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Sample records for banana promoter active

  1. Characterization and isolation of a T-DNA tagged banana promoter active during in vitro culture and low temperature stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windelinckx Saskia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation transgenic plants will require a more precise regulation of transgene expression, preferably under the control of native promoters. A genome-wide T-DNA tagging strategy was therefore performed for the identification and characterization of novel banana promoters. Embryogenic cell suspensions of a plantain-type banana were transformed with a promoterless, codon-optimized luciferase (luc+ gene and low temperature-responsive luciferase activation was monitored in real time. Results Around 16,000 transgenic cell colonies were screened for baseline luciferase activity at room temperature 2 months after transformation. After discarding positive colonies, cultures were re-screened in real-time at 26°C followed by a gradual decrease to 8°C. The baseline activation frequency was 0.98%, while the frequency of low temperature-responsive luciferase activity was 0.61% in the same population of cell cultures. Transgenic colonies with luciferase activity responsive to low temperature were regenerated to plantlets and luciferase expression patterns monitored during different regeneration stages. Twenty four banana DNA sequences flanking the right T-DNA borders in seven independent lines were cloned via PCR walking. RT-PCR analysis in one line containing five inserts allowed the identification of the sequence that had activated luciferase expression under low temperature stress in a developmentally regulated manner. This activating sequence was fused to the uidA reporter gene and back-transformed into a commercial dessert banana cultivar, in which its original expression pattern was confirmed. Conclusion This promoter tagging and real-time screening platform proved valuable for the identification of novel promoters and genes in banana and for monitoring expression patterns throughout in vitro development and low temperature treatment. Combination of PCR walking techniques was efficient for the isolation of candidate

  2. A promoter from sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus drives transgene expression in banana and other monocot and dicot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, P M; Sagi, L; Remans, T; Dietzgen, R G; Bernard, M J; Graham, M W; Manners, J M

    1999-04-01

    A 1369 bp DNA fragment (Sc) was isolated from a full-length clone of sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus (ScBV) and was shown to have promoter activity in transient expression assays using monocot (banana, maize, millet and sorghum) and dicot plant species (tobacco, sunflower, canola and Nicotiana benthamiana). This promoter was also tested for stable expression in transgenic banana and tobacco plants. These experiments showed that this promoter could drive high-level expression of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in most plant cells. The expression level was comparable to the maize ubiquitin promoter in standardised transient assays in maize. In transgenic banana plants the expression levels were variable for different transgenic lines but was generally comparable with the activities of both the maize ubiquitin promoter and the enhanced cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. The Sc promoter appears to express in a near-constitutive manner in transgenic banana and tobacco plants. The promoter from sugarcane bacilliform virus represents a useful tool for the high-level expression of foreign genes in both monocot and dicot transgenic plants that could be used similarly to the CaMV 35S or maize polyubiquitin promoter. PMID:10380808

  3. Tobacco arabinogalactan protein NtEPc can promote banana (Musa AAA) somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, H; Xu, L; Li, Z; Li, J; Jin, Z; Chang, S

    2014-12-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit worldwide. Parthenocarpy and female sterility made it impossible to improve banana varieties through common hybridization. Genetic transformation for banana improvement is imperative. But the low rate that banana embryogenic callus was induced made the transformation cannot be performed in many laboratories. Finding ways to promote banana somatic embryogenesis is critical for banana genetic transformation. After tobacco arabinogalactan protein gene NtEPc was transformed into Escherichia coli (DE3), the recombinant protein was purified and filter-sterilized. A series of the sterilized protein was added into tissue culture medium. It was found that the number of banana immature male flowers developing embryogenic calli increased significantly in the presence of NtEPc protein compared with the effect of the control medium. Among the treatments, explants cultured on medium containing 10 mg/l of NtEPc protein had the highest chance to develop embryogenic calli. The percentage of lines that developed embryogenic calli on this medium was about 12.5 %. These demonstrated that NtEPc protein can be used to promote banana embryogenesis. This is the first paper that reported that foreign arabinogalactan protein (AGP) could be used to improve banana somatic embryogenesis. PMID:25227688

  4. Enzyme activity in banana fruits rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.

    OpenAIRE

    Nityananda Chakraborty; Balen Nandi

    2015-01-01

    Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in fruits of two cultivars of banana, 'champa' and 'kanthali' rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. was studied. The enzymes showed much higher activities in infected than that in uninfected 'tissues. Increase in peroxidase activity was evidently inhibited by cycloheximide. Polyphenol oxidase activity was also inhibited in presence of phenylthiourea and Na-diethyldithiocarbamate more strongly by the former. Increase in activities seemed to be du...

  5. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Rocío M; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-05-05

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds.

  6. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Rocío M; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds. PMID:27151797

  7. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006

    OpenAIRE

    Gamez, Rocío M.; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds.

  8. Enzyme activity in banana fruits rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityananda Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in fruits of two cultivars of banana, 'champa' and 'kanthali' rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. was studied. The enzymes showed much higher activities in infected than that in uninfected 'tissues. Increase in peroxidase activity was evidently inhibited by cycloheximide. Polyphenol oxidase activity was also inhibited in presence of phenylthiourea and Na-diethyldithiocarbamate more strongly by the former. Increase in activities seemed to be due to increased sytheses of the enzymes. In an in vitro culture, the fungus exhibited some peroxidase but no polyphenoloxidase activity.

  9. Fatty acid content and antioxidant activity of Thai bananas.

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    Jirawan Banditpuritat and Rungthip Kawaree

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aril extracts of three Thai banana varieties, namely “Kluai Khai”(KK, “Kluai Namwa”(KN and “Kluai Hom”(KH were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. GC-MS data were used to identify 5 methyl esters of each banana extract after transesterification. The most prominent components found in KK, KN and KH were hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (43.17, 29.18, 30.57 % respectively, 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester (35.93, 30.46, 39.68 % respectively, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (14.35, 36.10, 21.82 % respectively, 9-hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (3.76, 3.34, 3.32 % respectively and octadecanoic acid methyl ester (2.79, 0.92, 4.60 % respectively. The antioxidant activity of the crude oils was evaluated using DPPH method.

  10. Let's Go Bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on primary science unit of activities designed to teach students concepts about bananas. Real bananas are used as students investigate and use the process skills of observation, measurement, and communication. Using bananas as a theme, science, mathematics, social studies, music, and writing are integrated into the curriculum of…

  11. Differential response of banana cultivars to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection for Chitinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six banana clones with varying levels of resistance were inoculated with conidial suspension of races 1 and 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Chitanase activity in the corm and root tissues was monitored before and after infection to relate with the field resistance or susceptibility of banana cultivars. Resistant clones showed high constitutive chitinase activity in roots and a rapid response to infection. The results suggest that chitinase could be considered as part of a complex mechanism leading to disease resistance. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs

  12. SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS: SOME LESSONS FROM THE PILOT TISSUE-CULTURE (TC) BANANA PRODUCTION PROMOTION PROJECT IN KENYA, 1997-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Mbogoh, Stephen G.; Wambugu, Florence M.; Wakhusama, Sam

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a socio-economic impact study of the introduction and adoption of tissue-culture (tc) technology in banana production in Kenya. It attempts to demonstrate that a prudent introduction and promotion of a new biotechnological innovation in farming can make a positive contribution to the socio-economic status of resource poor farmers in a developing country, such as Kenya. Adoption of tc technology in banana production in Kenya is considered a good example of biotechnolog...

  13. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L. on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study

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    Suraj Premal Kapadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim: Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans. Material and Methods: Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. Results: In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. Conclusion: From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  14. Nonactivated and Activated Biochar Derived from Bananas as Alternative Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haoran Yuan; Lifang Deng; Yujie Qi; Noriyuki Kobayashi; Jiahuan Tang

    2014-01-01

    Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900) exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900...

  15. Modulation of Banana Polyphenol Oxidase (Ppo Activity by Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds From Plant Extracts

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    Alamelumangai. M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO (E.C number 1.14.18.1 was extracted from banana (Musa paradisiaca and partially purified by acetone precipitation. The enzyme was found to have high affinity towards its substrate, catechol. In this study, various plant extracts like Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rubia cordifolia, Hesperethusa crenulata and oil from the seeds of Hydnocarpus laurifolia were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO. Method In this study, various plant extracts were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO at two different concentrations (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations Result Among these 4 plant extracts, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Rubia cordifolia were found to increase the activity of PPO up to 1.35- 2.7 fold at two different concentrations (4 and 40 μg/ml. Few other two samples like Chaulmogra oil (2 and 4 μl/ml and the Hesperethusa crenulata plant extract (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations, when used at low concentrations decreased the enzyme activity (38 %. Conclusion The novelty of this study is to screen their naturally occurring bioactive compounds from the plant extracts and their inhibitory activity against PPO.

  16. Nonactivated and activated biochar derived from bananas as alternative cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haoran; Deng, Lifang; Qi, Yujie; Kobayashi, Noriyuki; Tang, Jiahuan

    2014-01-01

    Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900) exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900. The highest power density of 528.2 mW/m(2) and the maximum stable voltage of 0.47 V were obtained by employing Biochar-act900 as cathode catalyst, which is comparable to the Pt/C cathode. Owning to these advantages, it is expected that the banana-derived biochar cathode can find application in microbial fuel cell systems.

  17. Nonactivated and Activated Biochar Derived from Bananas as Alternative Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900 exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR and oxygen evolution reaction (OER performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900. The highest power density of 528.2 mW/m2 and the maximum stable voltage of 0.47 V were obtained by employing Biochar-act900 as cathode catalyst, which is comparable to the Pt/C cathode. Owning to these advantages, it is expected that the banana-derived biochar cathode can find application in microbial fuel cell systems.

  18. Artificial neural network modelling of the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of bananas submitted to different drying treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiné, Raquel P F; Barroca, Maria João; Gonçalves, Fernando J; Alves, Mariana; Oliveira, Solange; Mendes, Mateus

    2015-02-01

    Bananas (cv. Musa nana and Musa cavendishii) fresh and dried by hot air at 50 and 70°C and lyophilisation were analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. All samples were subject to six extractions (three with methanol followed by three with acetone/water solution). The experimental data served to train a neural network adequate to describe the experimental observations for both output variables studied: total phenols and antioxidant activity. The results show that both bananas are similar and air drying decreased total phenols and antioxidant activity for both temperatures, whereas lyophilisation decreased the phenolic content in a lesser extent. Neural network experiments showed that antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds can be predicted accurately from the input variables: banana variety, dryness state and type and order of extract. Drying state and extract order were found to have larger impact in the values of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds.

  19. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; ZHANG, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  20. Removal of insecticide carbofuran from aqueous solutions by banana stalks activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, J.M. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-04-15

    In this work, activated carbon was prepared from banana stalks (BSAC) waste to remove the insecticide carbofuran from aqueous solutions. The effects of contact time, initial carbofuran concentration, solution pH and temperature (30, 40 and 50 deg. C) were investigated. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics of carbofuran on BSAC were studied. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models and the data best represented by the Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}), standard entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) and standard free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}) were evaluated. Regeneration efficiency of spent BSAC was studied using ethanol as a solvent. The efficiency was found to be in the range of 96.97-97.35%. The results indicated that the BSAC has good regeneration and reusability characteristics and can be used as alternative to present commercial activated carbon.

  1. Removal of insecticide carbofuran from aqueous solutions by banana stalks activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, J M; Hameed, B H

    2010-04-15

    In this work, activated carbon was prepared from banana stalks (BSAC) waste to remove the insecticide carbofuran from aqueous solutions. The effects of contact time, initial carbofuran concentration, solution pH and temperature (30, 40 and 50 degrees C) were investigated. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics of carbofuran on BSAC were studied. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models and the data best represented by the Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy (DeltaH(o)), standard entropy (DeltaS(o)) and standard free energy (DeltaG(o)) were evaluated. Regeneration efficiency of spent BSAC was studied using ethanol as a solvent. The efficiency was found to be in the range of 96.97-97.35%. The results indicated that the BSAC has good regeneration and reusability characteristics and can be used as alternative to present commercial activated carbon.

  2. The Chitinase Activity in Banana Seedling that Induce by Trichoderma spp as Resistance Responce to Fusarium Oxyporum f.sp.cubense

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    - Nurbailis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the chitinase activities of banana seedling that induced by Trichoderma spp. The experiment consisted of two parts: 1. Testing chitinase activity in banana seedlings induced by Trichodernia spp., Using a factorial in a completely randomized design with two factors: a. types of inducers (biomass, liquid culture and filtrate, b. Isolates of Trichoderma spp. (T. Koningii-S6sh, T. Viride-T1sk, T.harzianum-P4sh and control. with 4 replications. Parameters measured were, the specific activity of the chitinase enzyme were detected in stems, leaves and roots of banana seedlings. 2. Testing of several types of inducers of Trichoderma spp. in inducing resistance in banana seedlings to Foc, together with the study design 1. Parameters measured were: incubation period, the percentage of symptomatic leaves and percentage discoloration of vessels. Result showed that 1. Liquid culture of induser  T. Viride -T1sk and T. koningii-S6sh and biomass of T. koningii-s6sh and T. harzianum-P4sh were effective in increasing  the specific activity of chitinase enzyme on banana seedling. The increase the amount specific activity of chitinase enzyme on banana seedling tissues by liquid culture of T. viride- T1sk 346% and 131,32% by T. koningii could be  suppress fusarium wilt desease on banana seedling. 

  3. Banana Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: Two bananas, 50 grams of preserved fruits, 25 grams sesame seeds, 10 grams glutinous rice powder,white sugar,oil. Method: 1. Chop the preserved fruits and mix them well with vegetable oil. white sugar and sesame. 2. Mash the bananas into a paste and mix it with

  4. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huide; HUANG; Wanzhen; ZHANG; Enping; LIU; Xizhu; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution,member scale,production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province,and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification,this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations,such as joint production of banana cooperatives,timely planting of banana,brand management,and improvement of production and operation technical level.

  5. Banana Gold: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Garnet

    1992-01-01

    Since 1955, the British banana industry has dominated the lives of the Caribs and other peoples in Dominica. Banana growing supplants other economic activities, including local food production; toxic chemicals and fertilizers pollute the land; community is dwindling; suicide is common; and child labor diminishes school attendance. (SV)

  6. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Banana (Musa, AAA cv. Cavendish Fruits Peel

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    Matook S. Mokbe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The fresh green and yellow banana peel of, (Musa, cv. Cavendish fruits were treated with 70% acetone, which were partitioned with chloroform (CHCl3 and ethyl acetate (EtOAc, sequentially. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using the thiocyanate method, ß-carotene bleaching method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical elimination. While, antimicrobial activities of the extracts and isolated components were evaluated using paper disc methods and Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC. The EtOAc and water soluble fractions of green peel displayed high antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, respectively. Antioxidant activity of water extracts was comparable to those of synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene. Among all isolated components ß-sitosterol, malic acid, succinic acid, palmatic acid, 12-hydroxystrearic acid, glycoside, the d-malic and 12-hydroxystrearic acid were the most active against all the Gram-negative and positive bacterial species tested. The MIC of d-malic and succinic acid was varying between 140-750 ppm, respectively.

  7. Banana technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amstel, Willem D.; Schellekens, E. P. A.; Walravens, C.; Wijlaars, A. P. F.

    1999-09-01

    With 'Banana Technology' an unconventional hybrid fabrication technology is indicated for the production of very large parabolic and hyperbolic cylindrical mirror systems. The banana technology uses elastic bending of very large and thin glass substrates and fixation onto NC milled metal moulds. This technology has matured during the last twenty years for the manufacturing of large telecentric flat-bed scanners. Two construction types, called 'internal banana' and 'external banana; are presented. Optical figure quality requirements in terms of slope and curvature deviations are discussed. Measurements of these optical specifications by means of a 'finishing rod' type of scanning deflectometer or slope tester are presented. Design constraints for bending glass and the advantages of a new process will be discussed.

  8. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  9. Development of activated carbon derived from banana peel for CO{sub 2} removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borhan, Azry; Thangamuthu, Subhashini; Ramdan, Amira Nurain [Chemical Engineering Department Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak (Malaysia); Taha, Mohd Faisal [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    This research work highlights on the constraints involved in the preparation of the banana peel bio-sorbent, such as impregnation ratio, activation temperature and period of activation for reducing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere. Micromeritics ASAP 2020 and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) were used in identifying the best sample preparation method with the largest surface area which directly contributes to the effectiveness of adsorbent in removing CO{sub 2}. Sample A10 was identified to yield activated carbon with the largest surface area (260.3841 m{sup 2}/g), total pore volume (0.01638 cm{sup 3}/g) and pore diameter (0.2508 nm). Through nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis, the existence of sub-micropores was proven when a combination of Type-I and Type-II isotherms were exhibited by the activated carbon produced. The results from the final adsorption test found that the material synthesized from the above mentioned parameter is capable of removing up to 1.65% wt of CO{sub 2} through adsorption at 25°C, suggesting that it can be effectively used as an adsorption material.

  10. Development of activated carbon derived from banana peel for CO2 removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Azry; Thangamuthu, Subhashini; Taha, Mohd Faisal; Ramdan, Amira Nurain

    2015-08-01

    This research work highlights on the constraints involved in the preparation of the banana peel bio-sorbent, such as impregnation ratio, activation temperature and period of activation for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Micromeritics ASAP 2020 and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) were used in identifying the best sample preparation method with the largest surface area which directly contributes to the effectiveness of adsorbent in removing CO2. Sample A10 was identified to yield activated carbon with the largest surface area (260.3841 m2/g), total pore volume (0.01638 cm3/g) and pore diameter (0.2508 nm). Through nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis, the existence of sub-micropores was proven when a combination of Type-I and Type-II isotherms were exhibited by the activated carbon produced. The results from the final adsorption test found that the material synthesized from the above mentioned parameter is capable of removing up to 1.65% wt of CO2 through adsorption at 25°C, suggesting that it can be effectively used as an adsorption material.

  11. A Triple Helix Strategy for Promoting SME Development: The Case of a Dried Banana Community Enterprise in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwawutto, Sauwapa; Smitinont, Thitapha; Charoenanong, Numtip; Yokakul, Nattaka; Chatratana, Sonchai; Zawdie, Girma

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the university-industry-government relationship as a mechanism for enhancing the efficiency and competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The case of a community enterprise producing dried banana products in the north of Thailand is used to demonstrate the significance of the Triple Helix model for business…

  12. A Comparative study Of Catalityc Activity Of Heterogeneous Base Of Banana Stem Ash And Fly Ash On Production Of Biodiesel Byultrasonic

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    Marlinda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of heterogeneous catalysts in the production of biodiesel provides many advantages due to heterogeneous catalysts can be easily separated from the product so that it can be reused. This research using heterogeneous catalysts derived from natural materials namely banana stem ash and coal fly ash containing alkali and alkaline earth elements. The preparation of catalyst from banana stem ash and coal fly ash used activator KOH 1.9 N and impregnation with KNO3 15 and then heated to a temperature of 550 0C for 3 hours. Results of preparation banana stem ash contains potassium of 36.52 and surface area of 41.901 m2g. This work presents the effect of ultrasonic assisted of waste cooking oil with methanol as solvent using banana stem ash and coal fly ash as catalyst. The diameter of catalyst particles of banana stem ash and coal fly ash varied at 50 100 150 200 and 250 mesh. The transesterification reaction was performed in the presence of ultrasonic operating frequency constant at 40 kHz methanol molar ratio to oil of 9 1 and reaction time of 30 minutes. The methyl ester biodiesel content of product was 93.26 of banana stems ash and 57 of coal fly ash respectively. The physical property was compared with the National Indonesia Standard SNI 2006 with a density viscosity cloud point flash point and cetane number.

  13. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-qun; Zeng, Xiao-hong; Fang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establ...

  14. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  15. Transgenic approaches for development of disease resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important food and cash crop worldwide. Diseases and pests pose the most serious constraint to banana cultivation. Among the diseases, Fusarium wilt and Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) are the most important economically. We have explored different transgenic approaches for development of efficient resistance in banana against these two diseases. For countering Fusarium wilt, we have over expressed Petunia floral defensins using a strong constitutive promoter in transgenic banana plants. We have also tested a host induced gene silencing strategy targeting two vital fungal genes to obtain Fusarium resistant banana plants. For development of BBTV resistant banana plants also, we have used a host-induced gene silencing approach utilizing the full and partial coding sequence of the viral replication initiation protein. Successful bioassays performed in controlled greenhouse conditions have shown the efficacy of using these strategies to develop disease resistant banana plants. (author)

  16. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry,the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry.They are respectively marketing risks,natural risks,information risks and production risks.In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry,countermeasures are proposed in the research.The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry.The second is to establish the forecasting mechanisms on banana industry,including four aspects.They are establishing the subordinate forecasting systems on Hainan banana industry;constructing information collecting and checking mechanisms of banana industry;establishing information analysis and decision-making systems and constructing information distribution and information sharing systems.The third is to promote the construction of urgency dealing abilities of banana industry.The fourth is to further perfect the risk-defending and protecting systems of banana industry in Hainan.The fifth is to accelerate the standard generation of banana to improve marketing competence.The sixth is to accelerate the development of intermediate agents to improve the organization degrees.And the last one is to put emphasis on the tech-training courses on banana planting and production to improve the technical quality of banana industry.

  17. Studies on Antibacterial Activity of Banana Polysaccharide%香蕉多糖的抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈建林; 沈红元

    2015-01-01

    采用15%乙醇溶液作为溶剂提取香蕉多糖,并采用纸片琼脂扩散法研究了香蕉多糖的抗菌活性.实验发现香蕉多糖对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和绿脓杆菌的抗菌活性测试均具有抗菌作用,其中对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、绿脓杆菌的最小抗菌浓度(MIC)分别为15、25、20 mg/mL.%By extracting the banana polysaccharide after using the 15 % ethanol solution as the solvent , the authors studied its antibacterial activity by Disc agar diffusion method. From experiments , the authors discover that the banana polysaccharide had antibacterial effects on escherichia coli , staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas by antibacterial activity tests, while the minimum antibacterial concentration (MIC) of escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas was 15,25,20 mg/mL respectively.

  18. The Standard System and Quality and Safety Standards for Banana in China

    OpenAIRE

    ZOU, Dongmei; PAN, Yongbo; Xu, Zhi; LUO, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit and China is the world's third largest banana producer. The standardization level of banana industry not only affects the yield and quality of banana, but also plays an important role in promoting the production standardization and industrialization of other tropical crops. Through the analysis of revision, publicity and implementation of banana standard system in China as well as the study on its standard system and quality and safety standards, it is fo...

  19. 香蕉根际促生菌的研究展望%Progress and Prospect on Plant Growth - promoting Rhizobacteria of Banana Rhizosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文英; 彭智平; 于俊红; 黄继川; 宋慧敏

    2011-01-01

    植物根际促生菌(plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria,PGPR)是一类具有促进作物生长并增加产量的作用,兼有抑制植物病原菌、根际有害微生物的根际微生物,作为生物肥料和生物农药的重要资源库,PGPR相关研究受到越来越多的重视.着重从PGPR的概念演变、功能机制、研究手段及应用现状等方面进行综述,并在分析香蕉根际促生菌研究现状的基础上,对香蕉PGPR研究的理论意义和现实意义提出讨论与展望.%Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are microorganisms colonized in the plant rhizosphere, which can promote the plant growth and yield, and inhibit plant pathogens.As an important resource of biofertilizer and biocontrol agents, PGPR have been paid more and more attention by researchers in the sustainable agriculture.This paper reviewed progresses on the concept development, functioning mechanisms, study techniques and the application of PGPR.In addition, the theoretical and practical significance of banana PG PR were disscused, and some future directions in PGPR study were suggested.

  20. MaJAZ1 Attenuates the MaLBD5-Mediated Transcriptional Activation of Jasmonate Biosynthesis Gene MaAOC2 in Regulating Cold Tolerance of Banana Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Liang-jie; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies indicated that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment could effectively reduce the chilling injury of many fruits, including banana, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, one lateral organ boundaries (LOB) domain (LBD) gene, designated as MaLBD5, was isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Expression analysis revealed that accumulation of MaLBD5 was induced by cold temperature and MeJA treatment. Subcellular localization and transactivation assays showed that MaLBD5 was localized to the nucleus and possessed transcriptional activation activity. Protein-protein interaction analysis demonstrated that MaLBD5 physically interacted with MaJAZ1, a potential repressor of jasmonate signaling. Furthermore, transient expression assays indicated that MaLBD5 transactivated a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, termed MaAOC2, which was also induced by cold and MeJA. More interestingly, MaJAZ1 attenuated the MaLBD5-mediated transactivation of MaAOC2. These results suggest that MaLBD5 and MaJAZ1 might act antagonistically in relation to MeJA-induced cold tolerance of banana fruit, at least partially via affecting jasmonate biosynthesis. Collectively, our findings expand the knowledge of the transcriptional regulatory network of MeJA-mediated cold tolerance of banana fruit.

  1. Banana MaMADS transcription factors are necessary for fruit ripening and molecular tools to promote shelf-life and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, ...

  2. Banana MaMADS Transcription Factors Are Necessary for Fruit Ripening and Molecular Tools to Promote Shelf-Life and Food Security1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitzur, Tomer; Yakir, Esther; Quansah, Lydia; Zhangjun, Fei; Vrebalov, Julia; Khayat, Eli; Giovannoni, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, MaMADS1 and MaMADS2, homologous to the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RIN-MADS ripening gene. Transgenic banana plants repressing either gene (via antisense or RNA interference [RNAi]) were created and exhibited specific ripening delay and extended shelf-life phenotypes, including delayed color development and softening. The delay in fruit ripening is associated with a delay in climacteric respiration and reduced synthesis of the ripening hormone ethylene; in the most severe repressed lines, no ethylene was produced and ripening was most delayed. Unlike tomato rin mutants, banana fruits of all transgenic repression lines responded to exogenous ethylene by ripening normally, likely due to incomplete transgene repression and/or compensation by other MADS box genes. Our results show that, although MADS box ripening gene necessity is conserved across diverse taxa (monocots to dicots), unlike tomato, banana ripening requires at least two necessary members of the SEPALLATA MADS box gene group, and either can serve as a target for ripening control. The utility of such genes as tools for ripening control is especially relevant in important parthenocarpic crops such as the vegetatively propagated and widely consumed Cavendish banana, where breeding options for trait improvement are severely limited. PMID:26956665

  3. Singlet Molecular Oxygen Generation by Light-Activated DHN-Melanin of the Fungal Pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in Black Sigatoka Disease of Bananas

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel J Beltrán-García; Prado, Fernanda M.; Marilene S Oliveira; David Ortiz-Mendoza; Alexsandra C Scalfo; Adalberto Pessoa; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; White, James F.; Paolo Di Mascio

    2014-01-01

    In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg). Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absor...

  4. The Standard System and Quality and Safety Standards for Banana in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei; ZOU; Yongbo; Pan; Zhi; XU; Jinhui; LUO

    2015-01-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit and China is the world’s third largest banana producer. The standardization level of banana industry not only affects the yield and quality of banana,but also plays an important role in promoting the production standardization and industrialization of other tropical crops. Through the analysis of revision,publicity and implementation of banana standard system in China as well as the study on its standard system and quality and safety standards,it is found that there are some problems such as irrational banana standard structure,short period of validity of standard,low level of quality and safety standards,and loose link between standards and production. At the same time,some recommendations are put forward in order to guide the standardized production and trade,research and management of banana and promote sustained,healthy and stable development of the banana industry in China.

  5. International energy-promotion-activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Comprehensive promotion of energy and environmental measures are demanded in order to realize improvement in energy demand/supply structures in developing countries where increase in energy demand is anticipated. To achieve this goal, technical transfer related to energy saving technologies and clean coal as well as international energy promotion activities are implemented in China and Indonesia since fiscal 1993. In the field of energy saving, model operations are performed to improve efficiency in such energy consuming fields as steel making, power generation, and oil refining, in addition to cooperation in structuring databases and establishing master plans. In the clean coal field, model operations are conducted to reduce environmental load in coal utilizing areas, in addition to cooperation in establishing master plans for coal utilization. This paper describes feasibility studies on environmentally harmonious coal utilization systems in developing countries, assistance to introduction thereof, and joint verification operations. To rationalize international energy usage, basic surveys on energy utilization efficiency improvement and model operations are carried out mainly in the Asia-Pacific countries.

  6. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Cultivable bacteria populations associated with leaves of banana and plantain plants and their antagonistic activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Isabel; Mosquera, Sandra; Angulo, Mónica; Mira, John J; Argel, Luz Edith; Uribe-Velez, Daniel; Romero-Tabarez, Magally; Orduz-Peralta, Sergio; Villegas, Valeska

    2012-10-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the etiological agent of Black Sigatoka, a fungal disease that affects production of banana and plantain crops in tropical regions. The sizes of cultivable epiphytic and endophytic bacterial populations, aerobic endospore forming bacteria (AEFB), and antagonist bacteria against M. fijiensis isolated from three Musa spp. cultivars from Urabá (Colombia) were studied, in order to find a suitable screening strategy to isolate antagonistic bacteria. Most of the variability found in the epiphytic and endophytic bacterial community sizes among fruit trees was explained by the cultivar differences. We found population sizes ranging from 1.25 × 10(3) to 9.64 × 10(5) CFU/g of fresh leaf and found that 44 % of total cultivable bacteria belong to the AEFB group. We isolated 648 AEFB from three different cultivars and assessed their antagonistic activity against M. fijiensis using the cell-free supernatant obtained from bacterial liquid cultures in three different in vitro assays. Five percent of those bacteria showed higher percent inhibition than the positive control Bacillus subtilis UA321 has (percent inhibition = 84 ± 5) in the screening phase. Therefore, they were selected as antagonistic bacteria against the pathogen. The strains with the highest percentage of antagonism were found in older leaves for the three cultivars, given support to recommend this group of leaves for future samplings. Some of these isolated bacteria affected the mycelium and ascospores morphology of the fungus. They also presented in vitro characteristics related to a successful colonization of the phylloplane such as indolic compounds, surfactant production, and biofilm formation, which makes them possible, potential candidates as biological control agents.

  8. Bananas go paraelectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loidl, A; Krohns, S; Hemberger, J; Lunkenheimer, P [Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany)], E-mail: peter.lunkenheimer@physik.uni-augsburg.de

    2008-05-14

    Using a banana as an example, we demonstrate how the ferroelectric-like hysteresis loops measured in inhomogeneous, conducting materials can easily be identified as non-intrinsic. With simple experiments, the response of a banana to electric fields is revealed as characteristic for an inhomogeneous paraelectric ion conductor. Not even absolute beginners in dielectrics should identify this biological matter as ferroelectric. (viewpoint)

  9. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex. PMID:8506993

  10. Changes of Polyphenol Content, PPO Activity and POD Activity in Banana Fruits during Fruit Development%蕉类果实发育过程中多酚含量及PPO.POD活性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 杨昌鹏; 黄虹心

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the changes of polyphenol content, PPO activity and POD activity in banana fruits during fruit development, lay reference for selection of raw material and improvement of technology of banana fruits, and development and utilization of banana polyphenol. [Result] The samples of banana fruits were picked in-60, 75, 90,105, and 120 d after bearing fruit, then determined the weight, polyphenol content, PPO activity and POD activity. [ Result] The results showed that polyphenol content, PPO activity and POD activity of Williams jiao(Musa cavendishii L. , AAA genome grgup), Da jiao(M. Sapientum L. , ABB genome group), Ji jiao(M. Paradisiaca L. , AAB genome group) and Fen jiao( M, paradisiaca L. , ABB genome group), were relatively high during initial stage of fruit development, while gradually decreased with fruit development, tended to a stable level or decreased a little. And the PPO activity of each banana fruit was obvious higher than POD activity. [Conclusion] The deserted young banana fruits when fruit thinning during banana production has more polyphenols. So if we want to utilize polyphenoles in banana fruits, we should choose its young fruits. Using mature banana fruits as raw materials is in favour of controling enzymatic browning.%[目的]研究蕉类果实发育过程中多酚含量及多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化物酶(POD)活性的变化,为蕉类果实加工原料的选择和工艺技术的改进及香蕉多酚的开发利用提供参考.[方法]于坐果后60、75、90、105、120d取样,测定果实的重量、多酚含量及PPO、POD活性.[结果]威廉斯蕉(Musa cavendishiiL.,AAA基因型)、大蕉(M.sapientum L.,ABB基因型)、鸡蕉(M.paradisiacaL.,AAB基因型)和粉蕉(M.paradisiaca L.,ABB基因型)果实发育过程中,多酚含量及PPO、POD活性在果实发育初期都相对较高,而随着果实的发育逐渐下降,最后趋于稳定或稍有下降,且同一品种中PPO活性均明显高于POD活性.[

  11. Promotion marketing activities in universities

    OpenAIRE

    Guseva I.B.; Ledentcova E.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the need for promotion of educational services through such means of marketing communications as advertising and personal selling , able to satisfy user requests. The results of market research - questioning school graduates of Perm, which was carried out in order to create an effective advertising campaign to attract entrants. Experience can be used in the advertising campaign universities in Russia , in particular , Perm State National Research University.

  12. Singlet molecular oxygen generation by light-activated DHN-melanin of the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in black Sigatoka disease of bananas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Beltrán-García

    Full Text Available In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg. Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absorption spectrophometry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, we characterized both pigment content in mycelia and secreted to the culture media as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN-melanin type compound. This is sole melanin-type in M. fijiensis. Isolated melanins irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm produced monomol light emission at 1270 nm, confirming generation of O2 (1Δg, a highly reactive oxygen specie (ROS that causes cellular death by reacting with all cellular macromolecules. Intermediary polyketides accumulated in culture media by using tricyclazole and pyroquilon (two inhibitors of DHN-melanin synthesis were identified by ESI-HPLC-MS/MS. Additionally, irradiation at 532 nm of that mixture of compounds and whole melanized mycelium also generated O2 (1Δg. A pigmented-strain generated more O2 (1Δg than a strain with low melanin content. Banana leaves of cultivar Cavendish, naturally infected with different stages of black Sigatoka disease, were collected from field. Direct staining of the naturally infected leaf tissues showed the presence of melanin that was positively correlated to the disease stage. We also found hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 but we cannot distinguish the source. Our results suggest that O2 (1Δg photogenerated by DHN-melanin may be involved in the destructive effects of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana leaf tissues. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate contributions of melanin-mediated ROS to microbial pathogenesis.

  13. Singlet molecular oxygen generation by light-activated DHN-melanin of the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in black Sigatoka disease of bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Prado, Fernanda M; Oliveira, Marilene S; Ortiz-Mendoza, David; Scalfo, Alexsandra C; Pessoa, Adalberto; Medeiros, Marisa H G; White, James F; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg). Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absorption spectrophometry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, we characterized both pigment content in mycelia and secreted to the culture media as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin type compound. This is sole melanin-type in M. fijiensis. Isolated melanins irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm produced monomol light emission at 1270 nm, confirming generation of O2 (1Δg), a highly reactive oxygen specie (ROS) that causes cellular death by reacting with all cellular macromolecules. Intermediary polyketides accumulated in culture media by using tricyclazole and pyroquilon (two inhibitors of DHN-melanin synthesis) were identified by ESI-HPLC-MS/MS. Additionally, irradiation at 532 nm of that mixture of compounds and whole melanized mycelium also generated O2 (1Δg). A pigmented-strain generated more O2 (1Δg) than a strain with low melanin content. Banana leaves of cultivar Cavendish, naturally infected with different stages of black Sigatoka disease, were collected from field. Direct staining of the naturally infected leaf tissues showed the presence of melanin that was positively correlated to the disease stage. We also found hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but we cannot distinguish the source. Our results suggest that O2 (1Δg) photogenerated by DHN-melanin may be involved in the destructive effects of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana leaf tissues. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate contributions of melanin-mediated ROS to microbial pathogenesis.

  14. Monsters, Bananas and Seaweed: Active Participation and Young Children's Understanding of False Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarkowicz, Diane Louise

    This study investigated the effect of active participation in a story reading on children's understanding of false belief. Children, ages 38-63 months, were assigned to a participation or non-participation group. Participating children engaged in a book-reading process using puppets to respond to the story. Non-participating children were read the…

  15. THE PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITY IN THE TOURISTIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costel Iliuta Negricea

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The promotion as one of the components of the marketing mix, laying stress, în this regard,on its role în the deployment of the tourism companies’ activity, the structure of the promotional activity în thetouristic sector as well as the use of the promotional strategies în the attainment of the development targets ofthe tourism companies.So, în the paper there have been mentioned the three levels at which it is made the touristic promotionîn Romania, respectively nationally, by the Ministry of the Tourism, under whose subordination it is theTourism National Authority, the second level is the regional/local one, concerning the activity carried out bythe Centers/Offices of Touristic Information from a series of localities, and the last level refers to the microone, respectively at the level of the tourism companies, which promote their offer individually (the most often.The important role of the promotion în the deployment of the activity of the tourism companies isbeing highlighted by the fact that this makes the connection between the activity of an organization and itscustomers (effective or potential, and, în the touristic field, the content of the promotional activity is stronglystressed by the features of this type of services and of the system of creation and delivery, as well as of thepurchasing behaviour.

  16. Public Relations as Promotional Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira CURRI-MEMETI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Public relations give opportunity to the organization to present its image and personality to its own “public”- users, supporters, sponsors, donors, local community and other public.It is about transferring the message to the public, but that is a twoway street. You must communicate with your public, but at the same time you must give opportunity to the public to communicate easier with you. The real public relations include dialog – you should listen to the others, to see things through their perspective. This elaborate is made with the purpose to be useful for every organization, not for the sensational promotion of its achievements, but to become more critical towards its work. Seeing the organization in the way that the other see it, you can become better and sure that you are giving to your users the best service possible.

  17. Evaluation of Results from Sales Promotion Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Olimpia Ban

    2007-01-01

    An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.

  18. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background:  In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are s

  19. Promoting Physical Activity among Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Linke, Sarah; Muñoz, Mario; Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Cano, Mayra; Williams, Victoria; Marcus, Bess H; Larsen, Britta A

    2016-01-01

    Underserved populations, including racial/ethnic minorities, individuals with low socioeconomic status, and individuals with physical disabilities, are less likely to engage in sufficient moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and are thus at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These populations face unique challenges to engaging in MVPA. Learning how to overcome these challenges is a necessary first step in achieving health equity through health promotion research. In this review of the literature, we discuss issues and strategies that have been used to promote MVPA among individuals from underserved populations, focusing on recruitment, intervention delivery, and the use of technology in interventions. Physical activity promotion research among these vulnerable populations is scarce. Nevertheless, there is preliminary evidence of efficacy in the use of certain recruitment and intervention strategies including tailoring, cultural adaptation, incorporation of new technologies, and multilevel and community-based approaches for physical activity promotion among different underserved populations. PMID:27399827

  20. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    OpenAIRE

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background:  In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are supported by the Dutch government’s policy. Although many strategies have been developed to increase physical activity levels in general and in socially vulnerable groups in particular, most evaluations show o...

  1. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container.

  2. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container. PMID:24797132

  3. Degradation of Methyldopa by Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Kiminori Mohri; Yoshihiro Uesawa

    2010-01-01

    Methyldopa, an antihypertensive, is a very close analogue of DOPA. Drug interaction accompanied by degradation in a banana juice mixture was reported for DOPA. However, the effect of banana on methyldopa has not been reported. Therefore, we have investigated the impact of banana juice on methyldopa. The drug and supernatant of banana pulp were mixed, and the mixture was observed for changes in color, drug concentration, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra at 30 °C. The originally clear...

  4. Evaluation of Results from Sales Promotion Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Ban

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.

  5. Social Interactions in Growing Bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    This paper analyses whether agricultural information flows give rise to social learning effects in banana cultivation in Nyakatoke, a small Tanzanian village. Based on a village census, full information is available on socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmer kinship members...... effects that produce positive externalities in banana output...

  6. Going Bananas over The Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With a market of nearly $5 billion a year, the banana is the world's most popular fruit, and the most important food crop after rice, wheat, and maize. Banana businesses are economic pillars in many tropical countries, providing millions of jobs for rural residents. But, for much of its history, the banana industry was notorious for destructive…

  7. The radurisation of bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early studies on the radurisation of bananas indicated that this commodity did not benefit substantially from the treatment. This work, which was carried out at Pelindaba, indicated a low threshold dose for radiation damage and little shelf-life extension at this dose. In a second study carried out at Tzaneen more promising results were obtained. The reason for the differences seemed to be due to the time between harvesting and treatment which was much shorter in the Tzaneen study. Consequently it was decided to undertake a third and much larger trial in which the bananas would be treated in Tzaneen and then dispatched to Pretoria for storage and evaluation by a joint Nucor/Banana Board team. Parameters investigated included colour, firmness (by penatrometer testing) and sensory qualities. The bananas were stored for various periods at 15o C, ripened by exposure to ethylene gas under commerical conditons and then stored at ambient temperature for the remainder of the experiment. Bananas we re irradiated at various doses between 0,3 kGy and 1,5kGy and were compared with control batches which were stored under the same conditions

  8. RESISTANT STARCH AND BIOACTIVE CONTENTS OF UNRIPE BANANA FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING PERIODS AND ITS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various innovative products from unripe banana flour have been reported as it is high in resistant starch and other important compounds. The harvesting period of the unripe banana fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of the unripe banana flour in terms of resistant starch and bioactive compound content. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the harvesting stages of unripe banana fruit on Resistant Starch (RS content, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity and the application of unripe banana flour to prepare high RS rice noodle. Four different harvesting stages of banana fruits of Musa sapientum Linn including 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after bloom, were processed for banana flours. The results indicated that the maturation stages affected RS, some bioactive contents, antioxidant activities. The highest RS content (48.88% of banana flour was obtained from the 105 day banana fruits. The total phenolic and carotenoid contents were high in the banana flours harvested between 75 and 105 days. The unripe banana flour could be substituted for rice flour as high as 80% and contained RS content as high as 18.64% whereas the commercial rice noodle had 4.21% of RS content. Therefore, the preparation of unripe banana flour from banana fruit harvested at 105 days and applying it in the preparation of functional food is promising.

  9. Characterisation of metabolic profile of banana genotypes, aiming at biofortified Musa spp. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Cristine Vanz; Amorim, Vanusia Batista de Oliveira; Ramlov, Fernanda; Ledo, Carlos Alberto da Silva; Donato, Marcela; Maraschin, Marcelo; Amorim, Edson Perito

    2014-02-15

    The banana is an important, widely consumed fruit, especially in areas of rampant undernutrition. Twenty-nine samples were analysed, including 9 diploids, 13 triploids and 7 tetraploids, in the Active Germplasm Bank, at Embrapa Cassava & Fruits, to evaluate the bioactive compounds. The results of this study reveal the presence of a diversity of bioactive compounds, e.g., catechins; they are phenolic compounds with high antioxidant potential and antitumour activity. In addition, accessions with appreciable amounts of pVACs were identified, especially compared with the main cultivars that are currently marketed. The ATR-FTIR, combined with principal components analysis, identified accessions with distinct metabolic profiles in the fingerprint regions of compounds important for human health. Likewise, starch fraction characterisation allowed discrimination of accessions according to their physical, chemical, and functional properties. The results of this study demonstrate that the banana has functional characteristics endowing it with the potential to promote human health.

  10. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  11. RESISTANT STARCH AND BIOACTIVE CONTENTS OF UNRIPE BANANA FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING PERIODS AND ITS APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Anuchita Moongngarm; Wanassanun Tiboonbun; Mai Sanpong; Pimpila Sriwong; Laongdao Phiewtong; Rattanapon Prakitrum; Nattipon Huychan

    2014-01-01

    Recently, various innovative products from unripe banana flour have been reported as it is high in resistant starch and other important compounds. The harvesting period of the unripe banana fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of the unripe banana flour in terms of resistant starch and bioactive compound content. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the harvesting stages of unripe banana fruit on Resistant Starch (RS) content, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity ...

  12. Beyond the double banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenzweig, Ivana; Fogarasi, András; Johnsen, Birger;

    2014-01-01

    performance was compared with the double banana (longitudinal bipolar montage, 10-20 array). RESULTS: Adding the inferior temporal electrode chain, computed montages (reference free, common average, and source derivation), and voltage maps significantly increased the sensitivity. Phase maps had the highest...

  13. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  14. Prototheca associated with banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pore, R S

    1985-06-01

    Prototheca stagnora was found to be a habitant of older harvested banana (Musa sapientum) and plantain (M. paradisiaca) stumps while P. wickerhamii colonized fresh Musa sp. stumps and flower bract water of Heliconia sp. While Prototheca sp. were known to habituate woody plants, this is the first evidence that herbaceous plants also serve as habitats.

  15. Prototheca associated with banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pore, R S

    1985-06-01

    Prototheca stagnora was found to be a habitant of older harvested banana (Musa sapientum) and plantain (M. paradisiaca) stumps while P. wickerhamii colonized fresh Musa sp. stumps and flower bract water of Heliconia sp. While Prototheca sp. were known to habituate woody plants, this is the first evidence that herbaceous plants also serve as habitats. PMID:4033739

  16. Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Sampath Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. All parts of the banana plant have medicinal applications: the flowers in bronchitis and dysentery and on ulcers; cooked flowers are given to diabetics; the astringent plant sap in cases of hysteria, epilepsy, leprosy, fevers, hemorrhages, acute dysentery and diarrhea, and it is applied on hemorrhoids, insect and other stings and bites; young leaves are placed as poultices on burns and other skin afflictions; the astringent ashes of the unripe peel and of the leaves are taken in dysentery and diarrhea and used for treating malignant ulcers; the roots are administered in digestive disorders, dysentery and other ailments; banana seed mucilage is given in cases of diarrhea in India. Antifungal and antibiotic principles are found in the peel and pulp of fully ripe bananas. The antibiotic acts against Mycobacteria. A fungicide in the peel and pulp of green fruits is active against a fungus disease of tomato plants. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are also present in the ripe peel and pulp. The first two elevate blood pressure; serotonin inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the smooth muscle of the intestines.

  17. THE CONTROL AND EVALUATION OF PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Sabou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on importance and benefits of control and evaluation of marketing activities. The control of efficiency review the assessment of the resources for marketing activity, checking also the efficiency of the human resources, advertising, promotion activities and distribution activities. In the analyse of human resources the most important ratio are: the average of costumers visits on a day, the number of custom order received from 100 visits, the number of new customers from a period, the number of lost customers from a period, the marketing human expenditures from all the sales.The strategic control is made to check if the objectives and the company strategy are adapted to the marketing environment.

  18. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. 'Xiangfen 1,' a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with 'Brazil' serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with 'Brazil,' 'Xiangfen 1' fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and 'Xiangfen 1' banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  19. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  20. Transgenic banana expressing Pflp gene confers enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukwaya, B; Tripathi, L; Tripathi, J N; Arinaitwe, G; Mukasa, S B; Tushemereirwe, W K

    2012-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases of banana (Musa sp.) and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. The development of disease resistant banana cultivars remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. In this study, we demonstrate that BXW can be efficiently controlled using transgenic technology. Transgenic bananas expressing the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of banana. These transgenic lines were characterized by molecular analysis. After challenge with X. campestris pv. musacearum transgenic lines showed high resistance. About 67% of transgenic lines evaluated were completely resistant to BXW. These transgenic lines did not show any disease symptoms after artificial inoculation of in vitro plants under laboratory conditions as well as potted plants in the screen-house, whereas non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study confirms that expression of the Pflp gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. This transgenic technology can provide a timely solution to the BXW pandemic.

  1. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  2. Banana Dehydration Utilizing Infrared Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enzyme of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize biochemical degradation hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to investigate quality characteristics of bananas dried ...

  3. HERBASPIRILLUM-LIKE BACTERIA IN BANANA PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Olmar B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from banana plants were characterized by morphological and physiological aspects. Three different groups of these plant-bacteria could be established. Two of them showed similarity to species of the Herbaspirillum genus. The third one was different because used only a few carbon substrates and produced water diffusible compounds that fluoresced under UV light. All three bacterial groups were thin rods with mono or bipolar flagella, presented negative reaction in Gram stain, showed catalase activity, were able to reduce nitrate and grew better in semi-solid JNFb medium at 31ºC. The nitrogenase activity was detected in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium and expressed higher values when pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.0 (groups I and II and 6.0 to 6.5 (group III. The diazotrophs isolated from banana plants were distinct from species of Herbaspirillum previously identified in gramineous plants.

  4. PROMOTION OF ACTIVE MEASURES AND EMPLOYMENT STIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ELISABETA POPP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches in the field of the labour market has allowed the identification of certain specific mechanisms for employment promotion; at present, on the Romanian labour market we find passive policies, concretised in financial aids paid to the unemployed, along with active policies, constituting the most efficient social protection activity addressed to the unemployed (they aim at counterbalancing the inefficiencies determined by the granting of financial allowances, help population to find a job by actions of information, professional training and contributing to the encouragement of the labour force mobility. The paper refers to some theoretical considerations related to the influence factors of employment stimulation, as well as to the unemployment – correlated adequate measures synapse. The applied research comprises the analysis of statistic documents; the method used is the case study, i.e. the activity of employment stimulation carried on by the County Agency for Employment Caraş-Severin, in the period 2004-2012. The conclusions highlight the impact of the activity of the institutions involved in the system of social protection and security within the labour market.

  5. Promoting physical activity in persons with subacute spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F.J. Nooijen (Carla)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Introduction: After discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, physical activity levels in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) are known to decline. Primary objective: To evaluate the added value of a behavioral intervention promoting an active lifestyle after discharge

  6. 香蕉育苗技术的推广应用%Extension and Utilization of Seedling Breeding Technique for Banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永壮; 符运柳; 刘以道; 覃和业

    2011-01-01

    介绍健康、优质香蕉组培苗一、二级苗的培育技术,以促进香蕉产业的健康发展。%Based on many years of practical experience in the production of banana seedlings,author now is introducing the seedling cultivation technology on health and quality of banana tissue culture to promote the healthy development of the banana industry.

  7. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere.

  8. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere. PMID:26057187

  9. Light Makes a Surface Banana-bond Split: Photodesorption of Molecular Hydrogen from RuO2(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Michael A.; Mu, Rentao; Dahal, Arjun P.; Lyubinetsky, Igor; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.

    2016-07-20

    The coordination of H2 to a metal center via polarization of its bond electron density, known as a Kubas complex, is the means by which H2 chemisorbs at Ru4+ sites on the rutile RuO2(110) surface. This distortion of electron density off an interatomic axis is often described as a ‘banana-bond.’ We show that the Ru-H2 banana-bond can be destabilized, and split, using visible light. Photodesorption of H2 (or D2) is evident by mass spectrometry and scanning tunneling microscopy. From time-dependent density functional theory, the key optical excitation splitting the Ru-H2 banana-bond involves an interband transition in RuO2 which effectively diminishes its Lewis acidity, and thereby weakening the Kubas complex. Such excitations are not expected to affect adsorbates on RuO2 given its metallic properties. Therefore, this common thermal co-catalyst employed in promoting water splitting is, itself, photo-active in the visible.

  10. Activity-promoting gaming systems in exercise and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew J D; McCormick, Darren; Shawis, Teshk; Impson, Rebecca; Griffin, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Commercial activity-promoting gaming systems provide a potentially attractive means to facilitate exercise and rehabilitation. The Nintendo Wii, Sony EyeToy, Dance Dance Revolution, and Xbox Kinect are examples of gaming systems that use the movement of the player to control gameplay. Activity-promoting gaming systems can be used as a tool to increase activity levels in otherwise sedentary gamers and also be an effective tool to aid rehabilitation in clinical settings. Therefore, the aim of this current work is to review the growing area of activity-promoting gaming in the context of exercise, injury, and rehabilitation.

  11. Activity-promoting gaming systems in exercise and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. D. Taylor, PhD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial activity-promoting gaming systems provide a potentially attractive means to facilitate exercise and rehabilitation. The Nintendo Wii, Sony EyeToy, Dance Dance Revolution, and Xbox Kinect are examples of gaming systems that use the movement of the player to control gameplay. Activity-promoting gaming systems can be used as a tool to increase activity levels in otherwise sedentary gamers and also be an effective tool to aid rehabilitation in clinical settings. Therefore, the aim of this current work is to review the growing area of activity-promoting gaming in the context of exercise, injury, and rehabilitatio

  12. [In vitro activity of different fungicides on the growth in Mycosphaerella fijiensis var. difformis Stover and Dickson, Cladosporium musae Morelet and Deightoniella torulosa (Syd.) Ellis, isolated parasites of the banana phyllosphere in the Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Daouda; Badou, Odjochoumou Jean; Bomisso, Edson Lezin; Camara, Brahima; Ake, Séverin

    2009-05-01

    In Côte-d'Ivoire, banana leaf surfaces are attacked by Mycosphaerella fijiensis var. difformis, Cladosporium musae, and Deigthonielle torulosa. Control is based on fungicides recommanded for Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Fungicides belonging to triazoles and strobilurines types were added, at different concentrations, to the PDA medium, using this PDA medium containing no fungicide as the control. Mycelium disc and spores of Cladosporium musae, Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Deightoniella torulosa were put on the different media. Total inhibition of mycelium growth of every fungus on the PDA amended with propiconazole was observed. The fungicides used show different activities according to their concentration and their mode of action. The application of a fungicide should talke into account the pathogenic fungus involved in the leaf attacked. Against Mycosphaerella fijiensis var. difformis, the Ci(50) are different according to the concentrations (0.44 to 1.06 ppm). Correlations ranked from 0.71 to 0.91 are also different according to fungicide used. The Ci(50) of Cladosporium musae (0.10 to 2.44 ppm) and Deightoniella torulosa (0.26 to 0.52 ppm) are different and their correlations are respectively 0.78 to 0.99 and 0.86 to 0.95. An assessment of the sensitivity of parasitic fungi of banana can be made by mycelium growth measurement of fungi isolated from resistance zones.

  13. Invariant distribution of promoter activities in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslaver, Alon; Kaplan, Shai; Bren, Anat; Jinich, Adrian; Mayo, Avi; Dekel, Erez; Alon, Uri; Itzkovitz, Shalev

    2009-10-01

    Cells need to allocate their limited resources to express a wide range of genes. To understand how Escherichia coli partitions its transcriptional resources between its different promoters, we employ a robotic assay using a comprehensive reporter strain library for E. coli to measure promoter activity on a genomic scale at high-temporal resolution and accuracy. This allows continuous tracking of promoter activity as cells change their growth rate from exponential to stationary phase in different media. We find a heavy-tailed distribution of promoter activities, with promoter activities spanning several orders of magnitude. While the shape of the distribution is almost completely independent of the growth conditions, the identity of the promoters expressed at different levels does depend on them. Translation machinery genes, however, keep the same relative expression levels in the distribution across conditions, and their fractional promoter activity tracks growth rate tightly. We present a simple optimization model for resource allocation which suggests that the observed invariant distributions might maximize growth rate. These invariant features of the distribution of promoter activities may suggest design constraints that shape the allocation of transcriptional resources.

  14. Invariant distribution of promoter activities in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Zaslaver

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cells need to allocate their limited resources to express a wide range of genes. To understand how Escherichia coli partitions its transcriptional resources between its different promoters, we employ a robotic assay using a comprehensive reporter strain library for E. coli to measure promoter activity on a genomic scale at high-temporal resolution and accuracy. This allows continuous tracking of promoter activity as cells change their growth rate from exponential to stationary phase in different media. We find a heavy-tailed distribution of promoter activities, with promoter activities spanning several orders of magnitude. While the shape of the distribution is almost completely independent of the growth conditions, the identity of the promoters expressed at different levels does depend on them. Translation machinery genes, however, keep the same relative expression levels in the distribution across conditions, and their fractional promoter activity tracks growth rate tightly. We present a simple optimization model for resource allocation which suggests that the observed invariant distributions might maximize growth rate. These invariant features of the distribution of promoter activities may suggest design constraints that shape the allocation of transcriptional resources.

  15. Activity-promoting gaming systems in exercise and rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew J. D. Taylor, PhD; Darren McCormick, BSc; Teshk Shawis, MBChB, FRCP; Rebecca Impson, MSc; Murray Griffin, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Commercial activity-promoting gaming systems provide a potentially attractive means to facilitate exercise and rehabilitation. The Nintendo Wii, Sony EyeToy, Dance Dance Revolution, and Xbox Kinect are examples of gaming systems that use the movement of the player to control gameplay. Activity-promoting gaming systems can be used as a tool to increase activity levels in otherwise sedentary gamers and also be an effective tool to aid rehabilitation in clinical settings. Therefore, the aim of t...

  16. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  17. Physical Activity Promotion in Call Centres: Employers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, Sheila J.; Lightfoot, Nancy E.; Maar, Marion A.

    2011-01-01

    This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews…

  18. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae.

  19. Characterization of differential ripening pattern in association with ethylene biosynthesis in the fruits of five naturally occurring banana cultivars and detection of a GCC-box-specific DNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Saha, Progya Paramita; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2008-07-01

    MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 are the two major ripening genes in banana and play crucial role in the regulation of ethylene production during ripening. Here, we report a comparative ripening pattern in five different naturally occurring banana cultivars namely Cavendish (AAA), Rasthali (AAB), Kanthali (AB), Poovan (AAB) and Monthan (ABB), which have distinct genome composition. We found a distinct variation in the climacteric ethylene production and in-vivo ACC oxidase activity level during the ripening stages in the five cultivars. We identified the cDNAs for MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 from the five cultivars and studied the transcript accumulation patterns of the two genes, which correlated well with the differential timing in the expression of these two genes during ripening. The GCC-box is one of the ethylene-responsive elements (EREs) found in the promoters of many ethylene-inducible genes. We have identified a GCC-box motif (putative ERE) in the promoters of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 in banana cultivars. DNA-protein interaction studies revealed the presence of a GCC-box-specific DNA-binding activity in the fruit nuclear extract and such DNA-binding activity was enhanced following ethylene treatment. South-Western blotting revealed a 25-kDa nuclear protein that binds specifically to GCC-box DNA in the climacteric banana fruit. Together, these results indicate the probable involvement of the GCC-box motif as the cis-acting ERE in the regulation of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 during ripening in banana fruits via binding of specific ERE-binding protein.

  20. Improving health through policies that promote active travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Antó, Josep M;

    2011-01-01

    Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding...

  1. 搜索Banana Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>国内没有Banana Republic的专营店,但这并不意味着你买不到它家的货品,渠道有二:其一,是去淘宝上寻找,超级强悍的淘宝网,点Banana Republic关键词,你能找到许多售卖原单货甚至美国代购货的店铺,价格平实,唯一的缺点就是不能试衣,Banana Republic尺码偏大,在购买时尽量比平时穿的尺码小一号。其二,就是去遍布青岛大街小巷的外贸服装店购买,笔者曾在许多家碰到过Banana Repubkic的原单货,但这就需要讲究机缘了,而我们写此文的目的之一也是希望读者今后在遇见这个品牌的原单货后,当机立断拿下,毕竟,"香蕉共和国"的货品在国内还是难得一遇的!

  2. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens.

  3. Promoter proximal polyadenylation sites reduce transcription activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Kjølhede; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression relies on the functional communication between mRNA processing and transcription. We previously described the negative impact of a point-mutated splice donor (SD) site on transcription. Here we demonstrate that this mutation activates an upstream cryptic polyadenylation (CpA) site...

  4. Promoting Physical Activity through Goal Setting Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are used to setting specific goals for students within a given unit. Here, the author emphasizes that they should also encourage students to set their own goals. Goal setting engages students in the learning process and allows them to develop the skills that support an active lifestyle. The author presents goal setting…

  5. Transformation of GbSGT1 gene into banana by an Agrobacterium-mediated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SGT1 is a homologue of the yeast ubiquitin ligase-associated protein. It controls some protein degradation and activates defense pathway in plants. Cotton GbSGT1 gene (Gossypium barbadense) has been isolated and characterized in previous work. In this study, the plant expression vector pBSGT1 with bar gene as a selection agent was constructed and transgenic banana was obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with the assistance of particle bombardment and screened with PCR and Basta spreading on banana plant leaves. Estimating of transgenic banana plants for resistance to Panama wilt is in progress.

  6. Welfare Gains from Liberalized Banana Trade and a New International Banana Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Kox, H.L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The European Union import policy for bananas grants preferential trade access for ACP bananas and discriminates against bananas from other sources. It is shown that such trade discrimination cannot be defended by development-related motives. As a form of aid transfer to banana-exporting ACP countries, the EU import regime is highly inefficient. The effective value of financial transfers is low, while there are large associated welfare costs to domestic consumers and to non-preferred export co...

  7. Development of transcriptional fusions to assess Leptospira interrogans promoter activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M Cerqueira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease that affects both humans and animals. The existing genetic tools for Leptospira spp. have improved our understanding of the biology of this spirochete as well as the interaction of pathogenic leptospires with the mammalian host. However, new tools are necessary to provide novel and useful information to the field. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of promoter-probe vectors carrying a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP were constructed for use in L. biflexa. They were tested by constructing transcriptional fusions between the lipL41, Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-like A (ligA and Sphingomyelinase 2 (sph2 promoters from L. interrogans and the reporter gene. ligA and sph2 promoters were the most active, in comparison to the lipL41 promoter and the non-induced controls. The results obtained are in agreement with LigA expression from the L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The novel vectors facilitated the in vitro evaluation of L. interrogans promoter activity under defined growth conditions which simulate the mammalian host environment. The fluorescence and rt-PCR data obtained closely reflected transcriptional regulation of the promoters, thus demonstrating the suitability of these vectors for assessing promoter activity in L. biflexa.

  8. Regulation of ALF promoter activity in Xenopus oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this report we evaluate the use of Xenopus laevis oocytes as a matched germ cell system for characterizing the organization and transcriptional activity of a germ cell-specific X. laevis promoter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The promoter from the ALF transcription factor gene was cloned from X. laevis genomic DNA using a PCR-based genomic walking approach. The endogenous ALF gene was characterized by RACE and RT-PCR for transcription start site usage, and by sodium bisulfite sequencing to determine its methylation status in somatic and oocyte tissues. Homology between the X. laevis ALF promoter sequence and those from human, chimpanzee, macaque, mouse, rat, cow, pig, horse, dog, chicken and X. tropicalis was relatively low, making it difficult to use such comparisons to identify putative regulatory elements. However, microinjected promoter constructs were very active in oocytes and the minimal promoter could be narrowed by PCR-mediated deletion to a region as short as 63 base pairs. Additional experiments using a series of site-specific promoter mutants identified two cis-elements within the 63 base pair minimal promoter that were critical for activity. Both elements (A and B were specifically recognized by proteins present in crude oocyte extracts based on oligonucleotide competition assays. The activity of promoter constructs in oocytes and in transfected somatic Xenopus XLK-WG kidney epithelial cells was quite different, indicating that the two cell types are not functionally equivalent and are not interchangeable as assay systems. CONCLUSIONS: Overall the results provide the first detailed characterization of the organization of a germ cell-specific Xenopus promoter and demonstrate the feasibility of using immature frog oocytes as an assay system for dissecting the biochemistry of germ cell gene regulation.

  9. Marketing of banana and banana products in Uganda: Results of a rapid rural appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Digges, Philip

    1994-01-01

    This report concerns a survey undertaken by NRI in Uganda during September and December 1993, which sought to characterise the banana and banana beer marketing systems. The study follows on from the recommendations of the Banana Based Cropping System Rapid Rural Appraisal (1991), and focuses upon the Kampala market.

  10. Prediction of fine-tuned promoter activity from DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwo, Geoffrey; Rider, Andrew; Tan, Asako; Pinapati, Richard; Emrich, Scott; Chawla, Nitesh; Ferdig, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative prediction of transcriptional activity of genes using promoter sequence is fundamental to the engineering of biological systems for industrial purposes and understanding the natural variation in gene expression. To catalyze the development of new algorithms for this purpose, the Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM) organized a community challenge seeking predictive models of promoter activity given normalized promoter activity data for 90 ribosomal protein promoters driving expression of a fluorescent reporter gene. By developing an unbiased modeling approach that performs an iterative search for predictive DNA sequence features using the frequencies of various k-mers, inferred DNA mechanical properties and spatial positions of promoter sequences, we achieved the best performer status in this challenge. The specific predictive features used in the model included the frequency of the nucleotide G, the length of polymeric tracts of T and TA, the frequencies of 6 distinct trinucleotides and 12 tetranucleotides, and the predicted protein deformability of the DNA sequence. Our method accurately predicted the activity of 20 natural variants of ribosomal protein promoters (Spearman correlation r = 0.73) as compared to 33 laboratory-mutated variants of the promoters (r = 0.57) in a test set that was hidden from participants. Notably, our model differed substantially from the rest in 2 main ways: i) it did not explicitly utilize transcription factor binding information implying that subtle DNA sequence features are highly associated with gene expression, and ii) it was entirely based on features extracted exclusively from the 100 bp region upstream from the translational start site demonstrating that this region encodes much of the overall promoter activity. The findings from this study have important implications for the engineering of predictable gene expression systems and the evolution of gene expression in naturally occurring

  11. Banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem: dietary fiber and associated antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; S, Mahadevamma; Chilkunda, Nandini D; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2012-01-11

    Banana flower (BF) and pseudostem (PS) are byproducts of banana cultivation and are known to have health beneficial effects. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber composition and antioxidant effect of BF and PS. In the present study, BF and PS were found to be rich in dietary fiber (65.6 ± 1.32 and 28.8 ± 0.98%, respectively). Dietary fiber fractions were extracted and characterized in terms of sugar profile, and antioxidant activities were determined. BF and PS fractions were rich in sugars and showed wide diversity with respect to the nature of the sugars. Hemicellulose A fraction of BF showed high amounts of total polyphenols and total antioxidants, which were 121.8 ± 1.9 and 39.03 ± 0.118 μg/mg extract, respectively. HPLC analysis showed the presence of phenolic acids in hemicellulose A and B fractions of BF. These results indicate that BF and PS are rich sources of dietary fiber associated with polyphenols, which could promote health beneficial effects. PMID:22122826

  12. The nematicidal effect of camellia seed cake on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica of banana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Yang

    Full Text Available Suppression of root-knot nematodes is crucially important for maintaining the worldwide development of the banana industry. Growing concerns about human and environmental safety have led to the withdrawal of commonly used nematicides and soil fumigants, thus motivating the development of alternative nematode management strategies. In this study, Meloidogyne javanica was isolated, and the nematicidal effect of Camellia seed cake on this pest was investigated. The results showed that in dish experiments, Camellia seed cake extracts under low concentration (2 g/L showed a strong nematicidal effect. After treatment for 72 h, the eggs of M. javanica were gradually dissolved, and the intestine of the juveniles gradually became indistinct. Nematicidal compounds, including saponins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and 8 types of volatile compounds identified by GC-MS, exhibited effective nematicidal activities, especially 4-methylphenol. The pot experiments demonstrated that the application of Camellia seed cake suppressed M. javanica, and promoted the banana plant growth. This study explored an effective nematicidal agent for application in soil and revealed its potential mechanism of nematode suppression.

  13. Archaeal promoter architecture and mechanism of gene activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Nan; Ao, Xiang; Liang, Yun Xiang;

    2011-01-01

    Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus islandicus contain several genes exhibiting D-arabinose-inducible expression and these systems are ideal for studying mechanisms of archaeal gene expression. At sequence level, only two highly conserved cis elements are present on the promoters: a regulatory...... element named ara box directing arabinose-inducible expression and the basal promoter element TATA, serving as the binding site for the TATA-binding protein. Strikingly, these promoters possess a modular structure that allows an essentially inactive basal promoter to be strongly activated. The invoked...... mechanisms include TFB (transcription factor B) recruitment by the ara-box-binding factor to activate gene expression and modulation of TFB recruitment efficiency to yield differential gene expression....

  14. Archaeal promoter architecture and mechanism of gene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Nan; Ao, Xiang; Liang, Yun Xiang; She, Qunxin

    2011-01-01

    Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus islandicus contain several genes exhibiting D-arabinose-inducible expression and these systems are ideal for studying mechanisms of archaeal gene expression. At sequence level, only two highly conserved cis elements are present on the promoters: a regulatory element named ara box directing arabinose-inducible expression and the basal promoter element TATA, serving as the binding site for the TATA-binding protein. Strikingly, these promoters possess a modular structure that allows an essentially inactive basal promoter to be strongly activated. The invoked mechanisms include TFB (transcription factor B) recruitment by the ara-box-binding factor to activate gene expression and modulation of TFB recruitment efficiency to yield differential gene expression. PMID:21265754

  15. Promotion of nutrition and physical activity in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.; Hiddink, G.J.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Promotion of nutrition and physical activity is important to slow down the increase of overweight. General practitioners (GPs) are in an unique position to communicate with their patients about nutrition and physical activity, because of the high referral score, high perceived expertis

  16. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  17. Promotion as a Tool in Sustaining the Destination Marketing Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Mulec

    2010-01-01

    Promoting the tourism destination in the right and best possible way is today one of vital marketing activities of all Destination Management Organizations. Only successful promotion can entice and attract potential travelers to visit the destination. The number of new destinations is increasing every year and some of them are quite similar. Market segmentation is one of the starting points for devising marketing strategy. Only by presenting the destination to the right segment of potential c...

  18. Evaluation of hair growth promoting activity of Phyllanthus niruri

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Patel; Vikas Sharma; Nagendra Chauhan; Mayank Thakur; Vinod Dixit

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the potential Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri ) extracts in promotion of hair growth. Materials and Methods: Here, we studied the hair growth promoting activity of petroleum ether extract of P. niruri following its topical administration. Alopecia was induced in albino rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone for 21 days. Evaluation of hair loss inhibition was done by concurrent administration of extract and monitoring parameters like...

  19. Storage stability of banana chips in polypropylene based nanocomposite packaging films

    OpenAIRE

    Manikantan, M. R.; Sharma, Rajiv; Kasturi, R.; Varadharaju, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, polypropylene (PP) based nanocomposite films of 15 different compositions of nanoclay, compatibilizer and thickness were developed and used for packaging and storage of banana chips. The effect of nanocomposite films on the quality characteristics viz. moisture content (MC), water activity (WA), total color difference(TCD), breaking force (BF), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value(PV), total plate count (TPC) and overall acceptability score of banana chips under ambient condit...

  20. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP. Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH, β-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF. Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00% than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%. However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression.

  1. Neuronal Activity Promotes Glioma Growth through Neuroligin-3 Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Humsa S; Johung, Tessa B; Caretti, Viola; Noll, Alyssa; Tang, Yujie; Nagaraja, Surya; Gibson, Erin M; Mount, Christopher W; Polepalli, Jai; Mitra, Siddhartha S; Woo, Pamelyn J; Malenka, Robert C; Vogel, Hannes; Bredel, Markus; Mallick, Parag; Monje, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Active neurons exert a mitogenic effect on normal neural precursor and oligodendroglial precursor cells, the putative cellular origins of high-grade glioma (HGG). By using optogenetic control of cortical neuronal activity in a patient-derived pediatric glioblastoma xenograft model, we demonstrate that active neurons similarly promote HGG proliferation and growth in vivo. Conditioned medium from optogenetically stimulated cortical slices promoted proliferation of pediatric and adult patient-derived HGG cultures, indicating secretion of activity-regulated mitogen(s). The synaptic protein neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) was identified as the leading candidate mitogen, and soluble NLGN3 was sufficient and necessary to promote robust HGG cell proliferation. NLGN3 induced PI3K-mTOR pathway activity and feedforward expression of NLGN3 in glioma cells. NLGN3 expression levels in human HGG negatively correlated with patient overall survival. These findings indicate the important role of active neurons in the brain tumor microenvironment and identify secreted NLGN3 as an unexpected mechanism promoting neuronal activity-regulated cancer growth.

  2. Commercial activities and the promotion of health in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Many companies nowadays consider schools to be an important setting for marketing to children. However, important concerns can be raised from a health promotion perspective about the potential negative impact of commercial activities on the health and well-being of pupils. As this discussion paper will demonstrate, some commercial activities raise concerns in relation to physical health and obesity, not only by potentially undermining formal curriculum messages, but also through the active promotion of specific products, particularly those high in fat, sugar or salt. Nonetheless, the issues raised by commercial activities are not solely limited to effects on physical health. By allowing commercial activities, schools risk instilling in pupils consumer-orientated values. This is significant as such values have been linked to the development of poor health and well-being. Furthermore, the presence in schools of commercial activities will also militate against informed decision-making and be disempowering. There is also evidence that business-sponsored teaching materials can contain biased and misleading information. The potential negative impacts of commercial activities are inconsistent with goals in relation to the promotion of health and the principles of health-promoting schools.

  3. Commercial activities and the promotion of health in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Many companies nowadays consider schools to be an important setting for marketing to children. However, important concerns can be raised from a health promotion perspective about the potential negative impact of commercial activities on the health and well-being of pupils. As this discussion paper will demonstrate, some commercial activities raise concerns in relation to physical health and obesity, not only by potentially undermining formal curriculum messages, but also through the active promotion of specific products, particularly those high in fat, sugar or salt. Nonetheless, the issues raised by commercial activities are not solely limited to effects on physical health. By allowing commercial activities, schools risk instilling in pupils consumer-orientated values. This is significant as such values have been linked to the development of poor health and well-being. Furthermore, the presence in schools of commercial activities will also militate against informed decision-making and be disempowering. There is also evidence that business-sponsored teaching materials can contain biased and misleading information. The potential negative impacts of commercial activities are inconsistent with goals in relation to the promotion of health and the principles of health-promoting schools. PMID:23135869

  4. In vivo fertilization of banana

    OpenAIRE

    Taliane Leila Soares; Everton Hilo de Souza; Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho Costa; Sebastião de Oliveira E Silva; Janay Almeida dos Santos Serejo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA) 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup), the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup) some ...

  5. Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium oxalicum using banana agrowaste as a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shilpa P; Kalia, Kiran S; Patel, Jagdish S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a higher amount of cellulase by using an alternative carbon source, such as banana agrowaste, and to optimize the fermentation parameters for a high yield. In the present study, cellulase-producing Penicillium was isolated from a decaying wood sample. Different nutritional and environmental factors were investigated to assess their effect on cellulase production. The highest crude enzyme production was observed at a pH 6.0 and a temperature of 28°C in a medium that was supplemented with banana agrowaste as the carbon source. Pretreatment with 2N NaOH, at 7% substrate (banana agrowaste) concentration yielded the highest cellulase activity. Further to this, the effect of other parameters such as inoculum age, inoculum size, static and agitated conditions were also studied. It is concluded that Penicillium oxalicum is a powerful cellulase-producer strain under our tested experimental conditions using banana agrowaste as the carbon source.

  6. Assessment of In Vivo Antidiabetic Properties of Umbelliferone and Lupeol Constituents of Banana (Musa sp. var. Nanjangud Rasa Bale) Flower in Hyperglycaemic Rodent Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ramith Ramu; Prithvi S Shirahatti; Nanjunda Swamy S; Farhan Zameer; Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya; Nagendra Prasad M N

    2016-01-01

    Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana flower is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. This study is based on an investigation of the in vivo antihyperglycaemic activity of Umbelliferone (C1) and Lupeol (C2) isolated from the ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) in alloxan induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2...

  7. Combined effects of pectic enzymes on the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectin polysaccharide is one of the major components of the primary cellular wall in the middle lamella of plant tissues. The degradation of pectin polysaccharide contributes to fruit softening. In this study, water-soluble pectin (WSP) and acid-soluble pectin (ASP) were isolated from pulp tissues of banana fruit at various ripening stages, and combinations of the enzymes such as polygalcturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME) and beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) were used to investigate the effect on the degradation of WSP and ASP. PG promoted the degradation of pectin polysaccharides, especially in ASP. An enhanced effect of the degradation of WSP and ASP from various ripening banana fruit was observed in the presence of PME. In addition, beta-Gal accelerated slightly the degradation of WSP and ASP in the presence of PG. Overall, PG, PME and beta-Gal can coordinate to promote the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit, resulting in fruit softening. (author)

  8. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-09-01

    Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed. PMID:27041291

  9. Identification of genes encoding granule-bound starch synthase involved in amylose metabolism in banana fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Miao

    Full Text Available Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4, MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage.

  10. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  11. Regularities in the E.coli promoters composition in connection with the DNA strands interaction and promoter activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEREZHNOY Andrey Yu; SHCKORBATOV Yuriy G.; HISANORI Kiryu

    2006-01-01

    The energy of interaction between DNA strands in promoters is of great functional importance. Visualization of the energy of DNA strands distribution in promoter sequences was achieved. The separation of promoters in groups by their energetic properties enables evaluation of the dependence of promoter strength on the energetic properties. The analysis of groups (clusters)of promoters distributed by the energy of DNA strands interaction in -55, -35, -10 and +6 sequences indicates their connection with the transcriptional activity.

  12. Internet as a Medium of Pharmaceutical Companies Promotional Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Darko Pantelic

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals market is highly regulated, and it can be stated that prescription (legal or ethical) drugs have a status of substances in controlled circulation. Promotional activities are also under strict legislation, further burdened with ethical consideration and public scrutiny. Internet as liberal and hard to control medium brings entirely new sets of solutions and/or problems to pharmaceuticals market(ers).

  13. Health Promotion Guidance Activity of Youth Sports Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Sami; Kannas, Lasse; Villberg, Jari; Ormshaw, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to clarify the extent to which youth sports clubs guide their coaches to recognise health promotion as a part of the coaching practice. The guidance activity of clubs is seen parallel to internal organisational communication. Design/methodology/approach: A survey of 93 (from 120, 78 per cent) youth sports clubs in Finland…

  14. How do general practitioners in Denmark promote physical activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tanja K; Nordentoft, Merete; Krogh, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify the frequency of advice given on type, frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise during physical activity (PA) promoting sessions by general practitioners. Second, to find GP characteristics associated with high quality of PA counselling....

  15. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  16. It Takes a Virtual Community: Promoting Collaboration through Student Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Ludmila; Forrey, Carol; Stevenson, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Distance education provides many nontraditional students with the opportunity to pursue a college education not possible through traditional brick and mortar education. Although not meeting face-to-face, student activities help promote a stronger connection between the classroom and university community. This paper will discuss strategies for…

  17. Promoting Educational Equity through School Libraries: Equity Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe.

    The activities suggested in this workbook for participants in a continuing education program for inservice school media specialists are designed to develop the trainee's skills in identifying instances of sexism and sex stereotyping in education, and in promoting sex fairness in the library. Exercises and tests on the first module are concerned…

  18. The Role of Values in Promoting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Maria; Buchanan, David R.; Hondzinski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of theory-based behavior-change programs to promote physical activity, obesity and diabetes rates continue to rise. Given the notable ineffective interventions, it is important to examine why these efforts have been largely unsuccessful and to consider potential alternatives. The purpose of this article is to consider the…

  19. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bananas from Hawaii. 318.13-22 Section 318.13-22... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-22 Bananas from Hawaii. (a) Green bananas (Musa spp.) of the... from Hawaii with certification in accordance with § 318.13-3 if the bananas meet the...

  20. Invariant distribution of promoter activities in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Alon Zaslaver; Shai Kaplan; Anat Bren; Adrian Jinich; Avi Mayo; Erez Dekel; Uri Alon; Shalev Itzkovitz

    2009-01-01

    Author Summary Cells respond to a changing environment by regulating the activity of genes. Here, we sought to understand how E. coli cells distribute their limited transcriptional resources among their target genes, and how this allocation varies with growth rate and growth conditions. To achieve this, we assayed the expression of a comprehensive library of transcriptional reporter strains under different conditions. High-temporal resolution measurements of promoter activities were obtained ...

  1. Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing expression with a reference gene: anomalies due to the influence of the test promoter on the reference promoter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simran Bhullar; Suma Chakravarthy; Deepak Pental; Pradeep Kumar Burma

    2009-12-01

    Variations in transgene expression due to position effect and copy number are normalized when analysing and comparing the strengths of different promoters. In such experiments, the promoter to be tested is placed upstream to a reporter gene and a second expression cassette is introduced in a linked fashion in the same transfer DNA (T-DNA). Normalization in the activity of the test promoter is carried out by calculating the ratio of activities of the test and reference promoters. When an appropriate number of independent transgenic events are analysed, normalization facilitates assessment of the relative strengths of the test promoters being compared. In this study, using different modified versions of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter expressing the reporter gene -glucuronidase (gus) (test cassette) linked to a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat) gene under the wild-type 35S promoter (reference cassette) in transgenic tobacco lines, we observed that cat gene expression varied depending upon the strength of the modified 35S promoter expressing the gus gene. The 35S promoter in the reference cassette was found to have been upregulated in cases where the modified 35S promoter was weaker than the wild-type 35S promoter. Many studies have been carried out in different organisms to study the phenomenon of transcriptional interference, which refers to the reduced expression of the downstream promoter by a closely linked upstream promoter. However, we observed a positive interaction wherein the weakened activity of a promoter led to upregulation of a contiguous promoter. These observations suggest that, in situations where the promoters of the test and reference gene share the same transcription factors, the activity of the test promoter can influence the activity of the reference promoter in a way that the test promoter’s strength is underestimated when normalized by the reference promoter.

  2. Technology to promote and increase physical activity in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Nina C

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is firmly recommended as part of a multifaceted approach to heart failure (HF) self-management. Unfortunately, research indicates that most patients are less likely to engage in and adhere to such activities. The widespread use of information and communication technology tools and resources offers an innovative and potentially beneficial avenue for increasing physical activity levels in HF patients. This article presents specific ways in which advances in information and communication technologies, including Internet- and mobile-based communications, social media platforms, and self-monitoring health devices, can serve as a means to broadly promote increasing levels of physical activity to improve health outcomes in the HF population.

  3. cis Determinants of Promoter Threshold and Activation Timescale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders S. Hansen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the relationship between DNA cis-regulatory sequences and gene expression has been extensively studied at steady state, how cis-regulatory sequences affect the dynamics of gene induction is not known. The dynamics of gene induction can be described by the promoter activation timescale (AcTime and amplitude threshold (AmpThr. Combining high-throughput microfluidics with quantitative time-lapse microscopy, we control the activation dynamics of the budding yeast transcription factor, Msn2, and reveal how cis-regulatory motifs in 20 promoter variants of the Msn2-target-gene SIP18 affect AcTime and AmpThr. By modulating Msn2 binding sites, we can decouple AmpThr from AcTime and switch the SIP18 promoter class from high AmpThr and slow AcTime to low AmpThr and either fast or slow AcTime. We present a model that quantitatively explains gene-induction dynamics on the basis of the Msn2-binding-site number, TATA box location, and promoter nucleosome organization. Overall, we elucidate the cis-regulatory logic underlying promoter decoding of TF dynamics.

  4. TALE factors poise promoters for activation by Hox proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Seong-Kyu; Ladam, Franck; Sagerström, Charles G

    2014-01-27

    Hox proteins form complexes with TALE cofactors from the Pbx and Prep/Meis families to control transcription, but it remains unclear how Hox:TALE complexes function. Examining a Hoxb1b:TALE complex that regulates zebrafish hoxb1a transcription, we find maternally deposited TALE proteins at the hoxb1a promoter already during blastula stages. These TALE factors recruit histone-modifying enzymes to promote an active chromatin profile at the hoxb1a promoter and also recruit RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and P-TEFb. However, in the presence of TALE factors, RNAPII remains phosphorylated on serine 5 and hoxb1a transcription is inefficient. By gastrula stages, Hoxb1b binds together with TALE factors to the hoxb1a promoter. This triggers P-TEFb-mediated transitioning of RNAPII to the serine 2-phosphorylated form and efficient hoxb1a transcription. We conclude that TALE factors access promoters during early embryogenesis to poise them for activation but that Hox proteins are required to trigger efficient transcription.

  5. Propionate induces the bovine cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Koser, Stephanie L; Donkin, Shawn S

    2016-08-01

    Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) is a critical enzyme within the metabolic networks for gluconeogenesis, hepatic energy metabolism, and tricarboxylic acid cycle function, and is controlled by several transcription factors including hepatic nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether propionate regulates bovine PCK1 transcription. The second objective was to determine the action of cyclic AMP (cAMP), glucocorticoids, and insulin, hormonal cues known to modulate glucose metabolism, on bovine PCK1 transcriptional activity. The proximal promoter of the bovine PCK1 gene was ligated to a Firefly luciferase reporter and transfected into H4IIE hepatoma cells. Cells were exposed to treatments for 23 h and luciferase activity was determined in cell lysates. Activity of the PCK1 promoter was linearly induced by propionate, and maximally increased 7-fold with 2.5 mM propionate, which was not muted by 100 nM insulin. Activity of the PCK1 promoter was increased 1-fold by either 1.0 mM cAMP or 5.0µM dexamethasone, and 2.2-fold by their combination. Induction by cAMP and dexamethasone was repressed 50% by 100 nM insulin. Propionate, cAMP, and dexamethasone acted synergistically to induce the PCK1 promoter activity. Propionate-responsive regions, identified by 5' deletion analysis, were located between -1,238 and -409 bp and between -85 and +221 bp. Deletions of the core sequences of the 2 putative HNF4α sites decreased the responsiveness to propionate by approximately 40%. These data indicate that propionate regulates its own metabolism through transcriptional stimulation of the bovine PCK1 gene. This induction is mediated, in part, by the 2 putative HNF4α binding sites in the bovine PCK1 promoter. PMID:27289145

  6. An upstream activation element exerting differential transcriptional activation on an archaeal promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Nan; Xia, Qiu; Chen, Zhengjun;

    2009-01-01

    (UAS) ara-box activated the basal promoter by recruiting transcription factor B to its BRE. While this UAS ensured a general expression from an inactive or weak basal promoter in the presence of other tested carbon resources, it exhibited a strong arabinose-responsive transcriptional activation. To our...

  7. Alterations in HIV-1 LTR promoter activity during AIDS progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV-1 variants evolving in AIDS patients frequently show increased replicative capacity compared to those present during early asymptomatic infection. It is known that late stage HIV-1 variants often show an expanded coreceptor tropism and altered Nef function. In the present study we investigated whether enhanced HIV-1 LTR promoter activity might also evolve during disease progression. Our results demonstrate increased LTR promoter activity after AIDS progression in 3 of 12 HIV-1-infected individuals studied. Further analysis revealed that multiple alterations in the U3 core-enhancer and in the transactivation-response (TAR) region seem to be responsible for the enhanced functional activity. Our findings show that in a subset of HIV-1-infected individuals enhanced LTR transcription contributes to the increased replicative potential of late stage virus isolates and might accelerate disease progression

  8. Bananas, a source of compounds with health properties

    OpenAIRE

    Parfait, Berthe; Aurore, Guylène

    2009-01-01

    Banana has an important place in human nutrition all over the world. It is interesting to analyse banana health preservation potentialities. The medicinal properties of banana are part of the folk medicine of all tropical countries. Bananas are used in special diets where ease of digestibility, low fat, minerals and vitamins are required. These special diets are used for babies, the elderly and patients with stomach problems, gout, and arthritis. Anti-ulcerogenic properties of banana are repo...

  9. Promotion as a Tool in Sustaining the Destination Marketing Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mulec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoting the tourism destination in the right and best possible way is today one of vital marketing activities of all Destination Management Organizations. Only successful promotion can entice and attract potential travelers to visit the destination. The number of new destinations is increasing every year and some of them are quite similar. Market segmentation is one of the starting points for devising marketing strategy. Only by presenting the destination to the right segment of potential clients in the right way will a destination maximize the effectiveness of its marketing and promotion. Tourism destination marketers will continue to face considerable challenges in the future: they will have to take account of the needs, wants and expectations of more mature and knowledgeable customers, and the corresponding need for more up-to-date and reliable information upon which to base decision-making. In the future only marketing which includes collaborative dimensions will meet its objectives fully.

  10. 植物根际促生菌对香蕉幼苗生长及抗枯萎病效应研究%Effects of Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria on Growth and Controlling Fusarium-wilt Disease of Banana Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文英; 彭智平; 杨少海; 于俊红; 黄继川; 吴雪娜; 杨林香

    2012-01-01

    通过盆栽试验,研究从香蕉根际土壤分离筛选的植物根际促生菌(PGPR)芽孢杆菌PAB-1、PAB-2菌株制剂对香蕉幼苗生长、养分吸收利用和香蕉枯萎病防治的效应研究。结果表明:试验处理56d后,施用植物根际促生菌菌剂的处理,株高、假茎围、地上部生物量、根长、根系生物量、总生物量、单株叶面积和叶绿素含量分别比对照增加18.5%~28.9%、17.0%~18.2%、16.8%~33.9%、41.5%~47.6%、65.5%~69.5%、24.8%~39.8%、24.0%~38.3%和30.0%~44.9%;施用PAB-2菌剂的处理,地上部氮、磷、钾、钙、镁养分吸收量分别比对照增加51.1%、46.1%、165.2%、7.4%和32.8%。接种香蕉枯萎病病原菌(FOC)的处理中,施用PGPR菌剂的香蕉叶片丙二醛含量显著低于只接种FOC4的,降低4.4%~10.6%;56d后香蕉枯萎病病情指数比只接种FOC4的降低12.5~31.3,防控效果达到18.8%~46.9%。施用PGPR菌剂能显著促进香蕉苗期植株生长,提高植株养分吸收,有效防控香蕉枯萎病发生。%Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR),which can promote the plant growth and yield,and inhibit plant pathogens,are microorganisms colonized in the plant rhizosphere.A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of PGPR on the growth of banana seedlings,absorption and utilization of nutrient and the suppression of the banana fusarium-wilt disease.The results showed that 56 days after treatments by PGPR,the differences of height,stem diameter,above-ground biomass,root length,root biomass,total biomass,leaf area per plant and leaf chlorophyll content of banana seedlings between treatment and control were remarkable increased by 18.5%-28.9%,17.0%-18.2%,16.8%-33.9%,41.5%-47.6%,65.5%-69.5%,24.8%-39.8%,24.0%-38.3%and 30.0%-44.9%,respectively.The absorptions of N,P2O5,K2O,CaO and MgO of seedlings treated by PAB-2 were higher than those of control,increased by 51.1%,46.1%,165.2%,7.4%,32.8%respectively

  11. Feynman motives of banana graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Aluffi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the infinite family of Feynman graphs known as the ``banana graphs'' and compute explicitly the classes of the corresponding graph hypersurfaces in the Grothendieck ring of varieties as well as their Chern--Schwartz--MacPherson classes, using the classical Cremona transformation and the dual graph, and a blowup formula for characteristic classes. We outline the interesting similarities between these operations and we give formulae for cones obtained by simple operations on graphs. We formulate a positivity conjecture for characteristic classes of graph hypersurfaces and discuss briefly the effect of passing to noncommutative spacetime.

  12. Gene activation regresses atherosclerosis, promotes health, and enhances longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoma Pauli V

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle factors and pharmacological compounds activate genetic mechanisms that influence the development of atherosclerotic and other diseases. This article reviews studies on natural and pharmacological gene activation that promotes health and enhances longevity. Results Living habits including healthy diet and regular physical activity, and pharmacotherapy, upregulate genes encoding enzymes and apolipoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporters, acting in metabolic processes that promote health and increase survival. Cytochrome P450-enzymes, physiological factors in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis, generate oxysterols for the elimination of surplus cholesterol. Hepatic CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase-α is an important regulator of plasma HDL-C level. Gene-activators produce plasma lipoprotein profile, high HDL-C, HDL2-C and HDL-C/cholesterol ratio, which is typical of low risk of atherosclerotic disease, and also of exceptional longevity together with reduced prevalence of cardiovascular, metabolic and other diseases. High HDL contributes to protection against inflammation, oxidation and thrombosis, and associates with good cognitive function in very old people. Avoiding unhealthy stress and managing it properly promotes health and increases life expectancy. Conclusions Healthy living habits and gene-activating xenobiotics upregulate mechanisms that produce lipoprotein pattern typical of very old people and enhance longevity. Lipoprotein metabolism and large HDL2 associate with the process of living a very long life. Major future goals for health promotion are the improving of commitment to both wise lifestyle choices and drug therapy, and further the developing of new and more effective and well tolerated drugs and treatments.

  13. Economic Analysis of Tissue-cultured Banana and Sucker-propagated Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Alagumani, T.

    2005-01-01

    An economic analysis of tissue-cultured banana (TCB) and sucker-propagated banana (SPB) has been presented through studying their costs and returns. The factors influencing the costs of their production have been identified and resource-use efficiency has been studied. The risks in cultivation of tissue-cultured banana have been highlighted. The study has been conducted in the Theni district of Tamil Nadu using personal interview method. Probit model has been employed to find out the factor i...

  14. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production.

  15. Libraries of Synthetic TALE-Activated Promoters: Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, T; Tissier, A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of proteins with programmable DNA-binding specificities triggered a whole array of applications in synthetic biology, including genome editing, regulation of transcription, and epigenetic modifications. Among those, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) due to their natural function as transcription regulators, are especially well-suited for the development of orthogonal systems for the control of gene expression. We describe here the construction and testing of libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters which are under the control of a single TALE with a given DNA-binding specificity. These libraries consist of a fixed DNA-binding element for the TALE, a TATA box, and variable sequences of 19 bases upstream and 43 bases downstream of the DNA-binding element. These libraries were cloned using a Golden Gate cloning strategy making them usable as standard parts in a modular cloning system. The broad range of promoter activities detected and the versatility of these promoter libraries make them valuable tools for applications in the fine-tuning of expression in metabolic engineering projects or in the design and implementation of regulatory circuits. PMID:27480693

  16. Libraries of Synthetic TALE-Activated Promoters: Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, T; Tissier, A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of proteins with programmable DNA-binding specificities triggered a whole array of applications in synthetic biology, including genome editing, regulation of transcription, and epigenetic modifications. Among those, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) due to their natural function as transcription regulators, are especially well-suited for the development of orthogonal systems for the control of gene expression. We describe here the construction and testing of libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters which are under the control of a single TALE with a given DNA-binding specificity. These libraries consist of a fixed DNA-binding element for the TALE, a TATA box, and variable sequences of 19 bases upstream and 43 bases downstream of the DNA-binding element. These libraries were cloned using a Golden Gate cloning strategy making them usable as standard parts in a modular cloning system. The broad range of promoter activities detected and the versatility of these promoter libraries make them valuable tools for applications in the fine-tuning of expression in metabolic engineering projects or in the design and implementation of regulatory circuits.

  17. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling.

  18. The Banana Industry, the Agricultural Sector and The Dominican Economy: Impacts of the Banana War

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Emaline; Pemberton, Carlisle; De Sormeaux, Afiya

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the banana dispute between the European Union (EU) and Latin American banana producers and the US on the supply of bananas from Dominica. It also looks at the future of the banana industry in light of the resolution of the dispute and the possibilities of the Fairtrade market. This examination is done through the analysis of the trends in supply, exports, prices and the contribution of the industry to the economy since the 1980s. The impact was further assess...

  19. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  20. Marketing de banana: preferências do consumidor quanto aos atributos de qualidade dos frutos Marketing of banana: consumer preferences relating to fruit quality attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Akira Urbano Matsuura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil produz aproximadamente seis milhões de toneladas por ano de banana (Musa spp., com consumo médio da ordem de 35 kg/ habitante / ano. A aceitação da banana deve-se, principalmente, a seus aspectos sensoriais, valor nutricional e conveniência. A identificação das necessidades e desejos dos clientes consiste em uma atividade crítica do marketing. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de pesquisar as preferências do consumidor de um mercado local (município de Cruz das Almas - Estado da Bahia considerando os atributos de qualidade dos frutos frescos de banana madura. A metodologia utilizada foi a da pesquisa descritiva por método estatístico. Os dados foram coletados por questionário, na forma de entrevista pessoal com 400 pessoas. Os atributos de qualidade (variáveis questionados e avaliados foram relacionados com a aparência, cor, textura, aroma, sabor e vida útil esperada dos frutos de banana. De acordo com a preferência dos consumidores entrevistados, o fruto de banana maduro ideal deve apresentar características como: penca contendo 10 a 12 dedos (frutos, dedos de tamanho médio ou grande, diâmetro médio, quina presente, ausência de pintas pretas na casca, cor da polpa amarelo-clara ou média, textura firme, aroma e sabor de intensidade média, mediamente doce e vida útil de 7 a 10 dias em condição ambiente. O sabor, vida útil e aparência dos frutos de banana são considerados os mais importantes atributos na escolha ou compra da banana, segundo os consumidores entrevistados.Brazil has an approximate production of six million annual tons of banana (Musa spp., with a consumption close to 35 kg / inhabitant / year. The acceptance of the banana fruit is due, mainly, to its sensorial aspects, nutritional value and convenience. The identification of the customers' needs and desires consists of a critical activity of the marketing. The objective of this work was to research the consumer preferences of a local market (Cruz

  1. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Futeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibility for the accumulation of garbage or waste banana peels , especially in the West Sumatra city of Padang and sekitarnya.Salah one solution that can be done is to harness and cultivate the banana peel waste into a material more useful for example in the manufacture of foodstuffs.Banana peel flour with all the treatments can produce flour banana peel . However, the manufacture of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour of soaking to get the best flour . Having obtained done banana peel flour donut -making flour substitute banana peel . The use of banana peel flour with different concentrations turned out to affect the organoleptic properties of the donut . Of hedonic organoleptic test , the results of the average value of the ratio between wheat flour with flour banana skin that gives the best results for color , aroma , and flavor that is a donut with banana peel flour ratio of 0 % to 100 % wheat flour and donuts with banana peel flour ratio 10 % with 90 % wheat flour , but the texture will be best results are donuts of banana peels can be made by substituting wheat flour with flour banana skin at 10 %. Carbohydrate content of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour soaking of 16.60 grams.

  2. Isolation and characterization of active promoters from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 using a promoter-trapping plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Stefan; Pessoa, Cristiane Alves; de Lima Bergami, Amanda Aparecida; de Azevedo Figueiredo, Nathália Lima; Dos Santos Teixeira, Kátia Regina; Baldani, José Ivo

    2016-07-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing, endophytic bacterium that has the potential to promote plant growth and increase yield. Genetically modified strains might get more benefits to host plants, including through expression of useful proteins, such as Cry toxins from B. thuringiensis, or enzymes involved in phytohormone production, proteins with antagonistic activity for phytopathogens, or that improve nutrient utilization by the plant. For that, expression systems for G. diazotrophicus are needed, which requires active promoters fused to foreign (or innate) genes. This article describes the construction of a G. diazotrophicus PAL5 promoter library using a promoter-less lacZ-bearing vector, and the identification of six active promoters through β-galactosidase activity assays, sequencing and localization in the bacterial genome. The characterized promoters, which are located on distinct regions of the bacterial genome and encoding either sense or antisense transcripts, present variable expression strengths and might be used in the future for expressing useful proteins. PMID:26914247

  3. PARP activation promotes nuclear AID accumulation in lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Sandra; Jeschke, Julia; Böttcher, Katrin; Schmidt, Angelika; Davari, Kathrin; Müller, Peter; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Hemmerich, Peter; Pfeil, Ines; Jungnickel, Berit

    2016-03-15

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates immunoglobulin diversification in germinal center B cells by targeted introduction of DNA damage. As aberrant nuclear AID action contributes to the generation of B cell lymphoma, the protein's activity is tightly regulated, e.g. by nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling and nuclear degradation. In the present study, we asked whether DNA damage may affect regulation of the AID protein. We show that exogenous DNA damage that mainly activates base excision repair leads to prevention of proteasomal degradation of AID and hence its nuclear accumulation. Inhibitor as well as knockout studies indicate that activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) by DNA damaging agents promotes both phenomena. These findings suggest that PARP inhibitors influence DNA damage dependent AID regulation, with interesting implications for the regulation of AID function and chemotherapy of lymphoma.

  4. Hypothermia activates adipose tissue to promote malignant lung cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangjun Du

    Full Text Available Microenvironment has been increasingly recognized as a critical regulator of cancer progression. In this study, we identified early changes in the microenvironment that contribute to malignant progression. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B to methylnitrosourea (MNU caused a reduction in cell toxicity and an increase in clonogenic capacity when the temperature was lowered from 37°C to 28°C. Hypothermia-incubated adipocyte media promoted proliferation in A549 cells. Although a hypothermic environment could increase urethane-induced tumor counts and Lewis lung cancer (LLC metastasis in lungs of three breeds of mice, an increase in tumor size could be discerned only in obese mice housed in hypothermia. Similarly, coinjections using differentiated adipocytes and A549 cells promoted tumor development in athymic nude mice when adipocytes were cultured at 28°C. Conversely, fat removal suppressed tumor growth in obese C57BL/6 mice inoculated with LLC cells. Further studies show hypothermia promotes a MNU-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and protects the tumor cell against immune control by TGF-β1 upregulation. We also found that activated adipocytes trigger tumor cell proliferation by increasing either TNF-α or VEGF levels. These results suggest that hypothermia activates adipocytes to stimulate tumor boost and play critical determinant roles in malignant progression.

  5. Space Curvature and the "Heavy Banana 'Paradox.'"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Ronald P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Two ways to visually enhance the concept of space curvature are described. Viewing space curvature as a meterstick contraction and the heavy banana "paradox" are discussed. The meterstick contraction is mathematically explained. (KR)

  6. Presentation and exhibition activities for promoting theexportof transport services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Vladimirovna Nesterova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of presentation and exhibition activities is considered as an important factor in providing new competitive advantages at the strategic markets for exporting of transportation services. A specific role for exhibition activities as a factor to overcome market failures arose from imperfect information and incomplete markets is displayed. Exhibitions are considered as a true reflection of most market parameters, as a means to get correct information concerning market capacity and its borders, as an instrument to access to new markets. At the firm level presentation and branding activities should be considered as a modern technology (especially it concerns Russian companies which provide to hold up already existed markets and to conquer new ones. Presentation and branding activities are an effective technology to promote company trade-mark, competitive advantages for market demand increasing. Comparative analysis of the main exhibitions on transport and logistics issues is fulfilled on the data basecollected by authors. Data observes geographical distribution of transport exhibition and exhibition facilities development at several regions for the last years. The analyses allow to revealing a geographical structure of the exhibitions and its distribution by type of transport. The most promising and economically favorable exhibition areas for the promotion of Russian transport services are shown.

  7. Evaluation of hair growth promoting activity of Phyllanthus niruri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Patel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the potential Phyllanthus niruri extracts in promotion of hair growth. Materials and Methods: Here, we studied the hair growth promoting activity of petroleum ether extract of P. niruri following its topical administration. Alopecia was induced in albino rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone for 21 days. Evaluation of hair loss inhibition was done by concurrent administration of extract and monitoring parameters like follicular density,  anagen/telogen (A/T ratio and histological observation of animal skin sections. Finasteride solution was applied topically as standard. In vitro experiments were also performed to study the effect of extract on the activity of 5α-reductase enzyme Results: Groups treated with petroleum ether extract of plant showed hair re-growth as reflected by follicular density, A/T ratio and skin sections. Histopathology and morphologic observations of hair re-growth at shaved sites showed active follicular proliferation. In vitro experiments results showed inhibitory activity of petroleum  ether extract on type-2 5α-reductase enzyme and an increase in the amount of testosterone with increasing concentrations.  Conclusion: It could be concluded that petroleum ether extracts of P. niruri might be useful in the treatment of testosterone-induced alopecia in the experimental animal by inhibiting 5α-reductase enzyme.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a glucose/mannose-specific lectin with stimulatory effect on nitric oxide production by macrophages from the emperor banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, T B

    2006-02-01

    Emperor banana (Musa basjoo cv. 'Emperor Banana') is a banana cultivar that has not been studied previously. In this study, a glucose/mannose-specific lectin has been purified from the emperor banana by affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Mono S and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. This lectin was composed of two identical 15-kDa subunits with N-terminal amino acid sequence similarity to other lectins from other Musa species. Emperor banana lectin stimulated [3H-methyl]-thymidine uptake by mouse splenocytes and nitric oxide production by mouse macrophages. In contrast to Con A, the mitogenic activity of emperor banana lectin toward mouse splenocytes but not its stimulatory effect on nitric oxide production by mouse macrophages could be abrogated by 200 mM glucose. Emperor banana lectin also inhibited proliferation of leukemia cell (L1210) and the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. In summary, this is the first report of the macrophage-stimulating, antiproliferative and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibiting activities of a banana lectin.

  9. Nuclear factor Y regulates ancient budgerigar hepadnavirus core promoter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhongliang; Liu, Yanfeng; Luo, Mengjun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jing; Liu, Wei; Pan, Shaokun; Xie, Youhua

    2016-09-16

    Endogenous viral elements (EVE) in animal genomes are the fossil records of ancient viruses and provide invaluable information on the origin and evolution of extant viruses. Extant hepadnaviruses include avihepadnaviruses of birds and orthohepadnaviruses of mammals. The core promoter (Cp) of hepadnaviruses is vital for viral gene expression and replication. We previously identified in the budgerigar genome two EVEs that contain the full-length genome of an ancient budgerigar hepadnavirus (eBHBV1 and eBHBV2). Here, we found eBHBV1 Cp and eBHBV2 Cp were active in several human and chicken cell lines. A region from nt -85 to -11 in eBHBV1 Cp was critical for the promoter activity. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a putative binding site of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), a ubiquitous transcription factor, at nt -64 to -50 in eBHBV1 Cp. The NF-Y core binding site (ATTGG, nt -58 to -54) was essential for eBHBV1 Cp activity. The same results were obtained with eBHBV2 Cp and duck hepatitis B virus Cp. The subunit A of NF-Y (NF-YA) was recruited via the NF-Y core binding site to eBHBV1 Cp and upregulated the promoter activity. Finally, the NF-Y core binding site is conserved in the Cps of all the extant avihepadnaviruses but not of orthohepadnaviruses. Interestingly, a putative and functionally important NF-Y core binding site is located at nt -21 to -17 in the Cp of human hepatitis B virus. In conclusion, our findings have pinpointed an evolutionary conserved and functionally critical NF-Y binding element in the Cps of avihepadnaviruses.

  10. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  11. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    OpenAIRE

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS; FABRÍCIA QUEIROZ MENDES; MARIANA CRIVELARI DA CUNHA; MARIANA TEIXEIRA PIGOZZI; ANDRÉ MUNDSTOCK XAVIER DE CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L.) stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v) and a control (without coating). Propolis extracts were applied as 1) a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2) a wild type hydroalcoholic ...

  12. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  13. Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed.

  14. Glycine Receptor α2 Subunit Activation Promotes Cortical Interneuron Migration

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    Ariel Avila

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycine receptors (GlyRs are detected in the developing CNS before synaptogenesis, but their function remains elusive. This study demonstrates that functional GlyRs are expressed by embryonic cortical interneurons in vivo. Furthermore, genetic disruption of these receptors leads to interneuron migration defects. We discovered that extrasynaptic activation of GlyRs containing the α2 subunit in cortical interneurons by endogenous glycine activates voltage-gated calcium channels and promotes calcium influx, which further modulates actomyosin contractility to fine-tune nuclear translocation during migration. Taken together, our data highlight the molecular events triggered by GlyR α2 activation that control cortical tangential migration during embryogenesis.

  15. In vivo fertilization of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup, the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup some ovules were fertilized. The flowers of Grand Naine, Nanicão and 'Pacovan' cultivars presented necrosis in the distal part of the ovary on the first day after pollination. Necrosis can hinder pollen tube growth towards the ovule, which might be related to the low seed yield in 'Pacovan' cultivars and to the absence of seeds in the Cavendish subgroup cultivars.

  16. Human mediator subunit MED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsubo, Takuya; Nishitani, Saori; Kikuchi, Yuko; Iida, Satoshi; Yamada, Kana; Tanaka, Aki; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-01

    In eukaryotes, the Mediator complex is an essential transcriptional cofactor of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). In humans, it contains up to 30 subunits and consists of four modules: head, middle, tail, and CDK/Cyclin. One of the subunits, MED15, is located in the tail module, and was initially identified as Gal11 in budding yeast, where it plays an essential role in the transcriptional regulation of galactose metabolism with the potent transcriptional activator Gal4. For this reason, we investigated the function of the human MED15 subunit (hMED15) in transcriptional activation. First, we measured the effect of hMED15 knockdown on cell growth in HeLa cells. The growth rate was greatly reduced. By immunostaining, we observed the colocalization of hMED15 with the general transcription factors TFIIE and TFIIH in the nucleus. We measured the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown of hMED15 on transcriptional activation using two different transcriptional activators, VP16 and SREBP1a. Treatment with siRNAs reduced transcriptional activation, and this reduction could be rescued by overexpression of HA/Flag-tagged, wild-type hMED15. To investigate hMED15 localization, we treated human MCF-7 cells with the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3, thus inducing p21 transcription. We found that hMED15 localized to both the p53 binding site and the p21 promoter region, along with TFIIE and TFIIH. These results indicate that hMED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

  17. 温度对采后香蕉果实糖代谢及其酶活性的影响%Effect of Temperature on Sugar Metabolism and Enzyme Activities in Postharvest Ripening Banana Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁扬静; 胡玉林; 谢江辉

    2011-01-01

    以香蕉为试材,研究采后不同温度(20、4℃)贮藏对果实的呼吸作用、糖代谢及其相关酶活性变化的影响.结果表明:20℃贮藏早期(0~8 d),果实呼吸作用平缓上升,SPS,NI和AI酶活性较低,蔗糖、果糖和葡萄糖含量较少;随着果实进入快速软化阶段(8~13 d),3种酶活性与蔗糖含量分别在第13天和第12天达到峰值,然后急剧下降,变化趋势类似于CO2释放量.而果糖和葡萄糖含量在20℃贮藏过程中持续上升,SS活性无明显变化.相比之下,4℃贮藏可明显抑制果实的呼吸作用,CO2含量先降低后缓慢增加,SPS、NI和AI酶活性和搪含量上升缓慢,SS活性下降.由此,低温贮藏可明显抑制香蕉体内碳素代谢,降低代谢酶活性和糖分积累速度,有利于提高果实品质,延缓贮藏时间.%The effect of different temperatures (20 and 4 ℃ )on respiration characteristic, sugar content and sugarmetabolizing enzyme activities from banana fruits was studied during storage. In the early 0~8 d, fruit respiration gradually increased. Moreover, there were all low in the activities of invertase (Al), neutral invertase (NI), sucrose synthase(SS), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and the contents of sucrose, fructose and glucose. The peak values of the three enzymes and the sucrose content were in the 13th and 12th during softening stage 8~13 d, respectively, and then rapidly decreased. This tendency was consistent with the change of CO2. However, the fructose and glucose increased slowly, and SS activity did not change significantly during the total process of postharvest. In 4 ℃ storage, CO2 respiration was inhibited, first decreased and then increased slowly. The activities of SPS, NI, and Al and the content of sugar gradually went up. But SS activity declined during the fruit storage. So low temperature storage in vitro can significantly inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrate the banana, reduce the activity of the enzymes and the

  18. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment ovipositio

  19. Cationic Nanocylinders Promote Angiogenic Activities of Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Bok Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have been used extensively taking forms as scaffolds, patterned surface and nanoparticle for regenerative medicine applications. Angiogenesis is an essential process for successful tissue regeneration, and endothelial cell–cell interaction plays a pivotal role in regulating their tight junction formation, a hallmark of angiogenesis. Though continuous progress has been made, strategies to promote angiogenesis still rely on small molecule delivery or nuanced scaffold fabrication. As such, the recent paradigm shift from top-down to bottom-up approaches in tissue engineering necessitates development of polymer-based modular engineering tools to control angiogenesis. Here, we developed cationic nanocylinders (NCs as inducers of cell–cell interaction and investigated their effect on angiogenic activities of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs in vitro. Electrospun poly (l-lactic acid (PLLA fibers were aminolyzed to generate positively charged NCs. The aninolyzation time was changed to produce two different aspect ratios of NCs. When HUVECs were treated with NCs, the electrostatic interaction of cationic NCs with negatively charged plasma membranes promoted migration, permeability and tubulogenesis of HUVECs compared to no treatment. This effect was more profound when the higher aspect ratio NC was used. The results indicate these NCs can be used as a new tool for the bottom-up approach to promote angiogenesis.

  20. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide promotes profibrotic activation of intestinal fibroblasts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, J P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts play a critical role in intestinal wound healing. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a cell wall component of commensal gut bacteria. The effects of LPS on intestinal fibroblast activation were characterized. METHODS: Expression of the LPS receptor, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, was assessed in cultured primary human intestinal fibroblasts using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Fibroblasts were treated with LPS and\\/or transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1. Nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) pathway activation was assessed by inhibitory kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) degradation and NFkappaB promoter activity. Fibroblast contractility was measured using a fibroblast-populated collagen lattice. Smad-7, a negative regulator of TGF-beta1 signalling, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression were assessed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The NFkappaB pathway was inhibited by IkappaBalpha transfection. RESULTS: TLR-4 was present on the surface of intestinal fibroblasts. LPS treatment of fibroblasts induced IkappaBalpha degradation, enhanced NFkappaB promoter activity and increased collagen contraction. Pretreatment with LPS (before TGF-beta1) significantly increased CTGF production relative to treatment with TGF-beta1 alone. LPS reduced whereas TGF-beta1 increased smad-7 expression. Transfection with an IkappaBalpha plasmid enhanced basal smad-7 expression. CONCLUSION: Intestinal fibroblasts express TLR-4 and respond to LPS by activating NFkappaB and inducing collagen contraction. LPS acts in concert with TGF-beta1 to induce CTGF. LPS reduces the expression of the TGF-beta1 inhibitor, smad-7.

  1. Women with metabolic syndrome improve antrophometric and biochemical parameters with green banana flour consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of green banana flour (GBF may promote health benefits, such as, decreased appetite, weight loss, glycemic control, intestinal function and lipid profile improvement, aging delay, cancer and heart disease prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green banana flour consumption on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in overweight women. Methods: The glycemic index of flour in the study was determined. The effects of consumption of 20 g of green banana flour/day on weight, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, waist and hip circumference, body composition, hemoglobin, lipid profile, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, liver function and energy intake were evaluated in 25 overweight women for 45 days. Results: The glycemic index of the flour under study was classified as low. Reduction (p < 0.05 in systolic blood pressure, hip circumference and fasting glucose levels were found in women who had metabolic syndrome criteria. Conclusions: Consumption of green banana flour (20 g/day for 45 days did not promote weight loss or changes in body composition in overweight women. It was noted, however, decreased hip circumference. Significant health parameter improvements were also noted in individuals with metabolic syndrome, which showed a reduction in systolic blood pressure and fasting glucose.

  2. Active Fantasy Sports: Rationale and Feasibility of Leveraging Online Fantasy Sports to Promote Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Sara; Standish, Melanie; Agarwal, Pooja; Podowski, Aleksandra; Carson, Rebecca; Eyesus, Biruk; Shah, Aakash; Schneider, Kristin L

    2014-01-01

    Background The popularity of active video games (AVGs) has skyrocketed over the last decade. However, research suggests that the most popular AVGs, which rely on synchronous integration between players’ activity and game features, fail to promote physical activity outside of the game or for extended periods of engagement. This limitation has led researchers to consider AVGs that involve asynchronous integration of players’ ongoing physical activity with game features. Rather than build an AVG de novo, we selected an established sedentary video game uniquely well suited for the incorporation of asynchronous activity: online fantasy sports. Objective The primary aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of a new asynchronous AVG—active fantasy sports—designed to promote physical activity. Methods We conducted two pilot studies of an active fantasy sports game designed to promote physical activity. Participants wore a low cost triaxial accelerometer and participated in an online fantasy baseball (Study 1, n=9, 13-weeks) or fantasy basketball (Study 2, n=10, 17-weeks) league. Privileges within the game were made contingent on meeting weekly physical activity goals (eg, averaging 10,000 steps/day). Results Across the two studies, the feasibility of integrating physical activity contingent features and privileges into online fantasy sports games was supported. Participants found the active fantasy sports game enjoyable, as or more enjoyable than traditional (sedentary) online fantasy sports (Study 1: t 8=4.43, P<.01; Study 2: t 9=2.09, P=.07). Participants in Study 1 increased their average steps/day, t 8=2.63, P<.05, while participants in Study 2 maintained (ie, did not change) their activity, t 9=1.57, P=.15). In postassessment interviews, social support within the game was cited as a key motivating factor for increasing physical activity. Conclusions Preliminary evidence supports potential for the active fantasy sports system as a sustainable and

  3. EVALUATION OF GASTRIC ANTIULCEROGENIC ACTION OF PLANTAIN BANANA ( MUSA SAPIENTUM VAR. PARADISIACA IN ASPIRIN PLUS PYLORUS LIGATED ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Tandel* and B.K. Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effect of unripe dried banana powder in experimentally induced gastric ulcers and effect on gastric acid secretion. To evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect of plantain banana of Gujarat as a part of evaluation of impact of biological variables on this activity. Materials and methods: Total of 24 albino rats of either sex weighing between 150-250 gm were randomly divided into 4 groups. Each group has 6 no. of rats. The first group received placebo (distilled water, the second, third & forth group received 0.5gm/kg, 1gm/kg and 2mg/kg of banana powder respectively. Banana powder was given as suspension at fixed time (3 times in a day for two days and animals were kept for fasting for another 48hrs. On 5th day, the animals were sacrificed after 7 hrs and stomach were removed for examination and gastric juice samples were collected to analyze volume and acidity.Results: Orally administered banana powder in the dose of 2gm/kg caused a statistically significant decrease in aspirin with pyloric ligation induced ulcers in rats without significantly decrease in secretary activity.Conclusion: It can be concluded from these results that vegetable plantain banana has antiulcerogenic and mucosal protective actions, but it has no antisecretory activity.

  4. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagiovanna Caprara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants’ satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.

  5. Predicting the Benefits of Banana Bunchy Top Virus Exclusion from Commercial Plantations in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David C.; Liu, Shuang; Edwards, Jacqueline; Villalta, Oscar N.; Aurambout, Jean-Philippe; Kriticos, Darren J.; Drenth, Andre; De Barro, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Benefit cost analysis is a tried and tested analytical framework that can clearly communicate likely net changes in producer welfare from investment decisions to diverse stakeholder audiences. However, in a plant biosecurity context, it is often difficult to predict policy benefits over time due to complex biophysical interactions between invasive species, their hosts, and the environment. In this paper, we demonstrate how a break-even style benefit cost analysis remains highly relevant to biosecurity decision-makers using the example of banana bunchy top virus, a plant pathogen targeted for eradication from banana growing regions of Australia. We develop an analytical approach using a stratified diffusion spread model to simulate the likely benefits of exclusion of this virus from commercial banana plantations over time relative to a nil management scenario in which no surveillance or containment activities take place. Using Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of possible future incursion scenarios, we predict the exclusion benefits of the disease will avoid Aus$15.9-27.0 million in annual losses for the banana industry. For these exclusion benefits to be reduced to zero would require a bunchy top re-establishment event in commercial banana plantations three years in every four. Sensitivity analysis indicates that exclusion benefits can be greatly enhanced through improvements in disease surveillance and incursion response. PMID:22879960

  6. Phenalenone-type phytoalexins mediate resistance of banana plants (Musa spp.) to the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthagunthalam; Alexandrov, Theodore; Becker, Michael; Bretschneider, Tom; Buerkert, Andreas; Crecelius, Anna C; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie; Heckel, David G; Heklau, Heike; Hertweck, Christian; Kai, Marco; Knop, Katrin; Krafft, Christoph; Maddula, Ravi K; Matthäus, Christian; Popp, Jürgen; Schneider, Bernd; Schubert, Ulrich S; Sikora, Richard A; Svatoš, Aleš; Swennen, Rony L

    2014-01-01

    The global yield of bananas-one of the most important food crops-is severely hampered by parasites, such as nematodes, which cause yield losses up to 75%. Plant-nematode interactions of two banana cultivars differing in susceptibility to Radopholus similis were investigated by combining the conventional and spatially resolved analytical techniques (1)H NMR spectroscopy, matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging, and Raman microspectroscopy. This innovative combination of analytical techniques was applied to isolate, identify, and locate the banana-specific type of phytoalexins, phenylphenalenones, in the R. similis-caused lesions of the plants. The striking antinematode activity of the phenylphenalenone anigorufone, its ingestion by the nematode, and its subsequent localization in lipid droplets within the nematode is reported. The importance of varying local concentrations of these specialized metabolites in infected plant tissues, their involvement in the plant's defense system, and derived strategies for improving banana resistance are highlighted.

  7. Molecular mechanism by which AMP-activated protein kinase activation promotes glycogen accumulation in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, Roger W; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE During energy stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) promotes glucose transport and glycolysis for ATP production, while it is thought to inhibit anabolic glycogen synthesis by suppressing the activity of glycogen synthase (GS) to maintain the energy balance in muscle. Paradoxicall...... and subsequent rise in cellular [G6P]....

  8. Physical activity and health promotion in Italian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Anna Teleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Physical activity, diet plans, the mantainment of a certain Body Mass Index (BMI and the use of various types of supplementation are common elements in the search for disease prevention, health promotion and well-being. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the data regarding Italian university students' BMI, dieting behaviour, personal body perception, exercise habits, and use of dietary supplements and of doping substances. RESULTS: 13.7% resulted being underweight, 75.1% was in the normal range, 9.8% was overweight, and 1.4% was obese. 11.0% were on a diet. 25.8% of the students reported never doing any type of physical activity. 0.9% admitted consuming doping substances. The percentage of overweight/obese students increases from 8.8% of the 18-21 year olds to 18.1% of the 25-30 year olds. Similarly, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 18.5% among male population and 7.5% among the female one. DISCUSSION: The data deriving from this questionnaire showed that while the majority of university students has a BMI in the normal range, 11.2% of the study population is overweight/obese. Males present a higher risk of being overweight or obese. An important part of the population showed to be sedentary even though data coming from our study are aligned to further evidence. CONCLUSION: The most important concern arising from the questionnaire is represented by physical inactivity. Indeed, it is necessary to encourage and plan initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity in university students.

  9. Promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity in overweight minority girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Graham, Marilynn; McLeod, Jessica; Kellam, Stephanie F; Butte, Nancy F

    2010-01-01

    There is limited research on the types of activities that are most effective for promoting MVPA in children. Purpose. To assess which types of activities elicit MVPA in overweight minority girls. Methods. Sample consisted of 31 overweight (BMI >/= 85th percentile) Latina and African-American girls (mean age 10.3 +/- 1.2 years). Participants wore an Actical accelerometer each day for 8 hours for 15 days to assess engagement in MVPA during their participation in a three-week activity intervention that included traditional fitness, sport skills, games, dancing, and flexibility sessions. Results. On average 62% of participants met the MVPA recommended guidelines (60 min/5d/wk) with an average of 68.5 +/- 14 minutes of MVPA across the three weeks. Traditional fitness sessions elicited the highest percent of MVPA (mean time spent in MVPA = 32%), followed by dancing and games (mean time spent in MVPA = 21%), sports skills (mean time spent in MVPA = 18%), and flexibility (mean time spent in MVPA = 7%). Step aerobics and rumba fitness elicited the highest proportions of MVPA. Conclusion. Traditional fitness activities were identified as the most successful in eliciting MVPA in overweight Latina and African American girls.

  10. Promoting Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity in Overweight Minority Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Olvera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited research on the types of activities that are most effective for promoting MVPA in children. Purpose. To assess which types of activities elicit MVPA in overweight minority girls. Methods. Sample consisted of 31 overweight (BMI≥85th percentile Latina and African-American girls (mean age 10.3±1.2 years. Participants wore an Actical accelerometer each day for 8 hours for 15 days to assess engagement in MVPA during their participation in a three-week activity intervention that included traditional fitness, sport skills, games, dancing, and flexibility sessions. Results. On average 62% of participants met the MVPA recommended guidelines (60 min/5d/wk with an average of 68.5±14 minutes of MVPA across the three weeks. Traditional fitness sessions elicited the highest percent of MVPA (mean time spent in MVPA=32%, followed by dancing and games (mean time spent in MVPA=21%, sports skills (mean time spent in MVPA=18%, and flexibility (mean time spent in MVPA=7%. Step aerobics and rumba fitness elicited the highest proportions of MVPA. Conclusion. Traditional fitness activities were identified as the most successful in eliciting MVPA in overweight Latina and African American girls.

  11. I Have a Banana Tree in My Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    When the banana is growing, the broadest part of the banana is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the banana tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…

  12. Antibacterial Activity and Preservative Effect of Flavonoids from Banana Peels alone and Their Blends with Propionic Acid or Tea Polyphenols%香蕉果皮黄酮及与丙酸、茶多酚复配剂的抑菌防腐作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖建平; 顾采琴; 朱冬雪; 梁风; 刘燕飞; 罗军

    2012-01-01

    从香蕉果皮中提取的黄酮分别与丙酸、茶多酚复配得到不同复配剂,通过测定抑菌圈大小和最小抑菌质量浓度(MIC),研究不同复配剂对食品中常见污染菌和致病菌的抑菌活性,并对具有协同增效作用的复配剂在部分食品上的防腐保鲜效果进行探讨。结果表明:香蕉皮黄酮.丙酸(体积比1:0.25)对白假丝酵母的抑菌圈直径是香蕉果皮黄酮的7.2倍,也优于苯甲酸钠,表现出明显的协同增效作用,其MIC为41.7mg/mL;香蕉皮黄酮一丙酸(体积比1:1)对黄曲霉的抑制也有协同增效作用,其MIC为10.4mg/mL;香蕉皮黄酮一茶多酚(体积比1:1)对枯草芽孢杆菌的抑菌作用均好于茶多酚,也好于苯甲酸钠,表现出较好的协同增效作用,其MIC为7.8mg/mL。以上3种复配剂分别用于菠萝汁饮料、面包和新鲜猪肉的贮藏保鲜均表现出良好的防腐保鲜效果,并优于相同质量浓度的苯甲酸钠和丙酸钙。%The antibacterial activities of flavonoids extracted from banana peels alone and their blends with propionic acid or tea polyphenols against common pollutant and pathogenic bacteria in foods were tested based on inhibition circle size and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Meanwhile, the preservative effect of synergistic blends on selected foods was explored. The results showed that the inhibition circle diameter of the 1:0.25 (V/V, similarly hereinafter) banana peel flavonoids- propionic acid blend against Candida albicans, presenting a 41.7 mg/mL MIC, was 7.2-fold higher than that of banana peel flavonoids alone, and also superior to sodium benzoate, suggesting a marked synergistic effect between banana peel flavonoids and propionic acid. The 1:1 banana peel flavonoids-propionic acid blend also demonstrated a synergistic inhibitory effect on Aspergillusflavus with a 10.4 mg/mL MIC. The 1:1 banana peel flavonoids

  13. The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2009-01-01

    Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to 11 MPa. Molasses was used as the binder. According to some standard tests, it was found tha...

  14. Thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassois, Ludivine; Lepoivre, Philippe; Swennen, Rony; van den Houwe, Ines; Panis, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Bananas that provide a staple food to the millions of people are adversely affected by several viruses such as Banana bunchy Top Virus (BBTV), Banana Streak Virus (BSV), and Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV). These viruses are known to have a devastating effect on crop production and constraint to the international exchange and conservation of banana germplasm-a cornerstone for breeding new cultivars. The viruses are particularly problematic in vegetative propagated crops, like bananas, because of their transmission in the planting material. Different virus eradication techniques have been developed, such as thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture for providing virus-free planting material. Meristem culture proved to be the most effective procedure to eradicate phloem-associated viruses. This method requires isolation of meristematic dome of plant under the aseptic conditions and culture in an appropriate nutrient medium to develop new virus-free plants. Thermotherapy is another widely used virus eradication technique, which is initially carried out on in vivo or in vitro plants and eventually combined with meristem culture technique. The plantlets are initially grown at 28°C day temperature and increase it by 2°C per day until reaches 40°C and the night temperature at 28°C; maintain plants at 40°C for 4 weeks; excise meristem and culture onto the regeneration medium. In chemotherapy technique, antiviral chemical compound Virazole(®) is applied on meristem culture. Combination of these techniques is also applied to improve the eradication rate.

  15. Promoting direct interspecies electron transfer with activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fanghua; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin M.;

    2012-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is added to methanogenic digesters to enhance conversion of wastes to methane, but the mechanism(s) for GAC’s stimulatory effect are poorly understood. GAC has high electrical conductivity and thus it was hypothesized that one mechanism for GAC stimulation...... were attached to GAC, but did not aggregate as they do when making biological electrical connections between cells. Studies with a series of gene deletion mutants eliminated the possibility that GAC promoted electron exchange via interspecies hydrogen or formate transfer and demonstrated that DIET...... of methanogenesis might be to facilitate direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between bacteria and methanogens. Metabolism was substantially accelerated when GAC was added to co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens grown under conditions previously shown to require DIET. Cells...

  16. Activating STAT3 Alpha for Promoting Healing of Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Greg

    2008-01-01

    A method of promoting healing of injured or diseased neurons involves pharmacological activation of the STAT3 alpha protein. Usually, injured or diseased neurons heal incompletely or not at all for two reasons: (1) they are susceptible to apoptosis (cell death); and (2) they fail to engage in axogenesis that is, they fail to re-extend their axons to their original targets (e.g., muscles or other neurons) because of insufficiency of compounds, denoted neurotrophic factors, needed to stimulate such extension. The present method (see figure) of treatment takes advantage of prior research findings to the effect that the STAT3 alpha protein has anti-apoptotic and pro-axogenic properties.

  17. Characterization of transcriptional profiles of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 genes in response to ethylene, auxin, wounding, cold and different photoperiods during ripening in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2008-12-01

    The ripening-specific genes MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACC synthase1) and MA-ACO1 (M. acuminata ACC oxidase 1) are regulated in response to a wide variety of factors. Here, we have studied the differential transcript accumulation pattern and protein levels of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 genes in response to ethylene, auxin, wounding and low temperature in preclimacteric banana fruit. We have shown that exogenous application of ethylene and auxin induced the expression of MA-ACS1, while MA-ACO1 showed marginal expression following ethylene treatment in preclimacteric stage. Auxin did not induce MA-ACO1 expression. Thus, auxin-treated banana fruits showed lower ethylene production rate as compared to ethylene-treated fruits. Conversely, wounding and cold treatment down-regulated the expression of both the genes and thus inhibited ethylene production. Furthermore, we have detected a GCC-box putative ethylene-responsive element (ERE)- and an auxin-responsive element (ARE)-specific DNA-binding activity in the banana pulp and studied the ethylene and auxin responsive characteristics of the GCC-box and ARE (TGTCTC) containing synthetic promoter fragments. In addition, we have detected an enhanced ethylene production rate and expression level of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 genes along with a strong GCC-box-specific DNA-binding activity following exposure to constant dark period for 8d at the preclimacteric stage. Together, our study provides interesting information about the regulation of expression of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 genes in response to various factors during ripening in banana fruit, which may have physiological relevance concerning ethylene biosynthesis during post-harvest conditions.

  18. Detailed analysis of the promoter activity of an attenuated lentivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatti-Cardinaux, Laure; Sanjosé, Leticia; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Zanoni, Reto; Reina, Ramses; Bertoni, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    In spite of an eradication campaign that eliminated clinical cases of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-induced arthritis in the Swiss goat population, seroconversions are still observed. In the affected flocks, viruses belonging mainly to the small ruminant lentivirus A4 subtype are regularly isolated. These viruses are considered attenuated, except in the mammary gland, where high viral loads and histopathological lesions have been observed. We previously characterized and sequenced such field isolates, detecting several potentially attenuating mutations in their LTR. Here we present a detailed analysis of the promoter activity of these genetic elements, which was comparable to those of virulent isolates. An AP-1 binding site was shown to be crucial for promoter activity in reporter gene assays and also in the context of a replicating molecular clone. Other sites, such as AML(vis) and a conserved E-box, appeared to be less crucial. Analysis of a unique AP-4 site showed a clear discrepancy between results obtained with reporter gene assays and those with mutated viruses. Within the limits of this in vitro study, we did not find evidence pointing to the LTR as the genetic correlate of attenuation for these viruses. Finally, the limited replication of SRLV A4 in mammary cell culture could not explain the suggested mammary tropism. In contrast, and in view of the abundance of macrophages in the mammary gland, it is the striking replication capacity of SRLV A4 in these cells, unaffected by all LTR mutations tested, which may explain the apparent mammary tropism of these viruses. PMID:27114068

  19. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Darin C.; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K. K.; McElwee, Kevin J.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51 × faster), ostrich oil (1.46 × faster), and rhea oil (1.64 × faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35 × slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  20. Stress-mediated p38 activation promotes somatic cell reprogramming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxiu Xu; Quan Wang; Yuan Long; Ru Zhang; Xiaoyuan Wei; Mingzhe Xing; Haifeng Gu

    2013-01-01

    Environmental stress-mediated adaptation plays essential roles in the evolution of life.Cellular adaptation mechanisms usually involve the regulation of chromatin structure,transcription,mRNA stability and translation,which eventually lead to efficient changes in gene expression.Global epigenetic change is also involved in the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by defined factors.Here we report that environmental stress such as hyperosmosis not only facilitates four factor-mediated reprogramming,but also enhances two or one factor-induced iPS cell generation.Hyperosmosis-induced p38 activation plays a critical role in this process.Constitutive active p38 mimics the positive effect of hyperosmosis,while dominant negative p38 and p38 inhibitor block the effect of hyperosmosis.Further study indicates stress-mediated p38 activation may promote reprogramming by reducing the global DNA methylation level and enhancing the expression of pluripotency genes.Our results demonstrate how simple environmental stress like hyperosmosis helps to alter the fate of cells via intracellular signaling and epigenetic modulation.

  1. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this project is to examine the activity of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium U(VI) phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO43- as a means to detoxify radionuclides and heavy metals. An experimental approach was designed to determine the extent of phosphatase activity in bacteria previously isolated from contaminated subsurface soils collected at the ERSP Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. Screening of 135 metal resistant isolates for phosphatase activity indicated the majority (75 of 135) exhibited a phosphatase-positive phenotype. During this phase of the project, a PCR based approach has also been designed to assay FRC isolates for the presence of one or more classes of the characterized non-specific acid phophastase (NSAP) genes likely to be involved in promoting U(VI) precipitation. Testing of a subset of Pb resistant (Pbr) Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella strains indicated 4 of the 9 Pbr isolates exhibited phosphatase phenotypes suggestive of the ability to bioprecipitate U(VI). Two FRC strains, a Rahnella sp. strain Y9602 and a Bacillus sp. strain Y9-2, were further characterized. The Rahnella sp. exhibited enhanced phosphatase activity relative to the Bacillus sp. Whole-cell enzyme assays identified a pH optimum of 5.5, and inorganic phosphate accumulated in pH 5.5 synthetic groundwater (designed to mimic FRC conditions) incubations of both strains in the presence of a model organophosphorus substrate provided as the sole C and P source. Kinetic experiments showed that these two organisms can grow in the presence of 200 (micro)M dissolved uranium and that Rahnella is much more efficient in precipitating U(VI) than Bacillus sp. The

  2. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Martinez; Melanie J. Beazley; Samuel M. Webb; Martial Taillefert (co-PI); and Patricia A. Sobecky

    2007-04-19

    The overall objective of this project is to examine the activity of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO4 3- as a means to detoxify radionuclides and heavy metals. An experimental approach was designed to determine the extent of phosphatase activity in bacteria previously isolated from contaminated subsurface soils collected at the ERSP Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. Screening of 135 metal resistant isolates for phosphatase activity indicated the majority (75 of 135) exhibited a phosphatase-positive phenotype. During this phase of the project, a PCR based approach has also been designed to assay FRC isolates for the presence of one or more classes of the characterized non-specific acid phophastase (NSAP) genes likely to be involved in promoting U(VI) precipitation. Testing of a subset of Pb resistant (Pbr) Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella strains indicated 4 of the 9 Pbr isolates exhibited phosphatase phenotypes suggestive of the ability to bioprecipitate U(VI). Two FRC strains, a Rahnella sp. strain Y9602 and a Bacillus sp. strain Y9-2, were further characterized. The Rahnella sp. exhibited enhanced phosphatase activity relative to the Bacillus sp. Whole-cell enzyme assays identified a pH optimum of 5.5, and inorganic phosphate accumulated in pH 5.5 synthetic groundwater (designed to mimic FRC conditions) incubations of both strains in the presence of a model organophosphorus substrate provided as the sole C and P source. Kinetic experiments showed that these two organisms can grow in the presence of 200 μM dissolved uranium and that Rahnella is much more efficient in precipitating U(VI) than Bacillus sp. The

  3. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera.

  4. Creation of Transgenic Bananas Expressing Human Lysozyme Gene for Panama Wilt Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Wu PEI; Shi-Kai CHEN; Rui-Ming WEN; Shang YE; Jia-Qin HUANG; Yong-Qiang ZHANG; Bing-Shan WANG; Zhi-Xing WANG; Shi-Rong JIA

    2005-01-01

    Human lysozyme (HL) inhibits Fusarium oxysporum (FocR4) growth in vitro. To obtaintransgenic bananas (Musa spp.) that are resistant to Panama wilt (F. oxysporum), we introduced an HL genethat is driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter into the banana via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR confirmed that 51 transgenic plants were obtained. The development ofPanama wilt symptoms were examined after the plants had been grown in pots. The non-transgenic plantsdeveloped typical fusarium symptoms 60 d after FocR4 inoculation, whereas 24 of 51 transgenic plants remained healthy. The transgenic banana plants that showed resistance to FocR4 in the pots were then planted in a field that was heavily infected with FocR4 for further investigation. Eleven of 24 plants developed symptoms before bud emergence; another 11 plants showed symptoms after bud emergence and the remaining two plants, H-67 and H-144, remained healthy and were able to fruit. Northern blotting analysisdemonstrated that H-67 and H-144, bearing the strongest resistance to Panama wilt, had the highest level ofHL expression and that the expression of HL was well correlated with the FocR4 resistance of transgenicplants. We conclude that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, with the assistance of particlebombardment, is a powerful approach for banana transformation and that a transgenic HL gene can causeresistance of the crop to FocR4 in the field.

  5. International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG): an update on activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Bobrowsky, Peter; Kieffer, Susan; Peppoloni, Silvia; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG: http://www.geoethics.org) was founded on August 2012 to unite global geoscientists to raise the awareness of the scientific community regarding the importance of the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience research, education, and practice. IAPG is an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussion on ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, promoting geoethical themes through scientific publications and conferences, strengthening the research base on geoethics, and focusing on case-studies as models for the development of effective and operative strategies. IAPG is legally recognized as a not-for-profit organization. It is a non-governmental, non-political, non-party institution, at all times free from racial, gender, religious or national prejudices. Its network continues to grow with more than 900 members in 103 countries, including 20 national sections. IAPG operates exclusively through donations and personal funds of its members. The results achieved since inception have been recognized by numerous international organizations. In particular, IAPG has obtained the status of affiliated organization by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), and the Geological Society of London (GSL). IAPG has enlarged its official relationships also through agreements on collaboration with other organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), European Federation of Geologists (EFG), Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG), International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO), African Association of Women in Geosciences (AAWG), and others. IAPG considers publications as an indispensable activity to strengthen geoethics from a scientific point of view, so members are active in the publication of articles and editing of books on

  6. Sonic Hedgehog Promotes Cementoblastic Differentiation via Activating the BMP Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Won-Jung; Auh, Q-Schick; Lim, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Although sonic hedgehog (SHH), an essential molecule in embryogenesis and organogenesis, stimulates proliferation of human periodontal ligament (PDL) stem cells, the effects of recombinant human SHH (rh-SHH) on osteoblastic differentiation are unclear. To reveal the role of SHH in periodontal regeneration, expression of SHH in mouse periodontal tissues and its effects on the osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation in human cementoblasts were investigated. SHH is immunolocalized to differentiating cementoblasts, PDL cells, and osteoblasts of the developing mouse periodontium. Addition of rh-SHH increased cell growth, ALP activity, and mineralization nodule formation, and upregulated mRNA expression of osteoblastic and cementoblastic markers. The osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation of rh-SHH was abolished by the SHH inhibitor cyclopamine (Cy) and the BMP antagonist noggin. rh-SHH increased the expression of BMP-2 and -4 mRNA, as well as levels of phosphorylated Akt, ERK, p38, and JNK, and of MAPK and NF-κB activation, which were reversed by noggin, Cy, and BMP-2 siRNA. Collectively, this study is the first to demonstrate that SHH can promote cell growth and cell osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation via BMP pathway. Thus, SHH plays important roles in the development of periodontal tissue, and might represent a new therapeutic target for periodontitis and periodontal regeneration. PMID:27289556

  7. New microsatellite markers for bananas (Musa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, E P; Silva, P H; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Santos, V J; Vilarinhos, A D; Santos, C M R; Souza Júnior, M T; Miller, R N G

    2012-04-27

    Thirty-four microsatellite markers (SSRs) were identified in EST and BAC clones from Musa acuminata burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 and validated in 22 Musa genotypes from the Banana Germplasm Bank of Embrapa-CNPMF, which includes wild and improved diploids. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14. The markers were considered highly informative based on their polymorphism information content values; more than 50% were above 0.5. These SSRs will be useful for banana breeding programs, for studies of genetic diversity, germplasm characterization and selection, development of saturated genetic linkage maps, and marker assisted selection.

  8. Professor Schmidt’s Banana Cake Recipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients.......In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients....

  9. Phenolic constituents in irradiated banana fruit tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Hom Tong'' banana fruits grown in Thailand irradiated at 10, 20, 30 and 40 Krad and stored at 170C were used for analyses. The total phenolic compounds observed in irradiated fruits were higher than non-irradiated ones after harvested and 7 days of storage. The total phenolic components in the pulp of banana fruits were decreased during ripening when stored from 7-35 days. However, the phenolic constituents become increased again after 21 days of storage at the doses of 20 and 40 Krad due to the infected fruits by the fungus during the fruits approached to over ripe

  10. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koni TNI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented, R3 = 15% banana peel fermented. Data of the experiment were analyzed, using ANOVA and then continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Result showed that level of fermented banana peel affected slaughter weight and carcass weight. However carcass persentage, weight and percentage of abdominal fat was not affected by treatment. Banana peel fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus could can be used maximally 10% in broiler ration.

  11. Production of biocontrol traits by banana field fluorescent Pseudomonads and comparison with chemical fungicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, S S; Patel, P R; Patel, S S; Nikam, S D; Rane, T U; Sayyed, R Z

    2014-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from banana field rhizosphere produced different antifungal metabolites like bactriocin, hydrogen cyanide and siderophore. Bacteriocinogenic, siderophoregenic, and HCN rich broth of isolate inhibited the growth of phytopathogen like Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. The isolate exhibited more antifungal activity and comparatively low MIC vis-a-vis commonly used copper based systemic chemical fungicide;bil cop.

  12. Genomics of Banana and Plantain (Musa spp.), Major Staple Crops in the Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roux, N.; Baurens, F.C.; Dolezel, J.; Hribova, E.; Heslop-Harrison, P.; Town, C.; Sasaki, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Aert, R.; Remy, S.; Souza, M.T.; Lagoda, P.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter on Musa (banana and plantain) genomics covers the latest information on activities and resources developed by the Global Musa Genomics Consortium. Section 4.1 describes the morphology of the plant, its socio-economical importance and usefulness as an experimental organism. Section 4.2 d

  13. Sex Attractants of the Banana Moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer (Lepidoptera: Tineidae): Provisional Identification and Field Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The banana moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer, is a ployphagous agricultural pest in many tropical areas of the world. The identification of an attractant for male O. sacchari could offer new methods for detection, study and control. RESULTS: A male electroantennographically active compound w...

  14. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    OpenAIRE

    Renny Futeri; Pharmayeni Pharmayeni

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel ) . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibil...

  15. The Hierarchy of Transcriptional Activation: From Enhancer to Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernimmen, Douglas; Bickmore, Wendy A

    2015-12-01

    Regulatory elements (enhancers) that are remote from promoters play a critical role in the spatial, temporal, and physiological control of gene expression. Studies on specific loci, together with genome-wide approaches, suggest that there may be many common mechanisms involved in enhancer-promoter communication. Here, we discuss the multiprotein complexes that are recruited to enhancers and the hierarchy of events taking place between regulatory elements and promoters.

  16. 香蕉片的研究开发进展%The Research and Development on the Banana Chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程永霞; 朱小花; 侯银臣; 刘旺旺; 王皓; 杨公明

    2015-01-01

    This article mainly reviews the processing of various banana chipspreparation methods , characteristics and advantages, aims to promote advanced methods, improve the level of technology, and increase processing production of banana slices , in order to meet the market demand.%主要综述目前各种香蕉片的加工制备方法、特点和优势,旨在推广先进方法,提高技术水平,增加加工产量,满足市场需求.

  17. Cloning, sequencing and expression analysis of the NAR promoter activated during hyphal stage of Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The promoter of N4R gene in Magnaporthe grisea was isolated and sequenced. The promoter sequences contained the "TATA" box, the "CAAT" box, and binding sites for fungal regulatory proteins. Programs that predict promoter sequences indicated that promoter sequence lies between locations 430 and 857 of the NAR promoter fragment. GFP expression under the NAR promoter and NAR transcript analysis revealed that this promoter is activated primarily at the mycelial stage in the rice blast fungus and could be used to express native or extrinsic genes in the mycelia of the rice blast fungus.

  18. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  19. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  20. Contribution of polyamines metabolism and GABA shunt to chilling tolerance induced by nitric oxide in cold-stored banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansheng; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-04-15

    Effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on polyamines (PAs) catabolism, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, proline accumulation and chilling injury of banana fruit under cold storage was investigated. Banana fruit treated with NO sustained lower chilling injury index than the control. Notably elevated nitric oxide synthetase activity and endogenous NO level were observed in NO-treated banana fruit. PAs contents in treated fruit were significantly higher than control fruit, due to the elevated activities of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase. NO treatment increased the activities of diamine oxidase, polyamine oxidase and glutamate decarboxylase, while reduced GABA transaminase activity to lower levels compared with control fruit, which resulted the accumulation of GABA. Besides, NO treatment upregulated proline content and significantly enhanced the ornithine aminotransferase activity. These results indicated that the chilling tolerance induced by NO treatment might be ascribed to the enhanced catabolism of PAs, GABA and proline.

  1. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Lindqvist

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although physical activity (PA is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.

  2. Promoting physical activity: fertile ground for rehabilitation psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uswatte, Gitendra

    2013-02-01

    Comments on the article by Schmacher et al. (see record 2013-06066-009). Readers of Rehabilitation Psychology might be surprised, or maybe even alarmed, to find an article on promoting physical activity in able-bodied people between the covers of their latest issue. This commentary contends that this area of research and practice might be one into which rehabilitation psychologists want to venture. Schumacher and coworkers describe a field test (N = 216) of a token system for reinforcing stair taking. The setting was an eight-story office building housing a single company in a midsized city in the southeastern United States. Schumacher et al. report an increase from 39 stair transactions per day by all study participants in the 6 months before implementation of the intervention to 301 transactions in the 6 months after the implementation of the intervention, which represents a 600% increase. The cost of the intervention was only $17 per person. Although replication of these results in a study with additional sources of control would increase confidence in the validity of the findings, the size of the gains in stair taking, the number of participants in the study, the length of the baseline and implementation periods, and the objective measurement of outcome warrant attention. PMID:23438004

  3. Photodynamic activation as a molecular switch to promote osteoblast cell differentiation via AP-1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Tu, Yupeng; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2015-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), cells are impregnated with a photosensitizing agent that is activated by light irradiation, thereby photochemically generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The amounts of ROS produced depends on the PDT dose and the nature of the photosensitizer. Although high levels of ROS are cytotoxic, at physiological levels they play a key role as second messengers in cellular signaling pathways, pluripotency, and differentiation of stem cells. To investigate further the use of photochemically triggered manipulation of such pathways, we exposed mouse osteoblast precursor cells and rat primary mesenchymal stromal cells to low-dose PDT. Our results demonstrate that low-dose PDT can promote osteoblast differentiation via the activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1). Although PDT has been used primarily as an anti-cancer therapy, the use of light as a photochemical "molecular switch" to promote differentiation should expand the utility of this method in basic research and clinical applications. PMID:26279470

  4. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  5. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Maria Castro

    Full Text Available Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7, organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios.

  6. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  7. Love Is Like a Squished Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    An unemployed poet obtained a CETA public service job as a teacher's aide in Marin County, California, where he has guided elementary children's imaginative projects. His experiences are described. He has published a volume of the children's verse under the title "Love Is Like a Squished Banana." (AJ)

  8. Combining Health Promotion Classroom Lessons with Health Fair Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Leslie; Eliason, Kathy; True, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the important role of the school nurse in promoting healthy lifestyle choices through networking, resource identification, and working with community partners. "Everyone Is Healthy at Northeast" was a health promotion program designed and presented in two ways: classroom lessons and a health fair. There were interactive…

  9. Ação do 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP na vida de prateleira da banana 'maçã' Action of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on shelf life of 'apple' banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP, em diferentes concentrações, sobre a vida pós-colheita e sob as variáveis associadas aos atributos de qualidade de banana 'Maçã'. Frutos verde-maturos foram submetidos a cinco concentrações de 1-MCP (0; 50; 100; 150 e 200 etaL.L-1, por 12 horas, e foram analisados durante o amadurecimento sob condição ambiente (20±1ºC e 80±5% UR. O tratamento com 50 etaL.L-1 de 1-MCP atrasou o início do amadurecimento das bananas em aproximadamente 8 dias, baseando-se nas primeiras mudanças de coloração da casca, enquanto os tratamentos 100; 150 e 200 etaL.L-1 atrasaram-no em aproximadamente 10 dias. Observou-se, durante o amadurecimento, o amaciamento dos frutos, associado à conversão de amido em açúcares e ao aumento na solubilização péctica e na atividade da pectinametilesterase (PME e poligalacturonase (PG. A aplicação de 50 etaL.L-1de 1-MCP é a mais adequada por promover a extensão da vida de prateleira de bananas 'Maçã', preservando sua qualidade com base nas análises de açúcares solúveis totais, pectinas total e solúvel, firmeza e aparência externa ao final do armazenamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the 1-MCP, at different concentrations, on quality and shelf life of 'Apple' banana. Green mature fruits were submitted to five concentrations of 1-MCP (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 etaL.L-1, for 12 hours and analyzed during the ripening at room temperature (20ºC ± 1 and 80% ± 5 RH . The 1-MCP at 50 etaL.L-1 delayed, in 8 days, the begining of the ripening, based in the first changes of peel color, whereas 100, 150 and 200 etaL.L-1 treatments delayed the begining of the ripening in 10 days, in comparison to the control. The softening of the fruits, associated to the conversion of starch in sugar and the increasing in the pectic solubilization and activity of pectinmethylsterase and polygalacturonase, was observed during the ripening

  10. Effects of sucrose-based polymers on sugar accumulation of banana and related enzymes activity during storage%采后涂膜蔗糖基聚合物对香蕉糖积累及相关酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶云; 何英姿; 吕鸣群

    2009-01-01

    Banana post- harvested were treated with the concentration of 0.5%, 1% ,3% and 5% sucrose- based polymers.The sucrose content, activities of neutral invertase(NI), acid invertase(AI), sucrose synthase (SS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in banana fruits were investigated. The results showed sucrose-based polymers could inhibit the decrease of AI, NI and SS, increase and delay the peak of SPS activity, enhance the accumulation of sucrose and the fruit quality.%用0.5%、1%、3%和5%四种浓度的蔗糖基聚合物对巴西香蕉进行采后涂膜处理,研究了其对香蕉蔗糖积累、中性转化酶(NI)、酸性转化酶(AI)、蔗糖合成酶(SS)和蔗糖磷酸合成酶(SPS)的影响.实验结果表明:蔗糖基聚合物处理可延缓香蕉的转化酶和SS活性的下降趋势,推迟并提高了SPS的活性高峰,有利于蔗糖的积累和品质的改善,延长了香蕉的保藏时间.

  11. [Comparative analysis of activity of different promoters for NIS gene expression in melanoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'mich, A I; Kopantsev, E P; Vinogradova, T V; Sverdlov, E D

    2014-01-01

    Development of targeted drug delivery system is key problem of cancer gene therapy. To ensure specific delivery of these therapeutic compounds to the tumor it is preferable for therapeutic gene expression to occur predominantly in cancer cells. Therefore, when testing drug in vivo, it is necessary to study distribution of therapeutic gene expression products in different tissues of the organism. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is attractive reporter because its tissue level is easily quantitatively detected by noninvasive imaging methods. Different promoters are used to direct expression of therapeutic genes in tumor cells: strong nonspecific, moderate tissue-specific and tumor-specific. Tumor-specific promoters function in wide range of tumor cells, however they are relatively weak. Relationship between promoter and sodium iodide symporter activity is unclear to date. In this report we examined activity of different promoters in two melanoma cell lines, functional activity of NIS driven by these promoters, also we compared promoter strength and NIS activity. We demonstrated that in spite of strong differences in promoter activity functional activity of NIS directed by these promoters varies weakly. Relatively weak melanoma-specific promoter directs high NIS activity in melanoma cell, however weaker cancer-specific promoters drive high NIS activity only in certain melanoma cell line.

  12. Optimization of extraction parameters on the antioxidant properties of banana waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui Yee Toh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Banana is grown worldwide and consumed as ripe fruit or used for culinary purposes. Peels form about 18–33% of the whole fruit and are discarded as a waste product. With a view to exploiting banana peel as a source of valuable compounds, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different extrac- tion parameters on the antioxidant activities of the industrial by-product of banana waste (peel. Materials and methods. Influence of different extraction parameters such as types of solvent, percentages of solvent, and extraction times on total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity of mature and green peels of Pisang Abu (PA, Pisang Berangan (PB, and Pisang Mas (PM were investigated. The best extrac- tion parameters were initially selected based on different percentages of ethanol (0–100% v/v, extraction time (1–5 hr, and extraction temperature (25–60°C for extraction of antioxidants in the banana peels. Total phenolic content (TPC was evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay while antioxidant activities (AA of banana peel were accessed by DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene bleaching (BCB assays at optimum extrac- tion conditions. Results. Based on different extraction solvents and percentages of solvents used, 70% and 90% of acetone had yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PA peels, respectively; 90% of ethanol and methanol has yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PB peels, respectively; while 90% ethanol for the mature and green PM peels. Similar extraction conditions were found for the antioxidant activities for the banana peel assessed using DPPH assay except for green PB peel, which 70% methanol had contributed to the highest AA. Highest TPC and AA were obtained by applying 4, 1, and 2 hrs extraction for the peels of PA, PB and PM, respectively. The best extraction conditions were also used for determination of AAs using ABTS and β-carotene bleaching assays. Therefore, the best

  13. Oxidative Stress on Buccal Mucosa Wound in Rats and Rule of Topical Application of Ethanolic Extracts of Mauli Banana ( Musa acuminata Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenda Fitriati Noora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a topical application of ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem on oxidative status in buccal mucosa wounds of rats. The sets involved three groups, P0 was the negative control; P1 was treated with alocair topically; and P2 was treated with ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem topically, respectively, 24h after wound creation for 3 days. The oxidative stress status was evaluated by monitoring the SOD, CAT activity, MDA and CC levels. Ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem showed significantly increased in SOD activity, decreased in MDA levels, and no significant change both in CAT activity and CC levels compared to negative control. These results showed that The ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem might affect the oxidative stress status during wound healing process.

  14. HDAC Activity Is Required for Efficient Core Promoter Function at the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang C. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDACs have been shown to be required for basal or inducible transcription at a variety of genes by poorly understood mechanisms. We demonstrated previously that HDAC inhibition rapidly repressed transcription from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV promoter by a mechanism that does not require the binding of upstream transcription factors. In the current study, we find that HDACs work through the core promoter sequences of MMTV as well as those of several cellular genes to facilitate transcriptional initiation through deacetylation of nonhistone proteins.

  15. 78 FR 24393 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Promoting Student Success in Algebra I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Promoting Student Success in Algebra I Project... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Promoting Student Success in Algebra I... Estimated Number of Annual Burden Hours: 208. Abstract: The Promoting Student Success in Algebra I...

  16. Interplanting banana at high densities with immature rubber crop for improved water use

    OpenAIRE

    Harischandra Lakshman Rodrigo, Vitharanage; Maeve Stirling, Clare; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Kusum Samarasekera, Renuka; Dharmasiri Pathirana, Pathiranage

    2005-01-01

    International audience Consumptive water use of the rubber/banana intercropping systems was assessed. Five systems were tested; sole rubber (R) and banana (B) crops and three intercrops comprising additive series of one (BR), two (BBR) and three (BBBR) rows banana to one row of rubber. Planting density of rubber remained constant across the treatments, hence the rate of transpiration associated closely with the planting density of banana with ca. 140% increase from banana-rubber to banana-...

  17. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL,BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  18. Using possibilities of some agricultural wastes in open-field banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖTEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Usage of farmyard manure is the one of the major factors to increase production cost in banana cultivation. Besides increasing the production costs, other disadvantages of farmyard manure are playing active role on carrying diseases and pests and also difficulty in obtaining. Due to the stated disadvantages, the use farmyard manure of banana farmers is decreasing. Therefore, we need alternative ways to increase the organic matter capacity of the soil. The effects of alternative applications to farmyard manure, namely banana waste and mushroom compost were investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of these applications on some morphological properties (plant height, plant circumference and number of leaves, yield (number of hands, number of fingers, bunch weight, finger weight and length and quality properties (flesh/skin ratio, total soluble solids matter, sugars etc. under open-field banana cultivation. The experiment was conducted in Kargıcak location of Alanya in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that using of farmyard manure and waste treatments positively affected the yield parameters like the number of hands and fingers, finger length, finger weight and bunch weight. On the other hand, treatments did not have a statistically significant effect on fruit quality parameters like soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ash.

  19. Involvement of energy metabolism to chilling tolerance induced by hydrogen sulfide in cold-stored banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Limwachiranon, Jarukitt; Li, Li; Du, Ruixue; Luo, Zisheng

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on energy metabolism in postharvest banana fruit under chilling stress was investigated. Banana fruit, fumigated with optimal concentration (0.5mM) of aqueous sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) solution for 24h, were initially stored at 7°C for 14d and 20°C for another 6d. H2S treated banana fruit showed both higher value of firmness and Hue angle, as well as lower value of electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and ethylene production. These indicated slower development of chilling injury compared with the control. Decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and energy charge was not noticeable in H2S treated banana fruit. Moreover, the activity of H(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), associated with energy metabolism, were significantly enhanced by H2S treatment. Therefore, it can be deduced that H2S can potentially alleviate chilling development in banana fruit by increasing enzymes activities, involved in energy metabolism, to maintain energy charge. PMID:27132850

  20. Involvement of energy metabolism to chilling tolerance induced by hydrogen sulfide in cold-stored banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Limwachiranon, Jarukitt; Li, Li; Du, Ruixue; Luo, Zisheng

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on energy metabolism in postharvest banana fruit under chilling stress was investigated. Banana fruit, fumigated with optimal concentration (0.5mM) of aqueous sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) solution for 24h, were initially stored at 7°C for 14d and 20°C for another 6d. H2S treated banana fruit showed both higher value of firmness and Hue angle, as well as lower value of electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and ethylene production. These indicated slower development of chilling injury compared with the control. Decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and energy charge was not noticeable in H2S treated banana fruit. Moreover, the activity of H(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), associated with energy metabolism, were significantly enhanced by H2S treatment. Therefore, it can be deduced that H2S can potentially alleviate chilling development in banana fruit by increasing enzymes activities, involved in energy metabolism, to maintain energy charge.

  1. Dairy-Banana Integration and Organic Fertilizer Use in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Yamano

    2008-01-01

    An intensive dairy and crop farming system found in the East African highlands provides manure and urine, taken from stalls of improved dairy cattle, for crops such as banana. By using panel data of 894 rural households in 2003 and 2005 in Uganda, we find that the number of improved cattle per ha increases the organic fertilizer application on banana plots by 218 kilograms per ha. We also find that banana farmers applied more organic fertilizer on less fertile soils. Regarding banana yield, w...

  2. Pasta with unripe banana flour: physical, texture, and preference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Islas-Hernandez, José J; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Utrilla-Coello, Rubí G; Angulo, Ofelia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2009-08-01

    Banana is a starchy food that contains a high proportion of undigestible compounds such as resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Products with low glycemic response such as pasta are considered favorable to health. The objective of this study was to use unripe banana flour to make spaghetti with low-carbohydrates digestibility and evaluate its physical and texture characteristics, as well as consumer preference. Formulations with 100% durum wheat semolina (control) and formulations with 3 semolina: banana flour ratios (85: 15, 70: 30, and 55: 45) were prepared for spaghetti processing. The use of banana flour decreased the lightness and diameter of cooked spaghetti, and increased the water absorption of the product. Hardness and elasticity of spaghetti were not affected by banana flour, but adhesiveness and chewiness increased as the banana flour level in the blend rose. Spaghettis prepared in the laboratory (control and those with banana flour) did not show differences in preference by consumers. In general, the preference of spaghettis with different banana flour level was similar. The addition of a source of undigestible carbohydrates (banana flour) to spaghetti is possible without affecting the consumer preference.

  3. Activity of heat shock genes' promoters in thermally contrasting animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, Lyubov N; Zatsepina, Olga G; Funikov, Sergei Yu; Zelentsova, Elena S; Schostak, Natalia G; Orishchenko, Konstantin E; Evgen'ev, Michael B; Garbuz, David G

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock gene promoters represent a highly conserved and universal system for the rapid induction of transcription after various stressful stimuli. We chose pairs of mammalian and insect species that significantly differ in their thermoresistance and constitutive levels of Hsp70 to compare hsp promoter strength under normal conditions and after heat shock (HS). The first pair includes the HSPA1 gene promoter of camel (Camelus dromedarius) and humans. It was demonstrated that the camel HSPA1A and HSPA1L promoters function normally in vitro in human cell cultures and exceed the strength of orthologous human promoters under basal conditions. We used the same in vitro assay for Drosophila melanogaster Schneider-2 (S2) cells to compare the activity of the hsp70 and hsp83 promoters of the second species pair represented by Diptera, i.e., Stratiomys singularior and D. melanogaster, which dramatically differ in thermoresistance and the pattern of Hsp70 accumulation. Promoter strength was also monitored in vivo in D. melanogaster strains transformed with constructs containing the S. singularior hsp70 ORF driven either by its own promoter or an orthologous promoter from the D. melanogaster hsp70Aa gene. Analysis revealed low S. singularior hsp70 promoter activity in vitro and in vivo under basal conditions and after HS in comparison with the endogenous promoter in D. melanogaster cells, which correlates with the absence of canonical GAGA elements in the promoters of the former species. Indeed, the insertion of GAGA elements into the S. singularior hsp70 regulatory region resulted in a dramatic increase in promoter activity in vitro but only modestly enhanced the promoter strength in the larvae of the transformed strains. In contrast with hsp70 promoters, hsp83 promoters from both of the studied Diptera species demonstrated high conservation and universality.

  4. Physiological responses in the banana plantlets treateds with strobilurinsRespostas fisiológicas em mudas de banananeira tratadas com estrobilurinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivia Helena Modenese-Gorla da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are reports that strobilurin besides having a fungicide effect can promote physiologic benefits to the plants. However, this effect on banana plants was not studied yet. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of strobirulins on the physiology of banana plantlets. For this purpose, cultivar Grand Naine banana plantlets were transferred to pots containing substrate and kept in a nursery with 50% shading. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with three treatments (water, azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin and five replications. The treatments were applied at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after transplanting at a dose 100 g a. i. ha-1 with manual spray. Plant height, pseudostem diameter, shoot dry matter in strobilurin treated plants were higher than the untreated plants, however, the effect of fungicide treatment was different, being the most pronounced effect of pyraclostrobin compared to azoxystrobin. Plants treated with pyraclostrobin had higher leaf area, nitrate reductase activity and chlorophyll content of leaf total nitrogen than the plants treated with azoxystrobin and water, which did not differ. Strobilurins affect the physiology of the banana plantlets differently, the effect being more pronounced by pyraclostrobin.Há relatos de que estrobilurinas, além de atuarem como fungicida, promovem benefícios fisiológicos às plantas. Assim sendo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de estrobirulinas na fisiologia de mudas de bananeira. Para tal, mudas micropropagadas da cultivar Grand Naine foram repicadas para vasos contendo substrato e mantidas em viveiro a 50% de sombreamento. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (água, azoxistrobina e piraclostrobina e cinco repetições. As estrobirulinas foram aplicadas com pulverizador manual aos 15, 30, 45, 60 e 75 dias após a repicagem, na dose de 100 g i. a. ha-1. A altura da planta, di

  5. A novel source of biofertilizer from feather biomass for banana cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Ranjit G; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2013-07-01

    Feather waste is a promising protein biomass available as by-product from poultry processing was found to be rich in peptides, amino acids, and minerals like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and copper. Soil and foliar application of these products, besides representing a sustainable solution to the problem of feather disposal, may also represent an effective strategy to tackle the environmental effluence. As a consequence, they were also found to be very attractive in elevating the protein, amino acids, reducing sugar, total chlorophyll, and proline content of plants. On the other side, fertilizing effect enhanced the antioxidant potential of banana fruit which was assessed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine. This was associated with considerably higher antioxidant contents like total phenolics and flavonoids. Therefore, the application of this organic amendment could promote and improve the agro-ecosystem, human health; soil biological activities, and at the same time enhance the production of plant or products rich in bioactive substances.

  6. The Role of Physical Educators in Helping Classroom Teachers to Promote Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Elementary classroom teachers are an increasingly important constituency in school-based physical activity promotion. This article situates the need for classroom teacher physical-activity promotion at the intersection of what we know about teacher actions, what informs those actions, and what recent research has uncovered. Recommendations are…

  7. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.

  8. Active Kids Active Minds: A Physical Activity Intervention to Promote Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    lisahunter; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Ziviani, Jennifer; Cuskelly, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility and impact of introducing a programme of an additional 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity within curriculum time on learning and readiness to learn in a large elementary school in south-east Queensland, Australia. The programme, Active Kids Active Minds (AKAM), involved Year 5 students (n = 107),…

  9. An assessment of the benefits of yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola control in the Queensland Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The banana leaf spotting disease yellow Sigatoka is established and actively controlled in Australia through intensive chemical treatments and diseased leaf removal. In the State of Queensland, the State government imposes standards for de-leafing to minimise the risk of the disease spreading in 6 banana pest quarantine areas. Of these, the Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area is the most significant in terms of banana production. Previous regulations imposed obligations on owners of banana plants within this area to remove leaves from plants with visible spotting on more than 15 per cent of any leaf during the wet season. Recently, this leaf disease threshold has been lowered to 5 per cent. In this paper we examine the likely impact this more-costly regulation will have on the spread of the disease. We estimate that the average net benefit of reducing the diseased leaf threshold is only likely to be $1.4million per year over the next 30 years, expressed as the annualised present value of tightened regulation. This result varies substantially when the timeframe of the analysis is changed, with shorter time frames indicating poorer net returns from the change in protocols. Overall, the benefit of the regulation change is likely to be minor.

  10. ECONOMIC ANALISYS OF A COFFEE-BANANA SYSTEM OF A FAMILY-BASED AGRICULTURE AT THE ATLANTIC FOREST ZONE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ponciano Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems can reduce the risks of investing in just one crop. However, there are uncertainties like other agricultural and forestry activities. Therefore, there is the need for economic studies under conditions of economic risk of agroforestry systems. This work reports an analysis of the main components of costs and revenues of an agroforestry system with coffee and banana, as well as an analysis of its economic performance through indicators: net present value, equivalent period benefit (or cost, family labor revenue and a sensitivity analysis of net present value. The main cost components in the system are the human labor and mineral and organic fertilizers applied in coffee, and the costs for the production of coffee outweigh the costs of banana production. The monthly income from the production of bananas balances the costs of coffee production, generating a positive cash flow in the studied period. Financial indicators showed positive values, demonstrating the economic viability of the system with coffee and banana. The agroforestry system is economically feasible, even with variations of ± 20% in production costs and selling prices of their products. Variables that showed greater sensitivity on the net present value were the selling price of coffee and bananas, and the cost of coffee production.

  11. Petunia floral defensins with unique prodomains as novel candidates for development of fusarium wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhesh B Ghag

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C-terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana.

  12. nifH Promoter Activity Is Regulated by DNA Supercoiling in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Jie LIU; Biao HU; Jia-Bi ZHU; Shan-Jiong SHEN; Guan-Qiao YU

    2005-01-01

    In prokaryotes, DNA supercoiling regulates the expression of many genes; for example, the expression of Klebsiella pneumoniae nifLA operon depends on DNA negative supercoiling in anaerobically grown cells, which indicates that DNA supercoiling might play a role in gene regulation of the anaerobic response. Since the expression of the nifH promoter in Sinorhizobium meliloti is not repressed by oxygen, it is proposed that the status of DNA supercoiling may not affect the expression of the nifH promoter. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing nifH promoter activity in wild-type and gyr- Escherichia coli in the presence and absence of DNA gyrase inhibitors. Our results show that gene expression driven by the S.meliloti nifH promoter requires the presence of active DNA gyrase. Because DNA gyrase increases the number of negative superhelical turns in DNA in the presence of ATP, our data indicate that negative supercoiling is also important for nifH promoter activity. Our study also shows that the DNA supercoilingdependent S. meliloti nifH promoter activity is related to the trans-acting factors NtrC and NifA that activate it. DNA supercoiling appeared to have a stronger effect on NtrC-activated nifH promoter activity than on NifA-activated promoter activity. Collectively, these results from the S. meliloti nifH promoter model system seem to indicate that, in addition to regulating gene expression during anaerobic signaling, DNA supercoiling may also provide a favorable topology for trans-acting factor binding and promoter activation regardless of oxygen status.

  13. Combination of membrane technologies for purification of L (+) - lactic acid from juice of banana (Musa AAA, variety Cavendish cultivar Gram naine) obtained from an agroindustrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process that has allowed recovery and purification of the L (+)-acid present in the juice fermented waste produced from banana was developed, treated enzymatically, using tangential nanofiltration. The effect of the enzymatic treatment was evaluated on physical chemical parameters of fermented banana juice. The process parameters of centrifugal clarification and microfiltration were characterized on banana juice as activities prior operations to recovery and purification of lactic acid. The temperature and the transmembrane pressure on the permeate flow and the performance of recovery and purification of lactic acid were evaluated by the ultrafiltration and nanofiltration processes. The properties physico-chemical the banana juice fermented and of the liquid filtrate obtained at the stage recovery and purification of lactic acid were compared by ultrafiltration

  14. Atraso do amadurecimento de banana 'Maçã' pelo 1-MCP, aplicado previamente à refrigeração Ripening delay of 'Apple' banana submitted to 1-MCP, prevoiously applied to refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Costa Almeida

    2006-08-01

    'Apple' banana to 50 ppb of 1-MCP for 12 and 24 hours has retarded its ripening, it promoted undesirable changes in the fruit peel. So, 1-MCP application for 9 hours at 50 ppb, before cool storage, is a viable alternative to extend banana's commercialization period.

  15. The physical therapist's role in physical activity promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.; Engbers, L.

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians are increasingly confronted with the diseases of physical inactivity. Paradoxically, a promising strategy to motivate sedentary individuals to become more active is the opportunity to encourage physical activity related behavioural change when individuals encounter health professionals. A

  16. INVESTIGATION INTO CONSUMER RESPONSE TO SALES PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES: THE CASE OF UNILEVER GHANA LIMITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Owusu Ansah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The promotional activities have become more sophisticated and an increasing number of companies are using them to ensure their survival in today’s competitive market. Essentially, the study analyzed the nature of sales promotional activities of Unilever Ghana Limited; determined factors that influence the consumption of Unilever products in Kumasi and finally examined the relationship between sales promotions and the consumption of Unilever products. Primary and secondary data sources were used to select 220 consumers of Unilever in Kumasi and an in-depth interview with the Managers of the companies in Kumasi. Convenient sampling technique was employed in the study. Cross tabulation was done on the demographics whilst a regression model was used to establish the relationship between sales promotions and consumption of products. The findings revealed that Personalities in promotions, Prices in promotions, Messages in promotions and Promotional tools have strong influence on consumption but the Medium in promotion did not have influence on consumption during promotions. It was therefore recommended for celebrities to be used in the company’s promotions.

  17. Promoting physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Machteld Heleen van den

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study: 1. The engagement of patients with RA in various forms of physical activity and their preferences regarding the delivery of physical activity interventions; 2. The evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical activity interventions delivered by means of the I

  18. Promoting Physical Activity: Addressing Barriers and Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron; Morrow, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The barriers that keep individuals from adopting and maintaining active lifestyles are very complex. Strategies for overcoming these barriers and to incentivize and assist inactive individuals to benefit from physical activity are necessary. In addition, it is important to examine the impact of public policy on active living. As youth physical…

  19. Strategies for Physical Activity Promotion beyond the Physical Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Larry; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Darst, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The current need for physical activity has extended beyond the limited time given to students in physical education classes. In order for students to receive appropriate levels of physical activity (i.e., at least 60 minutes per day), it is necessary for physical educators to incorporate physical activity opportunities outside the traditional…

  20. The Banana Transcriptional Repressor MaDEAR1 Negatively Regulates Cell Wall-Modifying Genes Involved in Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhong-Qi; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Fu, Chang-Chun; Shan, Wei; Han, Yan-Chao; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Ye, Yu-Jie; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Duan, Xue-Wu; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene plays an essential role in many biological processes including fruit ripening via modulation of ethylene signaling pathway. Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are key transcription factors (TFs) involved in ethylene perception and are divided into AP2, RAV, ERF, and DREB sub-families. Although a number of studies have implicated the involvement of DREB sub-family genes in stress responses, little is known about their roles in fruit ripening. In this study, we identified a DREB TF with a EAR motif, designated as MaDEAR1, which is a nucleus-localized transcriptional repressor. Expression analysis indicated that MaDEAR1 expression was repressed by ethylene, with reduced levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation at its regulatory regions during fruit ripening. In addition, MaDEAR1 promoter activity was also suppressed in response to ethylene treatment. More importantly, MaDEAR1 directly binds to the DRE/CRT motifs in promoters of several cell wall-modifying genes including MaEXP1/3, MaPG1, MaXTH10, MaPL3, and MaPME3 associated with fruit softening during ripening and represses their activities. These data suggest that MaDEAR1 acts as a transcriptional repressor of cell wall-modifying genes, and may be negatively involved in ethylene-mediated ripening of banana fruit. Our findings provide new insights into the involvement of DREB TFs in the regulation of fruit ripening. PMID:27462342

  1. The Banana Transcriptional Repressor MaDEAR1 Negatively Regulates Cell Wall-Modifying Genes Involved in Fruit Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhong-qi; Kuang, Jian-fei; Fu, Chang-chun; Shan, Wei; Han, Yan-chao; Xiao, Yun-yi; Ye, Yu-jie; Lu, Wang-jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Duan, Xue-wu; Chen, Jian-ye

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene plays an essential role in many biological processes including fruit ripening via modulation of ethylene signaling pathway. Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are key transcription factors (TFs) involved in ethylene perception and are divided into AP2, RAV, ERF, and DREB sub-families. Although a number of studies have implicated the involvement of DREB sub-family genes in stress responses, little is known about their roles in fruit ripening. In this study, we identified a DREB TF with a EAR motif, designated as MaDEAR1, which is a nucleus-localized transcriptional repressor. Expression analysis indicated that MaDEAR1 expression was repressed by ethylene, with reduced levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation at its regulatory regions during fruit ripening. In addition, MaDEAR1 promoter activity was also suppressed in response to ethylene treatment. More importantly, MaDEAR1 directly binds to the DRE/CRT motifs in promoters of several cell wall-modifying genes including MaEXP1/3, MaPG1, MaXTH10, MaPL3, and MaPME3 associated with fruit softening during ripening and represses their activities. These data suggest that MaDEAR1 acts as a transcriptional repressor of cell wall-modifying genes, and may be negatively involved in ethylene-mediated ripening of banana fruit. Our findings provide new insights into the involvement of DREB TFs in the regulation of fruit ripening. PMID:27462342

  2. Chinese tobacco industry promotional activity on the microblog Weibo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. METHODS: Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. RESULTS: Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143 could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%, followed by 'advertisement' and 'tobacco culture' (both at 12%, 'traditional culture' and 'public relations' (both at 11%, and finally 'social and business affairs' (5%. 33% of posts included the words 'cigarette' or 'smoking' and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. CONCLUSIONS: Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban.

  3. Drying characteristics and quality of bananas under infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot air (HA) drying of banana has low drying efficiency and results in undesirable product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate the feasibility of infrared (IR) heating to improve banana drying rate, evaluate quality of the dried product, and establish models for predicting d...

  4. An empirical investigation of the demand for bananas in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.; Henningsen, A.

    2001-01-01

    We use econometric methods to investigate consumer demand for bananas and for other fruit in Germany. Monthly household survey data for the period 1986-1998 are analysed. Demand for bananas is significantly responsive to own price, suggesting that policy-induced price increases generate the usual de

  5. Determinants of Banana Productivity and Technical Efficiency in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Ruben, R.; Rufino, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    This research report highlights findings from a set of studies undertaken by applied economists on the impact of improved banana cultivars and recommended management practices in the East African highlands. A particular focus of the analysis is genetic transformation of the cooking banana. Genetic t

  6. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  7. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption stu

  8. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  9. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil. PMID:17607468

  10. Anthracyclines induce double-strand DNA breaks at active gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Kemp, Christopher J; Henikoff, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Doxorubicin is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug that intercalates between DNA base-pairs and poisons Topoisomerase II, although the mechanistic basis for cell killing remains speculative. Doxorubicin and related anthracycline compounds have been shown to increase nucleosome turnover and/or eviction around promoters, which suggests that the resulting enhanced exposure of DNA might underlie cell killing. Previously, we showed that low doses of anthracyclines increase nucleosome turnover around active gene promoters, which suggests that loss of nucleosomes might contribute to cancer cell killing. Here we apply a genome-wide method to precisely map DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cancer cells. We find that spontaneous DSBs occur preferentially around promoters of active genes, and that both anthracyclines and etoposide, a Topoisomerase II poison, increase DSBs around promoters, although CpG islands are conspicuously protected from DSBs. We propose that torsion-based enhancement of nucleosome turnover by anthracyclines exposes promoter DNA, ultimately causing DSBs around promoters.

  11. AMP-activated protein kinase-regulated activation of the PGC-1alpha promoter in skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Irrcher

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which PGC-1alpha gene expression is controlled in skeletal muscle remains largely undefined. Thus, we sought to investigate the transcriptional regulation of PGC-1alpha using AICAR, an activator of AMPK, that is known to increase PGC-1alpha expression. A 2.2 kb fragment of the human PGC-1alpha promoter was cloned and sequence analysis revealed that this TATA-less sequence houses putative consensus sites including a GC-box, a CRE, several IRSs, a SRE, binding sites for GATA, MEF2, p 53, NF-kappaB, and EBox binding proteins. AMPK activation for 24 hours increased PGC-1alpha promoter activity with concomitant increases in mRNA expression. The effect of AICAR on transcriptional activation was mediated by an overlapping GATA/EBox binding site at -495 within the PGC-1alpha promoter based on gel shift analyses that revealed increases in GATA/EBox DNA binding. Mutation of the EBox within the GATA/EBox binding site in the promoter reduced basal promoter activity and completely abolished the AICAR effect. Supershift analyses identified USF-1 as a DNA binding transcription factor potentially involved in regulating PGC-1alpha promoter activity, which was confirmed in vivo by ChIP. Overexpression of either GATA-4 or USF-1 alone increased the p851 PGC-1alpha promoter activity by 1.7- and 2.0-fold respectively, while co-expression of GATA-4 and USF-1 led to an additive increase in PGC-1alpha promoter activity. The USF-1-mediated increase in PGC-1alpha promoter activation led to similar increases at the mRNA level. Our data identify a novel AMPK-mediated regulatory pathway that regulates PGC-1alpha gene expression. This could represent a potential therapeutic target to control PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle.

  12. Staff's perceptions of the use of evidence-based physical activity promotion strategies for promoting girls' physical activity at afterschool programs: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkel, Danae; Huberty, Jennifer; Beets, Michael; Tibbits, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    There is a need to improve girls' physical activity (PA) in afterschool programs as girls' PA levels are consistently lower than boys'. An evidence-based professional development framework, the 5 Ms, has been effective in helping staff to improve PA in both girls and boys but further improvements in girls' PA are needed. Little is known about staff's perceptions of using PA promotion strategies to promote girls' PA. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore staff perceptions of the use of evidence-based PA promotion strategies for promoting PA in girls. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff from three community-based afterschool programs located within a school setting (n=18). Data were analyzed using the process of immersion/crystallization. A majority of staff had some knowledge of PA promotion strategies but few staff consistently utilized these strategies and a majority felt several strategies were unnecessary (i.e., having a PA policy). Newer staff reported depending on senior staff to promote PA in girls. Overall, findings suggest that staff's perceptions may impact their use of PA promotions strategies. The results of this study will contribute to the enhancement of an existing staff training framework (the 5 Ms) to improve girls' PA in afterschool programs.

  13. Optimization of reporter gene assay: several factors influencing detection of promoter activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Li-xiang; WENG Mo; ZHANG Zong-yu; TONG Tan-jun

    2007-01-01

    Background Promoter analysis is currently applied to detect the expression of the targeted gene in studies of signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. As a reporter gene, luciferase plays an important role and has been used widely in the promoter assay.Methods Human embryonic lung fibroblast cells (2BS), HeLa cells and MCF-7 cells were transfected with various genes embedded by lipofectamine. This study determined various factors that affect promoter activity determination,such as the selection of the reporter genes and internal references, the dose and the type of the vectors carrying the transcription factors, the host cells and the instruments.Results The sensitivity of the luciferase assay was much higher than that of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Moreover, promoter activity is increased in a dose-related manner only in certain ranges outside of which the results may be reversed and the promoter activity is related to the expression vector which is carrying the cDNA.Otherwise, the length of the promoter, internal references and the host cell can also influence the promoter activity.Conclusions To detect the promoter activity accurately, a few factors including dose, vector, length and host cell which influence reporter gene assay aforementioned should be considered.

  14. Promoting Female Students' Learning Motivation towards Science by Exercising Hands-On Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-jin, Kuo; Chia-ju, Liu; Shi-an, Leou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design different hands-on science activities and investigate which activities could better promote female students' learning motivation towards science. This study conducted three types of science activities which contains nine hands-on activities, an experience scale and a learning motivation scale for data…

  15. Considerations on the promotional activity on the DIY market in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai FÎNARU; Ioana Bianca CHIŢU

    2015-01-01

    Communication is a component of the marketing mix of great importance for the success of companies on the market. Currently the promotional activity of companies is experiencing a variety of manifestations, the manufacturers and the distributors are always interested in finding ways to promote themselves differently, moreover to draw the attention of consumers and to produce the desired behavior among them. DIY market is a highly competitive market and the promotional technique...

  16. An empirical analysis of the roles, activities and performance of commercial diplomats in promoting international business

    OpenAIRE

    Naray, Olivier; Bezençon, Valéry; Kostecki, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background Governments seek to promote – beyond the support for individual businesses – increased exports but also the intangible elements, such as nation branding and country positioning for inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and other economic benefits. In this context, commercial diplomats work as State representatives with diplomatic status conducting trade and business promotion activities between a home and a host country supporting directly individual business firms or promoting t...

  17. Genome Sequence of Banana Streak MY Virus from the Pacific Ocean Island of Tonga

    OpenAIRE

    Stainton, Daisy; Halafihi, Mana’ia; Collings, David A.; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Banana streak disease is caused by a variety of banana-infecting badnaviruses. A genome of the episomal form of a banana streak MY virus was recovered from an infected banana plant sampled on Vava’u Island, Tonga, and shares >98% pairwise identity with the six other genomes available in public databases.

  18. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  19. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A

    2012-10-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.

  20. Green care farms promote activity among elderly people with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, S.R. de; Oosting, S.J.; Kuin, Y.; Hoefnagels, E.C.M.; Blauw, Y.H.; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Schols, J.M.G.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, an increasing number of green care farms are providing day care to community-dwelling elderly people with dementia. Currently, it is unknown whether activities, activity participation, and facility use of elderly people with dementia at green care farms differ from those at regul

  1. Use of SPARK to Promote After-School Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Heidi; Thompson, Hannah; Kinder, Jennifer; Madsen, Kristine A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The after-school period is potentially an important venue for increasing physical activity for youth. We sought to assess the effectiveness of the Sports, Play, and Recreation for Youth (SPARK) program to increase physical activity and improve cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status among elementary students after school. Methods:…

  2. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jason R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick™ standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. Results We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101 to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by ~50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Conclusion Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement

  3. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Phe

  4. Dynamical analysis on gene activity in the presence of repressors and an interfering promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2008-11-01

    Transcription is regulated through interplay among transcription factors, an RNA polymerase (RNAP), and a promoter. Even for a simple repressive transcription factor that disturbs promoter activity at initial binding of RNAP, its repression level is not determined solely by the dissociation constant of transcription factor but is sensitive to timescales of processes in RNAP. We first analyze the promoter activity under strong repression by a slow binding repressor, in which case transcription events occur in bursts, followed by long quiescent periods while a repressor binds to the operator; the number of transcription events, bursting, and quiescent times are estimated by reaction rates. We then examine interference effect from an opposing promoter, using the correlation function of initiation events for a single promoter. The interference is shown to de-repress the promoter because RNAPs from the opposing promoter most likely encounter the repressor and remove it in case of strong repression. This de-repression mechanism should be especially prominent for the promoters that facilitate fast formation of open complex with the repressor whose binding rate is slower than approximately 1/s. Finally, we discuss possibility of this mechanism for high activity of promoter PR in the hyp-mutant of lambda-phage. PMID:18658208

  5. Spatio-Temporal Imaging of Promoter Activity in Intact Plant Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tou Cheu; Sanchez, Frédéric; Briat, Jean-François; Gaymard, Frédéric; Dubos, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Localization and quantification of expression levels of genes help to determine their function. Localization of gene expression is often achieved through the study of their promoter activity. Three main reporter genes β-glucuronidase (GUS), green fluorescent protein (GFP), and luciferase (LUC) have been intensively used to characterize promoter activities, each having its own specificities and advantages. Among them, the LUC reporter gene is best suitable for the analysis of the promoter activity of genes in intact living plants. Here, we describe a LUC-based method that allows to precisely localize and quantify promoter activity at the whole plant level, and to study the mechanisms that are involved in long-distance regulation of gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Imaging LUC signals with a low-light CCD camera allows monitoring promoter activity in time and space in the transgenic plant harboring the promoter fused with the LUC gene. In addition, it allows quantifying change of promoter activities in plant during several hours. PMID:27557763

  6. 香蕉对酒曲中主要微生物作用的研究%Effect of banana on the main microorganisms in liquor Qu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晨; 方中刚; 王世强

    2011-01-01

    试验分别用含不同浓度香蕉汁培养基,培养酒曲中的主要微生物酵母菌和根霉,结果表明,酵母菌的数量及出芽数随香蕉汁浓度的增加而增加,香蕉汁对根霉菌丝的生长和淀粉酶活力的提高有一定的促进作用.以香蕉为主料,添加酒饭,以酒曲为发酵剂酿制香蕉米酒.结果表明,含75%香蕉原料组出酒率为73.26%,酒精度为13.5°,比含50%香蕉原料组和纯米酒组出酒率分别只降低1%和7%,酒精度只降低1.5°.%The media containing banana juice at different concentrations were used for the cultivation of main microorganisms(yeasts and Rhizopus) in liquor Qu. The results showed that the biomass and budding rate of yeasts increased with the increase of banana juice concentration, and banana juice also had a certain stimulation effects on the mycelium growth and amylase activity of Rhizopus. Using banana as main material and liquor Qu as starter, a banana-rice wine was made with steamed rice. The results indicated that when 75% banana was used, the liquor distillation yield reached 73.26% and the alcohol content was 13.5°. The liquor distillation yield was only 1% and 7% lower than that of the rice wine made on 50% banana and the pure rice wine without banana respectively, while the alcohol content was slightly decreased by 1.5°.

  7. Targeting and timing promotional activities : An agent-based model for the takeoff of new products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, S. A.; Jager, W.; Bijmolt, T. H. A.; Janssen, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Many marketing efforts focus on promotional activities that support the launch of new products. Promotional strategies may play a crucial role in the early stages of the product life cycle, and determine to a large extent the diffusion of a new product. This paper proposes an agent-based model to si

  8. Investigating message-framing effects in the context of a tailored intervention promoting physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Werrij, M.Q.; Vries, de H.

    2010-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the gains associated with healthy behaviour or the losses associated with unhealthy behaviour. It has been argued that gain-framed messages promoting physical activity (PA) are more effective than loss-framed messages, but empirical findings are in

  9. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern-recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, biocontrol agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here, we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern-recognition receptor (PRR), XA21, to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We identified a set of genes required for activation of Xa21-mediated immunity (rax) that were conserved in both Xoo and Xcm. Based on the conservation, we hypothesized that intergeneric transfer of Xa21 would confer resistance to Xcm. We evaluated 25 transgenic lines of the banana cultivar 'Gonja manjaya' (AAB) using a rapid bioassay and 12 transgenic lines in the glasshouse for resistance against Xcm. About 50% of the transgenic lines showed complete resistance to Xcm in both assays. In contrast, all of the nontransgenic control plants showed severe symptoms that progressed to complete wilting. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of the rice Xa21 gene in banana results in enhanced resistance against Xcm. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the feasibility of PRR gene transfer between monocotyledonous species and provides a valuable new tool for controlling the BXW pandemic of banana, a staple food for 100 million people in east Africa.

  10. Biological Activity of the Alternative Promoters of the Dictyostelium discoideum Adenylyl Cyclase A Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Centeno, Javier; Sastre, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Amoebae of the Dictyostelium discoideum species form multicellular fruiting bodies upon starvation. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is used as intercellular signalling molecule in cell-aggregation, cell differentiation and morphogenesis. This molecule is synthesized by three adenylyl cyclases, one of which, ACA, is required for cell aggregation. The gene coding for ACA (acaA) is transcribed from three different promoters that are active at different developmental stages. Promoter 1 is active during cell-aggregation, promoters 2 and 3 are active in prespore and prestalk tip cells at subsequent developmental stages. The biological relevance of acaA expression from each of the promoters has been studied in this article. The acaA gene was expressed in acaA-mutant cells, that do not aggregate, under control of each of the three acaA promoters. acaA expression under promoter 1 control induced cell aggregation although subsequent development was delayed, very small fruiting bodies were formed and cell differentiation genes were expressed at very low levels. Promoter 2-driven acaA expression induced the formation of small aggregates and small fruiting bodies were formed at the same time as in wild-type strains and differentiation genes were also expressed at lower levels. Expression of acaA from promoter 3 induced aggregates and fruiting bodies formation and their size and the expression of differentiation genes were more similar to that of wild-type cells. Expression of acaA from promoters 1 and 2 in AX4 cells also produced smaller structures. In conclusion, the expression of acaA under control of the aggregation-specific Promoter 1 is able to induce cell aggregation in acaA-mutant strains. Expression from promoters 2 and 3 also recovered aggregation and development although promoter 3 induced a more complete recovery of fruiting body formation.

  11. Complement activation promotes muscle inflammation during modified muscle use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette, J.; Cai, B.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Modified muscle use can result in muscle inflammation that is triggered by unidentified events. In the present investigation, we tested whether the activation of the complement system is a component of muscle inflammation that results from changes in muscle loading. Modified rat hindlimb muscle loading was achieved by removing weight-bearing from the hindlimbs for 10 days followed by reloading through normal ambulation. Experimental animals were injected with the recombinant, soluble complement receptor sCR1 to inhibit complement activation. Assays for complement C4 or factor B in sera showed that sCR1 produced large reductions in the capacity for activation of the complement system through both the classical and alternative pathways. Analysis of complement C4 concentration in serum in untreated animals showed that the classical pathway was activated during the first 2 hours of reloading. Analysis of factor B concentration in untreated animals showed activation of the alternative pathway at 6 hours of reloading. Administration of sCR1 significantly attenuated the invasion of neutrophils (-49%) and ED1(+) macrophages (-52%) that occurred in nontreated animals after 6 hours of reloading. The presence of sCR1 also reduced significantly the degree of edema by 22% as compared to untreated animals. Together, these data show that increased muscle loading activated the complement system which then briefly contributes to the early recruitment of inflammatory cells during modified muscle loading.

  12. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Robert J.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Wilson, Jarad J.; Taillefert, Martial; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2005-04-05

    The overall goal of this project is to examine the role of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}. During this phase of the project we have been conducting assays to determine the effects of pH, inorganic anions and organic ligands on U(VI) mineral formation and precipitation when FRC bacterial isolates were grown in simulated groundwater medium. The molecular characterization of FRC isolates has also been undertaken during this phase of the project. Analysis of a subset of gram-positive FRC isolates cultured from FRC soils (Areas 1, 2 and 3) and background sediments have indicated a higher percentage of isolates exhibiting phosphatase phenotypes (i.e., in particular those surmised to be PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible) relative to isolates from the reference site. A high percentage of strains that exhibited such putatively PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible phosphatase phenotypes were also resistant to the heavy metals lead and cadmium. Previous work on FRC strains, including Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella spp., has demonstrated differences in tolerance to U(VI) toxicity (200 {micro}M) in the absence of organophosphate substrates. For example, Arthrobacter spp. exhibited the greatest tolerance to U(VI) while the Rahnella spp. have been shown to facilitate the precipitation of U(VI) from solution and the Bacillus spp. demonstrate the greatest sensitivity to acidic conditions and high concentrations of U(VI). PCR-based detection of FRC strains are being conducted to determine if non-specific acid phosphatases of the known molecular classes [i.e., classes A, B and C] are present in these FRC isolates. Additionally, these

  13. Mapping Banana Plants from High Spatial Resolution Orthophotos to Facilitate Plant Health Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kasper Johansen; Malte Sohlbach; Barry Sullivan; Samantha Stringer; David Peasley; Stuart Phinn

    2014-01-01

    The Banana Bunchy Top Virus (Genus: Babuvirus) reduces plant growth and prevents banana production. Because of the very large number of properties with banana plants in South East Queensland, Australia, a mapping approach was developed to delineate individual and clusters of banana plants to help plant identification and enable prioritization of plant inspections for Banana Bunchy Top Virus. Due to current outbreaks in South East Queensland, there are concerns that the virus may spread to the...

  14. Creativity in the English Class: Activities to Promote EFL Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán A. Avila

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a pedagogical intervention that includes a set of creative activities designed to improve the oral and written production of students in the English classroom, especially those who have shown a lack of interest or attention. It was observed that participants initially seemed careless about studying the language. Eventually they responded to the proposed methods positively and were more willing and motivated to participate in chain games, creative writing, and screenwriting exercises. The activities helped develop the students’ fluency in both oral and written production and improved their understanding of English grammar and structure.

  15. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  16. Genetic variation in the proximal promoter of ABC and SLC superfamilies: liver and kidney specific expression and promoter activity predict variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E Hesselson

    Full Text Available Membrane transporters play crucial roles in the cellular uptake and efflux of an array of small molecules including nutrients, environmental toxins, and many clinically used drugs. We hypothesized that common genetic variation in the proximal promoter regions of transporter genes contribute to observed variation in drug response. A total of 579 polymorphisms were identified in the proximal promoters (-250 to +50 bp and flanking 5' sequence of 107 transporters in the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC and Solute Carrier (SLC superfamilies in 272 DNA samples from ethnically diverse populations. Many transporter promoters contained multiple common polymorphisms. Using a sliding window analysis, we observed that, on average, nucleotide diversity (pi was lowest at approximately 300 bp upstream of the transcription start site, suggesting that this region may harbor important functional elements. The proximal promoters of transporters that were highly expressed in the liver had greater nucleotide diversity than those that were highly expressed in the kidney consistent with greater negative selective pressure on the promoters of kidney transporters. Twenty-one promoters were evaluated for activity using reporter assays. Greater nucleotide diversity was observed in promoters with strong activity compared to promoters with weak activity, suggesting that weak promoters are under more negative selective pressure than promoters with high activity. Collectively, these results suggest that the proximal promoter region of membrane transporters is rich in variation and that variants in these regions may play a role in interindividual variation in drug disposition and response.

  17. Perceiving Promotion Activities İn Politic Marketing By Gazi University’ Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet ÇATLI; Özlem ÇATLI

    2013-01-01

    Political parties determine the marketing strategies about affecting electors, who have customer property. What, when and how do they want? After they can meet these wantings, needs and can subordinate other parties. Promotion activities also can be defined as election drive, is an mix of marketing. But as the seen changing of electors' wantings also in politic marketing, kinds and variations of promotion activities, especially in our technological age are more important than classic promotio...

  18. Organizational Informatization and Promoting the Active Participation of Women in the Workplace (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    USHIO Naomi; Shimura, Kotaro

    2014-01-01

    There still has not been sufficient promotion of the active participation of women in the workplace in Japan. The main factors behind this situation are a uniform view of women and the failure to adopt a stance of inclusion. Accordingly, there is a need to establish the following systems and culture in order to promote the active participation of women in the workplace: (1) Recognize that "women" are composed of a diverse range of different individuals; and (2) Accept the diversity of women, ...

  19. Evaluation of Phytase Producing Bacteria for Their Plant Growth Promoting Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Singh; Vinod Kumar; Sanjeev Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076–0.174 U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal...

  20. Promoting Technology-Assisted Active Learning in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinzhu; Hargis, Jace

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes specific active learning strategies for teaching computer science, integrating both instructional technologies and non-technology-based strategies shown to be effective in the literature. The theoretical learning components addressed include an intentional method to help students build metacognitive abilities, as well as…

  1. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  2. Promoting Private Agribusiness Activity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffee, Steven; Morton, John

    1995-01-01

    In a break from past policies, many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa are moving away from state-controlled agricultural marketing systems. Agricultural sector and broader economic policy reforms are being implemented, one objective of which is to enhance the incentives for private entrepreneurs and companies to undertake investments and expand and diversify agro-processing and trading activ...

  3. Bringing Nature to Schools to Promote Children's Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Brymer, Vinathe; Bland, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) is essential for human health and wellbeing across all age, socioeconomic, and ethnic groups. Engagement with the natural world is a new defining criterion for enhancing the benefits of PA, particularly for children and young people. Interacting with nature benefits children's social and emotional wellbeing, develops resilience, and reduces the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus across all population groups. Governments around the world are now recognizing the importance of children spending more active time outdoors. However, children's outdoor activities, free play, and nature-related exploration are often structured and supervised by adults due to safety concerns and risks. In this context, schools become more accessible and safe options for children to engage in PA outdoors with the presence of nature features. Research on school designs involving young children has revealed that children prefer nature-related features in school environments. Affordances in nature may increase children's interest in physically active behaviors. Given that present school campuses are designed for operational efficiency and economic reasons, there is a need to re-design schools responding to the positive role of nature on human health. If schools were re-designed to incorporate diverse natural features, children's PA and consequent health and wellbeing would likely improve markedly. PMID:26888647

  4. Community Resources for Promoting Youth Nutrition and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelly R.; McGowan, Melissa K.; Donato, Karen A.; Kollipara, Sobha; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a national public health crisis. The National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), the National Institutes of Health and Kaiser Permanente have developed community tools and resources for children and families to lower their risk for obesity through healthier, active lifestyles. The authors describe innovative practices and…

  5. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  6. Characteristics of Three Thioredoxin Genes and Their Role in Chilling Tolerance of Harvested Banana Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuwang; Li, Qing; Yan, Huiling; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Guoxiang; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2016-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small proteins with a conserved redox active site WCGPC and are involved in a wide range of cellular redox processes. However, little information on the role of Trx in regulating low-temperature stress of harvested fruit is available. In this study, three full-length Trx cDNAs, designated MaTrx6, MaTrx9 and MaTrx12, were cloned from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit. Phylogenetic analysis and protein sequence alignments showed that MaTrx6 was grouped to h2 type with a typical active site of WCGPC, whereas MaTrx9 and MaTrx12 were assigned to atypical cys his-rich Trxs (ACHT) and h3 type with atypical active sites of GCAGC and WCSPC, respectively. Subcellular localization indicated that MaTrx6 and MaTrx12 were located in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, respectively, whereas MaTrx9 showed a dual cytoplasmic and chloroplast localization. Application of ethylene induced chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, whereas 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, aggravated the development of chilling injury. RT-qPCR analysis showed that expression of MaTrx12 was up-regulated and down-regulated in ethylene- and 1-MCP-treated banana fruit at low temperature, respectively. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MaTrx12 in cytoplasmic Trx-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain increased the viability of the strain under H₂O₂. These results suggest that MaTrx12 plays an important role in the chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, possibly by regulating redox homeostasis. PMID:27618038

  7. Characteristics of Three Thioredoxin Genes and Their Role in Chilling Tolerance of Harvested Banana Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuwang; Li, Qing; Yan, Huiling; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Guoxiang; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2016-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small proteins with a conserved redox active site WCGPC and are involved in a wide range of cellular redox processes. However, little information on the role of Trx in regulating low-temperature stress of harvested fruit is available. In this study, three full-length Trx cDNAs, designated MaTrx6, MaTrx9 and MaTrx12, were cloned from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit. Phylogenetic analysis and protein sequence alignments showed that MaTrx6 was grouped to h2 type with a typical active site of WCGPC, whereas MaTrx9 and MaTrx12 were assigned to atypical cys his-rich Trxs (ACHT) and h3 type with atypical active sites of GCAGC and WCSPC, respectively. Subcellular localization indicated that MaTrx6 and MaTrx12 were located in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, respectively, whereas MaTrx9 showed a dual cytoplasmic and chloroplast localization. Application of ethylene induced chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, whereas 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, aggravated the development of chilling injury. RT-qPCR analysis showed that expression of MaTrx12 was up-regulated and down-regulated in ethylene- and 1-MCP-treated banana fruit at low temperature, respectively. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MaTrx12 in cytoplasmic Trx-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain increased the viability of the strain under H2O2. These results suggest that MaTrx12 plays an important role in the chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, possibly by regulating redox homeostasis. PMID:27618038

  8. Characteristics of Three Thioredoxin Genes and Their Role in Chilling Tolerance of Harvested Banana Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuwang Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxins (Trxs are small proteins with a conserved redox active site WCGPC and are involved in a wide range of cellular redox processes. However, little information on the role of Trx in regulating low-temperature stress of harvested fruit is available. In this study, three full-length Trx cDNAs, designated MaTrx6, MaTrx9 and MaTrx12, were cloned from banana (Musa acuminata fruit. Phylogenetic analysis and protein sequence alignments showed that MaTrx6 was grouped to h2 type with a typical active site of WCGPC, whereas MaTrx9 and MaTrx12 were assigned to atypical cys his-rich Trxs (ACHT and h3 type with atypical active sites of GCAGC and WCSPC, respectively. Subcellular localization indicated that MaTrx6 and MaTrx12 were located in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, respectively, whereas MaTrx9 showed a dual cytoplasmic and chloroplast localization. Application of ethylene induced chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, whereas 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, aggravated the development of chilling injury. RT-qPCR analysis showed that expression of MaTrx12 was up-regulated and down-regulated in ethylene- and 1-MCP-treated banana fruit at low temperature, respectively. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MaTrx12 in cytoplasmic Trx-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain increased the viability of the strain under H2O2. These results suggest that MaTrx12 plays an important role in the chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, possibly by regulating redox homeostasis.

  9. Physical activity promotion among underserved adolescents: "make it fun, easy, and popular".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louise Bush, Paula; Laberge, Suzanne; Laforest, Sophie

    2010-05-01

    There is a paucity of studies regarding noncurricular physical activity promotion interventions among adolescents, and even less such research pertaining to underserved youth. This article describes the development and implementation of a noncurricular, school-based physical activity promotion program designed for a multiethnic, underserved population of adolescents. The program's impact on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and on physical activity enjoyment (PAE) is also presented. The 16-week program, named FunAction, utilizes social marketing principles. Control (n = 90) and intervention (n = 131) students are assessed pre- and postintervention for levels of LTPA and PAE. Results indicate that although the program did not contribute to an increase in LTPA or PAE among intervention group students, participation in the program was elevated. This study offers preliminary evidence that noncurricular physical activity promotion programs that apply social marketing principles can be effective in engaging multiethnic, underserved adolescents in physical activity. PMID:19168890

  10. GLT-1 promoter activity in astrocytes and neurons of mouse hippocampus and somatic sensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa De Vivo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available GLT-1 eGFP BAC reporter transgenic adult mice were used to detect GLT-1 gene expression in individual cells of CA1, CA3 and SI, and eGFP fluorescence was measured to analyze quantitatively GLT-1 promoter activity in different cells of neocortex and hippocampus. Virtually all GFAP+ astrocytes were eGFP+; we also found that about 80% of neurons in CA3 pyramidal layer, 10-70% of neurons in I-VI layers of SI and rare neurons in all strata of CA1 and in strata oriens and radiatum of CA3 were eGFP+. Analysis of eGFP intensity showed that astrocytes had a higher GLT-1 promoter activity in SI than in CA1 and CA3, and that neurons had the highest levels of GLT-1 promoter activity in CA3 stratum pyramidale and in layer VI of SI. Finally, we observed that the intensity of GLT-1 promoter activity in neurons is 1-20% of that measured in astrocytes. These results showed that in the hippocampus and neocortex GLT-1 promoter activity is observed in astrocytes and neurons, detailed the distribution of GLT-1 expressing neurons, and indicated that GLT-1 promoter activity in both astrocytes and neurons varies in different brain regions.

  11. Tissue specificity of enhancer and promoter activities of a HERV-K(HML-2) LTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, V M; Akopov, S B; Trubetskoy, D O; Manuylov, N L; Vetchinova, A S; Zavalova, L L; Nikolaev, L G; Sverdlov, E D

    2004-08-01

    Transient expression of a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate tissue-specific promoter and enhancer activities of a solitary extraviral long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) in several human and CHO cell lines. The promoter activity of the LTR varied from virtually not detectable (GS and Jurkat cells) to as high as that of the SV40 early promoter (Tera-1 human testicular embryonal carcinoma cells). The negative regulatory element (NRE) of the LTR retained its activity in all cell lines where the LTR could act as a promoter, and was also capable of binding host cell nuclear proteins. The enhancer activity of the LTR towards the SV40 early promoter was detected only in Tera-1 cells and was not observed in a closely related human testicular embryonal carcinoma cell line of different origin, NT2/D1. A comparison of proteins bound to central part of the LTR in nuclear extracts from Tera-1 and NT2/D1 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed striking differences that could be determined by different LTR enhancer activities in these cells. Tissue specificity of the SV40 early promoter activity was also revealed.

  12. Promoters active in interphase are bookmarked during mitosis by ubiquitination

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Mansi; Jie ZHANG; Heine, George F.; Ozer, Gulcin; Liu, Hui-Wen; Huang, Kun; Parvin, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed modification of chromatin by ubiquitination in human cells and whether this mark changes through the cell cycle. HeLa cells were synchronized at different stages and regions of the genome with ubiquitinated chromatin were identified by affinity purification coupled with next-generation sequencing. During interphase, ubiquitin marked the chromatin on the transcribed regions of ∼70% of highly active genes and deposition of this mark was sensitive to transcriptional inhibition. Promo...

  13. Comparative evaluation of gastric secretory response to banana and porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadoo, R C; Khatri, H L; Singla, S

    1995-01-01

    Unripe Banana (Plantain) is used in South India as a bland diet for peptic ulcer patients. Flour made of plantain is quite often prescribed in dyspepsia in this part of the country. This has led to the belief that ripe banana may also be a bland fruit. However, it was observed by the Senior Author that ripe banana does produce symptoms of hyperacidity. Hence a study was undertaken to assess whether ripe banana is a bland food or not. A total of 115 patients entered the study. 89 individuals had no GIT symptoms, 15 patients had proved peptic ulcer while 11 patients had non-ulcer acid dyspepsia. The gastric residue was emptied by a nasogastric tube after a night fast. Patients were then given 80 gms. of banana or porridge on two different days. Then consecutive 15 minute samples of gastric juice were collected and submitted for estimation of acid output in mEq/l. It was observed that gastric acid values were higher following banana as compared to porridge and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was was thus concluded that ripe banana is not a bland food. It should not be recommended as a part of bland diet for patients of acid peptic disease.

  14. Activity monitor intervention to promote physical activity of physicians-in-training: randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne N Thorndike

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physicians are expected to serve as role models for healthy lifestyles, but long work hours reduce time for healthy behaviors. A hospital-based physical activity intervention could improve physician health and increase counseling about exercise. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase intervention among 104 medical residents at a large hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. Phase 1 was a 6-week randomized controlled trial comparing daily steps of residents assigned to an activity monitor displaying feedback about steps and energy consumed (intervention or to a blinded monitor (control. Phase 2 immediately followed and was a 6-week non-randomized team steps competition in which all participants wore monitors with feedback. Phase 1 outcomes were: 1 median steps/day and 2 proportion of days activity monitor worn. The Phase 2 outcome was mean steps/day on days monitor worn (≥500 steps/day. Physiologic measurements were collected at baseline and study end. Median steps/day were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Mean steps were compared using repeated measures regression analyses. RESULTS: In Phase 1, intervention and control groups had similar activity (6369 vs. 6063 steps/day, p = 0.16 and compliance with wearing the monitor (77% vs. 77% of days, p = 0.73. In Phase 2 (team competition, residents recorded more steps/day than during Phase 1 (CONTROL: 7,971 vs. 7,567, p = 0.002; INTERVENTION: 7,832 vs. 7,739, p = 0.13. Mean compliance with wearing the activity monitor decreased for both groups during Phase 2 compared to Phase 1 (60% vs. 77%, p<0.001. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased (p = 0.004 and HDL cholesterol increased (p<0.001 among all participants at end of study compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Although the activity monitor intervention did not have a major impact on activity or health, the high participation rates of busy residents and modest changes in steps, blood pressure, and HDL suggest that more

  15. Activation of the Renin-Angiotensin System Promotes Colitis Development

    OpenAIRE

    Yongyan Shi; Tianjing Liu; Lei He; Urszula Dougherty; Li Chen; Sarbani Adhikari; Lindsay Alpert; Guolin Zhou; Weicheng Liu; Jiaolong Wang; Deb, Dilip K.; John Hart; Liu, Shu Q.; John Kwon; Joel Pekow

    2016-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays pathogenic roles in renal and cardiovascular disorders, but whether it is involved in colitis is unclear. Here we show that RenTgMK mice that overexpress active renin from the liver developed more severe colitis than wild-type controls. More than 50% RenTgMK mice died whereas all wild-type mice recovered. RenTgMK mice exhibited more robust mucosal TH17 and TH1/TH17 responses and more profound colonic epithelial cell apoptosis compared to wild-type cont...

  16. Processing of Banana Flour Using a Local Banana as Raw Materials in Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvi Yani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to get the best local banana from several aspects (rendement total sugar content, organoleptic and nutritional value in the process into banana flour (BF. Research conducted in July-September 2010 and mature green bananas were collected from the farmer’s field of Pardasuka Village, Ketibung District, South Lampung Regency. Research conducted using randomized design with four banana types , a. Janten, b. Kepok Manado, c. Muli and d, Raja Nangka.. Analyses carried out on rendement, nutritional value, total sugar and whiteness. Organoleptic test was done for knowing customer preferences (color, flavor and texture by 20 panelists with score 1 to 7 (very not like s/d really like. Results showed that rendement of BF from Janten was the highest (range of recovery 35-36% followed by BF from Raja Nangka (20-21%, Kepok Manado (20% and Muli (16-17%. The highest total sugar was BF from Muli i.e .7.784% followed by Raja Nangka (4.985%, Kepok Manado (4.961% and Janten (3.732%, whereas whiteness ranges from 42.85 to 61, 55% with the highest levels of whiteness of BF from Kepok Manado (61.55%, followed Janten (54%, Raja Nangka (43.25% and the lowest of Muli (42.85%. The BF contained protein (from 2.545 to 3.407%, fat (from 0.433 to 0.583%, carbohydrate (from 83.400 to 88.005%, ash (from 2.053 to 3.031%, crude fiber (from 0.524 to 1.897 and moisture content (from 5.586 to 6.603%. The BF from Raja Nangka showed good characters (color = 5.92, (texture = 5.69, and (flavor = 5.31 and panelist acceptance. Based on consideration of several aspects such as rendement, total sugar, consumer preferences, availability of raw materials and business analyses, the best bananas to be processed into flour in Lampung was the Raja Nangka banana and be able to increase the added value of > 15% with B/C ratio of 1.32 and competent to be developed.

  17. Statins Activate Human PPAR Promoter and Increase PPAR mRNA Expression and Activation in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Seo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR mRNA expression, but the mechanism of this increased PPAR production remains elusive. To examine the regulation of PPAR production, we examined the effect of 7 statins (atorvastatin, cerivastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin on human PPAR promoter activity, mRNA expression, nuclear protein levels, and transcriptional activity. The main results are as follows. (1 Majority of statins enhanced PPAR promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells transfected with the human PPAR promoter. This enhancement may be mediated by statin-induced HNF-4. (2 PPAR mRNA expression was increased by statin treatment. (3 The PPAR levels in nuclear fractions were increased by statin treatment. (4 Simvastatin, pravastatin, and cerivastatin markedly enhanced transcriptional activity in 293T cells cotransfected with acyl-coenzyme A oxidase promoter and PPAR/RXR expression vectors. In summary, these data demonstrate that PPAR production and activation are upregulated through the PPAR promoter activity by statin treatment.

  18. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells. PMID:27258298

  19. Perceiving Promotion Activities İn Politic Marketing By Gazi University’ Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ÇATLI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Political parties determine the marketing strategies about affecting electors, who have customer property. What, when and how do they want? After they can meet these wantings, needs and can subordinate other parties. Promotion activities also can be defined as election drive, is an mix of marketing. But as the seen changing of electors' wantings also in politic marketing, kinds and variations of promotion activities, especially in our technological age are more important than classic promotions. With this project inquiry work that consists of 9 parts also has done to know about how the university students are affected and which promotion activities affect the students more. İnquiry appliers are students in University of Gazi TTEF. In the inquiry, questioned to students that students' gender, incomes, the place they live, their enroling in political parties, being affected by promotion activities, if they are affected, by which promotion activity and how much they are affected, advertsement, public relations,personal marketing and marketing development.

  20. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells. PMID:27258298

  1. Notch signaling promotes osteoclast maturation and resorptive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Jason W; Ahn, Jaimo; Hankenson, Kurt D

    2015-11-01

    The role of Notch signaling in osteoclast differentiation is controversial with conflicting experimental evidence indicating both stimulatory and inhibitory roles. Differences in experimental protocols and in vivo versus in vitro models may explain the discrepancies between studies. In this study, we investigated cell autonomous roles of Notch signaling in osteoclast differentiation and function by altering Notch signaling during osteoclast differentiation using stimulation with immobilized ligands Jagged1 or Delta-like1 or by suppression with γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT or transcriptional inhibitor SAHM1. Stimulation of Notch signaling in committed osteoclast precursors resulted in larger osteoclasts with a greater number of nuclei and resorptive activity whereas suppression resulted in smaller osteoclasts with fewer nuclei and suppressed resorptive activity. Conversely, stimulation of Notch signaling in osteoclast precursors prior to induction of osteoclastogenesis resulted in fewer osteoclasts. Our data support a mechanism of context-specific Notch signaling effects wherein Notch stimulation inhibits commitment to osteoclast differentiation, but enhances the maturation and function of committed precursors.

  2. CDPP activities: Promoting research and education in space physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, V. N.; Andre, N.; Cecconi, B.; Gangloff, M.; Bouchemit, M.; Dufourg, N.; Pitout, F.; Budnik, E.; Lavraud, B.; Rouillard, A. P.; Heulet, D.; Bellucci, A.; Durand, J.; Delmas, D.; Alexandrova, O.; Briand, C.; Biegun, A.

    2015-12-01

    The French Plasma Physics Data Centre (CDPP, http://cdpp.eu/) addresses for more than 15 years all issues pertaining to natural plasma data distribution and valorization. Initially established by CNES and CNRS on the ground of a solid data archive, CDPP activities diversified with the advent of broader networks and interoperability standards, and through fruitful collaborations (e.g. with NASA/PDS): providing access to remote data, designing and building science driven analysis tools then became at the forefront of CDPP developments. For instance today AMDA helps scientists all over the world accessing and analyzing data from ancient to very recent missions (from Voyager, Galileo, Geotail, ... to Maven, Rosetta, MMS, ...) as well as results from models and numerical simulations. Other tools like the Propagation Tool or 3DView allow users to put their data in context and interconnect with other databases (CDAWeb, MEDOC) and tools (Topcat). This presentation will briefly review this evolution, show technical and science use cases, and finally put CDPP activities in the perspective of ongoing collaborative projects (Europlanet H2020, HELCATS, ...) and future missions (Bepicolombo, Solar Orbiter, ...).

  3. Endothelial Cells Promote Pigmentation through Endothelin Receptor B Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzetti, Claire; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Ghorbel, Houda Hammami; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Ambrosetti, Damien; Bahadoran, Philippe; Chignon-Sicard, Bérengère; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ballotti, Robert; Mahns, Andre; Passeron, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Findings of increased vascularization in melasma lesions and hyperpigmentation in acquired bilateral telangiectatic macules suggested a link between pigmentation and vascularization. Using high-magnification digital epiluminescence dermatoscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and histological examination, we showed that benign vascular lesions of the skin have restricted but significant hyperpigmentation compared with the surrounding skin. We then studied the role of microvascular endothelial cells in regulating skin pigmentation using an in vitro co-culture model using endothelial cells and melanocytes. These experiments showed that endothelin 1 released by microvascular endothelial cells induces increased melanogenesis signaling, characterized by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor phosphorylation, and increased tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase levels. Immunostaining for endothelin 1 in vascular lesions confirmed the increased expression on the basal layer of the epidermis above small vessels compared with perilesional skin. Endothelin acts through the activation of endothelin receptor B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and p38, to induce melanogenesis. Finally, culturing of reconstructed skin with microvascular endothelial cells led to increased skin pigmentation that could be prevented by inhibiting EDNRB. Taken together these results demonstrated the role of underlying microvascularization in skin pigmentation, a finding that could open new fields of research for regulating physiological pigmentation and for treating pigmentation disorders such as melasma. PMID:26308584

  4. MAGEB2 is activated by promoter demethylation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita M Pattani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Although promoter hypermethylation has been an accepted means of tumor suppressor gene inactivation, activation of otherwise normally repressed proto-oncogenes by promoter demethylation has been infrequently documented. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study we performed an integrative, whole-genome analysis for discovery of epigenetically activated proto-oncogenes in head and neck cancer tumors. We used the 47K GeneChip U133 Plus 2.0 Affymetrix expression microarray platform to obtain re-expression data from 5-aza treated normal cell line and expression data from primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC tumor tissues and normal mucosa tissues. We then investigated candidate genes by screening promoter regions for CpG islands and bisulfite sequencing followed by QUMSP and RT PCR for the best candidate genes. Finally, functional studies were performed on the top candidate gene. RESULTS: From the top 178 screened candidates 96 had CpG islands in their promoter region. Seven candidate genes showed promoter region methylation in normal mucosa samples and promoter demethylation in a small cohort of primary HNSCC tissues. We then studied the demethylation of the top 3 candidate genes in an expanded cohort of 76 HNSCC tissue samples and 17 normal mucosa samples. We identified MAGEB2 as having significant promoter demethylation in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissues. We then found significantly higher expression of MAGEB2 in tumors in a separate cohort of 73 primary HNSCC tissues and 31 normal tissues. Finally, we found that MAGEB2 has growth promoting effects on minimally transformed oral keratinocyte cell lines but not a definite effect on HNSCC cell lines. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we identified MAGEB2 as activated by promoter demethylation in HNSCCand demonstrates growth promoting effects in a minimally transformed oral keratinocyte cell line. More studies are needed to evaluate MAGBE2's exact role in HNSCC.

  5. Promoting physical activity for people with neurological disability: perspectives and experiences of physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Hilda; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine; Hale, Leigh; Thomas, David; Häger-Ross, Charlotte

    2011-08-01

    Both New Zealand and Sweden have health and disability policies that promote recreational exercise within society for people with disability. Despite these policies, levels of physical activity by people with disability in these countries are low. Physiotherapists are equipped to assist people with disabling conditions into physical activity. This qualitative study explored the perspectives and experiences of physiotherapists in New Zealand and Sweden toward promoting physically active recreation for adults with chronic neurological conditions. Nine physiotherapists who worked with adults with neurological disability in a range of long-term rehabilitation and community (home) health services were interviewed and the data analysed for themes. The physiotherapists described innovative and resourceful expertise to assist patients to be physically active. However, they perceived a lack of support for their work from within the health system and a lack of knowledge of disability issues within the recreational arena, both of which they perceived hindered their promotion of physical activity for people with neurological disability. Physiotherapists feel unable to fully support health and disability policies for the promotion of physically active recreation for people with neurological conditions, because of perceived constraints from within the recreational arena and their own health systems. If these constraints were addressed, then physiotherapists could be better agents to promote physical activity for people with neurological conditions.

  6. Technology of High Yield Cultivation of Banana in Hainan%海南香蕉高产栽培技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杰

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation and management of banana was an important factor to realize higher quality and higher yield, improve the economic benefit and promote the development of banana industry. In this paper, the author mainly introduced the high yield cultivation techniques, pest control methods and technical problems in production, in order to provide technical guidance for banana producers.%做好香蕉的栽培、管理是实现香蕉优质高产、提高经济效益、促进香蕉产业地不断发展的重要因素。本文主要介绍了香蕉的高产栽培技术、病虫害防治方法以及生产中应注意的技术问题,以期为香蕉生产者提供技术指导。

  7. Promoting Active Learning in Electrical Engineering Basic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Lehtovuori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Active learning, project-based teaching, and student collaboration are current trends in engineering education. Incorporating these have also been the goal of the basic studies development project EPOP started at the Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering in 2011. In the project, two obligatory basic courses in circuit analysis and electromagnetic field theory have been taught using interactive engagement during the spring of 2012. This paper presents the implementation of the teaching, including methods and evaluation with several concrete examples. As a result of the novel teaching, motivation and the engagement of students were at a high level during the whole course and learning results were better than those of the students participating the traditional lecture course.

  8. Promoting uranium immobilization by the activities of microbial phophatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2005-06-01

    The first objective of this project is to determine the relationship of phosphatase activity to metal resistance in subsurface strains and the role of lateral gene transfer (LGT) in dissemination of nonspecific acid phosphatase genes. Nonspecific acid phosphohydrolases are a broad group of secreted microbial phosphatases that function in acidic-to-neutral pH ranges and utilize a wide range of organophosphate substrates. We have previously shown that PO43- accumulation during growth on a model organophosphorus compound was attributable to the overproduction of alkaline phosphatase by genetically modified subsurface pseudomonads [Powers et al. (2002) FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 41:115-123]. During this report period, we have extended these results to include indigenous metal resistant subsurface microorganisms cultivated from the Field Research Center (FRC), in Oak Ridge Tennessee.

  9. Planning and costing adaptation of perennial crop systems to climate change: Coffee and banana in Rwanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngabitsinze, Jean Chrysostome; Mukashema, Adrie; Ikirezi, Mireille; Niyitanga, Fidele

    2011-10-15

    The Rwandan economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since agricultural production in Rwanda depends almost exclusively on the quality of the rainy season and specific temperature ranges, it makes the country particularly vulnerable to climate variability and change. The study objective of evaluating and costing the most suitable climate change adaptation measures for this geographic context responds to the Rwandan Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2008-2012 (EDPRS) (MINECOFIN 2007), in which climate change and its adverse impacts were recently identified as a high priority. This study has particularly focused on coffee and banana farming systems and aimed at analysing shocks due to climate change from farmer to policymaker perspectives. The study found that in the last 30 years, Rwanda has experienced a series of climate fluctuations in terms of frequency, intensity, and persistence of existing extremes. Heavy rains, storms, heatwaves and droughts are the observed manifestations of climate change in specific areas of Rwanda. Changing weather patterns have an adverse impact on the country's agricultural production and thus on the country's GDP. Adaptation options for Rwanda include the following efficiency-enhancing agricultural interventions: 1. Adaption of crop calendars to new climate patterns (more effective distribution of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides). 2. Investments in farming equipment. 3. Improvement of extension services and research. 4. Restructuring of the institutional frameworks and development plans. Integrated water resources management (IWRM); setting up information systems for early warning systems and rapid intervention mechanisms; intense agri-pastoral activities; and research on climate-resilient varieties were identified as primary requirements for agricultural adaption to climate change. In addition, developing alternative energy sources (e.g., substituting firewood) and the promotion of non

  10. 生物有机肥施用期对香蕉枯萎病及土壤微生物的影响%Effects of Biological Fertilizer Applications on Banana Wilt Disease and Soil Microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁文娟; 曹群; 赵兰凤; 刘小峰; 柳影; 杨盼盼; 李华兴

    2014-01-01

    Banana Fusarium Wilt, a soil borne diseases caused by a fungus, has severely affected banana production. Under field conditions, the effects of biological fertilizer on Banana Fusarium Wilt and soil microorganisms were studied using a completely randomized block de-sign. At basal and vegetative stages, applying biological fertilizer combined with chemical fertilizer obviously promoted banana growth, lead-ing to greater stem diameter, blade width and yields of banana after 270 d of transplanting than at other growth stages. When processed in BOF2, the average output of banana per district was up to 288 kg, significantly higher than the rest treatments. Applying biological fertilizer during vegetative period significantly reduced the occurrence of banana wilt and delayed the onset of banana wilt. Compared with the chemi-cal fertilizer control, the disease index was decreased by 54%by biological fertilizer applied at vegetative growth stage. Application of bio-logical fertilizer at the basal stage improved the population of soil bacteria and actinomycetes, but reduced that of fungi. Soil catalase, inver-tase, urease and acid phosphatase activities were all improved by biological fertilizer. The disease index was significantly negatively corre-lated with the number of both bacteria and actinomycetes in soil, but significantly positively with the number of fungi in soil. The findings suggest that application of biological fertilizer at banana vegetative period could improve soil microorganism structure, promote soil enzyme activities, and reduce and/or delay banana wilt disease occurrence.%在大田条件下,采用完全随机区组试验方法研究生物有机肥施用期对香蕉枯萎病和土壤微生物的影响。结果表明,在基肥期(BOF1)和营养生长期(BOF2)施用生物有机肥对香蕉生长表现出明显的促进作用,移栽后第270 d,BOF1和BOF2处理的茎围、叶宽和产量均高于其他处理,BOF2

  11. SHADE: A Shape-Memory-Activated Device Promoting Ankle Dorsiflexion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaccio, S.; Viscuso, S.; Rossini, M.; Magoni, L.; Pirovano, S.; Villa, E.; Besseghini, S.; Molteni, F.

    2009-08-01

    Acute post-stroke rehabilitation protocols include passive mobilization as a means to prevent contractures. A device (SHADE) that provides repetitive passive motion to a flaccid ankle by using shape memory alloy actuators could be of great help in providing this treatment. A suitable actuator was designed as a cartridge of approximately 150 × 20 × 15 mm, containing 2.5 m of 0.25 mm diameter NiTi wire. This actuator was activated by Joule’s effect employing a 7 s current input at 0.7 A, which provided 10 N through 76 mm displacement. Cooling and reset by natural convection took 30 s. A prototype of SHADE was assembled with two thermoplastic shells hinged together at the ankle and strapped on the shin and foot. Two actuators were fixed on the upper shell while an inextensible thread connected each NiTi wire to the foot shell. The passive ankle motion (passive range of motion, PROM) generated by SHADE was evaluated optoelectronically on three flaccid patients (58 ± 5 years old); acceptability was assessed by a questionnaire presented to further three flaccid patients (44 ± 11.5 years old) who used SHADE for 5 days, 30 min a day. SHADE was well accepted by all patients, produced good PROM, and caused no pain. The results prove that suitable limb mobilization can be produced by SMA actuators.

  12. Developing and Testing Smartphone Game Applications for Physical Activity Promotion in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Kacie Chanelle

    2013-01-01

    Though the benefits of physical activity are numerous and well-known, very few adolescents are meeting physical activity recommendations. Moreover, past research shows that physical activity declines with increasing age with this decline beginning in adolescence. One approach to promote physical activity is through mobile technology such as a mobile phone. Since mobile phone ownership is relatively high (77%) and there is no digital divide by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status, mobile pho...

  13. Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamadian, Hashem; Ghannaee Arani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework. Methods This cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, so...

  14. Activated Cdc42-associated kinase Ack1 promotes prostate cancer progression via androgen receptor tyrosine phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Nupam P.; Liu, Yuanbo; Majumder, Samarpan; Warren, Maria R.; Parker, Carol E.; Mohler, James L.; Earp, H. Shelton; Whang, Young E.

    2007-01-01

    Activation of the androgen receptor (AR) may play a role in androgen-independent progression of prostate cancer. Multiple mechanisms of AR activation, including stimulation by tyrosine kinases, have been postulated. We and others have recently shown involvement of activated Cdc42-associated tyrosine kinase Ack1 in advanced human prostate cancer. Here we provide the molecular basis for interplay between Ack1 and AR in prostate cancer cells. Activated Ack1 promoted androgen-independent growth o...

  15. Desired features of smartphone applications promoting physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Carolyn; Bock, Beth

    2011-12-01

    Approximately one-third of adults in the United States are physically inactive. This is a significant public health concern as physical activity (PA) can influence the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. To minimize these health risks, effective PA interventions must be developed and disseminated to the vast number of individuals who remain sedentary. Smartphone technology presents an exciting opportunity for delivering PA interventions remotely. Although a number of PA applications are currently available for smartphones, these "apps" are not based on established theories of health behavior change and most do not include evidence-based features (e.g., reinforcement and goal setting). Our aim was to collect formative data to develop a smartphone PA app that is empirically and theoretically-based and incorporates user preferences. We recruited 15 sedentary adults to test three currently available PA smartphone apps and provide qualitative and quantitative feedback. Findings indicate that users have a number of specific preferences with regard to PA app features, including that apps provide automatic tracking of PA (e.g., steps taken and calories burned), track progress toward PA goals, and integrate a music feature. Participants also preferred that PA apps be flexible enough to be used with several types of PA, and have well-documented features and user-friendly interfaces (e.g., a one-click main page). When queried by the researcher, most participants endorsed including goal-setting and problem-solving features. These findings provide a blue print for developing a smartphone PA app that incorporates evidence-based components and user preferences.

  16. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  17. Nematode resistance in bananas : screening results on some new Mycosphaerella resistant banana hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Quénéhervé, Patrick; Salmon, F.; Topart, Patrick; Horry, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Banana hybrids with resistance to Yellow Sigatoka and Black Leaf Streak disease were evaluated for resistance to the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis and to the lesion nematode Pratylenchus coVeae in a growth chamber at 24-28. Plants produced by tissue culture were acclimatised for 6 weeks prior to inoculation. Forty-five days after inoculation with nematodes, the root systems were processed and nematode numbers assessed. Two cultivars of Grande Naine (Musa AAA, Cavendish subgroup, ITC12...

  18. Solar energy profit on banana drying; Autilizacao da energia solar na secagem de bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowray, H.G.; Buckle, K.A.; Hamey, P.; Pavenayotin, P.

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes a system for banana and other fruits drying using solar energy. This system, with capacity of 500 kg of fruit per time, use a plane solar collector device with 50 m deg 2 of area. The aspects of the cost of the solar unit and the performance of the system, when compared to the other drying devices was also shown 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Chu, Yi-Fang; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2002-12-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.

  20. Mutation of the TERT promoter, switch to active chromatin, and monoallelic TERT expression in multiple cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Josh Lewis; Theodorescu, Dan; Vogelstein, Bert; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-11-01

    Somatic mutations in the promoter of the gene for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) are the most common noncoding mutations in cancer. They are thought to activate telomerase, contributing to proliferative immortality, but the molecular events driving TERT activation are largely unknown. We observed in multiple cancer cell lines that mutant TERT promoters exhibit the H3K4me2/3 mark of active chromatin and recruit the GABPA/B1 transcription factor, while the wild-type allele retains the H3K27me3 mark of epigenetic silencing; only the mutant promoters are transcriptionally active. These results suggest how a single-base-pair mutation can cause a dramatic epigenetic switch and monoallelic expression. PMID:26515115

  1. Efficient LEC2 activation of OLEOSIN expression requires two neighboring RY elements on its promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As the main structural protein of oil body,OLEOSIN is highly expressed only during seed development. OLEOSIN promoter is a very useful tool for seed-specific gene engineering and seed bioreactor designing. The B3 domain transcription factor leafy cotyledon2 (LEC2) plays an important role in regulating seed development and seed-specific gene expression. Here,we first report how seed-specific B3 domain transcription factor leafy cotyledon2 (LEC2) efficiently activates OLEOSIN expression. The central promoter region of OLEOSIN,responsible for seed specificity and LEC2 activation,was determined by 5’-deletion analysis. Binding experiments in yeast cells and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that LEC2 specifically bound to two conserved RY elements in this region. In transient expression assays,mutation in either RY element dramatically reduced LEC2 activation of OLEOSIN promoter activity,while double mutation abolished it. Analysis of the distribution of RY elements in seed-specific genes activated by LEC2 also supported the idea that genes containing neighboring RY elements responded strongly to LEC2 activation. Therefore,we conclude that two neighboring RY elements are essential for efficient LEC2 activation of OLEOSIN expression. These findings will help us better utilize seed-specific promoter activity.

  2. An Exploratory Study of Elementary Classroom Teachers' Physical Activity Promotion from a Social Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin A.; Buchan, Heather; Perreault, Melanie; Doan, Rob; Doutis, Panayiotis; Weaver, Robert Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Despite its recommended use, physical activity promotion in the academic classroom (PAPAC) has received little attention in terms of the factors that help to facilitate it. In this study, a social learning perspective was adopted to examine the role of physical activity biographies in generalist classroom teachers' (CTs) PAPAC. CTs (N = 213) were…

  3. Semantic relatedness among objects promotes the activation of multiple phonological codes during object naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppermann, F.; Jescheniak, J.D.; Schriefers, H.J.; Görges, F.

    2010-01-01

    In a picture-word interference experiment the authors demonstrate that a semantic-categorical relation between a to-be-named target picture and a context picture promotes the phonological activation of the to-be-ignored context picture. No such phonological activation is observed if the objects are

  4. Efficient LEC2 activation of OLEOSIN expression requires two neighboring RY elements on its promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE NanYing; YANG Yang; LI YanDong; WANG LiLi; HUANG Ping; GAO Yin; An ChengCai

    2009-01-01

    As the main structural protein of oil body, OLEOSIN is highly expressed only during seed development. OLEOSIN promoter is a very useful tool for seed-specific gene engineering and seed bioreactor designing. The B3 domain transcription factor leafy cotyledon2 (LEC2) plays an important role in regulating seed development and seed-specific gene expression. Here, we first report how seed-specific B3 domain transcription factor leafy cotyledon2 (LEC2) efficiently activates OLEOSIN expression. The central promoter region of OLEOSIN, responsible for seed specificity and LEC2 activation, was determined by 5'-deletion analysis. Binding experiments in yeast cells and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that LEC2 specifically bound to two conserved RY elements in this region, in transient expression assays, mutation in either RY element dramatically reduced LEC2 activation of OLEOSIN promoter activity, while double mutation abolished it. Analysis of the distribution of RY elements in seed-specific genes activated by LEC2 also supported the idea that genes containing neighboring RY elements responded strongly to LEC2 activation. Therefore, we conclude that two neighboring RY elements are essential for efficient LEC2 activation of OLEOSIN expression. These findings will help us better utilize seed-specific promoter activity.

  5. Transcriptional activation of the nitrogenase promoter in vitro: adenosine nucleotides are required for inhibition of NIFA activity by NIFL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eydmann, T; Söderbäck, E; Jones, T; Hill, S; Austin, S; Dixon, R

    1995-03-01

    The enhancer-binding protein NIFA is required for transcriptional activation of nif promoters by the alternative holoenzyme form of RNA polymerase, which contains the sigma factor sigma 54 (sigma N). NIFA hydrolyzes nucleoside triphosphates to catalyze the isomerization of closed promoter complexes to transcriptionally competent open complexes. The activity of NIFA is antagonized by the regulatory protein NIFL in response to oxygen and fixed nitrogen in vivo. We have investigated the requirement for nucleotides in the formation and stability of open promoter complexes by NIFA and inhibition of its activity by NIFL at the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifH promoter. Open complexes formed by sigma 54-containing RNA polymerase are considerably more stable to heparin challenge in the presence of GTP than in the presence of ATP. This differential stability is most probably a consequence of GTP being the initiating nucleotide at this promoter. Adenosine nucleosides are specifically required for Azotobacter vinelandii NIFL to inhibit open complex formation by native NIFA, and the nucleoside triphosphatase activity of NIFA is strongly inhibited by NIFL under these conditions. We propose a model in which NIFL modulates the activity of NIFA via an adenosine nucleotide switch. PMID:7868590

  6. Situations of decontamination promotion activities. Efforts by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Fukushima Revitalization Headquarters, Decontamination Promotion Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the decontamination of the soil contaminated with radioactive materials, decontamination is on the way in compliance with the 'Act on Special Measures Concerning the Handling of Environmental Pollution by Radioactive Materials by the NPS Accident Associated with the Tohoku District - Off the Pacific Ocean' (hereinafter, the Act on Special Measures). Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), as the party concerned to the accident, is cooperating with decontamination activities conducted by countries and municipalities under the Act on Special Measures. Total number of people cooperated by the Decontamination Promotion Office amounts to about 120,000 people. The cooperation to the decontamination by countries and municipalities covers the following fields: provision of knowledge of radiation, training of site management and supervisors, and proposal such as the decontamination method suitable for the site. As cooperation to various monitoring, there is a traveling monitoring that performs radiation measurement from the vehicles. As cooperation in the farming and industrial resumption toward the reconstruction, the group has implemented support for the distribution promotion of the holdup that was stuck in distribution due to contamination with radioactive substances. As decontamination related technology, the following are performed: (1) preparation of radiation understanding promotion tool, (2) development of precise individual dose measurement technology, and (3) development and utilization of decontamination effect analysis program. In the future, this group will perform the follow-up for decontamination, and measures toward the lifting of evacuation order. It will install the basis to perform various technical analyses on decontamination, and will further intensify technical cooperation. (A.O.)

  7. Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Promotes Fibrosis and Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in MRC-5 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tang, Su; Tang, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening hypoxemic respiratory disorder with high incidence and mortality. ALI usually manifests as widespread inflammation and lung fibrosis with the accumulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors and collagen. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has a significant role in regulation of inflammation but little is known about its roles in lung fibrosis or ALI. This study aimed to define the role and possible regulatory mechanism of TSLP in lung fibrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS We cultured human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells and overexpressed or inhibited TSLP by the vector or small interfering RNA transfection. Then, the pro-fibrotic factors skeletal muscle actin alpha (α-SMA) and collagen I, and the 4 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) - MAPK7, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) - were detected by Western blot. RESULTS Results showed that TSLP promoted the production of α-SMA and collagen I (Pmechanism of fibrosis. PMID:27385084

  8. Enhancer activity of Helitron in sericin-1 gene promoter from Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Li, Chun-Feng; Wu, Jie; Wei, Jun-Hong; Zou, Yong; Han, Min-Jin; Zhou, Ze-Yang

    2016-06-01

    Sericin is a kind of water-soluble protein expressed specifically in the middle silk gland of Bombyx mori. When the sericin-1 gene promoter was cloned and a transgenic vector was constructed to express a foreign protein, a specific Helitron, Bmhel-8, was identified in the sericin-1 gene promoter sequence in some genotypes of Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina. Given that the Bmhel-8 Helitron transposon was present only in some genotypes, it could be the source of allelic variation in the sericin-1 promoter. The length of the sericin-1 promoter sequence is approximately 1063 or 643 bp. The larger size of the sequence or allele is ascribed to the presence of Bmhel-8. Silkworm genotypes can be homozygous for either the shorter or larger promoter sequence or heterozygous, containing both alleles. Bmhel-8 in the sericin-1 promoter exhibits enhancer activity, as demonstrated by a dual-luciferase reporter system in BmE cell lines. Furthermore, Bmhel-8 displays enhancer activity in a sericin-1 promoter-driven gene expression system but does not regulate the tissue-specific expression of sericin-1. PMID:27067405

  9. DNA damage in female workers exposed to pesticides in banana plantations at Limon, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide use in Costa Rica is very high and all year round. A high percentage of what is sprayed remains in the environment and in the living organisms around. This situation brings contamination and health problems to people in contact with them. The onset of adverse effects may be in the short or long term, and symptoms vary widely, from headaches to cancer. Much research in the area has been devoted to acute or chronic effects, and not until recently to the genotoxic effect of pesticides. This study evaluated the genotoxic effect of pesticide used in banana packing activities, using the comet assay (single cell electrophoresis) as the biological marker in lymphocytes. This was a cases-control double blind study of 30 exposed women from 15 banana farms and 28 women not occupationally exposed to pesticides from the same geographic area. Results show damage to single straded DNA after working from 5 to 15 years (R2=0.12). In Costa Rica we do not have an historical record of the kind of pesticides used in banana farms, the period of time and for how long were they used. This prevented further analysis concerning dose, frequency of exposure and use of new or old kind of pesticides in the farms in relation to DNA damage. The comet assay is of value in the genetic monitoring of pesticide exposed populations. (Author)

  10. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Fruit Softening Related Gene Mannanase from Banana Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Jun-ping; SU Jing; CHEN Wei-xin

    2006-01-01

    A 1 250 bp cDNA fragment encoding β-mannanase, named MaMAN, was cloned from banana (Musa spp cv. Baxi) fruit using degenerate primers designed with reference to the conserved nucleic acid sequences of known β-mannanase genes by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that MaMAN cDNA encompassed a 1 085 bp open-reading frame (ORF), encoding a predicted polypeptide of 395 amino acids. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of MaMAN and other putative β-mannanases showed that MaMAN has an identity of 86, 70, 69, 54, and 57%, respectively, to β-mannanases from tomato, lettuce, arabidopsis, carrot and oryza sativa. The catalytic residues: Asn203, Glu204, Glu318 and the active site residues: Arg86, His277, Tyr279, and Trp360, which were strictly conserved in the glycoside hydrolase family 5 to which all 3-mannanases belonged, were found in MaMAN. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the level of MaMAN transcript in the pulp increased during banana fruit ripening, suggesting that MaMAN was likely to be involved highly in banana fruit softening.

  11. In-depth proteomic analysis of banana (Musa spp.) fruit with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Musa ssp. is among the world's leading fruit crops. Although a strong interest on banana biochemistry exists in the scientific community, focused on metabolite composition, proteins have been scarcely investigated even if they play an important role in food allergy and stability, are a source of biologically active peptides, and can provide information about nutritional aspects of this fruit. In this work we have employed the combinatorial peptide ligand libraries after different types of protein extractions, for searching the very low-abundance proteins in banana. The use of advanced MS techniques and Musa ssp. mRNAs database in combination with the Uniprot_viridiplantae database allowed us to identify 1131 proteins. Among this huge amount of proteins we found several already known allergens such as Mus a 1, pectinesterase, superoxide dismutase, and potentially new allergens. Additionally several enzymes involved in degradation of starch granules and strictly correlated to ripening stage were identified. This is the first in-depth exploration of the banana fruit proteome and one of the largest descriptions of the proteome of any vegetable system. PMID:23161558

  12. Functional and Activity Analysis of Cattle UCP3 Promoter with MRFs-Related Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Houqiang Xu; Xiang Chen; Zhongwei Liu; Wen Zhang; Dan Xia

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is mainly expressed in muscle. It plays an important role in muscle, but less research on the regulation of cattle UCP3 has been performed. In order to elucidate whether cattle UCP3 can be regulated by muscle-related factors, deletion of cattle UCP3 promoter was amplified and cloned into pGL3-basic, pGL3-promoter and PEGFP-N3 vector, respectively, then transfected into C2C12 myoblasts cells and UCP3 promoter activity was measured using the dual-Luciferase reporter ...

  13. URG11 promotes gastric cancer growth and invasion by activation of β-catenin signalling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Rui; Xia, Lin; Sun, Shiren; Lian, Zhaorui; Zou, Xue; Gao, Juan; Xie, Huahong; Fan, Rui; Song, Jiugang; Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Jie; Fan, Daiming

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Upregulated gene 11 (URG11), a new gene upregulated by Heptatitis B Virus X protein (HBx), was previously shown to activate β-catenin and promote hepatocellular growth and tumourigenesis. Although the oncogenic role of URG11 in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma has been well documented, its relevance to other human malignancies and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we reported a novel function of URG11 to promote gastric cancer growth and meta...

  14. Activity screening of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from alfalfa rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    shahla pashapour; Hossein besharati; Mahmoud rezazadeh; Ahmad Alimadadi; Nadergholi Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Some rhizobacteria by various mechanisms influence plant growth as they are called plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Scientists identified some PGPR characters involved in promoting plant growth, while all these characters are not able to study. The aim of this study was to evaluate PGP activities of bacterial isolates, (45 isolates belonged to rhizobium and 2 bacterial isolates belonged to Pseudomonas fluorescens), which were isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) r...

  15. 广西南宁市香蕉产业发展探讨%Discussion on the Development of Banana Industry of Nanning City in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亭君; 林作晓; 周金娇; 陈永宁

    2011-01-01

    在分析国内外香蕉产业概况和对南宁市香蕉产业现状调查的基础上,针对南宁市香蕉生产存在的制约因素,提出南宁市香蕉产业发展的七大对策,即加快南宁市香蕉产业化生产进程,实行香蕉标准化生产,推广香蕉“无伤化”采收包装和“冷链”贮藏运输技术,减少损耗、提高商品价值,努力实现香蕉生产基地与销售市场零对接,设立市级“香蕉产业协调办公室”,建立“香蕉期货交易中心”和采取坚决有力的措施控制香蕉灾害性病害的蔓延扩大,为南宁市香蕉产业的发展提供理论参考。%Based on analysis of industry overview in China and abroad and investigation on banana industry status of Nanning city, aimed to restrictive factors existing in banana production of Nanning city, seven countermeasures to develop banana industry of Nanning city were put forward, including accelerating the banana industrial process, standardizing production, promoting the banana recovery packaging without wound and the store and transportation technologies with the cold chain, reducing loss and improving commodity value, realizing the connection of banana production base with sell market, establishing the banana industry coordination office and futures transaction center, adoping the fim~ powerful measure to control expansion of banana catastrophie diseases, and so on, which provided the theory reference for the Nanning banana industry's development.

  16. Banana Wars and the Multiplicity of Conflicts in Commodity Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Jansen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available – In the Shadows of State and Capital: The United Fruit Company, Popular Struggle, and Agrarian Restructuring in Ecuador, 1900-1995, by S. Striffler. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2002. – Banana Wars: Power, Production, and History in the Americas, edited by S. Striffler and M. Moberg. Durham: Duke U.P., 2003. – Banana Wars: The Anatomy of a Trade Dispute, edited by T.E. Josling and T.G. Taylor. Oxon: CABI Publishing, 2003. – Smart Alliance: How a Global Corporation and Environmental Activists Transformed a Tarnished Brand, by J.G. Taylor and P.J. Scharlin. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004. – Banana Wars: The Price of Free Trade: A Caribbean Perspective, by G. Myers. London: Zed, 2004. – The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898-1934, by L.D. Langley. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources Inc. Revised 2002, first published in 1983.

  17. In vitro propagation and mutation induction in the banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The banana is the second most important fruit crop in India, both in areas (3.22 x 105 ha) and production (57.83 x 105 t). It accounts for 11% of the total area under fruit crops and over 18% of the total fruit production. Because of its high productivity and maximum returns, there is considerable scope for the expansion of banana cultivation. The banana is propagated vegetatively by suckers. A limited number of suckers (5-10) are produced from a plant in 1 year and therefore there is a shortage of planting material, which limits its multiplication. Micropropagation through tissue culture techniques would accelerate banana cultivation by improving its multiplication rate, productivity and quality. 4 refs

  18. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-01-01

    Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish) collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. ...

  19. Tumour-promoting activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated or nitrated derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Kentaro; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji; Yanagida, Mitsuaki

    2016-03-01

    Various types of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in diesel exhaust particles are thought to contribute to carcinogenesis in mammals. Although the carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and tumour-initiating activity of these compounds have been evaluated, their tumour-promoting activity is unclear. In the present study, to determine the tumour-inducing activity of PACs, including previously known mutagenic compounds in atmospheric environments, a transformation assay for promoting activity mediated by the release of contact inhibition was conducted for six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) and seven nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs) using mouse embryonic fibroblast cells transfected with the v-Ha-ras gene (Bhas 42 cells). Of these, two PAHs [benzo[k]fluoranthene (B[k]FA) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]FA)], one oxy-PAH [6H-benzo[cd]pyren-6-one (BPO)] and two nitro-PAHs (3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one and 6-nitrochrysene) were found to exhibit particularly powerful tumour-promoting activity (≥10 foci following exposure to BPO). Further, an HO-1 antioxidant response activation was observed following exposure to B[k]FA, B[b]FA and BPO, suggesting that the induction of tumour-promoting activity in these compounds is correlated with the dysfunction of signal transduction via AhR-mediated responses and/or oxidative stress responses.

  20. Banana orbits in elliptic tokamaks with hole currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Puerta, J.

    2015-03-01

    Ware Pinch is a consequence of breaking of up-down symmetry due to the inductive electric field. This symmetry breaking happens, though up-down symmetry for magnetic surface is assumed. In previous work Ware Pinch and banana orbits were studied for tokamak magnetic surface with ellipticity and triangularity, but up-down symmetry. Hole currents appear in large tokamaks and their influence in Ware Pinch and banana orbits are now considered here for tokamaks magnetic surfaces with ellipticity and triangularity.

  1. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Valérie Kagy; Maurice Wong; Henri Vandenbroucke; Christophe Jenny; Cécile Dubois; Anthony Ollivier; Céline Cardi; Pierre Mournet; Valérie Tuia; Nicolas Roux; Jaroslav Doležel; Xavier Perrier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banks...

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MALAYSIAN WILD BANANA MUSA ACUMINATA

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD ASIF JAVED; MAK CHAI; ROFINA YASMIN OTHMAN

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen populations of Musa acuminata ranging from populations in the lowlands of northern (ssp. siamea) to central Malaysian region (ssp. malaccensis) and highland banana (ssp. truncata) were characterized based on chromosome number and 46 morphological characters. A large amount of variation was observed within the populations. However, only highland bananas appeared morphologically distinct. Lowland populations both from northern and central Malaysia were found to be overlapping a...

  3. Elucidating the resistance response of irradiated banana cv. Lakatan to banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) infection transmitted by the banana aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)-resistant banana variety Lakatan through gamma-irradiation had been successfully done as part of integrated management strategies against the disease. Ten irradiated Lakatan lines exhibited resistance to BBTV. Resistance of these lines was evaluated based on symptomatology and host-virus relationship. Insect colony development on Lakatan banana irradiated lines was monitored by artificially inoculating viruliferous banana aphids, Pentalonia nigronervosa, and counting the resulting number of aphids per plant at weekly intervals. Resistance to virus multiplication of Lakatan irradiated lines was characterized by quantifying the virus titer through Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results showed that not all lines were suitable as hosts in establishing aphid population. The reaction of the mutant lines to the vector and the pathogen varied to some extent. Disease incidence in some cases was correlated with aphid preference. Disease incidence was significantly higher (50%) on lines that were preferred by aphids and lower (50%) in those that were not colonized. Some mutant lines with very low aphid colony count, however showed high BBTV incidence. Variability in the results could be affected by other factors such as the developmental stage of the plant and prevailing environmental conditions during the conduct of the experiment. Virus titer was also reduced on these mutant lines, thus reduced virus multiplication. Non-irradiated (control) Lakatan banana had comparably high population of aphids, high disease incidence, and high virus titer

  4. Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Peng, Huan-huan; Xiao, Yun-yi; Li, Xue-ping; Chen, Wei-xin; He, Quan-guang; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1-MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1-MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components.

  5. Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of the mouse claudin-5 promoter by estrogen receptor alpha and beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Malgorzata; Steinberg, Katrin; Förster, Carola Y

    2014-07-01

    Claudin-5 is an integral membrane protein and a critical component of endothelial tight junctions that control paracellular permeability. Claudin-5 is expressed at high levels in the brain vascular endothelium. Estrogens have multiple effects on vascular physiology and function. The biological actions of estrogens are mediated by two different estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER alpha and ER beta. Estrogens have beneficial effects in several vascular disorders. Recently we have cloned and characterized a murine claudin-5 promoter and demonstrated 17beta-estradiol (E2)-mediated regulation of claudin-5 in brain and heart microvascular endothelium on promoter, mRNA and protein level. Sequence analysis revealed a putative estrogen response element (ERE) and a putative Sp1 transcription factor binding site in the claudin-5 promoter. The aim of the present study was to further characterize the estrogen-responsive elements of claudin-5 promoter. First, we introduced point mutations in ERE or Sp1 site in -500/+111 or in Sp1 site of -268/+111 claudin-5 promoter construct, respectively. Basal and E2-mediated transcriptional activation of mutated constructs was abrogated in the luciferase reporter gene assay. Next, we examined whether estrogen receptor subtypes bind to the claudin-5 promoter region. For this purpose we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using anti-estrogen receptor antibodies and cellular lysates of E2-treated endothelial cells followed by quantitative PCR analysis. We show enrichment of claudin-5 promoter fragments containing the ERE- and Sp1-binding site in immunoprecipitates after E2 treatment. Finally, in a gel mobility shift assay, we demonstrated DNA-protein interaction of both ER subtypes at ERE. In summary, this study provides evidence that both a non-consensus ERE and a Sp1 site in the claudin-5 promoter are functional and necessary for the basal and E2-mediated activation of the promoter.

  6. Plant extracts for controlling the post-harvest anthracnose of banana fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.S. Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In banana, fruit rot is incited by Colletotrichum musae which has been the most serious post-harvest disease of immature and mature fruit. The usual control by fungicides prohibited in many countries reduces their commercial value. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of alternative products to the synthetic fungicides. First, berries naturally infected by anthracnose were immersed into Azadirachta indica and citric extracts at 2 and 4% (v/v for 3 minutes and stored for 11 days under environmental conditions. Next, other berries were immersed into essential oil emulsions of Allium sativum, Copaifera langsdorfii, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Eugenia caryophyllata at 5% for 3 minutes but stored for 11 days. Berries immersed into distilled water were used as control-treatments. The percentage of disease incidence observed in the control-treatment was similar to the ones observed in the extract of A. indica at 2%. The control-treatment showed disease severity of 75.13% and the percentage of disease control was 20.85%. Fruit immersed into distilled water presented less effectiveness than the ones immersed into citric extracts, which promoted the highest effectiveness. Citric extract at 4% was the most efficient treatment because the disease incidence was 19.44%, the disease severity was 9.34% and the disease control was 90.16%. Less severity and, consequently, more disease control were achieved by immersing the berries into the emulsion of essential oil of A. sativum, followed by treatments with C. langsdorfii, E. caryophyllata and C. zeylanicum.

  7. Treatment and decolorization of biologically treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using banana peel as novel biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Rafie Rushdy; Chong, Mei Fong

    2014-01-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of applying natural, chemically and thermally modified banana peel as sorbent for the treatment of biologically treated POME. Characteristics of these sorbents were analyzed with BET surface area and SEM. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to remove color, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannin and lignin, and biological oxygen demand (BOD) onto natural banana peel (NBP), methylated banana peel (MBP), and banana peel activated carbon (BPAC) respectively. The variables of pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time were investigated in this study. Maximum percentage removal of color, TSS, COD, BOD, and tannin and lignin (95.96%, 100%, 100%, 97.41%, and 76.74% respectively) on BPAC were obtained at optimized pH of 2, contact time of 30 h and adsorbent dosage of 30 g/100 ml. The isotherm data were well described by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model with correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. Kinetic of adsorption was examined by Langergren pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and second order. The pseudo second order was identified to be the governing mechanism with high correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. PMID:24321284

  8. Banana Algebra: Compositional syntactic language extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    We propose an algebra of languages and transformations as a means of compositional syntactic language extension. The algebra provides a layer of high-level abstractions built on top of languages (captured by context-free grammars) and transformations (captured by constructive catamorphisms......). The algebra is self-contained in that any term of the algebra specifying a transformation can be reduced to a constant catamorphism, before the transfor- mation is run. Thus, the algebra comes “for free” without sacrificing the strong safety and efficiency properties of constructive catamorphisms. The entire...... algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds...

  9. In vitro digestibility of nutrients in bananas and in vivo digestibility, effectiveness of nitrogen use in pig’s diets based on green and ripe bananas

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Cong, Oanh; Tran, Hiep; Le Huu, Hieu; Bindelle, Jérôme; Thewis, André; Vu Dinh, Ton

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the nutritional value, in vitro digestibility and in vivo digestibility in growing pigs offered diets containing 15% green and ripe bananas in meal form. Results showed that dry matter content (DM,%) in banana fruit (at green, semi-ripe, ripe stages), banana flower and stem were 13.77, 12.59, 14.10, 7.53 and 7.83% respectively; Gross energy of bananas are from 3734 to 4115 kcal/kg DM; CP and NDF content of green banana were higher than that of semi-ripe and r...

  10. hypoxia-inducible factors activate CD133 promoter through ETS family transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Ohnishi

    Full Text Available CD133 is a cellular surface protein that has been reported to be a cancer stem cell marker, and thus it is considered to be a potential target for cancer treatment. However, the mechanism regulating CD133 expression is not yet understood. In this study, we analyzed the activity of five putative promoters (P1-P5 of CD133 in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells and colon cancer cell line WiDr, and found that the activity of promoters, particularly of P5, is elevated by overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Deletion and mutation analysis identified one of the two E-twenty six (ETS binding sites (EBSs in the P5 region as being essential for its promoter activity induced by HIF-1α and HIF-2α. In addition, a chromatin imunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that HIF-1α and HIF-2α bind to the proximal P5 promoter at the EBSs. The immunoprecipitation assay showed that HIF-1α physically interacts with Elk1; however, HIF-2α did not bind to Elk1 or ETS1. Furthermore, knockdown of both HIF-1α and HIF-2α resulted in a reduction of CD133 expression in WiDr. Taken together, our results revealed that HIF-1α and HIF-2α activate CD133 promoter through ETS proteins.

  11. Recommendations for Promoting Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents in Germany. A Consensus Statement

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Christine; Beneke, Ralph; Bloch, Wilhelm; Bucksch, Jens; Dordel, Sigrid; Eiser, Stefanie; Ferrari, Nina; Koch, Benjamin; Krug, Susanne; Lawrenz, Wolfgang; Manz, Kristin; Naul, Roland; Oberhoffer, Renate; Quilling, Eike; Schulz, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Increasing physical activity and reduction of sedentary behaviour play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. However, the question of how much physical activity is useful for which target group is still a matter of debate. International guidelines (World Health Organization; European Association for the Study of Obesity), which are mainly based on expert opinions, recommend 60 min of physical activity every day. Age- and ...

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid activates Arf6 to promote the mesenchymal malignancy of renal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Shigeru; Mikami, Shuji; Sugino, Hirokazu; Yoshikawa, Ayumu; Hashimoto, Ari; Onodera, Yasuhito; Furukawa, Shotaro; Handa, Haruka; Oikawa, Tsukasa; OKADA, YASUNORI; Oya, Mototsugu; Sabe, Hisataka

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of mesenchymal properties by cancer cells is critical for their malignant behaviour, but regulators of the mesenchymal molecular machinery and how it is activated remain elusive. Here we show that clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) frequently utilize the Arf6-based mesenchymal pathway to promote invasion and metastasis, similar to breast cancers. In breast cancer cells, ligand-activated receptor tyrosine kinases employ GEP100 to activate Arf6, which then recruits AMAP1; and...

  13. Activated Notch Causes Deafness by Promoting a Supporting Cell Phenotype in Developing Auditory Hair Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Savoy-Burke; Felicia A Gilels; Wei Pan; Diana Pratt; Jianwen Que; Lin Gan; White, Patricia M.; Kiernan, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether activated Notch can promote a supporting cell fate during sensory cell differentiation in the inner ear. Methods An activated form of the Notch1 receptor (NICD) was expressed in early differentiating hair cells using a Gfi1-Cre mouse allele. To determine the effects of activated Notch on developing hair cells, Gfi1-NICD animals and their littermate controls were assessed at 5 weeks for hearing by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and distortion product...

  14. The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to 11 MPa. Molasses was used as the binder. According to some standard tests, it was found that briquettes produced with compaction pressure over 7 MPa passed both impact resistance and compressive strength tests. The density-pressure relationship and strength-pressure relationship over studied range were also developed and validated.

  15. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets. PMID:27052947

  16. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  17. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as ΔG, ΔS and ΔH were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L-1, the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g-1 at 25 ± 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of ΔH and ΔS obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''-1 and 1.37 J.mol''-1, respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol-1 when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  18. Orchestrated activation of mGluR5 and CB1 promotes neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Edleusa M L; Doria, Juliana G; Ferreira-Vieira, Talita H; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Ferguson, Stephen S G; Moreira, Fabricio A; Ribeiro, Fabiola M

    2016-08-20

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) exhibit a functional interaction, as CB1 regulates pre-synaptic glutamate release and mGluR5 activation increases endocannabinoid synthesis at the post-synaptic site. Since both mGluR5 and CB1 promote neuroprotection, we delineated experiments to investigate a possible link between CB1 and mGluR5 activation in the induction of neuroprotection using primary cultured corticostriatal neurons. We find that either the pharmacological blockade or the genetic ablation of either mGluR5 or CB1 can abrogate both CB1- and mGluR5-mediated neuroprotection against glutamate insult. Interestingly, decreased glutamate release and diminished intracellular Ca(2+) do not appear to play a role in CB1 and mGluR5-mediated neuroprotection. Rather, these two receptors work cooperatively to trigger the activation of cell signaling pathways to promote neuronal survival, which involves MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT activation. Interestingly, although mGluR5 activation protects postsynaptic terminals and CB1 the presynaptic site, intact signaling of both receptors is required to effectively promote neuronal survival. In conclusion, mGluR5 and CB1 act in concert to activate neuroprotective cell signaling pathways and promote neuronal survival.

  19. Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Michelle S; Duda, Joan L; Guerin, Eva; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2012-03-02

    A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC) Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity) trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion.

  20. Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortier Michelle S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion.

  1. Development of complex sales promotion of educational services in the specialty «Management of innovation activities»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Timokhina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article describes the complex of sales promotion of educational services in the specialty "Management of innovation activity" and proposed plan of decision to boost sales promotion for a new specialty in the Ukrainian education market.

  2. Transcription Activity of Ectogenic Human Carcinoembryonic Antigen Promoter in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells A549

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Weining; FANG Huijuan; XU Yongjian; XIONG Shendao; CAO Yong; SONG Qingfeng; ZENG Daxiong; ZHANG Huilan

    2006-01-01

    The transcription activity of ectogenic human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) promoter in lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 was investigated for the further gene-targeting therapy. The reporter gene green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by CEA promoter and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter were relatively constructed and named plasmid pCEA-EGFP and pCMV-GFP respectively. The intensity of fluorescence was detected by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry analysis after the pCEA-GFP and pSNAV-GFP plasmids were transfected into A549 cells through liposome respectively. The results showed (4.08±0.63) % of the A549 cells transfected with pCEA-AFP plasmid expressed, significantly lower than that of the A549 cells transfected with pCMV-GFP [(43.27±3.54) %]. It was suggested that ectogenic human CEA promoter in lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 was weakly expressed. The distinct specificity of CEA promoter in CEA high expression cells was regarded as a tool in selective gene therapy, but the transcription activity of ectogenic human CEA promoter was needed to increase in the future.

  3. 海南香蕉产业风险及预警对策研究%Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕群; 曾小红; 方佳

    2011-01-01

    在概述海南香蕉产业现状的基础上,分析了海南香蕉产业面临的风险,具体包括市场风险、自然灾害、信息风险和生产风险4个方面.为了促进海南香蕉产业持续协调、高速发展,提出了相应的对策:一是加强香蕉产业预警工作的组织领导;二是构建香蕉产业预警机制,具体包括搭建海南香蕉产业预警分级系统、构建香蕉产业信息检测与收集系统、建立信息分析与决策系统以及建设预警信息发布与共享系统4个方面;三是加强香蕉产业应急处置能力建设;四是进一步完善香蕉产业风险防范保障体系;五是加快香蕉标准化生产,提高市场竞争力;六是加快发展中介组织提高产业组织化程度;七是大力开展香蕉创新技术培训,提高香蕉产业科技水平.%Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establish the forecasting mechanisms on banana industry, including four aspects. They are establishing the subordinate forecasting systems on Hainan banana industry; constructing information collecting and checking mechanisms of banana industry; establishing information analysis and decision - making systems and constructing information distribution and information sharing systems. The third is to promote the construction of urgency dealing abilities of banana industry. The fourth is to further perfect the risk - defending and protecting systems of banana industry in Hainan. The fifth is to accelerate the standard generation of banana to improve marketing competence

  4. Considerations on the promotional activity on the DIY market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai FÎNARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication is a component of the marketing mix of great importance for the success of companies on the market. Currently the promotional activity of companies is experiencing a variety of manifestations, the manufacturers and the distributors are always interested in finding ways to promote themselves differently, moreover to draw the attention of consumers and to produce the desired behavior among them. DIY market is a highly competitive market and the promotional techniques used by the companies in this field are very diverse. In this context, this paper aims at presenting a series of promotional aspects of the techniques used by two of the largest DIY companies on the Romanian market Dedeman and Praktiker.

  5. A new era for functional labeling of neurons: activity-dependent promoters have come of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eKawashima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic labeling of neurons with a specific response feature is an emerging technology for precise dissection of brain circuits that are functionally heterogeneous at the single-cell level. While immediate early gene mapping has been widely used for decades to identify brain regions which are activated by external stimuli, recent characterization of the promoter and enhancer elements responsible for neuronal activity-dependent transcription have opened new avenues for live imaging of active neurons. Indeed, these advancements provided the basis for a growing repertoire of novel experiments to address the role of active neuronal networks in cognitive behaviors. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the usage and development of activity-dependent promoters and discuss the future directions of this expanding new field.

  6. Neuritin: a gene induced by neural activity and neurotrophins that promotes neuritogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeve, G S; Ramakrishnan, M; Kramer, R; Hevroni, D; Citri, Y; Theill, L E

    1997-03-18

    Neural activity and neurotrophins induce synaptic remodeling in part by altering gene expression. A cDNA encoding a glycosylphoshatidylinositol-anchored protein was identified by screening for hippocampal genes that are induced by neural activity. This molecule, named neuritin, is expressed in postmitotic-differentiating neurons of the developing nervous system and neuronal structures associated with plasticity in the adult. Neuritin message is induced by neuronal activity and by the activity-regulated neurotrophins BDNF and NT-3. Purified recombinant neuritin promotes neurite outgrowth and arborization in primary embryonic hippocampal and cortical cultures. These data implicate neuritin as a downstream effector of activity-induced neurite outgrowth. PMID:9122250

  7. DNA Topoisomerases maintain promoters in a state competent for transcriptional activation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Madsen Pedersen

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of DNA topoisomerases in transcription, we have studied global gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells deficient for topoisomerases I and II and performed single-gene analyses to support our findings. The genome-wide studies show a general transcriptional down-regulation upon lack of the enzymes, which correlates with gene activity but not gene length. Furthermore, our data reveal a distinct subclass of genes with a strong requirement for topoisomerases. These genes are characterized by high transcriptional plasticity, chromatin regulation, TATA box presence, and enrichment of a nucleosome at a critical position in the promoter region, in line with a repressible/inducible mode of regulation. Single-gene studies with a range of genes belonging to this group demonstrate that topoisomerases play an important role during activation of these genes. Subsequent in-depth analysis of the inducible PHO5 gene reveals that topoisomerases are essential for binding of the Pho4p transcription factor to the PHO5 promoter, which is required for promoter nucleosome removal during activation. In contrast, topoisomerases are dispensable for constitutive transcription initiation and elongation of PHO5, as well as the nuclear entrance of Pho4p. Finally, we provide evidence that topoisomerases are required to maintain the PHO5 promoter in a superhelical state, which is competent for proper activation. In conclusion, our results reveal a hitherto unknown function of topoisomerases during transcriptional activation of genes with a repressible/inducible mode of regulation.

  8. Harpinxoo and Its Functional Domains Activate Pathogen-inducible Plant Promoters in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGJian-Ling; BAOZhi-Long; LIPing; CHENGuang-Yong; WANGJin-Sheng; DONGHan-Song

    2004-01-01

    Harpins are bacterial proteins that can enhance plant growth and defense against pathogens and insects. To elaborate whether harpins perform the diverse functions in coordination with the activation of specific promoters that contain particular elements, we cloned pathogen-inducible plant promoters PPP1, PPP2, and PPP3 from tobacco and investigated their responses to harpinxoo or its truncated fragments DEG, DIR, and DPR (domains for enhancing plant growth, insect resistance and pathogen resistance). PPP1 contains an internal repeat composed of two tandem 111bp fragments; 111bp in the repeat was deleted in PPP2. PPP3 contains a bacteria-inducible element; PPP1 and PPP2 additionally contain TAC-1 and Eli boxes inducible correspondingly by salicylic acid (SA) and elicitors. Function of cloned PPPs was confirmed based on their activation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants by Ralstonia solanacearum (Ralston) or SA. Harpinxoo, DEG, DIR, or DPR activated PPP1 and PPP2 but not PPP3, consistent with the presence of Eli boxes in promoters. PPP1 was ca. 3-fold more active than PPP2, suggesting that the internal repeat affects levels of the promoter activation.

  9. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides promote growth and activate cellulase: Evidence for a role of cellulase in cell expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oligosaccharides produced by the action of fungal cellulase on xyloglucans promoted the elongation of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) stem segments in a straight-growth bioassay designed for the determination of auxins. The oligosaccharides were most active at about 1 micromolar. We tested the relative growth-promoting activities of four HPLC-purified oligosaccharides which shared a common glucose4·xylose3 (XG7) core. The substituted oligosaccharides XG8 (glucose4·xylose3·galactose) and XG9n (glucose4·xylose3·galactose2) were more effective than XG7 itself and XG9 (glucose4·xylose3·galactose·fucose). The same oligosaccharides also promoted the degradation, assayed viscometrically, of xyloglucan by an acidic cellulase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. The oligosaccharides were highly active at 10-4 molar, causing up to a fourfold increase in activity, but the effect was still detectable at 1 micromolar. Those oligosaccharides (XG8 and XG9n) which best promoted growth, stimulated cellulase activity to the greatest extent. The oligosaccharides did not stimulate the action of the cellulase in an assay based on the conversion of [3H]xyloglucan to ethanol-soluble fragments. This suggests that the oligosaccharides enhanced the midchain hydrolysis of xyloglucan molecules (which would rapidly reduce the viscosity of the solution), at the expense of cleavage near the termini (which would yield ethanol-soluble products)

  10. THE ACTIVITY OF ARABIDOSPIS DLL PROMOTER IN TRANSGENIC TOBACCO PLANTS UNDER WATER STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Polóniová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we used the Cre/loxP recombination system to study the activity of the Arabidopsis DLL promoter under water stress treatment. For this, the T-DNA containing the Cre/loxP self-excision recombination cassette was introduced into tobacco genome via A. tumefaciens LBA 4404. The expression of the cre gene was regulated by the DLL promoter. On activity of the DLL the Cre recombinase was expected to remove Cre/loxP cassette. Transgenic nature of regenerated transgenic T0 tobacco plantlets was proved by GUS and PCR analyses. The selected 10 transgenic T0 plants were subjected to the water stress analyses under in vitro as well as under in vivo conditions. The osmotic stress experiments were performed with 10 % PEG and 100 mmol.l-1 mannitol (individually. The activity of the DLL was evaluated after 24 hours. For drought stress experiments, the watering was withheld for 10 days. The activity of the DLL was monitored using PCR approach. Under given abiotic stress conditions, no activity of the DLL was observed. The DLL promoter remained stable. It points out the DLL as the promoter with precise control of the gene expression with wide usability in plant biotechnology.

  11. Three promoters regulate the transcriptional activity of the human holocarboxylase synthetase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mengna; Malkaram, Sridhar A; Zempleni, Janos

    2013-11-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) is the only protein biotin ligase in the human proteome. HLCS-dependent biotinylation of carboxylases plays crucial roles in macronutrient metabolism. HLCS appears to be an essential part of multiprotein complexes in the chromatin that cause gene repression and contribute toward genome stability. Consistent with these essential functions, HLCS knockdown causes strong phenotypes including shortened life span and low stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster, and de-repression of long-terminal repeats in humans, other mammalian cell lines and Drosophila. Despite previous observations that the expression of HLCS depends on biotin status in rats and in human cell lines, little is known about the regulation of HLCS expression. The goal of this study was to identify promoters that regulate the expression of the human HLCS gene. Initially, the human HLCS locus was interrogated in silico using predictors of promoters including sequences of HLCS mRNA and expressed sequence tags, CpG islands, histone marks denoting transcriptionally poised chromatin, transcription factor binding sites and DNaseI hypersensitive regions. Our predictions revealed three putative HLCS promoters, denoted P1, P2 and P3. Promoters lacked a TATA box, which is typical for housekeeping genes. When the three promoters were cloned into a luciferase reporter plasmid, reporter gene activity was at least three times background noise in human breast, colon and kidney cell lines; activities consistently followed the pattern P1>P3>P2. Promoter activity depended on the concentration of biotin in culture media, but the effect was moderate. We conclude that we have identified promoters in the human HLCS gene.

  12. Transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana roots following inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chun-yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4, is considered the most lethal disease of Cavendish bananas in the world. The disease can be managed in the field by planting resistant Cavendish plants generated by somaclonal variation. However, little information is available on the genetic basis of plant resistance to Foc TR4. To a better understand the defense response of resistant banana plants to the Fusarium wilt pathogen, the transcriptome profiles in roots of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana challenged with Foc TR4 were compared. Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 103 million 90-bp clean pair end (PE reads, which were assembled into 88,161 unigenes (mean size = 554 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 61,706 (69.99% genes were identified, among which 21,273 and 50,410 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG mapped 33,243 (37.71% unigenes to 119 KEGG pathways. A total of 5,008 genes were assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, including disease defense and signal transduction. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis revealed large differences in the transcriptome profiles of the Foc TR4-resistant somaclonal variant and its susceptible wild-type. Expression patterns of genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP recognition, activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI, ion influx, and biosynthesis of hormones as well as pathogenesis-related (PR genes, transcription factors, signaling/regulatory genes, cell wall modification genes and genes with other functions were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that basal defense mechanisms are involved in the recognition of PAMPs, and that high levels of defense-related transcripts may contribute to Foc TR4 resistance in

  13. MRG15 activates the cdc2 promoter via histone acetylation in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, AndreAna N., E-mail: andreana.pena@gmail.com [Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Tominaga, Kaoru; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M. [Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Chromatin remodeling is required for transcriptional activation and repression. MRG15 (MORF4L1), a chromatin modulator, is a highly conserved protein and is present in complexes containing histone acetyltransferases (HATs) as well as histone deacetylases (HDACs). Loss of expression of MRG15 in mice and Drosophila results in embryonic lethality and fibroblast and neural stem/progenitor cells cultured from Mrg15 null mouse embryos exhibit marked proliferative defects when compared with wild type cells. To determine the role of MRG15 in cell cycle progression we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation with an antibody to MRG15 on normal human fibroblasts as they entered the cell cycle from a quiescent state, and analyzed various cell cycle gene promoters. The results demonstrated a 3-fold increase in MRG15 occupancy at the cdc2 promoter during S phase of the cell cycle and a concomitant increase in acetylated histone H4. H4 lysine 12 was acetylated at 24 h post-serum stimulation while there was no change in acetylation of lysine 16. HDAC1 and 2 were decreased at this promoter during cell cycle progression. Over-expression of MRG15 in HeLa cells activated a cdc2 promoter-reporter construct in a dose-dependent manner, whereas knockdown of MRG15 resulted in decreased promoter activity. In order to implicate HAT activity, we treated cells with the HAT inhibitor anacardic acid and determined that HAT inhibition results in loss of expression of cdc2 mRNA. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation with Tip60 localizes the protein to the same 110 bp stretch of the cdc2 promoter pulled down by MRG15. Additionally, we determined that cotransfection of MRG15 with the known associated HAT Tip60 had a cooperative effect in activating the cdc2 promoter. These results suggest that MRG15 is acting in a HAT complex involving Tip60 to modify chromatin via acetylation of histone H4 at the cdc2 promoter to activate transcription.

  14. Armazenamento refrigerado de banana 'Prata Anã' proveniente de cachos com 16, 18 e 20 semanas Refrigerated storage of 'Prata Anã' banana originating from 16, 18 e 20 week-old bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramilo Nogueira Martins

    2007-10-01

    and 20th weeks after the floral emission. From the clusters picked, the second bunches was used, separated in clusters with 5 fruits, washed and weighed (18 kg. Soon after, the fruits were wrapped with polyethylene packing of low density with 50mm of thickness under partial vacuum, conditioned in cardboard boxes and distributed on palets. After being wrapped and put on paletes, the fruits were transported to EPAMIG/CTNM, where they were stored in refrigeration chambers at 10 and 12ºC with a relative humidity of 95% for a period of 35 days, being analyzed before and after the refrigeration. The storage of 'Prata Anã' bananas, coming from 16, 18 and 20 week-old bunches, for 35 days at temperatures of 10 and 12ºC of did not promote "chilling injury" in the fruits. The 10ºC temperature was more effective in preventing the evolution of the coloration of the peel of bananas coming from 18 week-old bunches than the 12ºC temperature, while temperatures of 10 and 12ºC were equally efficient in the contention of the change of color of bananas coming from 16 week-old bunches. Fruits coming from 20 week-old bunches matured non-uniformly during refrigerated storage.

  15. Low nuclear body formation and tax SUMOylation do not prevent NF-kappaB promoter activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnet Amandine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tax protein encoded by Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a powerful activator of the NF-κB pathway, a property critical for HTLV-1-induced immortalization of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Tax permanently stimulates this pathway at a cytoplasmic level by activating the IκB kinase (IKK complex and at a nuclear level by enhancing the binding of the NF-κB factor RelA to its cognate promoters and by forming nuclear bodies, believed to represent transcriptionally active structures. In previous studies, we reported that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation play a critical role in Tax localization and NF-κB activation. Indeed, analysis of lysine Tax mutants fused or not to ubiquitin or SUMO led us to propose a two-step model in which Tax ubiquitination first intervenes to activate IKK while Tax SUMOylation is subsequently required for promoter activation within Tax nuclear bodies. However, recent studies showing that ubiquitin or SUMO can modulate Tax activities in either the nucleus or the cytoplasm and that SUMOylated Tax can serve as substrate for ubiquitination suggested that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation may mediate redundant rather than successive functions. Results In this study, we analyzed the properties of a new Tax mutant that is properly ubiquitinated, but defective for both nuclear body formation and SUMOylation. We report that reducing Tax SUMOylation and nuclear body formation do not alter the ability of Tax to activate IKK, induce RelA nuclear translocation, and trigger gene expression from a NF-κB promoter. Importantly, potent NF-κB promoter activation by Tax despite low SUMOylation and nuclear body formation is also observed in T cells, including CD4+ primary T lymphocytes. Moreover, we show that Tax nuclear bodies are hardly observed in HTLV-1-infected T cells. Finally, we provide direct evidence that the degree of NF-κB activation by Tax correlates with the level of Tax ubiquitination, but not

  16. Working mechanisms of a behavioural intervention promoting physical activity in persons with subacute spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooijen, Carla F J; Stam, Henk J; Schoenmakers, Imte; Sluis, Tebbe A R; Post, Marcel W M; Twisk, Jos W R; Group, Act-Active Research; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In order to unravel the working mechanisms that underlie the effectiveness of a behavioural intervention promoting physical activity in persons with subacute spinal cord injury, the aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of physical and psychosocial factors on the intervent

  17. Physical Activity and Nutrition Health Promotion Interventions: What Is Working for People with Intellectual Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Tamar; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Drum, Charles; Peterson, Jana

    2011-01-01

    A scoping review of studies on physical activity and nutrition health promotion interventions for individuals with intellectual disabilities was conducted. Searches included MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases from 1986 through July 2006. The final number included 11 articles comprising 12 studies. Generally, this review indicated some…

  18. p55PIK Transcriptionally Activated by MZF1 Promotes Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation

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    Yu Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available p55PIK, regulatory subunit of class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, plays a crucial role in cell cycle progression by interaction with tumor repressor retinoblastoma (Rb protein. A recent study showed that Rb protein can localize to the mitochondria in proliferative cells. Aberrant p55PIK expression may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer progression. To reveal the mechanisms of p55PIK transcriptional regulation, the p55PIK promoter characteristics were analyzed. The data show that myeloid zinc finger 1, MZF1, is necessary for p55PIK gene transcription activation. ChIP (Chromatin immuno-precipitation assay shows that MZF1 binds to the cis-element “TGGGGA” in p55PIK promoter. In MZF1 overexpressed cells, the promoter activity, expression of p55PIK, and cell proliferation rate were observed to be significantly enhanced. Whereas in MZF1-silenced cells, the promoter activity and expression of p55PIK and cell proliferation level was statistically decreased. In CRC tissues, MZF1 and p55PIK mRNA expression were increased (P=0.046, P=0.047, resp.. A strong positive correlation (Rs=0.94 between MZF1 and p55PIK mRNA expression was observed. Taken together, we concluded that p55PIK is transcriptionally activated by MZF1, resulting in increased proliferation of colorectal cancer cells.

  19. New Ideas for Promoting Physical Activity among Middle Age and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbey, Geoffrey; Burnett-Wolle, Sarah; Chow, Hsueh-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Promoting physical activity among middle age and older adults to decrease the incidence of disease and premature death and to combat the health care costs associated with a sedentary lifestyle is more important now than ever. There is now a better understanding of what "successful aging" means and of what aspects of life have the greatest…

  20. The Role of Biographical Characteristics in Preservice Classroom Teachers' School Physical Activity Promotion Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin A.; Monsma, Eva; Erwin, Heather E.

    2010-01-01

    Recommendations for increasing children's daily physical activity (PA) call on classroom teachers to assume an activist role at school. This study examined relationships among preservice classroom teachers' (PCT; n = 247) biographical characteristics, perceptions and attitudes regarding school PA promotion (SPAP). Results indicated participants…

  1. Benchmarking promotion and deployment activities regarding intelligent vehicle safety systems in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kievit, M. de; Malone, K.M.; Zwijnenberg, H.; Arem, B. van

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Benchmarking study performed in the European Union on Awareness and Promotion & Deployment activities related to Intelligent Vehicle Safety (IVS) systems (1). The study, commissioned by the European Commission under the Intelligent Car Initiative (a i2010 flagshi

  2. Design of cAMP-CRP-activated promoters in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, P; Holst, B; Søgaard-Andersen, L;

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the deoP2 promoter of Escherichia coli to define features that are required for optimal activation by the complex of adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) and the cAMP receptor protein (CRP). Systematic mutagenesis of deoP2 shows that the distance between the CRP site and the -10...

  3. A telecare programme for self-management of COPD exacerbations and promotion of an active lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, Monique; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; Ommeren, Clara; Kotte, Hayke; Weltevreden, Paul; Hermens, Hermie; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Condition Coach (CoCo) is a technology-supported care programme for self-management of COPD exacerbations and for promotion of an active lifestyle. The objective is to investigate the added value of the telecare programme in terms of clinical changes compared to usual care, and in add

  4. A new starting point for powerful lignin promotion : Eurolignin and linked activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abaecherli, A.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Jong, de E.; Guran, B.

    2004-01-01

    The International Lignin Institute (ILI) was created in 1991 as a new platform for promotion of lignin utilisations. For a few years, the activity was based on informal information exchange, such as Newsletters, international conferences (Forums) and Workshops, as well as in the proceedings of these

  5. Fitness Testing in Physical Education--A Misdirected Effort in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles and Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…

  6. Promoting Physical Activity among Youth through Community-Based Prevention Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; McDermott, Robert J.; Alfonso, Moya L.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nickelson, Jen; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; DeBate, Rita D.; Phillips, Leah M.; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang

    2010-01-01

    Background: Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age)…

  7. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Maria Borges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp. verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fração glicídica; amido; valor calórico; pH; acidez total titulável; vitamina C; macrominerais (K, P, Ca, Mg, S e N; microminerais (B, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe; coliformes a 45 °C; fungos filamentosos e leveduras; Bacillus cereus; Salmonella sp.; Staphylococcus aureus; e contagem de aeróbios mesófilos. Os resultados indicaram que a banana 'Prata' verde é viável para o processo de obtenção da farinha de banana, tendo em vista que é rica em amido, proteína, potássio, fósforo, magnésio, zinco, cobre e tem um alto valor calórico. O pH, a acidez total titulável e a vitamina C estão compatíveis com os valores encontrados em outras farinhas. Quanto ao uso de boas práticas no processamento, a farinha encontra-se dentro do padrão microbiológico ideal e, portanto, está apta para o consumo.The objective of the present study was the physicochemical characterization and the microbiological control during the processing of the green banana flour (Musa spp., Prata cultivar, aiming at the use of the flour in bread-making, dietary products and children's food. To obtain the flour, the fruits were cut, immersed in sodium meta-bisulfite, dehydrated, and ground. The following criteria were determined: humidity; ethereal extract; raw protein; raw fiber; ash; glicidic fraction; starch; caloric value; pH; total titratable acidity; vitamin C; macrominerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, S and N; microminerals (B, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe; coliforms at 45 °C; filamentous

  8. Complement C1q Activates Canonical Wnt Signaling and Promotes Aging-Related Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Atsuhiko T. Naito; Sumida, Tomokazu; Nomura, Seitaro; Liu, Mei-Lan; Higo, Tomoaki; NAKAGAWA, AKITO; Okada, Katsuki; Sakai, Taku; Hashimoto, Akihito; Hara, Yurina; Shimizu, Ippei; Zhu, Weidong; Toko, Haruhiro; Katada, Akemi; Akazawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays critical roles in development of various organs and pathogenesis of many diseases, and augmented Wnt signaling has recently been implicated in mammalian aging and aging-related phenotypes. We here report that complement C1q activates canonical Wnt signaling and promotes aging-associated decline in tissue regeneration. Serum C1q concentration is increased with aging, and Wnt signaling activity is augmented during aging in the serum and in multiple tissues of wild-type mice,...

  9. Involving postgraduate's students in undergraduate small group teaching promotes active learning in both

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Ruchi; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Vyas, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lecture is a common traditional method for teaching, but it may not stimulate higher order thinking and students may also be hesitant to express and interact. The postgraduate (PG) students are less involved with undergraduate (UG) teaching. Team based small group active learning method can contribute to better learning experience. Aim: To-promote active learning skills among the UG students using small group teaching methods involving PG students as facilitators to impart hands-o...

  10. Variants of the cell recognition site of fibronectin that retain attachment-promoting activity

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    A tetrapeptide sequence, Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser, is the minimal structure recognized by cells in the large, adhesive glycoprotein fibronectin. We now have defined the structural requirements for this cell recognition site by testing several synthetic variants of the active tetrapeptide sequence. The conservative substitutions of lysine for arginine, alanine for glycine, or glutamic acid for aspartic acid each resulted in abrogation of the cell attachment-promoting activity characteristic of the natu...

  11. Evaluation methods for physical activity-promoting mobile technologies: an interdisciplinary scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Claire McCallum; John Rooksby

    2015-01-01

    There are many thousands of mobile apps, wearables and other technologies available to support and promote physical activity. However, the rapidly evolving nature of these technologies means that the methodologies traditionally used to evaluate the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions (such as the randomised controlled trial) may not be appropriate to evaluate their effectiveness. A scoping review was conducted to identify the methods currently being used to evaluate physical activ...

  12. Assessing benefits and costs of commercial banana production in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Calderon, R.; Rola, Agnes C.

    2003-01-01

    The Philippine banana industry is currently one of the top agricultural export earners. The increasing demand worldwide has resulted in greater expansion of area planted to banana, including those in environmentally critical places. Current high chemical input technologies used in banana production have been documented to have significant environmental and public health costs. In this paper, we assess the social costs and private benefits of banana production by commercial growers. We used pr...

  13. The influence of gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension of banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of various doses of gamma radiation on shelf-life extension of Hom Tong banana stored at 170C, 200C, and 230C was described. Irradiated banana stored at 200C and 230C did not show any retardation in ripening. Doses from 20-40 Krad appeared to delay ripening of the banana stored at 170C for 3-5 days. No significant difference in weight losses between irradiated and non-irradiated banana was detected during storage

  14. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Fu; Yunze Ruan; Chengyuan Tao; Rong Li; Qirong Shen

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and cultu...

  15. Cover cropping alters the diet of arthropods in a banana plantation: a metabarcoding approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Mollot

    Full Text Available Plant diversification using cover crops may promote natural regulation of agricultural pests by supporting alternative prey that enable the increase of arthropod predator densities. However, the changes in the specific composition of predator diet induced by cover cropping are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that the cover crop can significantly alter the diet of predators in agroecosystems. The cover crop Brachiaria decumbens is increasingly used in banana plantations to control weeds and improve physical soil properties. In this paper, we used a DNA metabarcoding approach for the molecular analysis of the gut contents of predators (based on mini-COI to identify 1 the DNA sequences of their prey, 2 the predators of Cosmopolites sordidus (a major pest of banana crops, and 3 the difference in the specific composition of predator diets between a bare soil plot (BSP and a cover cropped plot (CCP in a banana plantation. The earwig Euborellia caraibea, the carpenter ant Camponotus sexguttatus, and the fire ant Solenopsis geminata were found to contain C. sordidus DNA at frequencies ranging from 1 to 7%. While the frequencies of predators positive for C. sordidus DNA did not significantly differ between BSP and CCP, the frequency at which E. caraibea was positive for Diptera was 26% in BSP and 80% in CCP; the frequency at which C. sexguttatus was positive for Jalysus spinosus was 14% in BSP and 0% in CCP; and the frequency at which S. geminata was positive for Polytus mellerborgi was 21% in BSP and 3% in CCP. E. caraibea, C. sexguttatus and S. geminata were identified as possible biological agents for the regulation of C. sordidus. The detection of the diet changes of these predators when a cover crop is planted indicates the possible negative effects on pest regulation if predators switch to forage on alternative prey.

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit Kumar Passari; Vineet Kumar Mishra; Vijai Kumar Gupta; Mukesh Kumar Yadav; Ratul Saikia; Bhim Pratap Singh

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using...

  17. Cloning and Transcriptional Activity of the Mouse Omi/HtrA2 Gene Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HtrA serine peptidase 2 (HtrA2, also named Omi, is a pro-apoptotic protein that exhibits dramatic changes in expression levels in a variety of disorders, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, cancer, and neurodegeneration. In our study, Omi/HtrA2 protein levels were high in the heart, brain, kidney and liver, with elevated heart/brain expression in aging mice. A similar expression pattern was observed at the mRNA level, which suggests that the regulation of Omi/HtrA2 is predominately transcriptional. Promoter binding by transcription factors is the main influencing factor of transcription, and to identify specific promoter elements that contribute to the differential expression of mouse Omi/HtrA2, we constructed truncated Omi/HtrA2 promoter/luciferase reporter vectors and analyzed their relative luciferase activity; it was greatest in the promoter regions at −1205~−838 bp and −146~+93 bp, with the −838~−649 bp region exhibiting negative regulatory activity. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the Omi/HtrA2 gene promoter contains a CpG island at −709~+37 bp, and eight heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 sites, two Sp1 transcription factor (SP1sites, one activator protein (AP site, seven p53 sites, and four YY1 transcription factor(YY1 sites were predicted in the core areas. Furthermore, we found that p53 and HSF1 specifically binds to the Omi/HtrA2 promoter using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. These results provide a foundation for understanding Omi/HtrA2 regulatory mechanisms, which could further understanding of HtrA-associated diseases.

  18. p21-activated Kinase1(PAK1) can promote ERK activation in a kinase independent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Fu, Meng; Wang, Lifeng;

    2013-01-01

    PAK1 plays an important role in proliferation and tumorigenesis, at least partially by promoting Erk phosphorylation of c-Raf (Ser 338) or Mek1 (Ser 298). We observed now that overexpression of a kinase-dead mutant form of PAK1 increased phosphorylation of Mek1/2 (Ser 217/221) and Erk (Thr 202/Tyr...

  19. 78 FR 8957 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... establish low- prevalence places of production, harvesting only of hard green bananas, and inspection for.... Commercial production of bananas in the United States takes place in Hawaii, where most if not all of the... the place of production to remain eligible to export bananas to the United States. The NPPO of...

  20. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  1. 77 FR 22510 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... establish low-prevalence places of production; Covering bananas with pesticide bags during the growing... require bananas to be grown at places of production that are registered with the NPPO of the Philippines... place of production to remain eligible to export bananas to the United States. The NPPO of...

  2. Study of Banana Dehydration Using Sequential Infrared Radiation and Freeze-Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The drying and quality characteristics of banana slices processed with a sequential infrared radiation and freeze-drying (SIRFD) method were investigated. To study the drying characteristics of bananas during the infrared (IR) and hot air predehydration, Cavendish bananas slices with 5 mm thickness...

  3. Distinct promoter activation mechanisms modulate noise-driven HIV gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, Arvind K.; Wong, Victor C.; Miller-Jensen, Kathryn

    2015-12-01

    Latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections occur when the virus occupies a transcriptionally silent but reversible state, presenting a major obstacle to cure. There is experimental evidence that random fluctuations in gene expression, when coupled to the strong positive feedback encoded by the HIV genetic circuit, act as a ‘molecular switch’ controlling cell fate, i.e., viral replication versus latency. Here, we implemented a stochastic computational modeling approach to explore how different promoter activation mechanisms in the presence of positive feedback would affect noise-driven activation from latency. We modeled the HIV promoter as existing in one, two, or three states that are representative of increasingly complex mechanisms of promoter repression underlying latency. We demonstrate that two-state and three-state models are associated with greater variability in noisy activation behaviors, and we find that Fano factor (defined as variance over mean) proves to be a useful noise metric to compare variability across model structures and parameter values. Finally, we show how three-state promoter models can be used to qualitatively describe complex reactivation phenotypes in response to therapeutic perturbations that we observe experimentally. Ultimately, our analysis suggests that multi-state models more accurately reflect observed heterogeneous reactivation and may be better suited to evaluate how noise affects viral clearance.

  4. A synthetic isoflavone, DCMF, promotes human keratinocyte migration by activating Src/FAK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophors, Phorl; Kim, Young Mee; Seo, Ga Young; Huh, Jung-Sik; Lim, Yoongho; Koh, Dong Soo; Cho, Moonjae

    2016-04-01

    Flavonoids are plant secondary compounds with various pharmacological properties. We previously showed that one flavonoid, trimethoxyisoflavone (TMF), could promote wound healing by inducing keratinocyte migration. Here, we screened TMF derivatives for enhanced activity and identified one compound, 2',6 Dichloro-7-methoxyisoflavone (DCMF), as most effective at promoting migration in a scratch wound assay. Using the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line, we found DCMF treatment induced phosphorylation of both FAK and Src, and increased keratinocyte migration. DCMF-induced Src kinase could promote activation of ERK, AKT, and p38 signaling pathways, and DCMF-induced secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereas Src inhibition abolished DCMF-induced EMT. Using an in vivo excisional wound model, we observed improved wound closure and re-epithelialization in DCMF-treated mice, as compared to controls. Collectively, our data demonstrate that DCMF induces cell migration and promotes wound healing through activation of Src/FAK, ERK, AKT, and p38 MAPK signaling. PMID:26923073

  5. Phagocyte respiratory burst activates macrophage erythropoietin signalling to promote acute inflammation resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bangwei; Wang, Jinsong; Liu, Zongwei; Shen, Zigang; Shi, Rongchen; Liu, Yu-Qi; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Man; Wu, Yuzhang; Zhang, Zhiren

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation resolution is an active process, the failure of which causes uncontrolled inflammation which underlies many chronic diseases. Therefore, endogenous pathways that regulate inflammation resolution are fundamental and of wide interest. Here, we demonstrate that phagocyte respiratory burst-induced hypoxia activates macrophage erythropoietin signalling to promote acute inflammation resolution. This signalling is activated following acute but not chronic inflammation. Pharmacological or genetical inhibition of the respiratory burst suppresses hypoxia and macrophage erythropoietin signalling. Macrophage-specific erythropoietin receptor-deficient mice and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) mice, which lack the capacity for respiratory burst, display impaired inflammation resolution, and exogenous erythropoietin enhances this resolution in WT and CGD mice. Mechanistically, erythropoietin increases macrophage engulfment of apoptotic neutrophils via PPARγ, promotes macrophage removal of debris and enhances macrophage migration to draining lymph nodes. Together, our results provide evidences of an endogenous pathway that regulates inflammation resolution, with important implications for treating inflammatory conditions. PMID:27397585

  6. Classroom Activities to Engage Students and Promote Critical Thinking about Genetic Regulation of Bacterial Quorum Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Aebli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed an interactive activity to mimic bacterial quorum sensing, and a classroom worksheet to promote critical thinking about genetic regulation of the lux operon. The interactive quorum sensing activity engages students and provides a direct visualization of how population density functions to influence light production in bacteria. The worksheet activity consists of practice problems that require students to apply basic knowledge of the lux operon in order to make predictions about genetic complementation experiments, and students must evaluate how genetic mutations in the lux operon affect gene expression and overall phenotype. The worksheet promotes critical thinking and problem solving skills, and emphasizes the roles of diffusible signaling molecules, regulatory proteins, and structural proteins in quorum sensing.

  7. Phagocyte respiratory burst activates macrophage erythropoietin signalling to promote acute inflammation resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bangwei; Wang, Jinsong; Liu, Zongwei; Shen, Zigang; Shi, Rongchen; Liu, Yu-Qi; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Man; Wu, Yuzhang; Zhang, Zhiren

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation resolution is an active process, the failure of which causes uncontrolled inflammation which underlies many chronic diseases. Therefore, endogenous pathways that regulate inflammation resolution are fundamental and of wide interest. Here, we demonstrate that phagocyte respiratory burst-induced hypoxia activates macrophage erythropoietin signalling to promote acute inflammation resolution. This signalling is activated following acute but not chronic inflammation. Pharmacological or genetical inhibition of the respiratory burst suppresses hypoxia and macrophage erythropoietin signalling. Macrophage-specific erythropoietin receptor-deficient mice and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) mice, which lack the capacity for respiratory burst, display impaired inflammation resolution, and exogenous erythropoietin enhances this resolution in WT and CGD mice. Mechanistically, erythropoietin increases macrophage engulfment of apoptotic neutrophils via PPARγ, promotes macrophage removal of debris and enhances macrophage migration to draining lymph nodes. Together, our results provide evidences of an endogenous pathway that regulates inflammation resolution, with important implications for treating inflammatory conditions. PMID:27397585

  8. An Innovative Teaching Method To Promote Active Learning: Team-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, R.

    2007-12-01

    Traditional teaching practice based on the textbook-whiteboard- lecture-homework-test paradigm is not very effective in helping students with diverse academic backgrounds achieve higher-order critical thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Consequently, there is a critical need for developing a new pedagogical approach to create a collaborative and interactive learning environment in which students with complementary academic backgrounds and learning skills can work together to enhance their learning outcomes. In this presentation, I will discuss an innovative teaching method ('Team-Based Learning (TBL)") which I recently developed at National University of Singapore to promote active learning among students in the environmental engineering program with learning abilities. I implemented this new educational activity in a graduate course. Student feedback indicates that this pedagogical approach is appealing to most students, and promotes active & interactive learning in class. Data will be presented to show that the innovative teaching method has contributed to improved student learning and achievement.

  9. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress due to Complex I Dysfunction Promotes Fibroblast Activation and Melanoma Cell Invasiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Taddei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased ROS (cellular reactive oxygen species are characteristic of both fibrosis and tumour development. ROS induce the trans-differentiation to myofibroblasts, the activated form of fibroblasts able to promote cancer progression. Here, we report the role of ROS produced in response to dysfunctions of mitochondrial complex I, in fibroblast activation and in tumour progression. We studied human fibroblasts with mitochondrial dysfunctions of complex I, leading to hyperproduction of ROS. We demonstrated that ROS level produced by the mutated fibroblasts correlates with their activation. The increase of ROS in these cells provides a greater ability to remodel the extracellular matrix leading to an increased motility and invasiveness. Furthermore, we evidentiated that in hypoxic conditions these fibroblasts cause HIF-1α stabilization and promote a proinvasive phenotype of human melanoma cells through secretion of cytokines. These data suggest a possible role of deregulated mitochondrial ROS production in fibrosis evolution as well as in cancer progression and invasion.

  10. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production.

  11. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  12. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingale, Snehal; Joshi, Sanket J; Gupte, Akshaya

    2014-01-01

    India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  13. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  14. T-cell activation promotes tumorigenesis in inflammation-associated cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lairmore Michael

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic inflammation has long been associated with a wide range of malignancies, is now widely accepted as a risk factor for development of cancer, and has been implicated as a promoter of a variety of cancers including hematopoietic malignancies. We have described a mouse model uniquely suited to examine the link between inflammation and lymphoma in which the Tax oncogene, expressed in activated T and NK cells, perpetuates chronic inflammation that begins as microscopic intraepithelial lesions and develops into inflammatory nodules, subcutaneous tumors, and large granular lymphocytic leukemia. The use of bioluminescent imaging in these mice has expanded our ability to interrogate aspects of inflammation and tumorigenesis non-invasively. Here we demonstrate that bioluminescence induction in these mice correlated with inflammation resulting from wounding, T cell activation, and exposure to chemical agents. In experiments in which long-term effects of inflammation on disease outcome were monitored, the development of lymphoma was promoted by an inflammatory stimulus. Finally we demonstrated that activation of T-cells in T-cell receptor (TCR transgenic TAX-LUC animals dramatically exacerbated the development of subcutaneous TCR- CD16+ LGL tumors. The role of activated T-cells and acquired immunity in inflammation-associated cancers is broadly applicable to hematopoietic malignancies, and we propose these mice will be of use in dissecting mechanisms by which activated T-cells promote lymphomagenesis in vivo.

  15. SATB1 OVEREXPRESSION DRIVES TUMOR-PROMOTING ACTIVITIES IN CANCER-ASSOCIATED DENDRITIC CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesone, Amelia J.; Rutkowski, Melanie R.; Brencicova, Eva; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Stephen, Tom L.; Allegrezza, Michael J.; Payne, Kyle K.; Nguyen, Jenny M.; Wickramasinghe, Jayamanna; Tchou, Julia; Borowsky, Mark E.; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (Satb1) governs genome-wide transcriptional programs. Using a conditional knockout mouse, we find that Satb1 is required for normal differentiation of conventional dendritic cells (DCs). Furthermore, Satb1 governs the differentiation of inflammatory DCs by regulating MHC-II expression through Notch1 signaling. Mechanistically, Satb1 binds to the Notch1 promoter, activating Notch expression and driving RBPJ occupancy of the H2-Ab1 promoter, which activates MHC-II transcription. However, tumor-driven, unremitting expression of Satb1 in activated Zbtb46+ inflammatory DCs that infiltrate ovarian tumors results in an immunosuppressive phenotype characterized by increased secretion of tumor-promoting Galectin-1 and IL-6. In vivo silencing of Satb1 in tumor-associated DCs reverses their tumorigenic activity and boosts protective immunity. Therefore, dynamic fluctuations in Satb1 expression govern the generation and immunostimulatory activity of steady-state and inflammatory DCs, but continuous Satb1 overexpression in differentiated DCs converts them into tolerogenic/pro-inflammatory cells that contribute to malignant progression. PMID:26876172

  16. Barriers, facilitators and attitudes influencing health promotion activities in general practice: an explorative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geense Wytske W

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of chronically ill patients increases every year. This is partly due to an unhealthy lifestyle. However, the frequency and quality of (evidence-based health promotion activities conducted by Dutch general practitioners (GPs and practice nurses (PNs are limited. The aim of this pilot study was to explore which lifestyle interventions Dutch GPs and PNs carry out in primary care, which barriers and facilitators can be identified and what main topics are with respect to attitudes towards health promoting activities. These topic areas will be identified for a future, larger scale study. Method This qualitative study consisted of 25 semi-structured interviews with sixteen GPs and nine PNs. ATLAS.ti was used to analyse the transcripts of the interviews. Results All GPs and PNs said they discuss lifestyle with their patients. Next to this, GPs and PNs counsel patients, and/or refer them to other disciplines. Only few said they refer patients to specific lifestyle programs or interventions in their own practice or in the neighbourhood. Several barriers and facilitators were identified. The main topics as barriers are: a lack of patients’ motivation to make lifestyle changes, insufficient reimbursement, a lack of proven effectiveness of interventions and a lack of overview of health promoting programs in their neighbourhood. The most cited facilitators are availability of a PN, collaboration with other disciplines and availability of interventions in their own practice. With respect to attitudes, six different types of GPs were identified reflecting the main topics that relate to attitudes, varying from ‘ignorer’ to ‘nurturer’. The topics relating to PNs attitudes towards health promotion activities, were almost unanimously positive. Conclusion GPs and PNs all say they discuss lifestyle issues with their patients, but the health promotion activities that are organized in their practice vary. Main topics that hinder

  17. A point mutation in a silencer module reduces the promoter activity for the human mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Noriyuki; Sreeja, V G; Li, Qing; Shimizu, Takako; Tsuchiya, Terumasa; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki

    2004-11-01

    A promoter region of human mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST) [EC 2.8.1.2] is G+C-rich and TATA-less, showing features of a house-keeping gene. In the core promoter, a GC box (-284:GGGGCGTGGC:-275) and an initiator (-219:TTATATG:-225) are found. A cap site hunting analysis for human liver cDNA revealed four possible transcriptional start sites, nucleotides -223, -159, -35 and -25. Point mutagenesis and deletion studies suggest that a module of the silencer element is -394:GCTG:-391. A replacement of -391G to C lost the silencer function; on the other hand, a replacement of -394G to T or C, -393C to T or -392T to G markedly reduced the promoter activity. PMID:15507321

  18. Oncogenic and tumor-promoting Spermatophytes and Pteridophytes and their active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, N R; Bingel, A S; Fong, H H; Saleh, A A; Christenson, G M; Saufferer, S M

    1976-08-01

    A survey and discussion are presented of plants classified as Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta, extracts of which have been shown to be oncogenic or tumor-promoting in animals. The active oncogenic and tumor-promoting principles, where known, have been identified. They represent tannins; pyrrolizidine, indole, tropolone, quinoline, purine, and benzophenanthridine alkaloids; nitroso compounds; triterpene glycosides; lignans; isoflavans; allyl benzenoids; simple (nu-pyrenes; and carbocyclic hydroxy acids. A total of 28 compounds of known structure have been identified as oncogens and several phorbol esters as tumor-promoters. Plants known to contain any of the 28 oncogens (excluding shikimic acid and caffeine) have been tabulated; they represent at least 454 species, 110 genera, and 34 families of Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta.

  19. Interventions to promote physical activity in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazlina eShariff-Ghazali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM among people aged 60 years and above is a growing public health problem. Regular physical activity is one of the key elements in the management of T2DM. Recommendations suggest that older people with T2DM will benefit from regular physical activity for better disease control and delaying complications. Despite the known benefits, many remain sedentary. Hence, this review assessed interventions for promoting physical activity in persons aged 65 years and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A literature search was conducted using OvidMEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases to retrieve articles published between January 2000 and December 2012. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs comparing different strategies to increase physical activity level in persons aged 65 years and older with T2DM were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed.Results: Twenty-one eligible studies were reviewed, only six studies were rated as good quality and only one study specifically targeted persons aged 65 years and older. Personalised coaching, goal setting, peer support groups, use of technology and physical activity monitors were proven to increase the level of physical activity. Incorporation of health behaviour theories and follow-up supports also were successful strategies. However, the methodological quality and type of interventions promoting physical activity of the included studies in this review varied widely across the eligible studies.Conclusion: Strategies that increased level of physical activity in persons with T2DM are evident but most studies focused on middle-aged persons and there was a lack of well-designed trials. Hence, more studies of satisfactory methodological quality with interventions promoting physical activity in older people are required.

  20. Thiazolidinediones promote axonal growth through the activation of the JNK pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A Quintanilla

    Full Text Available The axon is a neuronal process involved in protein transport, synaptic plasticity, and neural regeneration. It has been suggested that their structure and function are profoundly impaired in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous evidence suggest that Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ (PPARγ promote neuronal differentiation on various neuronal cell types. In addition, we demonstrated that activation of PPARγby thiazolidinediones (TZDs drugs that selectively activate PPARγ prevent neurite loss and axonal damage induced by amyloid-β (Aβ. However, the potential role of TZDs in axonal elongation and neuronal polarity has not been explored. We report here that the activation of PPARγ by TZDs promoted axon elongation in primary hippocampal neurons. Treatments with different TZDs significantly increased axonal growth and branching area, but no significant effects were observed in neurite elongation compared to untreated neurons. Treatment with PPARγ antagonist (GW 9662 prevented TZDs-induced axonal growth. Recently, it has been suggested that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK plays an important role regulating axonal growth and neuronal polarity. Interestingly, in our studies, treatment with TZDs induced activation of the JNK pathway, and the pharmacological blockage of this pathway prevented axon elongation induced by TZDs. Altogether, these results indicate that activation of JNK induced by PPARγactivators stimulates axonal growth and accelerates neuronal polarity. These novel findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of PPARγ on neuronal differentiation and validate the use of PPARγ activators as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. First report offusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubensetropical race 4 causing panama disease in cavendish bananas in Pakistan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordoñez, N.; García-Bastidas, F.; Laghari, H.B.; Akkary, M.Y.; Harfouche, E.N.; Awar, al B.N.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused byFusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubense(Foc), poses a great risk to global banana production. Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Foc, which affects Cavendish bananas as well as many other banana cultivars (Ploetz 2006), was confirmed for the first time outside Southeast Asia in Jord

  2. Anti-tumor promoting activity of bufadienolides from Kalanchoe pinnata and K. daigremontiana x tubiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supratman, U; Fujita, T; Akiyama, K; Hayashi, H; Murakami, A; Sakai, H; Koshimizu, K; Ohigashi, H

    2001-04-01

    Five bufadienolides (1-5) isolated from the leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata and K. daigremontiana x tubiflora (Crassulaceae) were examined for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation in Raji cells induced by the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. All bufadienolides showed inhibitory activity, and bryophyllin A (1) exhibited the most marked inhibition (IC50 = 0.4 microM) among the tested compounds. Bryophyllin C (2), a reduction analogue of 1, and bersaldegenin-3-acetate (3) lacking the orthoacetate moiety were less active. These results strongly suggest that bufadienolides are potential cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:11388478

  3. Using Paid Radio Advertisements to Promote Physical Activity Among Arkansas Tweens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appathurai Balamurugan, MD, MPH

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The level of physical activity among children is a growing concern. Evidence shows that many children aged 9 to 13 years (tweens do not participate in any organized physical activity during their nonschool hours, and some do not engage in any free-time physical activity. Physical inactivity is associated with a host of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Paid media advertisements have been an effective method of promoting physical activity. Methods From March 10, 2003, through June 29, 2003, we aired paid radio advertisements in six major Arkansas metropolitan areas to promote physical activity among tweens. In September 2003, we surveyed 295 Arkansas tweens by telephone to assess their exposure to the advertisements and the impact of the advertisements on their intent to participate in physical activity. In the same telephone survey, we also asked questions about the respondents’ physical activity level. The data were weighted so that the results would be representative of the areas surveyed. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 11.5 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill. Results Of the tweens surveyed, 56.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.7%–62.1% reported hearing the radio advertisements. Of the tweens who heard the advertisement messages, 76.1% (95% CI, 69.4%–82.8% said the messages made them more likely to get involved in physical activity. Younger tweens (aged 9 and 10 years were less likely to have heard the advertisements than older tweens (aged 11 to 13 years. However, the advertisements were more likely to cause younger tweens to want to get involved in physical activity (odds ratio [OR] = 6.89, P = .003 than older tweens. Of the tweens surveyed, 74.9% (95% CI, 70.0%–79.8% reported that they were involved in nonschool-sponsored sports, and 45.3% (95% CI, 39.6%–51.0% were involved in school-sponsored sports. Conclusion Paid media advertisements may be an effective way to

  4. Promoting social skills of mexican high school students through virtual activities in the Moodle platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Yolanda RODRÍGUEZ MATAMOROS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of promoting social skills of Mexican high school students based on the graduate profile of this level, virtual activities were implemented in the Moodle platform to 169 students of second year, adopting the proposed Goldstein social skills. In order to establish the impact of these activities to a pretest-postest a one group design was used. The results show that the activities had a positive and significant impact in beginning social skills, advanced social skills, skills for dealing with feeling, social alternatives skills of the participants according to the results obtained by skills scale social Goldstein.

  5. Learning Microbiology Through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities that Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E. Trempy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A microbiology course and its corresponding learning activities have been structured according to the Cooperative Learning Model. This course, The World According to Microbes, integrates science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET majors and non-SMET majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. In this study we describe development of learning activities that utilize key components of Cooperative Learning—positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, teamwork skills, and group processing. Assessments and evaluations over an 8-year period demonstrate high retention of key concepts in microbiology and high student satisfaction with the course.

  6. Functional and Activity Analysis of Cattle UCP3 Promoter with MRFs-Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 is mainly expressed in muscle. It plays an important role in muscle, but less research on the regulation of cattle UCP3 has been performed. In order to elucidate whether cattle UCP3 can be regulated by muscle-related factors, deletion of cattle UCP3 promoter was amplified and cloned into pGL3-basic, pGL3-promoter and PEGFP-N3 vector, respectively, then transfected into C2C12 myoblasts cells and UCP3 promoter activity was measured using the dual-Luciferase reporter assay system. The results showed that there is some negative-regulatory element from −620 to −433 bp, and there is some positive-regulatory element between −433 and −385 bp. The fragment (1.08 kb of UCP3 promoter was cotransfected with muscle-related transcription factor myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs and myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A. We found that UCP3 promoter could be upregulated by Myf5, Myf6 and MyoD and downregulated by MyoG and MEF2A.

  7. Functional and Activity Analysis of Cattle UCP3 Promoter with MRFs-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Houqiang; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Wen; Xia, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is mainly expressed in muscle. It plays an important role in muscle, but less research on the regulation of cattle UCP3 has been performed. In order to elucidate whether cattle UCP3 can be regulated by muscle-related factors, deletion of cattle UCP3 promoter was amplified and cloned into pGL3-basic, pGL3-promoter and PEGFP-N3 vector, respectively, then transfected into C2C12 myoblasts cells and UCP3 promoter activity was measured using the dual-Luciferase reporter assay system. The results showed that there is some negative-regulatory element from −620 to −433 bp, and there is some positive-regulatory element between −433 and −385 bp. The fragment (1.08 kb) of UCP3 promoter was cotransfected with muscle-related transcription factor myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A). We found that UCP3 promoter could be upregulated by Myf5, Myf6 and MyoD and downregulated by MyoG and MEF2A. PMID:27164086

  8. Diffusing a Research-based Physical Activity Promotion Program for Seniors Into Diverse Communities: CHAMPS III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Stewart, PhD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Increasing the physical activity levels of older adults through diffusion of successful research-based programs into community settings is challenging because of differences between research and real-world settings. This project diffused the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS II, an individual-level research-based physical activity promotion program, through three community organizations to reach lower-income and minority (primarily Hispanic or Latino and African American seniors. Methods Through an academic–community partnership, university staff worked with each organization to adapt the program to be appealing and effective, enable their staff and volunteers to provide the program, increase participants’ physical activity, and leave sustainable programs in place. Evaluation was based on methods recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results The adapted programs, referred to as CHAMPS III, differed from the original program and among organizations. Group-based components and resource guides were included and new features were added; however, individualized components were not offered because of limited resources. A total of 321 people enrolled among three organizations; there was a trend toward increased physical activity at two organizations (an estimated increase of 481 kcal/week [P = .08] and 437 kcal/week [P = .06] expended in physical activity. Evaluation revealed challenges and unexpected community-level benefits. All organizations are continuing efforts to promote physical activity for older adults. Conclusion This project enabled community organizations to implement physical activity promotion programs. The overarching challenge was to retain original program features within each organization’s resources yet be sustainable. Although the programs differed from the original research program, they were a catalyst for numerous community-level changes. Our findings can

  9. Union Activities to promote cooperative activities at enterprise level: workplace assesment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Høy, Jette

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the information activities on workplace assessment from a major Danish confederation......An analysis of the information activities on workplace assessment from a major Danish confederation...

  10. Evaluation methods for physical activity-promoting mobile technologies: an interdisciplinary scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire McCallum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many thousands of mobile apps, wearables and other technologies available to support and promote physical activity. However, the rapidly evolving nature of these technologies means that the methodologies traditionally used to evaluate the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions (such as the randomised controlled trial may not be appropriate to evaluate their effectiveness. A scoping review was conducted to identify the methods currently being used to evaluate physical activity-promoting mobile technologies across health and computing science disciplines. In addition to the range of methods used, the review explored their strengths and weaknesses. The results improve understandings of when and why to use existing methods from health and computing science. Opportunities for combining and hybridising methods across the two disciplines are also identified. The review will be used to inform the development and piloting of novel, ‘fit-for-purpose’ research designs that will allow rigorous evaluation of the effectiveness of rapidly-evolving physical activity-promoting mobile technologies and their ‘active ingredients’ to build an evidence base of what works, why and for whom.

  11. Engagement of membrane immunoglobulin enhances Id3 promoter activity in WEHI-231 B lymphoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-jun LI; Kikumi HATA; Junichiro MIZUGUCHI

    2005-01-01

    Aim: We have recently shown that engagement of membrane immunoglobulin (mIg) induced upregulation of inhibitor of differentiation 3 (Id3) mRNA, resulting in growth arrest at G1 phase in WEHI-231 cells. In the present study, we examined whether engagement of mIg will affect promoter activity of the Id3 gene in WEHI231 cells. Methods: DNA fragments corresponding to the 5′-flanking region of mId3 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genomic DNA as the template. Three DNA fragments upstream of the transcription start site (+ 1) of the mId3 gene were subcloned into the luciferase reporter vector PGVB2. The recombinant constructs were transiently transfected into WEHI-231 cells by an electroporation method. After incubation for 24 h, WEHI-231 cells were stimulated with 10 mg/L anti-IgM or irradiated CD40L-expressing NIH3T3 cells or control NIH3T3 cells for further 24 h, followed by assay for luciferase activity. Results: The luciferase analysis demonstrated that basal promoter activity of the Id3 gene was found in the region between -200 and +54. The Id3 promoter activity was increased 2-fold following stimulation with anti-IgM, but not CD40L, compared with medium alone. Conclusion: The mIg-mediated upregulation of Id3 expression is controlled, at least in part, through transcriptional regulation, as assessed by luciferase assay.

  12. An artificial HSE promoter for efficient and selective detection of heat shock pathway activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Viktoria; Ludwig, Alfred; Riegel, Elisabeth; Dunzinger, Sarah; Czerny, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Detection of cellular stress is of major importance for the survival of cells. During evolution, a network of stress pathways developed, with the heat shock (HS) response playing a major role. The key transcription factor mediating HS signalling activity in mammalian cells is the HS factor HSF1. When activated it binds to the heat shock elements (HSE) in the promoters of target genes like heat shock protein (HSP) genes. They are induced by HSF1 but in addition they integrate multiple signals from different stress pathways. Here, we developed an artificial promoter consisting only of HSEs and therefore selectively reacting to HSF-mediated pathway activation. The promoter is highly inducible but has an extreme low basal level. Direct comparison with the HSPA1A promoter activity indicates that heat-dependent expression can be fully recapitulated by isolated HSEs in human cells. Using this sensitive reporter, we measured the HS response for different temperatures and exposure times. In particular, long heat induction times of 1 or 2 h were compared with short heat durations down to 1 min, conditions typical for burn injuries. We found similar responses to both long and short heat durations but at completely different temperatures. Exposure times of 2 h result in pathway activation at 41 to 44 °C, whereas heat pulses of 1 min lead to a maximum HS response between 47 and 50 °C. The results suggest that the HS response is initiated by a combination of temperature and exposure time but not by a certain threshold temperature.

  13. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  14. Active Gaming to Promote Physical Activity: Questions to Consider for Your School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyler, Tim; Banks, Sarah; Wilson, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The physical activity potential and physiological and motivational benefits of active gaming have been a hot topic in the past few years. It is easy to see why active games are popular among certain populations, particularly those with prior or current video game experience. Video games are fun to play and challenging, give a player total control,…

  15. Using formative research to develop CHANGE!: a curriculum-based physical activity promoting intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knowles Zoe R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low childhood physical activity levels are currently one of the most pressing public health concerns. Numerous school-based physical activity interventions have been conducted with varied success. Identifying effective child-based physical activity interventions are warranted. The purpose of this formative study was to elicit subjective views of children, their parents, and teachers about physical activity to inform the design of the CHANGE! (Children's Health, Activity, and Nutrition: Get Educated! intervention programme. Methods Semi-structured mixed-gender interviews (group and individual were conducted in 11 primary schools, stratified by socioeconomic status, with 60 children aged 9-10 years (24 boys, 36 girls, 33 parents (4 male, 29 female and 10 teachers (4 male, 6 female. Questions for interviews were structured around the PRECEDE stage of the PRECEDE-PROCEDE model and addressed knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards physical activity, as well as views on barriers to participation. All data were transcribed verbatim. Pen profiles were constructed from the transcripts in a deductive manner using the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model framework. The profiles represented analysis outcomes via a diagram of key emergent themes. Results Analyses revealed an understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health, although some children had limited understanding of what constitutes physical activity. Views elicited by children and parents were generally consistent. Fun, enjoyment and social support were important predictors of physical activity participation, though several barriers such as lack of parental support were identified across all group interviews. The perception of family invested time was positively linked to physical activity engagement. Conclusions Families have a powerful and important role in promoting health-enhancing behaviours. Involvement of parents and the whole family is a

  16. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  17. Wild Banana Seed Phytobezoar Rectal Impaction Causing Intestinal Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Feng Yih; Heng, Sophia Si Ling; Asilah, Siti Mohd Desa; Adila, Irene Nur Ibrahim; Tan, Yew Eng; Chong, Hock Chin

    2016-08-01

    Wild banana (Musa acuminata subsp. microcarpa) seed phytobezoar rectal impaction in adult is a rare entity. Here, we report a 75-year-old male with dementia who presented with lower abdominal pain, per-rectal bleeding and overflow faecal incontinence. Our investigation discovered a large wild banana seed phytobezoar impacted in the rectum causing intestinal obstruction, stercoral ulcer and faecal overflow incontinence. In this article, we discuss the patient's clinical findings, imaging and management. The culprit plant was identified and depicted. This may be the first report of its kind. Public consumption of these wild bananas should be curtailed. It is hoped that this report would increase the awareness of such condition and its identification. PMID:27574355

  18. LONDON Banana RepubliC登陆欧洲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁燕燕

    2008-01-01

    <正>美国的casual n’chic品牌Banana Republic终于登陆欧洲。近日第一家欧洲分店在伦敦的Regent Street开幕,占地17,000平方呎的三层高旗舰店将成为Banana Republic进军欧洲市场的试点。这一次的扩张,对GAP来说,也是一个很大的考验,因为此时正值美、英两国经济不景气。究竟,Banana Republic能否在英国的同类品牌中脱颖而出,成为下一个

  19. Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Jiang, Shuang; Lin, Guimei; Cai, Jianghua; Ye, Xiaoxi; Chen, Houbin; Li, Minhui; Li, Huaping; Takác, Tomás; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)-Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium.

  20. Endophytic bacterial diversity in banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa spp. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane A. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in banana 'Prata Anã' roots was characterized. Two hundred and one endophytic bacteria were isolated, 151 of which were classified as Gram-positive and 50 as Gram-negative. No hypersensitivity response was observed in any of the isolates. The rep-PCR technique generated different molecular profiles for each primer set (REP, ERIC and BOX. Fifty readable loci were obtained and all of the fragments were polymorphic. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA of the isolates based on cleavage with four restriction enzymes yielded 45 polymorphic bands and no monomorphic bands. PCR amplified the nifH gene in 24 isolates. 16S rDNA sequencing of the 201 bacterial isolates yielded 102 high-quality sequences. Sequence analyses revealed that the isolates were distributed among ten bacterial genera (Agrobacterium, Aneurinibacillus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and Sporolactobacillus and included 15 species. The greatest number of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The bacteria identified in this study may be involved in promoting growth, phosphate solubilization, biological control and nitrogen fixation in bananas.

  1. Testing promoter activity in the trypanosome genome: isolation of a metacyclic-type VSG promoter, and unexpected insights into RNA polymerase II transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, M; Graham, S; Hartmann, C; Clayton, C

    1998-09-01

    In trypanosomes, most genes are arranged in polycistronic transcription units. Individual mRNAs are generated by 5'-trans splicing and 3' polyadenylation. Remarkably, no regulation of RNA polymerase II transcription has been detected although many RNAs are differentially expressed during kinetoplastid life cycles. Demonstration of specific class II promoters is complicated by the difficulty in distinguishing between genuine promoter activity and stimulation of trans splicing. Using vectors that were designed to allow the detection of low promoter activities in a transcriptionally silent chromosomal context, we isolated a novel trypanosome RNA polymerase I promoter. We were however unable to detect class II promoter activity in any tested DNA fragment. We also integrated genes which were preceded by a T3 promoter into the genome of cells expressing bacteriophage T3 polymerase: surprisingly, transcription was alpha-amanitin sensitive. One possible interpretation of these results is that in trypanosomes, RNA polymerase II initiation is favored by genomic accessibility and double-strand melting. PMID:9709032

  2. Inducible and Constitutive Activation of Two Polymorphic Promoter Alleles of the Candida albicans Multidrug Efflux Pump MDR1

    OpenAIRE

    Sasse, Christoph; Schillig, Rebecca; Reimund, Alexandra; Merk, Julia; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of the multidrug efflux pump MDR1 confers resistance to the antifungal drug fluconazole on Candida albicans. It has been reported that two types of MDR1 promoters exist in C. albicans and that homozygosity for the allele with higher activity may promote fluconazole resistance. We found that the two MDR1 promoter alleles in strain SC5314 were equally well activated by inducing chemicals or hyperactive forms of the transcription factors Mrr1 and Cap1, which control MDR1 expressio...

  3. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Vanessa B.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. Del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: vanessa.uehara@usp.br, e-mail: patyoko@yahoo.com, e-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana (Musa sp) is a tropical fruits with great acceptability among consumers and produced in Brazil in a large scale. Bananas are not being as exploited as they could be in prepared food, and research could stimulate greater interest from industry. The viscosity characteristics and a product consistency can determine its acceptance by the consumer. Particularly the starch obtained from green banana had been studied from the nutritional point of view since the concept of Resistant Starch was introduced. Powder RS with high content of amylose was included in an approved food list with alleged functional properties in Brazilian legislation. Ionizing radiation can be used as a public health intervention measure for the control of food-borne diseases. Radiation is also a very convenient tool for polymer materials modification through degradation, grafting and crosslinking. In this work the influence of ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of green banana pulp was investigated. Samples of green banana pulp flour were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0 kGy,1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy in glass recipients. After irradiation 3% and 5% aqueous dilution were prepared and viscosity measurements performed in a Brooksfield, model DVIII viscometer using spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31. There was a reduction of the initial viscosity of the samples as a consequence of radiation processing, being the reduction inversely proportional to the flour concentration. The polysaccharide content of the banana starch seems to be degraded by radiation in solid state as shown by the reduction of viscosity as a function of radiation dose. (author)

  4. Thermochemical characterization of banana leaves as a potential energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The chemical composition of semi-dried banana leaves are similar to the other biomass. • The semi-dried leaves present high release of energy under inert and oxidant atmosphere. • The energy released on pyrolysis and combustion can be used to dry the wet banana leaves. • The thermochemical conversion processes can reduce the waste volume significantly. • The banana leaves have potential to use as biomass through combustion and pyrolysis process. - Abstract: Wet and semi-dried banana leaves were characterized through elemental and proximate analyses, lignocellulosic fraction and thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high heating value analysis to assess their use as biomass in generating energy through combustion; they were also assessed to determine the potential of obtaining value-added products through pyrolysis. The wet banana leaves had high moisture content of 74.7%. The semi-dried samples exhibited 8.3% moisture, 78.8% volatile solids, 43.5% carbon and a higher heating value of 19.8 MJ/kg. The nitrogen and sulfur contents in the banana leaves were very low. The semi-dried and wet leaves had hemicellulose and lignin contents close to other biomass fuels, and the semi-dried leaves had the lowest cellulose content, of 26.7%. The wet and semi-dried samples showed the same thermal events in oxidizing and inert atmospheres, but with distinctly different mass loss and energy release intensities. The chemical characteristics and the thermal behavior demonstrated by the semi-dried samples indicate their potential for use as biomass, with results similar to other agro-industrial wastes currently used

  5. Flavonoids promoting HaCaT migration: I. Hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moonjae; Yoon, Hyuk; Park, Mijoo; Kim, Young Hwa; Lim, Yoongho

    2014-03-15

    Cell migration plays an important role in multicellular development and preservation. Because wound healing requires cell migration, compounds promoting cell migration can be used for wound repair therapy. Several plant-derived polyphenols are known to promote cell migration, which improves wound healing. Previous studies of flavonoids on cell lines have focused on their inhibitory effects and not on wound healing. In addition, studies of flavonoids on wound healing have been performed using mixtures. In this study, individual flavonoids were used for cellular migration measurements. Relationships between the cell migration effects of flavonoids and their structural properties have never been reported. Here, we investigated the migration of keratinocytes caused by 100 flavonoids and examined their relationships using hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships. The structural conditions responsible for efficient cell migration on keratinocyte cell lines determined from the current study will facilitate the design of flavonoids with improved activity.

  6. FBI-1 enhances ETS-1 signaling activity and promotes proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhu

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated a potential regulatory role of FBI-1 in transcription factor activity of ETS-1. The protein interaction was identified between ETS-1 and FBI-1 in lovo cells. The accumulating data showed that FBI-1 promoted the recruitment of ETS-1 to endogenous promoter of its target genes and increase ETS-1 accumulation in the nuclear. Our work also indicated that the FBI-1 enhances ETS-1 transcription factor activity via down-regulating p53-mediated inhibition on ETS-1. Further, FBI-1 plays a role in regulation of colorectal carcinoma cells proliferation. These findings supported that FBI-1 might be a potential molecule target for treating colorectal carcinoma.

  7. Cyclin F suppresses B-Myb activity to promote cell cycle checkpoint control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Ditte Kjærsgaard; Hoffmann, Saskia; Ahlskog, Johanna K;

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to DNA damage by activating cell cycle checkpoints to delay proliferation and facilitate DNA repair. Here, to uncover new checkpoint regulators, we perform RNA interference screening targeting genes involved in ubiquitylation processes. We show that the F-box protein cyclin F plays...... an important role in checkpoint control following ionizing radiation. Cyclin F-depleted cells initiate checkpoint signalling after ionizing radiation, but fail to maintain G2 phase arrest and progress into mitosis prematurely. Importantly, cyclin F suppresses the B-Myb-driven transcriptional programme...... that promotes accumulation of crucial mitosis-promoting proteins. Cyclin F interacts with B-Myb via the cyclin box domain. This interaction is important to suppress cyclin A-mediated phosphorylation of B-Myb, a key step in B-Myb activation. In summary, we uncover a regulatory mechanism linking the F-box protein...

  8. Inibição do escurecimento enzimático de banana maçã minimamente processada Enzimatic browning inhibition of fresh-cut apple banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ânderson Adriano Martins Melo

    2006-03-01

    %+CC 1%+Cys 0.5%, (ii AA 1%+CC 1%+Cys 1% (iii AA 1%+CC 1%+Cys 1.5% e (iv EDTA 1%, building up four treatments of a completely randomly design. Fresh-cut products without chemical treatment were not analyzed because they browned quickly and presented less than 6 h of shelf life. The bananas were treated with sodium hypochlorite, sliced, dipped in chemical treatments, put in packages sealed with 30 µm PVC film and stored for five days at 5+1°C and 85+3% RH. Samples were evaluated every day, during five days of storage. The treatments contenting AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 1% and AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 1.5% determined the higher values of titratable acidity and lower values of pH. Increasing in a* value and decreasing in b* and L* values on fresh-cut apple banana were observed, in spite of chemical treatment, during the storage. AA 1% + CC1% + Cis1.5% treatment was the most effective on prevention of changes in a*, b* and L* values, associated to color of slices. Increasing in polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD activity was observed during the storage of banana slices, despite the treatment, except a decreasing observed on PPO activity, on products treated with EDTA. Treatments contenting EDTA and AA 1%+CC1%+Cis1.5% were the most effective on contention of increasing of PPO and POD activities, respectively.

  9. Role Modeling Attitudes, Physical Activity and Fitness Promoting Behaviors of Prospective Physical Education Specialists and Non-Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2002-01-01

    Compared the role modeling attitudes and physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors of undergraduate students majoring in physical education and in elementary education. Student teacher surveys indicated that physical education majors had more positive attitudes toward role modeling physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors and…

  10. The physical education teacher as a physical activity promoter: Current developments

    OpenAIRE

    Cloes, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The current society needs to fight against the growing of sedentary lifestyles among the population all around the world. The school environment is identified as a pillar of the multisectorial approach that should be implemented to avoid that children who born today do not live less longer than their parents. The presentation will focus on four topics: (1) The role of school in physical activity (PA) promotion; (2) The dimensions of PA at school; (3) The action that physical education (PE) te...

  11. Hair growth-promoting activity of hot water extract of Thuja orientalis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Nan-Nan; Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background Thuja orientalis has been traditionally used to treat patients who suffer from baldness and hair loss in East Asia. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth-promoting activity of T. orientalis hot water extract and the underlying mechanism of action. Methods After T. orientalis extract was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 N mice, the histomorphometric analysis was employed to study induction of the hair follicle cycle. To determine the...

  12. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in the societies of physics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, H.; Sasao, M.; Nemoto, K.; Tamechika, E.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Although the percentage of women members increases from 2% to 6% in the last 30 years, the ratio is still low in both the Physical Society of Japan and the Japan Society of Applied Physics. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in both societies, the development of the next generation of members, organizing international workshops and domestic symposiums, and so on, are introduced in this paper.

  13. The Use of Promotional Activities in the Tourism Industry : The Case of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jakir, Hossain Md.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This thesis is an attempt to investigate how the use of promotional activities can help to develop the tourism industry by giving a special concentration to the case of Bangladesh. The investigation was conducted from both a theoretical and an empirical point of view. The contribution of the same industry to the world economy is considerable. Many countries are now dependent on this sector for foreign currency earnings. Every destination country is trying to achieve more gain by deve...

  14. Biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity of rhizobacteria from Chinese fields with contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, XUEFEI; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Ke, Linfeng; Mavrodi, Olga V; Yang, Mingming; Thomashow, Linda S.; Zheng, Na; Weller, David M; Zhang, Jibin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to inventory the types of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) present in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soils contaminated with heavy metals, recalcitrant organics, petroleum sewage or salinity in China. We screened 1223 isolates for antifungal activity and about 24% inhibited R hizoctonia solani or S clerotinia sclerotiorum. Twenty-four strains inhibitory to R . solani, G aeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and/or S . sclerotiorum and representing the do...

  15. Differential characteristics in the chemical composition of bananas from Tenerife (Canary Islands) and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Markus Paul; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2002-12-18

    The contents of moisture, protein, ash, ascorbic acid, glucose, fructose, total sugars, and total and insoluble fiber were determined in cultivars of bananas (Gran Enana and Pequeña Enana) harvested in Tenerife and in bananas (Gran Enana) from Ecuador. The chemical compositions in the bananas from Tenerife and from Ecuador were clearly different. The cultivar did not influence the chemical composition, except for insoluble fiber content. Variations of the chemical composition were observed in the bananas from Tenerife according to cultivation method (greenhouse and outdoors), farming style (conventional and organic), and region of production (north and south). A highly significant (r = 0.995) correlation between glucose and fructose was observed. Correlations of ash and protein contents tend to separate the banana samples according to origin. A higher content of protein, ash, and ascorbic acid was observed as the length of the banana decreased. Applying factor analysis, the bananas from Ecuador were well separated from the bananas produced in Tenerife. An almost total differentiation (91.7%) between bananas from Tenerife and bananas from Ecuador was obtained by selecting protein, ash, and ascorbic acid content and applying stepwise discriminant analysis. By selecting the bananas Pequeña Enana and using discriminant analysis, a clear separation of the samples according to the region of production and farming style was observed.

  16. KNL1 facilitates phosphorylation of outer kinetochore proteins by promoting Aurora B kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Gina V; DeLuca, Keith F; DeLuca, Jennifer G

    2013-12-23

    Aurora B kinase phosphorylates kinetochore proteins during early mitosis, increasing kinetochore–microtubule (MT) turnover and preventing premature stabilization of kinetochore–MT attachments. Phosphorylation of kinetochore proteins during late mitosis is low, promoting attachment stabilization, which is required for anaphase onset. The kinetochore protein KNL1 recruits Aurora B–counteracting phosphatases and the Aurora B–targeting factor Bub1, yet the consequences of KNL1 depletion on Aurora B phospho-regulation remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the KNL1 N terminus is essential for Aurora B activity at kinetochores. This region of KNL1 is also required for Bub1 kinase activity at kinetochores, suggesting that KNL1 promotes Aurora B activity through Bub1-mediated Aurora B targeting. However, ectopic targeting of Aurora B to kinetochores does not fully rescue Aurora B activity in KNL1-depleted cells, suggesting KNL1 influences Aurora B activity through an additional pathway. Our findings establish KNL1 as a requirement for Aurora B activity at kinetochores and for wild-type kinetochore–MT attachment dynamics.

  17. Tumor suppressor protein C53 antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Jiang; Jianchun Wu; Chen He; Wending Yang; Honglin Li

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint. More recently, Wang et al. (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor by way of inhibiting NF-kB signaling. We report here the identification of C53 protein as a novel regulator of Cdk1 activation. We found that knockdown of C53 protein causes delayed Cdkl activation and mitotic entry. During DNA damage response, activation of checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) is partially inhibited by C53 overexpression. Intriguingly, we found that C53 interacts with Chkl and antagonizes its function. Moreover, a portion of C53 protein is localized at the centrosome, and centrosome-targeting C53 potently promotes local Cdk1 activation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that C53 is a novel negative regulator of checkpoint response. By counteracting Chk1, C53 promotes Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry in both unperturbed cell-cycle progression and DNA damage response.

  18. Neuronal activity promotes oligodendrogenesis and adaptive myelination in the mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Erin M; Purger, David; Mount, Christopher W; Goldstein, Andrea K; Lin, Grant L; Wood, Lauren S; Inema, Ingrid; Miller, Sarah E; Bieri, Gregor; Zuchero, J Bradley; Barres, Ben A; Woo, Pamelyn J; Vogel, Hannes; Monje, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Myelination of the central nervous system requires the generation of functionally mature oligodendrocytes from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Electrically active neurons may influence OPC function and selectively instruct myelination of an active neural circuit. In this work, we use optogenetic stimulation of the premotor cortex in awake, behaving mice to demonstrate that neuronal activity elicits a mitogenic response of neural progenitor cells and OPCs, promotes oligodendrogenesis, and increases myelination within the deep layers of the premotor cortex and subcortical white matter. We further show that this neuronal activity-regulated oligodendrogenesis and myelination is associated with improved motor function of the corresponding limb. Oligodendrogenesis and myelination appear necessary for the observed functional improvement, as epigenetic blockade of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin changes prevents the activity-regulated behavioral improvement.

  19. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins promotes nuclear localization of active caspase 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HPV-16 E6 and E6⁎ proteins have been shown previously to be capable of regulating caspase 8 activity. We now show that the capacity of E6 to interact with caspase 8 is common to diverse HPV types, being also seen with HPV-11 E6, HPV-18 E6 and HPV-18 E6⁎. Unlike most E6-interacting partners, caspase 8 does not appear to be a major proteasomal target of E6, but instead E6 appears able to stimulate caspase 8 activation, without affecting the overall apoptotic activity. This would appear to be mediated in part by the ability of the HPV E6 oncoproteins to recruit active caspase 8 to the nucleus. - Highlights: • Multiple HPV E6 oncoproteins interact with the caspase 8 DED domain. • HPV E6 stimulates activation of caspase 8. • HPV E6 promotes nuclear accumulation of caspase 8

  20. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins promotes nuclear localization of active caspase 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzo-Merino, Joaquin [Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México/Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Sección XVI, Tlalpan 14080 (Mexico); Massimi, Paola [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Padriciano 99, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Lizano, Marcela, E-mail: lizanosoberon@gmail.com [Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México/Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Sección XVI, Tlalpan 14080 (Mexico); Banks, Lawrence, E-mail: banks@icgeb.org [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Padriciano 99, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The HPV-16 E6 and E6{sup ⁎} proteins have been shown previously to be capable of regulating caspase 8 activity. We now show that the capacity of E6 to interact with caspase 8 is common to diverse HPV types, being also seen with HPV-11 E6, HPV-18 E6 and HPV-18 E6{sup ⁎}. Unlike most E6-interacting partners, caspase 8 does not appear to be a major proteasomal target of E6, but instead E6 appears able to stimulate caspase 8 activation, without affecting the overall apoptotic activity. This would appear to be mediated in part by the ability of the HPV E6 oncoproteins to recruit active caspase 8 to the nucleus. - Highlights: • Multiple HPV E6 oncoproteins interact with the caspase 8 DED domain. • HPV E6 stimulates activation of caspase 8. • HPV E6 promotes nuclear accumulation of caspase 8.

  1. Berberine Promotes Glucose Consumption Independently of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Miao Xu; Yuanyuan Xiao; Jun Yin; Wolin Hou; Xueying Yu; Li Shen; Fang Liu; Li Wei; Weiping Jia

    2014-01-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with anti-diabetic action. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway has been proposed as mechanism for berberine's action. This study aimed to examine whether AMPK activation was necessary for berberine's glucose-lowering effect. We found that in HepG2 hepatocytes and C2C12 myotubes, berberine significantly increased glucose consumption and lactate release in a dose-dependent manner. AMPK and acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACC) phosphorylation wer...

  2. Peer-delivered physical activity interventions: an overlooked opportunity for physical activity promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Ginis, Kathleen A Martin; Nigg, Claudio R; Smith, Alan L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to catalogue and synthesize published studies that have examined the effects of peer-delivered physical activity interventions on physical activity behavior. Ten published studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. The following information was extracted from each study: study design and duration; characteristics of the sample, peers, and interventions; and physical activity outcomes. In all articles reporting within-groups analyses, pee...

  3. Expression of ACO1, ERS1 and ERF1 genes in harvested bananas in relation to heat-induced defense against Colletotrichum musae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangfei; Wang, Aiping; Zhu, Shijiang; Zhang, Lubin

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the connection between heat-induced ethylene signal changes and enhanced disease resistance. Heat enhanced ripening and elevated MaACO1 expression in naturally ripened bananas (NRB), while it delayed ripening and reduced MaACO1expression in the ethephon-treated bananas (ETB). However, in both cases, heat reduced lesion sizes infected by Colletotrichum musae. This indicates that heat-induced disease resistance in bananas was independent of ripening rate. The expression of MaERS1 gene was inhibited by heat treatment in both NRB and ETB, implying that heat as a physical signal could be sensed by banana fruits through the inhibition of ethylene receptor gene expression. The intensity of MaERF1 transcript signals was elevated in heated bananas, suggesting that the enhanced accumulation of MaERF1 transcript following heat treatment could play an important role in activation of the defense system. In ETB, inhibition of JA biosynthesis by application of IBU down-regulated the expression of MaERF and significantly weakened disease resistance, suggesting involvement of endogenous JA in induction of the gene expression, which was reconfirmed by the fact that exposure to exogenous MeJA following the combination of heat plus IBU treatment restored part of the gene expression. On the other hand, in NRB, application of IBU elevated level of MaERF1 expression at 24h and enhanced disease resistance, suggesting that, when banana was not exposed to ethephon, the expression of MaERF1 gene was not JA dependent, which was verified by the fact that MeJA application did not enhance MaERF1 gene expression. In conclusion, heat-induced disease resistance in harvested bananas could involve down-regulation of MaERS1 expression and up-regulation of MaERF1 expression and JA pathway could be involved in heat activation of the defense system in bananas exposed to ethephon.

  4. Farnesoid X receptor activation promotes cell proliferation via PDK4-controlled metabolic reprogramming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Wang, Hong; Cheng, Xuefang; Wu, Yuzheng; Cao, Lijuan; Wu, Mengqiu; Xie, Wen; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of various metabolic pathways as well as liver regeneration. However, the casual link between cell proliferative effects during liver regeneration and metabolic regulation of FXR was elusive. In this study, we found that FXR activation significantly promotes HepG2 cell proliferation accompanied with metabolic switch towards the excessive accumulation of aerobic glycolytic intermediates including lactic acid, pyruvate and the subsequently increased biosynthesis of glycine. This FXR-induced metabolic switch was found dependent on an up-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenate kinase 4 (PDK4), a FXR target gene. FXR agonists were found to promote liver regeneration in the murine model of APAP induced liver injury, which was associated with a metabolic switch favoring the accumulation of glycolytic intermediates as precursors for generation of biomass. However, FXR activation has little effect on the glycolytic metabolism in healthy primary hepatocytes in vitro and the liver of healthy mice in vivo. Therefore, we conclude that FXR may promote the proliferation of tumor cells and the hepatocytes in the process of liver regeneration by activating the PDK4-mediated metabolic reprogramming to generate glycolytic intermediates essential for rapid biomass generation, establishing a mechanistic link between cell proliferation and metabolic switch. PMID:26728993

  5. Anti-tumour promoting activity of diphenylmethyl selenocyanate against two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rajat Kumar; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence collectively suggests that Se in different inorganic and organic forms provides a potential cancer chemopreventive agent, active against several types of cancer. It can exert preventive activity in all the three stages of cancer: initiation, promotion and progression. Literature reports revealed that organoselenocyanates have more potential as chemopreventive agents than inorganic forms due to their lower toxicity. In our previous report we showed chemopreventive efficacy of diphenylmethyl selenocyanate during the initiation and pre- plus post-initiation phases of skin and colon carcinogenesis process. The present study was undertaken to explore the anti-tumour promoting activity of diphenylmethyl selenocyanate in a 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA)-croton oil two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. The results obtained showed significant (pliver and skin. Thus, the present data strongly suggest that diphenylmethyl selenocyanate also has the potential to act as anti-tumour promoter agent in a two-stage skin carcinogenesis mouse model, pointing to possible general efficacy. PMID:16101330

  6. Activation of Dopamine Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Promotes Sucrose-Reinforced Cued Approach Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Hoffmann, Johann; Nicola, Saleem M.

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) promotes vigorous environmentally-cued food-seeking in hungry rats. Rats fed ad libitum, however, respond to fewer food-predictive cues, particularly when the value of food reward is low. Here, we investigated whether this difference could be due to differences in the degree of dopamine receptor activation in the NAc. First, we observed that although rats given ad libitum access to chow in their home cages approached a food receptacle in response to reward-predictive cues, the number of such approaches declined as animals accumulated food rewards. Intriguingly, cued approach to food occurred in clusters, with several cued responses followed by successive non-responses. This pattern suggested that behavior was dictated by transitions between two states, responsive and non-responsive. Injection of D1 or D2 dopamine receptor agonists into the NAc dose-dependently increased cue responding by promoting transitions to the responsive state and by preventing transitions to the non-responsive state. In contrast, antagonists of either D1 or D2 receptors promoted long bouts of non-responding by inducing transitions to the non-responsive state and by preventing transitions to the responsive state. Moreover, locomotor behavior during the inter-trial interval was correlated with the responsive state, and was also increased by dopamine receptor agonists. These results suggest that activation of NAc dopamine receptors plays an important role in regulating the probability of approach to food under conditions of normative satiety. PMID:27471453

  7. [Main bacterial groups in banana soil under rotated and continuous cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xian; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Chao; Bai, Ting-Ting; Li, Hua-Ping

    2011-06-01

    Banana wilt is the main disease in banana production, while banana-leek rotation can effectively control the occurrence of the disease. In order to understand the variations of soil bacterial groups under banana-leek rotation and banana continuous cropping, soil samples under these two cropping systems were collected to extract crude DNA, and the bacterial 16S rDNA in V3 region was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were then separated by DGGE, and the main different bands were sequenced and compared with the records of NCBI to identify the germs. Under banana-leek rotation, soil bacterial diversity was richer, and the main bacterial groups were Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria; while under banana continuous cropping, the soil bacterial diversity was somewhat decreased, and the main bacterial groups were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi.

  8. Chemical and physical characterization of Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana fibers of banana tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to characterize the fibers of cavendish and silver banana trunks (Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana, respectively) concerning their density, lignin and moisture contents, and chemical structure by using the techniques of infrared spectroscopy and low field solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR. From NMR analysis, it was possible to observe the morphological differences between cavendish and silver types of banana fibers. FTIR technique did not allow the observation of any important difference in the banana fibers spectra. The cavendish banana fiber showed higher moisture and lignin contents than the silver banana fiber The NMR technique showed that relaxation times for silver banana fiber were higher than those for cavendish banana fiber, which can be credited to the lower moisture content values found in the silver fibers. (author)

  9. The Role of Culture, Environment, and Religion in the Promotion of Physical Activity Among Arab Israelis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Katz, MD, MPH

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDespite low levels of physical activity among Arabs in Israel, interventions designed to increase physical activity in this population have been scarce. To improve our understanding of the cultural, religious, and environmental barriers and enablers to physical activity, we conducted a qualitative study among Arab Israeli college students in Israel.MethodsA total of 45 students participated in 8 focus groups. Purposeful sampling was used to capture the diverse characteristics of participants. Two researchers analyzed the data independently guided by grounded theory. Peer-debriefing sessions were held to group preliminary categories into larger themes. Generally, consensus between researchers was high, and minor differences were resolved.ResultsParticipants recognized the importance of physical activity in chronic disease prevention, yet most were not regularly physically active. This contradiction could be explained by the fact that many participants lived in an extended-family setting that deemphasized the importance of physical activity. Women often found themselves exercising at odd hours so that they would not be noticed by neighbors. Religion, in comparison, was considered a facilitating factor because the scriptures supported physical activity. Furthermore, an urban environment was an enabling factor because it provided exercise facilities, sidewalks, and a socially acceptable venue for activity. Participants felt resources were not allocated by the government to accommodate physical activity.ConclusionIncreasing Arab Israelis’ access to safe and culturally appropriate exercise facilities should become a priority. Thus, policy changes in allocating appropriate funds to promote physical activity must be considered, along with using multiple health promotion strategies.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma recruits the positive transcription elongation factor b complex to activate transcription and promote adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iankova, Irena; Petersen, Rasmus K; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien;

    2006-01-01

    in adipogenesis. In this study we show that the expression of the cdk9 p55 isoform is highly regulated during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at RNA and protein levels. Furthermore, cdk9, as well as cyclin T1 and cyclin T2, shows differences in nuclear localization at distinct stages of adipogenesis...... with and phosphorylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), which is the master regulator of this process, on the promoter of PPARgamma target genes. PPARgamma-cdk9 interaction results in increased transcriptional activity of PPARgamma and therefore increased adipogenesis....

  11. QUALIDADE FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E SENSORIAL DE AGUARDENTES DE POLPA DE BANANA E BANANA INTEGRAL SUBMETIDAS À HIDRÓLISE ENZIMÁTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Borges de Lima da SILVA; José Benício Paes CHAVES; Viviane Gomes LELIS; Letícia Mendonça ALVARENGA; Zuim, Diana Regazzi; Silva, Paulo Henrique Alves da

    2009-01-01

    A banana é a fruta de maior consumo anual per capita no Brasil, atingindo todas as camadas da população. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a hidrólise enzimática e comparar a qualidade físico-química e sensorial de aguardentes elaboradas com a polpa de banana e com a polpa e casca de banana (banana integral) Musa cavendishi, variedade prata. Foram realizadas análises de sólidos solúveis, açúcares redutores, amido e celulose para amostras de polpa de bana...

  12. Promotion of physical activity in the European region: content analysis of 27 national policy documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe B; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Racioppi, Francesca;

    2009-01-01

    search methods, 49 national policy documents on physical activity promotion were identified. An analysis grid covering key features was developed for the analysis of the 27 documents published in English. RESULTS: Analysis showed that many general recommendations for policy developments are being....... Population groups most in need such as people with low levels of physical activity were rarely specifically targeted. Most policies emphasized the importance of an evaluation. However, only about half of them indicated a related intention or requirement. CONCLUSION: In recent years there has been...

  13. ORM Promotes Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Accumulation via CCR5-Activated AMPK Pathway in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen; Wan, Jing-Jing; Sun, Yang; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Su, Ding-Feng; Lei, Hong; Liu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    We found previously that acute phase protein orosomucoid reacts to fatigue and activates C-C chemokine receptor type 5 to increase muscle glycogen storage and enhance muscle endurance (Lei et al., 2016). To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase, a critical fuel sensor in skeletal muscle, in C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mediated orosomucoid action. It was found orosomucoid increased skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase activation in a time- and dose- dependent manner, which was largely prevented by pharmacological blocking or knockout of C-C chemokine receptor type 5. Administration of orosomucoid also significantly increased the de-phosphorylation and activity of muscle glycogen synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis. The effect was largely absent in mice deficient in C-C chemokine receptor type 5−/− or AMP-activated protein kinase α2−/−, the predominant isoform in skeletal muscle. Moreover, deletion of AMP-activated protein kinase α2 abolished the effect of orosomucoid on fatigue and muscle glycogen. These findings indicate that orosomucoid may promote glycogen storage and enhance muscle function through C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mdiated activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which in turn activates glycogen synthase and increases muscle glycogen. PMID:27679573

  14. Tumor initiating and promoting activities of various benzo(a)pyrene metabolites in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaga, T J; Bracken, W M; Viaje, A; Berry, D L; Fischer, S M; Miller, D R; Levin, W; Conney, A H; Yagi, H; Jerina, D M

    1977-01-01

    The skin tumor-initiating activities of the twelve isomeric phenols of BP revealed that 2-OHBP was as potent as BP while 11-OHBP was moderately active and the others were weak or inactive. However, 2-OHBP has not been shown to be formed from BP in the skin or any other tissue. The (-)-trans-7,8-diol of BP skin was found to be more active as a skin tumor initiator than BP suggesting that it is a proximal carcinogen. The data on carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and metabolism suggest that BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide is the ultimate carcinogenic form of BP. The skin tumor-initiating activities of the various BP metabolites correlate very well with their complete carcinogenic in mouse skin except for BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide. It was found to have skin tumor initiating activity but not complete carcinogenic activity. However, BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide was found to be a very potent complete carcinogen in newborn mice. It is possible that BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide is only a tumor initiator in which a promoting stimulus must be supplied for carcinogenic activity. A natural tumor promoting stimulus may be present in the newborn mouse. There is also a good correlation between the skin tumor initiating activities of the various BP metabolites and their mutagenic activity in the V79 mammalian cell mediated mutagenesis system.

  15. Dual-reporter in vivo imaging of transient and inducible heat-shock promoter activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Pierre-Yves; Genevois, Coralie; Chapolard, Mathilde; Santalucía, Tomàs; Planas, Anna M; Couillaud, Franck

    2014-02-01

    Gene promoter activity can be studied in vivo by molecular imaging methods using reporter gene technology. Transcription of the reporter and the reported genes occurs simultaneously. However, imaging depends on reporter protein translation, stability, and cellular fate that may differ among the various proteins. A double transgenic mouse strain expressing the firefly luciferase (lucF) and fluorescent mPlum protein under the transcriptional control of the thermo-inducible heat-shock protein (Hspa1b) promoter was generated allowing to follow up the reporter proteins by different and complementary in vivo imaging technologies. These mice were used for in vivo imaging by bioluminescence and epi fluorescence reflectance imaging (BLI & FRI) and as a source of embryonic fibroblast (MEF) for in vitro approaches. LucF, mPlum and endogenous Hsp70 mRNAs were transcribed simultaneously. The increase in mRNA was transient, peaking at 3 h and then returning to the basal level about 6 h after the thermal stimulations. The bioluminescent signal was transient and initiated with a 3 h delay versus mRNA expression. The onset of mPlum fluorescence was more delayed, increasing slowly up to 30 h after heat-shock and remaining for several days. This mouse allows for both bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) of Hsp70 promoter activation showing an early and transient lucF activity and a retrospective and persistent mPlum fluorescence. This transgenic mouse will allow following the transient local induction of Hsp-70 promoter beyond its induction time-frame and relate into subsequent dynamic biological effects of the heat-shock response. PMID:24575340

  16. Physical Activity in Medellín: a Challenge for Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Éuler Sepúlveda

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: chronic diseases generate high economical and social costs to humankind. The lack of physical activity has been considered as a determinant factor in the epidemics of chronic diseases nowadays. It is mandatory to explore this kind of behavior in order to outline appropriate actions for prevention and health promotion. Method: a survey on 3.979 representative people of both sexes from Medellín, Colombia was carried out evaluating attitudes and practices related to physical activity and its associated factors. The analysis included the description of proportions with their respective tests of statistical significance and different crossings with sociodemographic variables. Results: only one out of five people (21.2% performs enough physical activity in order to protect its health. Physical activity is higher among men and is positively associated to social-economic levels and education status. The sedentary behavior is usually adopted in early stages of youth and is kept throughout lifespan. Physical activity, on the contrary, is usually associated to a better balance in body composition. Conclusion: the high prevalence of sedentary behaviors in the population is probably becoming a significant factor in the increase of chronic diseases. This condition should be included as a priority in the design of strategies for the intervention in public health; furthermore, the promotion of healthy lifestyles among people becomes a big challenge to health professionals who should face it with creativity and optimism.

  17. Recommendations for Promoting Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents in Germany. A Consensus Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Graf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing physical activity and reduction of sedentary behaviour play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. However, the question of how much physical activity is useful for which target group is still a matter of debate. International guidelines (World Health Organization; European Association for the Study of Obesity, which are mainly based on expert opinions, recommend 60 min of physical activity every day. Age- and sex-specific features and regional differences are not taken into account. Therefore, expert consensus recommendations for promoting physical activity of children and adolescents in Germany were developed with special respect to national data, but also with respect to aspects of specific target groups, e.g., children with a lower socio-economic status (SES or with migration background. They propose 90 min/day of physical activity, or at least 12,000 steps daily. Additionally, lifestyle factors, especially restriction of media consumption, were integrated. The recommendations provide orientation for parents and caregivers, for institutions such as schools and kindergartens as well as for communities and stakeholders.

  18. Irisin promotes osteoblast proliferation and differentiation via activating the MAP kinase signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiaoyong; Yong Qiao, Xiao; Nie, Ying; Ma, Yaxian; Xian Ma, Ya; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Ran; Yin, Weiyao; Yao Yinrg, Wei; Hu, Ying; Xu, Wenming; Ming Xu, Wen; Xu, Liangzhi; Zhi Xu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise is able to improve skeletal health. However, the mechanisms are poorly known. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, secreted by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, have been shown to mediate beneficial effects of exercise in many disorders. In the current study, we demonstrated that irisin promotes osteoblast proliferation, and increases the expression of osteoblastic transcription regulators, such as Runt-related transcription factor-2, osterix/sp7; and osteoblast differentiation markers, including alkaline phosphatase, collagen type 1 alpha-1, osteocalcin, and osteopontin in vitro. Irisin also increase ALP activity and calcium deposition in cultured osteoblast. These osteogenic effects were mediated by activating the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB023580 or pERK by U0126 abolished the proliferation and up-regulatory effects of irisin on Runx2 expression and ALP activity. Together our observation suggest that irisin directly targets osteoblast, promoting osteoblast proliferation and differentiation via activating P38/ERK MAP kinase signaling cascades in vitro. Whether irisin can be utilized as the therapeutic agents for osteopenia and osteoporosis is worth to be further pursued. PMID:26738434

  19. The regulation of the SARK promoter activity by hormones and environmental signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Carla A; Cohen, Yuval; Liu, Li; Peleg, Zvi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    The Senescence Associated Receptor Protein Kinase (P(SARK)) promoter, fused to isopentenyltransferase (IPT) gene has been shown to promote drought tolerance in crops. We dissected P(SARK) in order to understand the various elements associated with its activation and suppression. The activity of P(SARK) was higher in mature and early senescing leaves, and abiotic stress induced its activity in mature leaves. Bioinformatics analysis suggests the interactions of multiple cis-acting elements in the control of P(SARK) activity. In vitro gel shift assays and yeast one hybrid system revealed interactions of P(SARK) with transcription factors related to abscisic acid and cytokinin response. Deletion analysis of P(SARK), fused to GUS-reporter gene was used to identify specific regions regulating transcription under senescence or during drought stress. Effects of exogenous hormonal treatments were characterized in entire plants and in leaf disk assays, and regions responsive to various hormones were defined. Our results indicate a complex interaction of plant hormones and additional factors modulating P(SARK) activity under stress resulting in a transient induction of expression.

  20. Decolorization of the textile dyes using purified banana pulp polyphenol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Umesh U; Dawkar, Vishal V; Jadhav, Mital U; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-04-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) purified using DEAE-cellulose and Biogel P-100 column chromatography from banana pulp showed 12.72-fold activity and 2.49% yield. The optimum temperature and pH were found to be 30 degrees C and 7.0, respectively for its activity. Catechol was found to be a suitable substrate for banana pulp PPO that showed V(max), 0.041 mM min(-1) and K(m), 1.6 mM. The enzyme activity was inhibited by sodium metabisulfite, citric acid, cysteine, and beta-mercaptoethanol at 10 mM concentration. The purified enzyme could decolorize (90%) Direct Red 5B (160 microg mL(-1)) dye within 48 h and Direct Blue GLL (400 microg mL(-1)) dye up to 85% within 90 h. The GC-MS analysis indicated the presence of 4-hydroxy-benzenesulfonic acid and Naphthalene-1,2,3,6-tetraol in the degradation products of Direct Red 5B, and 5-(4-Diazenyl-naphthalene-1-ylazo)-8-hydroxy-naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid and 2-(4-Diazenyl-naphthalene-1-ylazo)-benzenesulfonic acid in the degradation products of Direct Blue GLL.