    Formation of shear band during triaxial compression test of a sample of granular material was investigated experimentally. A new method of displacement field fixation in the sample of granular material was proposed. The method allows to analyse of displacement distribution inside a sample of any course granular material. Thickness of the fully developed shear band obtained in the triaxial compression test of a mustard seed was found approximately 15 times bigger than the mean seed diameter.

  18. The Early Stages of Formation of a Solar System Dust Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, Ashley J.; Dermott, S. F.; Kehoe, T. J. J.

    2009-09-01

    A solar system dust band is formed as the dust released in the catastrophic disruption of an asteroid in the main belt decays under the effects of radiation forces and is sculpted by gravitational perturbations. There are currently known to be at least three full dust band pairs (Low et al., 1984) and these have been associated with several-million-year-old asteroidal disruptions (Dermott et al., 2002; Nesvorny et al., 2003; 2008). A method of coadding the IRAS data set to increase the signal-to-noise ratio revealed the existence of an additional, very faint, partially-formed dust band at 17 degrees inclination (Espy et al., 2009), likely a confirmation of the M/N pair suggested by Sykes (1988). Partial dust bands represent a very early stage of the dynamical evolution of the dust released in the catastrophic disruption of a parent asteroid. We build a model of the formation of this partial band, in order to determine the main dynamical mechanisms controlling dust band formation. Comparison of this model to the coadded IRAS observations also allows us to put strong constraints on the node, semi-major axis, inclination and age of the source body, as well as the cross-sectional area and size-distribution of dust in the band. Because of the young age of partial dust bands, typically much less than a million years old, collisions have not yet begun to play an important role and the size-distribution is closer to that created in the original disruption. Additionally, less of the dust produced in the disruption has been lost to removal by P-R drag than in the older, fully-formed dust bands. These factors imply that partial dust bands provide important information about the dust originally produced in the catastrophic disruption of an asteroid.

  19. Mechanisms and mechanics of porosity formation in ductile iron castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perzyk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Shrinkage defects in ductile iron castings can be of two basic types: shrinkage cavities associated with the liquid contraction prior to the expansion period of the iron as well as the porosity, which may appear even if the liquid shrinkage is fully compensated. In the present paper two possible mechanisms of the porosity are presented and analyzed. The first one is the Karsay’s mechanism based on the secondary shrinkage concept. The second one is the mechanism acting during the expansion period of the iron, first suggested by Ohnaka and co-authors and essentially modified by the present authors. The mechanical interactions between casting and mould are determined for the both mechanisms. Their analysis leads to the conclusion, that porosity forms during expansion period of the melt. The direct cause is the negative pressure which appears in the central part of the casting due to the differences in expansion coefficients of the fast cooling surface layer and slow cooling inner region. Observations concerning feeding behavior of ductile iron castings, based on this mechanism, agree well with industrial practice. The secondary shrinkage is not only needless to induce the porosity, but the corresponding mechanism of its occurrence, proposed by Karsay, does not seem to be valid.

  20. Device Physics Analysis of Parasitic Conduction Band Barrier Formation in SiGe HBTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenker, K. P.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a physics-based model describing the current-induced formation of a parasitic barrier in the conduction band at the base collector heterojunction in npn SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). Due to the valence band discontinuity DELTA E(sub v), hole injection into the collector at the onset of base pushout is impeded, which gives rise to formation of a barrier to electron transport which degrades the device's high frequency performance. In this paper, we present results from an analytical model for the height of the barrier calculated from the device's structure as a function of the collector junction bias and collector current density.

  1. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  2. Biological carbon precursor to diagenetic siderite with spherical structures in iron formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Inga; Konhauser, Kurt O; Papineau, Dominic; Bekker, Andrey; Kappler, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    During deposition of Precambrian iron formation, the combined sedimentation of ferrihydrite and phytoplankton biomass should have facilitated Fe(III) reduction during diagenesis. However, the only evidence for this reaction in iron formations is the iron and carbon isotope values preserved in the authigenic ferrous iron-containing minerals. Here we show experimentally that spheroidal siderite, which is preserved in many iron formation and could have been precursor to rhombohedral or massive siderite, forms by reacting ferrihydrite with glucose (a proxy for microbial biomass) at pressure and temperature conditions typical of diagenesis (170 °C and 1.2 kbar). Depending on the abundance of siderite, we found that it is also possible to draw conclusions about the Fe(III):C ratio of the initial ferrihydrite-biomass sediment. Our results suggest that spherical to rhombohedral siderite structures in deep-water, Fe-oxide iron formation can be used as a biosignature for photoferrotrophy, whereas massive siderite reflects high cyanobacterial biomass loading in highly productive shallow-waters.

  3. Carbonate petrography, kerogen distribution, and carbon and oxygen isotope variations in an early Proterozoic transition from limestone to iron-formation deposition, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, N. J.; Klein, C.; Kaufman, A. J.; Hayes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    sparites are most depleted in 13C. Carbonates in oxide-rich iron-formations are more depleted in 13C than those in siderite-rich iron-formation whereas the kerogens in oxide banded iron-formations (BIF) are more enriched. This implies that the siderite-rich iron-formations were not derived from oxide-rich iron-formation through reduction of ferric iron by organic matter. Organic matter oxidation by ferric iron did, however, decrease the abundance of kerogen in oxide-rich iron-formation and led to the formation of isotopically very light sparry carbonates. Siderite and calcmicrosparite both represent recrystallized primary micritic precipitates but differ in their 13C composition, with the siderites depleted in 13C by 4.6 per mil on average relative to calcmicrosparite. This means that the siderites were precipitated from water with dissolved inorganic carbon depleted in 13C by about 9 per mil relative to that from which the limestones precipitated. This implies an ocean system stratified with regard to total carbonate, with the deeper water, from which siderite-rich iron-formation formed, depleted in 13C. Iron-formations were deposited in areas of very low organic matter supply. Depletion of 13C may, therefore, derive not from degradation of organic matter but from hydrothermal activity, a conclusion which is supported by 18O composition of the carbonate minerals and trace element and rare earth element (REE) compositions of the iron-formations.

  4. Mechanisms for axial band formation in a rotating drum of granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newey, Michael K.

    We study granular particles, like sand or glass beads, that are mixed in a partially filled, horizontal, cylindrical drum. When the drum is rotated, it is observed that there is a flowing layer of grains on the free surface of the granular medium. In addition, if the particles have different sizes, spatial segregation of the particles by size is observed. This segregation occurs in two phases. During the first phase, called radial segregation, the smaller particles form a radial core. In the second, called axial segregation, particles segregate into alternating bands along the axis of the drum. We perform a detailed study of the characteristics of the flow to determine the physical mechanisms driving axial segregation. We characterize the top surface of the flowing layer by tracking particles using a high speed camera. We then extract average quantities such as velocity and diffusion. The average velocities show surprising behavior: Particles in small particle bands have a higher downhill flow velocity than particles in large particle bands. We also observe that there is a pattern of sideways velocity as a function of position down the flow. Particles flow into small particle bands in the middle of the flow but flow out of small particle bands at the bottom. We present the framework for a new model based on our experimentally observed results. We explain the axial band formation in terms of the observed surface flow patterns. We show how two physical processes could contribute to the band formation: (A) Accelerating granular material does not necessarily collide while decelerating granular material requires collisions. (B) Different size particles flow at different velocities. Our framework connects differences in flow velocities on the surface of the drum with the radial segregation in the bulk of the drum. We compare these results to current models, including models by Savage, Zik, Aranson, and Elperin. We test the general model assumption that the particles

  5. The salmochelin receptor IroN itself, but not salmochelin-mediated iron uptake promotes biofilm formation in extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistro, Giuseppe; Hoffmann, Christiane; Schubert, Sören

    2015-01-01

    The key to success of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) to colonize niches outside the intestinal tract and to establish infection is the coordinated action of numerous virulence and fitness factors. Intense research revealed not only an arsenal of unique virulence determinants with specific action, but also the multi-functionality of single elements. Especially iron uptake systems of ExPEC proved to be of prime importance. Apart from iron acquisition they optimize certain virulence properties. Here we analyzed the contribution of the salmochelin siderophore system to the ability of ExPEC to form biofilms. In the same iron limited environment, ExPEC displayed a distinct transcriptional profile of siderophore systems. During biofilm formation the iroN gene coding for the specific receptors of the siderophore salmochelin was highly upregulated. Almost no induction was observed during planctonic growth. Disruption of iroN resulted in a reduction of almost 50% in biofilm production. Efficient biofilm formation was not affected in a salmochelin synthesis mutant. Thus, the contribution of IroN is independent from the ability to produce salmochelin. Enhanced expression of IroN did not increase significantly the capacity to form biofilms in ExPEC. Interestingly, the additional expression of IroN or even the acquisition of the entire salmochelin system was not able to improve biofilm formation in a poor biofilm producer like a laboratory E. coli K12 strain. However, complementation with only IroN in an ExPEC iroA deletion mutant was able to restore biofilm formation. The contribution of IroN to biofilm formation appears to require a certain background found in ExPEC, but not in E. coli K12. This study identified the contribution of IroN to biofilm formation and highlights the multi-functional role of iron uptake systems in ExPEC.

  6. The salmochelin receptor IroN itself, but not salmochelin-mediated iron uptake promotes biofilm formation in extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistro, Giuseppe; Hoffmann, Christiane; Schubert, Sören

    2015-01-01

    The key to success of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) to colonize niches outside the intestinal tract and to establish infection is the coordinated action of numerous virulence and fitness factors. Intense research revealed not only an arsenal of unique virulence determinants with specific action, but also the multi-functionality of single elements. Especially iron uptake systems of ExPEC proved to be of prime importance. Apart from iron acquisition they optimize certain virulence properties. Here we analyzed the contribution of the salmochelin siderophore system to the ability of ExPEC to form biofilms. In the same iron limited environment, ExPEC displayed a distinct transcriptional profile of siderophore systems. During biofilm formation the iroN gene coding for the specific receptors of the siderophore salmochelin was highly upregulated. Almost no induction was observed during planctonic growth. Disruption of iroN resulted in a reduction of almost 50% in biofilm production. Efficient biofilm formation was not affected in a salmochelin synthesis mutant. Thus, the contribution of IroN is independent from the ability to produce salmochelin. Enhanced expression of IroN did not increase significantly the capacity to form biofilms in ExPEC. Interestingly, the additional expression of IroN or even the acquisition of the entire salmochelin system was not able to improve biofilm formation in a poor biofilm producer like a laboratory E. coli K12 strain. However, complementation with only IroN in an ExPEC iroA deletion mutant was able to restore biofilm formation. The contribution of IroN to biofilm formation appears to require a certain background found in ExPEC, but not in E. coli K12. This study identified the contribution of IroN to biofilm formation and highlights the multi-functional role of iron uptake systems in ExPEC. PMID:25921426

  7. MODELING OF 'BANDING' MICROSTRUCTURE FORMATION IN CENTRIFUGALLY SOLIDIFIED Ti-6Al-4V ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Numerical investigations of the 'banding' microstructure formation during solidifica-tion of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in the centrifugal casting are conducted using a multi-scale model, which combines the finite difference method (FDM) at the macroscale with a cellular automaton (CA) model at the microscale. The macro model is used to simu-late the fluid flow and heat transfer throughout the casting. The micro model is used to predict the nucleation and growth of microstructures. With the proposed model,numerical simulations are performed to study the influences of the nucleation density,mould rotation speed, and casting size upon the 'banding' microstructure formation. It is noted that changing the nucleation density has a minor effect on the microstructure formation. The rotation speed promotes the formation of 'banding' microstructure,which is more noticeable for larger size castings. The major mechanism responsi-ble for this 'banding' phenomenon is the spatial variation in cooling rates created by centrifugal force.

  8. A Model for Ferrite/Pearlite Band Formation and Prevention in Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera-Diaz-Del-Castillo, P.E.J.; Sietsma, J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2004-01-01

    A model for predicting the conditions under which ferrite/pearlite band formation occurs, and therefore the conditions in which it can be avoided in steels, has been developed. The model requires as input the alloy composition and microchemical segregation wavelength, and provides in turn the homoge

  9. Geology of East Egypt greenstone field in Neoproterozoic isoand arc: Reconstruction of Iron formation sedimentary environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2015-12-01

    Geology of East Egypt greenstone-granit belt which is northern part of Nubia shield was identified neoproterozoic island arc amalgamated sections. There are several iron formation within these greenstone belt. Age data shows this iron formation may be overlaped during 700 Ma Snowball period, how ever, there is no detail report of well preserved ice related evidences. We now started detail field work for identified tectonic reconstruction, original stratigraphy around Iron formation and sedimentary environment during the iron formation sedimentation area. East Egyptian shield was divided three geology, Proterozoic greenstone complex, 700-600 Granitic domes and cover sequence (Hammamet Group). We focus three area to identified sedimentary environment of iron sedimentation. Along the north-south trend of Wadi EL Dabban area are, we named Wadi branch as West site is RW-0 ~ 12, East site is RE-0 ~ 12 from north to south. Northern area is structurally moderate, southern portion is north dipping. Southern portion was intruded by granite and several place contain granitic dikes. Northeast to eastern area are identified younger sedimentary sequence (Hammamat Group) which is unconformablly overlay on the other iron formation bearing greenstone belt. Structurally these area is divided four units. Wadi was divided by right-lateral strike-ship fault. The displacement are more than 3 km. Also north dipping faults are identified.East-West trend fault are divided two units. It is divided NE, SE, NW and NS units.SW unit is most well preserved thick sequence of the Iron formation. SW unit is well preserved iron formation sequence within thick volcaniclastics. This unit mostly north dipping around 40-60 degree. Structural repetition in not well understand. Reconstract stratigraphy in this unit is at least 4000m in thickness. 5 member is identified in this sequence. Several thin iron formations are observed with in pillow lava and volcaniclastic sequence. These very thick

  10. Biofuel-Promoted Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxin/furan Formation in an Iron-Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Norbert V; Rey, Maria Dolores; Zennegg, Markus; Haag, Regula; Wichser, Adrian; Schmid, Peter; Seiler, Cornelia; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Mohn, Joachim; Bürki, Samuel; Zimmerli, Yan; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Iron-catalyzed diesel particle filters (DPFs) are widely used for particle abatement. Active catalyst particles, so-called fuel-borne catalysts (FBCs), are formed in situ, in the engine, when combusting precursors, which were premixed with the fuel. The obtained iron oxide particles catalyze soot oxidation in filters. Iron-catalyzed DPFs are considered as safe with respect to their potential to form polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). We reported that a bimetallic potassium/iron FBC supported an intense PCDD/F formation in a DPF. Here, we discuss the impact of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biofuel on PCDD/F emissions. The iron-catalyzed DPF indeed supported a PCDD/F formation with biofuel but remained inactive with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. PCDD/F emissions (I-TEQ) increased 23-fold when comparing biofuel and diesel data. Emissions of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most toxic congener [toxicity equivalence factor (TEF) = 1.0], increased 90-fold, and those of 2,3,7,8-TCDF (TEF = 0.1) increased 170-fold. Congener patterns also changed, indicating a preferential formation of tetra- and penta-chlorodibenzofurans. Thus, an inactive iron-catalyzed DPF becomes active, supporting a PCDD/F formation, when operated with biofuel containing impurities of potassium. Alkali metals are inherent constituents of biofuels. According to the current European Union (EU) legislation, levels of 5 μg/g are accepted. We conclude that risks for a secondary PCDD/F formation in iron-catalyzed DPFs increase when combusting potassium-containing biofuels.

  11. Acoustic Band Gap Formation in Two-Dimensional Locally Resonant Sonic Crystals Comprised of Helmholtz Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, L.; Elford, D. P.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Swallowe, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    We present a new type of sonic crystal technology offering a novel method of achieving broad acoustic band gaps. The proposed design of a locally resonating sonic crystal (LRSC) is constructed from "C"-shaped Helmholtz resonators as opposed to traditional solid scattering units. This unique construction enables a two band gap system to be generated in which the first -- a Bragg type band gap, arises due to the periodic nature of the crystal, whilst the second gap results from resonance of the air column within the resonators. The position of this secondary band gap is found to be dependent upon the dimensions of the resonating cavity. The band gap formation is investigated theoretically using finite element methods, and confirmed through experimental testing. It is noted that the resonance band gaps detected cover a much broader frequency range (in the order of kHz) than has been achieved to date. In addition the possibility of overlapping such a wide band gap with the characteristic Bragg gap generated by the structure itself could yield gaps of even greater range. A design of sonic crystal is proposed, that comprises of several resonators with differing cavity sizes. Such a structure generates multiple resonance gaps corresponding to the various resonator sizes, which may be overlapped to form yet larger band gaps. This multiple resonance gap system can occur in two configurations. Firstly a simple mixed array can be created by alternating resonator sizes in the array and secondly using a System coined the Matryoshka (Russian doll) array in which the resonators are distributed inside one another. The proposed designs of LRSC's offer a real potential for acoustic shielding using sonic crystals, as both the size and position of the band gaps generated can be controlled. This is an application which has been suggested and investigated for several years with little progress. Furthermore the frequency region attenuated by resonance is unrelated to the crystals lattice

  12. Deposition of 1.88-billion-year-old iron formations as a consequence of rapid crustal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Birger; Fletcher, Ian R; Bekker, Andrey; Muhling, Janet R; Gregory, Courtney J; Thorne, Alan M

    2012-04-26

    Iron formations are chemical sedimentary rocks comprising layers of iron-rich and silica-rich minerals whose deposition requires anoxic and iron-rich (ferruginous) sea water. Their demise after the rise in atmospheric oxygen by 2.32 billion years (Gyr) ago has been attributed to the removal of dissolved iron through progressive oxidation or sulphidation of the deep ocean. Therefore, a sudden return of voluminous iron formations nearly 500 million years later poses an apparent conundrum. Most late Palaeoproterozoic iron formations are about 1.88 Gyr old and occur in the Superior region of North America. Major iron formations are also preserved in Australia, but these were apparently deposited after the transition to a sulphidic ocean at 1.84 Gyr ago that should have terminated iron formation deposition, implying that they reflect local marine conditions. Here we date zircons in tuff layers to show that iron formations in the Frere Formation of Western Australia are about 1.88 Gyr old, indicating that the deposition of iron formations from two disparate cratons was coeval and probably reflects global ocean chemistry. The sudden reappearance of major iron formations at 1.88 Gyr ago--contemporaneous with peaks in global mafic-ultramafic magmatism, juvenile continental and oceanic crust formation, mantle depletion and volcanogenic massive sulphide formation--suggests deposition of iron formations as a consequence of major mantle activity and rapid crustal growth. Our findings support the idea that enhanced submarine volcanism and hydrothermal activity linked to a peak in mantle melting released large volumes of ferrous iron and other reductants that overwhelmed the sulphate and oxygen reservoirs of the ocean, decoupling atmospheric and seawater redox states, and causing the return of widespread ferruginous conditions. Iron formations formed on clastic-starved coastal shelves where dissolved iron upwelled and mixed with oxygenated surface water. The

  13. A model for the biological precipitation of Precambrian iron-formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    A biological model for the precipitation of Precambrian iron formations is presented. Assuming an oxygen deficient atmosphere and water column to allow sufficient Fe solubility, it is proposed that local oxidizing environments, produced biologically, led to precipitation of iron formations. It is further suggested that spheroidal structures about 30 mm in diameter, which are widespread in low grade cherty rion formations, are relict forms of the organic walled microfossil Eosphaera tylerii. The presence of these structures suggests that the organism may have had a siliceous test, which allowed sufficient rigidity for accumulation and preservation. The model involves precipitation of ferric hydrates by oxidation of iron in the photic zone by a variety of photosynthetic organisms. Silica may have formed in the frustules of silica secreting organisms, including Eosphaera tylerii. Iron formates formed, therefore, by a sediment rain of biologically produced ferric hydrates and silica and other organic material. Siderite and hematite formed diagenetically on basin floors, and subsequent metamorphism produced magnetite and iron silicates.

  14. Shelf-to-basin iron shuttling enhances vivianite formation in deep Baltic Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal hypoxia is a growing and persistent problem largely attributable to enhanced terrestrial nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) loading. Recent studies suggest phosphorus removal through burial of iron (II) phosphates, putatively vivianite, plays an important role in nutrient cycling in the Baltic Sea - the world's largest anthropogenic dead zone - yet the dynamics of iron (II) phosphate formation are poorly constrained. To address this, a reactive-transport model was used to reconstruct the diagenetic and depositional history of sediments in the Fårö basin, a deep anoxic and sulphidic region of the Baltic Sea where iron (II) phosphates have been observed. Simulations demonstrate that transport of iron from shelf sediments to deep basins enhances vivianite formation while sulphide concentrations are low, but that pyrite forms preferentially over vivianite when sulphate reduction intensifies due to elevated organic loading. Episodic reoxygenation events, associated with major inflows of oxic waters, encourage the retention of iron oxyhydroxides and iron-bound phosphorus in sediments, increasing vivianite precipitation as a result. Results suggest that artificial reoxygenation of the Baltic Sea bottom waters could sequester up to 3% of the annual external phosphorus loads as iron (II) phosphates, but this is negligible when compared to potential internal phosphorus loads due to dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides when low oxygen conditions prevail. Thus, enhancing vivianite formation through artificial reoxygenation of deep waters is not a viable engineering solution to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Finally, simulations suggest that regions with limited sulphate reduction and hypoxic intervals, such as eutrophic estuaries, could act as important phosphorus sinks by sequestering vivianite. This could potentially alleviate eutrophication in shelf and slope environments.

  15. Experimental method for the evaluation of the susceptibility of materials to shear band formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tham R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize materials with respect to their susceptibility to shear band formation at high strain rates, a modified Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus and hat-shaped steel specimens with a shear zone having a width significantly larger than the typical width of adiabatic bands are used. The sample is directly impacted by the striker. The force acting on the sample is measured with a PVDF-gauge between the sample and the output bar. The displacement is recorded with an electro-optical extensometer. The energy absorbed by the shearing process up to failure can be used as a reference for the susceptibility of materials to shear band formation. The method is demonstrated comparing the shear behavior of two high-strength steels with similar metallic structure and strength. Differences were found in the transition region between quasi-static and fully adiabatic shearing conditions where the energy up to rupture differs by 40 %. For fully adiabatic shear band formation, the deformation process of both materials equals. At extreme rates, shear processes are mainly governed by the thermodynamic properties of the materials. On the other hand, strength and structural properties play a role for low and intermediate rates where global and localized shear mechanisms occur in parallel.

  16. The Phenomenology of Iron Pnictides Superconductors Explained in the Framework of -Wave Three-Band Eliashberg Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Ummarino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The s-wave three-band Eliashberg theory can simultaneously reproduce the experimental critical temperatures and the gap values of the superconducting materials LaFeAsO0.9F0.1, Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 and SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 as exponent of the more important families of iron pnictides. In this model the dominant role is played by interband interactions and the order parameter undergoes a sign reversal between hole and electron bands (±-wave symmetry. The values of all the gaps (with the exact experimental critical temperature can be obtained by using high values of the electron-boson coupling constants and small typical boson energies (in agreement with experiments.

  17. Electron pairing in the presence of incipient bands in iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Maiti, S.; Linscheid, A.; Hirschfeld, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent experiments on certain Fe-based superconductors have hinted at a role for paired electrons in "incipient" bands that are close to, but do not cross, the Fermi level. Related theoretical works disagree on whether or not strong-coupling superconductivity is required to explain such effects, and whether a critical interaction strength exists. In this work, we consider various versions of the model problem of pairing of electrons in the presence of an incipient band, within a simple multiband weak-coupling BCS approximation. We categorize the problem into two cases: case (i), where superconductivity arises from the "incipient band pairing" alone, and case (ii), where it is induced on an incipient band by pairing due to Fermi-surface-based interactions. Negative conclusions regarding the importance of incipient bands have been drawn so far largely based on case (i), but we show explicitly that models under case (ii) are qualitatively different, and can explain the nonexponential suppression of Tc, as well as robust large gaps on an incipient band. In the latter situation, large gaps on the incipient band do not require a critical interaction strength. We also model the interplay between phonon and spin fluctuation driven superconductivity and describe situations in which they can enhance each other rather than compete. Finally, we discuss the effect of the dimensionality of the incipient band on our results. We argue that pairing on incipient bands may be significant and important in several Fe-based materials, including LiFeAs, FeSe intercalates, and FeSe monolayers on strontium titanate, and indeed may contribute to high critical temperatures in some cases.

  18. Comparative genomics of iron-transporting systems in Bacillus cereus strains and impact of iron sources on growth and biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayrapetyan, Hasmik; Siezen, Roland; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an important element for bacterial viability, however it is not readily available in most environments. We studied the ability of 20 undomesticated food isolates of Bacillus cereus and two reference strains for capacity to use different (complex) iron sources for growth and biofilm format

  19. A study on the formation of iron aluminide (FeAl) from elemental powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fe–40 at.% Al discs with coarse iron powder showed precombustion and combustion peaks. • Loose powder mixtures and discs with fine iron powder showed only combustion peaks. • Slower heating rate and fine aluminum particles promote precombustion. • The major product formed during both the reactions was Fe2Al5. • Heating the samples to 1000 °C yielded a stable FeAl phase as the final product. - Abstract: The formation of iron aluminide (FeAl) during the heating of Fe–40 at.% Al powder mixture has been studied using a differential scanning calorimeter. The effect of particle size of the reactants, compaction of the powder mixtures as well as the heating rate on combustion behavior has been investigated. On heating compacted discs containing relatively coarser iron powder, DSC data show two consecutive exothermic peaks corresponding to precombustion and combustion reactions. The product formed during both these reactions is Fe2Al5 and there is a volume expansion in the sample. The precombustion reaction could be improved by a slower heating rate as well as a better surface coverage of iron particles using relatively finer aluminum powder. The combustion reaction was observed to be weaker after a strong precombustion stage. Heating the samples to 1000 °C resulted in the formation of a single and stable FeAl phase through the diffusional reaction between Fe2Al5 and residual iron. DSC results for compacted discs containing relatively finer iron powder and for the non-compacted samples showed a single combustion exotherm during heating, with Fe2Al5 as the product and traces of FeAl. X-ray diffraction and EDS data confirmed the formation of FeAl as the final product after heating these samples to 1000 °C

  20. A study on the formation of iron aluminide (FeAl) from elemental powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sina, H.; Corneliusson, J.; Turba, K.; Iyengar, S.

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • Fe–40 at.% Al discs with coarse iron powder showed precombustion and combustion peaks. • Loose powder mixtures and discs with fine iron powder showed only combustion peaks. • Slower heating rate and fine aluminum particles promote precombustion. • The major product formed during both the reactions was Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}. • Heating the samples to 1000 °C yielded a stable FeAl phase as the final product. - Abstract: The formation of iron aluminide (FeAl) during the heating of Fe–40 at.% Al powder mixture has been studied using a differential scanning calorimeter. The effect of particle size of the reactants, compaction of the powder mixtures as well as the heating rate on combustion behavior has been investigated. On heating compacted discs containing relatively coarser iron powder, DSC data show two consecutive exothermic peaks corresponding to precombustion and combustion reactions. The product formed during both these reactions is Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and there is a volume expansion in the sample. The precombustion reaction could be improved by a slower heating rate as well as a better surface coverage of iron particles using relatively finer aluminum powder. The combustion reaction was observed to be weaker after a strong precombustion stage. Heating the samples to 1000 °C resulted in the formation of a single and stable FeAl phase through the diffusional reaction between Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and residual iron. DSC results for compacted discs containing relatively finer iron powder and for the non-compacted samples showed a single combustion exotherm during heating, with Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} as the product and traces of FeAl. X-ray diffraction and EDS data confirmed the formation of FeAl as the final product after heating these samples to 1000 °C.

  1. Observation of a Hidden Hole-Like Band Approaching the Fermi Level in K-Doped Iron Selenide Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Masanori; Terashima, Kensei; Hamada, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Fukura, Tetsushi; Takeda, Aya; Tanaka, Masashi; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko; Arita, Masashi; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Usui, Hidetomo; Kuroki, Kazuhiko; Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Yokoya, Takayoshi

    2016-07-01

    One of the ultimate goals of the study of iron-based superconductors is to identify the common feature that produces the high critical temperature (Tc). In the early days, based on a weak-coupling viewpoint, the nesting between hole- and electron-like Fermi surfaces (FSs) leading to the so-called s± state was considered to be one such key feature. However, this theory has faced a serious challenge ever since the discovery of alkali-metal-doped FeSe (AFS) superconductors, in which only electron-like FSs with a nodeless superconducting gap are observed. Several theories have been proposed, but a consistent understanding is yet to be achieved. Here we show experimentally that a hole-like band exists in KxFe2-ySe2, which presumably forms a hole-like Fermi surface. The present study suggests that AFS can be categorized in the same group as iron arsenides with both hole- and electron-like FSs present. This result provides a foundation for a comprehensive understanding of the superconductivity in iron-based superconductors.

  2. Microscopical study of the formation of adiabatic shear bands in 4340 steel during dynamic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Yiadom, Solomon; Bassim, Nabil; Khaliq Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalyser were used to analyse the changes in microstructure of AISI 4340 steel specimens caused by impact at high strain rates and large strains. The structures of the steel prior to dynamic deformation and after dynamic deformation were examined to understand on a microscale level, the mechanism of formation of adiabatic shear bands (ASBs). The study also includes the structural changes that occur during post-deformation annealing processes which may relate to understanding of the mechanism of formation of ASBs. Prior to deformation, the tempered steel specimens consisted of lenticular laths of α-ferrite with precipitated platelet and spherical M3C carbides. After impact, the structure inside the shear band was characterized by refined and recrystallized grains immersed in dense dislocation structures. In addition, residual carbide particles were observed inside the shear bands due to deformation induced carbide dissolution. Regions away from the shear bands developed 'knitted' dislocation walls, evolving gradually into sub-boundaries and highly misoriented grain boundaries at increasing strains, leading to grain refinement of the ferrite. After impact, annealing the shear bands at 350 °C resulted in an increase in hardness regardless of the heat treatment before impact, amount of deformation and the time of annealing. This is because of the occurrence of extensive reprecipitation of dissolved carbides that existed in the steel structure prior to deformation. It is concluded that dynamic recovery/recrystallization, development of dislocation structures and carbide dissolution all contribute simultaneously to the formation of ASBs in quench-hardened steels.

  3. What do we really know about the role of microorganisms in iron sulfide mineral formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Aude; Gartman, Amy; Girguis, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Iron sulfide mineralization in low-temperature systems is a result of biotic and abiotic processes, though the delineation between these two modes of formation is not always straightforward. Here we review the role of microorganisms in the precipitation of extracellular iron sulfide minerals. We summarize the evidence that links sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms and sulfide minerals in nature and we present a critical overview of laboratory-based studies of the nucleation and growth of iron sulfide minerals in microbial cultures. We discuss whether biologically derived minerals are distinguishable from abiotic minerals, possessing attributes that are uniquely diagnostic of biomineralization. These inquiries have revealed the need for additional thorough, mechanistic and high-resolution studies to understand microbially mediated formation of a variety of sulfide minerals across a range of natural environments.

  4. FORMATION OF WEAR-RESISTANT CHROMIUM CAST IRON CASTING INTO THE CHILL MOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of thermal processes of formation of castings from wearproof chromic cast irons for replaceable details of centrifugal mills and crushers is carried out. Influence of protective and dividing coverings on intensity of heating of the chill mold is investigated.

  5. Microbes: mini iron factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kumar Batuk

    2014-12-01

    Microbes have flourished in extreme habitats since beginning of the Earth and have played an important role in geological processes like weathering, mineralization, diagenesis, mineral formation and destruction. Biotic mineralization is one of the most fascinating examples of how microbes have been influencing geological processes. Iron oxidizing and reducing bacteria are capable of precipitating wide varieties of iron oxides (magnetite), carbonates (siderite) and sulphides (greigite) via controlled or induced mineralization processes. Microbes have also been considered to play an important role in the history of evolution of sedimentary rocks on Earth from the formation of banded iron formations during the Archean to modern biotic bog iron and ochre deposits. Here, we discuss the role that microbes have been playing in precipitation of iron and the role and importance of interdisciplinary studies in the field of geology and biology in solving some of the major geological mysteries. PMID:25320452

  6. STRUCTURE FORMATION OF ALLOYS ON IRON BASIS AFTER LASER ALLOYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Diachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigations on influence of laser treatment regimes of gas-thermal and adhesive coatings from self-fluxing powders on iron basis and after melting with modifying plaster on their roughness and phase composition. One of mathematical planning methods that is a complete factor experiment method has been used for investigation of parameters’ influence on micro-geometry of coatings. The executed investigations have made it possible to observe a general regularity which does not depend on a type of alloying plaster: while increasing speed of laser beam relatively to treated part, beam diameter value of Ra parameter is becoming less. Decrease in height of surface irregularities in case of increasing laser beam speed is related with intensification of evaporation processes. An increase in beam diameter diminishes Ra parameter of the surface. This is due to the fact that decrease in power density occurs at high rate of beam defocusing. Overlapping coefficient does not exert a pronounced effect on Ra parameter of fused coatings. While increasing the speed of laser beam relatively to the part structure is transferred from dendrite into supersaturated one with carbide and boride precipitations. It has been established that technological parameters of laser treatment and particularly speed of laser beam influence on coating composition. While increasing the speed up to v5 = 5 × 10–3 m/s amount of chromium has become larger by 1.5-fold that resulted in increase of micro-hardness of the coating from 9.5–10.1 GPa up to 11.04–15.50 GPa.

  7. Effects of iron on intermetallic compound formation in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@mail.kmutt.ac.th [Production Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Iron reduces the modification effects of scandium in Al–Si–Mg alloys. • Morphologies of Sc-rich intermetallic phases vary with Fe and Sc contents and the cooling rates. • Sc neutralizes effects of Fe by changing Fe-rich intermetallic phases from platelets to more cubic. - Abstract: In general, iron has a strong tendency to dissolve in molten aluminum. Iron has very low solid solubility in aluminum–silicon casting alloys, so it will form intermetallic compounds that cause detrimental effects on mechanical properties. In this work, the effects of iron on intermetallic compound formations in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg alloys were studied. There were two levels of iron addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%) and two levels of scandium addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%). We found that the effects of scandium modification decreased with increasing iron addition. The morphologies of the complex intermetallic compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. It was found that scandium changes the morphology of Fe-rich intermetallic compounds from β-phase (plate-like) to α-phase, which reduces the harmful effects of β-phase.

  8. Investigations of void formation in neutron irradiated iron and F82H steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, Bachu Narain

    2002-01-01

    In the present work pure iron and low activation steel F82H have been neutron irradiated at temperatures in the interval 50 deg.C - 350 deg.C to a dose of 0.23 dpa (displacements per atom). The formation of defects has been investigated by the use ofpositron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS...... below stage V by migration andcoalescence of the micro-voids and voids. The dose dependence of the electrical conductivity of iron showed a lower conductivity for the specimens irradiated at 50 deg.C than at 100 deg.C. This has been associated with the segregation of carbon at about70 deg.C where carbon...

  9. Interstitial Ti for intermediate band formation in Ti-supersaturated silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, D.; Olea, J.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Mártil, I.; González-Díaz, G.

    2012-12-01

    We have analyzed by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) the Ti lattice location and the degree of crystalline lattice recovery in heavily Ti implanted silicon layers subsequently pulsed laser melted (PLM). Theoretical studies have predicted that Ti should occupy interstitial sites in silicon for a metallic-intermediate band (IB) formation. The analysis of Ti lattice location after PLM processes is a crucial point to evaluate the IB formation that can be clarifyied by means of RBS measurements. After PLM, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements show that the Ti concentration in the layers is well above the theoretical limit for IB formation. RBS measurements have shown a significant improvement of the lattice quality at the highest PLM energy density studied. The RBS channeling spectra reveals clearly that after PLM processes Ti impurities are mostly occupying interstitial lattice sites.

  10. Preparation of Ni-B Coating on Carbonyl Iron and Its Microwave Absorption Properties in the X Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Zhou, Wan-Cheng; Qing, Yu-Chang

    2014-09-01

    Ni-B coated carbonyl iron particles (CI@Ni-B) are prepared by the electroless plating technique. The structure, morphology, and antioxidant properties of the CI@Ni-B particles are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the CI particles have been coated with intact spherical-shell Ni-B coating, indicating the core-shell structure of CI@Ni-B particles, and the Ni-B coating can prevent the further oxidation of the CI particles. Compared with the raw CI particles/paraffin coatings with the same coating thickness of 2.0 mm and particles content of 70%, the CI@Ni-B particles/paraffin coatings possess higher microwave absorption (the RL exceeding -10 dB is obtained in the whole X band (8.2-12.4 GHz) with minimal RL of -35.0 dB at 9.2 GHz).

  11. Chamber formation leads to Mg/Ca banding in the planktonic foraminifer Neogloboquadrina pachyderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkers, Lukas; Buse, Ben; Brummer, Geert-Jan A.; Hall, Ian R.

    2016-10-01

    Many species of planktonic foraminifera show distinct banding in the intratest distribution of Mg/Ca. This heterogeneity appears biologically controlled and thus poses a challenge to Mg/Ca paleothermometry. The cause of this banding and its relation with chamber formation are poorly constrained and most of what we know about intratest Mg/Ca variability stems from culture studies of tropical, symbiont-bearing foraminifera. Here we present data on the non-spinose, symbiont-barren Neogloboquadrina pachyderma from the subpolar North Atlantic where wintertime mixing removes vertical gradients in temperature and salinity. This allows investigation of biologically controlled Mg/Ca intratest variability under natural conditions. We find that intratest Mg/Ca varies between accounted for.

  12. Bands separation in fluorescence spectra of ketocyanine dyes: evidence for their complex formation with monohydric alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarenko, V. G.; Klueva, A. V.; Doroshenko, A. O.; Demchenko, A. P.

    2000-07-01

    In the studies of binary solvent systems containing non-polar (toluene) and polar proton-donating components (monohydric alcohols) using ketocyanine dyes of 2,5-di-benzylidene-cyclopentanone-1 type as solvent polarity probes, we found that in addition to common solvent polarity-dependent shifts of fluorescence spectra, at low alcohol concentrations there appear two new well-resolved spectral bands. They are attributed to the emission of hydrogen bonded complexes of 1:1 and 1:2 type. Effective constants for hydrogen bond complex formation were estimated for them from the fluorescence titration data.

  13. Atomistic Explanation of Shear-Induced Amorphous Band Formation in Boron Carbide

    OpenAIRE

    An, Qi; Goddard, William A.; Cheng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Boron carbide (B_4C) is very hard, but its applications are hindered by stress-induced amorphous band formation. To explain this behavior, we used density function theory (Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof flavor) to examine the response to shear along 11 plausible slip systems. We found that the (011 ¯  1 ¯ )/⟨1 ¯ 101⟩ slip system has the lowest shear strength (consistent with previous experimental studies) and that this slip leads to a unique plastic deformation before failure in which a boron-carbon ...

  14. Dislocation dynamics. II. Applications to the formation of persistent slip bands, planar arrays, and dislocation cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic organization of dislocations into spatially heterogeneous substructures is demonstrated by applying the principles of dislocation dynamics that were outlined in the preceding paper. Here it is shown that the formation of persistent slip bands is a consequence of the competition between dipole formation and annihilation of dislocations of opposite Burgers vectors in the absence of temperature-enhanced climb recovery under cyclic stress conditions. Planar arrays, which are also uniaxial structures, are shown to arise from enhanced dislocation multiplication and the formation of stable dipole configurations along a slip plane at lower temperatures where climb is unimportant. Biaxial dislocation systems experience additional degrees of freedom compared with uniaxial systems because of available motion along additional slip systems. It is demonstrated that for a system of orthogonal slip directions at high temperatures in which climb and glide motion are competitive, dislocation cellular structures form as a result of immobile dipole and junction formation and by the internal elastic strain energy minimization caused by long-range self-shielding. It is shown that the internal elastic strain energy is reduced by the self-organization process. However, the short-range nonlinear processes (i.e., dipole and junction formation) are shown not to allow absolute elastic energy minimization

  15. Geochemistry and source of iron-formation from Guanhaes group, Guanhaes district, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Guanhaes district is underlain by metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Guanhaes Group, emplaced over an older Archean basement and intruded by granitic bodies. The Guanhaes Group is composed of pelitic, mafic and ultramafic schists at the base; silicate and carbonate facies iron-formation, calcarious schists, calcsilicates rocks and quartzites at the median portion and para-gneisses (meta-graywacks) at the top. Geochemistry of iron-formation suggest a hydrothermal affinity comparable to the hydrothermal sediments flanking East Pacific Rise. Paragenetic studies indicates that the rocks were submited to two metamorphic processes: one of regional character (high-amphibolite facies) and one of themal character (pyroxene-hornfels facies). Chemical analysis, as X-ray and optic spectrography, atomic absorption and plasma spectrography are presented. (author)

  16. High Magnetic Field-Induced Formation of Banded Microstructures in Lamellar Eutectic Alloys During Directional Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Fautrelle, Yves; Gagnoud, Annie; Ren, Zhongming; Moreau, Rene

    2016-08-01

    The influences of high magnetic field (up to 12 T) on the morphology of Pb-Sn and Al-Al2Cu lamellar eutectics during directional solidification were investigated. The experimental results indicate that, along with a decrease in eutectic spacing, the banded structure forms at lower growth speeds under high magnetic field and the band spacing decreases as the magnetic field increases. Moreover, the application of a magnetic field enriches the Cu solute in the liquid ahead of the liquid/solid interface during directional solidification of an Al-Al2Cu eutectic alloy. The effects of high magnetic field on the eutectic points of non-ferromagnetic alloys and the stress acting on the eutectic lamellae during directional solidification have been studied. Both thermodynamic evaluation and DTA measurements reveal that the high magnetic field has a negligible effect on the eutectic points of non-ferromagnetic alloys. However, the high magnetic field caused an increase of the nucleation temperature and undercooling. The numerical results indicate that a considerable stress is produced on the eutectic lamellae during directional solidification under high magnetic field. The formation of a banded structure in a lamellar eutectic during directional solidification under high magnetic field may be attributed to both the buildup of the solute in the liquid ahead of the liquid/solid interface and the stress acting on the eutectic lamellae.

  17. High Magnetic Field-Induced Formation of Banded Microstructures in Lamellar Eutectic Alloys During Directional Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Fautrelle, Yves; Gagnoud, Annie; Ren, Zhongming; Moreau, Rene

    2016-06-01

    The influences of high magnetic field (up to 12 T) on the morphology of Pb-Sn and Al-Al2Cu lamellar eutectics during directional solidification were investigated. The experimental results indicate that, along with a decrease in eutectic spacing, the banded structure forms at lower growth speeds under high magnetic field and the band spacing decreases as the magnetic field increases. Moreover, the application of a magnetic field enriches the Cu solute in the liquid ahead of the liquid/solid interface during directional solidification of an Al-Al2Cu eutectic alloy. The effects of high magnetic field on the eutectic points of non-ferromagnetic alloys and the stress acting on the eutectic lamellae during directional solidification have been studied. Both thermodynamic evaluation and DTA measurements reveal that the high magnetic field has a negligible effect on the eutectic points of non-ferromagnetic alloys. However, the high magnetic field caused an increase of the nucleation temperature and undercooling. The numerical results indicate that a considerable stress is produced on the eutectic lamellae during directional solidification under high magnetic field. The formation of a banded structure in a lamellar eutectic during directional solidification under high magnetic field may be attributed to both the buildup of the solute in the liquid ahead of the liquid/solid interface and the stress acting on the eutectic lamellae.

  18. Synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy of weak torsional bands: A case study of cis-methyl formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudorie, M.; Ilyushin, V.; Vander Auwera, J.; Pirali, O.; Roy, P.; Huet, T. R.

    2012-08-01

    The far infrared spectrum of cis-methyl formate has been recorded on the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer coupled to a long path cell. The very weak fundamental band associated with the methyl-top torsion mode (ν18) was observed. The frequency analysis was performed using the "rho axis method", and the microwave and millimeter-wave data from the literature. A precise determination of the band origins ({ν }_{18}^A = 132.4303 cm-1 and {ν }_{18}^E = 131.8445 cm-1) and of the barrier height [V3 = 370.7398 (58) cm-1] have been obtained. The intensity of the ν18 fundamental band was determined to be 3.4 × 10-21 cm-1/(molecule cm-2) at 297 K, equally shared among A-A and E-E transitions, thus leading to a dipole moment component μc(3) equal to 0.0483 D. The results were compared with the ab initio calcula-tions of Senent et al. [Astrophys. J. 627, 567 (2005)], 10.1086/430201.

  19. Effect of Experimental Conditions on Cementite Formation During Reduction of Iron Ore Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mania; Sichen, Du

    2016-08-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of temperature, gas composition, residence time, and type of iron ore pellets on formation of cementite during gaseous reduction of hematite. Industrial iron ore pellets have been reduced isothermally in a gas mixture with H2 and CO as main components. The presence of Fe3C in the partially reduced pellets shows that reduction and cementite formation take place at the same time. The maximum content of cementite is identified in the samples reduced by H2-CO at 1123 K (850 °C). The decrease in the carbide content due to addition of 1 pct CO2 to the initial gas mixture reveals the major influence of carbon potential in the gas atmosphere. Further increase of CO2 content increases the Fe3C. The variations of the amount of cementite with the CO2 content suggest that both the thermodynamics and kinetics of cementite formation are affected by the gas composition. Cementite decomposes to graphite and iron particles in reducing and inert atmospheres as the residence time of pellets at high temperature is increased above 60 minutes.

  20. Synergistic Activities of an Efflux Pump Inhibitor and Iron Chelators against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth and Biofilm Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Liang; Molin, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The efflux pump inhibitor phenyl-arginine-beta-naphthylamide (PA beta N) was paired with iron chelators 2,2'-dipyridyl, acetohydroxamic acid, and EDTA to assess synergistic activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth and biofilm formation. All of the tested iron chelators synergistically...

  1. IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

  2. Microstructural characterization and formation mechanism of abnormal segregation band of hot rolled ferrite/pearlite steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to further reveal the microstructural characterization and formation mechanism of abnormal segregation band of hot rolled ferrite/pearlite steel, the microstructure of this type steel was intensively studied with Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM), etc. The results show that severe C–Mn segregation exists in the abnormal segregation band region at the center of hot rolled ferrite/pearlite steel, which results from the Mn segregation during solidification process of the continuous casting slab. The C–Mn segregation causes relative displacement of pearlite transformation curve and bainite transformation curve of C curve in the corresponding region, leading to bay-like shaped C curve. The bay-like shaped C curve creates conditions for the transformation from supercooling austenite to bainite at relatively lower cooling rate in this region. The Fe–Mn–C Atomic Segregation Zone (FASZ) caused by C–Mn segregation can powerfully retard the atomic motion, and increase the lattice reconstruction resistance of austenite transformation. These two factors provide thermodynamic and kinetic conditions for the bainite transformation, and result in the emergence of granular bainitic abnormal segregation band at the center of steel plate, which leads to lower plasticity and toughness of this region, and induces the layered fracture. - Highlights: • Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM) is applied in the fracture analysis. • The abnormal segregation band region appears obvious C–Mn segregation. • The C–Mn segregation leads to bay-like shaped C curve. • The C–Mn segregation leads to Fe–Mn–C Atomic Segregation Zone

  3. Microstructural characterization and formation mechanism of abnormal segregation band of hot rolled ferrite/pearlite steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Rui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Research Center of Large Size Alloy Structural Steel Bars of Shandong Province, Jinan 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Li, Shengli, E-mail: lishengli@sdu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Research Center of Large Size Alloy Structural Steel Bars of Shandong Province, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhu, Xinde [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Ao, Qing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Research Center of Large Size Alloy Structural Steel Bars of Shandong Province, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2015-10-15

    In order to further reveal the microstructural characterization and formation mechanism of abnormal segregation band of hot rolled ferrite/pearlite steel, the microstructure of this type steel was intensively studied with Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM), etc. The results show that severe C–Mn segregation exists in the abnormal segregation band region at the center of hot rolled ferrite/pearlite steel, which results from the Mn segregation during solidification process of the continuous casting slab. The C–Mn segregation causes relative displacement of pearlite transformation curve and bainite transformation curve of C curve in the corresponding region, leading to bay-like shaped C curve. The bay-like shaped C curve creates conditions for the transformation from supercooling austenite to bainite at relatively lower cooling rate in this region. The Fe–Mn–C Atomic Segregation Zone (FASZ) caused by C–Mn segregation can powerfully retard the atomic motion, and increase the lattice reconstruction resistance of austenite transformation. These two factors provide thermodynamic and kinetic conditions for the bainite transformation, and result in the emergence of granular bainitic abnormal segregation band at the center of steel plate, which leads to lower plasticity and toughness of this region, and induces the layered fracture. - Highlights: • Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM) is applied in the fracture analysis. • The abnormal segregation band region appears obvious C–Mn segregation. • The C–Mn segregation leads to bay-like shaped C curve. • The C–Mn segregation leads to Fe–Mn–C Atomic Segregation Zone.

  4. First-Principles Momentum-Dependent Local Ansatz Wavefunction and Momentum Distribution Function Bands of Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a first-principles local ansatz wavefunction approach with momentum-dependent variational parameters on the basis of the tight-binding LDA+U Hamiltonian. The theory goes beyond the first-principles Gutzwiller approach and quantitatively describes correlated electron systems. Using the theory, we find that the momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of paramagnetic bcc Fe along high-symmetry lines show a large deviation from the Fermi-Dirac function for the d electrons with eg symmetry and yield the momentum-dependent mass enhancement factors. The calculated average mass enhancement m*/m = 1.65 is consistent with low-temperature specific heat data as well as recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data.

  5. Variation in stable carbon isotopes in organic matter from the Gunflint Iron Formation. [Precambrian rock analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghoorn, E. S.; Knoll, A. H.; Dembicki, H., Jr.; Meinschein, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an isotopic analysis of the kerogen separated from 15 samples of the Gunflint Iron Formation, Ontario, and the conformably overlying Rove Formation. Reasons for which the Gunflint Iron Formation is suitable for such a study of a single Precambrian formation are identified. The general geology of the formation is outlined along with sample selection, description, and preparation. Major conclusions are that the basal Gunflint algal chert and shale facies are depleted in C-13 relative to the chert-carbonate and taconite facies, that differences in the delta C-13 values between Gunflint facies correlate with marked differences in their biological source materials as evidenced by their respective microbiotas, that the anthraxolites are anomalously depleted in C-13 relative to the kerogen of their encompassing cherts and shales, and that the effects of igneous intrusion and concomitant thermal alteration are shown by a marked loss of C-12 at the contact. The demonstration that not all kerogens are isotopically alike stresses the importance of facies data to the interpretation of C-13/C-12 ratios of ancient organic matter.

  6. Comparative analysis of biofilm formation by Bacillus cereus reference strains and undomesticated food isolates and the effect of free iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayrapetyan, Hasmik; Muller, Lisette; Tempelaars, Marcel; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2015-05-01

    Biofilm formation of Bacillus cereus reference strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 and 21 undomesticated food isolates was studied on polystyrene and stainless steel as contact surfaces. For all strains, the biofilm forming capacity was significantly enhanced when in contact with stainless steel (SS) as a surface as compared to polystyrene (PS). For a selection of strains, the total CFU and spore counts in biofilms were determined and showed a good correlation between CFU counts and total biomass of these biofilms. Sporulation was favoured in the biofilm over the planktonic state. To substantiate whether iron availability could affect B. cereus biofilm formation, the free iron availability was varied in BHI by either the addition of FeCl3 or by depletion of iron with the scavenger 2,2-Bipyridine. Addition of iron resulted in increased air-liquid interface biofilm on polystyrene but not on SS for strain ATCC 10987, while the presence of Bipyridine reduced biofilm formation for both materials. Biofilm formation was restored when excess FeCl3 was added in combination with the scavenger. Further validation of the iron effect for all 23 strains in microtiter plate showed that fourteen strains (including ATCC10987) formed a biofilm on PS. For eight of these strains biofilm formation was enhanced in the presence of added iron and for eleven strains it was reduced when free iron was scavenged. Our results show that stainless steel as a contact material provides more favourable conditions for B. cereus biofilm formation and maturation compared to polystyrene. This effect could possibly be linked to iron availability as we show that free iron availability affects B. cereus biofilm formation.

  7. Inlfuence of boron on ferrite formation in copper-added spheroidal graphite cast iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zou; Hideo Nakae

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the original work of the authors published recently, describing the inlfuence of B on the matrix of the Cu-added spheroidal graphite cast iron. The effect of Cu has been corrected as a ferrite formation promoter in the matrix of the grey cast iron by the usage of high-purity material. Also, this paper focuses on the ferrite formation and the observation of the Cu distribution in the B-added and B-free Cu-containing spheroidal graphite cast iron. The Cu iflm on the spheroidal graphite can be successfuly observed in the B-free sample using a special etching method. However, in the B-added sample, no Cu iflm could be found, while the secondary graphite was formed on the surface of the spheroidal graphite. The interaction between B and Cu is stressed as a peculiar phenomenon by the employment of a contrast experiment of B and Mn. The heat treatment could make Cu precipitate more signiifcantly in the eutectic cels and in the matrix in the form of large Cu particles because of the limited solubility of Cu.

  8. The formation of IIE iron meteorites investigated by the chondrule-bearing Mont Dieu meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosbroek, N.; Debaille, V.; Pittarello, L.; Goderis, S.; Humayun, M.; Hecht, L.; Jourdan, F.; Spicuzza, M. J.; Vanhaecke, F.; Claeys, Ph.

    2015-07-01

    A 435 kg piece of the Mont Dieu iron meteorite (MD) contains cm-sized silicate inclusions. Based on the concentration of Ni, Ga, Ge, and Ir (8.59 ± 0.32 wt%, 25.4 ± 0.9 ppm, 61 ± 2 ppm, 7.1 ± 0.4 ppm, respectively) in the metal host, this piece can be classified as a IIE nonmagmatic iron. The silicate inclusions possess a chondritic mineralogy and relict chondrules occur throughout the inclusions. Major element analysis, oxygen isotopic analysis (Δ17O = 0.71 ± 0.02‰), and mean Fa and Fs molar contents (Fa15.7 ± 0.4 and Fs14.4 ± 0.5) indicate that MD originated as an H chondrite. Because of strong similarities with Netschaëvo IIE, MD can be classified in the most primitive subgroup of the IIE sequence. 40Ar/39Ar ages of 4536 ± 59 Ma and 4494 ± 95 Ma obtained on pyroxene and plagioclase inclusions show that MD belongs to the old (~4.5 Ga) group of IIE iron meteorites and that it has not been perturbed by any subsequent heating event following its formation. The primitive character of MD sheds light on the nature of its formation process, its thermal history, and the evolution of its parent body.

  9. Formation of high-valent iron-oxo species in superoxide reductase: characterization by resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Florence; Tremey, Emilie; von Stetten, David; Rat, Stéphanie; Duval, Simon; Carpentier, Philippe; Clemancey, Martin; Desbois, Alain; Nivière, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    Superoxide reductase (SOR), a non-heme mononuclear iron protein that is involved in superoxide detoxification in microorganisms, can be used as an unprecedented model to study the mechanisms of O2 activation and of the formation of high-valent iron-oxo species in metalloenzymes. By using resonance Raman spectroscopy, it was shown that the mutation of two residues in the second coordination sphere of the SOR iron active site, K48 and I118, led to the formation of a high-valent iron-oxo species when the mutant proteins were reacted with H2O2. These data demonstrate that these residues in the second coordination sphere tightly control the evolution and the cleavage of the O-O bond of the ferric iron hydroperoxide intermediate that is formed in the SOR active site. PMID:24777646

  10. Effects of Iron Chelators on the Formation and Development of Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazik, Hasan; Penner, John C; Ferreira, Jose A; Haagensen, Janus A J; Cohen, Kevin; Spormann, Alfred M; Martinez, Marife; Chen, Vicky; Hsu, Joe L; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2015-10-01

    Iron acquisition is crucial for the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus. A. fumigatus biofilm formation occurs in vitro and in vivo and is associated with physiological changes. In this study, we assessed the effects of Fe chelators on biofilm formation and development. Deferiprone (DFP), deferasirox (DFS), and deferoxamine (DFM) were tested for MIC against a reference isolate via a broth macrodilution method. The metabolic effects (assessed by XTT [2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt]) on biofilm formation by conidia were studied upon exposure to DFP, DFM, DFP plus FeCl3, or FeCl3 alone. A preformed biofilm was exposed to DFP with or without FeCl3. The DFP and DFS MIC50 against planktonic A. fumigatus was 1,250 μM, and XTT gave the same result. DFM showed no planktonic inhibition at concentrations of ≤2,500 μM. By XTT testing, DFM concentrations of biofilms forming in A. fumigatus or preformed biofilms (P biofilm formation (P Biofilm formation with 625 μM DFP plus any concentration of FeCl3 was lower than that in the controls (P biofilms, DFP in the range of ≥625 to 1,250 μM was inhibitory compared to the controls (P biofilm formation (P biofilm increased with 2,500 μM FeCl3 only (P biofilms of A. fumigatus clinical isolates to DFP were noted. In conclusion, iron stimulates biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. Chelators can inhibit or enhance biofilms. Chelation may be a potential therapy for A. fumigatus, but we show here that chelators must be chosen carefully. Individual isolate susceptibility assessments may be needed.

  11. Iron-tolerant Cyanobacteria as a Tool to Study Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Iron Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Mummey, D.; Cooksey, K. E.; McKay, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    We are investigating biological mechanisms of terrestrial iron deposition as analogs for Martian hematite recently confirmed by. Possible terrestrial analogs include iron oxide hydrothermal deposits, rock varnish, iron-rich laterites, ferricrete soils, moki balls, and banded iron formations (BIFs). With the discovery of recent volcanic activity in the summit craters of five Martian volcanoes, renewed interest in the iron dynamics of terrestrial hydrothermal environments and associated microorganisms is warranted. In this study we describe a new genus and species of CB exhibiting elevated dissolved iron tolerance and the ability to precipitate hematite on the surface of their exopolymeric sheathes.

  12. Mechanisms of defect complex formation and environmental-assisted fracture behavior of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, B.R.; Muratov, L.S.; Kang, B.S.J.; Li, K.Z. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide has excellent corrosion resistance in high-temperature oxidizing-sulfidizing environments; however, there are problems at room and medium temperature with hydrogen embrittlement as related to exposure to moisture. In this research, a coordinated computational modeling/experimental study of mechanisms related to environmental-assisted fracture behavior of selected iron aluminides is being undertaken. The modeling and the experimental work will connect at the level of coordinated understanding of the mechanisms for hydrogen penetration and for loss of strength and susceptibility to fracture. The focus of the modeling component at this point is on the challenging question of accurately predicting the iron vacancy formation energy in Fe{sub 3}A{ell} and the subsequent tendency, if present, for vacancy clustering. The authors have successfully performed, on an ab initio basis, the first calculation of the vacancy formation energy in Fe{sub 3}A{ell}. These calculations include lattice relaxation effects which are quite large. This has significant implications for vacancy clustering effects with consequences to be explored for hydrogen diffusion. The experimental work at this stage has focused on the relationship of the choice and concentration of additives to the improvement of resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and hence to the fracture behavior. For this reason, comparative crack growth tests of FA-186, FA-187, and FA-189 iron aluminides (all with basic composition of Fe-28A{ell}-5Cr, at % with micro-alloying additives of Zr, C or B) under, air, oxygen, or water environment have been performed. These tests showed that the alloys are susceptible to room temperature hydrogen embrittlement in both B2 and DO{sub 3} conditions. Test results indicated that FA-187, and FA-189 are intrinsically more brittle than FA-186.

  13. Atomistic explanation of shear-induced amorphous band formation in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qi; Goddard, William A; Cheng, Tao

    2014-08-29

    Boron carbide (B4C) is very hard, but its applications are hindered by stress-induced amorphous band formation. To explain this behavior, we used density function theory (Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof flavor) to examine the response to shear along 11 plausible slip systems. We found that the (0111)/ slip system has the lowest shear strength (consistent with previous experimental studies) and that this slip leads to a unique plastic deformation before failure in which a boron-carbon bond between neighboring icosahedral clusters breaks to form a carbon lone pair (Lewis base) on the C within the icosahedron. Further shear then leads this Lewis base C to form a new bond with the Lewis acidic B in the middle of a CBC chain. This then initiates destruction of this icosahedron. The result is the amorphous structure observed experimentally. We suggest how this insight could be used to strengthen B4C.

  14. Atomistic Explanation of Shear-Induced Amorphous Band Formation in Boron Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qi; Goddard, William A.; Cheng, Tao

    2014-08-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) is very hard, but its applications are hindered by stress-induced amorphous band formation. To explain this behavior, we used density function theory (Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof flavor) to examine the response to shear along 11 plausible slip systems. We found that the (011¯ 1¯)/⟨1¯101⟩ slip system has the lowest shear strength (consistent with previous experimental studies) and that this slip leads to a unique plastic deformation before failure in which a boron-carbon bond between neighboring icosahedral clusters breaks to form a carbon lone pair (Lewis base) on the C within the icosahedron. Further shear then leads this Lewis base C to form a new bond with the Lewis acidic B in the middle of a CBC chain. This then initiates destruction of this icosahedron. The result is the amorphous structure observed experimentally. We suggest how this insight could be used to strengthen B4C.

  15. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as recommended by an obstetrician or other health care provider. Infants and toddlers Iron deficiency anemia in infancy can lead to delayed psychological development, social withdrawal, and less ability to pay attention. By age 6 to 9 months, full-term infants could ...

  16. Thermal Conductivity of the Iron-Based Superconductor FeSe: Nodeless Gap with a Strong Two-Band Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois-Hope, P; Chi, S; Bonn, D A; Liang, R; Hardy, W N; Wolf, T; Meingast, C; Doiron-Leyraud, N; Taillefer, Louis

    2016-08-26

    The thermal conductivity κ of the iron-based superconductor FeSe was measured at temperatures down to 75 mK in magnetic fields up to 17 T. In a zero magnetic field, the electronic residual linear term in the T=0  K limit, κ_{0}/T, is vanishingly small. The application of a magnetic field B causes an exponential increase in κ_{0}/T initially. Those two observations show that there are no zero-energy quasiparticles that carry heat and therefore no nodes in the superconducting gap of FeSe. The full field dependence of κ_{0}/T has the classic two-step shape of a two-band superconductor: a first rise at very low field, with a characteristic field B^{⋆}≪B_{c2}, and then a second rise up to the upper critical field B_{c2}. This shows that the superconducting gap is very small (but finite) on one of the pockets in the Fermi surface of FeSe. We estimate that the minimum value of the gap, Δ_{min}, is an order of magnitude smaller than the maximum value, Δ_{max}.

  17. Magneto-structural transformations via a solid-state nudged elastic band method: Application to iron under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkevich, N A; Johnson, D D

    2015-08-14

    We extend the solid-state nudged elastic band method to handle a non-conserved order parameter, in particular, magnetization, that couples to volume and leads to many observed effects in magnetic systems. We apply this formalism to the well-studied magneto-volume collapse during the pressure-induced transformation in iron-from ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) austenite to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensite. We find a bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa, with the transition-state enthalpy of 156 meV/Fe at this pressure. A discontinuity in magnetization and coherent stress occurs at the transition state, which has a form of a cusp on the potential-energy surface (yet all the atomic and cell degrees of freedom are continuous); the calculated pressure jump of 25 GPa is related to the observed 25 GPa spread in measured coexistence pressures arising from martensitic and coherency stresses in samples. Our results agree with experiments, but necessarily differ from those arising from drag and restricted parametrization methods having improperly constrained or uncontrolled degrees of freedom.

  18. Thermal conductivity of the iron-based superconductor FeSe: Nodeless gap with strong two-band character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois-Hope, Patrick; Badoux, Sven; Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas; Taillefer, Louis; Chi, Shun; Liang, Ruixing; Hardy, Walter; Bonn, Doug

    The thermal conductivity κ of the iron-based superconductor FeSe was measured at temperatures down to 50 mK in magnetic fields up to 17 T. In zero magnetic field, the residual linear term in the T = 0 limit, κ0 / T , is vanishingly small. Application of a magnetic field H causes no increase in κ0 / T initially. Those two facts show that there are no zero-energy quasiparticles that carry heat and therefore no nodes in the superconducting gap of FeSe. The full field dependence of κ0 / T has the classic shape of a two-band superconductor, such as MgB2. It rises initially with a characteristic field H* ~=Hc 2 / 25 , and then more slowly up to Hc 2 = 14 T. We interpret this in terms of a small gap ΔA ~=Δ0 / 5 on some part of the Fermi surface, with a large gap ΔB =Δ0 in the region that controls Hc 2.

  19. Prevention of Porosity Formation and Other Effects of Gaseous Elements in Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albany Research Center

    2005-04-01

    Iron foundries have observed porosity primarily as interdendritic porosity in large freezing range alloys such as Ni-Hard I and hypoeutectic high Cr alloys or pinholes and fissure defects in gray and ductile irons. For most iron foundries, porosity problems occur sporadically, but even occasional outbreaks can be costly since even a very small amount of porosity can significantly reduce the mechanical properties of the castings. As a result when porosity is detected, the castings are scrapped and remelted, or when the porosity is undetected, defective parts are shipped to the consumer. Neither case is desirable. This project was designed to examine various factors contributing to the porosity formation in iron castings. Factors such as solubility of gases in liquid and solid iron alloys, surface tension of liquid iron alloys, and permeability of dendritic structures were investigated in terms of their effect on the porosity formation. A method was developed to predict how much nitrogen the molten alloy picks up from air after a given amount of holding time for a given melting practice. It was shown that small batches of iron melts in an induction furnace can end up with very high concentration of nitrogen (near solubility limit). Surface tension of liquid iron alloys was measured as a function of temperature. Effect of minor additions of S, Ti, and Al on the surface tension of liquid iron alloys was investigated. Up to 18% change in surface tension was detected by minor element additions. This translates to the same amount of change in gas pressure required in a bubble of a given size to keep the bubble stable. A new method was developed to measure the permeability of dendritic structures in situ. The innovative aspect of these experiments, with respect to previous interdendritic permeability measurements, was the fact that the dendritic structure was allowed to form in situ and was not cooled and re-heated for permeability tests. A permeability model was developed

  20. Kinetic study of austenite formation during continuous heating of unalloyed ductile iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Gómez, Octavio; Barrera-Godínez, José Antonio; Vergara-Hernández, Héctor Javier

    2015-01-01

    The austenite formation kinetics in unalloyed cast ductile iron was studied on the basis of dilatometry measurements, and Avrami's equation was used to estimate the material's kinetic parameters. A continuous heating transformation diagram was constructed using heating rates in the range of 0.06 to 0.83°C·s-1. As the heating rate was augmented, the critical temperatures, A c1 and A α, as well as the intercritical range, which was evaluated as the difference between the critical temperatures, Δ T = A α - A c1, increased. At a low heating rate, the kinetics of austenite formation was slow as a consequence of the iron's silicon content. The effect of heating rate on k and n, the kinetic parameters of Avrami's equation, was also determined. Parameter n, which is associated with nucleation sites and growth geometry, decreased with an increase in heating rate. In addition, parameter k increased with the increase of heating rate, suggesting that the nucleation and growth rates are carbon- and silicon-diffusion controlled during austenite formation under continuous heating.

  1. Vacancy type defect formation in irradiated α-iron investigated by positron beam Doppler broadening technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacancy type defects formations have been investigated in virgin and irradiated a-iron samples using slow positron beam Doppler broadening technique. Mono-vacancies and vacancy clusters are observed in 1.5 MeV 4He ions irradiated Fe samples at varying fluences from 1×1013 to 1×1017 cm−2. In the 1.2 MeV Yttrium ions implantation at low fluence 1×1014 cm−2 vacancy clusters with higher concentration and larger size are formed. In this sample, vacancy defects are detected deeper than predicted by SRIM calculation due to channelling.

  2. Effects of iron and manganese on the formation of HAAs upon chlorinating Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Fei, E-mail: gefei@xtu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Egongtang Road, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Wu, Xiuzhen; Wang, Na; Zhu, Runliang; Wang, Tong; Xu, Yin [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Egongtang Road, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The major objective of the present study was to investigate the role of iron and manganese on the formation of haloacetic acids (HAAs) when algae are chlorinated at different pHs. The results showed that both iron and manganese can reduce the yields of dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) on chlorinating green alga Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) at a pH range of 6.0-9.0, and the decline of DCAA and TCAA was shown to be more significant at the low pH range. At pH 6.0, DCAA and TCAA yields decreased by 44.5% and 57.3%, respectively with the addition of 0.5 mg L{sup -1} iron, and decreased 39.5% and 49.4%, respectively with the addition of 0.5 mg L{sup -1} manganese. The main reason for decreasing the yields of HAAs as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) is that Fe(OH){sub 3(am)} or MnO{sub 2(am)} coat the algal cells{sub ,} which then improves their agglomeration of algal cells which is also revealed by the laser particle size analysis (LPSA).

  3. Characterisation of iron inclusion during the formation of calcium sulfoaluminate phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iron distribution among the sulfoaluminate clinker phases and its ability to enter the calcium sulfoaluminate lattice in solid solution can have a significant influence on manufacturing process and reactivity of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Moessbauer spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (EDAX) and infrared spectroscopy were used to identify the mineralogical conditions of iron inclusion during the formation of calcium sulfoaluminate (C4A3S) phase from different mixtures in the CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-SO3 system. The mixtures, heated in a laboratory electric oven, contained stoichiometric amounts of reagent grade CaCO3, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and CaSO4.2H2O for the synthesis of Ca4Al(6-2x)Fe2xSO16, where x, comprised between 0 and 3, is the mole number of Al2O3 substituted by Fe2O3. With x increasing from 0 to 1.5, both the iron content of C4A3S phase and the amounts of side components such as C2F and CS increased. For x values included in the range of 1.5-3.0, at temperatures higher than 1200 oC, melting phenomena were observed and, instead of the C4A3S solid solution, ferritic phases and anhydrite were formed.

  4. The Role of Short-Range Order and Hyperuniformity in the Formation of Band Gaps in Disordered Photonic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Froufe-Pérez, Luis S; Damasceno, Pablo F; Muller, Nicolas; Haberko, Jakub; Glotzer, Sharon C; Scheffold, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We study photonic band gap formation in two-dimensional high refractive index disordered ma- terials where the dielectric structure is derived from packing disks in real and reciprocal space. Numerical calculations of the photonic density of states demonstrate the presence of a band gap for all polarizations in both cases. We find that the band gap width is controlled by the increase in positional correlation inducing short-range order and hyperuniformity concurrently. Our findings suggest that the optimization of short-range order, in particular the tailoring of Bragg scattering at the isotropic Brillouin zone, are of key importance for designing disordered PBG materials.

  5. Differences between Rice Cultivars in Iron Plaque Formation on Roots and Plant Lead Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmei Ma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to understand some mechanisms on the variations between rice cultivars in lead (Pb tolerance. Pot soil experiments were conducted with two rice cultivars under different soil Pb levels and the relationships between Pb phytotoxicity, uptake and iron plaque formation on roots were investigated. The results showed that the rice cultivar with indica consanguinity (Shanyou 63 were more sensitive to soil Pb stress than the cultivar with japonica consanguinity (Wuyunjing 7, particularly for the roots. Pb concentrations and distribution ratios in root tissues were higher for Shan you 63 than for Wuyunjing 7, but those in the plaques showed a reverse order. Fe distribution ratios in plaques were also larger for Wuyunjing 7 than for Shanyou 63, but the ratios in root tissues showed a reverse order. The results indicate that iron plaque formation on rice roots can provide a barrier to soil Pb stress in Pb-contaminated soils. The plaque will increase the sequestration of Pb on root surface, providing a means of external exclusion of soil Pb. But the function of the plaque is limited, only effective in relatively lower or moderate levels of soil Pb contamination.

  6. Microstructure evolution associated with adiabatic shear bands and shear band failure in ballistic plug formation in Ti-6Al-4V targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructures and microstructure evolution associated with adiabatic shear band (ASB) formation in ballistic plugging in thick (2.5 cm) Ti-6Al-4V targets impacted by cylindrical, 4340 steel projectiles (2.0 cm in height) at impact velocities ranging from 633 m/s to 1027 m/s (just above the ballistic limit) were investigated by optical and transmission electron microscopy. ASB width increased from 10 μm to 21 μm as the velocity increased. ASB evolution was accompanied by the evolution of dark deformation bands composed of α' martensite platelets which increased in density with increasing impact velocity. The corresponding Vickers microindentation hardness also increased from HV 619 to HV 632 in contrast to the surrounding matrix microindentation hardness of HV 555. These deformation bands were not necessarily precursors to ASB formation. The ASB average Vickers microindentation hardness was essentially constant at HV 645, a 16% increase over the matrix. This constant microindentation hardness was characterized by a consistent DRX grain structure which varied from equiaxed, defect-free grains (∼2 μm diameter) to heavily dislocated, equiaxed grains. Cracks nucleating and propagating within the ABSs were observed to increase from 8% to 87% of the ASB length with increasing impact velocity.

  7. The effect of initial iron concentration and pH on the radiolytic formation of γ-FeOOH nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles under gamma irradiation is a process in the infancy of its understanding. Herein we present work to describe how initial iron concentration and pH impact the growth of radiolytically formed nanoparticles. These results can be used to better understand the activity transport processes occurring within a reactor environment which may pose both environmental and safety concerns. Preliminary results suggest that the final particle size is proportional to the initial dissolved iron concentration, while experiments probing the effect of solution pH are ongoing. (author)

  8. Warm dust and aromatic bands as quantitative probes of star-formation activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Roussel, H.; Sauvage, M.; Charmandaris, V.

    2004-05-01

    We combine samples of spiral galaxies and starburst systems observed with ISOCAM on board ISO to investigate the reliability of mid-infrared dust emission as a quantitative tracer of star formation activity. The total sample covers very diverse galactic environments and probes a much wider dynamic range in star formation rate density than previous similar studies. We find that both the monochromatic 15 μm continuum and the 5-8.5 μm emission constitute excellent indicators of the star formation rate as quantified by the Lyman continuum luminosity LLyc, within specified validity limits which are different for the two tracers. Normalized to projected surface area, the 15 μm continuum luminosity Σ15 μm,ct is directly proportional to ΣLyc over several orders of magnitude. Two regimes are distinguished from the relative offsets in the observed relationship: the proportionality factor increases by a factor of ≈5 between quiescent disks in spiral galaxies, and moderate to extreme star-forming environments in circumnuclear regions of spirals and in starburst systems. The transition occurs near ΣLyc ˜ 102 L⊙ pc-2 and is interpreted as due to very small dust grains starting to dominate the emission at 15 μm over aromatic species above this threshold. The 5-8.5 μm luminosity per unit projected area is also directly proportional to the Lyman continuum luminosity, with a single conversion factor from the most quiescent objects included in the sample up to ΣLyc ˜ 104 L⊙ pc-2, where the relationship then flattens. The turnover is attributed to depletion of aromatic band carriers in the harsher conditions prevailing in extreme starburst environments. The observed relationships provide empirical calibrations useful for estimating star formation rates from mid-infrared observations, much less affected by extinction than optical and near-infrared tracers in deeply embedded H II regions and obscured starbursts, as well as for theoretical predictions from evolutionary

  9. Effect of iron and phosphate on bacterial cyanide formation determined by methemoglobin in two-dimensional gradient microcultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf von Rohr, Matthias; Furrer, Gerhard; Brandl, Helmut

    2009-10-01

    Cyanide formation by microorganisms is typically observed during early stationary growth phase and is facilitated by the presence of iron(III) and inorganic phosphate. Extracellular free cyanide in aqueous solutions might readily react with methemoglobin added and can be determined by UV/VIS spectroscopy. As alternative to existing methods, this provided the basis for an analytical method which has not been used previously for the determination of cyanide in bacterial cultivations. We successfully applied the technique to study the combined effect of both iron(III) and phosphate on the cyanide formation by Pseudomonas fluorescens, which we used as model organism known for its ability to form HCN. Information on the combined effect of iron and phosphate was obtained by using commercially available 24-well microtiter plates as two-dimensional gradient systems. After its reaction with methemoglobin, cyanide was measured reproducibly at the wavelength of 427 nm. We found a combined effect of both iron and phosphate. In the absence of inorganic phosphate, cyanide formation was stimulated considerably by increasing concentrations of iron(III), although the effect on the bacterial growth of P. fluorescens was almost insignificant. This suggests that iron is more important than inorganic phosphate for the cyanogenesis by P. fluorescens.

  10. Band offset formation at semiconductor heterojunctions through density-based minimization of interface energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Raymond T.; Kronik, Leeor

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that the magnitude of band offset (BO) at any semiconductor heterojunction is directly derivable from the distribution of charge at that interface and that the latter is decided by a minimization of total energy. However, the fact that BO formation is governed by energy minimization has not been explicitly used in theoretical BO models, likely because the equilibrium charge densities at heterojunction interfaces appear difficult to predict, except via explicit calculation. In this paper, electron densities at a large number of (100), (110), and (111) oriented heterojunctions between lattice-matched, isovalent semiconductors with the zinc blende (ZB) structure have been calculated by first-principles methods and analyzed in detail for possible common characteristics among energy-minimized densities. Remarkably, the heterojunction electron density was found to largely depend only on the immediate, local atomic arrangement. In fact, it is so much so that a juxtaposition of local electron-densities generated in oligo-cells (LEGOs) accurately reproduced the charge densities that minimize the energy for the heterojunctions. Furthermore, the charge distribution for each bulk semiconductor was found to display a striking separability of its electrostatic effect into two neutral parts, associated with the cation and the anion, which are approximately transferrable among semiconductors. These discoveries form the basis of a neutral polyhedra theory (NPT) that approximately predicts the equilibrium charge density and BO of relaxed heterojunctions from the energy minimization requirement. Well-known experimentally observed characteristics of heterojunctions, such as the insensitivity of BO to heterojunction orientation and the identity of interface bonds, the transitivity rule, etc., are all in good agreement with the NPT. Therefore, energy minimization, which essentially decides the electronic properties of all other solid and molecular systems, also governs

  11. The effect of iridium(III) ions on the formation of iron oxides in a highly alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Study of the influence of Ir3+ ions on the precipitation of iron oxides. ► Ir3+ doping in α-FeOOH caused significant changes in the microstructural properties. ► Ir3+ doping in α-Fe2O3 caused an increase in the Morin transition temperature. ► Ir3+ ions caused a phase transformation α-(Fe,Ir)OOH → α-(Fe,Ir)2O3 → Fe3O4 + Ir0. - Abstract: The effect of the presence of Ir3+ ions on the formation of iron oxides in a highly alkaline precipitation system was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), 57Fe Mössbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Monodispersed lath-like α-FeOOH (goethite) particles precipitated by hydrothermal treatment in a highly alkaline medium with the addition of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) were used as reference material. The presence of Ir3+ ions in the precipitation system strongly influenced the phase composition, magnetic, structural and morphological properties of obtained samples. The formation of α-Fe2O3 (hematite) along with α-FeOOH in the first stage of hydrothermal treatment and the transformation of α-FeOOH and α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 (magnetite) by a longer hydrothermal treatment was caused by the presence of Ir3+ ions. Ir3+ for Fe3+ substitution in the structure of α-FeOOH brought about changes in unit-cell dimensions, crystallinity, particle size and shape, hyperfine magnetic field and infrared bands positions. Ir3+ for Fe3+ substitution in the structure of α-Fe2O3 led to an increase in the temperature of the Morin transition; Mössbauer spectroscopy showed the presence of α-Fe2O3 in the antiferromagnetically ordered state at 293 K.

  12. The effect of iridium(III) ions on the formation of iron oxides in a highly alkaline medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krehula, Stjepko, E-mail: krehul@irb.hr [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, PO Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Music, Svetozar [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, PO Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-03-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of the influence of Ir{sup 3+} ions on the precipitation of iron oxides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ir{sup 3+} doping in {alpha}-FeOOH caused significant changes in the microstructural properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ir{sup 3+} doping in {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} caused an increase in the Morin transition temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ir{sup 3+} ions caused a phase transformation {alpha}-(Fe,Ir)OOH {yields} {alpha}-(Fe,Ir){sub 2}O{sub 3} {yields} Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} + Ir{sup 0}. - Abstract: The effect of the presence of Ir{sup 3+} ions on the formation of iron oxides in a highly alkaline precipitation system was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Monodispersed lath-like {alpha}-FeOOH (goethite) particles precipitated by hydrothermal treatment in a highly alkaline medium with the addition of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) were used as reference material. The presence of Ir{sup 3+} ions in the precipitation system strongly influenced the phase composition, magnetic, structural and morphological properties of obtained samples. The formation of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (hematite) along with {alpha}-FeOOH in the first stage of hydrothermal treatment and the transformation of {alpha}-FeOOH and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (magnetite) by a longer hydrothermal treatment was caused by the presence of Ir{sup 3+} ions. Ir{sup 3+} for Fe{sup 3+} substitution in the structure of {alpha}-FeOOH brought about changes in unit-cell dimensions, crystallinity, particle size and shape, hyperfine magnetic field and infrared bands positions. Ir{sup 3+} for Fe{sup 3+} substitution in the structure of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} led to an increase in the temperature of the Morin transition; Moessbauer spectroscopy showed the presence of

  13. An in-depth spectroscopic examination of molecular bands from 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. I. Formation of the G-band in metal-poor dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, A. J.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Spite, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Recent developments in the three-dimensional (3D) spectral synthesis code Linfor3D have meant that for the first time, large spectral wavelength regions, such as molecular bands, can be synthesised with it in a short amount of time. Aims: A detailed spectral analysis of the synthetic G-band for several dwarf turn-off-type 3D atmospheres (5850 ≲ Teff [ K ] ≲ 6550, 4.0 ≤ log g ≤ 4.5, - 3.0 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤-1.0) was conducted, under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We also examine carbon and oxygen molecule formation at various metallicity regimes and discuss the impact it has on the G-band. Methods: Using a qualitative approach, we describe the different behaviours between the 3D atmospheres and the traditional one-dimensional (1D) atmospheres and how the different physics involved inevitably leads to abundance corrections, which differ over varying metallicities. Spectra computed in 1D were fit to every 3D spectrum to determine the 3D abundance correction. Results: Early analysis revealed that the CH molecules that make up the G-band exhibited an oxygen abundance dependency; a higher oxygen abundance leads to weaker CH features. Nitrogen abundances showed zero impact to CH formation. The 3D corrections are also stronger at lower metallicity. Analysis of the 3D corrections to the G-band allows us to assign estimations of the 3D abundance correction to most dwarf stars presented in the literature. Conclusions: The 3D corrections suggest that A(C) in carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with high A(C) would remain unchanged, but would decrease in CEMP stars with lower A(C). It was found that the C/O ratio is an important parameter to the G-band in 3D. Additional testing confirmed that the C/O ratio is an equally important parameter for OH transitions under 3D. This presents a clear interrelation between the carbon and oxygen abundances in 3D atmospheres through their molecular species, which is not seen in 1D.

  14. UV and visible Raman scattering of ultraheavily Ti implanted Si layers for intermediate band formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, D.; Olea, J.; del Prado, A.; García-Hemme, E.; Mártil, I.; González-Díaz, G.; Ibáñez, J.; Cuscó, R.; Artús, L.

    2011-11-01

    We assess the degree of crystallinity by means of UV and visible Raman scattering measurements of Ti implanted Si layers with very high doses (1015-5 × 1016 cm-2) subsequently annealed by nanosecond pulsed laser melting (PLM). We obtain ultraheavily impurified Si layers with Ti concentrations six orders of magnitude above the solid solubility limit in a layer several tens of nanometers thick. The PLM annealing processes are needed to recover the crystal quality and to keep the high Ti concentration required to form an intermediate band (IB). The UV Raman analysis permits us to evaluate the lattice crystallinity of the different implanted doses probing only the implanted region and points out Ti interstitial location in the host lattice in agreement with theoretical predictions for IB formation. By contrast, visible Raman spectra are only sensitive to the presence of a fully amorphized implanted layer as in the rest of the crystalline layers the probing depth far exceeds the implanted layer thickness and the signal is dominated by the undamaged Si.

  15. Formation of spanwise vorticy in oblique turbulent bands of transitional plane Couette flow, part 1: Numerical experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Rolland, Joran

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the formation of spanwise vorticity in the velocity streaks of the oblique laminar- turbulent bands of plane Couette flow (PCF) by mean of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). The spanwise vorticity is created by a roll-up type development of the streamwise-wall normal shear layer of the velocity streaks. It is advected by the large scale flow along the bands. We propose a criterion on spanwise vorticity which detects these events in order to perform systematic measurements. Beside of the streamwise and spanwise correlation lengths of the rolls, their advection velocity is measured and shown to match the large scale flow along the band near the turbulent region. Eventually, we discuss the possible relation between ejection of vorticity away from the bands near the laminar region and the size of said laminar region.

  16. Differences in root aeration, iron plaque formation and waterlogging tolerance in six mangroves along a continues tidal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao; Wang, You-Shao; Fei, Jiao; Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Ye, Zhi-Hong

    2015-10-01

    Mangrove is a special coastal forest along tropical and subtropical intertidal shores. However, how mangroves adapt to tidal flooding and the mechanisms involved in mangrove zonation are still poorly understood. In this study, a pot trial with different tide treatments was conducted to investigate the differences in root anatomy, porosity, radial oxygen loss, iron plaque formation and waterlogging tolerance among six mangroves along a continuous tidal gradient. The index of waterlogging tolerance illustrated that Sonneratia apetala possessed the highest index, followed by Aeguceras corniculatum/Kandelia, Rhizophora stylosa, Heritiera littorlis and Thespesia populnea. Waterlogging tolerances of the mangroves were found to be positively correlated with their root porosity, radial oxygen loss and iron plaque formation. Waterlogging-sensitive species such as landward semi-mangroves exhibited small root porosity and ROL, while waterlogging-tolerant species such as seaward pioneer and rhizophoraceous mangroves exhibited extensive porosity, ROL and iron plaque formation. Nevertheless, grater root porosity and iron plaque formation were detected in permanent waterlogged plants when compared to drained plants. In conclusion, The present study proposes a structural adaptive strategy to tidal flooding in mangroves, such that the mangroves with higher root porosity, ROL and iron plaque appeared to exhibit higher waterlogging tolerance and adaptability in anaerobic foreshores.

  17. Fluctuations in late Neoproterozoic atmospheric oxidation — Cr isotope chemostratigraphy and iron speciation of the late Ediacaran lower Arroyo del Soldado Group (Uruguay)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Gaucher, Claudio; Stolper, Daniel;

    2013-01-01

    .0‰) in iron-rich cherts and banded iron formation horizons within the Arroyo del Soldado Group (Ediacaran; Uruguay) that can be explained by rapid, effective oxidation of Fe(II)-rich surface waters. These fluctuations are correlated with variations in ratios of highly reactive iron (FeHR) to total iron (Fetot...

  18. Effects of low energy ion bombardment on the formation of cubic iron mononitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Pilar [Departamento de Física Aplicada M-12, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Figuera, Juan de la [Instituto de Química-Física “Rocasolano”, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, José M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada M-12, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Marco, José F. [Instituto de Química-Física “Rocasolano”, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-31

    The formation of cubic nitrides with stoichiometry close to FeN obtained by ion assisted sputter deposition has been studied as a function of deposition parameters. In particular, we have explored the influence of the energy deposited by the assistant beam per deposited Fe atom to understand changes in composition, phase formation and nanocrystallinity of the films. An optimum N{sub 2}{sup +} ion energy and a J{sub N}/J{sub Fe} ratio (J{sub N} and J{sub Fe} represent the current density of N{sub 2}{sup +} ions and Fe atoms respectively) have been determined in order to obtain only iron mononitride phases. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed a phase evolution from ε-Fe{sub x(x≈2)}N to γ″ and γ‴-FeN as the N{sub 2}{sup +} ion energy and the J{sub N}/J{sub Fe} flux ratio increase. Pure nanocrystalline iron mononitride, with nitrogen content close to 50%, is obtained when J{sub N}/J{sub Fe} ratio reaches 5.9 and the N{sub 2}{sup +} ion energy is 63.4 eV. Further increments of N{sub 2}{sup +} energies and J{sub N}/J{sub Fe} values reverse this behavior and a phase evolution from γ″ and γ‴-FeN to ε-Fe{sub x(x≈2)}N is found. This behavior is attributed to energy damage and resputtering phenomena. It has also been found that γ‴-FeN phase coexists with γ″-FeN phase when the deposition is performed at room temperature. - Highlights: • We have grown iron nitride FeN{sub x(0.6} {sub ≤x≤1)} thin films by dual ion beam sputtering. • Effects of N{sub 2}{sup +} ion assistance in the formation of Fe mononitride phases are studied. • Nanocrystalline Fe mononitride with a composition FeN{sub x≈1} is obtained. • A phase evolution ε → γ‴ + γ″ → ε is observed as E{sub Fe} increases. • γ‴-FeN phase coexists with γ″-FeN at room temperature deposition conditions.

  19. Effect of iron-oxide formations on the heat transfer in a NPP once-through steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glebov, V.P.; Taratuta, V.A.; Trubachev, V.M.; Ehskin, N.B.

    1983-04-01

    Results of investigations into changes in the heat transfer characteristic of the heating surfaces of a once-through steam generating element due to fouling caused by iron oxide deposition are presented. Graphs of distribution of amount, thickness and porosity of iron oxide formations over the length of an experimental section are given, as well as graphs of the temperatures distribution in tube metal with and without formations. Heat transfer coefficients for clean and fouled heating surfaces, duration of a period between washings are determined. The results obtained are recommended for calculation and operation of a once-through steam generator.

  20. Effect of iron-oxide formations on the heat transfer in a NPP once-through steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigations into changes in the heat transfer characteristic of the heating surfaces of a once-through steam generating element due to fouling caused by iron oxide deposition are presented. Graphs of distribution of amount, thickness and porosity of iron oxide formations over the length of an experimental section are given, as well as graphs of the temperatures distribution in tube metal with and without formations. Heat transfer coefficients for clean and fouled heating surfaces, duration of a period between washings are determined. The results obtaned are recommended for calculation and operation of a once-through steam generator

  1. An in-depth spectroscopic examination of molecular bands from 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres I. Formation of the G-band in metal-poor dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, A J; Bonifacio, P; Ludwig, H -G; Steffen, M; Spite, M

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in the three-dimensional (3D) spectral synthesis code Linfor3D have meant that, for the first time, large spectral wavelength regions, such as molecular bands, can be synthesised with it in a short amount of time. A detailed spectral analysis of the synthetic G-band for several dwarf turn-off-type 3D atmospheres (5850 <= T_eff [K] <= 6550, 4.0 <= log g <= 4.5, -3.0 <= [Fe/H] <= -1.0) was conducted, under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We also examine carbon and oxygen molecule formation at various metallicity regimes and discuss the impact it has on the G-band. Using a qualitative approach, we describe the different behaviours between the 3D atmospheres and the traditional one-dimensional (1D) atmospheres and how the different physics involved inevitably leads to abundance corrections, which differ over varying metallicities. Spectra computed in 1D were fit to every 3D spectrum to determine the 3D abundance correction. Early analysis revealed that the ...

  2. Kinetic study of austenite formation during continuous heating of unalloyed ductile iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Octavio Vzquez-Gmez; Jos Antonio Barrera-Godnez; Hctor Javier Vergara-Hernndez

    2015-01-01

    The austenite formation kinetics in unalloyed cast ductile iron was studied on the basis of dilatometry measurements, and Avrami’s equation was used to estimate the material’s kinetic parameters. A continuous heating transformation diagram was constructed us-ing heating rates in the range of 0.06 to 0.83°C⋅s−1. As the heating rate was augmented, the critical temperatures, c1A and Aα, as well as the intercritical range, which was evaluated as the difference between the critical temperatures, α c1Δ T =A −A , increased. At a low heating rate, the kinetics of austenite formation was slow as a consequence of the iron’s silicon content. The effect of heating rate on k and n, the kinetic parameters of Avrami’s equation, was also determined. Parameter n, which is associated with nucleation sites and growth geometry, de-creased with an increase in heating rate. In addition, parameter k increased with the increase of heating rate, suggesting that the nucleation and growth rates are carbon-and silicon-diffusion controlled during austenite formation under continuous heating.

  3. Nitric oxide formation in an iron oxide pellet rotary kiln furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R A

    1998-01-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate the effects of heat and mass transfer on the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in a rotary kiln furnace for iron oxide pellet induration. The modeled kiln has a length-to-diameter ratio of approximately seven. The principal mechanism of heat transfer is radiation from the flame, which was described by the net radiation method. The well known Zeldovich mechanism was used to predict thermal NOx generation. Temperature fluctuations in the vicinity of the flame were estimated with a clipped Gaussian probability density function. The thermal energy and mass balance model equations were solved numerically. The model is capable of predicting temperature profiles and NOx production rates in agreement with observed plant performance. The model was used to explore the effects of process changes on the total NOx formation in the kiln. It was concluded that the gas temperature as well as the partial pressure of oxygen in the process gases controls the rate of NOx formation. Lowering the temperature of the kiln gases by increasing the secondary air flow rates requires simultaneously decreasing the pellet production rate in order to maintain the pellet temperatures needed for blast furnace conditions. PMID:15655997

  4. Formation of coatings from a liquid phase on the surface of iron-base alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tatarek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study discloses the present state of the art regarding the technology and investigations of the phenomena that take place during the formation and growth of aluminum and zinc coatings hot-dip formed on iron products. In its cognitive aspect, the study offers an in-depth analysis of the partial processes that proceed in metal bath at the solid body – liquid metal interface. It is expected that the present study will help in a more detailed description of the respective phenomena and in full explanation of the mechanism of the coating growth, taking as an example the growth of aluminum coatings. The obtained results can serve as a background for some general conclusions regarding the thickness evolution process in other hot-dip coatings.

  5. Iron and Stony-iron Meteorites: Evidence for the Formation, Crystallization, and Early Impact Histories of Differentiated Planetesimals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.;

    2016-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... dated materials. The main heat source responsible for the melting and differentiation of asteroids was 26Al (Chapter 6, This Volume). Unlike the parent bodies of chondrites, the differentiated bodies accreted while 26Al was sufficiently abundant to cause melting. In this review, we summarize properties...

  6. High-performance large format impurity band conductor focal plane arrays for astronomy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Robert; Edwards, John; Beuville, Eric; Toth, Andrew; Corrales, Elizabeth; Therrien, Neil; Kissel, Jeff; Finger, Gert

    2010-08-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has developed a family of high performance large format infrared detector arrays whose detectors are most effective for the detection of long and very long wavelength infrared energy. This paper describes the state of the art in mega-pixel Si:As Impurity Band Conduction (IBC) arrays and relevant system applications that offers unique off-the-shelf solutions to the astronomy community. Raytheon's Aquarius-1k, developed in collaboration with ESO, is a 1024 × 1024 pixel high performance array with a 30μm pitch that features high quantum efficiency IBC detectors, low noise, low dark current, and on-chip clocking for ease of operation. This large format array was designed for ground-based astronomy applications but lends itself for space based platforms too. The detector has excellent sensitivity out to 27μm wavelength. The readout circuit has several programmable features such as low gain for a well capacity of 11 × 106e-, high gain for a well capacity of 106e- and a programmable number of outputs (16 or 64). Programmable integration time and integration modes, like snapshot, rolling and non-destructive integrations, allow the Aquarius to be used for a wide variety of applications and performance. A very fast full frame rate of 120Hz is achieved with 64 outputs (32 outputs per side) and a programmable centered windowing will accommodate a wide range of readout rates. The multiplexer and packaging design utilizes two alignment edges on the SCA which can be butted on two sides for expansion to 2k × 1k and wider focal planes. Data is shown on several focal plane arrays to demonstrate that very low noise and high quantum efficiency performance has been achieved. This array leverages over thirty years of experience in both ground and space based astronomy sensor applications. The technology has been successfully demonstrated on programs such as NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and Japan's Akari Space Telescope, and will be used on the Mid

  7. Dynamics of iron-acceptor-pair formation in co-doped silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartel, T.; Gibaja, F.; Graf, O.; Gross, D.; Kaes, M.; Heuer, M.; Kirscht, F. [Calisolar GmbH, Magnusstrasse 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Möller, C. [CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany); TU Ilmenau, Institut für Physik, Weimarer Str. 32, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Lauer, K. [CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany)

    2013-11-11

    The pairing dynamics of interstitial iron and dopants in silicon co-doped with phosphorous and several acceptor types are presented. The classical picture of iron-acceptor pairing dynamics is expanded to include the thermalization of iron between different dopants. The thermalization is quantitatively described using Boltzmann statistics and different iron-acceptor binding energies. The proper understanding of the pairing dynamics of iron in co-doped silicon will provide additional information on the electronic properties of iron-acceptor pairs and may become an analytical method to quantify and differentiate acceptors in co-doped silicon.

  8. Tunable band gap of iron-doped lanthanum-modified bismuth titanate synthesized by using the thermal decomposition of a secondary phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun Young; Bark, Chung Wung

    2015-05-01

    The photoelectric properties of complex oxides have prompted interest in materials with a tunable band gap because of the absorption. The substitution of iron atoms in La-modified bismuth titanate (BLT) can lead to dramatic improvements in the band gap; however, the substitution of iron atoms while maintaining the original bismuth layer structure without forming a BiFeO3 secondary phase is quite challenging. Therefore, a series of Fe-doped BLT (Fe-BLT) samples were synthesized using a solid reaction at various calcination temperatures (300 ˜ 900°C) to remove the secondary phase. The structural and the optical properties were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. This paper reports a new route by using high-temperature calcination, to synthesize the Aurivillius phase with a reduced optical band gap due to the thermal decomposition of BiFeO3 during high-temperature calcination. This simple route to reduce the second phase can be adapted to other complex oxides for use in emerging oxide optoelectronic devices.

  9. Nanocrystalline Phase Formation inside Shear Bands of Pd-Cu-Si Metallic Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pd77.5Cu6Si16.5 metallic glass was prepared by fluxing treatment and water quenching method. To avoid possible artifacts, shear bands were created by indentation after TEM sample preparation. Bright field image, diffraction pattern, and the dark field image of TEM that covered the shear band region were presented. A few nanocrystalline phases were noticed inside the shear bands, which favored the plastic deformation ability and supported the explanation of mechanical deformation-induced crystallization.

  10. Large Format Narrow Band High Throughput Optical Filters for 0.5-2.75 Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the most efficient ways to create narrow band filter is the use of reflective Bragg gratings or which allow increasing of efficiency and decreasing of weight...

  11. Acute band keratopathy formation after penetrating keratoplasty:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wee-Min Teh; Mohtar Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    A 53-year-old male was referred from another eye hospital for right eye corneal perforation secondary to infective keratitis. A penetrating keratoplasty was performed for tectonic purposes. Forty eight hours after penetrating keratoplasty, he developed a band keratopathy located at the interpalpebral area of the corneal button. Despite stopping topical and systemic ciprofloxacin which could have contributed to this, the band keratopathy became more severe. Surgical debridement of the band keratopathy was done and there was no recurrence after that. This case of acute band keratopathy is an uncommon condition that develops within days to weeks of a particular insult to the eye. Various offending medications have been implicated, and treatment options include chelation therapy, surgical debridement and penetrating keratoplasty. Recurrence is common despite treatment and the cessation of possible offending medications. As such, it is prudent to be aware of and recognise the early symptoms and signs of this potentially sight-threatening condition.

  12. Formation of spanwise vorticity in oblique turbulent bands of transitional plane Couette flow, part 2: modelling and stability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rolland, Joran

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a modelling of the formation of spanwise vorticity in the turbulent streaks of the oblique bands and spots of transitional plane Couette flow. A functional model is designed to mimic the coherent flow in the streaks. The control parameters of the model are extracted from Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) statistical data. A Reynolds stress is proposed to study the effect on the instability of this additional force maintaining the baseflow. Local (quasi-parallel) temporal stability analysis is performed on that model to investigate the linear development of the spanwise vorticity. Results show that average profiles, even if they have an inflection, are stable: the shear layers inside the velocity streaks are responsible for the vorticity formation. Emphasis is put on the convective or absolute nature of the instability, depending on the location in the band. This shows that a transition from a convective to an absolute instability occurs in the zone in between fully turbulent and laminar...

  13. Transport through a triple quantum dot system: Formation of resonance band and its application as a spin filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zelong [Institute of Condensed-Matter Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Heilongjiang Institute of Technology, Harbin 150050 (China); Lü, Tianquan, E-mail: ltq@hit.edu.cn [Institute of Condensed-Matter Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2012-07-23

    A three-quantum-dot spin filter based on nonequilibrium Green's function technique is proposed with external magnetic flux, Rashba spin orbit interaction, and intradot coulomb interaction taken into consideration. Numerical results indicate a spin filter can be made efficient by adjusting external magnetic flux and Rashba spin orbit interaction. Moreover, the formation of a resonance band is discussed through calculation. It is observed that the possibility of transition from one peak to other three peaks in the conductance spectrum increases with increasing interdot coupling strength. -- Highlights: ► Investigation of the conductance through a triple quantum dot system. ► Proposal of an efficient spin-filter device. ► Discussion on the formation of the resonance band. ► Study on spin polarization with intradot Coulomb interaction taken into consideration.

  14. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-07-01

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

  15. Mineralization features and iron formation of Huimin- and Jiangfeng-style ore deposits in Lancangjiang iron ore belt%澜沧江铁矿带惠民式-疆峰式铁矿床特征与含铁建造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许东; 任治机; 余海军; 尹光侯; 段建中

    2011-01-01

    A study of the Huimin- and Jiangfeng-style iron deposits has revealed that the marine volcanogene sedimentary type Huimin and Jiangfeng ore deposits are controlled by metamorphosed intermediate-basic volcanic formation. The former (Huimin-style) consists of both banded iron formation (BIF) and granular iron formation (GIF) whereas the latter (Jiangfeng-style), consists only of banded iron formations (BIF). The possess of the formation of Proterozoic bended siliceous iron formation possesses the features of "a large-scale supply of aqueous iron from the oceanic hydrothermal system; the existence of large continental shelves to serve as deposition repositories and a stratified ocean capable of connecting the two", thus satisfying the three essential factors for forming large-size volcanogene-exhalative-sedimentary type iron deposits. The Lancangjiang iron ore belt is composed of Huimin- and Jiangfeng-style ore deposits hosted by strata of Proterozoic Huimin Group and Damenglong Group, and the evolutional characteristics of syngenetic exhalative sedimentary-hypogene alteration-supergene leaching and enrichment are obvious. The Huimin-style iron ore deposits of Huimin Formation in the Lancang Group belong to the volcano-sedimentary Superior Lake type, in association with manganese, whereas the Jiangfeng-style iron ore deposits of Damenglong Group may be regarded as the volcano-exhalative Algoma type characterized by the existence of minor sulfur. On the whole, for the mineralization from volcano-exhalativesedimentation to metamorphism and transformation we can find the relevant parts from the ore deposit metallo-genic model, and hence the model offers a great potential in search for bended iron formation in this region.%通过对惠民式和疆峰式铁矿的研究,认为它们都是受变质中基性火山岩建造控制的海相火山-沉积型铁矿床,前者兼有条带状含铁建造(BIF)和粒状含铁建造(GIF)的特征,而后者则为条带状含铁建造.它

  16. All-Optical RZ to NRZ Format Conversion Using Single SOA Assisted by Optical Band-Pass Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel all-optical format conversion from the return-to-zero (RZ) to the non-return-to-zero (NRZ) based on single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and optical band-pass filter (OBF). We demonstrate the proof of the principle experiment at 10Gbps by using the test SOA and OBF converter. The format conversion can be achieved with output extinction ratio of 11.51 dB. The BER is 5.5 × 10−9 when the power of NRZ is −10 dBm. The proposed scheme is robust and potential for applications in optical networks. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  17. The formation of magnetic carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles using precipitation from an aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makovec, Darko [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gyergyek, Sašo, E-mail: saso.gyergyek@ijs.si [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Primc, Darinka [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Plantan, Ivan [Lek Pharmaceuticals d.d., Mengeš (Slovenia)

    2015-03-01

    The formation of spinel iron-oxide nanoparticles during the co-precipitation of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ions from an aqueous solution in the presence of carboxymethyldextrane (CMD) was studied. To follow the formation of the nanoparticles, a mixture of the Fe ions, CMD and ammonia was heated to different temperatures, while the samples were taken, quenched in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and magnetometry. The CMD plays a role in the reactions of the Fe ions' precipitation by partially immobilizing the Fe{sup 3+} ions into a complex. At room temperature, the amorphous material is precipitated. Then, above approximately 30 °C, the spinel nanoparticles form inside the amorphous matrix, and at approximately 40 °C the matrix decomposes into the suspension of carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles. The CMD bonded to the nanoparticles' surfaces hinders the mass transport and thus prevents their growth. - Highlights: • The carboxymethyl-dextrane coated iron-oxide nanoparticles were synthesized. • The carboxymethyl-dextrane significantly modifies formation of the spinel nanoparticles. • The spinel nanoparticles are formed inside the amorphous matrix. • At approximately 40 °C the matrix decomposes into the suspension of carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles.

  18. Enhanced formation of silver nanoparticles in Ag+-NOM-iron(II, III) systems and antibacterial activity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboyega, Nathaniel F; Sharma, Virender K; Siskova, Karolina M; Vecerova, Renata; Kolar, Milan; Zbořil, Radek; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-03-18

    This work reports the role of iron redox pair (Fe(3+)/Fe(2+)) in the formation of naturally occurring silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the aquatic environment. The results showed that Fe(3+) or Fe(2+) ions in the mixtures of Ag(+) and natural organic matter enhanced the formation of AgNPs. The formation of AgNPs depended on pH and types of organic matter. Increase in pH enhanced the formation of AgNPs, and humic acids as ligands showed higher formation of AgNPs compared to fulvic acids. The observed results were described by considering the potentials of redox pairs of silver and iron species and the possible species involved in reducing silver ions to AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy measurements of AgNPs revealed mostly bimodal size distribution with decrease in size of AgNPs due to iron species in the reaction mixture. Minimum inhibitory concentration of AgNPs needed to inhibit the growth of various bacterial species suggested the role of surfaces of tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Stability study of AgNPs, formed in Ag(+)-humic acid/fulvic acids-Fe(3+) mixtures over a period of several months showed high stability of the particles with significant increase in surface plasmon resonance peak. The environmental implications of the results in terms of fate, transport, and ecotoxicity of organic-coated AgNPs are briefly presented. PMID:24524189

  19. Iron oxidation on the surface of adventitious roots and its relation to aerenchyma formation in rice genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquel Jonas Holzschuh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of the water layer in an irrigated rice crop leads to consumption of free oxygen in the soil which enters in a chemical reduction process mediated by anaerobic microorganisms, changing the crop environment. To maintain optimal growth in an environment without O2, rice plants develop pore spaces (aerenchyma that allow O2 transport from air to the roots. Carrying capacity is determined by the rice genome and it may vary among cultivars. Plants that have higher capacity for formation of aerenchyma should theoretically carry more O2 to the roots. However, part of the O2 that reaches the roots is lost due to permeability of the roots and the O2 gradient created between the soil and roots. The O2 that is lost to the outside medium can react with chemically reduced elements present in the soil; one of them is iron, which reacts with oxygen and forms an iron plaque on the outer root surface. Therefore, evaluation of the iron plaque and of the formation of pore spaces on the root can serve as a parameter to differentiate rice cultivars in regard to the volume of O2 transported via aerenchyma. An experiment was thus carried out in a greenhouse with the aim of comparing aerenchyma and iron plaque formation in 13 rice cultivars grown in flooded soils to their formation under growing conditions similar to a normal field, without free oxygen. The results indicated significant differences in the volume of pore spaces in the roots among cultivars and along the root segment in each cultivar, indicating that under flooded conditions the genetic potential of the plant is crucial in induction of cell death and formation of aerenchyma in response to lack of O2. In addition, the amount of Fe accumulated on the root surface was different among genotypes and along the roots. Thus, we concluded that the rice genotypes exhibit different responses for aerenchyma formation, oxygen release by the roots and iron plaque formation, and that there is a direct

  20. Silicon isotope fractionation during microbial reduction of Fe(III)-Si gels under Archean seawater conditions and implications for iron formation genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Thiruchelvi R.; Zheng, Xin-Yuan; Roden, Eric E.; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2016-10-01

    Microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) is a deeply rooted metabolism in the Bacteria and Archaea. In the Archean and Proterozoic, the most likely electron acceptor for DIR in marine environments was Fe(III)-Si gels. It has been recently suggested that the Fe and Si cycles were coupled through sorption of aqueous Si to iron oxides/hydroxides, and through release of Si during DIR. Evidence for the close association of the Fe and Si cycles comes from banded iron formations (BIFs), which consist of alternating bands of Fe-bearing minerals and quartz (chert). Although there has been extensive study of the stable Fe isotope fractionations produced by DIR of Fe(III)-Si gels, as well as studies of stable Fe isotope fractionations in analogous abiologic systems, no studies to date have investigated stable Si isotope fractionations produced by DIR. In this study, the stable Si isotope fractionations produced by microbial reduction of Fe(III)-Si gels were investigated in simulated artificial Archean seawater (AAS), using the marine iron-reducing bacterium Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. Microbial reduction produced very large 30Si/28Si isotope fractionations between the solid and aqueous phase at ˜23 °C, where Δ30Sisolid-aqueous isotope fractionations of -3.35 ± 0.16‰ and -3.46 ± 0.09‰ were produced in two replicate experiments at 32% Fe(III) reduction (solid-phase Fe(II)/FeTotal = 0.32). This isotopic fractionation was substantially greater than that observed in two abiologic controls that had solid-phase Fe(II)/FeTotal = 0.02-0.03, which produced Δ30Sisolid-aqueous isotope fractionations of -2.83 ± 0.24‰ and -2.65 ± 0.28‰. In a companion study, the equilibrium Δ30Sisolid-aqueous isotope fractionation was determined to be -2.3‰ for solid-phase Fe(II)/FeTotal = 0. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of Fe(II) in Fe-Si gels in producing large changes in Si isotope fractionations. These results suggest that DIR should produce highly

  1. Formation of biomineral iron oxides compounds in a Fe hyperaccumulator plant: Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, V; Rufo, L; Juárez, B H; Menéndez, N; García-Hernández, M; Salas-Colera, E; Espinosa, A

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed work of composition and location of naturally formed iron biominerals in plant cells tissues grown in iron rich environments as Imperata cylindrica. This perennial grass grows on the Tinto River banks (Iberian Pyritic Belt) in an extreme acidic ecosystem (pH∼2.3) with high concentration of dissolved iron, sulphate and heavy metals. Iron biominerals were found at the cellular level in tissues of root, stem and leaf both in collected and laboratory-cultivated plants. Iron accumulated in this plant as a mix of iron compounds (mainly as jarosite, ferrihydrite, hematite and spinel phases) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), magnetometry (SQUID), electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX; TEM-EDX; HRSTEM). A low fraction of phosphorous was detected in this iron hyperaccumulator plant. Root and rhizomes tissues present a high proportion of ferromagnetic iron oxide compounds. Iron oxides-rich zones are localized in electron dense intra and inter-cellular aggregates that appear as dark deposits covering the inner membrane and organelles of the cell. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms of accumulation, transport, distribution of iron in Imperata cylindrica. PMID:26592710

  2. Influence of thermomechanical processing on shear bands formation and magnetic properties of a 3% Si non-oriented electrical steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of thermomechanical processing on the formation of shear bands and on the magnetic properties of a 3.0 wt% silicon non-oriented steel was investigated by hot rolling samples with different thicknesses at different temperatures, in order to obtain a variation in hot band grain size and cold strain. All the samples were processed in a single-stage cold rolling and finally annealed at 1020 deg. C. It was found that the increase of the hot band grain size decreases the γ fiber volume fraction and increases the η fiber volume fraction after the final annealing. The increase of the cold strain strongly contributed to this result. A good combination of intense generation of shear bands, and proper crystallographic texture, due to higher nucleation of grains with favorable orientations to magnetization in these bands, can be obtained for the samples hot rolled at 1000 and 1120 deg. C and submitted to cold strain of 64.3% and 72.2% respectively. However the best combination of B50, W15/60 and μr can be obtained by hot rolling the samples at 1000 deg. C to the thickness of 1.4 mm, corresponding to 64.3% of cold strain. - Highlights: → Effect of processing on the magnetic properties of a non-oriented electrical steel. → Shear band generation during cold rolling is essential to reach a favorable texture. → Great magnetic properties obtained by hot rolling at 1000 deg. C and 64.3% cold strain.

  3. Signatures of recent asteroid disruptions in the formation and evolution of solar system dust bands

    CERN Document Server

    Kehoe, A J Espy; Colwell, J E; Dermott, S F

    2015-01-01

    We have performed detailed dynamical modeling of the structure of a faint dust band observed in coadded IRAS data at an ecliptic latitude of 17$^{\\circ}$ that convincingly demonstrates that it is the result of a relatively recent (significantly less than 1 Ma) disruption of an asteroid and is still in the process of forming. We show here that young dust bands retain information on the size distribution and cross-sectional area of dust released in the original asteroid disruption, before it is lost to orbital and collisional decay. We find that the Emilkowalski cluster is the source of this partial band and that the dust released in the disruption would correspond to a regolith layer $\\sim$3 m deep on the $\\sim$10 km diameter source body's surface. The dust in this band is described by a cumulative size-distribution inverse power-law index with a lower bound of 2.1 (implying domination of cross-sectional area by small particles) for dust particles with diameters ranging from a few $\\mu$m up to a few cm. The co...

  4. Intraperitoneal administration of activated protein C prevents postsurgical adhesion band formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarvand, Peyman; Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi; Weiler, Hartmut; Rezaie, Alireza R

    2015-02-19

    Postsurgical peritoneal adhesion bands are the most important causes of intestinal obstruction, pelvic pain, and female infertility. In this study, we used a mouse model of adhesion and compared the protective effect of activated protein C (APC) to that of the Food and Drug Administration-approved antiadhesion agent, sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm) by intraperitoneal administration of either APC or Seprafilm to experimental animals. Pathological adhesion bands were graded on day 7, and peritoneal fluid concentrations of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), d-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complex, and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β1) were evaluated. Inflammation scores were also measured based on histologic data obtained from peritoneal tissues. Relative to Seprafilm, intraperitoneal administration of human APC led to significantly higher reduction of postsurgical adhesion bands. Moreover, a markedly lower inflammation score was obtained in the adhesive tissues of the APC-treated group, which correlated with significantly reduced peritoneal concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and an elevated tPA level. Further studies using variants of human APC with or without protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling function and mutant mice deficient for either endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) or PAR1 revealed that the EPCR-dependent signaling activity of APC is primarily responsible for its protective activity in this model. These results suggest APC has therapeutic potential for preventing postsurgical adhesion bands. PMID:25575539

  5. Analysis of band-gap formation in squashed arm-chair CNT

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrer, H; Anantram, M P; Elstner, M; Frauenheim, T

    2005-01-01

    The electronic properties of squashed arm-chair carbon nanotubes are modeled using constraint free density functional tight binding molecular dynamics simulations. Independent from CNT diameter, squashing path can be divided into {\\it three} regimes. In the first regime, the nanotube deforms with negligible force. In the second one, there is significantly more resistance to squashing with the force being $\\sim 40-100$ nN/per CNT unit cell. In the last regime, the CNT looses its hexagonal structure resulting in force drop-off followed by substantial force enhancement upon squashing. We compute the change in band-gap as a function of squashing and our main results are: (i) A band-gap initially opens due to interaction between atoms at the top and bottom sides of CNT. The $\\pi-$orbital approximation is successful in modeling the band-gap opening at this stage. (ii) In the second regime of squashing, large $\\pi-\\sigma$ interaction at the edges becomes important, which can lead to band-gap oscillation. (iii) Contr...

  6. Indirect X-Ray Line-Formation Processes in Iron L-Shell Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, M. F.

    2003-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the role of indirect processes in the soft X-ray line formation of iron L-shell ions, using a newly developed, relativistic, multiconfigurational atomic package. These indirect processes involve the neighboring charge states of the target ion, namely, radiative recombination, dielectronic recombination, and resonance excitation. For Fe XVII, the inner-shell collisional ionization (CI) is also relevant. Lines originating from 3s and 3p upper levels of Fe XVII-XX are found to be significantly affected by these processes, with some lines being enhanced by nearly a factor of 2 at the temperature of maximum fractional abundance in CI equilibrium. Such enhancement, although not enough to completely explain the observed line ratios from various astrophysical sources, is a vast improvement over the previous models neglecting these processes. Rate coefficients for individual processes are tabulated, which can be conveniently included in spectral models to correctly account for these effects. As a by-product of this investigation, the total recombination and ionization rates of all Fe L-shell ions are tabulated as a function of temperature.

  7. A new mechanism of loop formation and transformation in bcc iron without dislocation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Gao, N.; Jung, P.; Sauvage, T.

    2013-10-01

    Structure and kinetics of dislocation loops in α-Fe is an active field in material science, due to their implications on fundamental understanding as well as application of structural materials in irradiation environments. Recent computer simulations provoke new conceptions, which call for experimental verification. The present investigation reports transmission electron microscopy of small interstitial dislocation loops (2.5-10 nm diameters) in bcc iron, irradiated with 25 MeV α-particles at 573 K up to 0.13 dpa. The observed and ½ loops have habit planes of (1 0 0), and (1 1 0), (1 1 1) and (2 1 1), respectively. Furthermore it is observed that loops also contain ½{2 1 1} and {1 0 0} components which are considered as intermediate stages of transformation of ½ loops to . Based on these observations, a new mechanism of loop formation and transformation by self-interstitial atoms aggregation is proposed, with concurrent molecular dynamic simulations supporting the kinetic feasibility of the proposed process.

  8. The Effect of Sulfur Concentration in Liquid Iron on Mineral Layer Formation During Coke Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael W.; Monaghan, Brian J.; Nightingale, Sharon A.; Mathieson, John G.; Nightingale, Robert J.

    2011-08-01

    The effects of sulfur concentration in liquid iron on mineral layer development between coke and iron as coke dissolves in a 2 mass pct carbon-iron liquid have been investigated at 1773 K (1500 °C). The initial sulfur in iron concentrations used ranged from 0.006 to 0.049 mass pct. Key findings include that the two-stage dissolution behavior exhibited in the carbon transfer from coke to iron, as reported in a previous study by the authors, at low initial sulfur in iron contents, was also apparent at the higher values used in this study. This two-stage behavior was attributed to a change in the mineral layer density as a result of changes in mineral morphology at the interface. In addition to confirming the two-stage behavior of the carbon-transfer kinetics at the higher sulfur concentration in iron levels, after a period of time, a solid calcium sulfide layer formed on the mineral layer. The sulfide layer formed after approximately 40 minutes, and the proportion of sulfide in the mineral layer increased with increased experimental time and initial sulfur concentration in iron. It was usually found at the iron side of the mineral layer and was associated with calcium-enriched calcium aluminates. Thermodynamic analysis of this layer confirmed that the sulfide is stabilized as the mineral layer is enriched by calcium.

  9. Probing the shear-band formation in granular media with sound waves

    OpenAIRE

    KHIDAS, Yacine; Jia, X.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the mechanical responses of dense granular materials, using a direct shear box combined with simultaneous acoustic measurements. Measured shear wave speeds evidence the structural change of the material under shear, from the jammed state to the flowing state. There is a clear acoustic signature when the shear band is formed. Subjected to cyclic shear, both shear stress and wave speed show the strong hysteretic dependence on the shear strain, likely associated with the geometry ...

  10. Texture formation in iron particles using mechanical milling with graphite as a milling aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallographically anisotropic platelet iron particles were successfully prepared using a conventional ball mill with addition of graphite (Gp) particles. The morphological and structural changes resulting from the milling were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The spherical iron particles were plastically deformed into platelet shapes during the milling. Simultaneously, it is suggested that the size of the Gp particles decreased and adhered as nanoparticles on the surface of the iron particles. The adhered Gp particles affected the plastic deformation behavior of the iron particles: the (001) planes of α-iron were oriented parallel to the particle face, and no preferred in-plane orientation was observed. This study not only details the preparation of soft magnetic metal particles that crystallographically oriented to enhance their magnetic properties but also provides new insight into the activities of the well-established and extensively studied mechanical milling method

  11. Texture formation in iron particles using mechanical milling with graphite as a milling aid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motozuka, S.; Hayashi, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu National College of Technology, 2236-2 Kamimakuwa, Motosu, Gifu 501-0495 (Japan); Tagaya, M. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Morinaga, M. [Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute, 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Crystallographically anisotropic platelet iron particles were successfully prepared using a conventional ball mill with addition of graphite (Gp) particles. The morphological and structural changes resulting from the milling were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The spherical iron particles were plastically deformed into platelet shapes during the milling. Simultaneously, it is suggested that the size of the Gp particles decreased and adhered as nanoparticles on the surface of the iron particles. The adhered Gp particles affected the plastic deformation behavior of the iron particles: the (001) planes of α-iron were oriented parallel to the particle face, and no preferred in-plane orientation was observed. This study not only details the preparation of soft magnetic metal particles that crystallographically oriented to enhance their magnetic properties but also provides new insight into the activities of the well-established and extensively studied mechanical milling method.

  12. Measurements of electron avalanche formation time in W-band microwave air breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present measurements of formation times of electron avalanche ionization discharges induced by a focused 110 GHz millimeter-wave beam in atmospheric air. Discharges take place in a free volume of gas, with no nearby surfaces or objects. When the incident field amplitude is near the breakdown threshold for pulsed conditions, measured formation times are ∼0.1-2 μs over the pressure range 5-700 Torr. Combined with electric field breakdown threshold measurements, the formation time data shows the agreement of 110 GHz air breakdown with the similarity laws of gas discharges.

  13. Measurements of electron avalanche formation time in W-band microwave air breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alan M.; Hummelt, Jason S.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2011-08-01

    We present measurements of formation times of electron avalanche ionization discharges induced by a focused 110 GHz millimeter-wave beam in atmospheric air. Discharges take place in a free volume of gas, with no nearby surfaces or objects. When the incident field amplitude is near the breakdown threshold for pulsed conditions, measured formation times are ˜0.1-2 μs over the pressure range 5-700 Torr. Combined with electric field breakdown threshold measurements, the formation time data shows the agreement of 110 GHz air breakdown with the similarity laws of gas discharges.

  14. Preservation of carbohydrates through sulfurization in a Jurassic euxinic shelf sea: Examination of the Blackstone Band TOC-cycle in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, B.E. van; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    A complete total organic carbon (TOC) cycle in the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF) comprising the extremely TOC-rich (34%) Blackstone Band was studied to investigate the controlling factors on TOC accumulation. Compared with the under- and overlying strata, TOC in the Blackstone Band

  15. Situs inversus abdominus and malrotation in an adult with Ladd's band formation leading to intestinal ischaemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail H Mallick; Rizwan Iqbal; Justin B Davies

    2006-01-01

    Situs inversus abdominus with rotational anomaly of the intestines is an extremely rare condition. Although intestinal mairotation has been recognized as a cause of obstruction in infants and children and may be complicated by intestinal ischaemia, it is very rare in adults. When it occurs in the adult patient, it may present acutely as bowel obstruction or intestinal ischaemia or chronically as vague intermittent abdominal pain. Herein, we present an acute presentation of a case of situs inversus abdominus and intestinal malrotation with Ladd's band leading to infarction of the intestine in a 32 year old woman.

  16. An Iron-Rain Model for Core Formation on Asteroid 4 Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Asteroid 4 Vesta is differentiated into a crust, mantle, and core, as demonstrated by studies of the eucrite and diogenite meteorites and by data from NASA's Dawn spacecraft. Most models for the differentiation and thermal evolution of Vesta assume that the metal phase completely melts within 20 degrees of the eutectic temperature, well before the onset of silicate melting. In such a model, core formation initially happens by Darcy flow, but this is an inefficient process for liquid metal and solid silicate. However, the likely chemical composition of Vesta, similar to H chondrites with perhaps some CM or CV chondrite, has 13-16 weight percent S. For such compositions, metal-sulfide melting will not be complete until a temperature of at least 1350 degrees Centigrade. The silicate solidus for Vesta's composition is between 1100 and 1150 degrees Centigrade, and thus metal and silicate melting must have substantially overlapped in time on Vesta. In this chemically and physically more likely view of Vesta's evolution, metal sulfide drops will sink by Stokes flow through the partially molten silicate magma ocean in a process that can be envisioned as "iron rain". Measurements of eucrites show that moderately siderophile elements such as Ni, Mo, and W reached chemical equilibrium between the metal and silicate phases, which is an important test for any Vesta differentiation model. The equilibration time is a function of the initial metal grain size, which we take to be 25-45 microns based on recent measurements of H6 chondrites. For these sizes and reasonable silicate magma viscosities, equilibration occurs after a fall distance of just a few meters through the magma ocean. Although metal drops may grow in size by merger with other drops, which increases their settling velocities and decreases the total core formation time, the short equilibration distance ensures that the moderately siderophile elements will reach chemical equilibrium between metal and silicate before

  17. Observation of a Hidden Hole-Like Band Approaching the Fermi Level in K-Doped Iron Selenide Superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Sunagawa, Masanori; Terashima, Kensei; Hamada, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Fukura, Tetsushi; Takeda, Aya; Tanaka, Masashi; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko; Arita, Masashi; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Usui, Hidetomo

    2016-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals of the study of iron-based superconductors is to identify the common feature that produces the high critical temperature (Tc). In the early days, based on a weak-coupling viewpoint, the nesting between hole- and electron-like Fermi surfaces (FSs) leading to the so-called $s\\pm$ state was considered to be one such key feature. However, this theory has faced a serious challenge ever since the discovery of alkali-metal-doped FeSe (AFS) superconductors, in which only ele...

  18. THE MECHANISM OF STRUCTURE FORMATION IN SPARINGLY ALLOYED WEAR RESISTANT IRONS

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Garost

    2012-01-01

    The results of researches of macro - and microstructure, the structure, formed at primary crystallization of abrasion-resistant irons, and peculiarities of their change in process of thermal processing are given. 

  19. Axial-Compressive Behavior, Including Kink-Band Formation and Propagation, of Single p-Phenylene Terephthalamide (PPTA Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grujicic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical response of p-phenylene terephthalamide (PPTA single fibers when subjected to uniaxial compression is investigated computationally using coarse-grained molecular statics/dynamics methods. In order to construct the coarse-grained PPTA model (specifically, in order to define the nature of the coarse-grained particles/beads and to parameterize various components of the bead/bead force-field functions, the results of an all-atom molecular-level computational investigation are used. In addition, the microstructure/topology of the fiber core, consisting of a number of coaxial crystalline fibrils, is taken into account. Also, following our prior work, various PPTA crystallographic/topological defects are introduced into the model (at concentrations consistent with the prototypical PPTA synthesis/processing conditions. The analysis carried out clearly revealed (a formation of the kink bands during axial compression; (b the role of defects in promoting the formation of kink bands; (c the stimulating effects of some defects on the fiber-fibrillation process; and (d the detrimental effect of the prior compression, associated with fiber fibrillation, on the residual longitudinal-tensile strength of the PPTA fibers.

  20. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as radiosensitizer via enhanced reactive oxygen species formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Stefanie; Sommer, Anja [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Distel, Luitpold V.R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Universitaetsstrasse 27, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Neuhuber, Winfried [Department of Anatomy, Chair of Anatomy I, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Krankenhausstr. 9, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Kryschi, Carola, E-mail: kryschi@chemie.uni-erlangen.de [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasmall citrate-coated SPIONs with {gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} structure were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPIONs uptaken by MCF-7 cells increase the ROS production for about 240%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SPION induced ROS production is due to released iron ions and catalytically active surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Released iron ions and SPION surfaces initiate the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray irradiation of internalized SPIONs leads to an increase of catalytically active surfaces. -- Abstract: Internalization of citrate-coated and uncoated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells was verified by transmission electron microscopy imaging. Cytotoxicity studies employing metabolic and trypan blue assays manifested their excellent biocompatibility. The production of reactive oxygen species in iron oxide nanoparticle loaded MCF-7 cells was explained to originate from both, the release of iron ions and their catalytically active surfaces. Both initiate the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Additional oxidative stress caused by X-ray irradiation of MCF-7 cells was attributed to the increase of catalytically active iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces.

  1. Siderophore Biosynthesis but Not Reductive Iron Assimilation Is Essential for the Dimorphic Fungus Nomuraea rileyi Conidiation, Dimorphism Transition, Resistance to Oxidative Stress, Pigmented Microsclerotium Formation, and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Zhongkang; Liu, Xuee; Song, Zhangyong; Li, Ren; Shao, Changwen; Yin, Youping

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an indispensable factor for the dimorphic insect pathogenic Nomuraea rileyi to form persistent microsclerotia which can replace conidia or blastospores for commercial mass production. There are two high affinity iron acquisition pathways in N. rileyi, siderophore-assisted iron mobilization and reductive iron assimilation systems. Transcription of the two iron uptake pathways related genes is induced under iron-limiting conditions. Stage-specific iron uptake-related genes expression during microsclerotia development shows siderophore-mediated iron acquisition genes are rigorously upregulated specifically during the formation and mature period while reductive iron assimilation related genes just display a higher expression at the late maturation period. Abrogation of reductive iron assimilation, by the deletion of the high affinity iron permease (NrFtrA), has no visible effect on microsclerotia biogenesis in N. rileyi. In sharp contrast, N. rileyi L-ornithine-N5-monooxygenase (NrSidA), required for synthesis of all siderophores, is absolutely necessary for the development of pigmented microsclerotia. In agreement with the lower intracellular iron contents of microsclerotia in ΔNrSidA strains, not only the pigments, but both the number and the biomass are also noticeably reduced. Certain concentration of ROS is required for promoting microsclerotia biogenesis. Combined with expression pattern analysis of related genes and quantitative of intracellular iron or extracellular siderophore in WT and mutants, these data demonstrate the lack of adequate intracellular iron caused by the loss of the siderophore results in the deficiency of ROS detoxication. Furthermore, ΔNrSidA strains show significantly increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. Besides, NrSidA, but not NrFtrA, play a crucial role in vegetative growth under iron-limiting conditions, conidiation, and dimorphic switching. Remarkably, the slower growth of the ΔNrSidA strains in vivo due to a reduced

  2. Siderophore Biosynthesis but Not Reductive Iron Assimilation Is Essential for the Dimorphic Fungus Nomuraea rileyi Conidiation, Dimorphism Transition, Resistance to Oxidative Stress, Pigmented Microsclerotium Formation, and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Zhongkang; Liu, Xuee; Song, Zhangyong; Li, Ren; Shao, Changwen; Yin, Youping

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an indispensable factor for the dimorphic insect pathogenic Nomuraea rileyi to form persistent microsclerotia which can replace conidia or blastospores for commercial mass production. There are two high affinity iron acquisition pathways in N. rileyi, siderophore-assisted iron mobilization and reductive iron assimilation systems. Transcription of the two iron uptake pathways related genes is induced under iron-limiting conditions. Stage-specific iron uptake-related genes expression during microsclerotia development shows siderophore-mediated iron acquisition genes are rigorously upregulated specifically during the formation and mature period while reductive iron assimilation related genes just display a higher expression at the late maturation period. Abrogation of reductive iron assimilation, by the deletion of the high affinity iron permease (NrFtrA), has no visible effect on microsclerotia biogenesis in N. rileyi. In sharp contrast, N. rileyi L-ornithine-N(5)-monooxygenase (NrSidA), required for synthesis of all siderophores, is absolutely necessary for the development of pigmented microsclerotia. In agreement with the lower intracellular iron contents of microsclerotia in ΔNrSidA strains, not only the pigments, but both the number and the biomass are also noticeably reduced. Certain concentration of ROS is required for promoting microsclerotia biogenesis. Combined with expression pattern analysis of related genes and quantitative of intracellular iron or extracellular siderophore in WT and mutants, these data demonstrate the lack of adequate intracellular iron caused by the loss of the siderophore results in the deficiency of ROS detoxication. Furthermore, ΔNrSidA strains show significantly increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. Besides, NrSidA, but not NrFtrA, play a crucial role in vegetative growth under iron-limiting conditions, conidiation, and dimorphic switching. Remarkably, the slower growth of the ΔNrSidA strains in vivo due to a

  3. Intrinsic Josephson junctions in the iron-based multi-band superconductor (V2Sr4O6)Fe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Philip J. W.; Zhu, Xiyu; Cheng, Peng; Wen, Hai-Hu; Batlogg, Bertram

    2014-09-01

    In layered superconductors, Josephson junctions may be formed within the unit cell as a result of sufficiently low inter-layer coupling. These intrinsic Josephson junction (iJJ) systems have attracted considerable interest for their application potential in quantum computing as well as efficient sources of THz radiation, closing the famous `THz gap'. So far, iJJ have been demonstrated in single-band, copper-based high-Tc superconductors, mainly in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (refs , , ). Here we report clear experimental evidence for iJJ behaviour in the iron-based superconductor (V2Sr4O6)Fe2As2. The intrinsic junctions are identified by periodic oscillations of the flux-flow voltage on increasing a well-aligned in-plane magnetic field. The periodicity is explained by commensurability effects between the Josephson vortex lattice and the crystal structure, which is a hallmark signature of Josephson vortices confined into iJJ stacks. This finding adds the pnictide (V2Sr4O6)Fe2As2 to the copper-based iJJ materials of interest for Josephson junction applications. In particular, novel devices based on multi-band Josephson coupling may be realized.

  4. Biogenic iron oxyhydroxide formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents: Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toner, Brandy M.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Wirth, Richard; Chan, Clara S.; McCollom, Thomas; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2008-05-22

    Here we examine Fe speciation within Fe-encrusted biofilms formed during 2-month seafloor incubations of sulfide mineral assemblages at the Main Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The biofilms were distributed heterogeneously across the surface of the incubated sulfide and composed primarily of particles with a twisted stalk morphology resembling those produced by some aerobic Fe-oxidizing microorganisms. Our objectives were to determine the form of biofilm-associated Fe, and identify the sulfide minerals associated with microbial growth. We used micro-focused synchrotron-radiation X-ray fluorescence mapping (mu XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mu EXAFS), and X-ray diffraction (mu XRD) in conjunction with focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning, and highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and mineralogical composition of an Fe-encrusted biofilm was queried at different spatial scales, and the spatial relationship between primary sulfide and secondary oxyhydroxide minerals was resolved. The Fe-encrusted biofilms formed preferentially at pyrrhotite-rich (Fe1-xS, 0<_ x<_ 0.2) regions of the incubated chimney sulfide. At the nanometer spatial scale, particles within the biofilm exhibiting lattice fringing and diffraction patterns consistent with 2-line ferrihydrite were identified infrequently. At the micron spatial scale, Fe mu EXAFS spectroscopy and mu XRD measurements indicate that the dominant form of biofilm Fe is a short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxide characterized by pervasive edge-sharing Fe-O6 octahedral linkages. Double corner-sharing Fe-O6 linkages, which are common to Fe oxyhydroxide mineral structures of 2-line ferrihydrite, 6-line ferrihydrite, and goethite, were not detected in the biogenic iron oxyhydroxide (BIO). The suspended development of the BIO mineral structure is consistent with Fe(III) hydrolysis and polymerization in the presence of high concentrations of Fe-complexing ligands. We hypothesize that

  5. Nonlinear sub-cyclotron resonance as a formation mechanism for gaps in banded chorus

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Xiangrong; Dong, Chuanfei; Gary, S Peter

    2015-01-01

    An interesting characteristic of magnetospheric chorus is the presence of a frequency gap at $\\omega \\simeq 0.5\\Omega_e$, where $\\Omega_e$ is the electron cyclotron angular frequency. Recent chorus observations sometimes show additional gaps near $0.3\\Omega_e$ and $0.6\\Omega_e$. Here we present a novel nonlinear mechanism for the formation of these gaps using Hamiltonian theory and test-particle simulations in a homogeneous, magnetized, collisionless plasma. We find that an oblique whistler wave with frequency at a fraction of the electron cyclotron frequency can resonate with electrons, leading to effective energy exchange between the wave and particles.

  6. Formation of ferrihydrite and associated iron corrosion products in permeable reactive barriers of zero-valent iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Yoko; Kim, Jin-Wook; Watkins, Janet; Wilkin, Richard T.

    2002-01-01

    Ferrihydrite, which is known to form in the presence of oxygen and to be stabilized by the adsorption of Si, PO4 and SO4, is ubiquitous in the fine-grained fractions of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) samples from the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center (Elizabeth City, NC) and the Denver Federal Center (Lakewood, CO) studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The concurrent energy-dispersive X-ray data indicate a strong association between ferrihydrite and metals such as Si, Ca, and Cr. Magnetite, green rust 1, aragonite, calcite, mackinawite, greigite and lepidocrocite were also present, indicative of a geochemical environment that is temporally and spatially heterogeneous. Whereas magnetite, which is known to form due to anaerobic Fe0 corrosion, passivates the Fe0 surface, ferrihydrite precipitation occurs away from the immediate Fe0 surface, forming small (<0.1 microm) discrete clusters. Consequently, Fe0-PRBs may remain effective for a longer period of time in slightly oxidized groundwater systems where ferrihydrite formation occurs compared to oxygen-depleted systems where magnetite passivation occurs. The ubiquitous presence of ferrihydrite suggests that the use of Fe0-PRBs may be extended to applications that require contaminant adsorption rather than, or in addition to, redox-promoted contaminant degradation.

  7. Formation of the Mont Dieu IIE non-magmatic iron meteorite

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the Mont Dieu meteorite was confirmed as a fine octahedrite IIE iron meteorite [1, 2, 3]. The original fragments in the collection of the Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris show rust damage. The much better preserved ~450 kg fragment of the IIE non-magmatic iron (NMI) Mont Dieu II meteorite hosted at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, in Brussels, was studied. The metal phase shows a clear widmanstätten texture, composed essentially of kamacite, with fine lin...

  8. INVESTIGATION OF STRUCTURE-FORMATION MECHANISMS IN DIFFUSION BORATING OF WASTES WHILE PRODUCING STEEL AND IRON SHOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Panteleenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes development of new composite self-fluxing powders made of waste products while  producing  cast steel and iron shot.  Structure  and  properties  of  initial  and  borated  powders, dependence of boride layer thickness growth on chemical and thermal treatment time have been investigated in the paper. The paper proposes for the first time a description of structure-formation mechanism in the diffusion alloying process on the basis of the obtained data.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF STRUCTURE-FORMATION MECHANISMS IN DIFFUSION BORATING OF WASTES WHILE PRODUCING STEEL AND IRON SHOT

    OpenAIRE

    E. F. Panteleenko

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes development of new composite self-fluxing powders made of waste products while  producing  cast steel and iron shot.  Structure  and  properties  of  initial  and  borated  powders, dependence of boride layer thickness growth on chemical and thermal treatment time have been investigated in the paper. The paper proposes for the first time a description of structure-formation mechanism in the diffusion alloying process on the basis of the obtained data.

  10. Temperature dependence of enthalpies and entropies of formation and migration of mono-vacancy in BCC iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Haohua; Woo, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Entropies and enthalpies of vacancy formation and diffusion in BCC iron are calculated for each temperature directly from free-energies using phase-space trajectories obtained from spin-lattice dynamics simulations. Magnon contributions are found to be particularly substantial in the temperature regime near the α-β (ferro/para-magnetic) transition. Strong temperature dependence and singular behavior can be seen in this temperature regime, reflecting magnon softening effects. Temperature dependence of the lattice component in this regime is also much more significant compared to previous estimations based on Arrhenius-type fitting. Similar effects on activation processes involving other irradiation-produced defects in magnetic materials are expected.

  11. Biogeophysical interactions control the formation of iron oxide microbial biofilms in acidic geothermal outflow channels of Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, J.; Berstein, H. C.; Jay, Z.; Kozubal, M. A.; Jennings, R. D.; Inskeep, W. P.

    2012-12-01

    Amorphous iron oxyhydroxide microbial mats in acidic (pH ~ 3) geothermal outflow channels of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are habitats for diverse populations of autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms from the domains Archaea and Bacteria. These systems have been extensively characterized with regards to geochemical, physical, and microbiological (e.g., metagenomics) analyses; however, there is minimal data describing the formation of these iron oxide microbial mats. A conceptual model of Fe(III)-oxide microbial mat development was created, which includes four distinct stages. Autotrophic archaea (Metallosphaera yellowstonensis) and bacteria (Hydrogenobaculum spp.) are the first colonizers (Stage I) that provide pools of organic carbon for heterotrophic thermophiles (Stage II). M. yellowstonensis is an autotrophic Sulfolobales that is responsible for the oxidation of Fe(II) and can thus be defined as the mat 'architect' creating suitable habitats for microbial niches (e.g., anaerobic microorganisms) (Stage III). The last phase of mat formation (Stage IV) represents a pseudo-steady state mature microbial mat, which has been the subject of all previous microbial surveys of these systems. The conceptual model for Fe(III)-oxide microbial mat development was tested by inserting glass (SiO2) microscope slides into the main flow channels of two acidic geothermal springs in YNP. Slides were removed at various time intervals and analyzed for total iron accretion, microbial community structure (i.e., 16S rRNA gene abundance), and mRNA expression of community members. Routine geochemical and physical (e.g., flow) parameters were also measured to decipher their relative contribution to mat development. Initial and previous results show that autotrophic microorganisms (e.g, M. yellowstonensis) are often the first to colonize the glass slides and their activity was confirmed by mRNA expression of genes related to iron oxidation and carbon fixation. Heterotrophs are rare

  12. Formation of the Mont Dieu IIE Non Magmatic Iron Meteorite, and Origin of its Silicate Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosbroek, N.; Goderis, S.; Debaille, V.; Valley, J. W.; Claeys, Ph.

    2012-03-01

    Mont Dieu is an IIE nonmagmatic iron meteorite showing primitive features such as preserved chondrules and glass. SEM and geochemical analyses demonstrate that it most likely originated from an H-chondrite parent body impacted by a Fe-Ni projectile.

  13. Group IIE Iron Meteorites; Metal Composition, Formation, Relationship to Ordinary Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, J. T.; Scott, E. R. D.

    2011-03-01

    INAA data for metal in 8 new and 12 known IIE irons show they crystallized from various silicate-rich Fe-Ni melts with diverse S contents after impacts melted an ordinary chondrite asteroid that was probably more reduced than H chondrites.

  14. Responses to Iron-Deficiency in Arabidopsis-Thaliana - The Turbo Iron Reductase does not depend on the Formation of Root Hairs and Transfer Cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moog, P.R.; Van der Kooij, T.A.W.; Bruggemann, W.; Schiefelbein, J.W.; Kuiper, P.J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Columbia wild type and a root hair-less mutant RM57 were grown on iron-containing and iron-deficient nutrient solutions. In both genotypes, ferric chelate reductase (FCR) of intact roots was induced upon iron deficiency and followed a Michaelis-Menten kinetic with a

  15. Magneto-structural transformations via a solid-state nudged elastic band method: Application to iron under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend the solid-state nudged elastic band method to handle a non-conserved order parameter, in particular, magnetization, that couples to volume and leads to many observed effects in magnetic systems. We apply this formalism to the well-studied magneto-volume collapse during the pressure-induced transformation in iron—from ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) austenite to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensite. We find a bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa, with the transition-state enthalpy of 156 meV/Fe at this pressure. A discontinuity in magnetization and coherent stress occurs at the transition state, which has a form of a cusp on the potential-energy surface (yet all the atomic and cell degrees of freedom are continuous); the calculated pressure jump of 25 GPa is related to the observed 25 GPa spread in measured coexistence pressures arising from martensitic and coherency stresses in samples. Our results agree with experiments, but necessarily differ from those arising from drag and restricted parametrization methods having improperly constrained or uncontrolled degrees of freedom

  16. Magneto-structural transformations via a solid-state nudged elastic band method: Application to iron under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkevich, N. A., E-mail: zarkev@ameslab.gov, E-mail: ddj@ameslab.gov [The Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011-3020 (United States); Johnson, D. D., E-mail: zarkev@ameslab.gov, E-mail: ddj@ameslab.gov [The Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011-3020 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-2300 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    We extend the solid-state nudged elastic band method to handle a non-conserved order parameter, in particular, magnetization, that couples to volume and leads to many observed effects in magnetic systems. We apply this formalism to the well-studied magneto-volume collapse during the pressure-induced transformation in iron—from ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) austenite to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensite. We find a bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa, with the transition-state enthalpy of 156 meV/Fe at this pressure. A discontinuity in magnetization and coherent stress occurs at the transition state, which has a form of a cusp on the potential-energy surface (yet all the atomic and cell degrees of freedom are continuous); the calculated pressure jump of 25 GPa is related to the observed 25 GPa spread in measured coexistence pressures arising from martensitic and coherency stresses in samples. Our results agree with experiments, but necessarily differ from those arising from drag and restricted parametrization methods having improperly constrained or uncontrolled degrees of freedom.

  17. Assessment of PCDD/Fs formation in the Fenton oxidation of 2-chlorophenol: Influence of the iron dose applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Marta; Fernández-Castro, Pablo; San Román, M Fresnedo; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2015-10-01

    Toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) may be formed during remediation of chlorinated phenols via Fenton oxidation. To highlight the need for monitoring the production of toxic byproducts in these reactions, this work assessed the influence of iron dose (0.09-0.36 mM) on the Fenton oxidation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP, 15.56 mM), a potential precursor of PCDD/Fs, by quantifying 2-CP removal and mineralization rates as well as byproducts yields, including PCDD/Fs. Although the increase in the iron dose showed positive contribution to 2-CP oxidation, under the operating conditions of the current study (H2O2 at 20% of the stoichiometric dose and 20 °C), there was no effect on the mineralization rate, and TOC and chlorine balances were far to be closed, depicting the presence of chlorinated organic byproducts in the reaction medium. After 4 h of treatment, the total PCDD/Fs concentrations increased by 14.5-39 times related to the untreated sample when the iron doses tested decreased from 0.36 to 0.09 mM, with preferential formation of PCDFs over PCDDs and dominance of lower chlorinated congeners such as tetra and penta-PCDD/Fs. The treatment with the highest iron dose (0.36 mM) exhibited the lowest PCDD/Fs yields and was thus most successful at mitigating toxic byproducts of the Fenton oxidation, leading to lower sample toxic equivalence (TEQ) value. PMID:26134538

  18. Ceramide-induced intracellular oxidant formation, iron signaling, and apoptosis in endothelial cells: protective role of endogenous nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar; Kalivendi, Shasi V; Dhanasekaran, Anuradha; Joseph, Joy; Kalyanaraman, B

    2004-07-01

    Sphingolipid ceramide (N-acetylsphingosine), a bioactive second messenger lipid, was shown to activate reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial oxidative damage, and apoptosis in neuronal and vascular cells. The proapoptotic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, hypoxia, and chemotherapeutic drugs were attributed to increased ceramide formation. Here we investigated the protective role of nitric oxide (.NO) during hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-mediated transferrin receptor (TfR)-dependent iron signaling and apoptosis in C(2)-ceramide (C(2)-cer)-treated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). Addition of C(2)-cer (5-20 microm) to BAECs enhanced .NO generation. However, at higher concentrations of C(2)-cer (> or =20 microm), .NO generation did not increase proportionately. C(2)-cer (20-50 microm) also resulted in H(2)O(2)-mediated dichlorodihydrofluorescein oxidation, reduced glutathione depletion, aconitase inactivation, TfR overexpression, TfR-dependent uptake of (55)Fe, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation. N(w)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a nonspecific inhibitor of nitricoxide synthases, augmented these effects in BAECs at much lower (i.e. nonapoptotic) concentrations of C(2)-cer. The 26 S proteasomal activity in BAECs was slightly elevated at lower concentrations of C(2)-cer (10 microm). Intracellular scavengers of H(2)O(2), cell-permeable iron chelators, anti-TfR receptor antibody, or mitochondria-targeted antioxidant greatly abrogated C(2)-cer- and/or l-NAME-induced oxidative damage, iron signaling, and apoptosis. We conclude that C(2)-cer-induced H(2)O(2) and TfR-dependent iron signaling are responsible for its prooxidant and proapoptotic effects and that .NO exerts an antioxidative and cytoprotective role.

  19. Quantum statistics in the spin-lattice dynamics simulation of formation and migration of mono-vacancy in BCC iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Haohua; Woo, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    Contributions from the vibrational thermodynamics of phonons and magnons in the dynamic simulations of thermally activated atomic processes in crystalline materials were considered within the framework of classical statistics in conventional studies. The neglect of quantum effects produces the wrong lattice and spin dynamics and erroneous activation characteristics, sometimes leading to the incorrect results. In this paper, we consider the formation and migration of mono-vacancy in BCC iron over a large temperature range from 10 K to 1400 K, across the ferro/paramagnetic phase boundary. Entropies and enthalpies of migration and formation are calculated using quantum heat baths based on a Bose-Einstein statistical description of thermal excitations in terms of phonons and magnons. Corrections due to the use of classical heat baths are evaluated and discussed.

  20. Dual-beam irradiation of {alpha}-iron: Heterogeneous bubble formation on dislocation loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brimbal, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.brimbal@cea.fr [Laboratoire d' Analyse Microstructurale des Materiaux (LA2M), CEA/Saclay, DEN/DMN/SRMA/LA2M, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Decamps, Brigitte, E-mail: Brigitte.decamps@csnsm.in2p3.fr [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masses (CSNSM/IN2P3/CNRS), Orsay University, Bat. 108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Barbu, Alain, E-mail: Alain.barbu@cea.fr [Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique (SRMP), CEA/Saclay, DEN/DMN/SRMP, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Meslin, Estelle, E-mail: Estelle.Meslin@cea.fr [Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique (SRMP), CEA/Saclay, DEN/DMN/SRMP, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Henry, Jean, E-mail: Jean.henry@cea.fr [Laboratoire d' Analyse Microstructurale des Materiaux (LA2M), CEA/Saclay, DEN/DMN/SRMA/LA2M, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > We have irradiated {alpha}-iron in situ with Fe{sup +} and He{sup +} ions at 500 deg. C. > Dislocation loops and helium bubbles are present at 1 dpa/540 appm He. > The helium bubbles are located heterogeneously on the dislocation loops. - Abstract: In order to understand the evolution of materials under irradiation conditions similar to those in future fusion reactors, we have irradiated high purity iron in situ in a transmission electron microscope with 1 MeV Fe{sup +} ions while simultaneously implanting 15 keV He{sup +} ions, at 500 deg. C. Once {approx}1 dpa/500 appm He were reached, helium bubbles and large dislocation loops were observed. The study reveals that helium bubbles nucleated heterogeneously: a majority of them were observed inside the large dislocation loops.

  1. Trace-element and multi-isotope geochemistry of Late-Archean black shales in the Carajas iron-ore district, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabral, A. R.; Creaser, R. A.; Naegler, T.;

    2013-01-01

    The 250-300-m-thick Carajas Formation in the Carajas mineral province, northern Brazil, consists of banded iron formation (including giant high-grade iron-ore deposits) and minor black shale, overlying a thick pile (2-3 km) of about 2.75-Ga-old metabasalt. Carbonaceous shale with pyrite-and locally...

  2. Siderophile element systematics of IAB complex iron meteorites: New insights into the formation of an enigmatic group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, Emily A.; Bermingham, Katherine R.; Walker, Richard J.

    2016-09-01

    Siderophile trace element abundances and the 187Re-187Os isotopic systematics of the metal phases of 58 IAB complex iron meteorites were determined in order to investigate formation processes and how meteorites within chemical subgroups may be related. Close adherence of 187Re-187Os isotopic data of most IAB iron meteorites to a primordial isochron indicates that the siderophile elements of most members of the complex remained closed to elemental disturbance soon after formation. Minor, presumably late-stage open-system behavior, however, is observed in some members of the sLM, sLH, sHL, and sHH subgroups. The new siderophile element abundance data are consistent with the findings of prior studies suggesting that the IAB subgroups cannot be related to one another by any known crystallization process. Equilibrium crystallization, coupled with crystal segregation, solid-liquid mixing, and subsequent fractional crystallization can account for the siderophile element variations among meteorites within the IAB main group (MG). The data for the sLM subgroup are consistent with equilibrium crystallization, combined with crystal segregation and mixing. By contrast, the limited fractionation of siderophile elements within the sLL subgroup is consistent with metal extraction from a chondritic source with little subsequent processing. The limited data for the other subgroups were insufficient to draw robust conclusions about crystallization processes involved in their formation. Collectively, multiple formational processes are represented in the IAB complex, and modeling results suggest that fractional crystallization within the MG may have been a more significant process than has been previously recognized.

  3. High-temperature miscibility of iron and rock during terrestrial planet formation

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    The accretion of a terrestrial body and differentiation of its silicate/oxide mantle from iron core provide abundant energy for heating its interior to temperatures much higher than the present day Earth. The consequences of differentiation on the structure and composition of planets are typically addressed considering only the interaction of molten iron with an immiscible `rocky' phase. We demonstrate that mixing in a representative system of liquid or solid MgO and liquid iron to a single homogeneous liquid occurs at sufficiently low temperature to be present in the aftermath of a giant impact. Applying the thermodynamic integration technique to density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the solvus closure temperature for the Fe-MgO system for pressures up to 400 GPa. Solvus closure occurs at $\\sim$4000 K at low pressure, and has a weak positive pressure dependence, such that its gradient with respect to depth is less steep than an adiabatic temperature profile. This predicts a n...

  4. Carbon Solubility in Silicon-Iron-Bearing Metals during Core Formation on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Ross, D. Kent; Rapp, Jennifer F.; Danielson, Lisa R.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Righter, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Recent results obtained from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft showed the surface of Mercury has high S abundances (approximately 4 wt%) and low Iron(II) Oxide abundances (less than 2 wt%). Based on these extreme values, the oxygen fugacity of Mercury's surface materials was estimated to be approximately 3 to 7 log(sub 10) units below the IW buffer (Delta IW-3 to Delta IW-7). This highly reducing nature of the planet has resulted in a large core and relatively thin mantle, extending to only approximately 420 km depth (corresponding to a core-mantle boundary pressure of approximately 4-7 GPa) within the planet. Furthermore, MESSENGER results have suggested the presence of carbon on the surface of the planet. Previous experimental results from have also suggested the possibility of a primary floatation crust on Mercury composed of graphite, produced after a global magma ocean event. With these exotic conditions of this compositional end-member planet, it begs the question, what is the core composition of Mercury? Although no definitive conclusion has been reached, previous studies have made advances towards answering this question. Riner et al. and Chen et al. looked at iron sulfide systems and implemented various crystallization and layered core scenarios to try and determine the composition and structure of Mercury's core. Malavergne et al. examined core crystallization scenarios in the presence of sulfur and silicon. Hauck et al. used the most recent geophysical constraints from the MESSENGER spacecraft to model the internal structure of Mercury, including the core, in a iron-sulfur-silicon system. More recently, Chabot et al. conducted a series of metal-silicate partitioning experiments in a iron-sulfur-silicon system. These results showed the core of Mercury has the potential to contain more than 15 wt% silicon. However, with the newest results from MESSENGER's low altitude campaign, carbon is another

  5. Do radial oxygen loss and external aeration affect iron plaque formation and arsenic accumulation and speciation in rice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Hui; Wu, Shengchun; Deng, Dan; Zhu, Yongguan; Wong, Minghung

    2012-05-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of radial oxygen loss (ROL) and external aeration on iron (Fe) plaque formation, and arsenic (As) accumulation and speciation in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The data showed that there were significant correlations between ROL and Fe concentrations in Fe plaque produced on different genotypes of rice. There were also significant differences in the amounts of Fe plaque formed between different genotypes in different positions of roots and under different aeration conditions (aerated, normal, and stagnant treatments). In aerated treatments, rice tended to have a higher Fe plaque formation than in a stagnant solution, with the greatest formation at the root tip decreasing with increasing distances away, in accordance with a trend of spatial ROL. Genotypes with higher rates of ROL induced higher degrees of Fe plaque formation. Plaques sequestered As on rice roots, with arsenate almost double that with arsenite, leading to decreased As accumulation in both roots and shoots. The major As species detected in roots and shoots was arsenite, ranging from 34 to 78% of the total As in the different treatments and genotypes. These results contribute to our understanding of genotypic differences in As uptake by rice and the mechanisms causing rice genotypes with higher ROL to show lower overall As accumulation.

  6. The Effect of Chelating Copolymer Additive on the Yttrium Iron Garnet Nanoparticle Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Cheng-chien

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is a well-known ferromagnetic garnet material and has widely used in electronic devices[1].A new acrylic chelating polymer was developed to act as the additive of the preparation of YIG precursor in our previous study[2].The sintering temperature of YIG nanocrystal obtained by this YIG precursor (ACP) was magnificently descended from 1 000 to 600 ℃.In this study,we were further to study the effect of amount of chelating polymer and the compositions of chelating polyme...

  7. Controlled synthesis of magnetic iron oxides@SnO2 quasi-hollow core-shell heterostructures: formation mechanism, and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zhang, Shaofeng; Ren, Feng; Xiao, Xiangheng; Zhou, Juan; Jiang, Changzhong

    2011-11-01

    Iron oxide/SnO2 magnetic semiconductor core-shell heterostructures with high purity were synthesized by a low-cost, surfactant-free and environmentally friendly hydrothermal strategy via a seed-mediated method. The morphology and structure of the hybrid nanostructures were characterized by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The morphology evolution investigations reveal that the Kirkendall effect directs the diffusion and causes the formation of iron oxide/SnO2 quasi-hollow particles. Significantly, the as-obtained iron oxides/SnO2 core-shell heterostructures exhibited enhanced visible light or UV photocatalytic abilities, remarkably superior to as-used α-Fe2O3 seeds and commercial SnO2 products, mainly owing to the effective electron hole separation at the iron oxides/SnO2 interfaces.Iron oxide/SnO2 magnetic semiconductor core-shell heterostructures with high purity were synthesized by a low-cost, surfactant-free and environmentally friendly hydrothermal strategy via a seed-mediated method. The morphology and structure of the hybrid nanostructures were characterized by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The morphology evolution investigations reveal that the Kirkendall effect directs the diffusion and causes the formation of iron oxide/SnO2 quasi-hollow particles. Significantly, the as-obtained iron oxides/SnO2 core-shell heterostructures exhibited enhanced visible light or UV photocatalytic abilities, remarkably superior to as-used α-Fe2O3 seeds and commercial SnO2 products, mainly owing to the effective electron hole separation at the iron oxides/SnO2 interfaces. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM and HRTEM images of hematite seeds and iron oxide/SnO2 (12 h and 36 h). See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10728c

  8. Polyelectrolyte multilayer film-assisted formation of zero-valent iron nanoparticles onto polymer nanofibrous mats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facile approach that combines the electrospinning technique and layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method has been developed to synthesize and immobilize zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) onto the surface of nanofibers for potential environmental applications. In this approach, negatively charged cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning CA solution were modified with bilayers composed of positively charged poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammoniumchloride) (PDADMAC) and negatively charged poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) through electrostatic LbL assembly approach to form composite nanofibrous mats. The composite nanofibrous mats were immersed into the ferrous iron solution to allow Fe(II) ions to complex with the free carboxyl groups of PAA, and then ZVI NPs were immobilized onto the composite nanofibrous mats instantly by reducing the ferrous cations. Combined scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thermogravimetry analysis demonstrated that the ZVI NPs are successfully synthesized and uniformly distributed into the polyelectrolyte (PE) multilayer films assembled onto the CA nanofibers. The present approach to synthesis ZVI NPs opens a new avenue to fabricating various materials with high surface area for environmental, catalytic, and sensing applications.

  9. Numerical investigation of the effects of iron oxidation reactions on the fume formation mechanism in arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanibondi, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Fume formation during arc welding has been modelled using a stochastic approach taking into account iron oxidation reactions. The model includes the nucleation and condensation of Fe and FeO vapours, the reaction of gaseous O2 and O on the nanoparticle surface, the coagulation of the nanoparticles including a sintering time as a function of temperature and composition, assuming chemical equilibrium for species in the gaseous phase. Results suggest that fumes generated in gas metal arc welding with oxidizing shielding mixtures are composed of aggregates of primary particles that are nucleated from gas-phase FeO and further oxidized to Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 in the liquid and solid phase, respectively. The composition of the fumes at the end of the formation process depends on the relative initial concentration of Fe and O2 species in the gas mixture and on the diameter of the primary particles that compose the aggregates: as the oxidation reactions are driven by deposition of oxygen on nanoparticle surface, the oxidation of larger particles is slower than that of smaller particles because of their lower surface to volume ratio. Solid-state diffusion is limiting the oxidation process at temperatures lower than 1500 K, inducing the formation of not fully oxidized particles composed of Fe3O4.

  10. Asbestos body formation and iron accumulation in mouse peritoneal granulomas after the introduction of crocidolite asbestos fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the cell biology of the development of asbestos bodies after a single intraperitoneal injection of a suspension of crocidolite asbestos fibers into the mouse peritoneal cavity. The majority of the infected fibers were found in aggregates of peritoneal macrophages, exudate cells, and fibrous tissue. These aggregates developed into granulomas containing not only numerous asbestos fibers, but also cells of various types, including macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, fibroblasts, plasma cells, granulocytes, and mast cells. Cytoplasmic ferritin was abundantly present in macrophages and giant cells. In addition, iron-rich inclusion bodies were detected. The results of this study show that asbestos body formation can occur outside the pleural cavity. Asbestos body formation occurred in the granulomas after periods of 1 month and longer. On the basis of morphologic criteria, various types of asbestos body were distinguished. X-ray microanalysis showed that variations in the density of the coat could attributed to the presence of chemical elements in various concentrations. Evidence is presented that asbestos body formation is an extracellular phenomenon

  11. Effect of Hot Deformation on Formation and Growth of Thermal Fatigue Crack in Chromium Wear Resistant Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Li-min; LIU Jian-hua

    2006-01-01

    The formation and growth of thermal fatigue crack in chromium wear resistant cast iron was investigated, and the effect of hot deformation on the crack was analyzed by means of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope and high frequency induction thermal fatigue tester. The results show that eutectic carbide is the main location and passage for initiation and extension of thermal fatigue cracks, hot deformation can improve the eutectic carbide′s morphology and distribution, inhibit the generation and propagation of thermal fatigue cracks. In the experiment, the propagation rate of thermal fatigue crack reduces with the quantity of hot deformation increasing, which was analyzed in the point view of the activation energy of crack propagation.

  12. SPHERICAL MICROSTRUCTURE FORMATION OF THE SEMI-SOLID HIGH CHROMIUM CAST IRON Cr20Mo2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.M. Mao; A.M. Zhao; X.Y. Zhong

    2004-01-01

    The nondendritic semi-solid slurry preparation of high chromium cast iron Cr20Mo2 has been studied in this paper. The experiments show that the proeutectic austenitic particles are more spherical under a larger stirring power condition, even if the stirring time is shorter, while the proeutectic austenitic particles are not very much spherical under a smaller stirring power condition and some proeutectic austenitic dendrites also exist, even if the stirring time is very long. The experiments also show that when stirred for 5 6 minutes under the test condition, the semi-solid slurry with 40vol. %-50vol. % solid fraction and spherical proeutectic austenite in the size of 50-80μm can be obtained.

  13. Effect of rare earth element on microstructure formation and mechanical properties of thin wall ductile iron castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ductile iron castings with 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 25 mm thickness and various amount of rare earth elements (RE) (from 0 to 0.04%), were cast in sand molds to identify the effects of sample thickness and the content of RE% on microstructural formation and selected mechanical properties. The effects of RE content and sample thickness on microstructural formation, including on graphite nodule count, graphite nodule shape, spherodization, and ferrite amount, were observed. The yield strength of the samples with RE within the range investigated were lower than those of the specimens without RE. The elongation was improved with the addition of RE up to 0.03% in ductile iron castings. The additions of 0.02% RE caused a smaller graphite nodule size and a higher number of graphite nodules than those in the specimen without RE at all levels of RE addition; the nodule count decreased with increase in section size. The chill zones were observed in the 2 mm thick samples, but were absent in the samples from castings which were thicker than 2 mm, irrespective of the addition of RE. The nodularity of graphite nodules improved due to the addition of 0.02-0.04% RE. The specimens with RE content up to 0.03% had a lower tensile strength and hardness, higher elongation than that of the specimens without RE. The ferrite content in all castings increased with additions of 0.02% RE. The tensile strengths of the 2 and 3 mm thick samples were also estimated using the relationship between strength and hardness, obtained from the data on the tensile strength and hardness of the 25 mm thick samples

  14. Direct Imaging of the Water Snow Line at the Time of Planet Formation using Two ALMA Continuum Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzatti, A.; Pinilla, P.; Ricci, L.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Birnstiel, T.; Ciesla, F.

    2015-12-01

    Molecular snow lines in protoplanetary disks have been studied theoretically for decades because of their importance in shaping planetary architectures and compositions. The water snow line lies in the planet formation region at ≲10 AU, and so far its location has been estimated only indirectly from spatially unresolved spectroscopy. This work presents a proof-of-concept method to directly image the water snow line in protoplanetary disks through its physical and chemical imprint on the local dust properties. We adopt a physical disk model that includes dust coagulation, fragmentation, drift, and a change in fragmentation velocities of a factor of 10 between dry silicates and icy grains as found by laboratory work. We find that the presence of a water snow line leads to a sharp discontinuity in the radial profile of the dust emission spectral index αmm due to replenishment of small grains through fragmentation. We use the ALMA simulator to demonstrate that this effect can be observed in protoplanetary disks using spatially resolved ALMA images in two continuum bands. We explore the model dependence on the disk viscosity and find that the spectral index reveals the water snow line for a wide range of conditions, with opposite trends when the emission is optically thin rather than thick. If the disk viscosity is low (αvisc < 10-3), the snow line produces a ringlike structure with a minimum at αmm ˜ 2 in the optically thick regime, possibly similar to what has been measured with ALMA in the innermost region of the HL Tau disk.

  15. Electronic structure of the conduction band upon the formation of ultrathin fullerene films on the germanium oxide surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolov, A. S.; Lazneva, E. F.; Gerasimova, N. B.; Panina, Yu. A.; Baramygin, A. V.; Zashikhin, G. D.

    2016-06-01

    The results of the investigation of the electronic structure of the conduction band in the energy range 5-25 eV above the Fermi level E F and the interfacial potential barrier upon deposition of aziridinylphenylpyrrolofullerene (APP-C60) and fullerene (C60) films on the surface of the real germanium oxide ((GeO2)Ge) have been presented. The content of the oxide on the (GeO2)Ge surface has been determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electronic properties have been measured using the very low energy electron diffraction (VLEED) technique in the total current spectroscopy (TCS) mode. The regularities of the change in the fine structure of total current spectra (FSTCS) with an increase in the thickness of the APP-C60 and C60 coatings to 7 nm have been investigated. A comparison of the structures of the FSTCS maxima for the C60 and APP-C60 films has made it possible to reveal the energy range (6-10 eV above the Fermi level E F) in which the energy states are determined by both the π* and σ* states and the FSTCS spectra have different structures of the maxima for the APP-C60 and unsubstituted C60 films. The formation of the interfacial potential barrier upon deposition of APP-C60 and C60 on the (GeO2)Ge surface is accompanied by an increase in the work function of the surface E vac- E F by the value of 0.2-0.3 eV, which corresponds to the transfer of the electron density from the substrate to the organic films under investigation. The largest changes occur with an increase in the coating thickness to 3 nm, and with further deposition of APP-C60 and C60, the work function of the surface changes only slightly.

  16. Formation and transformation of a short range ordered iron carbonate precursor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Knud; Frandsen, Cathrine; Bovet, Nicolas;

    2015-01-01

    Fe(II)-carbonates, such as siderite, form in environments where O2 is scarce, e.g., during marine sediment diagenesis, corrosion and possibly CO2 sequestration, but little is known about their formation pathways. We show that early precipitates from carbonate solutions containing 0.1M Fe(II) with...

  17. Fe2+ oxidation rate drastically affect the formation and phase of secondary iron hydroxysulfate mineral occurred in acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the processes of secondary iron hydroxysulfate mineral formation, Fe2+ ion was oxidized by the following three methods: (1) biooxidation treatment by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans); (2) rapid abiotic oxidation of Fe2+ with H2O2 (rapid oxidation treatment); (3) slow abiotic oxidation of Fe2+ with H2O2 (slow oxidation treatment). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, element composition, precipitate weight and total Fe removal efficiency were analyzed. The XRD patterns and element composition of precipitates synthesized through the biooxidation and the slow oxidation treatments well coincide with those of potassium jarosite, while precipitates formed at the initial stage of incubation in the rapid oxidation treatment showed a similar XRD pattern to schwertmannite. With the ongoing incubation, XRD patterns and element composition of the precipitates that occurred in the rapid oxidation treatment were gradually close to those in the biooxidation and the slow oxidation treatments. Due to the inhibition of A. ferrooxidans itself and its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in aggregation of precipitates, the amount of precipitates and soluble Fe removal efficiency were lower in the biooxidation treatment than in the slow oxidation treatment. Therefore, it is concluded that Fe2+ oxidation rate can greatly affect the mineral phase of precipitates, and slow oxidation of Fe2+ is helpful in improving jarosite formation. - Highlights: ► Slow oxidation of Fe2+ is helpful in jarosite formation. ► The already-formed schwertmannite can be gradually transformed to jarosite. ► Precipitates formation can be inhibited probably by EPS from A. ferrooxidans.

  18. Auxin Resistant1 and PIN-FORMED2 Protect Lateral Root Formation in Arabidopsis under Iron Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangjie; Song, Haiyan; Li, Baohai; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2015-12-01

    A stunted root system is a significant symptom of iron (Fe) toxicity, yet little is known about the effects of excess Fe on lateral root (LR) development. In this work, we show that excess Fe has different effects on LR development in different portions of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root system and that inhibitory effects on the LR initiation are only seen in roots newly formed during excess Fe exposure. We show that root tip contact with Fe is both necessary and sufficient for LR inhibition and that the auxin, but not abscisic acid, pathway is engaged centrally in the initial stages of excess Fe exposure. Furthermore, Fe stress significantly reduced PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in root tips, and pin2-1 mutants exhibited significantly fewer LR initiation events under excess Fe than the wild type. Exogenous application of both Fe and glutathione together increased PIN2-GFP expression and the number of LR initiation events compared with Fe treatment alone. The ethylene inhibitor aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine intensified Fe-dependent inhibition of LR formation in the wild type, and this inhibition was significantly reduced in the ethylene overproduction mutant ethylene overproducer1-1. We show that Auxin Resistant1 (AUX1) is a critical component in the mediation of endogenous ethylene effects on LR formation under excess Fe stress. Our findings demonstrate the relationship between excess Fe-dependent PIN2 expression and LR formation and the potential role of AUX1 in ethylene-mediated LR tolerance and suggest that AUX1 and PIN2 protect LR formation in Arabidopsis during the early stages of Fe stress.

  19. ABOUT MECHANISM OF STRUCTURE FORMATION OF PARTICULAR SOLID CARBONIC PHASE IN NANOCOMPOSITE ON THE BASIS OF IRON AND NANO-DISPERSE CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kuis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of structure formation in super-solid carbon phase in nanocomposite on the basis of iron and nano-disperse carbon, which can be used at development of technology and composition of creation of new materials using inexpensive nano-carbon materials is offered.

  20. Role of coating agent in iron oxide nanoparticle formation in an aqueous dispersion: Experiments and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhar, Nirmalya; Bandyopadhyaya, Rajdip

    2016-02-15

    Iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticle was synthesized by coprecipitation and was modeled and solved using a hybrid (discrete-continuous) model, based on a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulation scheme. The latter was combined with the constant number MC method, to improve both speed and accuracy of the simulation. Complete particle size distribution (PSD) from simulation matches very well with PSD of both uncoated and coated (with either polyacrylic acid or dextran) Fe3O4 nanoparticles, obtained from our experiments. The model is general, as the time scales of various processes (nucleation, diffusion-growth and coagulation-growth) are incorporated in rate equations, while, input simulation parameters are experimentally measured quantities. With the help of the validated model, effect of coating agent on coagulation-growth was estimated by a single, fitted, coagulation-efficiency parameter. Our simulation shows that, logarithm of coagulation-efficiency scales linearly with logarithm of inverse of the molecular weight of the coating agent. With this scaling law, our model is able to a priori predict the experimental PSD of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, synthesized with an even higher molecular weight of dextran. PMID:26624531

  1. Formation of VC- composites surface layers on spheroidized graphite cast iron by laser surface cladding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam R.I. Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spheroidal graphite cast iron was laser cladded with VC powder of 44-53 μm particle size using YAG Fiber laser at 500, 1000, and 1500 W processing power and fixed travelling speed of 4 mm/s. The powder was preplaced on the surface of the specimens with 0.5 mm thickness. To prevent the oxidation, argon gas was used as a shielding gas. After the treatment, three zones were resulted: build-up (cladding, fusion, and heat affected zones. The build-up zone was a composite structure consisted of VC particles/dendrites dispersed in a matrix of martensite, carbides and ledeburite structure. At 500 W, most of the VC particles were appeared as their original large size. When the laser power was increased to 1000 W or more, the VC particles were melted and then re-solidified in the form of fine dendrites. The surface hardness of the cladded area was remarkably improved. As the distance from the free surface increases, the hardness decreases. The average hardness value at the surface treated by 500 W was about 710 HV (3 times of the hardness of substrate, while it reached to about 1340 HV and 1520 HV at powers of 1000 W and 1500 W, respectively. The wear resistance of the laser treated samples was improved at all investigated laser processing powers, especially at 1000W and 1500 W.

  2. Reprint of: Iron/sulfur proteins biogenesis in prokaryotes: formation, regulation and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Béatrice; Aussel, Laurent; Ezraty, Benjamin; Mandin, Pierre; Py, Béatrice; Barras, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Iron/sulfur centers are key cofactors of proteins intervening in multiple conserved cellular processes, such as gene expression, DNA repair, RNA modification, central metabolism and respiration. Mechanisms allowing Fe/S centers to be assembled, and inserted into polypeptides have attracted much attention in the last decade, both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Basic principles and recent advances in our understanding of the prokaryotic Fe/S biogenesis ISC and SUF systems are reviewed in the present communication. Most studies covered stem from investigations in Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii. Remarkable insights were brought about by complementary structural, spectroscopic, biochemical and genetic studies. Highlights of the recent years include scaffold mediated assembly of Fe/S cluster, A-type carriers mediated delivery of clusters and regulatory control of Fe/S homeostasis via a set of interconnected genetic regulatory circuits. Also, the importance of Fe/S biosynthesis systems in mediating soft metal toxicity was documented. A brief account of the Fe/S biosynthesis systems diversity as present in current databases is given here. Moreover, Fe/S biosynthesis factors have themselves been the object of molecular tailoring during evolution and some examples are discussed here. An effort was made to provide, based on the E. coli system, a general classification associating a given domain with a given function such as to help next search and annotation of genomes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metals in Bioenergetics and Biomimetics Systems.

  3. Iron/sulfur proteins biogenesis in prokaryotes: formation, regulation and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Béatrice; Aussel, Laurent; Ezraty, Benjamin; Mandin, Pierre; Py, Béatrice; Barras, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    Iron/sulfur centers are key cofactors of proteins intervening in multiple conserved cellular processes, such as gene expression, DNA repair, RNA modification, central metabolism and respiration. Mechanisms allowing Fe/S centers to be assembled, and inserted into polypeptides have attracted much attention in the last decade, both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Basic principles and recent advances in our understanding of the prokaryotic Fe/S biogenesis ISC and SUF systems are reviewed in the present communication. Most studies covered stem from investigations in Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii. Remarkable insights were brought about by complementary structural, spectroscopic, biochemical and genetic studies. Highlights of the recent years include scaffold mediated assembly of Fe/S cluster, A-type carriers mediated delivery of clusters and regulatory control of Fe/S homeostasis via a set of interconnected genetic regulatory circuits. Also, the importance of Fe/S biosynthesis systems in mediating soft metal toxicity was documented. A brief account of the Fe/S biosynthesis systems diversity as present in current databases is given here. Moreover, Fe/S biosynthesis factors have themselves been the object of molecular tailoring during evolution and some examples are discussed here. An effort was made to provide, based on the E. coli system, a general classification associating a given domain with a given function such as to help next search and annotation of genomes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metals in Bioenergetics and Biomimetics Systems.

  4. Positron studies of interaction between yttrium atoms and vacancies in bcc iron with relevance for ODS nanoparticles formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, C.W., E-mail: chenwei.he@cnrs-orleans.fr [CNRS, CEMHTI UPR3079, Univ. Orléans, F-45071 Orléans (France); Barthe, M.F.; Desgardin, P. [CNRS, CEMHTI UPR3079, Univ. Orléans, F-45071 Orléans (France); Akhmadaliev, S. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, BautznerLandstr. 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Behar, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Agronomia, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Jomard, F. [GEMac, Univ. Versailles, 45 avenue des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles cedex (France)

    2014-12-15

    The very high calculated binding energy of vacancy (V)–Y{sub sub} (1.45 eV) in Fe makes it be one possible earliest formation stage of (Y, Ti, O) nanoclusters in ODS alloy. Our direct slow positrons annihilation observations are used to valid the interaction between V and Y. The pure bcc iron samples have been implanted by 1.2 MeV Y ions at three fluences from 1 × 10{sup 14} to 3 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}. Vacancy clusters are observed for all these three fluences. Their size and concentration decrease with Y concentration measured by using SIMS. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain the results, including the formation of complexes V{sub m}–Y{sub n} and/or of precipitates Y{sub m}–X{sub n} (X = Y, O, etc.). In addition, vacancy clusters are detected deeper than predicted by SRIM calculation due to, at least for a part, channelling which is confirmed by Marlowe calculation and SIMS measurements.

  5. Formation and Release Behavior of Iron Corrosion Products under the Influence of Bacterial Communities in a Simulated Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the effects of biofilm on the iron corrosion, iron release and associated corrosion by-products is critical for maintaining the water quality and the integrity of drinking water distribution system (DWDS). In this work, iron corrosion experiments under sterilized a...

  6. Effect of initial pH and temperature of iron salt solutions on formation of magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanaprakash, G. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Mahadevan, S. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kalyanasundaram, P. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Philip, John [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)]. E-mail: philip@igcar.gov.in; Raj, Baldev [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2007-05-15

    We report the effect of initial pH and temperature of iron salt solutions on formation of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles during co-precipitation. We synthesized nanoparticles by keeping the initial pH at 0.7, 1.5, 3.0, 4.7, 5.7, 6.7 for two different temperatures of 30 and 60 deg. C. When the initial pH (prior to alkali addition) of the salt solution was below 5, the nanoparticles formed were 100% spinel iron oxide. Average size of the magnetite particles increases with initial pH until ferrihydrite is formed at a pH of 3 and the size remains the same till 4.7 pH. The percentage of goethite formed along with non-stoichiometric magnetite was 35 and 78%, respectively, when the initial pH of the solution was 5.7 and 6.7. As the reaction temperature was increased to 60 deg. C, maintaining a pH of 6.7, the amount of goethite increased from 78 to 100%. These results show that the initial pH and temperature of the ferrous and ferric salt solution before initiation of the precipitation reaction are critical parameters controlling the composition and size of nanoparticles formed. We characterize the samples using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results of the present work provide the right conditions to synthesis pure magnetite nanoparticles, without goethite impurities, through co-precipitation technique for ferrofluid applications.

  7. Formation mechanism of the low-frequency locally resonant band gap in the two-dimensional ternary phononic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gang; Liu Yao-Zong; Wen Ji-Hong; Yu Dian-Long

    2006-01-01

    The low-frequency band gap and the corresponding vibration modes in two-dimensional ternary locally resonant phononic crystals are restudied successfully with the lumped-mass method. Compared with the work of C. Goffaux and J. Sanchez-Dehesa (Phys. Rev. B 67 14 4301(2003)), it is shown that there exists an error of about 50% in their calculated results of the band structure, and one band is missing in their results. Moreover, the in-plane modes shown in their paper are improper, which results in the wrong conclusion on the mechanism of the ternary locally resonant phononic crystals. Based on the lumped-mass method and better description of the vibration modes according to the band gaps, the locally resonant mechanism in forming the subfrequency gaps is thoroughly analysed. The rule used to judge whether a resonant mode in the phononic crystals can result in a corresponding subfrequency gap is also verified in this ternary case.

  8. Sulfur (S)-induced enhancement of iron plaque formation in the rhizosphere reduces arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Zhengyi [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71, East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)]. E-mail: zhyhu@issas.ac.cn; Zhu Yongguan [Research Center for Eco-environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10085 (China); Li Min [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71, East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Anhui Agriculture University, Hefei 230036 (China); Zhang Ligan [Anhui Agriculture University, Hefei 230036 (China); Cao Zhihong [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71, East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Smith, F. Andrew [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA5005 (Australia)

    2007-05-15

    The effects of two sulfur (S) sources (SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}, S{sup 0}), and three rates of S application (0, 30, 120 mg S/kg) on the formation of iron plaque in the rhizosphere, and on the root surface of rice, and As (arsenic) uptake into rice (Oryza sativa L.) were studied in a combined soil-sand culture experiment. Significant differences in As uptake into rice between +S and -S treatments were observed in relation to S sources, and rates of S application. Concentrations of As in rice shoots decreased with increasing rates of S application. The mechanism could be ascribed to sulfur, induced the formation of iron plaque, since concentrations of Fe in iron plaque on quartz sands in the rhizosphere, and on the root surface of rice increased with increasing rates of S application. The results suggest that sulfur fertilization may be important for the development approaches to reducing As accumulation in rice. - Sulfur-induced enhancement of iron plaque formation on the root surface of rice.

  9. Sulfur (S)-induced enhancement of iron plaque formation in the rhizosphere reduces arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of two sulfur (S) sources (SO42-, S0), and three rates of S application (0, 30, 120 mg S/kg) on the formation of iron plaque in the rhizosphere, and on the root surface of rice, and As (arsenic) uptake into rice (Oryza sativa L.) were studied in a combined soil-sand culture experiment. Significant differences in As uptake into rice between +S and -S treatments were observed in relation to S sources, and rates of S application. Concentrations of As in rice shoots decreased with increasing rates of S application. The mechanism could be ascribed to sulfur, induced the formation of iron plaque, since concentrations of Fe in iron plaque on quartz sands in the rhizosphere, and on the root surface of rice increased with increasing rates of S application. The results suggest that sulfur fertilization may be important for the development approaches to reducing As accumulation in rice. - Sulfur-induced enhancement of iron plaque formation on the root surface of rice

  10. Reactions of OH Radicals with Tris (1,10-Phenanthroline) Iron (II) Studied by Pulse Radiolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siekierska Floryan, E.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1976-01-01

    The reaction of OH radicals with aqueous tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) leads to the formation of an adduct, which exhibits a broad absorption band at rmpH = 6, λmax = 460 nm, and epsilon (Porson)460 = 6700 (molar, decadic, 1 mol−1 cm−1). The rate of formation of the adduct is first order in c...

  11. Crystal structures and phase formation thermodynamics of iron-gold nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pinaki

    Alloy nanoparticles are being increasingly used in wide variety of applications (catalysis, contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging, etc.). Knowledge of crystal structure and phase formation of the alloy nanoparticles is critical for these applications. Anomalous thermodynamic behavior and unusual phase formation have been reported for nanoparticles with size below 10 nm. In the present work, inert gas condensation (IGC) has been used to produce Au-Fe nanoclusters of varied compositions with a mean size between 5-10 nm. Here, the nanoclusters below 10 nm display complete solubility between Fe and Au in Fex Au1-x (0.3 0.65 and fcc for x self-interstitials. The as-deposited clusters were ferromagnetic at room temperature. Heat treatment at 600°C for 15 minutes followed by furnace cooling resulted in the size-dependent transformation of the clusters into additional, non-equilibrium structures that depended on cluster composition, while larger clusters followed bulk behavior. At about 65 atom % Fe, clusters transformed to a well-ordered, single fcc phase with a lattice parameter of 0.363 nm, whereas the phase diagram predicted two-phase equilibrium. The stabilization of a single fcc phase was explained by a thermodynamic analysis. This analysis suggests that the single phase stability in the Fe-Au nanoparticles arises from the fact that the introduction of a phase boundary is energetically opposed. Heat treatment of as-deposited particles results in L12 and L1 0ordered structures near 1:3, 3:1 and 1:1 (Fe:Au) stoichiometries respectively. Magnetically, these nanoparticles display strong ferromagnetic behavior for Fe-rich solid solutions and for the 3:1 L12 structure, and weak ferromagnetic behavior, possibly due to a combination of antiferromagnetic core and uncompensated spins at the surface for other compositions.

  12. Iron and Iron Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Melike Sezgin Evim; Birol Baytan; Adalet Meral Güneş

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for almost all living organisms except some bacteria. A great number of new articles related to the iron metabolism have been published in recent years explaining new findings. Hepsidine, a peptide hormon, that is recently found, regulates iron methabolism by effecting iron absorbsion from gut, secreting iron from hepatic store and flows iron from macrophages. Hepsidin blockes to effluxe iron from cells by bounding to ferroportin and by inducing ferroportin destru...

  13. Observation of the anisotropic Dirac cone in the band dispersion of 112-structured iron-based superconductor Ca0.9La0.1FeAs2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. T.; Xing, X. Z.; Li, M. Y.; Zhou, W.; Sun, Y.; Fan, C. C.; Yang, H. F.; Liu, J. S.; Yao, Q.; Li, W.; Shi, Z. X.; Shen, D. W.; Wang, Z.

    2016-07-01

    CaFeAs2 is a parent compound of recently discovered 112-type iron-based superconductors. It is predicted to be a staggered intercalation compound that naturally integrates both quantum spin Hall insulating and superconducting layers and an ideal system for the realization of Majorana modes. We performed a systematical angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculation study of the slightly electron-doped CaFeAs2. We found that the zigzag As chain of 112-type iron-based superconductors play a considerable role in the low-energy electronic structure, resulting in the characteristic Dirac-cone like band dispersion as the prediction. Our experimental results further confirm that these Dirac cones only exist around the X but not Y points in the Brillouin zone, breaking the S4 symmetry at iron sites. Our findings present the compelling support to the theoretical prediction that the 112-type iron-based superconductors might host the topological nontrivial edge states. The slightly electron doped CaFeAs2 would provide us a unique opportunity to realize and explore Majorana fermion physics.

  14. Structural and magnetic phase formation in nanophase brass–iron electron compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Mishra; C Bansal

    2005-11-01

    Starting with Cu0.65Zn0.35 with an e/a ratio of 1.35 we studied the phase formation in nanophase (Cu0.65Zn0.35)1−Fe alloys in the concentration range 0.1 ≤ ≤ 0.7 to see the effect of altering the electron concentration. The evolution of bcc phase from the fcc phase as a function of Fe concentration was investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The grain size, lattice parameters, and average hyperfine magnetic field distributions were estimated for the nanophase alloys. The fcc phase was observed to persist up to 40 atomic per cent Fe substitutions, a mixed (fcc + bcc) phase region up to 70 atomic per cent Fe and bcc phase beyond 70 atomic per cent Fe. The magnetic state of the alloys changed from nonmagnetic for ≤ 0.3 to magnetically ordered state at room temperature for ≥ 0.33, which lies in the fcc phase region. The fcc phase alloys of Fe with non-magnetic metals have very low magnetic transition temperatures. However, in this system the room temperature state is unusually magnetic.

  15. Soil Formation of "Atlantic Rankers" from NW Spain - A High Resolution Aluminium and Iron Fractionation Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. KAAL; M. COSTA-CASAIS; C. FERRO-V(A)ZQUEZ; X. PONTEVEDRA-POMBAL; A. MARTINEZ-CORTIZAS

    2008-01-01

    Atlantic rankers belong to the group of "cryptopodzolic rankers", which are ubiquitous in the mountainous cool/tempe-rate humid regions of Western Europe. The rankers of Galicia (NW Spain) formed by thousands of years of colluviation.The preponderance of Al-stabilised organic matter (OM) masks the horizonation and polycyclic character (I.e., stratifi-cation) of these soils. Cryptopodzolic rankers are generally thought to be the outcome of podzolisation. This soil type is part of the recent discussion on how to classify soils developed from nonvolcanic parent material having andic properties.To better understand the formation processes of these soils, the Al and Fe fractionation of four typical Atlantic rankers were studied by selective dissolution in acid NH4-oxalate, Na-pyrophosphatc and the chlorides of K, La and Cu.A high-resolution sampling approach allowed us to investigate the soils in greater detail than simply sampling by horizon.The rankers studied display a distribution of Fe- and Al-OM complexes that is typical of cryptopodzolic soils. However,these organomineral associations were probably immobile due to the high Al saturation. We argue that the soils owe their characteristic chemical status to external factors rather than to translocation of organomineral associations: variations in Al-OM concentrations could be linked to changes in weathering/leaching intensity and colluviation rates caused by anthropogenic disturbances or changes in regional climate regime.

  16. Dissociation and Dioxygen Formation in Hydroxide Solutions of Tris (2,2- bipyridyl) Iron (III) and Tris (1,10-phenanthroline) Iron (III)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord, G.; Pedersen, B.; Bjergbakke, Erling

    1983-01-01

    to dioxygen. No O2 is produced when dissociation of tns(2,2’-bipyridyl)iron(III) is suppressed by addition of excess ligand; the dependence of the O2 yield on the degree of dissociation of this complex can be reproduced by using the rate constants for the parallel catalyzed and uncatalyzed decay of the first...

  17. Effects of copper, iron and fluoride co-crystallized with sugar on caries development and acid formation in deslivated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalen, P L; Pearson, S K; Bowen, W H

    1996-11-01

    The purpose was to explore the effects of combinations of copper, iron and fluoride (Cu, Fe and F) incorporated in sucrose by co-crystallization on caries development in the deslivated rat model and to examine acid formation by bacteria in the rat mouth. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were infected with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 and desalivated when aged 26 days. Eight groups were placed in a König-Höfer programmed feeder and received 17 meals daily at hourly intervals, and essential nutrition (NCP No. 2) by gavage twice daily for 21 days. The groups received (1) plain sucrose, (2) F (8 parts/10(6)) co-crystallized with sucrose, (3) Fe (88 parts/10(6)) sucrose, (4) Cu (75 parts/10(6)) sucrose, (5) Cu + F sucrose, (6) Cu + L Fe sucrose, (7) F + Fe sucrose, and (8) Cu + Fe + F sucrose. At death the jaws were removed and sonicated in 0.9% saline solution for microbial assessment. In addition, organic acid assays were performed for each animal. Keyes smooth-surface and sulcal caries scores were lowest in the Cu + Fe + F sucrose group, but not statistically significantly different from those of the other Cu groups. The numbers of Strep. sobrinus found in the groups that received Cu, Cu + Fe, Cu + F, F + Fe and Cu + Fe + F sugar were lower than in the control group. Lactic acid was found in lower concentrations in Fe, Cu, Cu + F, Cu + Fe and F + Fe groups than in the other groups. It appears that combinations of Cu; Fe and F co-crystallized with sugar may have an additive effect in reducing the cariogenic potential of sugar by affecting lactic acid formation and reducing bacterial colonization.

  18. Residual Stress, Structure and Other Properties Formation by Combined Thermo-Hardening Processing of Surface Layer of Gray Cast Iron Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimyanov, Kh M.; Nikitin, Yu V.; Semenova, Yu S.; Eremina, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    The proposed combined thermo-hardening processing of gray cast iron enables to control the surface layer structure and mechanical properties formation. The processing includes high-speed heating by low-temperature plasma source and ultrasonic surface plastic deformation. The algorithm of calculation the stress-strain state of a surface layer at combined processing of gray cast iron is developed. This algorithm is based on method of sections. The ultrasonic surface deformation contribution is determined during formation of residual stresses. It is established that the combination of the thermal and deformation effects on the material provides an additional increment of microhardness and increase of surface layer thickness. Experimental results shows that the features of structural and phase transformations in a surface layer are revealed without a surface melting by energy of low-temperature plasma. The top of a layer does not contain inclusions of graphite that testifies to change of structural transformations in conditions of combined processing.

  19. Possible wave formation and martensitic transformation of iron particles in copper single crystals during argon ion bombardment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thölén, Anders Ragnar; Li, Chang-Hai; Easterling, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    Thin single crystal copper specimens (thickness ~250 nm) containing coherent iron particles (diameter 40–50 nm) have been bombarded with argon ions (5, 80, and 330 keV). During this process some of the iron particles transform to martensite. The transformation was observed near the exposed surface...

  20. Environmental control on the occurrence of high-coercivity magnetic minerals and formation of iron sulfides in a 640 ka sediment sequence from Lake Ohrid (Balkans)

    OpenAIRE

    Just, Janna; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Francke, Alexander; Vogel, Hendrik; Lacey, Jack H.; Wagner, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The bulk magnetic mineral record from Lake Ohrid, spanning the past 637 kyr, reflects large-scale shifts in hydrological conditions, and, superimposed, a strong signal of environmental conditions on glacial–interglacial and millennial timescales. A shift in the formation of early diagenetic ferrimagnetic iron sulfides to siderites is observed around 320 ka. This change is probably associated with variable availability of sulfide in the pore water. We propose that sulfate concentrations were s...

  1. Environmental control on the occurrence of high-coercivity magnetic minerals and formation of iron sulfides in a 640 ka sediment sequence from Lake Ohrid (Balkans)

    OpenAIRE

    Just, Janna; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Francke, Alexander; Vogel, Hendrik; Lacey, Jack H.; Wagner, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The bulk magnetic mineral record from Lake Ohrid, spanning the past 637 kyr, reflects large-scale shifts in hydrological conditions, and, superimposed, a strong signal of environmental conditions on glacial–interglacial and millennial timescales. A shift in the formation of early diagenetic ferrimagnetic iron sulfides to siderites is observed around 320 ka. This change is probably associated with variable availability of sulfide in the pore water. We propose that sulfate con...

  2. On the Influence of Cross-Rolling on Shear Band Formation and Texture Evolution in Low Carbon Steel Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, M. Y.; Engler, O.; Raabe, D.

    1995-01-01

    In order to understand the influence of the crystallographic texture and the dislocation structure on the deformation mechanism in low carbon steels, the development of the texture and the microstructure in cross-rolled specimens was investigated by employing X-ray texture measurements and TEM observations. The cross-rolled specimens were obtained by rotating the rolling direction by various angles up to 90° after 30% initial straight-rolling of the hot rolled band. Whereas only few shear ban...

  3. Broad-band X-ray emission and the reality of the broad iron line from the neutron star-white dwarf X-ray binary 4U 1820-30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Aditya S.; Dewangan, G. C.; Pahari, M.; Misra, R.; Kembhavi, A. K.; Raychaudhuri, B.

    2016-09-01

    Broad relativistic iron lines from neutron star X-ray binaries are important probes of the inner accretion disc. The X-ray reflection features can be weakened due to strong magnetic fields or very low iron abundances such as is possible in X-ray binaries with low mass, first generation stars as companions. Here, we investigate the reality of the broad iron line detected earlier from the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1820-30 with a degenerate helium dwarf companion. We perform a comprehensive, systematic broad-band spectral study of the atoll source using Suzaku and simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift observations. We have used different continuum models involving accretion disc emission, thermal blackbody and thermal Comptonization of either disc or blackbody photons. The Suzaku data show positive and negative residuals in the region of Fe K band. These features are well described by two absorption edges at 7.67 ± 0.14 keV and 6.93 ± 0.07 keV or partial covering photoionized absorption or by blurred reflection. Though, the simultaneous Swift and NuSTAR data do not clearly reveal the emission or absorption features, the data are consistent with the presence of either absorption or emission features. Thus, the absorption based models provide an alternative to the broad iron line or reflection model. The absorption features may arise in winds from the inner accretion disc. The broad-band spectra appear to disfavour continuum models in which the blackbody emission from the neutron-star surface provides the seed photons for thermal Comptonization. Our results suggest emission from a thin accretion disc (kTdisc ˜ 1 keV), Comptonization of disc photons in a boundary layer most likely covering a large fraction of the neutron-star surface and innermost parts of the accretion disc, and blackbody emission (kTbb ˜ 2 keV) from the polar regions.

  4. Geochemistry of tourmalines associated with iron formation and quartz veins of the Morro da Pedra Preta Formation, Serra do Itaberaba Group (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna M. Garda

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourmalines of intermediate schorl-dravite composition occur in iron formation (including metachert and tourmalinites, metasediments, calc-silicate and metabasic/intermediate rocks of the Morro da Pedra Preta Formation, a volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Serra do Itaberaba Group (northeast of São Paulo City, southeastern Brazil. The Morro da Pedra Preta Formation is crosscut by quartz veins that contain both intermediate schorl-dravite and an alkali-deficient, Cr-(V-bearing tourmaline, in which the occupancy of the X-site is ϑ0.51Ca0.33Na0.15, characterizing it as intermediate to foitite and magnesiofoitite end-members. Mg# values for this tourmaline are higher than those for intermediate schorl-dravite. Raman spectroscopy also confirms the presence of two groups of tourmalines. Stable isotope data indicate sediment waters as fluid sources, rather than fluids from magmatic/post-magmatic sources. Delta18O compositions for tourmalines, host metachert, and quartz veins are similar, showing that fluid equilibration occurred during crystallization of both quartz and tourmaline. Syngenetic, intermediate schorl-dravite tourmalines were formed under submarine, sedimentary-exhalative conditions; amphibolite-grade metamorphism did not strongly affect their compositions. Younger tourmalines of compositions intermediate to foitite and magnesiofoitite reflect the composition of the host rocks of quartz veins, due to fluid percolation along faults and fractures that caused leaching of Cr (and V and the crystallization of these alkali-deficient, Cr-(V-bearing tourmalines.Na Formação Morro da Pedra Preta, seqüência vulcano-sedimentar do Grupo Serra do Itaberaba (São Paulo, Brasil, turmalinas de composição intermediária schorl-dravita ocorrem em formação ferrífera (incluindo turmalinito e metachert, metassedimentos, rochas cálcio-silicáticas e metabásicas a intermediárias. A Formação Morro da Pedra Preta é cortada por veios de quartzo que

  5. Magnetic iron oxide/clay composites: effect of the layer silicate support on the microstructure and phase formation of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Tamás; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Tzitzios, Vassilios; Papp, Szilvia; Korösi, László; Galbács, Gábor; Musabekov, Kuanyshbek; Bolatova, Didara; Petridis, Dimitris; Dékány, Imre

    2007-07-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized on two different clay supports: natural montmorillonite and synthetic laponite. The nanocomposites obtained, characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption, small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), vibrating sample magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy, were found to exhibit highly different physicochemical properties despite their similar iron content. The observed size effect of the layered silicate support, resulting in the high abundance of very small particles (diameter of 1-5 nm) on laponite, was explained in terms of the difference between the surface charge densities and the lamellar dimensions of the clay substrates. Moreover, it was revealed that the nature of the layered support greatly affected the nanostructure (fractal dimensions, surface area, porosity) of the formed hybrid solids as well as the phase formation of iron oxide crystals. The high surface area laponite composites, due to the dominance of very small iron oxide particles, exhibited more pronounced superparamagnetic behaviour as compared to the montmorillonite samples prepared under identical conditions. The observed higher saturation magnetization of the laponite composites, attributed to their lower content in the antiferromagnetic hematite and to the onset of superferromagnetism in the aggregated particles, shows their excellent utility for adsorption/magnetic separation.

  6. Magnetic iron oxide/clay composites: effect of the layer silicate support on the microstructure and phase formation of magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized on two different clay supports: natural montmorillonite and synthetic laponite. The nanocomposites obtained, characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption, small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), vibrating sample magnetometry and Moessbauer spectroscopy, were found to exhibit highly different physicochemical properties despite their similar iron content. The observed size effect of the layered silicate support, resulting in the high abundance of very small particles (diameter of 1-5 nm) on laponite, was explained in terms of the difference between the surface charge densities and the lamellar dimensions of the clay substrates. Moreover, it was revealed that the nature of the layered support greatly affected the nanostructure (fractal dimensions, surface area, porosity) of the formed hybrid solids as well as the phase formation of iron oxide crystals. The high surface area laponite composites, due to the dominance of very small iron oxide particles, exhibited more pronounced superparamagnetic behaviour as compared to the montmorillonite samples prepared under identical conditions. The observed higher saturation magnetization of the laponite composites, attributed to their lower content in the antiferromagnetic hematite and to the onset of superferromagnetism in the aggregated particles, shows their excellent utility for adsorption/magnetic separation

  7. The crystal structure of TrxA(CACA): Insights into the formation of a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster in an Escherichia coli thioredoxin mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, Jean-Francois; Peisach, Daniel; Bardwell, James C.A.; Xu, Zhaohui [Michigan

    2010-07-13

    Escherichia coli thioredoxin is a small monomeric protein that reduces disulfide bonds in cytoplasmic proteins. Two cysteine residues present in a conserved CGPC motif are essential for this activity. Recently, we identified mutations of this motif that changed thioredoxin into a homodimer bridged by a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster. When exported to the periplasm, these thioredoxin mutants could restore disulfide bond formation in strains lacking the entire periplasmic oxidative pathway. Essential for the assembly of the iron-sulfur was an additional cysteine that replaced the proline at position three of the CGPC motif. We solved the crystalline structure at 2.3 {angstrom} for one of these variants, TrxA(CACA). The mutant protein crystallized as a dimer in which the iron-sulfur cluster is replaced by two intermolecular disulfide bonds. The catalytic site, which forms the dimer interface, crystallized in two different conformations. In one of them, the replacement of the CGPC motif by CACA has a dramatic effect on the structure and causes the unraveling of an extended {alpha}-helix. In both conformations, the second cysteine residue of the CACA motif is surface-exposed, which contrasts with wildtype thioredoxin where the second cysteine of the CXXC motif is buried. This exposure of a pair of vicinal cysteine residues apparently allows thioredoxin to acquire an iron-sulfur cofactor at its active site, and thus a new activity and mechanism of action.

  8. Formation of Highly Misoriented Fragments at Hot Band Grain Boundaries During Cold Rolling of Interstitial-Free Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin, Nasima; Quadir, Md. Zakaria; Ferry, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The deformation heterogeneities that form in the vicinity of prior hot band grain boundaries in a 75 pct cold-rolled interstitial-free steel have been investigated by 3D electron backscatter diffraction. Grain boundary-affected regions occupy a large fraction of the overall material volume. The coexistence of several features, such as steep orientation gradients up to 5 deg/ μm, high-angle boundary networks, and thin, elongated grain boundary fragments, has confirmed the highly complex nature of these regions. Most notably, these thin boundary fragments were found to be significantly misoriented from any of the deformed grains immediately adjacent to the boundary. Overall, grain boundary regions adopt the so-called `deformation banding' mode of deformations on both the micro ( e.g., steep gradients)- and nano ( e.g., thin fragments)-length scales. Grain boundary structures comprise the essential features to act as preferred sites for recrystallization. The discovery of numerous thin grain boundary fragments in the deformation microstructure provides a plausible explanation for the origin of recrystallized grains with orientations other than those found within the adjoining deformed grains in the vicinity of grain boundaries; this phenomenon has been commonly observed in texture data for many years but remained unexplained.

  9. Partial Melt Systems in Plate-Driven Corner Flow: Evaluating the Formation of Porosity Bands as a Mechanism for Magma Focusing at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, D.; Butler, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The imposition of an external shear on a system of partial melt will result in compaction of the solid matrix and concentration of the interstitial liquid melt leading to the formation of regions of contrasting high and low porosity. In experiments, direct and torsional shear geometries have demonstrated that these regions of varying porosity form in bands orientated at low angles relative to the shear plane. A variety of numerical models have been employed to recreate these experimental results. Simple shear, pure shear and torsional shear geometries have been used in both linear and nonlinear numerical settings to model the formation of the porosity bands. In this contribution the numerical models utilize a shear geometry derived from the velocity field of the plate-driven corner flow of a mid-ocean ridge. Motivation for using the velocity field of a mid-ocean ridge comes from evidence that suggests the existence of lateral melt channeling from either side of the ridge axis. Imposing the shear from a mid-ocean ridge corner flow allows for the evaluation of the resulting porosity bands in terms of suitability for channeling melt laterally toward the ridge axis. This is done using both slow and fast spreading ridge geometries. The degree of similarity between previous numerical and experimental results has been found to be greatly influenced by the imposed viscosity law of the solid matrix phase. In order to keep this in mind, the numerical models in this contribution use three different matrix viscosity laws: strain-rate independent, strain-rate dependent and anisotropic. Of these rheologies, strain-rate independence results in the poorest orientation for channeling melt directly to the ridge axis. The strain-rate dependent and anisotropic viscosities present more favorable direct-channeling orientations for the fastest growing porosity bands, but in both cases the background flow will rotate bands to less ideal orientations over time. However, these less

  10. Experimental demonstration of a novel bio-sensing platform via plasmonic band gap formation in gold nano-patch arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Grande, Marco; Stomeo, Tiziana; Morea, Giuseppe; Marani, Roberto; Marrocco, Valeria; Petruzzelli, Vincenzo; D'Orazio, Antonella; Cingolani, Roberto; De Vittorio, Massimo; de Ceglia, Domenico; Scalora, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of implementing a novel bio-sensing platform based on the observation of the shift of the leaky surface plasmon mode that occurs at the edge of the plasmonic band gap of metal gratings when an analyte is deposited on top of the metallic structure. We provide experimental proof of the sensing capabilities of a two-dimensional array of gold nano-patches by observing color variations in the diffracted field when the air overlayer is replaced with a small quantity of Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA). Effects of rounded corners and surface imperfections are also discussed. Finally, we also report proof of changes in color intensities as a function of the air/filling ratio of the structure and discuss their relation with the diffracted spectra.

  11. Magnetic bead-based enzyme-chromogenic substrate system for ultrasensitive colorimetric immunoassay accompanying cascade reaction for enzymatic formation of squaric acid-iron(III) chelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wenqiang; Tang, Dianping; Zhuang, Junyang; Chen, Guonan; Yang, Huanghao

    2014-05-20

    This work reports on a simple and feasible colorimetric immunoassay with signal amplification for sensitive determination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA, used as a model) at an ultralow concentration by using a new enzyme-chromogenic substrate system. We discovered that glucose oxidase (GOx), the enzyme broadly used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), has the ability to stimulate in situ formation of squaric acid (SQA)-iron(III) chelate. GOx-catalyzed oxidization of glucose leads to the formation of gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The latter can catalytically oxidize iron(II) to iron(III), which can rapidly (immunoassay protocol with GOx-labeled anti-PSA detection antibody can be designed for the detection of target PSA on capture antibody-functionalized magnetic immunosensing probe, monitored by recording the color or absorbance (λ = 468 nm) of the generated SQA-iron(III) chelate. The absorbance intensity shows to be dependent on the concentration of target PSA. A linear dependence between the absorbance and target PSA concentration is obtained under optimal conditions in the range from 1.0 pg mL(-1) to 30 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.5 pg mL(-1) (0.5 ppt) estimated at the 3Sblank level. The sensitivity displays to be 3-5 orders of magnitude better than those of most commercialized human PSA ELISA kits. In addition, the developed colorimetric immunoassay was validated by assaying 12 human serum samples, receiving in good accordance with those obtained by the commercialized PSA ELISA kit. Importantly, the SQA-based immunosensing system can be further extended for the detection of other low-abundance proteins or biomarkers by controlling the target antibody.

  12. NO2-induced synthesis of nitrato-iron(III) porphyrin with diverse coordination mode and the formation of isoporphyrin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jagannath Bhuyan; Sabyasachi Sarkar

    2013-07-01

    Two nitrato-iron(III) porphyrinates [Fe(4-Me-TPP)(NO3)] 1 and [Fe(4-OMe-TPP)(NO3)] 2 are reported. Interestingly, [Fe(4-Me-TPP)(NO3)] 1 has nitrate ion coordinated as monodentate (by single oxygen atom), while [Fe(4-OMe-TPP)(NO3)] 2 has nitrate coordination through bidentate mode. Compound 1 was found serendipitously in the reaction of [Fe(4-Me-TPP)Cl] with nitrous acid, which was performed for the synthesis of nitro-iron(III) porphyrin, [Fe(4-Me-TPP)NO2]. The compound 2 was synthesized by passing NO2 gas through a solution of [Fe(4-OMe-TPP)]2O. Upon passing NO2 gas through a solution of a -oxo-dimer, [Fe(4-Me-TPP)]2O also produces 1. It is interesting that in more electron-rich porphyrin 2, binding of the nitrate in a symmetrical bidentate way while in less electron-rich porphyrin 1, binding of the anion is unidentate by a terminal oxygen atom. However, it is expected that the energy difference between the monodentate and bidentate coordination mode is very small and the interchange between these coordination is possible. Upon passing NO2 gas through a solution of -oxo-dimeric iron(III) porphyrin, the nitrato-iron(III) porphyrin forms first, that later gets oxidized to -cation radical to yield hydroxy-isoporphyrin in the presence of trace amount of water. These nitrato-iron(III) porphyrinates in moist air slowly converted back to their respective -oxo-dimeric iron(III) porphyrins.

  13. Spectroscopic evidence of NO{sub x} formation and band-gap narrowing in N-doped TiO{sub 2} films grown by pulsed magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago, R., E-mail: rgago@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Redondo-Cubero, A. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Vinnichenko, M.; Lehmann, J.; Munnik, F. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Palomares, F.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    N-containing TiO{sub 2} (TiO{sub 2}:N) films have been grown by reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering (RPMS) with different N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures and substrate temperatures (T{sub s}) up to 450 Degree-Sign C. In this way, highly-doped films (N between 5 and 8 at.%) have been produced, as derived by elastic recoil detection analysis. The structural properties have been studied by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). On unheated substrates, the films are X-ray amorphous and N incorporation induces a transformation from rutile-like to highly disordered anatase-like structures. The crystal growth is enhanced by increasing T{sub s}, being the effect larger for doped films. In this way, nearly single-phase (nanocrystalline) anatase TiO{sub 2}:N films are achieved. The latter can be related to the imprinted anatase-like character by N incorporation observed on unheated substrates. XANES reveals that N sites are preferentially in the form of N{sub 2} or NO{sub x} (nitrite-like) complexes for growth on unheated and heated substrates, respectively. The dominant formation of NO{sub x} structures is corroborated by XPS, together with a small contribution of N at substitutional sites. Spectroscopic ellipsometry shows an effective reduction of the optical band-gap for doped films. A maximum decrease of {approx}0.3 eV at T{sub s} = 450 Degree-Sign C is observed, which correlates with a rigid red-shift of the valence band XPS spectra. The spectroscopic results indicate that band-gap narrowing is due to N interstitials as NO{sub x} complexes. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly-doped TiO{sub 2}:N films have been grown by reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic structure has been assessed by XANES and high-resolution XPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N incorporation favors the formation of anatase structures and narrows the

  14. Localization of shear strain and shear band formation induced by deformation in semi-solid Al-Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagira, T.; Morita, S.; Yasuda, H.; Gourlay, C. M.; Yoshiya, M.; Sugiyama, A.; Uesugi, K.

    2015-06-01

    In situ observation of deformation in globular Al-Cu samples at a solid fraction of ∼⃒50% and a global shear strain rate of 10-1 s-1 was performed using time-resolved X-ray imaging. The solid particle motion during shear was quantitatively analysed. The force was transmitted though the contacts between solid particles over a long distance parallel to the shear plane (18 mean grain size, d) after only a 1d increment of the Al2O3 push-plate motion. On the other hand, the distance of transmitted force in the perpendicular direction to the shear plane was restricted to approximately 11d even for a high displacement of the Al2O3 push-plate. A relatively high shear strain rate became localized at the shear domain after a small amount of deformation (a 1d increment). The solid fraction decreased in the region of localized shear strain rate. The shear band width, where the shear strain was localized and the solid fraction decreased, remained mostly unchanged over a 4 d increment of Al2O3 push-plate motion.

  15. Microscopic mechanism for the Rashba spin-band splitting: Perspective from formation of local orbital angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We review the developments in the orbital–angular–momentum (OAM) based approach to the Rashba effect. • Combination of OAM and linear momentum results in significant electrostatic energy which along with the atomic spin–orbit coupling explains all aspects of the Rashba effect. • The results indicate shift from spin-based to OAM-based approach in the Rashba effect. • Experimental results that support the existence of OAM from circular dichroism in angle-resolved-photoemission are also reviewed. - Abstract: Despite its history, the microscopic mechanism for the Rashba spin-band splitting was not well understood. It was very recently pointed out that local orbital angular momentum (OAM) plays a crucial role in the Rashba effect. Subsequently, an effective Hamiltonian was proposed. The proposed Hamiltonian was found to not only explain all the known aspects of the Rashba phenomena but also correctly predict properties that were not known before. It brings about shifts from spin-based to OAM-based approaches in the understanding of the Rashba effect. Here, we review the developments in the new approach. Starting from a brief introduction, issues in the conventional understanding of the Rashba effect are discussed. It is then described in detail that local OAM results in significant electrostatic energy which along with the atomic spin–orbit coupling explains the Rashba effect. Experimental evidences for the existence of OAM from circular dichroism in angle resolved photoemission, thus the validity of the model, are also reviewed

  16. Microscopic mechanism for the Rashba spin-band splitting: Perspective from formation of local orbital angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Ryong [Department of Physics, Incheon National University, Incheon 406-772 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Changyoung, E-mail: changyoung@yonsei.ac.kr [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We review the developments in the orbital–angular–momentum (OAM) based approach to the Rashba effect. • Combination of OAM and linear momentum results in significant electrostatic energy which along with the atomic spin–orbit coupling explains all aspects of the Rashba effect. • The results indicate shift from spin-based to OAM-based approach in the Rashba effect. • Experimental results that support the existence of OAM from circular dichroism in angle-resolved-photoemission are also reviewed. - Abstract: Despite its history, the microscopic mechanism for the Rashba spin-band splitting was not well understood. It was very recently pointed out that local orbital angular momentum (OAM) plays a crucial role in the Rashba effect. Subsequently, an effective Hamiltonian was proposed. The proposed Hamiltonian was found to not only explain all the known aspects of the Rashba phenomena but also correctly predict properties that were not known before. It brings about shifts from spin-based to OAM-based approaches in the understanding of the Rashba effect. Here, we review the developments in the new approach. Starting from a brief introduction, issues in the conventional understanding of the Rashba effect are discussed. It is then described in detail that local OAM results in significant electrostatic energy which along with the atomic spin–orbit coupling explains the Rashba effect. Experimental evidences for the existence of OAM from circular dichroism in angle resolved photoemission, thus the validity of the model, are also reviewed.

  17. Severe plastic deformation through adiabatic shear banding in Fe-C steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D; Syn, C; Sherby, O

    2004-12-01

    Severe plastic deformation is observed within adiabatic shear bands in iron-carbon steels. These shear bands form under high strain rate conditions, in excess of 1000 s{sup -1}, and strains in the order 5 or greater are commonly observed. Studies on shear band formation in a ultrahigh carbon steel (1.3%C) are described in the pearlitic condition. A hardness of 11.5 GPa (4600 MPa) is obtained within the band. A mechanism is described to explain the high strength based on phase transformation to austenite from adiabatic heating resulting from severe deformation. Rapid re-transformation leads to an ultra-fine ferrite grain size containing carbon principally in the form of nanosize carbides. It is proposed that the same mechanism explains the ultrahigh strength of iron-carbon steels observed in ball-milling, ball drop tests and in severely deformed wires.

  18. Formation of colloidal dispersions from supersaturated iron(III) nitrate solutions. III. Development of goethite at room temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, P.L. de; Woude, J.H.A. van der; Pieters, J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of colloidal goethite from partially neutralized iron(III) nitrate solutions has been investigated by high resolution electronmicroscopy and ultracentrifuge analysis. Monocrystalline rod-like particles characterized by (001) faces and very flat (010) and (120) faces are observed to f

  19. Manganese-induced hydroxyl radical formation in rat striatum is not attenuated by dopamine depletion or iron chelation in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, WN; Korf, J; Koster, JF; DeWit, LEA; Gramsbergen, JBP

    1996-01-01

    The present studies were aimed at investigating the possible roles of dopamine (DA) and iron in production of hydroxyl radicals ((OH)-O-.) in rat striatum after Mn2+ intoxication. For this purpose, DA depletions were assessed concomitant with in vivo 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) formati

  20. Iron and manganese shuttles control the formation of authigenic phosphorus minerals in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jilbert, T.; Slomp, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis of epoxy resin-embedded sediments is used to demonstrate the presence of authigenic iron (Fe) (II) phosphates and manganese (Mn)-calcium (Ca)-carbonate-phosphates in the deep euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea. These minerals constitute major burial phases of phosphorus (P) in this area,

  1. Intrinsic Josephson junctions in the iron-based multi-band superconductor (V2Sr4O6)Fe2As2

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Philip J. W.; Zhu, Xiyu; Cheng, Peng; Wen, Hai-Hu; Batlogg, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    In layered superconductors, Josephson junctions may be formed within the unit cell due to sufficiently low interlayer coupling. These intrinsic Josephson junction (iJJ) systems have attracted considerable interest for their application potential in quantum computing as well as efficient sources of THz radiation, closing the famous "THz gap". So far, iJJ have been demonstrated in single-band, copper-based high-Tc superconductors, mainly in Ba-Sr-Ca-Cu-O. Here we report clear experimental evide...

  2. Formation of a Mineral Layer during Coke Dissolution into Liquid Iron and Its Influence on the Kinetics of Coke Dissolution Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael W.; Monaghan, Brian J.; Nightingale, Sharon A.; Mathieson, John G.; Nightingale, Robert J.

    2008-06-01

    The formation and development of the mineral layer that forms between coke and liquid iron during carbon dissolution has been characterized. Coke particles (-2 mm, +0.5 mm) were added to the top surface of an iron 2 mass pct C melt at representative iron-making temperatures, for periods of time between 2 and 120 minutes, before being quenched. The quenched samples were then sectioned, and the solidified coke-melt interfacial region analyzed in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Analysis showed that a mineral layer was present at the interface at all experimental temperatures (1450 °C to 1550 °C) from 2 minutes and persisted beyond 120 minutes. The mineral layer was found to be composed of calcium aluminate phases, with the proportions of these phases dictating its morphology. Further, changes observed in the rate of carbon dissolution from the coke were related to the composition and morphology of the mineral layer. The effect of this mineral layer on the rate of carbon dissolution has been interpreted as a change in the reaction control mechanism.

  3. Formation of the conduction band electronic structure during deposition of ultrathin dicarboximide-substituted perylene films on the oxidized silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolov, A. S.; Lazneva, E. F.; Gerasimova, N. B.; Panina, Yu. A.; Baramygin, A. V.; Ovsyannikov, A. D.

    2015-07-01

    The results of the investigation of the conduction band electronic structure and the interfacial potential barrier during deposition of ultrathin dicarboximide-substituted perylene films (PTCBI-C8) on the oxidized silicon surface have been presented. The measurements have been performed using the very low energy electron diffraction (VLEED) technique implemented in the total current spectroscopy (TCS) mode with a variation in the incident electron energy from 0 to 25 eV. Changes in the intensities of the maxima from the deposited PTCBI-C8 film and from the substrate with an increase in the organic coating thickness to 7 nm have been analyzed using TCS measurements. A comparison of the structure of the maxima of PTCBI-C8 and perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) films has made it possible to distinguish the energy range (8-13 eV above E F) in which distinct differences in the structures of maxima for PTCDA and PTCBI-C8 films are observed. This energy range corresponds to low-lying σ*-states of the conduction band of the films studied. The formation of the interfacial region of the PTCBI-C8 film and (SiO2) n-Si substrate is accompanied by an increase in the surface work function by 0.6 eV, which corresponds to the electron density charge transfer from the (SiO2) n-Si substrate to the PTCBI-C8 film.

  4. The Luminosity Function and Star Formation Rate between Redshifts of 0.07 and 1.47 for Narrow-band Emitters in the Subaru Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Ly, C; Kashikawa, N; Shimasaku, K; Doi, M; Nagao, T; Iye, M; Kodama, T; Morokuma, T; Motohara, K; Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matt A.; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Doi, Mamoru; Nagao, Tohru; Iye, Masanori; Kodama, Tadayuki; Morokuma, Tomoki; Motohara, Kentaro

    2006-01-01

    Abridged: Subaru Deep Field line-emitting galaxies in four narrow-band filters at low and intermediate redshifts are presented. Broad-band colors, follow-up optical spectroscopy, and multiple NB filters are used to distinguish Ha, [O II], and [O III] emitters between redshifts of 0.07 and 1.47 to construct their luminosity functions (LFs). These LFs are derived down to faint magnitudes, which allows for a more accurate determination of the faint end slope. With a large (N~200-900) sample for each redshift interval, a Schechter profile is fitted to each LF. Prior to dust extinction corrections, the [O III] and [O II] LFs reported in this paper agree reasonably well with those of Hippelein et al. The z=0.08 Ha LF, which reaches two orders of magnitude fainter than Gallego et al., is steeper by 25%. This indicates that there are more low luminosity star-forming galaxies for z1, the star-formation rate densities are more or less constant. The latter is consistent with previous UV and [O II] measurements. Below z&...

  5. Direct imaging of the water snow line at the time of planet formation using two ALMA continuum bands

    CERN Document Server

    Banzatti, Andrea; Ricci, Luca; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Birnstiel, Til; Ciesla, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Molecular snow lines in protoplanetary disks have been studied theoretically for decades because of their importance in shaping planetary architectures and compositions. The water snow line lies in the planet formation region at < 10 AU, and so far its location has been estimated only indirectly from spatially-unresolved spectroscopy. This work presents a proof-of-concept method to directly image the water snow line in protoplanetary disks through its physical and chemical imprint in the local dust properties. We adopt a physical disk model that includes dust coagulation, fragmentation, drift, and a change in fragmentation velocities of a factor 10 between dry silicates and icy grains as found by laboratory work. We find that the presence of a water snow line leads to a sharp discontinuity in the radial profile of the dust emission spectral index {\\alpha}_mm, due to replenishment of small grains through fragmentation. We use the ALMA simulator to demonstrate that this effect can be observed in protoplaneta...

  6. Role of the Initial Formation of the Iron Nano-Particles in the Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Growth Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leszek Stobinski; Hong-Ming Lin

    2004-01-01

    Careful preparation of the iron nano-particle catalyst for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) fabrication has crucial importance for initial growth of multi-wall carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs). Thin iron layer was thermally deposited in a high vacuum onto the surface of the SiO2/Si wafer at about 300 K. The sample was heated up to 700℃ in a hydrogen atmosphere, and then the sample was heated once again at750℃ in ethylene atmosphere. After hydrogen treatment continuous Fe layer was changed into many well separated Fe nano-peaks. AFM, SEM and HR-TEM studies of deposited MWCNTs allow us to propose a growth mechanism for long, straight MWCNTs.

  7. Grafting of diazonium salts on oxides surface: formation of aryl-O bonds on iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brymora, Katarzyna [LUNAM Université du Maine, IMMM UMR CNRS 6283 (France); Fouineau, Jonathan; Eddarir, Asma; Chau, François [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS CNRS UMR 7086 (France); Yaacoub, Nader; Grenèche, Jean-Marc [LUNAM Université du Maine, IMMM UMR CNRS 6283 (France); Pinson, Jean; Ammar, Souad [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS CNRS UMR 7086 (France); Calvayrac, Florent, E-mail: florent.calvayrac@univ-lemans.fr [LUNAM Université du Maine, IMMM UMR CNRS 6283 (France)

    2015-11-15

    Combining ab initio modeling and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, we characterized the nature of the chemical linkage of aminoalkyl arenediazonium salt on the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles. We established that it is built through a metal–oxygen–carbon bonding and not a metal–carbon one, as usually suggested and commonly observed in previously studied metal- or carbon-based surfaces.

  8. Audio-magnetotelluric investigation of allochthonous iron formations in the Archaean Reguibat shield (Mauritania): structural and mining implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, G.; Fourno, J. P.

    1992-11-01

    The M'Haoudat range, considered as an allochthonous unit amid the strongly metamorphosed Archaean basement (Tiris Group), belongs to the Lower Proterozoic Ijil Group, weakly metamorphosed, constituted mainly by iron quartzites including red jaspers and high grade iron ore. Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) soundings (frequency range 1-7500 HZ) were performed together with the systematic survey of the range (SNIM mining company). The non-linear least squares method was used to perform a smoothness-constrained data model. The obvious AMT resistivity contrasts between the M'Haoudat Unit (150-3500 ohm. m) and the Archaean basement (20 000 ohm. m) allow to state precisely that the two thrust surfaces, on both sides of the range, join together at a depth which increases from North-West to South-East, as the ore bodies. Inside the steeply dipping M'Haoudat Unit, the main beds of iron quartzites (1500-3500 ohm. m), schists (1000-1500 ohm. m) and hematite ores (150-300 ohm. m) were distinguished when their thickness exceeded 30 to 50 m. The existence of an hydrostatic level (1-50 ohm. m) and the steeply dipping architecture, very likely responsible for the lack of resistivity contrast on the upper part of some profiles, complicate the interpretation at high frequencies the thin layers being poorly defined.

  9. Ground-based Pa$\\alpha$ Narrow-band Imaging of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies I: Star Formation Rates and Surface Densities

    CERN Document Server

    Tateuchi, Ken; Motohara, Kentaro; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kato, Natsuko Mitani; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Todo, Soya; Toshikawa, Koji; Sako, Shigeyuki; Uchimoto, Yuka K; Ohsawa, Ryou; Asano, Kentaro; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Komugi, Shinya; Koshida, Shintaro; Manabe, Sho; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Nakashima, Asami; Okada, Kazushi; Takagi, Toshinobu; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Handa, Toshihiro; Kawara, Kimiaki; Kohno, Kotaro; Minezaki, Takeo; Miyata, Takashi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Soyano, Takeo; Tamura, Yoichi; Tanaka, Masuo; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are enshrouded by a large amount of dust, produced by their active star formation, and it is difficult to measure their activity in the optical wavelength. We have carried out Pa$\\alpha$ narrow-band imaging observations of 38 nearby star-forming galaxies including 33 LIRGs listed in $IRAS$ RBGS catalog with the Atacama Near InfraRed camera (ANIR) on the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 1.0 m telescope (miniTAO). Star formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the Pa$\\alpha$ fluxes, corrected for dust extinction using the Balmer Decrement Method (typically $A_V$ $\\sim$ 4.3 mag), show a good correlation with those from the bolometric infrared luminosity of $IRAS$ data within a scatter of 0.27 dex. This suggests that the correction of dust extinction for Pa$\\alpha$ flux is sufficient in our sample. We measure the physical sizes and the surface density of infrared luminosities ($\\Sigma_{L(\\mathrm{IR})}$) and $SFR$ ($\\Sigma_{SFR}$) of star-forming region for individual ga...

  10. Transient formation of the oxo-iron(IV) porphyrin radical cation during the reaction of iron(III) tetrakis-5,10,15,20-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin with hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Tapan Kumar; Karmaker, Subarna; Tamagake, Keietsu

    2003-01-01

    The reaction of iron(III) tetrakis-5,10,15,20-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (Fe(III)TMPyP) with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the catalytic activity of the reaction intermediates on the luminescent peroxidation of luminol in aqueous solution were studied by using a double-mixing stopped-flow system. The observed luminescence intensities showed biphasic decay depending on the conditions. The initial flashlight decayed within flashlight appeared during the formation of the oxo-iron(IV) porphyrin, TMPyPFe(IV) = O, which is responsible for the sustained emission. The absorption spectra 0.0-0.5 s did not reproduce well by a simple combination of the two spectra of Fe(III)TMPyP and TMPyPFe(IV) = O, indicating that transient species was formed at the initial stage. Addition of uric acid (UA) caused a significant delay in the initiation of the luminol emission as well as in the formation of the TMPyPFe(IV) = O. Both of them were completely diminished in the presence of UA equimolar with H(2)O(2), while mannitol had no effect at all. The delay of the light emission as well as the appearance of TMPyPFe(IV) = O was directly proportional to the [UA](0) but other kinetic profiles were not changed significantly. Based on these observations and the kinetic analysis, we confirmed the involvement of the oxo-iron(IV) porphyrin radical cation, (TMPyP)(.+)Fe(IV) = O, as an obligatory intermediate in the rate-determining step of the overall reaction, Fe(III)TMPyP + H(2)O(2) --> TMPyPFe(IV) = O, with a rate constant of k = 4.3 x 10(4)/mol/L/s. The rate constants for the reaction between the (TMPyP)(.+)Fe(IV) = O and luminol, and between the TMPyPFe(IV) = O and luminol were estimated to be 3.6 x 10(6)/mol/L/s and 1.31 x 10(4)/mol/L/s, respectively. PMID:12701092

  11. Ferrite grade iron oxides from ore rejects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Rane; V M S Verenkar; P Y Sawant

    2001-06-01

    Iron oxyhydroxides and hydroxides were synthesized from chemically beneficiated high SiO2/Al2O3 low-grade iron ore (57.49% Fe2O3) rejects and heated to get iron oxides of 96–99.73% purity. The infrared band positions, isothermal weight loss and thermogravimetric and chemical analysis established the chemical formulas of iron-oxyhydroxides as -FeOOH.0.3H2O; -FeOOH.0.2H2O and amorphous FeOOH. The thermal products of all these were -Fe2O3 excepting that of -FeOOH.0.3H2O which gave mainly -Fe2O3 and some admixture of -Fe2O3. The hydrazinated iron hydroxides and oxyhydroxides, on the other hand, decomposed autocatalytically to mainly -Fe2O3. Hydrazine method modifies the thermal decomposition path of the hydroxides. The saturation magnetization, s, values were found to be in the range 60–71 emu g–1 which are close to the reported values for -Fe2O3. Mechanism of the -Fe2O3 formation by hydrazine method is discussed.

  12. Growth and Formation Mechanism of Branched Carb on Nanotub es by Pyrolysis of Iron(I I) Phthalo cyanine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong Wei; Yunyun Liu; Lijie Zhang; Shaoming Huang∗

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, a route for synthesizing vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWC-NTs) with branched nanotubes in large area was reported. The branched MWCNTs up to about 30% can be generated by the pyrolysis of iron(II) phthalocyanine in presence of thiol under Ar/H2 at 800∼900℃. The growth mechanism of the branched nanotubes was proposed and the possible reason that thiol enhanced branched nan-otubes growth is discussed. The as-prepared samples provide a suitable candidate to investigate the special electrical or thermal properties of CNTs with branched structures further.

  13. Formation of self-assembled quantum dots of iron oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis from non-aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum dots (QDs) of iron oxide have been deposited onto ITO coated glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique, using ferric chloride (FeCl3.7H2O) in non-aqueous medium as a starting material. The non-aqueous solvents namely methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol and pentanol were used as solvents. The effect of solvents on the film structure and morphology was studied. The structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), and optical absorption measurement techniques

  14. Influence of iron complexes on formation of photosynthetic apparatus and outcome of genetic changes at the gamma irradiated seeds of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Shamilov

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Influence of various doses of γ-irradiation on biosynthesis of chlorophyll and carotinoids, and also on a progress of mitotic divisions of meristematic cells of root hairs at sprouting wheat seeds at the presence of pyrocatechol, iron pyrocatecholat, thiocarbamide, iron thiocarbamide, rutine, iron rutinate, juglon and iron juglonate was studied. There was revealed that iron pyrocatecholate, iron rutinate, juglon and iron juglonate possess appreciable radioprotective properties which stimulate adaptive biosynthesis of chlorophyll and carotinoids, and also considerably reduce a number of chromosomal aberrations under irradiation.

  15. Colorimetric and atomic absorption spectrometric determination of mucolytic drug ambroxol through ion-pair formation with iron and thiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Abdulkadir; Sentürk, Zühre

    2010-09-01

    Colorimetric and atomic absorption spectrometric methods have been developed for the determination of mucolytic drug Ambroxol. These procedures depend upon the reaction of iron(III) metal ion with the drug in the presence of thiocyanate ion to form stable ion-pair complex which extractable chloroform. The red-coloured complex was determined either colorimetrically at 510 nm or by indirect atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) via the determination of the iron content in the formed complex. The optimum experimental conditions for pH, concentrations of Fe(3+) and SCN(-), shaking time, phase ratio, and the number of extractions were determined. Under the proposed conditions, linearity was obeyed in the concentration ranges 4.1x10(-6) - 5.7x10(-5) M (1.7-23.6 µg mL(-1)) using both methods, with detection limits of 4.6x10(-7) M (0.19 µg mL(-1)) for colorimetry and 1.1x10(-6) M (0.46 µg mL(-1)) for AAS. The proposed methods were applied for the determination of Ambroxol in tablet dosage forms. The results obtained were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the high-performance liquid chromatographic method with diode-array detection.

  16. Environmental control on the occurrence of high-coercivity magnetic minerals and formation of iron sulfides in a 640 ka sediment sequence from Lake Ohrid (Balkans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Janna; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Francke, Alexander; Vogel, Hendrik; Lacey, Jack H.; Wagner, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    The bulk magnetic mineral record from Lake Ohrid, spanning the past 637 kyr, reflects large-scale shifts in hydrological conditions, and, superimposed, a strong signal of environmental conditions on glacial-interglacial and millennial timescales. A shift in the formation of early diagenetic ferrimagnetic iron sulfides to siderites is observed around 320 ka. This change is probably associated with variable availability of sulfide in the pore water. We propose that sulfate concentrations were significantly higher before ˜ 320 ka, due to either a higher sulfate flux or lower dilution of lake sulfate due to a smaller water volume. Diagenetic iron minerals appear more abundant during glacials, which are generally characterized by higher Fe / Ca ratios in the sediments. While in the lower part of the core the ferrimagnetic sulfide signal overprints the primary detrital magnetic signal, the upper part of the core is dominated by variable proportions of high- to low-coercivity iron oxides. Glacial sediments are characterized by high concentration of high-coercivity magnetic minerals (hematite, goethite), which relate to enhanced erosion of soils that had formed during preceding interglacials. Superimposed on the glacial-interglacial behavior are millennial-scale oscillations in the magnetic mineral composition that parallel variations in summer insolation. Like the processes on glacial-interglacial timescales, low summer insolation and a retreat in vegetation resulted in enhanced erosion of soil material. Our study highlights that rock-magnetic studies, in concert with geochemical and sedimentological investigations, provide a multi-level contribution to environmental reconstructions, since the magnetic properties can mirror both environmental conditions on land and intra-lake processes.

  17. Formation of high electrical-resistivity thin surface layer on carbonyl-iron powder (CIP and thermal stability of nanocrystalline structure and vortex magnetic structure of CIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sugimura

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the carbonyl-iron powder (CIP used in the metal composite bulk magnetic core for high-efficient/light-weight SiC/GaN power device MHz switching dc-dc converter, where the fine CIP with a mean diameter of 1.1 μm is used to suppress the MHz band eddy current inside the CIP body. When applying the CIP to composite core together with the resin matrix, high electrical resistivity layer must be formed on the CIP-surface in order to suppress the overlapped eddy current between adjacent CIPs. In this study, tens nm thick silica (SiO2 was successfully deposited on the CIP-surface by using hydrolysis of TEOS (Si(OC2H54. Also tens nm thick oxidized layer of the CIP-surface was successfully formed by using CIP annealing in dry air. The SiC/GaN power device can operate at ambient temperature over 200 degree-C, and the composite magnetic core is required to operate at such ambient temperature. The as-made CIP had small coercivity below 800 A/m (10 Oe due to its nanocrystalline-structure and had a single vortex magnetic structure. From the experimental results, both nanocrystalline and single vortex magnetic structure were maintained after heat-exposure of 250 degree-C, and the powder coercivity after same heat-exposure was nearly same as that of the as-made CIP. Therefore, the CIP with thermally stable nanocrystalline-structure and vortex magnetic state was considered to be heat-resistant magnetic powder used in the iron-based composite core for SiC/GaN power electronics.

  18. Formation of high electrical-resistivity thin surface layer on carbonyl-iron powder (CIP) and thermal stability of nanocrystalline structure and vortex magnetic structure of CIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, K.; Miyajima, Y.; Sonehara, M.; Sato, T.; Hayashi, F.; Zettsu, N.; Teshima, K.; Mizusaki, H.

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the carbonyl-iron powder (CIP) used in the metal composite bulk magnetic core for high-efficient/light-weight SiC/GaN power device MHz switching dc-dc converter, where the fine CIP with a mean diameter of 1.1 μm is used to suppress the MHz band eddy current inside the CIP body. When applying the CIP to composite core together with the resin matrix, high electrical resistivity layer must be formed on the CIP-surface in order to suppress the overlapped eddy current between adjacent CIPs. In this study, tens nm thick silica (SiO2) was successfully deposited on the CIP-surface by using hydrolysis of TEOS (Si(OC2H5)4). Also tens nm thick oxidized layer of the CIP-surface was successfully formed by using CIP annealing in dry air. The SiC/GaN power device can operate at ambient temperature over 200 degree-C, and the composite magnetic core is required to operate at such ambient temperature. The as-made CIP had small coercivity below 800 A/m (10 Oe) due to its nanocrystalline-structure and had a single vortex magnetic structure. From the experimental results, both nanocrystalline and single vortex magnetic structure were maintained after heat-exposure of 250 degree-C, and the powder coercivity after same heat-exposure was nearly same as that of the as-made CIP. Therefore, the CIP with thermally stable nanocrystalline-structure and vortex magnetic state was considered to be heat-resistant magnetic powder used in the iron-based composite core for SiC/GaN power electronics.

  19. Sol-gel formation of γ-Fe2O3/SiO2 nanocomposites: Effects of different iron raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silica coated magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The crystal phase and magnetic properties of serials of α, γ-Fe2O3/SiO2 from different iron raw materials, submitted to thermal treatment at a temperature of 400 deg. C were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy and magnetometry. Different amounts of TEOS, ethanol, water (media), and the different sources of iron, including ferric citrate (adjusting pH with citric acid), ferric chloride (adjusting pH with HCl), ferric nitrate (adjusting pH with nitrate) as raw material were mixed to form sol, and then gel. After drying at 60 deg. C in vacuum, the dry gels were sintered at the temperature of 400 deg. C to produce the Fe2O3 particles. Ferric citrate raw material favored the occurrence of γ-Fe2O3, while ferric chloride gave rise to α-Fe2O3 formation in SiO2 matrix

  20. Intracellular iron minerals in a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, Susan; Langley, Sean; Beveridge, Terry J

    2002-01-01

    Among prokaryotes, there are few examples of controlled mineral formation; the formation of crystalline iron oxides and sulfides [magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4)] by magnetotactic bacteria is an exception. Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium that is capable of dissimilatory iron reduction, produced microscopic intracellular grains of iron oxide minerals during growth on two-line ferrihydrite in a hydrogen-argon atmosphere. The minerals, formed at iron concentrations found in the soil and sedimentary environments where these bacteria are active, could represent an unexplored pathway for the cycling of iron by bacteria. PMID:11778045

  1. Study of the sulfur mechanism on the formation of coke deposition on iron surfaces; Etude des mecanismes d'action du soufre sur le cokage catalytique du fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, F.

    2001-12-01

    The formation of coke deposition which occurs in a range of temperature 500 deg C-650 deg C is a major problem in many chemical and petrochemical processes where hydrocarbons or other strongly carburizing atmospheres are involved. To reduce the rate of coke deposition, sulfur can be added in the gas phase. The topic of this work is to study the sulfur mechanism on the formation of coke deposition on iron surfaces. Firstly, we study the mechanism of graphitic filament formation on reduced and oxidised iron surfaces. A new mechanism of catalytic particle formation is proposed when the surface is initially oxidised. This mechanism is based on thermodynamic, kinetic and structural considerations. The results show that oxide/carbide transitions are involved in the transformation of the oxide layer in catalytic particles. Although the different iron oxides are precursors for the formation of catalytic particles, wustite (FeO) has a better reactivity than magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Sulfur acts on different steps of the coke formation, preventing phase transformations (carburation, graphitization) which occur during the formation of catalytic particles. Sulfur activity required to prevent these transformations changes with the temperature, the chemical state of iron (reduced or oxidised) and the carbon activity in the gas phase. Sulfur/ethylene co-adsorption studies were performed on mono-crystal of iron (110). The results show that sulfur can prevent adsorption and decomposition of this hydrocarbon on metallic surface (Fe) and on magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Then, sulfur prevents the reaction leading to the carburation and graphitization of the surface. (author)

  2. GROUND-BASED Paα NARROW-BAND IMAGING OF LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. STAR FORMATION RATES AND SURFACE DENSITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateuchi, Ken; Konishi, Masahiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kato, Natsuko Mitani; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Todo, Soya; Toshikawa, Koji; Sako, Shigeyuki; Uchimoto, Yuka K.; Ohsawa, Ryou; Asano, Kentaro; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Okada, Kazushi [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Ita, Yoshifusa [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Komugi, Shinya [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 2665-1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Koshida, Shintaro [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Manabe, Sho [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Nakashima, Asami, E-mail: tateuchi@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); and others

    2015-03-15

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are enshrouded by a large amount of dust produced by their active star formation, and it is difficult to measure their activity in optical wavelengths. We have carried out Paα narrow-band imaging observations of 38 nearby star forming galaxies including 33 LIRGs listed in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample catalog with the Atacama Near InfraRed camera on the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 1.0 m telescope (miniTAO). Star formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the Paα fluxes, corrected for dust extinction using the Balmer decrement method (typically A{sub V} ∼ 4.3 mag), show a good correlation with those from the bolometric infrared luminosity of the IRAS data within a scatter of 0.27 dex. This suggests that the correction of dust extinction for the Paα flux is sufficient in our sample. We measure the physical sizes and surface densities of infrared luminosities (Σ{sub L(IR)}) and the SFR (Σ{sub SFR}) of star forming regions for individual galaxies, and we find that most of the galaxies follow a sequence of local ultra-luminous or luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) on the L(IR)-Σ{sub L(IR)} and SFR-Σ{sub SFR} plane. We confirm that a transition of the sequence from normal galaxies to U/LIRGs is seen at L(IR) = 8 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}. Also, we find that there is a large scatter in physical size, different from normal galaxies or ULIRGs. Considering the fact that most U/LIRGs are merging or interacting galaxies, this scatter may be caused by strong external factors or differences in their merging stages.

  3. Experimental Constraints on the Stability of Clinopyroxene (+) Magnesite in Iron Bearing Planetary Mantles: Implications for Nakhlite Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Audrey M.; Righter, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Carbon is present in various forms in the Earth s upper mantle (carbonate- or diamond-bearing mantle xenoliths, carbonatite magmas, CO2 emissions from volcanoes...). Moreover, there is enough carbon in chondritic material to stabilize carbonates into the mantles of Mars or Venus as well as in the Earth. However, the interactions with iron have to be constrained, because Fe is commonly thought to buffer oxygen fugacity into planetary mantles. [1] and [2] show evidences of the stability of clinopyroxene Ca(Mg,Fe)Si2O6 + magnesite (Mg,Fe)CO3 in the Earth s mantle around 6GPa (about 180km). The stability of oxidized forms of carbon (like magnesite) depends on the oxygen fugacity of the system. In the Earth s mantle, the maximum carbon content is 10000 ppm [3]. The fO2 parameter varies vertically as a function of pressure, but also laterally because of geodynamic processes like subduction. Thus, carbonates, graphite, diamond, C-rich gases and melts are all stable forms of carbon in the Earth s mantle. [4] show that the fO2 variations observed in SNC meteorites can be explained by polybaric graphite-CO-CO2 equilibria in the Martian mantle. [5] inferred from thermodynamic calculations that the stable form of carbon in the source regions of the Martian basalts should be graphite (and/or diamond). After [6], a metasomatizing agent like a CO2-rich melt may infiltrate the mantle source of nakhlites. However, according to [7] and [8], the FeO wt% value in the Martian bulk mantle is more than twice that of the Earth s mantle (KLB-1 composition by [9]). As iron and carbon are two elements with various oxidation states, Fe/C interaction mechanisms must be considered.

  4. K band SINFONI spectra of two $z \\sim 5$ SMGs: upper limits to the un-obscured star formation from [O II] optical emission line searches

    CERN Document Server

    Couto, Guilherme S; López, Javier Piqueras; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Arribas, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present deep SINFONI K band integral field spectra of two submillimeter (SMG) galaxy systems: BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0234, at $z=4.69$ and $4.55$ respectively. Spectra extracted for each object in the two systems do not show any signature of the [O II]$\\lambda\\lambda$3726,29\\AA$\\,$ emission-lines, placing upper flux limits of $3.9$ and $2.5 \\times 10^{-18}\\,$${\\rm erg\\,s^{-1}\\,\\,cm^{-2} \\,}$ for BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0234, respectively. Using the relation between the star formation rate (SFR) and the luminosity of the [O II] doublet from Kennicutt (1998), we estimate unobscured SFR upper limits of $\\sim$ $10-15\\,\\rm M_\\odot\\,yr^{-1} \\,$ and $\\sim$ $30-40\\,\\rm M_\\odot\\,yr^{-1} \\,$ for the objects of the two systems, respectively. For the SMGs, these values are at least two orders of magnitude lower than those derived from SED and IR luminosities. The differences on the SFR values would correspond to internal extinction of, at least, $3.4 - 4.9$ and $2.1 - 3.6$ mag in the visual for BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0...

  5. Research progress of Precambrian iron formations abroad and some problems deserving further discussion%国外前寒武纪铁建造的研究进展与有待深入探讨的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长乐; 张连昌; 刘利; 代堰锫

    2012-01-01

    Iron formation (IF), formed during the early Precambrian period, is an iron-rich (TFe> 15%) and siliceous chemical sedimentary rock. It consists chiefly of iron oxides (magnetite and hematite) and quartz. According to its petrographic features, IF can be classified into two types: Banded Iron Formation (BIF) and Granular Iron Formation (GIF); BIF can also be further divided into Algoma type related to volcanic rocks and Superior type related to fine clastic-carbonate rocks on the basis of sedimentary environment. IF began its production at 3.8 Ga, mainly occurred from 2.8 Ga to 1.8 Ga, continuously disappeared after 1.8 Ga, and reappeared in small amounts at about 0.8 Ga because of the Snowball Event. Algoma type BIF was dominantly pro-duced in Meso-Neoarchean, whereas Superior-type BIF was much more common in Paleoproterozoic. The former, mainly formed before cratonization, was closely related to marine volcanic activity and continental accretion while the latter, mainly formed after cratonization, was related to stable craton basins and increasing atmospheric oxygen content. Algoma-type iron deposits are often characterized by smaller-size in terms of single ore body, lower grade and multilayer development, whereas the Superior-type ones have features of larger-size single ore bodies, higher grade and fairly stable layers. Due to extensive production and unrepeatable nature of IF, the research on IF has not only economic value but also important scientific significance. The research trend of IF seems to further focus on such problems as the relationship between IF and early tectonic (mantle plumes and early plate tectonics) evolution, the composition and evolution of hydrosphere and atmosphere, the activity of early organisms in the earth, the genesis of IF and the regularity of its temporal and spatial distribution.%形成于早前寒武纪的铁建造,是一种富铁[ω(TFe)>15%]的硅质化学沉积岩,其主要矿物组成是铁氧化物(磁铁矿和赤

  6. Comparative analysis of biofilm formation by Bacillus cereus reference strains and undomesticated food isolates and the effect of free iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayrapetyan, H.; Muller, L.K.; Tempelaars, M.H.; Abee, T.; Nierop Groot, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation of Bacillus cereus reference strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 and 21 undomesticated food isolates was studied on polystyrene and stainless steel as contact surfaces. For all strains, the biofilm forming capacity was significantly enhanced when in contact with stainless steel (SS)

  7. Eukaryotic stromatolite builders in acid mine drainage: Implications for Precambrian iron formations and oxygenation of the atmosphere?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brake, S.S.; Hasiotis, S.T.; Dannelly, H.K.; Connors, K.A. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States). Dept. of Geography, Geology & Anthropology

    2002-07-01

    Biological activity of Euglena mutabilis, an acidophilic, photosynthetic protozoan, contributes to the formation of Fe-rich stromatolites in acid mine drainage systems. E. mutabilis is the dominant microbe in bright green benthic mats (biofilm), coating drainage channels at abandoned coal mine sites in Indiana. It builds biolaminates through phototactic and aerotactic behavior, similar to prokaryotes, by moving through precipitates that periodically cover the mats. E. mutabilis also contributes to formation of Fe-rich stromatolites by (1) intracellularly storing Fe compounds released after death, contributing to the solid material of stromatolites and acting as nucleation sites for precipitation of authigenic Fe minerals, and (2) generating 02 via photosynthesis that further facilitates precipitation of reduced Fe, any excess 02 not consumed by Fe precipitation being released to the atmosphere. Recognition of E. mutabilis-dominated biofilm in acidic systems raises a provocative hypothesis relating processes involved in formation of Fe-rich stromatolites by E. mutabilis to those responsible for development of Precambrian stromatolitic Fe formations and oxygenation of the early atmosphere.

  8. Silica and Pyroxene in IVA Irons; Possible Formation of the IVA Magma by Impact Melting and Reduction of L-LL-Chondrite Materials Followed by Crystallization and Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John T.; Matsunami, Yoshiyuki; Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Group IVA is a large magmatic group of iron meteorites. The mean DELTA O-17 (= delta O-17 - 0.52(raised dot) delta O-18) of the silicates is approx. plus or minus 1.2%o, similar to the highest values in L chondrites and the lowest values in LL chondrites; delta O-18 values are also in the L/LL range. This strongly suggests that IVA irons formed by melting L-LL parental material, but the mean Ni content of IVA irons (83 mg/g) is much lower than that of a presumed L-LL parent (approx. 170 mg/g) and the low-Ca pyroxene present in two IVA meteorites is Fs13, much lower than the Fs20-29 values in L and LL chondrites. Thus, formation from L-LL precursors requires extensive addition of metallic Fe, probably produced by reduction of FeS and FeO. Group IVA also has S/Ni, Ga/Ni, and Ge/Ni ratios that are much lower than those in L-LL chondrites or any chondrite group that preserves nebular compositions, implying loss of these volatile elements during asteroidal processing. We suggest that these reduction and loss processes occurred near the surface of the asteroid during impact heating, and resulted partly from reduction by C, and partly from the thermal dissociation of FeS and FeO with loss of O and S. The hot (approx. 1770 K) low-viscosity melt quickly moved through channels in the porous asteroid to form a core. Two members of the IVA group, Sao Joao Nepomuceno (hereafter, SJN) and Steinbach, contain moderate amounts of orthopyroxene and silica, and minor amounts of low-Ca clinopyroxene. Even though SJN formed after approx. 26% crystallization and Steinbach formed after approx. 77% Crystallization of the IVA core, both could have originated within several tens of meters of the core-mantle interface if 99% of the crystallization occurred from the center outwards. Two other members of the group (Gibeon and Bishop Canyon) contain tabular tridymite, which we infer to have initially formed as veins deposited from a cooling SiO-rich vapor. The silicates were clearly introduced

  9. Sclerite formation in the hydrothermal-vent “scaly-foot” gastropod — possible control of iron sulfide biomineralization by the animal

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Yohey; Kopp, Robert E.; Kogure, Toshihiro; Suga, Akinobu; Takai, Ken; Tsuchida, Shinji; Ozaki, Noriaki; Endo, Kazuyoshi; Hashimoto, Jun; Kato, Yasuhiro; Mizota, Chitoshi; Hirata, Takafumi; CHIBA, Hitoshi; Nealson, Kenneth H; Horikoshi, Koki

    2006-01-01

    A gastropod from a deep-sea hydrothermal field at the Rodriguez triple junction, Indian Ocean, has scale-shaped structures, called sclerites, mineralized with iron sulfides on its foot. No other organisms are known to produce a skeleton consisting of iron sulfides. To investigate whether iron sulfide mineralization is mediated by the gastropod for the function of the sclerites, we performed a detailed physical and chemical characterization. Nanostructural characterization of the iron sulfide ...

  10. Geochemical characteristics of gold bearing boninites and banded iron formations from Shimoga greenstone belt, India: Implications for gold genesis and hydrothermal processes in diverse tectonic settings

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganguly, S.; Manikyamba, C.; Saha, A.; Lingadevaru, M.; Santosh, M.; Rambabu, S.; Khelen, A.C.; Purushotham, D.; Linga, D.

    in an intraoceanic arc setting. The Gd/Yb and Dy/Yb ratios suggest parent magma origin through partial melting of a spinel lherzolite mantle source. Geochemical signatures of the boninites suggest high temperature, shallow level melting of refractory mantle wedge...

  11. Effect of Mn, Si, and Cooling Rate on the Formation of Iron-Rich Intermetallics in 206 Al-Cu Cast Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Cao, X.; Chen, X.-G.

    2012-10-01

    The solidification structures of commercial 206 Al-Cu cast alloys with 0.15 pct Fe have been studied using thermal analysis (TA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The EBSD results have shown that there are two iron-rich intermetallics: Chinese script α-Fe and platelet-like β-Fe. The addition of either Mn or Si has helped to promote the formation of α-Fe and hinder the precipitate of β-Fe. The combined addition of both Mn and Si is even more effective than the individual addition of either Mn or Si. The full solidification sequence of the 206 cast alloy has been established. The volume percent and formation temperature increase for α-Fe but decrease for β-Fe with increasing cooling rate. The platelet β-Fe can be effectively suppressed in 206 cast alloys by controlling the alloy chemistry and cooling rate. A casting process map is proposed to correlate the Mn and Si contents with cooling rates for the 206 cast alloys.

  12. Bonding Character and Formation Energy of Point Defects of He and Vacancy on (001) Surface of bcc Iron by First Principle Calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun CAI; Daogang LU

    2013-01-01

    The structure and energy of He impurities and vacancy on (001) surface of bcc iron are investigated by an ab initio method.Three cases for stabilities of a He atom at the surface are found: some of He atoms at surface atomic layers (SAL) relax into vacuum gap; some of surface He atoms at octahedral interstitial site relax into more stable tetrahedral interstitial site; some of surface He atoms still stay at tetrahedral interstitial site.The un-stability of the He atom at the surface system can be explained by deformation mechanism of charge densities and electronic densities of states.It is found that formation energy of the point defects from the topmost SAL to bulk-like atomic layer increase gradually,for example,the formation energies of a monovacancy at the first five topmost SALs are equal to 0.33,1.56,2.04,2.02 and 2.11 eV,respectively.The magnetic moments of Fe atoms in the surface atomic layers are also calculated.

  13. Ab initio scaling laws for the formation energy of nanosized interstitial defect clusters in iron, tungsten, and vanadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R.; Marinica, M.-C.; Proville, L.; Willaime, F.; Arakawa, K.; Gilbert, M. R.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2016-07-01

    The size limitation of ab initio calculations impedes first-principles simulations of crystal defects at nanometer sizes. Considering clusters of self-interstitial atoms as a paradigm for such crystal defects, we have developed an ab initio-accuracy model to predict formation energies of defect clusters with various geometries and sizes. Our discrete-continuum model combines the discrete nature of energetics of interstitial clusters and continuum elasticity for a crystalline solid matrix. The model is then applied to interstitial dislocation loops with and 1 /2 Burgers vectors, and to C15 clusters in body-centered-cubic crystals Fe, W, and V, to determine their relative stabilities as a function of size. We find that in Fe the C15 clusters were more stable than dislocation loops if the number of self-interstitial atoms involved was fewer than 51, which corresponds to a C15 cluster with a diameter of 1.5 nm. In V and W, the 1 /2 loops represent the most stable configurations for all defect sizes, which is at odds with predictions derived from simulations performed using some empirical interatomic potentials. Further, the formation energies predicted by the discrete-continuum model are reparametrized by a simple analytical expression giving the formation energy of self-interstitial clusters as a function of their size. The analytical scaling laws are valid over a very broad range of defect sizes, and they can be used in multiscale techniques including kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and cluster dynamics or dislocation dynamics studies.

  14. Controversial Pb-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope results in the early Archean Isua (West Greenland) oxide iron formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Rosing, Minik; Stecher, Ole

    1999-01-01

    yield unrealistically high Nd(3800) of +14.8 and +14.4, indicative of Sm/Nd ratios resembling REE fractionated, continental sources. These high Nd(3800), together with radiogenic Sr leached from the magnetite-enriched separates, is ascribed to secondary hydroxyapatite, which predominantly forms...... supracrustal belt and adjoining gneisses can be assigned to post-formational hydrothermal processes and underline the need for care in the interpretation of Sm-Nd bulk data from polymetamorphic rocks to constrain isotopic models of early Earth’s evolution....

  15. Oxygen isotope exchange kinetics of mineral pairs in closed and open systems: Applications to problems of hydrothermal alteration of igneous rocks and Precambrian iron formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, R.T.; Criss, R.E.; Taylor, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    heat-balance constraints, we can utilize the 18O 16O data on natural mineral assemblages to calculate the kinetic rate constants (k's) and the effective diffusion constants (D's) for mineral-H2O exchange: these calculated values (kqtz ??? 10-14, kfeld ??? 10-13-10-12) agree with experimental determinations of such constants. In nature, once the driving force or energy source for the external infiltrating fluid phase is removed, the disequilibrium mineral-pair arrays will either: (1) remain "frozen" in their existing state, if the temperatures are low enough, or (2) re-equilibrate along specific closed-system exchange vectors determined solely by the temperature path and the mineral modal proportions. Thus, modal mineralogical information is a particularly important parameter in both the open- and closed-system scenarios, and should in general always be reported in stable-isotopic studies of mineral assemblages. These concepts are applied to an analysis of 18O 16O systematics of gabbros (Plagioclase-clinopyroxene and plagioclase-amphibole pairs), granitic plutons (quartz-feldspar pairs), and Precambrian siliceous iron formations (quartz-magnetite pairs). In all these examples, striking regularities are observed on ??-?? and ??-?? plots, but we point out that ??-?? plots have many advantages over their equivalent ??-?? diagrams, as the latter are more susceptible to misinterpretation. Using the equations developed in this study, these regularities can be interpreted to give semiquantitative information on the exchange histories of these rocks subsequent to their formation. In particular, we present a new interpretation indicating that Precambrian cherty iron formations have in general undergone a complex fluid exchange history in which the iron oxide (magnetite precursor?) has exchanged much faster with low-temperature (< 400??C) fluids than has the relatively inert quartz. ?? 1989.

  16. Strain hardening and ductility of iron: axisymmetric vs. plane strain elongation. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langford, G.

    1979-05-01

    The strain hardening of iron at high strains in plane strain elongation (strip drawing) is shown to fall increasngly below that of drawn iron wires at true strains above 2. This makes it unnecessary to invoke shear band formation simultaneously as a strengthening mechanism and as a ductility reducing mechanism in the drawn strip. Rather, shear bands may be a weakening mechanism in all contexts. A set of specimens of interstitial-free iron deformed in three of the four main classifications of deformation symmetry (wire, strip, and chips, representing axisymmetric elongation, plane strain elongation, and pure shear) has been prepared in the form of mechanical test specimens and thin foils for high resolution selected area diffraction. A simple technique for rapid discovery of the <110> axis of foils of strongly textured bcc wire has been worked out.

  17. Phase separation in iron chalcogenide superconductor Rb0.8+xFe1.6+ySe2 as seen by Raman light scattering and band structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkevich, Yu.; Gnezdilov, V.; Lemmens, P.; Shevtsova, T.; Gusev, A.; Lamonova, K.; Wulferding, D.; Gnatchenko, S.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.

    2016-06-01

    We report Raman light scattering in the phase separated superconducting single crystal Rb0.77Fe1.61Se2 with Tc = 32 K over a wide temperature region 3-500 K. The observed phonon lines from the majority vacancy ordered Rb2Fe4Se5 (245) antiferromagnetic phase with TN = 525 K demonstrate modest anomalies in the frequency, intensity and halfwidth at the superconductive phase transition. We identify phonon lines from the minority compressed RbδFe2Se2 (122) conductive phase. The superconducting gap with d x 2 - y 2 symmetry has been detected in our spectra. In the range 0-600 cm-1 we observe a weak but highly polarized B1g-type background which becomes well-structured upon cooling. A possible magnetic or multiorbital origin of this background is discussed. We argue that the phase separation in M0.8+xFe1.6+ySe2 is of pure magnetic origin. It occurs below the Néel temperature when the magnetic moment of iron reaches a critical value. We state that there is a spacer between the majority 245 and minority 122 phases. Using ab initio spin-polarized band structure calculations we demonstrate that the compressed vacancy ordered Rb2Fe4Se5 phase can be conductive and therefore may serve as a protective interface spacer between the purely metallic RbδFe2Se2 phase and the insulating Rb2Fe4Se5 phase providing percolative Josephson-junction like superconductivity all throughout of Rb0.8+xFe1.6+ySe2. Our lattice dynamics calculations show significant differences in the phonon spectra of the conductive and insulating Rb2Fe4Se5 phases.

  18. Jarosite versus Soluble Iron-Sulfate Formation and Their Role in Acid Mine Drainage Formation at the Pan de Azúcar Mine Tailings (Zn-Pb-Ag, NW Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesica Murray

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Secondary jarosite and water-soluble iron-sulfate minerals control the composition of acid mine waters formed by the oxidation of sulfide in tailings impoundments at the (Zn-Pb-Ag Pan de Azúcar mine located in the Pozuelos Lagoon Basin (semi-arid climate in Northwest (NW Argentina. In the primary zone of the tailings (9.5 wt % pyrite-marcasite precipitation of anglesite (PbSO4, wupatkite ((Co,Mg,NiAl2(SO44 and gypsum retain Pb, Co and Ca, while mainly Fe2+, Zn2+, Al3+, Mg2+, As3+/5+ and Cd2+ migrate downwards, forming a sulfate and metal-rich plume. In the oxidation zone, jarosite (MFe3(TO42(OH6 is the main secondary Fe3+ phase; its most suitable composition is M = K+, Na+, and Pb2+and TO4 = SO42−; AsO42−. During the dry season, iron-sulfate salts precipitate by capillary transport on the tailings and at the foot of DC2 (tailings impoundment DC2 tailings dam where an acid, Fe2+ rich plume outcrops. The most abundant compounds in the acid mine drainage (AMD are SO42−, Fe2+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Al3+, Mg2+, Cu2+, As3+/5+, Cd2+. These show peak concentrations at the beginning of the wet season, when the soluble salts and jarosite dissolve. The formation of soluble sulfate salts during the dry season and dilution during the wet season conform an annual cycle of rapid metals and acidity transference from the tailings to the downstream environment.

  19. Charge-ordering transition in iron oxide Fe4O5 involving competing dimer and trimer formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikov, Sergey V.; Bykov, Maxim; Bykova, Elena; Kozlenko, Denis P.; Tsirlin, Alexander A.; Karkin, Alexander E.; Shchennikov, Vladimir V.; Kichanov, Sergey E.; Gou, Huiyang; Abakumov, Artem M.; Egoavil, Ricardo; Verbeeck, Johan; McCammon, Catherine; Dyadkin, Vadim; Chernyshov, Dmitry; van Smaalen, Sander; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.

    2016-05-01

    Phase transitions that occur in materials, driven, for instance, by changes in temperature or pressure, can dramatically change the materials’ properties. Discovering new types of transitions and understanding their mechanisms is important not only from a fundamental perspective, but also for practical applications. Here we investigate a recently discovered Fe4O5 that adopts an orthorhombic CaFe3O5-type crystal structure that features linear chains of Fe ions. On cooling below ∼150 K, Fe4O5 undergoes an unusual charge-ordering transition that involves competing dimeric and trimeric ordering within the chains of Fe ions. This transition is concurrent with a significant increase in electrical resistivity. Magnetic-susceptibility measurements and neutron diffraction establish the formation of a collinear antiferromagnetic order above room temperature and a spin canting at 85 K that gives rise to spontaneous magnetization. We discuss possible mechanisms of this transition and compare it with the trimeronic charge ordering observed in magnetite below the Verwey transition temperature.

  20. Microbes: Mini Iron Factories

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Kumar Batuk

    2014-01-01

    Microbes have flourished in extreme habitats since beginning of the Earth and have played an important role in geological processes like weathering, mineralization, diagenesis, mineral formation and destruction. Biotic mineralization is one of the most fascinating examples of how microbes have been influencing geological processes. Iron oxidizing and reducing bacteria are capable of precipitating wide varieties of iron oxides (magnetite), carbonates (siderite) and sulphides (greigite) via con...

  1. Iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world.

  2. Gastric Banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  3. Formation Reason and Countermeasures of Non-Metal Inclusions of Cast Irons%铸铁非金属夹杂物的形成原因与应对措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文和; 王峰; 赵鲁生

    2011-01-01

    The composition and source of slag of cast irons melted in cupola and medium frequency furnace was introduced. The measures to reduce non-metal inclusions in cast irons were proposed as follows: ( 1 )improving metallurgical quality of the cast irons; (2 )improving the morphology and distribution of the nonmetal inclusions. The formation reason of the secondary slag was described. It's considered that, by adopting proper measures and iron melt treating technique, the secondary oxidation of the iron melt and its harmful effect can be reduced.%介绍了冲天炉和中频炉熔炼铸铁的炉渣成分及来源,提出减少铸铁内部非金属夹杂物的措施:(1)提高铸铁的冶金质量;(2)改善铸铁中非金属夹杂物的形态及分布.描述了铁液二次渣的形成原因,认为采取适宜的措施及铁液处理技术,可以减轻铁液二次氧化及其不利影响.

  4. The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Iron Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Burckhardt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard approaches are not appropriate when assessing pharmacokinetics of iron supplements due to the ubiquity of endogenous iron, its compartmentalized sites of action, and the complexity of the iron metabolism. The primary site of action of iron is the erythrocyte, and, in contrast to conventional drugs, no drug-receptor interaction takes place. Notably, the process of erythropoiesis, i.e., formation of new erythrocytes, takes 3−4 weeks. Accordingly, serum iron concentration and area under the curve (AUC are clinically irrelevant for assessing iron utilization. Iron can be administered intravenously in the form of polynuclear iron(III-hydroxide complexes with carbohydrate ligands or orally as iron(II (ferrous salts or iron(III (ferric complexes. Several approaches have been employed to study the pharmacodynamics of iron after oral administration. Quantification of iron uptake from radiolabeled preparations by the whole body or the erythrocytes is optimal, but alternatively total iron transfer can be calculated based on known elimination rates and the intrinsic reactivity of individual preparations. Degradation kinetics, and thus the safety, of parenteral iron preparations are directly related to the molecular weight and the stability of the complex. High oral iron doses or rapid release of iron from intravenous iron preparations can saturate the iron transport system, resulting in oxidative stress with adverse clinical and subclinical consequences. Appropriate pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics analyses will greatly assist our understanding of the likely contribution of novel preparations to the management of anemia.

  5. Formation, reactivity, and aging of ferric oxide particles formed from Fe(II) and Fe(III) sources: Implications for iron bioavailability in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligh, Mark W.; Waite, T. David

    2011-12-01

    Freshly formed amorphous ferric oxides (AFO) in the water column are potentially highly reactive, but with reactivity declining rapidly with age, and have the capacity to partake in reactions with dissolved species and to be a significant source of bioavailable iron. However, the controls on reactivity in aggregated oxides are not well understood. Additionally, the mechanism by which early rapid aging occurs is not clear. Aging is typically considered in terms of changes in crystallinity as the structure of an iron oxide becomes more stable and ordered with time thus leading to declining reactivity. However, there has been recognition of the role that aggregation can play in determining reactivity, although it has received limited attention. Here, we have formed AFO in seawater in the laboratory from either an Fe(II) or Fe(III) source to produce either AFO(II) or AFO(III). The changes in reactivity of these two oxides following formation was measured using both ligand-promoted dissolution (LPD) and reductive dissolution (RD). The structure of the two oxides was examined using light scattering and X-ray adsorption techniques. The dissolution rate of AFO(III) was greater than that of AFO(II), as measured by both dissolution techniques, and could be attributed to both the less ordered molecular structure and smaller primary particle size of AFO(III). From EXAFS analysis shortly (90 min) following formation, AFO(II) and AFO(III) were shown to have the same structure as aged lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite respectively. Both oxides displayed a rapid decrease in dissolution rate over the first hours following formation in a pattern that was very similar when normalised. The early establishment and little subsequent change of crystal structure for both oxides undermined the hypothesis that increasing crystallinity was responsible for early rapid aging. Also, an aging model describing this proposed process could only be fitted to the data with kinetic parameters that were

  6. Mineral resource assessment of the Iron River 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, William F.

    1983-01-01

    The Iron River 1? x 2? quadrangle contains identified resources of copper and iron. Copper-rich shale beds in the north part of the quadrangle contain 12.2 billion pounds (5.5 billion kilograms) of copper in well-studied deposits including 9.2 billion pounds (4.2 billion kilograms) that are economically minable by 1980 standards. At least several billion pounds of copper probably exist in other parts of the same shale beds, but not enough data are available to measure the amount. A small amount, about 250 million pounds (113 million kilograms), of native copper is known to remain in one abandoned mine, and additional but unknown amounts remain in other abandoned mines. About 13.25 billion tons (12.02 billion metric tons) of banded iron-formation averaging roughly 30 percent iron are known within 500 feet (152.4 meters) of the surface in the Gogebic, Marquette, and Iron River-Crystal Falls districts. A small percentage of that might someday be minable as taconite, but none is now believed to be economic. Some higher grade iron concentrations exist in the same iron-formations. Such material was the basis of former mining of iron in the region, but a poor market for such ore and depletion of many deposits have led to the decline of iron mining in the quadrangle. Iron mines of the quadrangle were not being worked in 1980. Many parts of the quadrangle contain belts of favorable host rocks for mineral deposits. Although deposits are not known in these belts, undiscovered deposits of copper, zinc, lead, silver, uranium, phosphate, nickel, chromium, platinum, gold, and diamonds could exist.

  7. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    , a situation unique in the Solar System. In such a world, iron metal is unstable and, as we all know, oxidizes to the ferric iron compounds we call 'rust'. If we require iron metal it must be produced at high temperatures by reacting iron ore, usually a mixture of ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) oxides (Fe2O3......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost...... unique examples of iron metal, otherwise called 'native iron' or 'telluric iron', occur naturally....

  8. Iron and Stony-iron Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, H.; McCoy, T. J.

    2003-12-01

    constraints on the processes operating in the solar nebula. Although most of them probably formed through similar mechanisms, their characteristics are diverse in terms of chemistry, mineralogy, and structure. Significant differences in bulk chemistry between iron meteorites from different cores as well as variations in chemistry between meteorites from the same core provide evidence of the complex chemical evolution of these evolved meteorites. Intergroup variations for volatile siderophile elements (e.g., gallium and germanium) extend more than three orders of magnitude, hinting that iron meteorite parent bodies formed under diverse conditions. These differences reflect both the nebular source material and geological processing in the parent bodies.Can we be sure that the iron meteorites are indeed fragments of cores? Since no differentiated asteroid has yet been visited by a spacecraft, we rely on circumstantial evidence. Some M-type asteroids have spectral characteristics expected from exposed metallic cores (Tholen, 1989), while others exhibit basaltic surfaces, a hallmark of global differentiation. Although olivine-rich mantles should dominate the volume of differentiated asteroids, there is an enigmatic lack of olivine-rich asteroids (and meteorites) that could represent mantle material ( Burbine et al., 1996). Until we visit an asteroid with parts of a core-mantle boundary exposed, our best evidence supporting a core origin is detailed studies of iron meteorites.Iron-nickel alloys are expected in the cores of differentiated asteroids, but what other evidence supports the notion that iron meteorites sample the metallic cores of differentiated asteroids? What suggests that these asteroids were sufficiently heated to trigger core formation, and that iron meteorites sample cores rather than isolated pods of once molten metal? First and foremost, trace-element compositional trends in most groups of iron meteorites are consistent with fractional crystallization of a

  9. High temperature corrosion studies. A. Iron: based superalloy in SO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ atmospheres. B. Gas: solid reaction with formation of volatile species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T.K.

    1980-03-01

    The thermogravimetric method was used to study high temperature corrosion under SO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ atmosphere applied to Armco 18SR alloys with different heat treatment histories, Armco T310 and pure chromium between 750 and 1100/sup 0/C. The weight gain follows the parabolic rate law. The volatilization of the protective Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ layer via formation of CrO/sub 3/ was taken into account above 900/sup 0/C for long time runs. The parabolic rate and the volatilization rate, derived from fitting the experimental data to the modified Tedmon's non-linear model, were correlated using the Arrhenius equation. Armco 18SR-C has the best corrosion resistance of the Armco 18SR alloys. Armco T310 is not protective at high temperatures. The available rate data on the oxidation of chromium oxide, chlorination of chromium, oxidation-chlorination of chromium oxide, chlorination of nickel and chlorination of iron were found to be predictable. The calculation of high temperature volatilization rate was performed using the available fluid correlation equations and the Lennard-Jones parameters derived from the molecule with similar structure and from the low temperature viscosity measurement. The lower predicted volatilization rate is due to the use of the Chapman-Enskog equation with the Lennard-Jones parameters mostly derived from the low temperature viscosity measurement. This was substantiated by comparing the reliable high temperature diffusion rate in the literature with the above mentioned calculational method. The experimental volatilization rates of this study are compared with the other related studies and the mass transfer predictions.

  10. Algoma-, Superior-, and oolitic-type iron deposits of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 83): Chapter O in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Finn, Carol A.; Anderson, Eric D.; Joud, M. Y.; Taleb, M. A.; Horton, John D.

    2015-01-01

    High-grade hematitic iron ores (or HIF, containing 60–65 percent Fe) have been mined in Mauritania from Superior-type iron deposits since 1952. Depletion of the high grade ores in recent years has resulted in a number of new projects focused on lower grade magnetite ores in Algoma-type banded iron formation (or BIF, containing approximately 35 percent Fe). Large deposits of oolitic-type iron ores are also present in Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks in Mauritania. According to recent U.S. Geological Survey figures, Mauritania is the fifteenth largest iron producer in the World and currently has about 1.1 billion tonnes of crude iron ore reserves (USGS, 2012).

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... substantiation of a health claim related to iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells. The food constituent, iron, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells is a beneficial...... physiological effect for infants and young children. A claim on iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells in the general population has already been assessed by the Panel with a favourable outcome. The Panel considers that the role of iron in normal formation of haemoglobin...

  12. Structure and properties of ultrathin iron films on Ru(10 overline10) : The formation of metastable surface phases of γ-Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kevin; Prince, Robert H.; Lambert, Richard M.

    1988-07-01

    The chemisorption and desorption of Fe at the (10 overline10) surface of Ru has been investigated by LEED, Auger spectroscopy, Δφ and thermal desorption measurements over a substrate temperature range of 300-900 K. The growth mode of the iron deposit was found to be strongly dependent on the temperature. At 300 K up to seven iron monolayers could be grown, these adopting the configuration of the fcc (111) plane of bulk γ-iron. The layers were metastable and heating of such films or deposition at elevated temperatures resulted in nucleation and growth of crystallites. Only a single Fe desorption peak ( Ed≈ 250 kJ mol-1) was observed over the whole coverage regime; this is assigned to the evaporation of iron atoms in contact with the ruthenium substrate, either pre-existing in the first monolayer or supplied from the Fe crystallites.

  13. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Noamundi-Koira basin iron ore deposits (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Azimuddin; Alvi, Shabbar Habib; Ilbeyli, Nurdane

    2015-04-01

    India is one of the richest sources of iron ore deposits in the world; and one of them is located in the Noamundi-Koira basin, Singhbhum-Orissa craton. The geological comparative studies of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Noamundi-Koira iron ore deposits, belonging to the iron ore group in eastern India, focus on the study of mineralogy and major elemental compositions along with the geological evaluation of different iron ores. The basement of the Singhbhum-Orissa craton is metasedimentary rocks which can be traced in a broadly elliptical pattern of granitoids, surrounded by metasediments and metavolcanics of Greenstone Belt association. The Singhbhum granitoid is intrusive into these old rocks and to younger, mid Archaean metasediments, including iron formations, schists and metaquartzites and siliciclastics of the Precambrian Iron Ore Group (Saha et al., 1994; Sharma, 1994). The iron ore of Noamundi-Koira can be divided into seven categories (Van Schalkwyk and Beukes 1986). They are massive, hard laminated, soft laminated, martite-goethite, powdery blue dust and lateritic ore. Although it is more or less accepted that the parent rock of iron ore is banded hematite jasper (BHJ), the presence of disseminated martite in BHJ suggests that the magnetite of protore was converted to martite. In the study area, possible genesis of high-grade hematite ore could have occurred in two steps. In the first stage, shallow, meteoric fluids affect primary, unaltered BIF by simultaneously oxidizing magnetite to martite and replacing quartz with hydrous iron oxides. In the second stage of supergene processes, deep burial upgrades the hydrous iron oxides to microplaty hematite. Removal of silica from BIF and successive precipitation of iron resulted in the formation of martite- goethite ore. Soft laminated ores were formed where precipitation of iron was partial or absent. The leached out space remains with time and the interstitial space is generally filled

  14. Niobium in gray cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for utilization of niobium in gray cast iron is appraised and reviewed. Experiments described in literature indicate that niobium provides structural refinement of the eutectic cells and also promotes pearlite formation. (Author)

  15. Raman spectroscopy of the system iron(III)-sulfuric acid-water: an approach to Tinto River's (Spain) hydrogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, P; Rull, F; Sobron, F; Sanz, A; Medina, J; Nielsen, C J

    2007-12-15

    Acid mine drainage is formed when pyrite (FeS(2)) is exposed and reacts with air and water to form sulfuric acid and dissolved iron. Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is an example of this phenomenon. In this study, Raman spectroscopy has been used to investigate the speciation of the system iron(III)-sulfuric acid-water as an approach to Tinto River's aqueous solutions. The molalities of sulfuric acid (0.09 mol/kg) and iron(III) (0.01-1.5 mol/kg) were chosen to mimic the concentration of the species in Tinto River waters. Raman spectra of the solutions reveal a strong iron(III)-sulfate inner-sphere interaction through the nu(1) sulfate band at 981 cm(-1) and its shoulder at 1005 cm(-1). Iron(III)-sulfate interaction may also be facilitated by hydrogen bonds and monitored in the Raman spectra through the symmetric stretching band of bisulfate at 1052 cm(-1) and a shoulder at 1040 cm(-1). Other bands in the low-frequency region of the Raman spectra are attributed to the hydrogen-bonded complexes formation as well. PMID:17869164

  16. 氧化铁改性石英砂的复合挂膜与氨氮去除试验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON COMPOUND FORMATION AND REMOVAL AMMONIA NITROGEN USING IRON OXIDE COATED SANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 刘贝; 庞治星; 刘培涛; 刘雄威; 李绍秀

    2012-01-01

    采用自制的氧化铁改性石英砂滤料(简称“改性砂”),对生物改性砂联合处理微污染物氨氮的复合挂膜启动性能以及滤料表面形态进行了试验研究,并与生物普通砂联用效果进行对比.结果表明,生物普通砂和生物改性砂在挂膜初期的生物量分别为15.46、13.79 nmol/g(n(P)/m(滤料)),稳定运行期分别为18.75、20.09 nmol/g;挂膜初期,生物普通砂与生物改性砂对质量浓度为1~2 mg/L氨氮的去除效果分别达到92%和95%;挂膜稳定期,前者对氨氮的去除效果约60%,后者稳定在80%左右;在不同氨氮质量浓度(0.5~4 mg/L)下,生物普通砂对氨氮去除率从60%上升至80%,生物改性砂的去除率从70%增至95%;过滤前后2种滤料表面形态均发生变化,生物改性砂表面孔隙更小,结构更加复杂多孔,表面粗糙程度进一步增加,对氨氮去除率高.%A homemade iron oxide cCoated sands filters with biological was used to remove ammonia nitrogen from contaminated source water, the process of compound formation start-up and the surface morphology of the two filters was carried out, and contrasted with the effect of biological-raw sands. The results were shown as follows: The biomass of the biological- raw sand filter, and biological-iron oxide coated sand filter were 15.46 and 13.79 nmol/g in the initial of formation, 18.75 and 20.09 nmol/g in the stable of formation. Removal of ammonia nitrogen with concentration among 1.0-2.0 mg/L using biological-raw sands and biological-iron oxide coated sands were 92% to 95% in the initial of formation, In the stable of formation, removal ammonia nitrogen using biological-raw sands stable about 60%, and removal ammonia nitrogen using biological-iron oxide coated sands stable about 80%. In different concentrations of ammonia nitrogen among 0.5~4.0 mg/L, removal efficiency of biological-raw sands from 60% rose to 80%, biological- iron oxide coated sands from 70% rose to

  17. RED SUPERGIANT STARS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES. II. NLTE EFFECTS IN J-BAND SILICON LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergemann, Maria; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Wuerl, Matthias [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str.1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Plez, Bertrand [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Davies, Ben [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Gazak, Zach, E-mail: mbergema@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: Matthias.Wuerl@physik.uni-muenchen.de, E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: zgazak@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: bertrand.plez@univ-montp2.fr, E-mail: bdavies@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    Medium-resolution J-band spectroscopy of individual red supergiant stars is a promising tool to investigate the chemical composition of the young stellar population in star-forming galaxies. As a continuation of recent work on iron and titanium, detailed non-LTE (NLTE) calculations are presented to investigate the influence of NLTE on the formation of silicon lines in the J-band spectra of red supergiants. Substantial effects are found resulting in significantly stronger absorption lines of neutral silicon in NLTE. As a consequence, silicon abundances determined in NLTE are significantly smaller than in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) with the NLTE abundance corrections varying smoothly between -0.4 dex and -0.1 dex for effective temperatures between 3400 K and 4400 K. The effects are largest at low metallicity. The physical reasons behind the NLTE effects and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies are discussed.

  18. RED SUPERGIANT STARS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES. II. NLTE EFFECTS IN J-BAND SILICON LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medium-resolution J-band spectroscopy of individual red supergiant stars is a promising tool to investigate the chemical composition of the young stellar population in star-forming galaxies. As a continuation of recent work on iron and titanium, detailed non-LTE (NLTE) calculations are presented to investigate the influence of NLTE on the formation of silicon lines in the J-band spectra of red supergiants. Substantial effects are found resulting in significantly stronger absorption lines of neutral silicon in NLTE. As a consequence, silicon abundances determined in NLTE are significantly smaller than in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) with the NLTE abundance corrections varying smoothly between –0.4 dex and –0.1 dex for effective temperatures between 3400 K and 4400 K. The effects are largest at low metallicity. The physical reasons behind the NLTE effects and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies are discussed.

  19. Red Supergiant Stars as Cosmic Abundance Probes: II. NLTE Effects in J-band Silicon Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Bergemann, Maria; Wueurl, Matthias; Plez, Bertrand; Davies, Ben; Gazak, Zach

    2012-01-01

    Medium resolution J-band spectroscopy of individual red supergiant stars is a promising tool to investigate the chemical composition of the young stellar population in star forming galaxies. As a continuation of recent work on iron and titanium, detailed non-LTE calculations are presented to investigate the influence of NLTE on the formation of silicon lines in the J-band spectra of red supergiants. Substantial effects are found resulting in significantly stronger absorption lines of neutral silicon in non-LTE. As a consequence, silicon abundances determined in non-LTE are significantly smaller than in LTE with the non-LTE abundance corrections varying smoothly between -0.4 dex to -0.1 dex for effective temperatures between 3400K to 4400K. The effects are largest at low metallicity. The physical reasons behind the non-LTE effects and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies are discussed.

  20. Iron load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cassarà

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addressed the main role of hepcidin in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, while this mechanism could be relevant in causing iron load in Thalassemia Intermedia and Sickle-Cell Anemia, its role in Thalassemia Major (TM is marginal. This is mainly due to the high impact of transfusional requirement into the severe increase of body iron. Moreover, the damage of iron load may be worsened by infections, as HCV hepatitis, or liver and endocrinological damage. One of the most relevant associations was found between splenectomy and increase of risk for mortality due,probably, to more severe iron load. These issues suggest as morbidity and mortality of this group of patients they do not depend only by our ability in controlling heart damage but even in preventing or treating particular infections and complications. This finding is supported by the impairment of survival curves in patients with complications different from heart damage. However, because, during recent years different direct and indirect methods to detect iron overload in patients affected by secondary hemochromatosis have been implemented, our ability to maintain under control iron load is significantly improved. Anyway, the future in iron load management remains to be able to have an iron load map of our body for targeting chelation and other medical treatment according to the single organ damage.

  1. Effect of rotating magnetic field and manganese on the formation of iron-containing intermetallic compounds in Al-Si alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yumeng; Svynarenko, K; Zou, Q; Jie, J; Li, Tianyi

    2015-01-01

    International audience The acicular β-AlSiFe phase is common but detrimental iron-containing intermetallic phase in Al-Si alloys. In this study, rotating magnetic field (RMF) and manganese neutralizer were used to modify the β-phase in Al-12%Si-2%Fe alloy. The results showed that the manganese addition caused the morphological transformation of iron phase from β-AlFeSi to α-AlSiFeMn with the relation of transition rate to the manganese content. The total transformation was only achieved wh...

  2. 双色大面阵量子阱红外探测器读出电路设计%Design of dual-band large-format QWIP ROIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于艳; 谭振; 宁玮

    2016-01-01

    The key design points of large format readout circuit are described with dual-band QWIP 640 ×512 ROIC design as an example.The design idea and specific circuit configuration are explained in detail.The simulation results and test results are given.Finally,some key design points of dual-band large format ROIC are analyzed from point of view of circuit and layout.%以双色量子阱640×512读出电路的设计为例阐述大面阵读出电路的设计要点,分模块详细说明了设计思路和具体电路结构,给出了电路仿真结果和实测结果,最后从电路、版图的角度分析了双波段大规格读出电路的一些设计要点。

  3. Effect of different sulphur precursors on morphology and band-gap on the formation of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) particles with microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Bharati; Vijaylakshmi, S.; Sharma, Pratibha

    2016-05-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising semiconductor material for ecological cost effective thin film Photovoltaic (PV) devices. As it contains earth abundant and non-toxic elements, it has the advantages over commercially available CIGS and CdTe thin film PV devices. In the present work, the pure phase Cu2ZnSnS4 particles were successfully synthesised with microwave irradiation. The morphology and phase study was carried out for the samples prepared with two different sulphur precursors viz. thiourea and thioacetamide (TAA). CZTS particles with thiourea as sulphur precursor are more crystalline than CZTS particles with TAA. The band gap of 1.654eV and 1.713eV were calculated for the samples prepared with thiourea and TAA respectively.

  4. Band alignments in Fe/graphene/Si(001) junctions studied by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Breton, J.-C.; Tricot, S.; Delhaye, G.; Lépine, B.; Turban, P.; Schieffer, P.

    2016-08-01

    The control of tunnel contact resistance is of primary importance for semiconductor-based spintronic devices. This control is hardly achieved with conventional oxide-based tunnel barriers due to deposition-induced interface states. Manipulation of single 2D atomic crystals (such as graphene sheets) weakly interacting with their substrate might represent an alternative and efficient way to design new heterostructures for a variety of different purposes including spin injection into semiconductors. In the present paper, we study by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy the band alignments and interface chemistry of iron-graphene-hydrogenated passivated silicon (001) surfaces for a low and a high n-doping concentration. We find that the hydrogen passivation of the Si(001) surface remains efficient even with a graphene sheet on the Si(001) surface. For both doping concentrations, the semiconductor is close to flat-band conditions which indicates that the Fermi level is unpinned on the semiconductor side of the Graphene/Si(001):H interface. When iron is deposited on the graphene/Si(001):H structures, the Schottky barrier height remains mainly unaffected by the metallic overlayer with a very low barrier height for electrons, a sought-after property in semiconductor based spintronic devices. Finally, we demonstrate that the graphene layer intercalated between the metal and semiconductor also serves as a protection against iron-silicide formation even at elevated temperatures preventing from the formation of a Si-based magnetic dead layer.

  5. Microbial Reducibility of Fe(III Phases Associated with the Genesis of Iron Ore Caves in the Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceth W. Parker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The iron mining regions of Brazil contain thousands of “iron ore caves” (IOCs that form within Fe(III-rich deposits. The mechanisms by which these IOCs form remain unclear, but the reductive dissolution of Fe(III (hydroxides by Fe(III reducing bacteria (FeRB could provide a microbiological mechanism for their formation. We evaluated the susceptibility of Fe(III deposits associated with these caves to reduction by the FeRB Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to test this hypothesis. Canga, an Fe(III-rich duricrust, contained poorly crystalline Fe(III phases that were more susceptible to reduction than the Fe(III (predominantly hematite associated with banded iron formation (BIF, iron ore, and mine spoil. In all cases, the addition of a humic acid analogue enhanced Fe(III reduction, presumably by shuttling electrons from S. oneidensis to Fe(III phases. The particle size and quartz-Si content of the solids appeared to exert control on the rate and extent of Fe(III reduction by S. oneidensis, with more bioreduction of Fe(III associated with solid phases containing more quartz. Our results provide evidence that IOCs may be formed by the activities of Fe(III reducing bacteria (FeRB, and the rate of this formation is dependent on the physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the Fe(III phases of the surrounding rock.

  6. Formation of carbon nanotubes on iron/cobalt oxides supported on zeolite-Y : Effect of zeolite textural properties and particle morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triantafyllidis, K. S.; Karakoulia, S. A.; Gournis, D.; Delimitis, A.; Nalbandian, L.; Maccallini, E.; Rudolf, P.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the textural properties and morphology of zeolite Y, used as support of iron (Fe) or cobalt (Co) oxides, on the quantity and quality of the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) synthesized by catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) of acetylene was studied. The parent zeolite Y was

  7. Heterojunction nanowires having high activity and stability for the reduction of oxygen: formation by self-assembly of iron phthalocyanine with single walled carbon nanotubes (FePc/SWNTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Jia, Nana; Yang, Lijun; Su, Dong; Park, Jinseong; Choi, YongMan; Gong, Kuanping

    2014-04-01

    A self-assembly approach to preparing iron phthalocyanine/single-walled carbon nanotube (FePc/SWNT) heterojunction nanowires as a new oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst has been developed by virtue of water-adjusted dispersing in 1-cyclohexyl-pyrrolidone (CHP) of the two components. The FePc/SWNT nanowires have a higher Fermi level compared to pure FePc (d-band center, DFT=-0.69 eV versus -0.87 eV, respectively). Consequently, an efficient channel for transferring electron to the FePc surface is readily created, facilitating the interaction between FePc and oxygen, so enhancing the ORR kinetics. This heterojunction-determined activity in ORR illustrates a new stratagem to preparing non-noble ORR electrocatalysts of significant importance in constructing real-world fuel cells. PMID:24491331

  8. Heterojunction nanowires having high activity and stability for the reduction of oxygen: Formation by self-assembly of iron phthalocyanine with single walled carbon nanotubes (FePc/SWNTs)

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2014-04-01

    A self-assembly approach to preparing iron phthalocyanine/single-walled carbon nanotube (FePc/SWNT) heterojunction nanowires as a new oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst has been developed by virtue of water-adjusted dispersing in 1-cyclohexyl-pyrrolidone (CHP) of the two components. The FePc/SWNT nanowires have a higher Fermi level compared to pure FePc (d-band center, DFT. =. -0.69. eV versus -0.87. eV, respectively). Consequently, an efficient channel for transferring electron to the FePc surface is readily created, facilitating the interaction between FePc and oxygen, so enhancing the ORR kinetics. This heterojunction-determined activity in ORR illustrates a new stratagem to preparing non-noble ORR electrocatalysts of significant importance in constructing real-world fuel cells. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effect of iron overload and iron deficiency on liver hemojuvelin protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krijt

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hemojuvelin (Hjv is a key component of the signaling cascade that regulates liver hepcidin (Hamp expression. The purpose of this study was to determine Hjv protein levels in mice and rats subjected to iron overload and iron deficiency. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were injected with iron (200 mg/kg; iron deficiency was induced by feeding of an iron-deficient diet, or by repeated phlebotomies. Erythropoietin (EPO-treated mice were administered recombinant EPO at 50 U/mouse. Wistar rats were injected with iron (1200 mg/kg, or fed an iron-deficient diet. Hjv protein was determined by immunoblotting, liver samples from Hjv-/- mice were used as negative controls. Mouse plasma Hjv content was determined by a commercial ELISA kit. RESULTS: Liver crude membrane fraction from both mice and rats displayed a major Hjv-specific band at 35 kDa, and a weaker band of 20 kDa. In mice, the intensity of these bands was not changed following iron injection, repeated bleeding, low iron diet or EPO administration. No change in liver crude membrane Hjv protein was observed in iron-treated or iron-deficient rats. ELISA assay for mouse plasma Hjv did not show significant difference between Hjv+/+ and Hjv-/- mice. Liver Hamp mRNA, Bmp6 mRNA and Id1 mRNA displayed the expected response to iron overload and iron deficiency. EPO treatment decreased Id1 mRNA, suggesting possible participation of the bone morphogenetic protein pathway in EPO-mediated downregulation of Hamp mRNA. DISCUSSION: Since no differences between Hjv protein levels were found following various experimental manipulations of body iron status, the results indicate that, in vivo, substantial changes in Hamp mRNA can occur without noticeable changes of membrane hemojuvelin content. Therefore, modulation of hemojuvelin protein content apparently does not represent the limiting step in the control of Hamp gene expression.

  10. Characteristics of a transient axial mode from the formation of anode plasma in a gigawatt-class L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sun-Hong; Kwon, Ohjoon; Sattorov, Matlabjon; Jung, Hoechun; Shin, Sang-Ho; Baek, In-Keun; Kim, Seontae; Park, Seunghyuk; Park, Gun-Sik

    2016-06-01

    An experimental result of a gigawatt-class L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) shows the generation of a transient axial mode pertaining to an anode plasma effect in the circuit of the MILO. The transient axial mode between the desired π mode and the 5 π / 6 mode causes the output power to become eccentric. When the electrons impact onto the metallic surface, plasma exists on the surface of the anode due to the electron-impact distortion process. As a result, the anode plasma causes the emitted current to increase the neutralization near the cathode. The increase of the current induces faster and stronger magnetic insulation, which lowers the drift velocity and suppresses the mode earlier during the beam pulse. After the 5 π / 6 mode, which initially interacts with the electron beam, remains as a transient axial mode for a very short time, it shows the capability to convert to the π mode, which is more stable and slowly grows.

  11. A Coherent Study of Emission Lines from Broad-Band Photometry: Specific Star-Formation Rates and [OIII]/H{\\beta} Ratio at 3 < z < 6

    CERN Document Server

    Faisst, A L; Hsieh, B C; Laigle, C; Salvato, M; Tasca, L; Cassata, P; Davidzon, I; Ilbert, O; Fevre, O Le; Masters, D; McCracken, H J; Steinhardt, C; Silverman, J D; De Barros, S; Hasinger, G; Scoville, N Z

    2016-01-01

    We measure the H{\\alpha} and [OIII] emission line properties as well as specific star-formation rates (sSFR) of spectroscopically confirmed 33 cannot be fully explained in a picture of cold accretion driven growth. We find a progressively increasing [OIII]{\\lambda}5007/H{\\beta} ratio out to z~6, consistent with the ratios in local galaxies selected by increasing H{\\alpha} EW (i.e., sSFR). This demonstrates the potential of using "local high-z analogs" to investigate the spectroscopic properties and relations of galaxies in the re-ionization epoch.

  12. 铁矿石烧结行业二英类形成机制与排放水平%Formation mechanism and emission profiles of PCDD/Fs in iron ore sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦京; 吴素愫; 高新华; 侯梅芳; 唐琛; 刘文彬

    2014-01-01

    Iron ore sintering is one of the important emission sources for PCDD/Fs. This paper summarized formation mechanisms of PCDD/Fs in sintering process and the emission profile of PCDD/Fs in typical sintering stack gas. Key influencing factors of PCDD/Fs formation, including temperature, time, oxygen concentration and other conditions in raw material composition were analyzed. Reduction technologies of PCDD/Fs emission were also suggested in this paper. Finally, it provided analysis and outlook on the current emission of PCDD/Fs from iron ore sintering industry in China and several developed countries. It is aimed to provide reference for the management and reduction of emission of PCDD/Fs in the iron ore sintering industry in China.%铁矿石烧结是我国重要的二英类( PCDD/Fs)排放源之一。本文总结了烧结过程PCDD/Fs的生成机制,以及典型烧结烟气的PCDD/Fs排放特征。针对影响PCDD/Fs生成的关键因素进行了分析,探讨了原料组成中关键元素的影响,以及温度、时间和氧气含量等条件的影响,进而对PCDD/Fs的减排技术等方面进行了讨论。最后本文还对部分发达国家和我国的铁矿石烧结行业PCDD/Fs排放现状进行了分析和展望。可为我国铁矿石烧结行业PCDD/Fs的管理和减排提供参考。

  13. Comparison of ammonia, morpholine and ethanolamine as conditioning agent on the formation and deposition of iron oxides on stainless steel and carbon steel in conditions of PWR secondary circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental circulating water loop was built to follow the formation, the transport and the deposition of iron oxides in the feedwater system of the secondary circuit of PWR plants. The test section operated at high temperature (up to 250oC) is made in carbon steel steel and includes three removable segments for characterization, one of which is in stainless steel for comparison, while all the other parts of the loop are made in stainless steel. Tests were performed from 18 to 101 days in one-phase flow conditions at 150 L.h-1 with a linear velocity between 0.92 m/s and 1.1 m/s at 220oC in ammonia/hydrazine, morpholine/hydrazine and ethanolamine/hydrazine media. The obtained results confirm the formation of iron oxide on carbon steel and stainless steel surface in the conditions of PWR secondary circuits. The surface characterizations show that magnetite is the corrosion product formed on carbon steel and stainless steel at 220oC and goethite is formed at room temperature on stainless steel. At high temperature, on carbon steel, the deposit is thicker in the ammonia medium than in the ethanolamine and morpholine medium. (author)

  14. Moessbauer study of iron(II) and iron(III) complexes of some nitrogen-, oxygen- and sulphur donor ligands, reduction of iron(III) by the mercaptide group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex formation reactions of iron(II) and iron(III) with semicarbazones and thiosemicarbazones of pyruvic acid and phenyl pyruvic acid have been studied by magnetic measurements and Moessbauer spectroscopy. With iron(II), all the ligands form hexa-coordinated octahedral complexes of the type Fe(ligand-H2). With iron(III) semicarbazones, complexes of the composition [Fe(ligand-H)2](OH) are formed. Thiosemicarbazones first reduce iron(III) to iron(II) and then form iron(II) complexes of the type Fe(ligand-H)2. (author)

  15. Moessbauer study of iron(II) and iron(III) complexes of some nitrogen-, oxygen- and sulphur donor ligands, reduction of iron(III) by the mercaptide group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawhney, G.L.; Baijal, J.S. (Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics); Chandra, S. (Zakir Hussain College, Ajmeri Gate, Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry); Pandeya, K.B. (Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1981-01-01

    Complex formation reactions of iron(II) and iron(III) with semicarbazones and thiosemicarbazones of pyruvic acid and phenyl pyruvic acid have been studied by magnetic measurements and Moessbauer spectroscopy. With iron(II), all the ligands form hexa-coordinated octahedral complexes of the type Fe(ligand-H/sub 2/). With iron(III) semicarbazones, complexes of the composition (Fe(ligand-H)/sub 2/)(OH) are formed. Thiosemicarbazones first reduce iron(III) to iron(II) and then form iron(II) complexes of the type Fe(ligand-H)/sub 2/.

  16. Accelerated dissolution of iron oxides in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jeong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron dissolution from mineral dusts and soil particles is vital as a source of bioavailable iron in various environmental media. In this work, the dissolution of iron oxide particles trapped in ice was investigated as a new pathway of iron supply. The dissolution experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of various organic complexing ligands under dark condition. In acidic pH conditions (pH 2, 3, and 4, the dissolution of iron oxides was greatly enhanced in the ice phase compared to that in water. The dissolved iron was mainly in the ferric form, which indicates that the dissolution is not a reductive process. The extent of dissolved iron was greatly affected by the kind of organic complexing ligands and the surface area of iron oxides. The iron dissolution was most pronounced with high surface area iron oxides and in the presence of strong iron binding ligands. The enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice is mainly ascribed to the "freeze concentration effect", which concentrates iron oxide particles, organic ligands, and protons in the liquid like ice grain boundary region and accelerates the dissolution of iron oxides. The ice-enhanced dissolution effect gradually decreased when decreasing the freezing temperature from −10 to −196 °C, which implies that the presence and formation of the liquid-like ice grain boundary region play a critical role. The proposed phenomenon of enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice may provide a new pathway of bioavailable iron production. The frozen atmospheric ice with iron-containing dust particles in the upper atmosphere thaws upon descending and may provide bioavailable iron upon deposition onto the ocean surface.

  17. Accelerated dissolution of iron oxides in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jeong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Iron dissolution from mineral dusts and soil particles is vital as a source of bioavailable iron in various environmental media. In this work, the dissolution of iron oxide particles trapped in ice was investigated as a~new pathway of iron supply. The dissolution experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of various organic complexing ligands under dark condition. In acidic pH conditions (pH 2, 3, and 4, the dissolution of iron oxides was greatly enhanced in the ice phase compared to that in water. The dissolved iron was mainly in the ferric form, which indicates that the dissolution is not a reductive process. The extent of dissolved iron was greatly affected by the kind of organic complexing ligands and the type of iron oxides. The iron dissolution was most pronounced with high surface area iron oxides and in the presence of strong iron binding ligands. The enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice is mainly ascribed to the "freeze concentration effect", which concentrates iron oxide particles, organic ligands, and protons in the liquid-like ice grain boundary region and accelerates the dissolution of iron oxides. The ice-enhanced dissolution effect gradually decreased when decreasing the freezing temperature from −10 °C to −196 °C, which implies that the presence and formation of the liquid-like ice grain boundary region play a critical role. The proposed phenomenon of enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice may provide a new pathway of bioavailable iron production. The frozen atmospheric ice with iron-containing dust particles in the upper atmosphere thaws upon descending and may provide bioavailable iron upon deposition onto the ocean surface.

  18. Iron overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 147. Liebelt EL. Iron. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of iron, iron oxide and iron carbide nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3) and iron carbide (Fe3C) nanoparticles of different geometrical shapes: cubes, spheres, rods and plates, have been prepared by thermal decomposition of a mixture containing the metal precursor Fe(CO)5 and the stabilizer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) at 300 °C in a sealed cell under inert atmosphere. The thermal decomposition process was performed for 4 or 24 h at ([PVP]/[Fe(CO)5]) (w/v) ratio of 1:1 or 1:5. Elemental iron nanospheres embedded within a mixture of amorphous and graphitic carbon coating were obtained by hydrogen reduction of the prepared iron oxide and iron carbide nanoparticles at 450 °C. The formation of the graphitic carbon phase at such a low temperature is unique and probably obtained by catalysis of the elemental iron nanoparticles. Changing the annealing time period and the ([PVP]/[Fe(CO)5]) ratio allowed control of the composition, size, size distribution, crystallinity, geometrical shape and magnetic properties of the different magnetic nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Thermal decomposition at 300 °C of a mixture of PVP and Fe(CO)5 leads to the formation of magnetic nanoparticles of different phases and shapes. • Changing the annealing time period and the ([PVP]/[Fe(CO)5]) (w/v) ratio allowed control of the nanoparticles different properties. • H2 reduction of the former magnetic nanoparticles leads to the formation of almost pure Fe nanospheres phase

  20. Depositional environment and origin of the Lilaozhuang Neoarchean BIF-hosted iron-magnesite deposit on the southern margin of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hua; Zhang, LianChang; Fabre, Sébastien; Wang, ChangLe; Zhai, MingGuo

    2016-08-01

    The Neoarchean Lilaozhuang iron-magnesite deposit is located in the middle of the Huoqiu banded iron formation (BIF) ore belt in Anhui Province on the southern margin of the North China Craton. The Huoqiu BIF is the unique one that simultaneously develops quartz-type, silicate-type, and carbonate-type magnetite in the region. The Lilaozhuang deposit is characterized by magnesium-rich carbonate (magnesite) in magnetite ores. The BIF-hosted iron ores include mainly of silicate type and carbonate type, with a small amount of quartz type, which chiefly exhibit banded and massive structure, with minor disseminated structure. The magnesite ores occur as crystal-like bright white and exhibits massive structure. The Y/Ho ratio and REY pattern of both iron and magnesite ores are similar to that of seawater, while Eu shows positive anomaly, which is the sign of seafloor hydrothermal mixture. These features suggest that ore-forming materials of iron and magnesium in the Lilaozhuang deposit are mainly from the mixture of seafloor hydrothermal and seawater. Both ores do not exhibit negative Ce anomaly, which indicates that the deposit was formed in an environment showing a lack of oxygen. C-O isotopic compositions indicate that magnesite ore has been reformed by metamorphism of low amphibolite facies and later hydrothermal alteration. Based on the comprehensive analysis, authors suggest that iron and magnesite ores in the Lilaozhuang deposits formed in a confined sea basin on continental margin and was influenced by later complex geological processes.

  1. New Kronig-Penney Equation Emphasizing the Band Edge Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmulowicz, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The Kronig-Penney problem is a textbook example for discussing band dispersions and band gap formation in periodic layered media. For example, in photonic crystals, the behaviour of bands next to the band edges is important for further discussions of such effects as inhibited light emission, slow light and negative index of refraction. However,…

  2. Kinetics of the formation of Fe2B layers in gray cast iron: Effects of boron concentration and boride incubation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth kinetics of Fe2B layers formed at the surface of gray cast iron were evaluated in this study. The pack-boriding process was applied to produce the Fe2B phase at the material surface, and the variables included three temperatures (1173, 1223 and 1273 K) and four exposure times (2, 4, 6 and 8 h). Taking into account the growth fronts obtained at the surface of the material and the mass balance equation at the Fe2B/substrate interface, the boron diffusion coefficient on the borided phase was estimated for the range of treatment temperatures. Likewise the parabolic growth constant, the instantaneous velocity of the Fe2B/substrate interface, and the weight gain in the borided samples were established as a function of the parameters τ(t) and α(C), which are related to the boride incubation time (t0(T)) and boron concentration at the Fe2B phase, respectively. Observation of the growth kinetics of the Fe2B layers in gray cast irons suggest an optimum value of boron concentration that is in good agreement with the set of boriding experimental conditions used in this work.

  3. Micromilling enhances iron bioaccessibility from wholegrain wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latunde-Dada, G O; Li, X; Parodi, A; Edwards, C H; Ellis, P R; Sharp, P A

    2014-11-19

    Cereals constitute important sources of iron in human diet; however, much of the iron in wheat is lost during processing for the production of white flour. This study employed novel food processing techniques to increase the bioaccessibility of naturally occurring iron in wheat. Iron was localized in wheat by Perl's Prussian blue staining. Soluble iron from digested wheat flour was measured by a ferrozine spectrophotometric assay. Iron bioaccessibility was determined using an in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, followed by measurement of ferritin (a surrogate marker for iron absorption) in Caco-2 cells. Light microscopy revealed that iron in wheat was encapsulated in cells of the aleurone layer and remained intact after in vivo digestion and passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The solubility of iron in wholegrain wheat and in purified wheat aleurone increased significantly after enzymatic digestion with Driselase, and following mechanical disruption using micromilling. Furthermore, following in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, iron bioaccessibility, measured as ferritin formation in Caco-2 cells, from micromilled aleurone flour was significantly higher (52%) than from whole aleurone flour. Taken together our data show that disruption of aleurone cell walls could increase iron bioaccessibility. Micromilled aleurone could provide an alternative strategy for iron fortification of cereal products.

  4. Study of clustering point defects under irradiation in dilute iron alloys; Etude de la formation sous irradiation des amas de defauts ponctuels dans les alliages ferritiques faiblement allies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong-Hardouin Duparc, T.H.A

    1998-12-31

    In low copper steels for nuclear reactor pressure vessel, point defect clustering plays an important role in hardening. These clusters are very small and invisible by transmission electron microscopy. In order to study the hardening component which results from the clustering of freely migrating point defects, we irradiated in a high voltage electron microscope Fe, the FeCu{sub 0.13%}, FeP{sub 0.015%} and FeN{sub 33ppm} alloys and the complex FeMn{sub 1.5%}Ni{sub 0.8%}Cu{sub 0.13%}P{sub 0.01%} alloy the composition of which is close to the matrix of pressure vessel steel. We studied the nucleation of dislocation loops and their growth velocity. The observations and the analyses have shown that in the complex model alloy, the interstitial dislocation loops are smaller and their density is more important than for the others alloys. The diffusion coefficients of interstitials and vacancies are obtained with the help of a simplified model. The densities of dislocation loops and their growth velocities obtained experimentally are reproduced by means of a cluster dynamics model we have developed. This is achieved self-consistently by using as a first trial the approximated coefficients obtained with the simplified model. The results of calculations have shown that the binding energy of di-interstitials must be very important in the binary iron alloys and only 0.95 eV in iron. Copper, nitrogen and phosphorus stabilize di-interstitials in iron. Finally the distribution of interstitial loops at 290 deg C and at 2.10{sup -9} dpa/s is calculated with the diffusion coefficient of point defects adjusted in FeCu. A distribution of small loops appears which gives an increase of hardening estimated to 10 Hv instead of 33 Hv experimentally observed. This low value can be improved by assuming in agreement with molecular dynamics simulations that a little fraction of di-interstitials is created at 2.5 MeV. (author) 111 refs.

  5. Gastric digestion of pea ferritin and modulation of its iron bioavailability by ascorbic and phytic acids in caco-2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satyanarayana Bejjani; Raghu Pullakhandam; Ravinder Punjal; K Madhavan Nair

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To understand the digestive stability and mechanism of release and intestinal uptake of pea ferritin iron in caco-2 cell line model.METHODS: Pea seed ferritin was purified using salt fractionation followed by gel filtration chromatography.The bioavailability of ferritin iron was assessed using coupled in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid and phytic acid.Caco-2 cell ferritin formation was used as a surrogate marker of iron uptake. Structural changes of pea ferritin under simulated gastric pH were characterized using electrophoresis, gel filtration and circular dichroism spectroscopy.RESULTS: The caco-2 cell ferritin formation was significantly increased (P < 0.001) with FeSO4 (19.3±9.8 ng/mg protein) and pea ferritin (13.9 ± 6.19 ng/mg protein) compared to the blank digest (3.7 ± 1.8 ng/mg protein). Ascorbic acid enhanced while phytic acid decreased the pea ferritin iron bioavailability. However,either in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid, the ferritin content of caco-2 cells was significantly less with pea ferritin than with FeSO4. At gastric pH, no band corresponding to ferritin was observed in the presence of pepsin either on native PAGE or SDS-PAGE. Gel filtration chromatography and circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a pH dependent loss of quaternary and secondary structure.CONCLUSION: Under gastric conditions, the iron core of pea ferritin is released into the digestive medium due to acid induced structural alterations and dissociation of protein. The released iron interacts with dietary factors leading to modulation of pea ferritin iron bioavailability,resembling the typical characteristics of non-heme iron.

  6. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Iron and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron and ... enough iron in their daily diets. How Much Iron Do Kids Need? Kids require different amounts of ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have enough iron in your body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood loss, poor diet, ... iron supplements and multivitamins to improve her iron levels. Susan also made changes to her diet, such ...

  8. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  9. Analysis of shear banding in twelve materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, R. C.; Kim, C. H.

    The problem of the initiation and growth of shear bands in 12 different materials, namely, OFHC copper, Cartridge brass, Nickel 200, Armco IF (interstitial free) iron, Carpenter electric iron, 1006 steel, 2024-T351 aluminum, 7039 aluminum, low alloy steel, S-7 tool steel, Tungsten alloy, and Depleted Uranium (DU -0.75 Ti) is studied with the objectives of finding out when a shear band initiates, and upon what parameters does the band width depend. The nonlinear coupled partial differential equations governing the overall simple shearing deformations of a thermally softening viscoplastic block are analyzed. It is assumed that the thermomechanical response of these materials can be adequately represented by the Johnson-Cook law, and the only inhomogeneity present in the block is the variation in its thickness. The effect of the defect size on the initiation and subsequent growth of the band is also studied. It is found that, for each one of these 12 materials, the deformation has become nonhomogeneous by the time the maximum shear stress occurs. Also the band width, computed when the shear stress has dropped to 85 percent of its peak value, does not correlate well with the thermal conductivity of the material. The band begins to grow rapidly when the shear stress has dropped to 90 percent of its maximum value.

  10. NUMERICAL EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF SOFT-MELTING PROPERTIES ON THE KINETIC OF (CAFE2 O4 -CA2 FE2 O5 FORMATION IN THE IRON ORE SINTERING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adilson de Castro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model able to predict the influence of soft-melting properties of the blend of raw materials used in the iron ore sintering process in the kinetic formation of calcium ferrite and di-calcium ferrite constituents. The model is based on the simultaneous solution of transport equations of Momentum, energy and chemical species in multiphase multicomponent systems coupled with the chemical reactions kinetics and phase transformations that occur within the sinter bed. The numerical solution is obtained using the finite volume method and the model is validated using monitoring data from an industrial scale sintering plant. After validation, the model was used to predict processing conditions using raw materials with different soft-melting properties. Results indicate that the temperatures of starting soft-melting, shrinkage and melting range are the main parameters to be controlled in order to attain liquid phases formation responsible to confer good mechanical and reducibility properties for the sinter product. In this study was found that raw materials with high soft-melting temperature and wilder temperature of mushy zone could decrease up to 30% the calcium ferrites formation and hence deteriorates the metallurgical properties of the sinter.

  11. Diet after gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric banding surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after banding; Weight loss - diet after banding ... about any problems you are having with your diet, or about other issues related to your surgery ...

  12. Iliotibial band syndrome - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    IT band syndrome - aftercare; Iliotibial band friction syndrome - aftercare ... If you have iliotibial band syndrome you may notice: Mild pain on the outside of your knee when you begin to exercise, which goes ...

  13. Iron-titanium oxide minerals and magnetic susceptibility anomalies in the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley cores - Constraints on conditions of uranium mineralization in the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrographic study of the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley cores reveals three distinct zones of postdepositional alteration of detrital Fe-Ti (iron-titanium) oxide minerals in the Westwater Canyon Member of the Upper Jurassic Morrisson Formation. In the uranium-bearing and adjacent portions of the Westwater Canyon, these detrital Fe-Ti oxide minerals have been thoroughly altered by leaching of iron. Stratigraphically lower parts of the Westwater Canyon and the underlying Recapture Member are characterized by preservation of Fe-Ti oxide grains, primarily magnetite and ilmenite, and of hematite, and by an absence or uranium concentrations. Partly destroyed Fe-Ti oxide minerals occupy an interval between the zones of destruction and preservation. Alteration patterns of the Fe-Ti oxide minerals are reflected in bore-hole magnetic susceptibility logs. Magnetic susceptibility response in the upper parts of the Westwater Canyon Member is flat and uniformly <500 μSI units, but at greater depths it fluctuates sharply, from <1,000 to nearly 8,000 μSI units. The boundary between uniformly low and high magnetic susceptibility response corresponds closely to the interval that divides the zone of completely altered from the zone of preserved detrital Fe-Ti oxide minerals. The alteration pattern suggests that solutions responsible for destruction of the Fe-ti oxide minerals originated in the overlying Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation. Previous studies indicate that these solutions were rich in soluble organic matter and perhaps in uranium. Uranium precipitation may have been controlled by a vertically fluctuation interface between organic-rich solutions and geochemically different fluids in which the detrital Fe-Ti oxide minerals were preserved

  14. Missing Fe: hydrogenated iron nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Bilalbegovic, G; Mohacek-Grosev, V

    2016-01-01

    Although it was found that the FeH lines exist in the spectra of some stars, none of the spectral features in the ISM have been assigned to this molecule. We suggest that iron atoms interact with hydrogen and produce Fe-H nanoparticles which sometimes contain many H atoms. We calculate infrared spectra of hydrogenated iron nanoparticles using density functional theory methods and find broad, overlapping bands. Desorption of H2 could induce spinning of these small Fe-H dust grains. Some of hydrogenated iron nanoparticles posses magnetic and electric moments and should interact with electromagnetic fields in the ISM. Fe_nH_m nanoparticles could contribute to the polarization of the ISM and the anomalous microwave emission. We discuss the conditions required to form FeH and Fe_nH_m in the ISM.

  15. 复杂微生物浸出液生物成矾法净化除铁的研究%Iron Purification by Formation of Jarosite in Complex Bioleaching Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美荣; 周桂英; 温建康

    2012-01-01

    The characteristic of bioleaching solution with high concentration of Fe and low concentration of valuable metals, the separation of Fe by the formation of jarosite with bacteria at low temperature and low pH were studied. The factors, such as pH, temperature , inoculate quantity and time, which affected the separation of Fe from solvent system consisting of sulphate were investigated. And the factors that affected the formation of jarosite were studied by the orthogonal test. The experimental results showed that, in the biological oxidation process, for the solution containing ferrous Fe 9.46 g·L-1, in the pH range of 1.4 ~2.0, temperature range of 30 -40 ℃ , the oxidation of ferrous iron by bacteria was completed after 36 h, and the effect of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron was better. In the process of iron removal by the formation of jarosite with bacteria, at pH of 2, temperature of 45 ℃, inoculate quantity of 15% , time of 10 d, the iron removal rate was 99. 97% with low residual iron concentration of 0. 015 g·L-1. Through orthogonal test, the primary and secondary factors that effected the jarosite precipitation were confirmed as time, inoculate quantity and the concentration of i-ron. The optimal combination of factors was total Fe concentration of 50 g·L-1, inoculate quantity of 20% , time of 10 d. With these optimal factors, the iron removal rate was 99.95%. It was realized to remove iron by biological purification under the conditions of low temperature and low pH values, providing a new way to purify complex biological leaching solution.%针对低品位矿石生物浸出液中铁含量高而有价金属含量低的特点,研究低温、低pH条件下微生物成矾除铁方法,考察了温度、pH值、菌液接种量、时间等主要因素对微生物氧化及铁矾形成的影响规律,并采用正交实验对微生物成矾除铁规律进行多因素影响分析.结果表明:在生物氧化过程中,亚铁含量为9.46 g·L-1

  16. Spin excitations in hole-overdoped iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horigane, K.; Kihou, K.; Fujita, K.; Kajimoto, R.; Ikeuchi, K.; Ji, S.; Akimitsu, J.; Lee, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the overall features of magnetic excitation is essential for clarifying the mechanism of Cooper pair formation in iron-based superconductors. In particular, clarifying the relationship between magnetism and superconductivity is a central challenge because magnetism may play a key role in their exotic superconductivity. BaFe2As2 is one of ideal systems for such investigation because its superconductivity can be induced in several ways, allowing a comparative examination. Here we report a study on the spin fluctuations of the hole-overdoped iron-based superconductors Ba1-xKxFe2As2 (x = 0.5 and 1.0; Tc = 36 K and 3.4 K, respectively) over the entire Brillouin zone using inelastic neutron scattering. We find that their spin spectra consist of spin wave and chimney-like dispersions. The chimney-like dispersion can be attributed to the itinerant character of magnetism. The band width of the spin wave-like dispersion is almost constant from the non-doped to optimum-doped region, which is followed by a large reduction in the overdoped region. This suggests that the superconductivity is suppressed by the reduction of magnetic exchange couplings, indicating a strong relationship between magnetism and superconductivity in iron-based superconductors. PMID:27615691

  17. Immunity to plant pathogens and iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Aude; Chen, Nicolas W G; Thomine, Sebastien; Dellagi, Alia

    2015-11-01

    Iron is essential for metabolic processes in most living organisms. Pathogens and their hosts often compete for the acquisition of this nutrient. However, iron can catalyze the formation of deleterious reactive oxygen species. Hosts may use iron to increase local oxidative stress in defense responses against pathogens. Due to this duality, iron plays a complex role in plant-pathogen interactions. Plant defenses against pathogens and plant response to iron deficiency share several features, such as secretion of phenolic compounds, and use common hormone signaling pathways. Moreover, fine tuning of iron localization during infection involves genes coding iron transport and iron storage proteins, which have been shown to contribute to immunity. The influence of the plant iron status on the outcome of a given pathogen attack is strongly dependent on the nature of the pathogen infection strategy and on the host species. Microbial siderophores emerged as important factors as they have the ability to trigger plant defense responses. Depending on the plant species, siderophore perception can be mediated by their strong iron scavenging capacity or possibly via specific recognition as pathogen associated molecular patterns. This review highlights that iron has a key role in several plant-pathogen interactions by modulating immunity. PMID:26475190

  18. Role of citrate and phosphate anions in the mechanism of iron(III) sequestration by ferric binding protein: kinetic studies of the formation of the holoprotein of wild-type FbpA and its engineered mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Katherine D; Gabricević, Mario; Anderson, Damon S; Adhikari, Pratima; Mietzner, Timothy A; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2010-07-27

    Ferric binding protein A (FbpA) plays a central role in the iron acquisition processes of pathogenic Neisseria gonorrheae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. FbpA functions as an iron shuttle within the periplasmic space of these Gram-negative human pathogens. Iron is picked up by FbpA at the periplasmic aspect of the outer membrane with concomitant acquisition of a synergistic anion. Here we report the kinetics and mechanisms involved with loading of iron(III) into iron-free FbpA using iron(III) citrate as an iron source in the presence of excess citrate or phosphate (physiologically available anions) at pH 6.5. In the presence of excess phosphate, iron(III) citrate loads into apo-FbpA in three kinetically distinguishable steps, while in the presence of excess citrate, only two steps are discernible. A stable intermediate containing iron(III) citrate-bound FbpA is observed in each case. The observation of an additional kinetic step and moderate increase in apparent rate constants suggests an active role for phosphate in the iron insertion process. To further elucidate a mechanism for iron loading, we report on the sequestration kinetics of iron(III) citrate in the presence of phosphate with binding site mutant apo-FbpAs, H9E, E57D, E57Q, Q58A, Y195F, and Y196H. Tyrosine mutations drastically alter the kinetics and hamper iron sequestration ability. H9E, E57D, and E57Q have near native iron sequestration behavior; however, iron binding rates are altered, enabling assignment of sequential side chain interactions. Additionally, this investigation elaborates on the function of FbpA as a carrier for iron chelates as well as "naked" or free iron as originally proposed.

  19. The formation mechanism of iron oxide nanoparticles within the microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis and its correlation with the structural and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakova, Z; Kuritka, I; Kazantseva, N E; Babayan, V; Pastorek, M; Machovsky, M; Bazant, P; Saha, P

    2015-12-28

    Magnetic nanoparticles based on Fe3O4 were prepared by a facile and rapid one-pot solvothermal synthesis using FeCl3·6H2O as a source of iron ions, ethylene glycol as a solvent and NH4Ac, (NH4)2CO3, NH4HCO3 or aqueous NH3 as precipitating and nucleating agents. In contrast to previous reports we reduce the synthesis time to 30 minutes using a pressurized microwave reactor without the requirement of further post-treatments such as calcination. Dramatically reduced synthesis time prevents particle growth via Ostwald ripening thus the obtained particles have dimensions in the range of 20 to 130 nm, they are uniform in shape and exhibit magnetic properties with saturation magnetization ranging from 8 to 76 emu g(-1). The suggested method allows simple particle size and crystallinity tuning resulting in improved magnetic properties by changing the synthesis parameters, i.e. temperature and nucleating agents. Moreover, efficiency of conversion of raw material into the product is almost 100%. PMID:26595518

  20. An investigation of reaction parameters on geochemical storage of non-pure CO2 streams in iron oxides-bearing formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Susana; Liu, Q.; Bacon, Diana H.; Maroto-Valer, M. M.

    2014-08-26

    Hematite deposit that is the main FeIII-bearing mineral in sedimentary red beds was proposed as a potential host repository for converting CO2 into carbonate minerals such as siderite (FeCO3), when CO2–SO2 gas mixtures are co-injected. This work investigated CO2 mineral trapping using hematite and sensitivity of the reactive systems to different parameters, including particle size, gas composition, temperature, pressure, and solid-to-liquid ratio. Experimental and modelling studies of hydrothermal experiments were conducted, which emulated a CO2 sequestration scenario by injecting CO2-SO2 gas streams into a NaCl-NaOH brine hosted in iron oxide-containing aquifer. This study provides novel information on the mineralogical changes and fluid chemistry derived from the co-injection of CO2-SO2 gas mixtures in hematite deposit. It can be concluded that the amount of siderite precipitate depends primarily on the SO2 content of the gas stream. Increasing SO2 content in the system could promote the reduction of Fe3+ from the hematite sample to Fe2+, which will be further available for its precipitation as siderite. Moreover, siderite precipitation is enhanced at low temperatures and high pressures. The influence of the solid to liquid ratio on the overall carbonation reaction suggests that the conversion increases if the system becomes more diluted.

  1. Chunky graphite formation in small section ductile iron castings; Formacion de grafito chunky en piezas de pequeno espesor fabricadas utilizando fundicion de hierro con grafito esferoidal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asenjo, I.; Larranaga, P.; Sertucha, J.

    2011-07-01

    Chunky graphite is a degenerated graphite form which can be found in the thermal centre of ductile iron heavy section castings. Previous studies made on cubic blocks (300 and 180 mm in side) manufactured using alloys with fully ferritic matrix structures show that low cooling rates, excessive post-inoculation and high silicon and/or cerium contents in the melts are the most important factors that promote this kind of defect. The enhancement of these critical factors led to obtain chunky graphite in sections lower than 50 mm. Different experimental conditions have been used in order to establish the main parameters that affect this graphite malformation. The use of cutting-edge techniques in the analysis of chemical compositions has revealed that no significant differences can be found when comparing chunky areas and well-formed spheroidal graphite areas. On the other hand, it has not been possible to establish any correlation between the oxygen contents and the scale of the defect. However, it is noteworthy that the oxygen content is related to the use of magnesium or cerium as nodulized agent. (Author) 23 refs.

  2. Iron isotope fractionation during microbial dissimilatory iron oxide reduction in simulated Archaean seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percak-Dennett, E M; Beard, B L; Xu, H; Konishi, H; Johnson, C M; Roden, E E

    2011-05-01

    The largest Fe isotope excursion yet measured in marine sedimentary rocks occurs in shales, carbonates, and banded iron formations of Neoarchaean and Paleoproterozoic age. The results of field and laboratory studies suggest a potential role for microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) in producing this excursion. However, most experimental studies of Fe isotope fractionation during DIR have been conducted in simple geochemical systems, using pure Fe(III) oxide substrates that are not direct analogues to phases likely to have been present in Precambrian marine environments. In this study, Fe isotope fractionation was investigated during microbial reduction of an amorphous Fe(III) oxide-silica coprecipitate in anoxic, high-silica, low-sulphate artificial Archaean seawater at 30 °C to determine if such conditions alter the extent of reduction or isotopic fractionations relative to those observed in simple systems. The Fe(III)-Si coprecipitate was highly reducible (c. 80% reduction) in the presence of excess acetate. The coprecipitate did not undergo phase conversion (e.g. to green rust, magnetite or siderite) during reduction. Iron isotope fractionations suggest that rapid and near-complete isotope exchange took place among all Fe(II) and Fe(III) components, in contrast to previous work on goethite and hematite, where exchange was limited to the outer few atom layers of the substrate. Large quantities of low-δ(56)Fe Fe(II) (aqueous and solid phase) were produced during reduction of the Fe(III)-Si coprecipitate. These findings shed new light on DIR as a mechanism for producing Fe isotope variations observed in Neoarchaean and Paleoproterozoic marine sedimentary rocks.

  3. Feasibility of infrared analysis of iron in zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasibility study has concluded that quantitative infrared analysis can be employed to determine the concentration of iron in zircon. The spectral transmission curves have shown that the iron absorption band is located at 1.15 microns. These curves also revealed a second absorption band at 1.49 microns. The source of this second peak is not known; but it exhibits some features which suggest its dependance on natural α-recoil damage. 23 references, 14 figures, 2 tables

  4. Formation process of dislocation loops in iron under irradiations with low-energy helium, hydrogen ions or high-energy electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, K.; Mori, H.; Ono, K.

    2002-12-01

    Formation processes of interstitial-type dislocation loops (I loops) in high-purity Fe under irradiations with 5 keV H + ions or 1000 keV electrons are examined by in situ transmission electron microscopy at temperatures below room temperature, and the results are compared with that obtained under He + ion irradiation. For the electron irradiation, conventional model of I-loop nucleation based on the assumption that di-interstitial atoms are stable nuclei of I loops is questioned. The volume density of I loops by H + ion irradiation is one-order of magnitude higher than that by electron irradiation, and several times lower than that by He + ion irradiation. The temperature dependence of the volume density of I loops by H + ion irradiation supports the idea that such enhancement of I-loop formation is due to trapping of self-interstitial atoms by gas atom-vacancy complexes.

  5. Human iron transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Garrick, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Human iron transporters manage iron carefully because tissues need iron for critical functions, but too much iron increases the risk of reactive oxygen species. Iron acquisition occurs in the duodenum via divalent metal transporter (DMT1) and ferroportin. Iron trafficking depends largely on the transferrin cycle. Nevertheless, non-digestive tissues have a variety of other iron transporters that may render DMT1 modestly redundant, and DMT1 levels exceed those needed for the just-mentioned task...

  6. Iron bioavailability from commercially available iron supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Christides, Tatiana; Wray, David; McBride, Richard; Fairweather, Rose; Sharp, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a global public health problem. Treatment with the standard of care ferrous iron salts may be poorly tolerated, leading to non-compliance and ineffective correction of IDA. Employing supplements with higher bioavailability might permit lower doses of iron to be used with fewer side effects, thus improving treatment efficacy. Here, we compared the iron bioavailability of ferrous sulphate tablets with alternative commercial iron products, including th...

  7. Assessment of polyphase sintered iron-cobalt-iron boride cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sintering of iron, cobalt and boron powders has been analysed. As a result iron-iron boride, Fe-Fe2B and iron/cobalt boride with a slight admixture of molybdenum, Fe - Co - (FeMoCo)2B cermets have been produced. Iron was introduced to the mixture as the Astalloy Mo Hoeganaes grade powder. Elemental amorphous boron powder was used, and formation of borides occurred both during heating and isothermal sintering periods causing dimensional changes of the sintered body. Dilatometry was chosen to control basic phenomena taking place during multiphase sintering of investigated systems. The microstructure and phase constituents of sintered compacts were controlled as well. The cermets produced were substituted to: metallographic tests, X-ray analysis, measurements of hardness and of microhardness, and of wear in the process of sliding dry friction. Cermets are made up of two phases; hard grains of iron - cobalt boride, (FeCo)2B (1800 HV) constituting the reinforcement and a relatively soft and plastic eutectic mixture Fe2B - Co (400-500 HV) constituting the matrix. (author)

  8. Microstructures and mechanical properties of commercial purity iron processed by asymmetric rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of grain refinement, commercial purity iron processed by asymmetric rolling (ASR) has been studied by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Equiaxed ultra fined grains with a grain size of about 0.9 μm and a large fraction of high angle grain boundaries were obtained. The formation of the equiaxed grains is suggested to result from the additional shear strain which is observed by the shape change of a Cu band inserted into the rolled materials. The rolled iron exhibits high yield strength with a low work hardening ability and high microhardness, which are attributed to the high dislocation density and the large fraction of the high angle boundaries.

  9. Orbital magnetic moment and extrinsic spin Hall effect for iron impurities in gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shick, Alexander B.; Kolorenč, Jindřich; Janiš, Václav; Lichtenstein, Alexander I.

    2011-09-01

    We report electronic structure calculations of an iron impurity in a gold host. The spin, orbital, and dipole magnetic moments were investigated using the local density approximation (LDA) + U correlated band theory. We show that the around-mean-field LDA + U reproduces the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) experimental data well and does not lead to the formation of a large orbital moment on the Fe atom. Furthermore, exact diagonalization of the multiorbital Anderson impurity model with the full Coulomb interaction matrix and the spin-orbit coupling is performed in order to estimate the spin Hall angle. The obtained value γS≈0.025 suggests that there is no giant extrinsic spin Hall effect due to scattering on iron impurities in gold.

  10. Iron and iron derived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Al2O3 Scale Development on Iron Aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Thaidigsmann, Katja; Ager, Joel; Hou, Peggy Y.

    2005-11-10

    The structure and phase of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale that forms on an Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloy (Fe-28Al-5Cr) (at %) was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). Oxidation was performed at 900 C and 1000 C for up to 190 min. TEM revealed that single-layer scales were formed after short oxidation times. Electron diffraction was used to show that the scales are composed of nanoscale crystallites of the {theta}, {gamma}, and {alpha} phases of alumina. Band-like structure was observed extending along three 120{sup o}-separated directions within the surface plane. Textured {theta} and {gamma} grains were the main components of the bands, while mixed {alpha} and transient phases were found between the bands. Extended oxidation produced a double-layered scale structure, with a continuous {alpha} layer at the scale/alloy interface, and a {gamma}/{theta} layer at the gas surface. The mechanism for the formation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales on iron aluminide alloys is discussed and compared to that for nickel aluminide alloys.

  12. Gutzwiller theory of band magnetism in LaOFeAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schickling, Tobias; Gebhard, Florian [Fachbereich Physik, Philipps Universitaet, D-35037 Marburg (Germany); Buenemann, Joerg [Institut fuer Physik, BTU Cottbus, D-03013 Cottbus (Germany); Boeri, Lilia; Andersen, Ole K. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Weber, Werner [Fakultaet Physik, TU Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For the iron pnictide LaOFeAs we investigate multi-band Hubbard models which are assumed to capture the relevant physics. In our calculations, we employ the Gutzwiller variational theory which is a genuine many particle approach. We will present results both on the paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of our model systems. These results show that a five band-model is not adequate to capture the relevant physics in LaOFeAs. However, our results for the eight band-model which includes the arsenic 4p bands reproduce the experimental data, especially the small magnetic moment, for a broad parameter regime.

  13. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized inside highly ordered mesoporous silica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Bhaumik; S Samanta; N K Mal

    2005-11-01

    Nanosized iron oxide, a moderately large band-gap semiconductor and an essential component of optoelectrical and magnetic devices, has been prepared successfully inside the restricted internal pores of mesoporous silica material through in-situ reduction during impregnation. The samples were characterized by powder XRD, TEM, SEM/EDS, N2 adsorption, FT-IR and UV–visible spectroscopies. Characterization data indicated well-dispersed isolated nanoclusters of (Fe2O3),` within the internal surface of 2D-hexagonal mesoporous silica structure. No occluded Fe/Fe2O3 crystallites were observed at the external surface of the mesoporous silica nanocomposites. Inorganic mesoporous host, such as hydrophilic silica in the pore walls, directs a physical constraint necessary to prevent the creation of large Fe2O3 agglomerates and enables the formation of nanosized Fe2O3 particles inside the mesopore.

  14. Band structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsidilkovski, I M

    2013-01-01

    Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillatio

  15. Iron Sucrose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due ... may cause the kidneys to stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Steam iron cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cleaner is a substance used to clean steam irons. Poisoning occurs when someone swallows steam iron cleaner. This ... Below are symptoms of steam iron cleaner poisoning in different ... AND THROAT Severe pain in the throat Severe pain in the mouth ...

  17. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... refers to a condition in which your blood has a lower than normal number of red blood ... iron, your body starts using the iron it has stored. Soon, the stored iron gets used up. ...

  19. Sulfide-iron interactions in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Lens, P.N.L.; Vollertsen, J.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Th.

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between iron and sulfide in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer were investigated with particular emphasis on redox cycling of iron and iron sulfide formation. The concentration ranges of iron and total sulfide in the experiments were 0.4-5.4 mg Fe L-1 and 0-5.1 mg S L-1, respectiv

  20. Iron overload in very low birth weight infants: Serum Ferritin and adverse outcomes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, M

    2011-11-01

    Adequate iron isessential for growth and haematpoiesis. Oral iron supplementation is the standard of care in VLBW infants. Post mortem evidence has confirmed significant iron overload. Excessive free iron has been associated with free radical formation and brain injury in term infants.

  1. Effects of microbial redox cycling of iron on cast iron pipe corrosion in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Zhang, Lili; Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2014-11-15

    Bacterial characteristics in corrosion products and their effect on the formation of dense corrosion scales on cast iron coupons were studied in drinking water, with sterile water acting as a reference. The corrosion process and corrosion scales were characterized by electrochemical and physico-chemical measurements. The results indicated that the corrosion was more rapidly inhibited and iron release was lower due to formation of more dense protective corrosion scales in drinking water than in sterile water. The microbial community and denitrifying functional genes were analyzed by pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR), respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the bacteria in corrosion products played an important role in the corrosion process in drinking water. Nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) Acidovorax and Hydrogenophaga enhanced iron corrosion before 6 days. After 20 days, the dominant bacteria became NRB Dechloromonas (40.08%) with the protective corrosion layer formation. The Dechloromonas exhibited the stronger corrosion inhibition by inducing the redox cycling of iron, to enhance the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of Fe3O4. Subsequently, other minor bacteria appeared in the corrosion scales, including iron-respiring bacteria and Rhizobium which captured iron by the produced siderophores, having a weaker corrosion-inhibition effect. Therefore, the microbially-driven redox cycling of iron with associated microbial capture of iron caused more compact corrosion scales formation and lower iron release. PMID:25150521

  2. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  3. Band parameters of phosphorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.;

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory are co...

  4. Flat Band Quastiperiodic Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodyfelt, Joshua; Flach, Sergej; Danieli, Carlo

    2014-03-01

    Translationally invariant lattices with flat bands (FB) in their band structure possess irreducible compact localized flat band states, which can be understood through local rotation to a Fano structure. We present extension of these quasi-1D FB structures under incommensurate lattices, reporting on the FB effects to the Metal-Insulator Transition.

  5. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  6. Key parameters for low-grade fine-grained iron ore valorization: lower environmental impact through reduced waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christiane; Orberger, Beate; Tudryn, Alina; Baptiste, Benoît; Wirth, Richard; Morgan, Rachel; Miska, Serge

    2016-04-01

    In low-grade banded iron formations (BIFs), a large part of the iron is related to micro- and nano- metric iron-bearing inclusions within quartz and/or carbonates, mainly dolomite (~ 20 to 50 μm). Low-grade fine grained iron ore present two types of environmental risks: a) they are often stocked as tailings. For example, the recent disaster (5th of November 2015) in the Minas Gerais district, Brazil, was caused by the collapse of the Fundão tailings dam at an open cast mine; b) during beneficiation significant amounts of dust are generated also leading to metal loss. A laminated BIF studied from a drill core at Àguas Claras Mine, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil, contains 26.71 wt. % total iron, 0.2 wt. % SiO2, 0.32 wt.% MnO, 15.46 wt. % MgO, 22.32 wt.% CaO, 0.09 wt. % P2O5, risk factors.

  7. Intraperitoneal N-acetylcysteine for acute iron intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Rachelle; Abu-Kishk, Ibrahim; Kozer, Eran; Ben-Assa, Eyal; Goldstein, Lee H; Youngster, Ilan; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2011-10-01

    Free radical formation and release of oxidant agents have been suggested as possible mechanisms for tissue damage in acute iron intoxication. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione substitute and an antioxidant, is widely used as an antidote for various intoxications. Our aim was to determine whether intraperitoneal (i.p.) NAC would reduce the mortality of rats after acute, toxic oral doses of iron. Male Wistar rats were studied in three phases. In the first phase, animals were assigned to groups 1 (distilled water by gavage) and 2 (i.p. NAC) and observed for survival. In the second phase, rats were assigned to groups 3 (400 mg/kg elemental iron orally) and 4 (400 mg/kg elemental iron, followed by 150 mg/kg i.p. NAC). Survival was observed. Because most rats in Group 3 died within 90 minutes after iron administration, a third phase was conducted in order to allow for comparison of iron and transaminase serum levels after the administration of iron and NAC (group 5: n = 10). Mortality was significantly lower in rats treated with iron and NAC, compared to those treated with iron (P = 0.016). Median serum iron level was significantly lower among rats treated with iron and NAC, compared with rats treated with iron alone (P = 0.002). In a rat model of acute iron intoxication, i.p. administration of NAC may decrease serum iron levels and mortality. PMID:21740343

  8. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  9. Liver iron transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ross M Graham; Anita CG Chua; Carly E Herbison; John K Olynyk; Debbie Trinder

    2007-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in iron metabolism. It is the major storage site for iron and also expresses a complex range of molecules which are involved in iron transport and regulation of iron homeostasis. An increasing number of genes associated with hepatic iron transport or regulation have been identified. These include transferrin receptors (TFR1 and 2), a ferrireductase (STEAP3), the transporters divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) and ferroportin (FPN) as well as the haemochromatosis protein, HFE and haemojuvelin (HJV),which are signalling molecules. Many of these genes also participate in iron regulatory pathways which focus on the hepatic peptide hepcidin. However, we are still only beginning to understand the complex interactions between liver iron transport and iron homeostasis. This review outlines our current knowledge of molecules of iron metabolism and their roles in iron transport and regulation of iron homeostasis.

  10. Experimental study on the adiabatic shear bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four martensitic steels (Z50CDV5 steel, 28CND8 steel, 35NCDV16 steel and 4340 steel) with different hardness between 190 and 600 Hsub(B) (Brinell hardness), have been studied by means of dynamic compressive tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar. Microscopic observations show that the fracture are associated to the development of adiabatic shear bands (except 4340 steel with 190 Hsub(B) hardness). By means of tests for which the deformation is stopped at predetermined levels, the measurement of shear and hardness inside the band and the matrix indicates the chronology of this phenomenon: first the localization of shear, followed by the formation of adiabatic shear band and ultimatly crack initiation and propagation. These results correlated with few simulations by finite elements have permitted to suggest two mecanisms of deformation leading to the formation of adiabatic shear bands in this specific test

  11. [Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    The major causes of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) include iron loss due to bleeding, increased iron requirements, and decreased iron absorption by the intestine. The most common cause of IDA in Japanese women is iron loss during menstruation. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection can also cause IDA by reducing intestinal iron absorption. In addition to these common etiologies, germline mutations of TMPRSS6 can cause iron-refractory IDA (IRIDA). TMPRSS6 encodes matriptase-2, a membrane-bound serine protease primarily expressed in the liver. Functional loss of matriptase-2 due to homozygous mutations results in an increase in the expression of hepcidin, which is the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. The serum hepcidin increase in turn leads to a decrease in iron supply from the intestine and macrophages to erythropoietic cells. IRIDA is microcytic and hypochromic, but decreased serum ferritin is not observed as in IDA. IRIDA is refractory to oral iron supplementation, but does respond to intravenous iron supplementation to some extent. Because genetic testing is required for the diagnoses of IRIDA, a considerable number of cases may go undiagnosed and may thus be overlooked. PMID:26935626

  12. [Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    The major causes of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) include iron loss due to bleeding, increased iron requirements, and decreased iron absorption by the intestine. The most common cause of IDA in Japanese women is iron loss during menstruation. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection can also cause IDA by reducing intestinal iron absorption. In addition to these common etiologies, germline mutations of TMPRSS6 can cause iron-refractory IDA (IRIDA). TMPRSS6 encodes matriptase-2, a membrane-bound serine protease primarily expressed in the liver. Functional loss of matriptase-2 due to homozygous mutations results in an increase in the expression of hepcidin, which is the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. The serum hepcidin increase in turn leads to a decrease in iron supply from the intestine and macrophages to erythropoietic cells. IRIDA is microcytic and hypochromic, but decreased serum ferritin is not observed as in IDA. IRIDA is refractory to oral iron supplementation, but does respond to intravenous iron supplementation to some extent. Because genetic testing is required for the diagnoses of IRIDA, a considerable number of cases may go undiagnosed and may thus be overlooked.

  13. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  14. Special thermite cast irons

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. Zhiguts; I. Kurytnik

    2008-01-01

    The given paper deals with the problems of the synthesis of cast iron by metallothermy synthesis. On the basis of investigated method of calculations structures of charges have been arranged and cast iron has been synthesized further. Peculiarities metallothermic smelting were found, mechanical properties and structure of received cast iron were investigated and different technologies for cast iron receiving were worked out.

  15. La fracturation et les bandes de déformation dans la région d’El Kohol (Atlas saharien central, Algérie: analyse fractale, lois d’échelles et modèle de réseaux de fractures discrètes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zazoun, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is focused on the study of natural fractures and deformation bands in El Kohol structure, located in the Djebel Amour in the Central Saharan Atlas, Algeria. The field observations and measurements were performed through two localities on the forelimb and two others on the backlimb of the structure. The outcrop study has shown the existence of five fracture sets and three deformation bands sets. The spacing and length distribution models of the different fractures sets obey to a power law. The mechanical layer thickness analysis for the whole formations shows the existence of twelve mechanical units with a stratabound control. The deformation bands show an increasing in their numbers, and a decreasing in their spacing when they approach the major faults. The fractal analysis of faults and fractures, as well as the deformation bands show a fractal character of 2D dimension. A good correlation coefficients is obtained from the comparison between the density and the intensity parameters (Pxy calculated from the discrete fracture network (DFN modelling, and those from the outcrops. The model developed is discussed related to deformation events recognized in the area.[fr] Ce travail porte sur l’étude de la fracturation naturelle et les bandes de déformation dans la structure plicative d’El Kohol, du le Djebel Amour, dans l’Atlas saharien central. Les observations et les mesures ont été effectuées à travers deux stations sur le flanc court ou avant de la structure, et deux stations sur le flanc long ou arrière. L’étude a montré l’existence de cinq familles de fractures et de trois familles de bandes de déformation. Les modèles de distribution des espacements et des longueurs des différentes familles de fractures obéit à une loi de type puissance. L’analyse mécanostratigraphique montre une subdivision des formations étudiées en douze unités mécaniques. Les bandes de déformation montrent une

  16. Band Interaction between Chiral Doublet Bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Bin; ZHANG Shuang-Quan; WANG Shou-Yu; MENG Jie

    2010-01-01

    @@ Band interaction between the chiral doublet bands based on πh11/2(×) vh-111/2 configuration is investigated in the particle rotor model with different triaxial deformation γ. The variation of chiral partner states with γvalues is understood qualitatively based on the basic picture of two interaction levels, which is confirmed further by the calculated overlap integral of wave functions at different γ values. It is found that the interaction strengths ofchiral partner states are obvionsly different for odd spins and even ones.

  17. One-man band

    OpenAIRE

    Stillman, R.

    2013-01-01

    This website presents practice-based research related to solo simultaneous instrumental performance ('one-man band'). The site was conceived as a creative and widely accessible platform for music and ideas resulting from one-man band activates carried out between 2008 and 2013. Central to this project is an interest in how one-man band technique informs compositional process, including studio production. Through presentation and analysis of the author’s own creative practice, the site exp...

  18. Graphitization in chromium cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    LECOMTE-BECKERS, Jacqueline; Terziev, L.; Breyer, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    Some trials with graphite Hi-Cr iron rolls have been done mainly in Japan, for the rolling of stainless steel. This material could lead to good compromise between oxidation, wear and thermal behaviour. By using thermal analysis and resistometry, the conditions for secondary graphite formation have been studied. The amount and volume of free graphite may be strongly increased by a suitable heat treatment, allowing a good thermal conductivity as well as high wear and mechanical properties.

  19. Gutzwiller theory of band magnetism in LaOFeAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickling, Tobias; Gebhard, Florian; Bünemann, Jörg; Boeri, Lilia; Andersen, Ole K; Weber, Werner

    2012-01-20

    We use the Gutzwiller variational theory to calculate the ground-state phase diagram and quasiparticle bands of LaOFeAs. The Fe3d-As4p Wannier-orbital basis obtained from density-functional theory defines the band part of our eight-band Hubbard model. The full atomic interaction between the electrons in the iron orbitals is parametrized by the Hubbard interaction U and an average Hund's-rule interaction J. We reproduce the experimentally observed small ordered magnetic moment over a large region of (U,J) parameter space. The magnetically ordered phase is a stripe spin-density wave of quasiparticles.

  20. Shear banding deformation in Cu/Ta nano-multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Formation of shear bands in Cu/Ta multilayers is layer thickness dependent. → Unique layer-morphology with prevalent mismatched laminate structure was observed. → A new physical mechanism that dominates shear band formation is suggested. - Abstract: Nanoscale Cu/Ta multilayers with individual layer thickness ranging from 3 to 70 nm were deformed under nanoindentation at room temperature. Shear bands can be observed only when individual layer thickness is reduced to 9 nm or below, indicating formation of shear bands in the Cu/Ta multilayers is layer thickness dependent. By observing the cross sectional transmission electron microscope images of the indentation fabricated through focused ion beam technique, shear banding deformation causing a unique layer-morphology with prevalent mismatched laminate structure has been reported for the first time. By capturing and analyzing a series of typical indentation-induced deformed microstructures, a new physical mechanism of shear banding behavior in metallic nano-multilayers is suggested.

  1. 过共晶球墨铸铁中石墨球周围奥氏体壳的形成机制%Formation Mechanism of the Austenite Shell around Nodular Graphite in the Hypereutectic Nodular Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟秋亚; 徐锦锋; 袁森

    2001-01-01

    The high-temperature solidification structure in hypereutectic nodular iron has been showed clearly by the color etching technique and the formation mechanism of the austenite shell (the austenite shell is a part of the austenite dendrites) around the nodular graphite has been observed and analyzed. The result shows that the primary austenite dendrite and austenite shell dendrite grows alternately through the primary nodular graphite, this helps to bring about the formation of the austenite shell around nodular graphite. Around the primary nodular graphite, the austenite nucleates and grows based on the graphite growth face (0001), and forms a ring like austenite shell finally. At the earlier stage of eutectic, the graphite nodules nucleate and grow between dendrites arm or in the frame of the austenite dendrites, then are surrounded by the austenite dendrite arms formed later, finally the enveloped or nor-enveloped frame austenite shell has formed. But, There is no austenite shell formed around the nodular graphite formed in the later stage of eutectic.%采用着色腐蚀技术,可清晰地显示出过共晶球墨铸铁中的高温凝固组织,观察分析了石墨球周围奥氏体壳(奥氏体壳是奥氏体枝晶的一部分)的形成机制。结果表明,初生枝晶和晕圈枝晶交替生长,促成石墨球周围奥氏体壳的形成;奥氏体以石墨生长面(0001)为衬底形核、生长,在初生石墨球周围形成环状封闭奥氏体壳;共晶前期石墨球在枝晶臂间或框架中形核、生长,尔后为枝晶高次臂所包围,形成封闭或不封闭的框架奥氏体壳。共晶后期石墨球不形成奥氏体壳。

  2. Red Supergiant Stars as Cosmic Abundance Probes. III. NLTE effects in J-band Magnesium lines

    CERN Document Server

    Bergemann, Maria; Gazak, Zach; Davies, Ben; Plez, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Non-LTE calculations for Mg I in red supergiant stellar atmospheres are presented to investigate the importance of non-LTE for the formation of Mg I lines in the NIR J-band. Recent work using medium resolution spectroscopy of atomic lines in the J-band of individual red supergiant stars has demonstrated that technique is a very promising tool to investigate the chemical composition of the young stellar population in star forming galaxies. As in previous work, where non-LTE effects were studied for iron, titanium and silicon, substantial effects are found resulting in significantly stronger Mg I absorption lines. For the quantitative spectral analysis the non-LTE effects lead to magnesium abundances significantly smaller than in LTE with the non-LTE abundance corrections varying smoothly between -0.4 dex to -0.1 dex for effective temperatures between 3400 K to 4400 K. We discuss the physical reasons of the non-LTE effects and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies using individual red supe...

  3. ZEBRAFISH CHROMOSOME-BANDING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIJNACKER, LP; FERWERDA, MA

    1995-01-01

    Banding techniques were carried out on metaphase chromosomes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. The karyotypes with the longest chromosomes consist of 12 metacentrics, 26 submetacentrics, and 12 subtelocentrics (2n = 50). All centromeres are C-band positive. Eight chromosomes have a pericentric C-b

  4. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  5. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Amy [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Moore, Lee R. [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lane, Christopher D.; Kumar, Anil; Stroff, Clayton; White, Nicolas [Phycal Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Xue, Wei; Chalmers, Jeffrey J. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Zborowski, Maciej, E-mail: zborowm@ccf.org [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP–AA). They were grown in Sueoka’s modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl{sub 3} EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed “magnetic deposition microscopy”, or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest. - Highlights: • Auxenochlorella protothecoides algae were genetically modified for biofuel production. • Algal iron metabolism was sufficient for their label-less magnetic separation. • High magnetic field and low flow required make the separation scale-up uneconomical.

  6. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP–AA). They were grown in Sueoka’s modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl3 EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed “magnetic deposition microscopy”, or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest. - Highlights: • Auxenochlorella protothecoides algae were genetically modified for biofuel production. • Algal iron metabolism was sufficient for their label-less magnetic separation. • High magnetic field and low flow required make the separation scale-up uneconomical

  7. Mechanical contrast in block copolymers manifested as kink band defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winey, Karen I.; Polis, Daniel L.

    1998-03-01

    Kink bands are an established defect structure found in materials with a preferential slip plane, such as select crystalline solids and foliated rocks. Kink bands are induced by steady shear in a predominately parallel-oriented, lamellar poly(styrene-b-ethylene propylene) diblock copolymer. Steady shear induces kink bands which have their boundaries oriented at 45^o relative to the shearing direction. The lamellar orientations inside and outside the kink bands are asymmetric with respect to the kink band boundaries. This asymmetry is due to a lamellar dilation inside the kink band relative to lamellae outside the kink band. A comparison of the zero shear viscosities of homopolystyrene and homopoly(ethylene-propylene) suggest that the PS microdomains deform preferentially. The presence of a preferential slip plane is consistent with the formation of kink bands. Furthermore, estimates of the number of entanglements in the interpenetration zone between opposing brushes suggest an even larger disparity between PS and PEP relaxation times.

  8. The mutual co-regulation of extracellular polymeric substances and iron ions in biocorrosion of cast iron pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Juntao; Guan, Yuntao

    2014-10-01

    New insights into the biocorrosion process may be gained through understanding of the interaction between extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and iron. Herein, the effect of iron ions on the formation of biofilms and production of EPS was investigated. Additionally, the impact of EPS on the corrosion of cast iron coupons was explored. The results showed that a moderate concentration of iron ions (0.06 mg/L) promoted both biofilm formation and EPS production. The presence of EPS accelerated corrosion during the initial stage, while inhibited corrosion at the later stage. The functional groups of EPS acted as electron shuttles to enable the binding of iron ions. Binding of iron ions with EPS led to anodic dissolution and promoted corrosion, while corrosion was later inhibited through oxygen reduction and availability of phosphorus from EPS. The presence of EPS also led to changes in crystalline phases of corrosion products.

  9. Water clustering on nanostructured iron oxide films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merte, Lindsay Richard; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, G.;

    2014-01-01

    , but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moire-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer...... islands form on the bare film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous...

  10. Microbial Iron Respiration Can Protect Steel from Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Dubiel, M.; Hsu, C H; Chien, C. C.; Mansfeld, F.; Newman, D. K.

    2002-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MC) of steel has been attributed to the activity of biofilms that include anaerobic microorganisms such as iron-respiring bacteria, yet the mechanisms by which these organisms influence corrosion have been unclear. To study this process, we generated mutants of the iron-respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 that were defective in biofilm formation and/or iron reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine changes...

  11. Rapid Determination of Iron in Water by Modified Thiocyanate Method

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Goswami; H. Kalita

    1988-01-01

    A rapid spectrophotometric method for determination of iron in water by oxidising ferrous iron with ceric ammonium sulphate at roomtemperature followed by formation of ferric thiocyanate colour complexwith potassium thiocyanate has been described. The method is simple and rapid as compared to other standard methods used in water analysis and iron content of water upto 5 ppm can be determined by this method with a maximum error of 2.8 per cent

  12. Rapid Determination of Iron in Water by Modified Thiocyanate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Goswami

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available A rapid spectrophotometric method for determination of iron in water by oxidising ferrous iron with ceric ammonium sulphate at roomtemperature followed by formation of ferric thiocyanate colour complexwith potassium thiocyanate has been described. The method is simple and rapid as compared to other standard methods used in water analysis and iron content of water upto 5 ppm can be determined by this method with a maximum error of 2.8 per cent

  13. 鞍山-本溪地区前寒武纪条带状铁建造铁矿时代、物质来源与形成环境%Age,Material Sources and Formation Setting of Procambrian BIFs Iron Deposits in Anshan-Benxi Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连昌; 代堰锫; 王长乐; 刘利; 朱明田

    2014-01-01

    Precambrian banded iron formations (BIFs)contain large amounts of iron ores and record some important information about the evolution of early earth.Anshan-Benxi area has huge occurrences of Archean BIFs,which are helpful to enrich the theories of BIFs metallogenesis and advance the understanding of early evolution of North China Craton.These hosting rocks all have parallel occurrences to BIFs,and they show petrological and geochemical affinities with meta-volcanics.Therefore,the BIFs belong to the Algoma type and their formation ages can be reflected by the ages of wall rocks.It is proposed that there are at least two-stage BIFs deposition at about 3.10 Ga and about 2.55 Ga in Anshan-Benxi area,and the latter is widely distributed in North China Craton.The geochemical features of these BIFs include:①low concentrations of Al2 O3 ,TiO2 and high field strength elements,suggesting that terrigenous detrital materials contributed insignificantly to the chemical precipitation;②enrichment in heavy rare earth elements with positive La,Eu and Y anomalies on PAAS-normalized REE patterns,indicating their precipitation from marine seawater with a high-temperature hydrothermal component;③εNd (t)values (3.0-4.7 ) close to those of the coeval depleted mantle,implying that the iron is most likely derived from the leaching of oceanic crust by marine hydrothermal activities;④BIFs have only a few pyrites within them,and most of them show no Ce anomaly with enrichment ofδ(57 Fe)((0.13-2.73)×10-3 ), indicating that Archean ocean is in low abundances of S and O2 .It is proposed that the deposition of BIFs is associated with environment variation during the transport of Fe2+-rich solutions. Geochemical analyses show that Dagushan and Chentaigou wall rocks have the characteristics of arc volcanics,and Nanfen and Waitoushan rocks are similar to back-arc basin basalts.Therefore, the BIFs in Anshan-Benxi area are deposited in the volcanic arc setting.%前寒武纪条带状铁建

  14. Nature of the emission band of Dergaon meteorite in the region 5700—6700 Å

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Bhattacharyya; A Gohain Barua; R Konwar; R Changmai; G D Baruah

    2004-06-01

    An emission band system in the region 5700—6700 Å from Dergaon stoney iron meteorite which fell at Dergaon, India on March 2, 16.40 local time (2001) was excited with the help of a continuous 500 mW Ar+ laser. The band system is attributed to silicate (olivine), a major component of the meteorite.

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intravenous iron therapy. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood ...

  16. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  17. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video— ... treatment. For more information about living with and managing iron-deficiency anemia, go to the Health Topics ...

  19. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of iron homeostasis: iron deficiency and overload. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, ... EJ, Gardner LB. Anemia of chronic diseases. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... levels usually are due to blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from ... iron levels. Susan also made changes to her diet, such as focusing more on green leafy vegetables, ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Iron-deficiency ... 2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National Institutes ...

  2. Iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Ronald

    2010-07-20

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy.

  3. Synthesis of Fe-MCM-41 Using Iron Ore Tailings as the Silicon and Iron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Honghao; He, Yan; Xue, Xiangxin

    2012-01-01

    Highly ordered Fe-MCM-41 molecular sieve was successfully synthesized by using n-hexadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the template and the iron ore tailings (IOTs) as the silicon and iron source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the samples. The results showed that the mesoporous materials had highly ordered 2-dimensional hexagonal structure. The synthesized sample had high surface area, and part of iron atoms is retained in the framework with formation of tetrahedron after removal of the template by calcinations. The results obtained in the present work demonstrate the feasibility of employing iron ore tailings as a potential source of silicon and iron to produce Fe-MCM-41 mesoporous materials. PMID:22567574

  4. Synthesis of Fe-MCM-41 Using Iron Ore Tailings as the Silicon and Iron Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered Fe-MCM-41 molecular sieve was successfully synthesized by using n-hexadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as the template and the iron ore tailings (IOTs as the silicon and iron source. X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the samples. The results showed that the mesoporous materials had highly ordered 2-dimensional hexagonal structure. The synthesized sample had high surface area, and part of iron atoms is retained in the framework with formation of tetrahedron after removal of the template by calcinations. The results obtained in the present work demonstrate the feasibility of employing iron ore tailings as a potential source of silicon and iron to produce Fe-MCM-41 mesoporous materials.

  5. Special thermite cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Zhiguts

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The given paper deals with the problems of the synthesis of cast iron by metallothermy synthesis. On the basis of investigated method of calculations structures of charges have been arranged and cast iron has been synthesized further. Peculiarities metallothermic smelting were found, mechanical properties and structure of received cast iron were investigated and different technologies for cast iron receiving were worked out.

  6. Iron deficiency and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Hulthén, Lena

    2003-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional disorder in the world. One of the most worrying consequences of iron deficiency in children is the alteration of behaviour and cognitive performance. In iron-deficient children, striking behavioural changes are observed, such as reduced attention span, reduced emotional responsiveness and low scores on tests of intelligence. Animal studies on nutritional iron deficiency show effects on learning ability that parallel the human studies. Despite ...

  7. Alternative iron making routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, P.; Sharma, T. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India)

    2002-07-01

    The versatile route of iron production 'blast furnace' technique is being replaced by widely accepted Corex technology, Midrex process using Fastmelt ironmaking, eco-friendly Romelt process, more innovative Ausmelt & Hismelt technology, TATA KORF Mini blast furnace improvement, 'quickest iron through Orbiting Plasma', Direct iron ore smelting process, Conred, AISI-Hyl, Inred processes, Direct iron ore reduction methods, their comparison and proposed modifications. 18 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Iron oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Gareth S.

    2016-03-01

    was recently challenged and a new structure based on a thin film of Fe3O4(111) on α-Fe2O3(0001) was proposed. The merits of the competing models are discussed. The α-Fe2O3(1 1 bar02) "R-cut" surface is recommended as an excellent prospect for future study given its apparent ease of preparation and its prevalence in nanomaterial. In the latter sections the literature regarding adsorption on iron oxides is reviewed. First, the adsorption of molecules (H2, H2O, CO, CO2, O2, HCOOH, CH3OH, CCl4, CH3I, C6H6, SO2, H2S, ethylbenzene, styrene, and Alq3) is discussed, and an attempt is made to relate this information to the reactions in which iron oxides are utilized as a catalyst (water-gas shift, Fischer-Tropsch, dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene) or catalyst supports (CO oxidation). The known interactions of iron oxide surfaces with metals are described, and it is shown that the behaviour is determined by whether the metal forms a stable ternary phase with the iron oxide. Those that do not, (e.g. Au, Pt, Ag, Pd) prefer to form three-dimensional particles, while the remainder (Ni, Co, Mn, Cr, V, Cu, Ti, Zr, Sn, Li, K, Na, Ca, Rb, Cs, Mg, Ca) incorporate within the oxide lattice. The incorporation temperature scales with the heat of formation of the most stable metal oxide. A particular effort is made to underline the mechanisms responsible for the extraordinary thermal stability of isolated metal adatoms on Fe3O4 surfaces, and the potential application of this model system to understand single atom catalysis and sub-nano cluster catalysis is discussed. The review ends with a brief summary, and a perspective is offered including exciting lines of future research.

  9. Broad iron lines in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C; Reynolds, C S; Young, A J

    2000-01-01

    An intrinsically narrow line emitted by an accretion disk around a black hole appears broadened and skewed as a result of the Doppler effect and gravitational redshift. The fluorescent iron line in the X-ray band at 6.4-6.9keV is the strongest such line and is seen in the X-ray spectrum of many active galactic nuclei and, in particular, Seyfert galaxies. It is an important diagnostic with which to study the geometry and other properties of the accretion flow very close to the central black hole. The broad iron line indicates the presence of a standard thin accretion disk in those objects, often seen at low inclination. The broad iron line has opened up strong gravitational effects around black holes to observational study with wide-reaching consequences for both astrophysics and physics.

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ... Institutes of Health—shows how Susan, a full-time worker and student, has coped with having iron- ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to ...

  14. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make the band tighter or looser any time after you have this surgery. It may be tightened or ... Having problems eating Not losing enough weight Vomiting after you eat Outlook (Prognosis) The final weight loss with ...

  15. CSF oligoclonal banding - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100145.htm CSF oligoclonal banding - series—Normal anatomy ... Overview The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves to supply nutrients to the central nervous system (CNS) and collect waste products, as well as ...

  16. The Band Pass Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Christiano, Lawrence J.; Terry J. Fitzgerald

    1999-01-01

    The `ideal' band pass filter can be used to isolate the component of a time series that lies within a particular band of frequencies. However, applying this filter requires a dataset of infinite length. In practice, some sort of approximation is needed. Using projections, we derive approximations that are optimal when the time series representations underlying the raw data have a unit root, or are stationary about a trend. We identify one approximation which, though it is only optimal for one...

  17. Iliotibial band friction syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lavine, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for ili...

  18. Microbial Oxidation of Iron Sulfides in Anaerobic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaclavkova, Sarka

    Abstract (shortened): Iron sulfides (FeSx), representing 0.04-10 % of Danish dry soil weight, oxidize in a presence of oxygen, releasing sulfuric acid and free iron. Environmental impact of FeSx oxidation is commonly seen on agricultural sites cultivated by drainage as acid sulfate soil formation...

  19. Iron and the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrangelo, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Humans have evolved to retain iron in the body and are exposed to a high risk of iron overload and iron-related toxicity. Excess iron in the blood, in the absence of increased erythropoietic needs, can saturate the buffering capacity of serum transferrin and result in non-transferrin-bound highly reactive forms of iron that can cause damage, as well as promote fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis in the parenchymatous organs. A number of hereditary or acquired diseases are associated with systemic or local iron deposition or iron misdistribution in organs or cells. Two of these, the HFE- and non-HFE hemochromatosis syndromes represent the paradigms of genetic iron overload. They share common clinical features and the same pathogenic basis, in particular, a lack of synthesis or activity of hepcidin, the iron hormone. Before hepcidin was discovered, the liver was simply regarded as the main site of iron storage and, as such, the main target of iron toxicity. Now, as the main source of hepcidin, it appears that the loss of the hepcidin-producing liver mass or genetic and acquired factors that repress hepcidin synthesis in the liver may also lead to iron overload. Usually, there is low-grade excess iron which, through oxidative stress, is sufficient to worsen the course of the underlying liver disease or other chronic diseases that are apparently unrelated to iron, such as chronic metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In the future, modulation of hepcidin synthesis and activity or hepcidin hormone-replacing strategies may become therapeutic options to cure iron-related disorders.

  20. Atomic structure of amorphous shear bands in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Madhav; Liu, P; Hirata, A; Fujita, T; Chen, M W

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous shear bands are the main deformation and failure mode of super-hard boron carbide subjected to shock loading and high pressures at room temperature. Nevertheless, the formation mechanisms of the amorphous shear bands remain a long-standing scientific curiosity mainly because of the lack of experimental structure information of the disordered shear bands, comprising light elements of carbon and boron only. Here we report the atomic structure of the amorphous shear bands in boron carbide characterized by state-of-the-art aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Distorted icosahedra, displaced from the crystalline matrix, were observed in nano-sized amorphous bands that produce dislocation-like local shear strains. These experimental results provide direct experimental evidence that the formation of amorphous shear bands in boron carbide results from the disassembly of the icosahedra, driven by shear stresses.

  1. Effect of neutrase, alcalase, and papain hydrolysis of whey protein concentrates on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, K.Q.; Y. Z. Liu; Zhang, L B; Yang, X.G.; Z.W. Huang; Nout, M.J.R.; Liang, J.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey protein concentrates (WPC) on iron absorption were studied using in vitro digestion combined with Caco-2 cell models for improved iron absorption. Neutrase- and papain-treated WPC could improve iron absorption; especially hydrolysates by Neutrase could significantly increase iron absorption to 12.8% compared to 3.8% in the control. Hydrolysates by alcalase had negative effects to the lowest at 0.57%. Two new bands at molecular weights (MW) around and ...

  2. Electrodeposition of iron and iron-aluminium alloys in an ionic liquid and their magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, P; Weidenfeller, B; El Abedin, S Zein; Endres, F

    2014-05-28

    In this work we show that nanocrystalline iron and iron-aluminium alloys can be electrodeposited from the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethylsulfonate, [Py1,4]TfO, at 100 °C. The study comprises CV, SEM, XRD, and magnetic measurements. Two different sources of iron(ii) species, Fe(TfO)2 and FeCl2, were used for the electrodeposition of iron in [Py1,4]TfO. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of FeCl2, Fe(TfO)2, and (FeCl2 + AlCl3) in the employed ionic liquid. Thick iron deposits were obtained from FeCl2/[Py1,4]TfO at 100 °C. Electrodeposition of iron-aluminium alloys was successful in the same ionic liquid at 100 °C. The morphology and crystallinity of the obtained deposits were investigated using SEM and XRD, respectively. XRD measurements reveal the formation of iron-aluminium alloys. First magnetic measurements of some deposits gave relatively high coercive forces and power losses in comparison to commercial iron-silicon samples due to the small grain size in the nanometer regime. The present study shows the feasibility of preparing magnetic alloys from ionic liquids. PMID:24715034

  3. Iron isotopes in an Archean ocean analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busigny, Vincent; Planavsky, Noah J.; Jézéquel, Didier; Crowe, Sean; Louvat, Pascale; Moureau, Julien; Viollier, Eric; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2014-05-01

    Iron isotopes have been extensively used to trace the history of microbial metabolisms and the redox evolution of the oceans. Archean sedimentary rocks display greater variability in iron isotope ratios and more markedly negative values than those deposited in the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. This increased variability has been linked to changes in either water column iron cycling or the extent of benthic microbial iron reduction through time. We tested these contrasting scenarios through a detailed study of anoxic and ferruginous Lac Pavin (France), which can serve as a modern analogue of the Archean ocean. A depth-profile in the water column of Lac Pavin shows a remarkable increase in dissolved Fe concentration (0.1-1200 μM) and δ56Fe values (-2.14‰ to +0.31‰) across the oxic-anoxic boundary to the lake bottom. The largest Fe isotope variability is found at the redox boundary and is related to partial oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron, leaving the residual Fe enriched in light isotopes. The analysis of four sediment cores collected along a lateral profile (one in the oxic layer, one at the redox boundary, one in the anoxic zone, and one at the bottom of the lake) indicates that bulk sediments, porewaters, and reactive Fe mostly have δ56Fe values near 0.0 ± 0.2‰, similar to detrital iron. In contrast, pyrite δ56Fe values in sub-chemocline cores (60, 65, and 92 m) are highly variable and show significant deviations from the detrital iron isotope composition (δ56Fepyrite between -1.51‰ and +0.09‰; average -0.93‰). Importantly, the pyrite δ56Fe values mirror the δ56Fe of dissolved iron at the redox boundary—where near quantitative sulfate and sulfide drawdown occurs—suggesting limited iron isotope fractionation during iron sulfide formation. This finding has important implications for the Archean environment. Specifically, this work suggests that in a ferruginous system, most of the Fe isotope variability observed in sedimentary pyrites can

  4. [Iron function and carcinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akatsuka, Shinya; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2016-07-01

    Though iron is an essential micronutrient for humans, the excess state is acknowledged to be associated with oncogenesis. For example, iron overload in the liver of the patients with hereditary hemocromatosis highly increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, as to asbestos-related mesothelioma, such kinds of asbestos with a higher iron content are considered to be more carcinogenic. Iron is a useful element, which enables fundamental functions for life such as oxygen carrying and electron transport. However, in the situation where organisms are unable to have good control of it, iron turns into a dangerous element which catalyzes generation of reactive oxygen. In this review, I first outline the relationships between iron and cancer in general, then give an explanation about iron-related animal carcinogenesis models.

  5. Machining of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahm, A.; Abele, E.; Schulz, H. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Produktionsmanagement

    2002-09-01

    The industrial application of compacted graphite iron in the automotive industry is taking a rather long time due to its uneconomic machinability, because of a significant decrease in tool life. After six years of holistic research of the PTW in cooperation with foundries, manufactures and material scientists, the wear mechanism was understood and clarified: Sulphur in the microstructure of cast iron has direct influence on the formation of a manganese-sulphur layer on the cutting edge. For machining gray cast iron this layer protects the cutting edge against abrasive wear. In case of CGI no layer formation occurs. Against the abrasive wear new cutting materials and tools for the machining of CGI must be developed. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Sugars increase non-heme iron bioavailability in human epithelial intestinal and liver cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Christides

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that sugars enhance iron bioavailability, possibly through either chelation or altering the oxidation state of the metal, however, results have been inconclusive. Sugar intake in the last 20 years has increased dramatically, and iron status disorders are significant public health problems worldwide; therefore understanding the nutritional implications of iron-sugar interactions is particularly relevant. In this study we measured the effects of sugars on non-heme iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells using ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. The effect of sugars on iron oxidation state was examined by measuring ferrous iron formation in different sugar-iron solutions with a ferrozine-based assay. Fructose significantly increased iron-induced ferritin formation in both Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. In addition, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55 increased Caco-2 cell iron-induced ferritin; these effects were negated by the addition of either tannic acid or phytic acid. Fructose combined with FeCl3 increased ferrozine-chelatable ferrous iron levels by approximately 300%. In conclusion, fructose increases iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Given the large amount of simple and rapidly digestible sugars in the modern diet their effects on iron bioavailability may have important patho-physiological consequences. Further studies are warranted to characterize these interactions.

  7. Photonic band gap materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassagne, D.

    Photonic band gap materials Photonic band gap materials are periodic dielectric structures that control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. We describe the plane wave method, which allows to calculate the band structures of photonic crystals. By symmetry analysis and a perturbative approach, we predict the appearance of the low energy photonic band gaps of hexagonal structures. We propose new two-dimensional structures called graphite and boron nitride. Using a transfer matrix method, we calculate the transmission of the graphite structure and we show the crucial role of the coupling with external modes. We study the appearance of allowed modes in the photonic band gap by the introduction of localized defects in the periodicity. Finally, we discuss the properties of opals formed by self-organized silica microspheres, which are very promising for the fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals. Les matériaux à bandes interdites photoniques sont des structures diélectriques périodiques qui contrôlent la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques. Nous décrivons la méthode des ondes planes qui permet de calculer les structures de bandes des cristaux photoniques. Par une analyse de la symétrie et une approche perturbative, nous précisons les conditions d'existence des bandes interdites de basse énergie. Nous proposons de nouvelles structures bidimensionnelles appelées graphite et nitrure de bore. Grâce à une méthode de matrices de transfert, nous calculons la transmission de la structure graphite et nous mettons en évidence le rôle fondamental du couplage avec les modes extérieurs. Nous étudions l'apparition de modes permis dans la bande interdite grâce à l'introduction de défauts dans la périodicité. Enfin, nous discutons les propriétés des opales constituées de micro-billes de silice auto-organisées, qui sont très prometteuses pour la fabrication de cristaux photoniques tridimensionnels.

  8. The uptake of different iron salts by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensly, Fernanda; Picheth, Geraldo; Brand, Debora; Bonfim, Tania M B

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts can be enriched with microelements, including iron; however, special physicochemical conditions are required to formulate a culture media that promotes both yeast growth and iron uptake. Different iron sources do not affect biomass formation; however, considering efficacy, cost, stability, and compatibility with Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism, ferrous sulphate is recommended. PMID:25242932

  9. The uptake of different iron salts by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gaensly

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts can be enriched with microelements, including iron; however, special physicochemical conditions are required to formulate a culture media that promotes both yeast growth and iron uptake. Different iron sources do not affect biomass formation; however, considering efficacy, cost, stability, and compatibility with Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism, ferrous sulphate is recommended.

  10. The uptake of different iron salts by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Gaensly; Geraldo Picheth; Debora Brand; Tania M. B. Bonfim

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts can be enriched with microelements, including iron; however, special physicochemical conditions are required to formulate a culture media that promotes both yeast growth and iron uptake. Different iron sources do not affect biomass formation; however, considering efficacy, cost, stability, and compatibility with Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism, ferrous sulphate is recommended.

  11. Fossilization of Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria at Hydrothermal Vents: a Useful Biosignature on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveille, R. J.; Lui, S.

    2009-05-01

    -concentric growth bands. In the bioreactor cultures, constant conditions led to abundant microbial growth and formation of an iron oxyhydroxide precipitate, either in direct association with the cells or within the growth medium. This suggests that not all of the iron precipitation is biogenic in origin. Cells typically show a filamentous morphology reminiscent of the mineral-encrusted forms observed in the natural samples. Continuing work includes high-resolution TEM observations of cultured organisms, examination of 2-year long in situ seafloor incubation experiments, and bioreactor silicification experiments in order to better understand the roles of iron and silica in the fossilization process. Microaerophilic iron oxidation could have existed on the early Earth in environments containing small amounts of oxygen produced either by locally concentrated photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g., cyanobacteria) or abiotically, as proposed for the subsurface of the Fe-dominated Rio Tinto (Spain) basin system. By analogy, similar subsurface or near-surface microaerophilic environments could have existed on Mars in the past. The distinctive morphologies and mineralization patterns of iron oxidizing bacteria could be a useful biosignature to search for on Mars. Deposits and biogenic features similar to those described here could theoretically be identified on Mars with existing imaging and analytical technologies. Therefore, future missions to Mars should target ancient hydrothermal systems, some of which have been putatively identified already.

  12. On ultra dispersed statuses iron-graphitic of alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baranov; D.; A.; Baranov; A.; A.

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the new theory of graphite formation at hardening iron alloys are developed and the ways of manufacturing of iron alloys with ultra-dispersed by structure of carbon are experimentally tested.The ways are based on preliminary creation in smelt of uncontinuities, which surface at hardening becomes covered by a film of free carbon lowering power expenses for formation inter phases of surfaces.……

  13. On ultra dispersed statuses iron-graphitic of alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On the basis of the new theory of graphite formation at hardening iron alloys are developed and the ways of manufacturing of iron alloys with ultra-dispersed by structure of carbon are experimentally tested.The ways are based on preliminary creation in smelt of uncontinuities, which surface at hardening becomes covered by a film of free carbon lowering power expenses for formation inter phases of surfaces.

  14. Surface effects in metallic iron nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Linderoth, Søren

    1994-01-01

    Nanoparticles of metallic iron on carbon supports have been studied in situ by use of Mossbauer spectroscopy. The magnetic anisotropy energy constant increases with decreasing particle size, presumably because of the influence of surface anisotropy. Chemisorption of oxygen results in formation...

  15. Iron and manganese deposits in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the results of the study carried out for the United Nations expert which the main object was: the study of the information available about iron and manganese formation in Uruguay, as well as the main researching deposit to determinate economical possibilities in the exportation.

  16. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  17. The ubiquity of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Perry A; Reed, George H

    2012-09-21

    The importance of iron in living systems can be traced to the many complexes within which it is found, to its chemical mobility in undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and to the abundance of iron in Earth's crust. Iron is the most abundant element, by mass, in the Earth, constituting about 80% of the inner and outer cores of Earth. The molten outer core is about 8000 km in diameter, and the solid inner core is about 2400 km in diameter. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust. It is the chemically functional component of mononuclear iron complexes, dinuclear iron complexes, [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, [Fe-Ni-S] clusters, iron protophorphyrin IX, and many other complexes in protein biochemistry. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese are present in the crust and could in principle function chemically in place of iron, but they are scarce in Earth's crust. Iron is plentiful because of its nuclear stability in stellar nuclear fusion reactions. It seems likely that other solid planets, formed by the same processes as Earth, would also foster the evolution of life and that iron would be similarly important to life on those planets as it is on Earth.

  18. Banded transformer cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  19. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  20. The formation of sunspot penumbra. I. Magnetic field properties

    CERN Document Server

    Rezaei, Reza; Schlichenmaier, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation of a sunspot penumbra in the active region NOAA11024. We simultaneously observed the Stokes parameters of the photospheric iron lines at 1089.6 nm with the TIP and 617.3 nm with the GFPI spectropolarimeters along with broad-band images using G-band and CaIIK filters at the German VTT. The formation of the penumbra is intimately related to the inclined magnetic field. Within 4.5 h observing time, the magnetic flux of the penumbra increases from 9.7E+20 to 18.2E+20 Mx, while the magnetic flux of the umbra remains constant at about 3.8E+20 Mx. Magnetic flux in the immediate surroundings is incorporated into the spot, and new flux is supplied via small flux patches (SFPs), which on average have a flux of 2-3E+18 Mx. The spot's flux increase rate of 4.2E+16 Mx/s corresponds to the merging of one SFP per minute. We also find that during the formation of the spot penumbra: a) the maximum magnetic field strength of the umbra does not change, b) the magnetic neutral line keeps the same position ...

  1. Theoretical Investigation of Hydrogen Adsorption and Dissociation on Iron and Iron Carbide Surfaces Using the ReaxFF Reactive Force Field Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Chenyu; van Duin, Adri C.T.; Sorescu, Dan C.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a ReaxFF reactive force field to describe hydrogen adsorption and dissociation on iron and iron carbide surfaces relevant for simulation of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis on iron catalysts. This force field enables large system (>>1000 atoms) simulations of hydrogen related reactions with iron. The ReaxFF force field parameters are trained against a substantial amount of structural and energetic data including the equations of state and heats of formation of iron and iron carbide related materials, as well as hydrogen interaction with iron surfaces and different phases of bulk iron. We have validated the accuracy and applicability of ReaxFF force field by carrying out molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen adsorption, dissociation and recombination on iron and iron carbide surfaces. The barriers and reaction energies for molecular dissociation on these two types of surfaces have been compared and the effect of subsurface carbon on hydrogen interaction with iron surface is evaluated. We found that existence of carbon atoms at subsurface iron sites tends to increase the hydrogen dissociation energy barrier on the surface, and also makes the corresponding hydrogen dissociative state relatively more stable compared to that on bare iron. These properties of iron carbide will affect the dissociation rate of H{sub 2} and will retain more surface hydride species, thus influencing the dynamics of the FT synthesis process.

  2. Brain iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    Iron is essential for virtually all types of cells and organisms. The significance of the iron for brain function is reflected by the presence of receptors for transferrin on brain capillary endothelial cells. The transport of iron into the brain from the circulation is regulated so that the extraction of iron by brain capillary endothelial cells is low in iron-replete conditions and the reverse when the iron need of the brain is high as in conditions with iron deficiency and during development of the brain. Whereas there is good agreement that iron is taken up by means of receptor-mediated uptake of iron-transferrin at the brain barriers, there are contradictory views on how iron is transported further on from the brain barriers and into the brain extracellular space. The prevailing hypothesis for transport of iron across the BBB suggests a mechanism that involves detachment of iron from transferrin within barrier cells followed by recycling of apo-transferrin to blood plasma and release of iron as non-transferrin-bound iron into the brain interstitium from where the iron is taken up by neurons and glial cells. Another hypothesis claims that iron-transferrin is transported into the brain by means of transcytosis through the BBB. This thesis deals with the topic "brain iron homeostasis" defined as the attempts to maintain constant concentrations of iron in the brain internal environment via regulation of iron transport through brain barriers, cellular iron uptake by neurons and glia, and export of iron from brain to blood. The first part deals with transport of iron-transferrin complexes from blood to brain either by transport across the brain barriers or by uptake and retrograde axonal transport in motor neurons projecting beyond the blood-brain barrier. The transport of iron and transport into the brain was examined using radiolabeled iron-transferrin. Intravenous injection of [59Fe-125]transferrin led to an almost two-fold higher accumulation of 59Fe than of

  3. Concurrent repletion of iron and zinc reduces intestinal oxidative damage in iron-and zinc-deficient rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To understand the interactions between iron and zinc during absorption in iron- and zinc-deficient rats,and their consequences on intestinal oxidant-antioxidant balance.METHODS: Twenty-four weanling Wistar-Kyoto rats fed an iron- and zinc-deficient diet (< 6.5 mg Fe and 4.0 mg Zn/kg diet) for 4 wk were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8, each) and orally gavaged with 4 mg iron, 3.3 mg zinc, or 4 mg iron + 3.3 mg zinc for 2wk. At the last day of repletion, 3 h before the animals were sacrificed, they received either 37 mBq of 55Fe or 65Zn, to study their localization in the intestine, using microautoradiography. Hemoglobin, iron and zinc content in plasma and liver were measured as indicators of iron and zinc status. Duodenal sections were used for immunochemical staining of ferritin and metallothionein.Duodenal homogenates (mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions), were used to assess aconitase activity,oxidative stress, functional integrity and the response of antioxidant enzymes.RESULTS: Concurrent repletion of iron- and zinc-deficient rats showed reduced localization of these minerals compared to rats that were teated with iron or zinc alone;these data provide evidence for antagonistic interactions.This resulted in reduced formation of lipid and protein oxidation products and better functional integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Further, combined repletion lowered iron-associated aconitase activity and ferritin expression,but significantly elevated metallothionein and glutathione levels in the intestinal mucosa. The mechanism of interactions during combined supplementation and its subsequent effects appeared to be due to through modulation of cytosolic aconitase, which in turn influenced the labile iron pool and metallothionein levels, and hence reduced intestinal oxidative damage.CONCLUSION: Concurrent administration of iron and zinc corrects iron and zinc deficiency, and also reduces the intestinal oxidative damage associated with iron

  4. Solar System formation

    CERN Document Server

    Crida, A

    2009-01-01

    In this review, three major changes in our understanding of the early history of the Solar System are presented. 1) Early differentiation: A few recent results support the idea that protoplanet formation and differentiation occurred partly simultaneously than CAI formation. First, some iron meteorites, eucrites, and angrites older than the chondrules or even than the CAI have been found. Second, iron meteorites could be debris of early disrupted differentiated planetesimals, scattered from the terrestrial planet region to the Main Belt. Finally, chondrules contain fragments of planetesimal material. 2) Earth and Moon: An equilibration mechanism explains the identical Oxygen isotopic composition of the Earth and the Moon. In addition, it has been shown that the Earth and the Moon mantles have the same 182^W anomaly, in contrast to what was believed before. Consequently, the Moon forming impact should have occurred after the extinction of the 182Hf radioactivity, about 60 Myr after Solar System formation. This ...

  5. State of the iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, Walter; Staun, Michael; Bhandari, Sunil;

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) frequently occurs in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and negatively impacts their quality of life. Nevertheless, the condition appears to be both under-diagnosed and undertreated. Regular biochemical screening of patients with IBD for anemia...... by the gastroenterology community has to be advocated. Oral iron is a low cost treatment however its effectiveness is limited by low bioavailability and poor tolerability. Intravenous (IV) iron rapidly replenishes iron stores and has demonstrated its safe use in a number of studies in various therapeutic areas. A broad...... spectrum of new IV iron formulations is now becoming available offering improved tolerability and patient convenience by rapidly restoring the depleted iron status of patients with IBD. The following article aims to review the magnitude of the problem of IDA in IBD, suggest screening standards...

  6. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jiyang; Liu Jincheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chapter 3 Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron(I) Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron, SG iron in short, refers to the cast iron in which graphite precipitates as spheroidal shape during solidification of liquid iron. The graphite in common commercial cast iron can only be changed from flake to spheroidal shape by spheroidising treatment. Since spheroidal graphite reduces the cutting effect of stress concentration, the metal matrix strength of SG iron can be applied around 70%-90%, thus the mechanical property of SG iron is significantly superior to other cast irons;even the tensile strength of SG iron is higher than that carbon steel.

  7. Colloquium: Topological band theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansil, A.; Lin, Hsin; Das, Tanmoy

    2016-04-01

    The first-principles band theory paradigm has been a key player not only in the process of discovering new classes of topologically interesting materials, but also for identifying salient characteristics of topological states, enabling direct and sharpened confrontation between theory and experiment. This review begins by discussing underpinnings of the topological band theory, which involve a layer of analysis and interpretation for assessing topological properties of band structures beyond the standard band theory construct. Methods for evaluating topological invariants are delineated, including crystals without inversion symmetry and interacting systems. The extent to which theoretically predicted properties and protections of topological states have been verified experimentally is discussed, including work on topological crystalline insulators, disorder and interaction driven topological insulators (TIs), topological superconductors, Weyl semimetal phases, and topological phase transitions. Successful strategies for new materials discovery process are outlined. A comprehensive survey of currently predicted 2D and 3D topological materials is provided. This includes binary, ternary, and quaternary compounds, transition metal and f -electron materials, Weyl and 3D Dirac semimetals, complex oxides, organometallics, skutterudites, and antiperovskites. Also included is the emerging area of 2D atomically thin films beyond graphene of various elements and their alloys, functional thin films, multilayer systems, and ultrathin films of 3D TIs, all of which hold exciting promise of wide-ranging applications. This Colloquium concludes by giving a perspective on research directions where further work will broadly benefit the topological materials field.

  8. Hydrogen Storage in Iron/Carbon Nano powder Composite Materials: Effect of Varying Spiked Iron Content on Hydrogen Adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the effects of varying the spiked iron content of iron/carbon nano powder (Fe/CNP) composite materials on hydrogen storage capacity. Among four such samples, a maximum hydrogen uptake of approximately 0.48 wt % was obtained with 14 wt % of spiked iron under 37 atm and 300 K. This higher hydrogen uptake capacity was believed to be closely related to the physisorption mechanism rather than chemisorption. In this case, the formation of maghemite catalyzed the attraction of hydrogen molecules and the CNP skeleton was the principal absorbent material for hydrogen storage. However, as the iron content exceeded 14 wt %, the formation of larger and poorly dispersed maghemite grains reduced the available surface areas of CNP for the storage of hydrogen molecules, leading to decreased uptake. Our study shows that hydrogen uptake capacities can be improved by appropriately adjusting the surface polarities of the CNP with well dispersed iron oxides crystals.

  9. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jiyang; Liu Jincheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron(Ⅳ) 3.7 Segregation of SG iron The non-uniform distribution of solute elements during solidification results in the micro segregation of SG iron.As for the redistribution of elements in the phases of the solidification structure,there is no intrinsic difference between SG iron and grey iron[132].

  10. Iron regulation by hepcidin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ningning; Zhang, An-Sheng; Enns, Caroline A

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin is a key hormone that is involved in the control of iron homeostasis in the body. Physiologically, hepcidin is controlled by iron stores, inflammation, hypoxia, and erythropoiesis. The regulation of hepcidin expression by iron is a complex process that requires the coordination of multiple proteins, including hemojuvelin, bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), hereditary hemochromatosis protein, transferrin receptor 2, matriptase-2, neogenin, BMP receptors, and transferrin. Misregulati...

  11. DUAL BAND MONOPOLE ANTENNA DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jithu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The WLAN and Bluetooth applications become popular in mobile devices, integrating GSM and ISM bands operation in one compact antenna, can reduce the size of mobile devices. Recently, lot many investigations are carried out in designing a dual band antennas with operating frequencies in GSM band and in ISM band for mobile devices. Printed monopoles are under this investigation. In this paper, dual-band printed monopoles are presented to operate at GSM band i.e. 900 MHz and ISM band i.e. 2.4 GHz. We intend to observe the antenna characteristics on the network analyzer and verify the theoretical results with the practical ones.

  12. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 3: Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron (Ⅰ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  13. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  14. Iron, Meat and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Geissler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a summary of the publication “Iron and Health” by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN to the U.K. Government (2010, which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research.

  15. Iron overload and immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gra(c)a Porto; Maria De Sousa

    2007-01-01

    Progress in the characterization of genes involved in the control of iron homeostasis in humans and in mice has improved the definition of iron overload and of the cells affected by it. The cell involved in iron overload with the greatest effect on immunity is the macrophage.Intriguing evidence has emerged, however, in the last 12 years indicating that parenchymal iron overload is linked to genes classically associated with the immune system. This review offers an update of the genes and proteins relevant to iron metabolism expressed in cells of the innate immune system, and addresses the question of how this system is affected in clinical situations of iron overload. The relationship between iron and the major cells of adaptive immunity, the T lymphocytes,will also be reviewed. Most studies addressing this last question in humans were performed in the clinical model of Hereditary Hemochromatosis. Data will also be reviewed demonstrating how the disruption of molecules essentially involved in adaptive immune responses result in the spontaneous development of iron overload and how they act as modifiers of iron overload.

  16. Physics of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, June 28 to July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, {beta}, with a {gamma}-{beta}-{epsilon} triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, {omega}, with an {epsilon}-{Theta}-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth`s heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there was notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  17. Recalling the Iron Girls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The phrase "iron girl" is symbolic of an era. Widely used in the 1960s and the early 1970s, it was a term that described women who, in the spirit of sexual equality, found in themselves a physical strength that surpassed their psychologi cal expectations. With their might and power, they proved to society that women could do everything that men could. The title of "iron girl" was their pride.The well-known writer Fan Xiaoqing, was one such iron girl. She says the "iron girls" were nothing less than a quest for perfection.

  18. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Amy; Moore, Lee R.; Lane, Christopher D.; Kumar, Anil; Stroff, Clayton; White, Nicolas; Xue, Wei; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2015-04-01

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP-AA). They were grown in Sueoka's modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl3 EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed "magnetic deposition microscopy", or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest.

  19. Influence of solution pH in electrodeposited iron diselenide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Number of works are available on preparation and characterization of iron diselenide thin films through some other techniques. → Among them, there are only few reports are available regarding growth and characterization of iron diselenide thin films through electrochemical route. → This is the first work to focus the solution pH effect in electrodeposited iron diselenide thin films. → Effect of solution pH on structural, morphological properties of the films are analyzed and reported. - Abstract: Thin films of iron diselenide (FeSe2) have been prepared on indium doped tin oxide coated conducting glass (ITO) substrates from an aqueous electrolytic bath containing FeSO4 and SeO2. Growth mechanism has been analyzed using cyclic voltammetry. The potential region in which the formation of FeSe2 occurs is found to be -450 mV versus SCE. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the deposited films are found to exhibit orthorhombic structure with preferential orientation along (1 2 0) plane. X-ray line profile analysis has been carried out to determine the microstructural parameters such as crystallite size, rms microstrain, dislocation density and stacking fault probability. Surface morphology and film composition have been analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and energy dispersive analysis by X-rays, respectively. Optical parameters such as band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary dielectric constants, dielectric susceptibility and optical conductivity have been determined from optical absorption measurements. The observed results are discussed in detail.

  20. Mineralized iron oxidizing bacteria from hydrothermal vents: targeting biosignatures on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveille, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Putative hydrothermal systems have been identified on Mars based on orbital imagery and rover-based analyses. Based on Earth analogs, hydrothermal systems on Mars would be highly attractive for their potential for preserving organic and inorganic biosignatures. For example, iron oxidizing bacteria are ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial hydrothermal systems, where they often display distinctive cell morphologies and are commonly encrusted by minerals, especially bacteriogenic iron oxides and silica. Microfossils of iron oxidizing bacteria have been found in ancient Si-Fe deposits and iron oxidation may be an ancient and widespread metabolic pathway. In order to investigate mineralized iron oxidizing bacteria as a biosignature, we have examined samples collected from extinct hydrothermal vents along Explorer Ridge, NE Pacific Ocean. In addition, microaerophilic iron oxidizing bacteria, isolated from active Pacific hydrothermal vents, were grown in a Fe-enriched seawater medium at constant pH (6.5) and O2 concentration (5%) in a controlled bioreactor system. Samples and experimental products were examined with a combination of variable-pressure and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in some cases by preparing samples with a focused ion beam (FIB) milling system. Light-toned seafloor samples display abundant filamentous forms resembling, in both size and shape (1-5 microns in diameter and up to several microns in length), the twisted stalks of Gallionella and the elongated filaments of Leptothrix. Some samples consist entirely of low-density masses of silica (>90% Si) encrusted filamentous forms. The presence of unmineralized filamentous matter rich in C and Fe suggests that these are the remains of iron oxidizing bacteria. Mineralized filaments sectioned by FIB show variable internal material within semi-hollow, tubular-like features. Silica encrustations also show pseudo-concentric growth bands. In the bioreactor runs, abundant microbial growth and