WorldWideScience

Sample records for banana crop canopies

  1. Spatial and temporal variations in percolation fluxes in a tropical Andosol influenced by banana cropping patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattan, P.; Voltz, M.; Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Lacas, J.-G.; Sansoulet, J.

    2007-03-01

    SummarySpatial variability in percolation fluxes was studied in field plots cropped with banana plants, which induce very heterogeneous rainfall partitioning at the soil surface, with high subsequent infiltration in Andosols. Percolation fluxes were measured for just over a year at 1-7 day intervals in eight wick (WL) and gravity lysimeters (GL) that had been buried in the soil at a depth of 60 cm. The results revealed that WL captured unsaturated fluxes while GL only functioned after ponding occurred. The percolation flux measurements were highly biased with both systems, i.e. overpercolation with WL and underpercolation with GL. Percolation fluxes seemed, however, to be mainly unsaturated in the soil types studied. High percolation flux variability was noted on a plot scale, which could be explained by the vegetation structure: total percolation flux (WL) was 2.1-fold higher under banana plants; saturated percolation flux (GL) was 7-fold higher under banana plants and almost absent between banana plants. Eighty-eight per cent of the total variance in percolation flux could be explained by the rainfall intensity under the banana canopy, calculated while taking the rainfall partitioning by the vegetation and the initial water status into account. The number of lysimeters required for assessing percolation flux in a field plot can be reduced by taking the spatial patterns of the flux boundary conditions into account.

  2. Interplanting banana at high densities with immature rubber crop for improved water use

    OpenAIRE

    Harischandra Lakshman Rodrigo, Vitharanage; Maeve Stirling, Clare; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Kusum Samarasekera, Renuka; Dharmasiri Pathirana, Pathiranage

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Consumptive water use of the rubber/banana intercropping systems was assessed. Five systems were tested; sole rubber (R) and banana (B) crops and three intercrops comprising additive series of one (BR), two (BBR) and three (BBBR) rows banana to one row of rubber. Planting density of rubber remained constant across the treatments, hence the rate of transpiration associated closely with the planting density of banana with ca. 140% increase from banana-rubber to banana-ba...

  3. Development of a multispectral sensor for crop canopy temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantifying spatial and temporal variability in plant stress has precision agriculture applications in controlling variable rate irrigation and variable rate nutrient application. One approach to plant stress detection is crop canopy temperature measurement by the use of thermographic or radiometric...

  4. [Main bacterial groups in banana soil under rotated and continuous cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xian; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Chao; Bai, Ting-Ting; Li, Hua-Ping

    2011-06-01

    Banana wilt is the main disease in banana production, while banana-leek rotation can effectively control the occurrence of the disease. In order to understand the variations of soil bacterial groups under banana-leek rotation and banana continuous cropping, soil samples under these two cropping systems were collected to extract crude DNA, and the bacterial 16S rDNA in V3 region was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were then separated by DGGE, and the main different bands were sequenced and compared with the records of NCBI to identify the germs. Under banana-leek rotation, soil bacterial diversity was richer, and the main bacterial groups were Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria; while under banana continuous cropping, the soil bacterial diversity was somewhat decreased, and the main bacterial groups were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi.

  5. Use Of Crop Canopy Size To Estimate Water Requirements Of Vegetable Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planting time, plant density, variety, and cultural practices vary widely for horticultural crops. It is difficult to estimate crop water requirements for crops with these variations. Canopy size, or factional ground cover, as an indicator of intercepted sunlight, is related to crop water use. We...

  6. [Active crop canopy sensor-based nitrogen diagnosis for potato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Li, Fei; Qin, Yong-Lin; Fan, Ming-Shou

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, two potato experiments involving different N rates in 2011 were conducted in Wuchuan County and Linxi County, Inner Mongolia. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected by an active GreenSeeker crop canopy sensor to estimate N status of potato. The results show that the NDVI readings were poorly correlated with N nutrient indicators of potato at vegetative Growth stage due to the influence of soil background. With the advance of growth stages, NDVI values were exponentially related to plant N uptake (R2 = 0.665) before tuber bulking stage and were linearly related to plant N concentration (R2 = 0.699) when plant fully covered soil. In conclusion, GreenSeeker active crop sensor is a promising tool to estimate N status for potato plants. The findings from this study may be useful for developing N recommendation method based on active crop canopy sensor.

  7. SOIL CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND LEAF NUTRIENTS OF ‘PACOVAN’ BANANA UNDER TWO COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EGÍDIO FLORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, which is grown in most tropical countries. The objective of this work was to evaluate the main attributes of soil fertility in a banana crop under two cover crops and two root development locations. The work was conducted in Curaçá, BA, Brazil, between October 2011 and May 2013, using a randomized block design in split plot with five repetitions. Two cover crops were assessed in the plots, the cover 1 consisting of Pueraria phaseoloides, and the cover 2 consisting of a crop mix with Sorghum bicolor, Ricinus communis L., Canavalia ensiformis, Mucuna aterrima and Zea mays, and two soil sampling locations in the subplots, between plants in the banana rows (location 1 and between the banana rows (location 2. There were significant and independent effects for the cover crop and sampling location factors for the variables organic matter, Ca and P, and significant effects for the interaction between cover crops and sampling locations for the variables potassium, magnesium and total exchangeable bases. The cover crop mix and the between-row location presented the highest organic matter content. Potassium was the nutrient with the highest negative variation from the initial content and its leaf content was below the reference value, however not reducing the crop yield. The banana crop associated with crop cover using the crop mix provided greater availability of nutrients in the soil compared to the coverage with tropical kudzu.

  8. Effect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and associated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of bananas. However, its ecology is not well elucidated especially in East Africa where plantations are up to 50 years old and are under various management and cropping systems. No single satisfa

  9. Effects of crop sanitation on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae), populations and crop damage in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Crop sanitation, i.e. destruction of crop residues, has been hypothesized to lower banana weevil damage by removing adult refuges and breeding sites. Although it has been widely recommended to farmers, limited data are available to demonstrate the efficacy of this method. The effects of crop sanitat

  10. Distribution, timing of attack, and oviposition of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, on banana crop residues in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    Crop sanitation (removal and chopping of residue corms and pseudostems following plant harvest) has been recommended as a 'best bet' means of reducing banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations. However, it has been unclear when such practices should be ca

  11. Computing energy budget within a crop canopy from Penmann's formulae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahendra Mohan; K K Srivastava

    2001-06-01

    The Lhomme's model (1988a), that extended Penmann's formulae to a multi-layer model, is rede-fined as a function of micrometeorological and physiological profiles of crop canopy. The sources and sinks of sensible and latent heat uxes are assumed to lie on a fictitious plane called zero-displacement plane. Algorithms are given to compute sensible and latent heat ux densities. Per-formance of the algorithms is compared with that of earlier algorithms.

  12. Variation in canopy duration in the perennial biofuel crop Miscanthus reveals complex associations with yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Paul R H; Farrar, Kerrie; Gay, Alan P; Jensen, Elaine F; Clifton-Brown, John C; Donnison, Iain S

    2013-05-01

    Energy crops can provide a sustainable source of power and fuels, and mitigate the negative effects of CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuel use. Miscanthus is a perennial C4 energy crop capable of producing large biomass yields whilst requiring low levels of input. Miscanthus is largely unimproved and therefore there could be significant opportunities to increase yield. Further increases in yield will improve the economics, energy balance, and carbon mitigation of the crop, as well as reducing land-take. One strategy to increase yield in Miscanthus is to maximize the light captured through an extension of canopy duration. In this study, canopy duration was compared among a diverse collection of 244 Miscanthus genotypes. Canopy duration was determined by calculating the number of days between canopy establishment and senescence. Yield was positively correlated with canopy duration. Earlier establishment and later senescence were also both separately correlated with higher yield. However, although genotypes with short canopy durations were low yielding, not all genotypes with long canopy durations were high yielding. Differences of yield between genotypes with long canopy durations were associated with variation in stem and leaf traits. Different methodologies to assess canopy duration traits were investigated, including visual assessment, image analysis, light interception, and different trait thresholds. The highest correlation coefficients were associated with later assessments of traits and the use of quantum sensors for canopy establishment. A model for trait optimization to enable yield improvement in Miscanthus and other bioenergy crops is discussed.

  13. A numerical study on impact of crop canopy on mesoscale climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾新媛; 叶卓佳

    1996-01-01

    The impact of well watered mesoscale wheat planted on the mesoscale boundary layer structures of midlatitude arid area has been investigated by using a mesoscale biophysical meteorological model. The investigation indicates that mesoscale perturbations in temperature and specific humidity over crop area from the adjacent dry, bare soil, caused by the transpiration from the crop canopy and evaporation from underlying humid soil, result in a horizontal pressure gradient. A mesoscale circulation is forced by the pressure perturbation with a wind speed of about 5 m/s directing from the crop canopy to the bare soil in the lower boundary layer. In the daytime, the boundary layer structure over a complex terrain is determined by the interactions between upslope flow circulations and the circulations mentioned above when wheat crop canopies are located on plain and plateau. The impact of crop canopy scale on this thermally forced mesoscale circulation is also investigated.

  14. Climatic Forcing on Black Sigatoka Disease of Banana Crops in Urabá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, A.; Álvarez, P.; Poveda, G.; Buriticá, P.; Mira, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bananas are widely the most consumed fruit in the world and Colombia is one of the major producers and exporters of bananas worldwide. We analyzed the climatic forcing agents on banana crops in the Urabá region, the largest banana producer in Colombia. Although this crop is harvested continuously throughout the entire year, it exhibits climate driven seasonality. Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) has been the most important threat for banana production worldwide. BSD attacks plant leaves producing small spots of dead material. When BSD is not treated, it can grow enough to damage the entire leaf, reducing both growth and developmental rates which may result in the loss of the plant. BSD is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. This fungus is dispersed by wind with its inoculation occurring when there is water on the leaf. Thus, climatic variables such as wind, relative humidity of air (RH) and leaf wetness duration (LWD) all affect phenological phases of the banana crop (suckering, growing, flowering and harvesting). This study was carried out at the Cenibanano Experimental Plot located in Carepa (Urabá, Colombia) during 2007-2012. We used phytopathologic and weather data from the Cenibanano database along with climatic data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). BSD was diagnosed using the Biological Forecasting method. Results show that rainfall drives both plant and disease development rate. During wet periods the Foliar Emission Rate exceeds rates measured during dry periods. Although wetness is a positive factor for fungal reproduction (and BSD), it also heightens the chance for the plant to create more foliar tissue to fight against BSD. Hence, during wet periods the Severity Index of BSD is reduced in relation to dry periods. This effect was also observed at the inter-annual scale of the El Niño - South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the ENSO warm/cold phase (El Niño/La Niña) rainfall anomalies in Colombia were observed as negative

  15. PERFORMANCE OF ‘NANICÃO JANGADA’ BANANA PLANTS INTERCROPPED WITH WINTER COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO SFEIR DE AGUIAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of cover crops species may be an important strategy in the pursuit of sustainability of agroecosystems, considering benefits to soil, such as improvements of physical and chemical characteristics, and weed control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crops and other soil managements on chemical soil properties, on the cycle, on the production of the first cycle and on the fruit quality of banana cv. Nanicão Jangada in Andirá – PR, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial. Planting of banana suckers from the grower area occurred in the first half of March 2011, with a spacing of 2.40 m between rows and 1.90 m between plants. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with four replications and six plants per plot. The six treatments were: black oat (Avenastrigosa Schreb, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus, consortium of black oat and forage turnip, chicken litter, residues of banana plants, and bare ground. The evaluations were vegetative development and life cycle of banana plants, yield and quality of fruits, soil chemical characterstics, and fresh and dry mass of green manures. The results were submitted to ANOVA (F Test, and Tukey test at 5 % probability. Black oat and black oat with forage turnip consortium were superior in biomass production. Systems of soil management had no effect on the variables, except in the periods between planting and flowering and between planting and harvest, which were shorter in the treatment of soil management with crop residues, longer in the treatment with forage turnip, and intermediate in the other treatments.

  16. Crop Ground Cover Fraction and Canopy Chlorophyll Content Mapping using RapidEye imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillmann, E.; Schonert, M.; Lilienthal, H.; Siegmann, B.; Jarmer, T.; Rosso, P.; Weichelt, T.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing is a suitable tool for estimating the spatial variability of crop canopy characteristics, such as canopy chlorophyll content (CCC) and green ground cover (GGC%), which are often used for crop productivity analysis and site-specific crop management. Empirical relationships exist between different vegetation indices (VI) and CCC and GGC% that allow spatial estimation of canopy characteristics from remote sensing imagery. However, the use of VIs is not suitable for an operational production of CCC and GGC% maps due to the limited transferability of derived empirical relationships to other regions. Thus, the operational value of crop status maps derived from remotely sensed data would be much higher if there was no need for reparametrization of the approach for different situations. This paper reports on the suitability of high-resolution RapidEye data for estimating crop development status of winter wheat over the growing season, and demonstrates two different approaches for mapping CCC and GGC%, which do not rely on empirical relationships. The final CCC map represents relative differences in CCC, which can be quickly calibrated to field specific conditions using SPAD chlorophyll meter readings at a few points. The prediction model is capable of predicting SPAD readings with an average accuracy of 77%. The GGC% map provides absolute values at any point in the field. A high R2 value of 80% was obtained for the relationship between estimated and observed GGC%. The mean absolute error for each of the two acquisition dates was 5.3% and 8.7%, respectively.

  17. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E.; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; V. de Jong, Tristan; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza Manoel, Jr.; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the ascomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis, inflicts huge costs on banana producers, due to crop losses and expenses for disease control. The global banana export trade relies on Cavendish clones that are highly susceptible to P. fijiensis

  18. Can we use photography to estimate radiation interception by a crop canopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakwizira, E; Meenken, E D; George, M J; Fletcher, A L

    2015-03-01

    Accuracy of determining radiation interception, and hence radiation use efficiency, depends on the method of measuring photosynthetically active radiation intercepted. Methods vary, from expensive instruments such as Sunfleck ceptometers to simple methods such as digital photography. However, before universal use of digital photography there is need to determine its reliability and compare it with conventional, but expensive, methods. In a series of experiments at Lincoln, New Zealand, canopy development for barley, wheat, white clover and four forage brassica species was determined using both digital photographs and Sunfleck ceptometer. Values obtained were used to calculate conversion coefficient (Kf/Ki) ratios between the two methods. Digital photographs were taken at 45° and 90° for barley, wheat and white clover and at only 90° for brassicas. There was an interaction of effects of crop and cultivar for the cereal crops. Barley closed canopies earlier than wheat, and 'Emir' barley and 'Stettler' wheat had consistently higher canopy cover than 'Golden Promise' and 'HY459', respectively. Canopy cover was consistently larger at 45° than 90° for cereals. However, for white clover, the angle of digital photography was not important. There was also an interaction between effects of species and method of determining canopy cover for brassicas. Photographs gave higher cover values than ceptometer for forage rape and turnip, but the relationship was variable for forage kale and swede. Kf/Ki ratios of 1.0-1.10 for cereals, white clover and forage rape and turnip show that digital photographs can be used to estimated radiation interception, in place of Sunfleck ceptometer, for these crops.

  19. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Carval

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants” (Carval et al., in press [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  20. Thermal bidirectional gap probability model for row crop canopies and validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN; Guangjian(阎广建); IANG; Lingmei(蒋玲梅); WANG; Jindi(王锦地); CHEN; Liangfu(陈良富); LI; Xiaowen(李小文)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the row structure model of Kimes and the mean gap probability model in single direction, we develop a bidirectional gap probability model for row crop canopies. A concept of overlap index is introduced in this model to consider the gaps and their correlation between the sun and view directions. Multiangular thermal emission data sets were measured in Shunyi, Beijing, and these data are used in model validation in this paper. By comparison with the Kimes model that does not consider the gap probability, and the model considering the gap in view direction only, it is found that our bidirectional gap probability model fits the field measurements over winter wheat much better.

  1. Evaluating Dense 3d Reconstruction Software Packages for Oblique Monitoring of Crop Canopy Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocks, S.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    Crop Surface Models (CSMs) are 2.5D raster surfaces representing absolute plant canopy height. Using multiple CMSs generated from data acquired at multiple time steps, a crop surface monitoring is enabled. This makes it possible to monitor crop growth over time and can be used for monitoring in-field crop growth variability which is useful in the context of high-throughput phenotyping. This study aims to evaluate several software packages for dense 3D reconstruction from multiple overlapping RGB images on field and plot-scale. A summer barley field experiment located at the Campus Klein-Altendorf of University of Bonn was observed by acquiring stereo images from an oblique angle using consumer-grade smart cameras. Two such cameras were mounted at an elevation of 10 m and acquired images for a period of two months during the growing period of 2014. The field experiment consisted of nine barley cultivars that were cultivated in multiple repetitions and nitrogen treatments. Manual plant height measurements were carried out at four dates during the observation period. The software packages Agisoft PhotoScan, VisualSfM with CMVS/PMVS2 and SURE are investigated. The point clouds are georeferenced through a set of ground control points. Where adequate results are reached, a statistical analysis is performed.

  2. Planning and costing adaptation of perennial crop systems to climate change: Coffee and banana in Rwanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngabitsinze, Jean Chrysostome; Mukashema, Adrie; Ikirezi, Mireille; Niyitanga, Fidele

    2011-10-15

    The Rwandan economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since agricultural production in Rwanda depends almost exclusively on the quality of the rainy season and specific temperature ranges, it makes the country particularly vulnerable to climate variability and change. The study objective of evaluating and costing the most suitable climate change adaptation measures for this geographic context responds to the Rwandan Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2008-2012 (EDPRS) (MINECOFIN 2007), in which climate change and its adverse impacts were recently identified as a high priority. This study has particularly focused on coffee and banana farming systems and aimed at analysing shocks due to climate change from farmer to policymaker perspectives. The study found that in the last 30 years, Rwanda has experienced a series of climate fluctuations in terms of frequency, intensity, and persistence of existing extremes. Heavy rains, storms, heatwaves and droughts are the observed manifestations of climate change in specific areas of Rwanda. Changing weather patterns have an adverse impact on the country's agricultural production and thus on the country's GDP. Adaptation options for Rwanda include the following efficiency-enhancing agricultural interventions: 1. Adaption of crop calendars to new climate patterns (more effective distribution of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides). 2. Investments in farming equipment. 3. Improvement of extension services and research. 4. Restructuring of the institutional frameworks and development plans. Integrated water resources management (IWRM); setting up information systems for early warning systems and rapid intervention mechanisms; intense agri-pastoral activities; and research on climate-resilient varieties were identified as primary requirements for agricultural adaption to climate change. In addition, developing alternative energy sources (e.g., substituting firewood) and the promotion of non

  3. Effect of Incident Rainfall Redistribution by Maize Canopy on Soil Moisture at the Crop Row Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Martello

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of irrigation use in agriculture is a key challenge to increase farm profitability and reduce its ecological footprint. To this context, an understanding of more efficient irrigation systems includes the assessment of water redistribution at the microscale. This study aimed to investigate rainfall interception by maize canopy and to model the soil water dynamics at row scale as a result of rain and sprinkler irrigation with HYDRUS 2D/3D. On average, 78% of rainfall below the maize canopy was intercepted by the leaves and transferred along the stem (stemflow, while only 22% reached the ground directly (throughfall. In addition, redistribution of the water with respect to the amount (both rain and irrigation showed that the stemflow/throughfall ratio decreased logarithmically at increasing values of incident rainfall, suggesting the plant capacity to confine the water close to the roots and diminish water stress conditions. This was also underlined by higher soil moisture values observed in the row than in the inter-row at decreasing rainfall events. Modelled data highlighted different behavior in terms of soil water dynamics between simulated irrigation water distributions, although they did not show significant changes in terms of crop water use efficiency. These results were most likely affected by the soil type (silty-loam where the experiment was conducted, as it had unfavorable physical conditions for the rapid vertical water movement that would have increased infiltration and drainage.

  4. Altering Conidial Dispersal of Alternaria solani by Modifying Microclimate in Tomato Crop Canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Prakash Jambhulkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Early blight of tomato caused by Alternaria solani, is responsible for severe yield losses in tomato. The conidia survive on soil surface and old dry lower leaves of the plant and spread when suitable climatic conditions are available. Macroclimatic study reveals that highest inoculum concentration of Alternaria spores appeared in May 2012 to 2013 and lowest concentration during January 2012 to 2013. High night temperature positively correlated and significantly (P < 0.01 involved in conidial spore dispersal and low relative humidity (RH displayed significant (P < 0.05 but negative correlation with conidial dispersal. The objective of the study was to modify microclimatic conditions of tomato crop canopy which may hamper conidial dispersal and reduce disease severity. We evaluated effect of marigold intercropping and plastic mulching singly and in consortia on A. solani conidial density, tomato leaf damage and microclimatic parameters as compar to tomato alone (T. Tomato-marigold intercropping–plastic mulching treatment (T + M + P showed 35–39% reduction in disease intensity as compared to tomato alone. When intercropped with tomato, marigold served as barrier to conidial movement and plastic mulching prevented evapotranspiration and reduced the canopy RH that resulted in less germination of A. solani spores. Marigold intercropping and plastic mulching served successfully as physical barrier against conidial dissemination to diminish significantly the tomato foliar damage produced by A. solani.

  5. Study on thermal infrared emission directionality over crop canopies with TIR camera imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳钦火; 顾行法; 李小文; 田国良; 余涛; F.Jacob; J.F.Hanocq; M.Friedl; A.H.Strahler

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate directionality of thermal infrared emission from crop canopies, a wide-angle thermal video camera (INFRAMETRICS) equipped with an 80?FOV lens was mounted on a small aircraft and used to acquire thermal imagery along several different flight traces. Accordingly, multi-angle directional brightness temperatures were acquired at different view angles for individual pixel. The flight experiment was carried out from January 1997 to October 1997 over a 5 kmx5 km flat agricultural area, located near Avignon, southeastern France.This paper presents results from analyses performed using these data including instrument calibration, radiometric correction, atmospheric correction, temperature temporal adjustment, geometric matching and registration of images. Results are presented for different thermal infrared emission patterns of different surface types including bare soil, wheat, maize and sunflower at different growth stages.

  6. Study on thermal infrared emission directionality over crop canopies with TIR camera imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate directionality of thermal infrared emission from crop canopies,a wide-angle thermal video camera (INFRAMETRICS) equipped with an 80o FOV lens was mounted on a small aircraft and used to acquire thermal imagery along several different flight traces.Accordingly,multi-angle directional brightness temperatures were acquired at different view angles for individual pixel.The flight experiment was carried out from January 1997 to October 1997 over a 5 km×5 km flat agricultural area,located near Avignon,southeastern France.This paper presents results from analyses performed using these data including instrument calibration,radiometric correction,atmospheric correction,temperature temporal adjustment,geometric matching and registration of images.Results are presented for different thermal infrared emission patterns of different surface types including bare soil,wheat,maize and sunflower at different growth stages.

  7. Hyperspectral remote sensing of crop leaf chlorophyll content using reflectance simulation model and field data in open canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Quanjun; Wu, Yanhong; Liu, Liangyun; Zhang, Bing

    2015-04-01

    Leaf chlorophyll content -a and -b content (Cab) is an indicator for crop nutrition status and photosynthetic capacity. Remote sensing of Cab plays an important role in crop growth monitoring, pest and disease diagnosis, and crop yield assessment, yet the feasibility and stability of such estimation has not been assessed thoroughly for mixed pixels when crop canopies are not closed. This study analyzes the influence of spectral mixing on leaf chlorophyll content estimation using canopy spectra simulated by the PROSAIL reflectance model and the spectral linear mixture concept. It is observed that the accuracy of leaf chlorophyll content estimation would be degraded for mixed pixels using the well accepted approach of the combination of TCARI and OSAVI. A two-step method was thus developed for winter wheat chlorophyll content estimation by taking into consideration the fractional vegetation cover using a look-up table approach. The two methods were validated using ground spectra, airborne hyperspectral data and leaf chlorophyll content measured the same time over experimental winter wheat fields. Using the two-step method, the leaf chlorophyll content of the open canopy was estimated from the airborne hyperspectral imagery with a root mean square error of 5.18 μg cm-2, which is an improvement of about 8.9% relative to the accuracy obtained using the TCARI/OSAVI ratio directly. This implies that the method proposed in this study has great potential for hyperspectral applications in agricultural management, particularly for applications before crop canopy closure. This study, therefore, offers a feasible technique that might be applied to crop chlorophyll content estimation using large-scale remote sensing data.

  8. Constraints to the potential efficiency of converting solar radiation into phytoenergy in annual crops: from leaf biochemistry to canopy physiology and crop ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C

    2015-11-01

    A new simple framework was proposed to quantify the efficiency of converting incoming solar radiation into phytoenergy in annual crops. It emphasizes the need to account for (i) efficiency gain when scaling up from the leaf level to the canopy level, and (ii) efficiency loss due to incomplete canopy closure during early and late phases of the crop cycle. Equations are given to estimate losses due to the constraints in various biochemical or physiological steps. For a given amount of daily radiation, a longer daytime was shown to increase energy use efficiency, because of the convex shape of the photosynthetic light response. Due to the higher cyclic electron transport, C4 leaves were found to have a lower energy loss via non-photochemical quenching, compared with C3 leaves. This contributes to the more linear light response in C4 than in C3 photosynthesis. Because of this difference in the curvature of the light response, canopy-to-leaf photosynthesis ratio, benefit from the optimum acclimation of the leaf nitrogen profile in the canopy, and productivity gain from future improvements in leaf photosynthetic parameters and canopy architecture were all shown to be higher in C3 than in C4 species. The indicative efficiency of converting incoming solar radiation into phytoenergy is ~2.2 and 3.0% in present C3 and C4 crops, respectively, when grown under well-managed conditions. An achievable efficiency via future genetic improvement was estimated to be as high as 3.6 and 4.1% for C3 and C4 crops, respectively.

  9. Effect on runoff of rainfall redistribution by the impluvium-shaped canopy of banana cultivated on an Andosol with a high infiltration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattan, P.; Ruy, S. M.; Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Findeling, A.; Desbois, P.; Charlier, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    SummaryRainfall redistribution by plant canopy, notably the water flow down the plant stem (stemflow), modifies the incident rainfall rate at the soil surface and may affect runoff generation. To test this hypothesis, we observed and measured runoff at the plant scale with banana cultivated on tropical Andosol. Observation of runoff by video and matrix potential monitoring showed that, during a runoff event, the matrix potential increased mainly downstream from the pseudostem in line with the slope, delimiting a saturated zone of runoff propagation that appeared on video monitoring. The results indicate that rainfall redistribution by plant canopy, i.e. stemflow and dripping areas, enhances runoff even on soil with a high infiltration rate (mean hydraulic conductivity at saturation Ks of 67 mm h -1). Data analysis of 40 runoff events showed that events were composed of at least two runoff phases characterized by an abrupt increase in runoff coefficient (RC) from 0.16 to 0.65 between the first and the second phase. The change in RC was related to rainfall rate. Also, between the first and the second runoff phase, the apparent infiltration rate at the plot scale decreased from 30 to 10 mm h -1. This was related to an increase in runoff contributing areas (RCA), from an estimated 18% to 93% of the plot surface. However, data analysis and model simulations showed that the increase in mean rainfall rate in RCA due to stemflow was not sufficient to account for large runoff volumes. Hence, one must also take into account the spatial variation of hydraulic conductivity at saturation with low values relative to RCA (estimation for the second runoff phase was 7.6 mm h -1). Moreover, simulation results implied Ks decreases with time. Finally, rainfall redistribution may have an impact at a larger scale. In banana plantations, the hydraulic connectivity of runoff areas can enhance the stemflow effect up to the plot scale. From this point of view, the two-compartment scheme we

  10. The influence of crop management on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations and yield of highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukazambuga, N D T M; Gold, C S; Gowen, S R; Ragama, P

    2002-10-01

    A field study was undertaken in Uganda using highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) to test the hypothesis that bananas grown under stressed conditions are more susceptible to attack by Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). Four banana treatments were employed to create different levels of host-plant vitality: (1) high stress: intercrop with finger millet; (2) moderate stress: monoculture without soil amendments; (3) low stress: monoculture with manure; (4) high vigour: monoculture with continuous mulch and manure. Adult C. sordidus were released at the base of banana mats 11 months after planting and populations were monitored for three years using mark and recapture methods. Cosmopolites sordidus density was greatest in the mulched plots which may have reflected increased longevity and/or longer tenure time in moist soils. Lowest C. sordidus numbers were found in intercropped banana. Damage, estimated as percentage corm tissue consumed by larvae, was similar among treatments. However, the total amount of tissue consumed was greater in mulched banana than in other systems. Plants supporting the heaviest levels of C. sordidus damage displayed bunch size reductions of 40-55%. Banana yield losses ranged from 14-20% per plot with similar levels in the intercropped and mulched systems. Yield reductions, reported as t ha-1, were twice as high in the mulched system as in the intercrop. The results from this study indicate that C. sordidus problems are not confined to stressed banana systems or those with low levels of management, but that the weevil can also attain pest status in well-managed and productive banana stands.

  11. Basis for the development of a scenario for ground water risk assessment of plant protection products to banana crop in the frame work of regulation 1107/2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Prados, Elena; Fernández-Getino, Ana Patricia; Alonso-Prados, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    The risk assessment to ground water of pesticides and their main metabolites is a data requirement under regulation 1107/2009, concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) are calculated according to the recommendations of Forum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and Their Use (FOCUS). The FOCUS groundwater working group developed scenarios for the main crops in European Union. However there are several crops which grow under specific agro-environmental conditions not covered by these scenarios and it is frequent to use the defined scenarios as surrogates. This practice adds an uncertainty factor in the risk assessment. One example is represented by banana crop which in Europe is limited to sub-tropical environmental conditions and with specific agronomic practices. The Canary Islands concentrates the higher production of banana in the European Union characterized by volcanic soils. Banana is located at low altitudes where soils have been eroded or degraded, and it is a common practice to transport soil materials from the high-mid altitudes to the low lands for cultivation. These cultivation plots are locally named "sorribas". These volcanic soils, classified as Andosols according to the FAO classification, have special physico-chemical properties due to noncrystalline materials and layer silicates. The good stability of these soils and their high permeability to water make them relatively resistant to water erosion. Physical properties of volcanic clayey soils are strongly affected by allophone and Fe and Al oxyhidroxides. The rapid weathering of porous volcanic material results in accumulation of stable organo-mineral complexes and short-range-order mineral such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite. These components induce strong aggregation that partly favors properties such as: reduced swelling, increased aggregate stability of clay minerals, high soil water retention capacity

  12. Going Bananas over The Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With a market of nearly $5 billion a year, the banana is the world's most popular fruit, and the most important food crop after rice, wheat, and maize. Banana businesses are economic pillars in many tropical countries, providing millions of jobs for rural residents. But, for much of its history, the banana industry was notorious for destructive…

  13. Fluorescence, PRI and canopy temperature for water stress detection in cereal crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigada, C.; Rossini, M.; Meroni, M.; Cilia, C.; Busetto, L.; Amaducci, S.; Boschetti, M.; Cogliati, S.; Picchi, V.; Pinto, F.; Marchesi, A.; Colombo, R.

    2014-08-01

    Narrow-band multispectral remote sensing techniques and thermal imagery were investigated for water stress detection in cereal crops. Visible and near infrared AISA Eagle (Specim, Finland) and thermal AHS-160 (Sensytech Inc., USA) imageries were acquired with an airborne survey on a farm-level experimental site where maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) were grown with three different irrigation treatments. Vegetation biophysical and eco-physiological measurements were collected concurrently with the airborne campaign. Leaf fluorescence yield (ΔF/Fm‧) resulted to be a good indirect measure of water stress. Therefore, ΔF/Fm‧ measurements were compared against remotely sensed indicators: (i) the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), (ii) the sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence at 760 nm (F760), retrieved by the Fraunhofer line depth method and (iii) the canopy temperature (TC) calculated decoupling soil and vegetation contributions. TC was related to ΔF/Fm‧ with the highest determination coefficient (R2 = 0.65), followed by PRI586 (reference band at 586 nm) (R2 = 0.51). The relationship with F760 was significant but weaker (R2 = 0.36). The coefficient of determination increased up to 0.54 when pigment concentration was considered by multiplying ΔF/Fm‧ and chlorophyll content, confirming the close relationship between passive fluorescence signal, pigment content and light photosystem efficiency. PRI586, F760 and TC maps were produced in maize and sorghum plots. The differences in the average values of PRI586, F760 and TC extracted from the plots with different water treatments showed that water treatments were well discriminated in maize plots by the three remotely sensed indicators. This was confirmed by the visual observation of the PRI586, F760 and TC maps, while in sorghum plots, F760 and TC appeared more sensitive to water stress compared to PRI586.

  14. Comparative field performance of some agricultural crops under a ca-nopy of Populus deltoides and Ulmus wallichiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tariq Hussian Masoodi; Nasir Ahmad Masoodi; Sajad Ahmad Gangoo; Shah Murtaza Mushtaq; Hillal Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The performance of maize, beans and sunflower was evalu-ated under a canopy of Populus deltoides and Ulmus wallichiana at Fac-ulty of Agriculture, Wadura. The germination, growth and yield of the three test crops were suppressed under both tree species. The reduction, however, decreased when the cultivation of test crops was continued for three years. The inhibition potential generally is in the order of P. del-toides U. wallichiana for beans. Available soil N, P and K increased under the canopy of the selected tree species. The soils under U. wallichiana were more fertile than those under P. deltoides. Chromatographic investigation of extracts showed that the soils under P. deltoides and U. wallichiana differed in their composition of phenolic acids and phenolic glycocides. Except for caffic acid, all other allelochemicals disappeared and were no longer recovered in soil samples obtained after the second or third year of cultivation. Tree-crop compatibility can be explored in greater detail for improved management of traditional agro-ecosystems in Kashmir to increase the overall productivity of the land.

  15. Progress of Researches on Acquisition and Application of Crop Canopy Spectrum%作物冠层光谱的获取和应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨粉团; 李刚; 姜晓莉; 曹庆军

    2011-01-01

    作物冠层光谱受作物的色素、组织结构和冠层结构影响.通过获取冠层光谱,适当数学运算后和农学参数建立相关监测模型,可以监测作物的长势、营养状况、病害危害情况、产量及品质.本文综述了国内近十年来作物冠层光谱的获取方法、光谱分析方法和应用领域,并展望了未来发展方向.%Crop canopy spectrum is influenced by crop pigments, vegetation and canopy structure. By acquisition of crop canopy spectrum and building model with agronomy parameter, we can monitor the crop growth, plant deficiency, plant diseases, crop yield and seed quality. Studies on crop canopy spectrum of ten years were summarized in the paper, which included collecting method, analysis measures, application field and directions of development in the future.

  16. Quantifying energy and mass transfer in crop canopies: sensors for measurement of temperature and air velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, B.; Monje, O.; Tanner, B.

    1996-01-01

    Here we report on the in situ performance of inexpensive, miniature sensors that have increased our ability to measure mass and energy fluxes from plant canopies in controlled environments: 1. Surface temperature. Canopy temperature measurements indicate changes in stomatal aperture and thus latent and sensible heat fluxes. Infrared transducers from two manufacturers (Exergen Corporation, Newton, MA; and Everest Interscience, Tucson, AZ, USA) have recently become available. Transducer accuracy matched that of a more expensive hand-held infrared thermometer. 2. Air velocity varies above and within plant canopies and is an important component in mass and energy transfer models. We tested commercially-available needle, heat-transfer anemometers (1 x 50 mm cylinder) that consist of a fine-wire thermocouple and a heater inside a hypodermic needle. The needle is heated and wind speed determined from the temperature rise above ambient. These sensors are particularly useful in measuring the low wind speeds found within plant canopies. 3. Accurate measurements of air temperature adjacent to plant leaves facilitates transport phenomena modeling. We quantified the effect of radiation and air velocity on temperature rise in thermocouples from 10 to 500 micrometers. At high radiation loads and low wind speeds, temperature errors were as large as 7 degrees C above air temperature.

  17. Linking canopy reflectance to crop structure and photosynthesis to capture and interpret spatiotemporal dimensions of per-field photosynthetic productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wei; Jeong, Seungtaek; Ko, Jonghan; Tenhunen, John

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen and water availability alter canopy structure and physiology, and thus crop growth, yielding large impacts on ecosystem-regulating/production provisions. However, to date, explicitly quantifying such impacts remains challenging partially due to lack of adequate methodology to capture spatial dimensions of ecosystem changes associated with nitrogen and water effects. A data fitting, where close-range remote-sensing measurements of vegetation indices derived from a handheld instrument and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system are linked to in situ leaf and canopy photosynthetic traits, was applied to capture and interpret inter- and intra-field variations in gross primary productivity (GPP) in lowland rice grown under flooded conditions (paddy rice, PD) subject to three nitrogen application rates and under rainfed conditions (RF) in an East Asian monsoon region of South Korea. Spatial variations (SVs) in both GPP and light use efficiency (LUEcabs) early in the growing season were enlarged by nitrogen addition. The nutritional effects narrowed over time. A shift in planting culture from flooded to rainfed conditions strengthened SVs in GPP and LUEcabs. Intervention of prolonged drought late in the growing season dramatically intensified SVs that were supposed to seasonally decrease. Nevertheless, nitrogen addition effects on SV of LUEcabs at the early growth stage made PD fields exert greater SVs than RF fields. SVs of GPP across PD and RF rice fields were likely related to leaf area index (LAI) development less than to LUEcabs, while numerical analysis suggested that considering strength in LUEcabs and its spatial variation for the same crop type tends to be vital for better evaluation in landscape/regional patterns of ecosystem photosynthetic productivity at critical phenology stages.

  18. Anthelminthic efficacy of banana crop residues on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: in vitro and in vivo tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Flávia Aparecida; Oliveira, Lincoln Nunes; da Silva, Rayana Brito; Nery, Patrícia Silva; Virgínio, Gercino Ferreira; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; Duarte, Eduardo Robson

    2012-07-01

    Resistance to anthelminthics is common due to intensive and incorrect use. In searching for alternatives, extracts of banana plant were evaluated for egg hatching inhibition and fecal egg count reduction of sheep nematodes. Aqueous extracts of the leaf, pseudostem, and heart of the banana plant cv. Prata anã were tested at concentrations of 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg ml(-1) in egg hatching inhibition tests. For in vivo analysis, aqueous extracts were evaluated at dosages calculated according to the 10% lethal dose derived from acute toxicity testing in mice. Efficacy was evaluated at two time periods following oral administration. For the banana extracts at 2.5 mg ml(-1), egg hatching was significantly fewer than the negative control, with an LC(50) and LC(90) of 0.19 and 0.84 mg ml(-1), respectively. In vivo analysis for weeks 1 and 2 following a single treatment with aqueous leaf extract showed 33.1% and 32.5% anthelminthic efficacy, respectively. Further research on higher dosages with more frequent administration is needed to evaluate the potential for utilizing banana plant residues in gastrointestinal nematode control.

  19. ESPECIES DE DRYOPHTHORINAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE ASOCIADAS A PLÁTANO Y BANANO (Musaspp. EN COLOMBIA Dryophthorinae Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Associted to Platain and Banana crops (Musaspp. in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA A SEPÚLVEDA-CANO

    Full Text Available Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.This synopsis is about beetle&#’;s subfamily Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to plantain and banana crops. Additionally keys illustrated for the species of the country are offered. Six species associated to these cultures are registered: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.

  20. Testing the Suitability of a Terrestrial 2D LiDAR Scanner for Canopy Characterization of Greenhouse Tomato Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llorens, Jordi; Miranda-Fuentes, Antonio; Gallart, Montserrat

    2016-09-06

    Canopy characterization is essential for pesticide dosage adjustment according to vegetation volume and density. It is especially important for fresh exportable vegetables like greenhouse tomatoes. These plants are thin and tall and are planted in pairs, which makes their characterization with electronic methods difficult. Therefore, the accuracy of the terrestrial 2D LiDAR sensor is evaluated for determining canopy parameters related to volume and density and established useful correlations between manual and electronic parameters for leaf area estimation. Experiments were performed in three commercial tomato greenhouses with a paired plantation system. In the electronic characterization, a LiDAR sensor scanned the plant pairs from both sides. The canopy height, canopy width, canopy volume, and leaf area were obtained. From these, other important parameters were calculated, like the tree row volume, leaf wall area, leaf area index, and leaf area density. Manual measurements were found to overestimate the parameters compared with the LiDAR sensor. The canopy volume estimated with the scanner was found to be reliable for estimating the canopy height, volume, and density. Moreover, the LiDAR scanner could assess the high variability in canopy density along rows and hence is an important tool for generating canopy maps.

  1. Banana Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: Two bananas, 50 grams of preserved fruits, 25 grams sesame seeds, 10 grams glutinous rice powder,white sugar,oil. Method: 1. Chop the preserved fruits and mix them well with vegetable oil. white sugar and sesame. 2. Mash the bananas into a paste and mix it with

  2. Assessment of the AquaCrop model for use in simulation of irrigated winter wheat canopy cover, biomass, and grain yield in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiu-liang; Feng, Hai-kuan; Zhu, Xin-kai; Li, Zhen-hai; Song, Sen-nan; Song, Xiao-yu; Yang, Gui-Jun; Xu, Xin-gang; Guo, Wen-shan

    2014-01-01

    Improving winter wheat water use efficiency in the North China Plain (NCP), China is essential in light of current irrigation water shortages. In this study, the AquaCrop model was used to calibrate, and validate winter wheat crop performance under various planting dates and irrigation application rates. All experiments were conducted at the Xiaotangshan experimental site in Beijing, China, during seasons of 2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. This model was first calibrated using data from 2008/2009 and 2009/2010, and subsequently validated using data from 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. The results showed that the simulated canopy cover (CC), biomass yield (BY) and grain yield (GY) were consistent with the measured CC, BY and GY, with corresponding coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.93, 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. In addition, relationships between BY, GY and transpiration (T), (R(2) = 0.57 and 0.71, respectively) was observed. These results suggest that frequent irrigation with a small amount of water significantly improved BY and GY. Collectively, these results indicate that the AquaCrop model can be used in the evaluation of various winter wheat irrigation strategies. The AquaCrop model predicted winter wheat CC, BY and GY with acceptable accuracy. Therefore, we concluded that AquaCrop is a useful decision-making tool for use in efforts to optimize wheat winter planting dates, and irrigation strategies.

  3. Assessment of the AquaCrop model for use in simulation of irrigated winter wheat canopy cover, biomass, and grain yield in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-liang Jin

    Full Text Available Improving winter wheat water use efficiency in the North China Plain (NCP, China is essential in light of current irrigation water shortages. In this study, the AquaCrop model was used to calibrate, and validate winter wheat crop performance under various planting dates and irrigation application rates. All experiments were conducted at the Xiaotangshan experimental site in Beijing, China, during seasons of 2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. This model was first calibrated using data from 2008/2009 and 2009/2010, and subsequently validated using data from 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. The results showed that the simulated canopy cover (CC, biomass yield (BY and grain yield (GY were consistent with the measured CC, BY and GY, with corresponding coefficients of determination (R(2 of 0.93, 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. In addition, relationships between BY, GY and transpiration (T, (R(2 = 0.57 and 0.71, respectively was observed. These results suggest that frequent irrigation with a small amount of water significantly improved BY and GY. Collectively, these results indicate that the AquaCrop model can be used in the evaluation of various winter wheat irrigation strategies. The AquaCrop model predicted winter wheat CC, BY and GY with acceptable accuracy. Therefore, we concluded that AquaCrop is a useful decision-making tool for use in efforts to optimize wheat winter planting dates, and irrigation strategies.

  4. Banana orchard inventory using IRS LISS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishant, Nilay; Upadhayay, Gargi; Vyas, S. P.; Manjunath, K. R.

    2016-04-01

    Banana is one of the major crops of India with increasing export potential. It is important to estimate the production and acreage of the crop. Thus, the present study was carried out to evolve a suitable methodology for estimating banana acreage. Area estimation methodology was devised around the fact that unlike other crops, the time of plantation of banana is different for different farmers as per their local practices or conditions. Thus in order to capture the peak signatures, biowindow of 6 months was considered, its NDVI pattern studied and the optimum two months were considered when banana could be distinguished from other competing crops. The final area of banana for the particular growing cycle was computed by integrating the areas of these two months using LISS III data with spatial resolution of 23m. Estimated banana acreage in the three districts were 11857Ha, 15202ha and 11373Ha for Bharuch, Anand and Vadodara respectively with corresponding accuracy of 91.8%, 90% and 88.16%. Study further compared the use of LISS IV data of 5.8m spatial resolution for estimation of banana using object based as well as per-pixel classification and the results were compared with statistical reports for both the approaches. In the current paper we depict the various methodologies to accurately estimate the banana acreage.

  5. Banana technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amstel, Willem D.; Schellekens, E. P. A.; Walravens, C.; Wijlaars, A. P. F.

    1999-09-01

    With 'Banana Technology' an unconventional hybrid fabrication technology is indicated for the production of very large parabolic and hyperbolic cylindrical mirror systems. The banana technology uses elastic bending of very large and thin glass substrates and fixation onto NC milled metal moulds. This technology has matured during the last twenty years for the manufacturing of large telecentric flat-bed scanners. Two construction types, called 'internal banana' and 'external banana; are presented. Optical figure quality requirements in terms of slope and curvature deviations are discussed. Measurements of these optical specifications by means of a 'finishing rod' type of scanning deflectometer or slope tester are presented. Design constraints for bending glass and the advantages of a new process will be discussed.

  6. Formation of Plant Canopy Hierarchies and Consequences for Water Use: Insights From Field Experiments and Individual Based Modeling of Weed-Crop Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, A. G.; McDonald, A. J.; Riha, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    In an agricultural landscape, water use is tightly linked to the dynamics of canopy development. When weeds are present, the plant community may develop leaf area faster than crop monocultures and several hierarchies of plants may be formed. The position of each individual plant within these hierarchies depends on the spatial arrangement of the plants, the initial sizes, and the availability of resources as determined by management, soil properties, weather, and competition. Together, these factors establish a highly dynamic system with nonlinear responses to the availability of resources (e.g. soil water) that is reflected in high levels of site and regional variability in crop yield losses due to weed interference. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual based model of plant competition to evaluate dynamic outcomes of crop-weed interactions and implications for water use. The model simulates the growth of individual plants using the light interception algorithms of the forest model MAESTRA, and estimates photosynthesis through the Farquhar-vonCaemmerer method. Transpiration and photosynthesis are coupled through stomatal conductance. Maximum stomatal conductance is determined by the photosynthetic demand for CO2, but under water stress, actual transpiration per plant is used to estimate stomatal conductance and then the actual rate of photosynthesis. We also used a novel approach to estimate profile water uptake, scaling the root zone of influence (volume of soil exploited by each individual plant) to plant biomass. Additive field experiments with maize in monoculture and in combination with high-density stands of a common annual weed species (A. theophrasti M.) were established to test model performance. Despite exceptionally dry conditions in the field in some years, we found no evidence that the maize-weed mixtures had less total soil water or different rates of water extraction through the profile than the maize monocrop. Furthermore, time series

  7. Quantitative digital imaging of banana growth suppression by plant parasitic nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Roderick

    Full Text Available A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI values for a banana (Musa spp. field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses.

  8. Quantitative digital imaging of banana growth suppression by plant parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Hugh; Mbiru, Elvis; Coyne, Danny; Tripathi, Leena; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-01-01

    A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI) values for a banana (Musa spp.) field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses.

  9. Avaliações fenológicas e agronômicas em café arábica cultivado a pleno sol e consorciado com banana 'Prata Anã' Phenological and agronomic evaluations in a coffee crop grown under unshaded and shaded by 'Prata Anã' banana plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Macedo Pezzopane

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado em cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatu Vermelho IAC 4045, cultivados a pleno sol e consorciados com banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa AAB, em Mococa (SP, em Latitude 21º 28' S, Longitude 47º 01' W, altitude 665 m. Entre julho de 2001 e junho de 2004 foi acompanhado o desenvolvimento fenológico dos cultivos, além de se avaliar, o crescimento das plantas em altura e diâmetro da copa. Nas safras de 2002, 2003 e 2004 foram avaliados os parâmetros de produção nos dois sistemas de cultivo, além de sua variabilidade nas parcelas do cultivo consorciado. Nos sistemas de cultivo avaliados, o crescimento vegetativo em altura e diâmetro foi maior no período primavera-verão em relação ao período outono-inverno, não tendo sido encontradas diferenças significativas das taxas de crescimento, de desenvolvimento fenológico e dos índices de produção entre os cultivos. No cultivo consorciado, no ponto próximo às bananeiras observaram-se diferenças em relação aos demais pontos amostrados no crescimento vegetativo e desenvolvimento fenológico para algumas épocas do ano, além de apresentar menor produção por planta.A study was carried out in coffee crop (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatu Vermelho IAC 4045, unshade and shaded by banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa AAB, in Mococa, São Paulo State, Brazil (Latitude South 21º 28 ', Longitude West 47º 01 ', altitude 665m. Phenological data for the coffee crops were taken, from July, 2001 to June, 2004. The growth of the plants concerning height and diameter was also evaluated. The harvests of 2002, 2003 and, 2004 were appraised by the production parameters, and their variability for different positions in shaded coffee crop. The vegetative growth in height and diameter showed higher activity during the spring-summer period in relation to the autumn-winter period, in both in the cultivation systems evaluated. No significant differences of the growth taxes, of phenological development

  10. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop : Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E.; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; de Jong, Tristan V.; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fereira, Claudia Fortes; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza, Manoel; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zapater, Marie-Francoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent f

  11. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza, Manoel; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent fungicide applications, which greatly increase the economic and environmental costs to produce banana. Weekly applications in most banana plantations lead to rapid evolution of fungicide-resistant strains within populations causing disease-control failures throughout the world. Given its extremely high economic importance, two strains of P. fijiensis were sequenced and assembled with the aid of a new genetic linkage map. The 74-Mb genome of P. fijiensis is massively expanded by LTR retrotransposons, making it the largest genome within the Dothideomycetes. Melting-curve assays suggest that the genomes of two closely related members of the Sigatoka disease complex, P. eumusae and P. musae, also are expanded. Electrophoretic karyotyping and analyses of molecular markers in P. fijiensis field populations showed chromosome-length polymorphisms and high genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation was also detected using neutral markers, suggesting strong selection with limited gene flow at the studied geographic scale. Frequencies of fungicide resistance in fungicide-treated plantations were much higher than those in untreated wild-type P. fijiensis populations. A homologue of the Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 effector, PfAvr4, was identified in the P. fijiensis genome. Infiltration of the purified PfAVR4 protein into leaves of the resistant banana variety Calcutta 4 resulted in a hypersensitive-like response. This result suggests that Calcutta 4 could carry an unknown resistance gene recognizing PfAVR4. Besides adding to our understanding of the overall Dothideomycete genome structures, the P. fijiensis genome will aid in developing fungicide treatment schedules to combat this

  12. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F; V de Jong, Tristan; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C; Lindquist, Erika A; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza, Manoel; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A J; De Wit, Pierre J G M; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V; Goodwin, Stephen B; Kema, Gert H J

    2016-08-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent fungicide applications, which greatly increase the economic and environmental costs to produce banana. Weekly applications in most banana plantations lead to rapid evolution of fungicide-resistant strains within populations causing disease-control failures throughout the world. Given its extremely high economic importance, two strains of P. fijiensis were sequenced and assembled with the aid of a new genetic linkage map. The 74-Mb genome of P. fijiensis is massively expanded by LTR retrotransposons, making it the largest genome within the Dothideomycetes. Melting-curve assays suggest that the genomes of two closely related members of the Sigatoka disease complex, P. eumusae and P. musae, also are expanded. Electrophoretic karyotyping and analyses of molecular markers in P. fijiensis field populations showed chromosome-length polymorphisms and high genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation was also detected using neutral markers, suggesting strong selection with limited gene flow at the studied geographic scale. Frequencies of fungicide resistance in fungicide-treated plantations were much higher than those in untreated wild-type P. fijiensis populations. A homologue of the Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 effector, PfAvr4, was identified in the P. fijiensis genome. Infiltration of the purified PfAVR4 protein into leaves of the resistant banana variety Calcutta 4 resulted in a hypersensitive-like response. This result suggests that Calcutta 4 could carry an unknown resistance gene recognizing PfAVR4. Besides adding to our understanding of the overall Dothideomycete genome structures, the P. fijiensis genome will aid in developing fungicide treatment schedules to combat this

  13. Occurrence and Distribution of Banana bunchy top virus Related Agro-Ecosystem in South Western, Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Mukwa Fama Tongo, Lyna; Muengula, Marcel; Zinga, I; Kalonji, Adrien; Iskra-Caruana, M.L.; Bragard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most severe and widespread virus limiting produc- tion and distribution of planting material of banana (Musa spp.) crops in the world. In Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), these crops play a major role in daily life of almost 70% of citizen. Many factors influence banana production negatively such as Banana bunchy top disease. Epidemiol- ogical survey was conducted in experimental stations and farmers’ fields for two consecutive sea- sons coverin...

  14. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Fu; Yunze Ruan; Chengyuan Tao; Rong Li; Qirong Shen

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and cultu...

  15. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios.

  16. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  17. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop c

  18. CROPS Clever Robots for Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontsema, J.; Hemming, J.; Pekkeriet, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU-funded CROPS project robots are developed for site-specific spraying and selective harvesting of fruit
    and fruit vegetables. The robots are being designed to harvest crops, such as greenhouse vegetables, apples,
    grapes and for canopy spraying in orchards and for precision target sp

  19. PREDICCIÓN DEL RENDIMIENTO DE UN CULTIVO DE PLÁTANO MEDIANTE REDES NEURONALES ARTIFICIALES DE REGRESIÓN GENERALIZADA // PREDICTION OF THE YIELD OF BANANA CROP BY MEANS OF A GENERALIZED REGRESSION ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ávila de Hernández

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana is an important crop in Latin America, for both large scale and small farmers. In Venezuela, the main production centers are in the area of Sur del Lago de Maracaibo. Knowing the crop yield is vital due to the need to maximize the investment-pro_t, and availability of such information in advance helps in the decision-making process of the production unit. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the ability of artificial neural networks to predict the yield of a banana crop, employing the best predictors dataset, given the physical characteristics of the soil and the chemical profile of leaf tissue. Generalized regression networks trained with the leave-one-out strategy, and two types of data transformations were used in this study. It was found that neural networks were excellent tools for predicting the yield of banana crop. The physicochemical profiles of soil and leaf tissue were suitable descriptors of the response variable. Among the data evaluated in this study, it was found that the physical data of 20-40 cm of soil was, after standardization of the training data, the best predictor group. // RESUMEN: El plátano es un cultivo importante en Latinoamérica, tanto a gran escala como para pequeños hacendados. En Venezuela, los principales centros productivos están en la zona del Sur del Lago de Maracaibo. Conocer el rendimiento de un cultivo obedece a la necesidad de maximizar la relación inversión-ganancia y la disponibilidad de esa información, con anticipación, permite tomar decisiones sobre el manejo de una plantación. La finalidad de esta investigación es evaluar la capacidad de las redes neuronales artificiales para predecir el rendimiento de un cultivo de plátano, empleando para ello el mejor grupo de datos predictores, determinado entre las características físicas del suelo y el perfil químico del tejido foliar. Se emplean redes de regresión generalizada y la estrategia leave-one-out, así como dos tipos de

  20. Wireless sensor networks for canopy temperature sensing and irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    For researchers, canopy temperature measurements have proven useful in characterizing crop water stress and developing protocols for irrigation management. Today, there is heightened interest in using remote canopy temperature measurements for real-time irrigation scheduling. However, without the us...

  1. Canopy and leaf composition drive patterns of nutrient release from pruning residues in a coffee agroforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Katherine L; Lawrence, Deborah

    2012-06-01

    In a coffee agroforest, the crop is cultivated under the shade of fruit-bearing and nitrogen (N)-fixing trees. These trees are periodically pruned to promote flowering and fruiting as well as to make nutrients stored in tree biomass available to plants. We investigated the effect of canopy composition and substrate quality on decomposition rates and patterns of nutrient release from pruning residues in a coffee agroforest located in Costa Rica's Central Valley. Initial phosphorus (P) release was enhanced under a canopy composed solely of N-fixing, Erythrina poeppigiana compared to a mixed canopy of Erythrina and Musa acuminata (banana). Both initial and final N release were similar under the two canopy types. However, after five months of decomposition, a higher proportion of initial N had been released under the single canopy. Although patterns of decomposition and nutrient release were not predicted by initial substrate quality, mass loss in leaf mixtures rates were well predicted by mean mass loss of their component species. This study identifies specific pruning regimes that may regulate N and P release during crucial growth periods, and it suggests that strategic pruning can enhance nutrient availability. For example, during the onset of rapid fruit growth, a two-species mixture may release more P than a three-species mixture. However, by the time of the harvest, the two- and three-species mixtures have released roughly the same amount of N and P. These nutrients do not always follow the same pattern, as N release can be maximized in single-species substrates, while P release is often facilitated in species mixtures. Our study indicates the importance of management practices in mediating patterns of nutrient release. Future research should investigate how canopy composition and farm management can also mediate on-farm nutrient losses.

  2. The Standard System and Quality and Safety Standards for Banana in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei; ZOU; Yongbo; Pan; Zhi; XU; Jinhui; LUO

    2015-01-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit and China is the world’s third largest banana producer. The standardization level of banana industry not only affects the yield and quality of banana,but also plays an important role in promoting the production standardization and industrialization of other tropical crops. Through the analysis of revision,publicity and implementation of banana standard system in China as well as the study on its standard system and quality and safety standards,it is found that there are some problems such as irrational banana standard structure,short period of validity of standard,low level of quality and safety standards,and loose link between standards and production. At the same time,some recommendations are put forward in order to guide the standardized production and trade,research and management of banana and promote sustained,healthy and stable development of the banana industry in China.

  3. Let's Go Bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on primary science unit of activities designed to teach students concepts about bananas. Real bananas are used as students investigate and use the process skills of observation, measurement, and communication. Using bananas as a theme, science, mathematics, social studies, music, and writing are integrated into the curriculum of…

  4. Benefits, Costs, and Consumer Perceptions of the Potential Introduction of a Fungus-Resistant Banana in Uganda and Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2013-01-01

    Banana is a staple crop in Uganda. Ugandans have the highest per capita consumption of cooking bananas in the world (Clarke 2003). However, banana production in Uganda is limited by several productivity constraints, such as insects, diseases, soil depletion, and poor agronomic practices. To address

  5. Thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassois, Ludivine; Lepoivre, Philippe; Swennen, Rony; van den Houwe, Ines; Panis, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Bananas that provide a staple food to the millions of people are adversely affected by several viruses such as Banana bunchy Top Virus (BBTV), Banana Streak Virus (BSV), and Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV). These viruses are known to have a devastating effect on crop production and constraint to the international exchange and conservation of banana germplasm-a cornerstone for breeding new cultivars. The viruses are particularly problematic in vegetative propagated crops, like bananas, because of their transmission in the planting material. Different virus eradication techniques have been developed, such as thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture for providing virus-free planting material. Meristem culture proved to be the most effective procedure to eradicate phloem-associated viruses. This method requires isolation of meristematic dome of plant under the aseptic conditions and culture in an appropriate nutrient medium to develop new virus-free plants. Thermotherapy is another widely used virus eradication technique, which is initially carried out on in vivo or in vitro plants and eventually combined with meristem culture technique. The plantlets are initially grown at 28°C day temperature and increase it by 2°C per day until reaches 40°C and the night temperature at 28°C; maintain plants at 40°C for 4 weeks; excise meristem and culture onto the regeneration medium. In chemotherapy technique, antiviral chemical compound Virazole(®) is applied on meristem culture. Combination of these techniques is also applied to improve the eradication rate.

  6. The relationship between discrepancy of canopy and air temperature and crop wate r deficiency%冠层温度-气温差与作物水分亏缺关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁银丽; 张成娥

    2000-01-01

    The changes of discrepancy between canopy and air temp erature of wheat under different soil moistures from jointing to heading stage w e re analyzed.The results indicated that the change of discrepancy between canopy an d air temperature was smooth under full water supply,and its change was large un der water deficiency.The change tendency of discrepancy between canopy and air t emperature with growth stage was higher under water deficiency than full water s upply.The discrepancy between canopy and air temperature can be an indicator use d for evaluating the change of soil moisture and the degree of crop water defici ency%试验研究了冬小麦在不同土壤水分条件下拔节~抽穗期冠层温度-气温差变化规律及其随作 物生长发育期的变化状况。结果表明,作物在充分供水条件下冠层温度-气温差变化较平缓 ;缺水时变化较大。冠层温度-气温差随作物生长发育期的变化趋势为低水分处理高于高水 分处理。冠层温度-气温差可较合理反映土壤水分变化状况和作物水分亏缺程度。

  7. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant-pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits and horticultural crops. A few species o

  8. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.; Dunkle, L.D.; Churchill, A.C.; Carlier, J.; James, A.; Souza, M.T.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, N.; Lee, T.A. van der; Wiitenberg, A.; Lindquist, E.; Grigoriev, I.; Bristow, J.; Goodwin, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species

  9. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere.

  10. Remote canopy hemispherical image collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Liu, Bingyu; Yang, Yi; Han, Fang; Cui, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Canopies are major part of plant photosynthesis and have distinct architectural elements such as tree crowns, whorls, branches, shoots, etc. By measuring canopy structural parameters, the solar radiation interception, photosynthesis effects and the spatio-temporal distribution of solar radiation under the canopy can be evaluated. Among canopy structure parameters, Leaf Area Index (LAI) is the key one. Leaf area index is a crucial variable in agronomic and environmental studies, because of its importance for estimating the amount of radiation intercepted by the canopy and the crop water requirements. The LAI can be achieved by hemispheric images which are obtained below the canopy with high accuracy and effectiveness. But existing hemispheric images canopy-LAI measurement technique is based on digital SLR camera with a fisheye lens. Users need to collect hemispheric image manually. The SLR camera with fisheye lens is not suit for long-term canopy-LAI outdoor measurement too. And the high cost of SLR limits its capacity. In recent years, with the development of embedded system and image processing technology, low cost remote canopy hemispheric image acquisition technology is becoming possible. In this paper, we present a remote hemispheric canopy image acquisition system with in-field/host configuration. In-field node based on imbed platform, low cost image sensor and fisheye lens is designed to achieve hemispherical image of plant canopy at distance with low cost. Solar radiation and temperature/humidity data, which are important for evaluating image data validation, are obtained for invalid hemispherical image elimination and node maintenance too. Host computer interacts with in-field node by 3G network. The hemispherical image calibration and super resolution are used to improve image quality in host computer. Results show that the remote canopy image collection system can make low cost remote canopy image acquisition for LAI effectively. It will be a potential

  11. Bananas go paraelectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loidl, A; Krohns, S; Hemberger, J; Lunkenheimer, P [Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany)], E-mail: peter.lunkenheimer@physik.uni-augsburg.de

    2008-05-14

    Using a banana as an example, we demonstrate how the ferroelectric-like hysteresis loops measured in inhomogeneous, conducting materials can easily be identified as non-intrinsic. With simple experiments, the response of a banana to electric fields is revealed as characteristic for an inhomogeneous paraelectric ion conductor. Not even absolute beginners in dielectrics should identify this biological matter as ferroelectric. (viewpoint)

  12. Micropropagation of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçar, Yıldız Aka; Faber, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp. AAA) is propagated vegetatively and can be rapidly and efficiently propagated by micropropagation. Conventional micropropagation techniques, however, may be too costly for commercial purposes. Our laboratory has found that depending on the combination of culture vessel and gelling agent more economic methods can be chosen for successfully micropropagating banana.

  13. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex.

  14. A Study on the Morphological and PhysicoChemical Characteristics of Five Cooking Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field evaluation of five banana clones was carried out at the National Germplasm Repository in Miami, Florida, USA from July 2006 to July 2008. Bananas (Musa acuminata Colla [AA, AAA]; Musa x paradisiaca Colla (ABB, AAAB, AABB), are one of the worlds most important food crops. Five clones of cookin...

  15. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results

  16. A latent class approach to investigating demand for genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores consumer acceptance and valuation of a genetically modified (GM) staple food crop in a developing country prior to its commercialization. We focus on the hypothetical introduction of a disease-resistant GM banana variety in Uganda, where bananas are among the most important stapl

  17. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on 'Caipira' and 'BRS Princesa' bananas in the Ribeira Valley.

    OpenAIRE

    Edson S. Nomura; Cuquel,Francine L.; Damatto Junior,Erval R.; Eduardo J. Fuzitani; Borges,Ana L.; Saes,Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB) and ‘Caipira’ (AAA) banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas, by applying four ...

  18. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-09-01

    Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed.

  19. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-01

    The content of 40K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, São Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  20. Guidelines for irrigation scheduling of banana crop in São Francisco Valley, Brazil. II - Water consumption, crop coefficient, and physiologycal behavior Orientações para o manejo da irrigação da bananeira no Vale do São Francisco. II - Consumo de água, coeficiente de cultura e comportamento fisiológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Bassoi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The water consumption and the crop coefficient of the banana cv. Pacovan were estimated in Petrolina County, northeastern Brazil, in order to establish guidelines to irrigation water management. Evaluations were carried out since planting in January 1999 to the 3rd harvest in September 2001 on a microsprinkler irrigated orchard, with plants spaced in a 3 x 3 m grid. Average daily water consumption was 3.9, 4.0, and 3.3 mm in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd growing seasons, respectively. Crop coefficient values increased from 0.7 (vegetative growth to 1.1 (flowering. Even with high soil water availability, transpiration was reduced due to high evaporative demand.O consumo de água e o coeficiente de cultura da bananeira cv. Pacovan foram estimados em Petrolina-PE, Brasil, com o objetivo de fornecer informações úteis ao manejo de irrigação. As avaliações foram realizadas desde o plantio, em janeiro de 1999, até a terceira colheita, em setembro de 2001, em um pomar irrigado por microaspersão e com plantas espaçadas em 3 x 3 m. O consumo médio diário foi de 3,9; 4,0 e 3,3 mm no primeiro, segundo e terceiro ciclos, respectivamente. O coeficiente de cultura aumentou de 0,7 (desenvolvimento vegetativo para 1,1 (florescimento. Apesar da alta disponibilidade de água no solo, a alta demanda evaporativa reduziu a transpiração da bananeira.

  1. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas in the Ribeira Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Edson S. Nomura; Cuquel,Francine L.; Damatto Junior,Erval R.; Eduardo J. Fuzitani; Borges,Ana L.; Saes,Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB) and ‘Caipira’ (AAA) banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira̵...

  2. Perceptions and outlook on intercropping coffee with banana as an opportunity for smallholder coffee farmers in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Jassogne, Laurence; van Asten, Piet J. A.; Wanyama, Ibrahim; Baret, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Coffee and banana are important cash and food crops in Uganda and the surrounding East African highland region. Production is dominated by smallholders that have limited arable land and often coffee and banana are intercropped. No significant research and development efforts have been undertaken over the last few decades on this coffee/banana intercropping system. Because recent studies suggest that this system could be a practice with high benefits to the farmers, we decided to study the per...

  3. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−2

  4. Identification of Potential for Banana in Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. MANTEL; ZHANG XUELEI; ZHANG GANLIN

    2003-01-01

    Land use alternatives are sought to boost agricultural income and productivity in Hainan Island, China.Regional differences exist in crop limitations, such as typhoon risk, low temperatures, poor soil fertility, and drought. In this study a crop zonation was made for a range of crops, among which is banana, as a way to: 1)establish areas for potential expansion for banana, and 2) identify limitations and options for crop and land management. A spatial soil and terrain database of Hainan Island (1:250 000) was linked to the automated land evaluation system (ALES). The qualitative models were verified by comparing suitability maps with actual land use. The results may support policy formulation on issues such as alternatives to current land use, assessment of best management practices, and the need for fertilizer programmes.

  5. Social Interactions in Growing Bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    This paper analyses whether agricultural information flows give rise to social learning effects in banana cultivation in Nyakatoke, a small Tanzanian village. Based on a village census, full information is available on socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmer kinship members...... effects that produce positive externalities in banana output...

  6. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  7. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration with the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC and the Nigeria Agip OU Company (NAOC commenced a training campaign on cooking banana processing methods. This study examined the patterns of utilisation of cooking bananas ten years after the training took place and compared them with plantain. About 95 % of the households interviewed are consuming cooking banana, indicating a broad acceptance of the crop in the region. Overall, two ripening stages termed green and ripe are the most popular ripening stages for the consumption of both plantain and cooking banana, followed by partially ripe maturity stage. The most common forms of consumption for green plantain are, in decreasing order of importance, pottage, boiled, roasted, and fried. Green cooking banana is also mostly eaten in pottage and boiled forms, and less frequently in fried and pounded forms. Ripe plantain is mostly eaten in fried and pottage forms, while ripe cooking banana is mostly eaten in fried and raw forms. Partially ripe plantain is mostly eaten in pottage, fried, boiled, and roasted forms, while partially ripe cooking banana is eaten in fried, pottage and boiled forms. These results indicate that the consumption patterns of plantain and cooking banana are very similar. This similarity has greatly contributed to the rapid integration of cooking banana within the existing plantain consumption and cropping systems.

  8. Modelling kinetics of plant canopy architecture: concepts and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birch, C.J.; Andrieu, B.; Fournier, C.; Vos, J.; Room, P.

    2003-01-01

    Most crop models simulate the crop canopy as an homogeneous medium. This approach enables modelling of mass and energy transfer through relatively simple equations, and is useful for understanding crop production. However, schematisation of an homogeneous medium cannot address the heterogeneous natu

  9. 基于冠层光谱植被指数的冬小麦作物系数估算%Estimating crop coefficients of winter wheat based on canopy spectral vegetation indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贺丽; 罗毅; 赵春江; 杨贵军

    2013-01-01

    At present, many studies have been carried out on crop coefficients and its variation over years under local climate conditions, but little attention has been given to its estimation method for a regional scale, which plays a key role in the regional application of the FAO 56 crop coefficient approach in crop evapotranspiration and transpiration estimation. In this work, experiments including five nitrogen (N) treatments were conducted in the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons to investigate the relationships between the crop coefficient (Kc), basal crop coefficient (Kcb) and eight common canopy vegetation indices (VIs) of winter wheat, as well as the effects of N and water stress on them. In addition, the feasibility and the performances of VIs on Kc and Kcb estimation of winter wheat were analyzed. Results demonstrated that high levels of N were associated with high Kcb and low Ke, and vice versa, which resulted in no obvious regular differences in Kc among different N treatments. Crop Kc was weakly correlated with VIs (the coefficient of determination R2 = 0.094 ~ 0.150, p < 0.01, n=195) due to the variations in soil evaporation and soil background, while Kcb had strong correlations with VIs (R2=0.511~0.685, p < 0.01, n=195). In addition, the water stress before resulting in an obvious sign on crop canopy spectral characteristics can introduce considerable scatter in the relations between Kcb and VIs, while N stress had no effects on them. Validation results showed that VIs performed well in crop Kcb estimation, and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) gave the best accuracy (R2=0.765~0.864, n=150). The proposed method would be more favorable for regional application, since VIs can be easily collected by means of remote sensing. However, it should be pointed out that the method may have some limitations under the conditions with water stress but is not severe according to the above analysis, and as in this case, additional water stress information collected from

  10. 应用主动作物冠层传感器对马铃薯氮素营养诊断%Active Crop Canopy Sensor-Based Nitrogen Diagnosis for Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于静; 李斐; 秦永林; 樊明寿

    2013-01-01

    氮肥的充足供应是马铃薯高产的重要条件,然而氮肥的过量投入会导致资源浪费、环境污染,因此,氮素精准管理势在必行,而实时的氮素营养诊断是实现马铃薯合理氮素养分管理的前提。本研究通过在内蒙古武川县和林西县进行的田间试验,采用主动作物冠层传感器GreenSeeker对马铃薯各生育时期进行实时监测,建立了传感器读数NDVI值与地上部植株氮浓度以及整株吸氮量的关系。研究表明,由于受到土壤背景的影响,苗期NDVI值与马铃薯氮营养指标相关性较差。苗期以后,马铃薯在封垄前NDVI值与植株吸氮量呈显著的指数关系(R2=0.665),封垄后NDVI值与地上部植株氮浓度呈显著的线性关系(R2=0.699),且不受地域以及生育时期的影响。结果表明,主动作物冠层传感器GreenSeeker能够用于马铃薯氮素营养诊断,该结果为进一步建立应用主动作物冠层传感器的氮肥管理提供了理论依据。%In the present study ,two potato experiments involving different N rates in 2011 were conducted in Wuchuan County and Linxi County ,Inner Mongolia .Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected by an active GreenSeeker crop canopy sensor to estimate N status of potato .The results show that the NDVI readings were poorly correlated with N nutrient indicators of potato at vegetative Growth stage due to the influence of soil background .With the advance of growth stages , NDVI values were exponentially related to plant N uptake (R2 =0.665) before tuber bulking stage and were linearly related to plant N concentration(R2 =0.699) when plant fully covered soil .In conclusion ,GreenSeeker active crop sensor is a promising tool to estimate N status for potato plants .The findings from this study may be useful for developing N recommendation method based on active crop canopy sensor .

  11. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  12. Prototheca associated with banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pore, R S

    1985-06-01

    Prototheca stagnora was found to be a habitant of older harvested banana (Musa sapientum) and plantain (M. paradisiaca) stumps while P. wickerhamii colonized fresh Musa sp. stumps and flower bract water of Heliconia sp. While Prototheca sp. were known to habituate woody plants, this is the first evidence that herbaceous plants also serve as habitats.

  13. 不同种植模式配施生物有机肥对香蕉枯萎病的防治效果研究%Effects of combining bioorganic fertilizer with different cropping systems on controlling fusarium wilt disease of banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟; 赵兰凤; 张亮; 杨江舟; 张静; 李华兴

    2012-01-01

    采用完全随机区组试验,研究添加了生防菌株解淀粉芽孢杆菌的生物有机肥在不同耕作模式下对香蕉生长和香蕉枯萎病防治效果的影响。结果表明,在不同种植模式下,施用生物有机肥对香蕉株高、茎围的影响与施用等价格化肥相比无显著差异。施用生物有机肥和采用套作模式均能降低香蕉枯萎病病情指数,其中以香蕉/韭菜套作配施生物肥处理效果最好,在香蕉植株移栽121 d时,其病情指数较香蕉净作配施化肥处理低54.2%。在本试验条件下,与香蕉单作配施化肥相比,香蕉/韭菜套作配施生物有机肥能显著提高根际土壤中可培养细菌数量(P〈0.05),同时显著降低尖孢镰刀杆菌数量(P〈0.05)。相关分析表明,土壤中尖孢镰刀菌数量与土壤根际可培养细菌数量成显著负相关关系(P〈0.01),与病情指数成显著正相关关系(P〈0.01)。%A randomized block experiment was conducted in micro-plots to study the effects of bioorganic fertilizer mixed with strain AF1 l b (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) on the growth of banana plants and the controlling of banana fusarium-wih disease in different cropping systems. The results show that the effects of the bioorganic fertilization on the growth of banana are not extremely significant in the different cropping systems compared with the chemical fertilization. The disease index is significantly decreased by the bioorganic fertilizer application and intercropping systems. Compared to the control treatment, the combination of the bioorganic fertilizer with intercropping banana and Chinese Leek (Allium tuberosum) shows a good banana resistance to Fusarium oxysporum decreasing disease index by 54. 2% after 121 days of transplanting, and at the same time the number of culturable bacteria is increased significantly ( P 〈 0. 05 ), while the number of Fusarium oxysporum is decreased significantly ( P 〈 0.05 ). The

  14. Evaluation and characterization in bananas (Musa ssp.) at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana, Musa spp., is a key horticultural crop in tropical regions of the world where they provide sustenance and serve as cash crops. The plantain subgroup in particular, is an important staple in the Caribbean, Central America and some countries in South America. One of the integral research comp...

  15. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production.

  16. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  17. Banana Gold: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Garnet

    1992-01-01

    Since 1955, the British banana industry has dominated the lives of the Caribs and other peoples in Dominica. Banana growing supplants other economic activities, including local food production; toxic chemicals and fertilizers pollute the land; community is dwindling; suicide is common; and child labor diminishes school attendance. (SV)

  18. Cooking enhances but the degree of ripeness does not affect provitamin A carotenoid bioavailability from bananas in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Arscott, Sara A; Khanna, Harjeet; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Dale, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Mondloch, Stephanie; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; De Moura, Fabiana F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2012-12-01

    Banana is a staple crop in many regions where vitamin A deficiency is prevalent, making it a target for provitamin A biofortification. However, matrix effects may limit provitamin A bioavailability from bananas. The retinol bioefficacies of unripe and ripe bananas (study 1A), unripe high-provitamin A bananas (study 1B), and raw and cooked bananas (study 2) were determined in retinol-depleted Mongolian gerbils (n = 97/study) using positive and negative controls. After feeding a retinol-deficient diet for 6 and 4 wk in studies 1 and 2, respectively, customized diets containing 60, 30, or 15% banana were fed for 17 and 13 d, respectively. In study 1A, the hepatic retinol of the 60% ripe Cavendish group (0.52 ± 0.13 μmol retinol/liver) differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver) and was higher than the negative control group (0.39 ± 0.16 μmol retinol/liver; P bananas than in those fed raw (P = 0.0027). Body weights did not differ even though gerbils ate more green, ripe, and raw bananas than cooked, suggesting a greater indigestible component. In conclusion, thermal processing, but not ripening, improves the retinol bioefficacy of bananas. Food matrix modification affects carotenoid bioavailability from provitamin A biofortification targets.

  19. Banana MaMADS transcription factors are necessary for fruit ripening and molecular tools to promote shelf-life and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, ...

  20. Inventory of Musa paradisiaca L. (banana kepok in Lumajang regency, Malang regency, and Magelang regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhadi Suhadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana is fruit containing fairly high nutrition and provides quick reserve enegy. The crop grows in tropical area with average rainfall all the year and banana produces at any season. One of the bananas which has high value sale and high competable potency is subvariety of kepok banana. Kepok banana has various subvarieties, these subvarieties have the same morphologies but have different texture appearances thus uneasy to differenciate among them. The texture appearance determines the quality and price of the banana. Often the buyer makes a mistake in choosing subvariety of kepok he wants to, whereas the seller gives him the cheapiest subvariety of kepok. Methods we used was method of exploration using free exploration technique step by step without any certain path. There were two phases in the research namely the fi rst phase was carried out in field and the second phase was done in the laboratory. Subvarieties of kepok found in Lumajang Regency are 4 subcultivars, Malang Regency there are 3 and Magelang Regency are subcultivars subcultivars, The sequence of the qulity of kapok subcultivars are as follows, red kepok, yellow kepok, big (gede, gilo, gembrot kepok, and white kepok. Sugestion, organic ferlitilizer should be used in the fertilization of banana cultivation, and conservation of red kepok is highly required.

  1. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation.

  2. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikulwe, Enoch M; Wesseler, Justus; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers' perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the perceptions toward genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that grouped consumers into segments of GM skepticism, government trust, health safety concern, and food and environmental safety concern. Socioeconomic characteristics differed significantly across segments. Consumer characteristics and perception factors influence consumers' willingness to purchase GM banana. The institutional awareness and trust varied significantly across segments as well. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about GM technology.

  3. Ex-Ante Economic Impact Assessment of Genetically Modified Banana Resistant to Xanthomonas Wilt in the Great Lakes Region of Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Herbert Ainembabazi

    Full Text Available Credible empirical evidence is scanty on the social implications of genetically modified (GM crops in Africa, especially on vegetatively propagated crops. Little is known about the future success of introducing GM technologies into staple crops such as bananas, which are widely produced and consumed in the Great Lakes Region of Africa (GLA. GM banana has a potential to control the destructive banana Xanthomonas wilt disease.To gain a better understanding of future adoption and consumption of GM banana in the GLA countries which are yet to permit the production of GM crops; specifically, to evaluate the potential economic impacts of GM cultivars resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt disease.The paper uses data collected from farmers, traders, agricultural extension agents and key informants in the GLA.We analyze the perceptions of the respondents about the adoption and consumption of GM crop. Economic surplus model is used to determine future economic benefits and costs of producing GM banana.On the release of GM banana for commercialization, the expected initial adoption rate ranges from 21 to 70%, while the ceiling adoption rate is up to 100%. Investment in the development of GM banana is economically viable. However, aggregate benefits vary substantially across the target countries ranging from US$ 20 million to 953 million, highest in countries where disease incidence and production losses are high, ranging from 51 to 83% of production.The findings support investment in the development of GM banana resistant to Xanthomonas wilt disease. The main beneficiaries of this technology development are farmers and consumers, although the latter benefit more than the former from reduced prices. Designing a participatory breeding program involving farmers and consumers signifies the successful adoption and consumption of GM banana in the target countries.

  4. A Novel Approach Towards Sustainable Banana Farming Intercropped with Rubber by A Smallholder – A Profitable Source of Income Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara Thevan Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2009-2010, the Department of Agriculture, Malaysia introduced Abandoned Land Development Project (ACDA. Under this project, abandoned lands are replanted with crops of economic value. The cultivator of this case study was one of the participants of ACDA project. With the subsidies provided by the Government of Malaysia, the cultivator established a banana farm. Conventionally, the cultivator’s main source of income should be generated from selling the banana fruit. However, we found this cultivator cum entrepreneur diversified his land productivity. The monthly income generated from selling banana fruits, suckers and rubber seedlings were 30.2 %, 39.9% and 29.9% of his total farm income, respectively. The cultivator provide a novel insight in managing banana farm by introducing new techniques of planting, fertilization regime and diversification of income in his banana farm intercropped with rubber seedlings.

  5. Ground-Based Robotic Sensing of an Agricultural Sub-Canopy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, A.; Peschel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne remote sensing is a useful method for measuring agricultural crop parameters over large areas; however, the approach becomes limited to above-canopy characterization as a crop matures due to reduced visual access of the sub-canopy environment. During the growth cycle of an agricultural crop, such as soybeans, the micrometeorology of the sub-canopy environment can significantly impact pod development and reduced yields may result. Larger-scale environmental conditions aside, the physical structure and configuration of the sub-canopy matrix will logically influence local climate conditions for a single plant; understanding the state and development of the sub-canopy could inform crop models and improve best practices but there are currently no low-cost methods to quantify the sub-canopy environment at a high spatial and temporal resolution over an entire growth cycle. This work describes the modification of a small tactical and semi-autonomous, ground-based robotic platform with sensors capable of mapping the physical structure of an agricultural row crop sub-canopy; a soybean crop is used as a case study. Point cloud data representing the sub-canopy structure are stored in LAS format and can be used for modeling and visualization in standard GIS software packages.

  6. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review.

  7. Turbulence characteristics in grassland canopies and implications for tracer transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nemitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In-canopy turbulence is a required input to study pollutant cycling and chemistry within plant canopies and to link concentrations and sources. Despite the importance of grasslands worldwide, most previous work has focused on forests and crops. Here, turbulence parameters in a mature agricultural grassland canopy were measured with a combination of a small ultrasonic anemometer, hotwire anemometry and a radon (Rn tracer technique, as part of a measurement to study ammonia (NH3 exchange with grassland. The measurements are used to derive vertical profiles of basic turbulent parameters, for quadrant-hole analysis of the two-parametric frequency distributions of u'−w' and to derive in-canopy eddy diffusivities as input for models of in-canopy tracer transport. The results are in line with previous measurements on taller canopies, but shows increased decoupling between in-canopy flow and above-canopy turbulence. The comparison of sonic anemometry and Rn measurements implies that Lagrangian time-scales must decrease sharply at the ground, with important implications for estimating the magnitude of ground-level and soil emissions from concentration measurements. Atmospheric stability above and within the canopy has little influence on the standard deviation of vertical wind component inside the canopy. Use of the turbulence parameters in an analytical Lagrangian framework, which is here validated for heat transfer, suggests that measured in-canopy profiles of NH3 are consistent with a ground-level source, presumably from senescent plant parts, which is recaptured by the overlying canopy.

  8. Turbulence characteristics in grassland canopies and implications for tracer transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nemitz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In-canopy turbulence is a required input to study pollutant cycling and chemistry within plant canopies and to link concentrations and sources. Despite the importance of grasslands worldwide, most previous work has focused on forests and crops. Here, turbulence parameters in a mature agricultural grassland canopy were measured with a combination of a small ultrasonic anemometer, hotwire anemometry and a radon (Rn tracer technique, as part of a measurement to study ammonia (NH3 exchange with grassland. The measurements are used to derive vertical profiles of basic turbulent parameters, for quadrant-hole analysis of the two-parametric frequency distributions of u'−w' and to derive in-canopy eddy diffusivities as input for models of in-canopy tracer transport. The results are in line with previous measurements on taller canopies, but shows increased decoupling between in-canopy flow and above-canopy turbulence. The comparison of sonic anemometry and Rn measurements implies that Lagrangian time-scales must decrease sharply at the ground, with important implications for estimating the magnitude of ground-level and soil emissions from concentration measurements. Atmospheric stability above and within the canopy has little influence on the standard deviation of vertical wind component inside the canopy. Use of the turbulence parameters in an analytical Lagrangian framework, which is here validated for heat transfer, suggests that measured in-canopy profiles of NH3 are consistent with a ground-level source, presumably from senescent plant parts, which is recaptured by the overlying canopy.

  9. Mineral fertilizer response and nutrient use efficiencies of East African highland banana (Musa spp., AAA-EAHB, cv. Kisansa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Corbeels, M.; Taulya, G.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    Poor yields of East African highland bananas (Musa spp., AAA-EAHB) on smallholder farms have often been attributed to problems of poor soil fertility. We measured the effects of mineral fertilizers on crop performance at two sites over two to three crop cycles; Kawanda in central Uganda and Ntungamo

  10. A Novel Approach Towards Sustainable Banana Farming Intercropped with Rubber by A Smallholder – A Profitable Source of Income Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Kumara Thevan Krishnan; Suhaimi Othman; Amir Husni

    2013-01-01

    In the year 2009-2010, the Department of Agriculture, Malaysia introduced Abandoned Land Development Project (ACDA). Under this project, abandoned lands are replanted with crops of economic value. The cultivator of this case study was one of the participants of ACDA project. With the subsidies provided by the Government of Malaysia, the cultivator established a banana farm. Conventionally, the cultivator’s main source of income should be generated from selling the banana fruit. However, we fo...

  11. Crop responses to climatic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, John R.; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2005-01-01

    production. However, crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions, exhibit threshold responses and are subject to combinations of stress factors that affect their growth, development and yield. Thus, climate variability and changes in the frequency of extreme events are important...... of adaptation possibilities for crops in response to drought and argues that characters that enable better exploration of the soil and slower leaf canopy expansion could lead to crop higher transpiration efficiency....

  12. Efeito da poda da última penca do cacho da bananeira Prata Anã (AAB irrigada na produção de frutos no Norte de Minas Gerais Influence of last hand prune on the irrigated banana bunch crop in the north of Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA GERALDA V. RODRIGUES

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental de Mocambinho pertencente à EPAMIG/CTNM, localizada no Perímetro Irrigado do Jaíba MG, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da retirada da última penca do cacho de banana 'Prata Anã', na precocidade de colheita e características dos frutos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com 2 tratamentos, 23 repetições e 3 plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos foram representados por retirada e manutenção da última penca. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos para precocidade, nos dois primeiros ciclos de produção. Para os parâmetros de produção, não houve diferença estatística nos dois primeiros ciclos para massa do cacho; massa média de frutos; massa média de pencas; comprimento, diâmetro, massa e espessura de casca do fruto central da segunda penca; massa da primeira penca; massa da segunda penca; massa da penúltima penca e massa do engaço. No segundo ciclo, houve efeito negativo da retirada da última penca para massa total de frutos, e no primeiro ciclo, apesar de não ter sido significativo, observou-se a mesma tendência. No terceiro ciclo a retirada da última penca promoveu aumento de massa média de frutos, massa média de pencas e diâmetro do fruto central da segunda penca, não alterando o massa total de frutos.This work was carried out in the EPAMIG/CTNM's Experimental Farm, wich is located in the irrigated area of Jaiba county in the north of Minas Gerais state. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of hand prune on the harvest time and on the crop characteristics. A completely randomized design was used with 23 replications and three plants per plot. The treatments were pruning and nonpruning of last hand of each bunch. There was no effect of treatments on the harvest time for two first crops, and on fruits characteristics. In the second crop cycle, total fruit weight decreased with last hand prunning. In the third crop the last

  13. NLCD 2001 - Tree Canopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The National Land Cover Database 2001 tree canopy layer for Minnesota (mapping zones 39-42, 50-51) was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the...

  14. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; ZHANG, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; ZHANG, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  15. Ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors for electronic canopy characterization in vineyards: advances to improve pesticide application methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Escolà, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Canopy characterization is a key factor to improve pesticide application methods in tree crops and vineyards. Development of quick, easy and efficient methods to determine the fundamental parameters used to characterize canopy structure is thus an important need. In this research the use of ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors have been compared with the traditional manual and destructive canopy measurement procedure. For both methods the values of key parameters such as crop height, crop width, crop volume or leaf area have been compared. Obtained results indicate that an ultrasonic sensor is an appropriate tool to determine the average canopy characteristics, while a LIDAR sensor provides more accuracy and detailed information about the canopy. Good correlations have been obtained between crop volume (C(VU)) values measured with ultrasonic sensors and leaf area index, LAI (R(2) = 0.51). A good correlation has also been obtained between the canopy volume measured with ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors (R(2) = 0.52). Laser measurements of crop height (C(HL)) allow one to accurately predict the canopy volume. The proposed new technologies seems very appropriate as complementary tools to improve the efficiency of pesticide applications, although further improvements are still needed.

  16. Canopy cover and leaf area index relationships for wheat, triticale, and corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The AquaCrop model requires canopy cover (CC) measurements to define crop growth and development. Some previously collected data sets that would be useful for calibrating and validating AquaCrop contain only leaf area index (LAI) data, but could be used if relationships were available relating LAI t...

  17. Banana NAC transcription factor MusaNAC042 is positively associated with drought and salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-03-01

    Banana is an important fruit crop and its yield is hampered by multiple abiotic stress conditions encountered during its growth. The NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors are involved in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we studied the induction of banana NAC042 transcription factor in drought and high salinity conditions and its overexpression in transgenic banana to improve drought and salinity tolerance. MusaNAC042 expression was positively associated with stress conditions like salinity and drought and it encoded a nuclear localized protein. Transgenic lines of banana cultivar Rasthali overexpressing MusaNAC042 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana embryogenic cells and T-DNA insertion was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Our results using leaf disc assay indicated that transgenic banana lines were able to tolerate drought and high salinity stress better than the control plants and retained higher level of total chlorophyll and lower level of MDA content (malondialdehyde). Transgenic lines analyzed for salinity (250 mM NaCl) and drought (Soil gravimetric water content 0.15) tolerance showed higher proline content, better Fv/Fm ratio, and lower levels of MDA content than control suggesting that MusaNAC042 may be involved in responses to higher salinity and drought stresses in banana. Expression of several abiotic stress-related genes like those coding for CBF/DREB, LEA, and WRKY factors was altered in transgenic lines indicating that MusaNAC042 is an efficient modulator of abiotic stress response in banana.

  18. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huide; HUANG; Wanzhen; ZHANG; Enping; LIU; Xizhu; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution,member scale,production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province,and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification,this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations,such as joint production of banana cooperatives,timely planting of banana,brand management,and improvement of production and operation technical level.

  19. Suitability Analysis and Projected Climate Change Impact on Banana and Coffee Production Zones in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujakhu, Nani M.; Merz, Juerg; Kindt, Roeland; Xu, Jianchu; Matin, Mir A.; Ali, Mostafa; Zomer, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Government of Nepal has identified opportunities in agricultural commercialization, responding to a growing internal demand and expansion of export markets to reduce the immense trade deficit. Several cash crops, including coffee and bananas, have been identified in the recently approved Agriculture Development Strategy. Both of these crops have encouraged smallholder farmers to convert their subsistence farming practices to more commercial cultivation. Identification of suitable agro-ecological zones and understanding climate-related issues are important for improved production and livelihoods of smallholder farmers. Here, the suitability of coffee and banana crops is analyzed for different agro-ecological zones represented by Global Environmental Stratification (GEnS). Future shifts in these suitability zones are also predicted. Plantation sites in Nepal were geo-referenced and used as input in species distribution modelling. The multi-model ensemble model suggests that climate change will reduce the suitable growing area for coffee by about 72% across the selected emission scenarios from now to 2050. Impacts are low for banana growing, with a reduction in suitability by about 16% by 2050. Bananas show a lot of potential for playing an important role in Nepal as a sustainable crop in the context of climate change, as this study indicates that the amount of area suited to banana growing will grow by 40% by 2050. Based on our analysis we recommend possible new locations for coffee plantations and one method for mitigating climate change-related problems on existing plantations. These findings are expected to support planning and policy dialogue for mitigation and support better informed and scientifically based decision-making relating to these two crops. PMID:27689354

  20. Suitability Analysis and Projected Climate Change Impact on Banana and Coffee Production Zones in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Sujakhu, Nani M; Merz, Juerg; Kindt, Roeland; Xu, Jianchu; Matin, Mir A; Ali, Mostafa; Zomer, Robert J

    The Government of Nepal has identified opportunities in agricultural commercialization, responding to a growing internal demand and expansion of export markets to reduce the immense trade deficit. Several cash crops, including coffee and bananas, have been identified in the recently approved Agriculture Development Strategy. Both of these crops have encouraged smallholder farmers to convert their subsistence farming practices to more commercial cultivation. Identification of suitable agro-ecological zones and understanding climate-related issues are important for improved production and livelihoods of smallholder farmers. Here, the suitability of coffee and banana crops is analyzed for different agro-ecological zones represented by Global Environmental Stratification (GEnS). Future shifts in these suitability zones are also predicted. Plantation sites in Nepal were geo-referenced and used as input in species distribution modelling. The multi-model ensemble model suggests that climate change will reduce the suitable growing area for coffee by about 72% across the selected emission scenarios from now to 2050. Impacts are low for banana growing, with a reduction in suitability by about 16% by 2050. Bananas show a lot of potential for playing an important role in Nepal as a sustainable crop in the context of climate change, as this study indicates that the amount of area suited to banana growing will grow by 40% by 2050. Based on our analysis we recommend possible new locations for coffee plantations and one method for mitigating climate change-related problems on existing plantations. These findings are expected to support planning and policy dialogue for mitigation and support better informed and scientifically based decision-making relating to these two crops.

  1. Integrating soil information into canopy sensor algorithms for improved corn nitrogen rate recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop canopy sensors have proven effective at determining site-specific nitrogen (N) needs, but several Midwest states use different algorithms to predict site-specific N need. The objective of this research was to determine if soil information can be used to improve the Missouri canopy sensor algori...

  2. Deploying Fourier Coefficients to Unravel Soybean Canopy Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubery, Talukder Z.; Shook, Johnathon; Parmley, Kyle; Zhang, Jiaoping; Naik, Hsiang S.; Higgins, Race; Sarkar, Soumik; Singh, Arti; Singh, Asheesh K.; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar

    2017-01-01

    Soybean canopy outline is an important trait used to understand light interception ability, canopy closure rates, row spacing response, which in turn affects crop growth and yield, and directly impacts weed species germination and emergence. In this manuscript, we utilize a methodology that constructs geometric measures of the soybean canopy outline from digital images of canopies, allowing visualization of the genetic diversity as well as a rigorous quantification of shape parameters. Our choice of data analysis approach is partially dictated by the need to efficiently store and analyze large datasets, especially in the context of planned high-throughput phenotyping experiments to capture time evolution of canopy outline which will produce very large datasets. Using the Elliptical Fourier Transformation (EFT) and Fourier Descriptors (EFD), canopy outlines of 446 soybean plant introduction (PI) lines from 25 different countries exhibiting a wide variety of maturity, seed weight, and stem termination were investigated in a field experiment planted as a randomized complete block design with up to four replications. Canopy outlines were extracted from digital images, and subsequently chain coded, and expanded into a shape spectrum by obtaining the Fourier coefficients/descriptors. These coefficients successfully reconstruct the canopy outline, and were used to measure traditional morphometric traits. Highest phenotypic diversity was observed for roundness, while solidity showed the lowest diversity across all countries. Some PI lines had extraordinary shape diversity in solidity. For interpretation and visualization of the complexity in shape, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on the EFD. PI lines were grouped in terms of origins, maturity index, seed weight, and stem termination index. No significant pattern or similarity was observed among the groups; although interestingly when genetic marker data was used for the PCA, patterns similar to canopy

  3. Deploying Fourier Coefficients to Unravel Soybean Canopy Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubery, Talukder Z; Shook, Johnathon; Parmley, Kyle; Zhang, Jiaoping; Naik, Hsiang S; Higgins, Race; Sarkar, Soumik; Singh, Arti; Singh, Asheesh K; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar

    2016-01-01

    Soybean canopy outline is an important trait used to understand light interception ability, canopy closure rates, row spacing response, which in turn affects crop growth and yield, and directly impacts weed species germination and emergence. In this manuscript, we utilize a methodology that constructs geometric measures of the soybean canopy outline from digital images of canopies, allowing visualization of the genetic diversity as well as a rigorous quantification of shape parameters. Our choice of data analysis approach is partially dictated by the need to efficiently store and analyze large datasets, especially in the context of planned high-throughput phenotyping experiments to capture time evolution of canopy outline which will produce very large datasets. Using the Elliptical Fourier Transformation (EFT) and Fourier Descriptors (EFD), canopy outlines of 446 soybean plant introduction (PI) lines from 25 different countries exhibiting a wide variety of maturity, seed weight, and stem termination were investigated in a field experiment planted as a randomized complete block design with up to four replications. Canopy outlines were extracted from digital images, and subsequently chain coded, and expanded into a shape spectrum by obtaining the Fourier coefficients/descriptors. These coefficients successfully reconstruct the canopy outline, and were used to measure traditional morphometric traits. Highest phenotypic diversity was observed for roundness, while solidity showed the lowest diversity across all countries. Some PI lines had extraordinary shape diversity in solidity. For interpretation and visualization of the complexity in shape, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on the EFD. PI lines were grouped in terms of origins, maturity index, seed weight, and stem termination index. No significant pattern or similarity was observed among the groups; although interestingly when genetic marker data was used for the PCA, patterns similar to canopy

  4. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas in the Ribeira Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson S. Nomura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB and ‘Caipira’ (AAA banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas, by applying four fertilization doses of N and K2O (no fertilization; 175 and 285 kg ha-1 year-1; 350 and 570 kg ha-1 year-1; 525 and 855 kg ha-1 year-1. The most adequate fertilizer recommendation for ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ cultivars was 150% of the standard recommendation for banana (525 kg ha-1 year-1 of N and 855 kg ha-1 year-1 of K2O in both production cycles, promoting adequate growth and production, since most of the evaluated characteristics showed linear responses with the increase in the fertilization doses. ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ require higher amounts of N and K than that recommended for the banana crop in the São Paulo State, in order to express their productive potential.

  5. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−26 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Uganda, 21−43 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Burundi and 25−53 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Rwanda). The major causes of poor yields are declining soil fertility and soil moisture stress. In order to ...

  6. 搜索Banana Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>国内没有Banana Republic的专营店,但这并不意味着你买不到它家的货品,渠道有二:其一,是去淘宝上寻找,超级强悍的淘宝网,点Banana Republic关键词,你能找到许多售卖原单货甚至美国代购货的店铺,价格平实,唯一的缺点就是不能试衣,Banana Republic尺码偏大,在购买时尽量比平时穿的尺码小一号。其二,就是去遍布青岛大街小巷的外贸服装店购买,笔者曾在许多家碰到过Banana Repubkic的原单货,但这就需要讲究机缘了,而我们写此文的目的之一也是希望读者今后在遇见这个品牌的原单货后,当机立断拿下,毕竟,"香蕉共和国"的货品在国内还是难得一遇的!

  7. Improving canopy sensor algorithms with soil and weather information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) need to support corn (Zea mays L.) production can be highly variable within fields. Canopy reflectance sensing for assessing crop N health has been implemented on many farmers’ fields to side-dress or top-dress variable-rate N application, but at times farmers report the performance of ...

  8. Phenalenone-type phytoalexins mediate resistance of banana plants (Musa spp.) to the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthagunthalam; Alexandrov, Theodore; Becker, Michael; Bretschneider, Tom; Buerkert, Andreas; Crecelius, Anna C; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie; Heckel, David G; Heklau, Heike; Hertweck, Christian; Kai, Marco; Knop, Katrin; Krafft, Christoph; Maddula, Ravi K; Matthäus, Christian; Popp, Jürgen; Schneider, Bernd; Schubert, Ulrich S; Sikora, Richard A; Svatoš, Aleš; Swennen, Rony L

    2014-01-01

    The global yield of bananas-one of the most important food crops-is severely hampered by parasites, such as nematodes, which cause yield losses up to 75%. Plant-nematode interactions of two banana cultivars differing in susceptibility to Radopholus similis were investigated by combining the conventional and spatially resolved analytical techniques (1)H NMR spectroscopy, matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging, and Raman microspectroscopy. This innovative combination of analytical techniques was applied to isolate, identify, and locate the banana-specific type of phytoalexins, phenylphenalenones, in the R. similis-caused lesions of the plants. The striking antinematode activity of the phenylphenalenone anigorufone, its ingestion by the nematode, and its subsequent localization in lipid droplets within the nematode is reported. The importance of varying local concentrations of these specialized metabolites in infected plant tissues, their involvement in the plant's defense system, and derived strategies for improving banana resistance are highlighted.

  9. A Simulation Model Estimates of the Intercropping Advantage of an Immature-Rubber, Banana and Pineapple System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadu B. Jalloh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Intercropping has been shown to have many advantages but it is fallacious to conclude it is always a better cropping system. Little is known about a new double-hedgerow intercropping of rubber, banana and pineapple in relation to its effects on growth and yield of the component crops when compared to their monocrops. Simulation modeling offers a cheaper and faster alternative to explore cropping scenarios and estimate their productivity under a wide range of management and environmental conditions. This simulation study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the growth and yield of immature rubber, banana and pineapple intercrop and monocrop scenarios with the aid of an intercrop simulation model named SURHIS, as well as estimating the intercropping advantage. Approach: A FORTRAN computer model (SURHIS that simulated the daily light interception and utilization by immature-rubber, banana and pineapple intercropping system was used to simulate intercrop and monocrop scenarios to estimate potential Dry Matter Yield (DMY for all crops as well as fruit yields for banana and pineapple. The results of the model were tested for accuracy by comparing actual field experimental results with the aid of Mean Deviation (MD and Mean Absolute Error (MAE statistical analyses. Intercropping advantage was assessed using the Land Equivalent Ratio (LER analysis. Results: The model was representative or predicted DMY of the crops with sufficient accuracy. The LER analysis showed that the intercropping system had a dry matter yield productivity advantage of 81% more than monocrops of the component crops. The results also showed that the higher the Plant Population Density (PPD, the greater is the dry matter yield. It was also shown that banana and pineapple had no deleterious effect on the growth of rubber. Fruit weight per plant of banana and pineapple was reduced with increase in PPD for the monocrops. Measured average fresh fruit bunch weight for

  10. Africa needs streamlined regulation to support the deployment of GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Howard J; Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-08-01

    Future food security in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) requires enhancement of its crop production. Transgenic crops with a poverty focus can enhance harvests and are available for staples such as cooking bananas and plantains. One constraint is optimisation of national biosafety processes to support rapid and safe uptake of such beneficial crops.

  11. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Oduor, Richard O; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties "Cavendish Williams" and "Gros Michel" were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of "Sukali Ndiizi" was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000-50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20-70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa.

  12. Soil water requirements of tissue-cultured Dwarf Cavendish banana ( Musa spp. L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shongwe, V. D.; Tumber, R.; Masarirambi, M. T.; Mutukumira, A. N.

    The banana is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. In terms of consumption, the banana fruit is ranked high yet there has not been much research particularly in relation to water requirements for propagules produced by tissue culture. In recent years, tissue culture banana planting material has become increasingly important due to its vigorous growth and high yields. The objective of this study was to investigate optimum soil water requirements of tissue-cultured banana. Dwarf Cavendish tissue-cultured plantlets grown in pots in a greenhouse were subjected to four irrigation regimes at 100% ETm, 85% ETm, 65% ETm, and 40% ETm. Plant parameters measured were leaf number, plant height, pseudo-stem girth, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf index, leaf colour, and plant vigour. Soil water potential measurements were also made over a three-month period. Differences between irrigating at 100% ETm and 85% ETm were not significantly ( P plant height, and plant height, compared to 65% and 40% ETm treatments. Pseudo-stem girth was highest from the 100% ETm compared to the other treatments. Economic yields of banana may be obtained with irrigation regimes ranging between 100% ETm and 85% ETm.

  13. Mathematical Analysis and Simulation of Crop Micrometeorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1984-01-01

    In crop micrometeorology the transfer of radiation, momentum, heat and mass to or from a crop canopy is studied. Simulation models for these processes do exist but are not easy to handle because of their complexity and the long computing time they need. Moreover, up to now such models can only be ru

  14. The origin, versatility and distribution of azole fungicide resistance in the banana black Sigatoka pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong Aguirre, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudocercospora fijiensis causes black Sigatoka disease of banana. It is one of the most damaging threats of the crop requiring excessive fungicide applications for disease control as the major export “Cavendish” clones are highly susceptible. The consequence of this practice is the red

  15. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  16. Pesticide residues in heterogeneous plant populations, a model-based approach applied to nematicides in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Philippe; Chabrier, Christian; Malézieux, Eric

    2007-03-21

    Nematicides are widely used to control plant-parasitic nematodes in intensive export banana (Musa spp.) cropping systems. Data show that the concentration of fosthiazate in banana fruits varies from zero to 0.035 g kg-1, under the maximal residue limit (MRL=0.05 mg kg-1). The fosthiazate concentration in fruit is described by a Gaussian envelope curve function of the interval between pesticide application and fruit harvest (preharvest interval). The heterogeneity of phenological stages in a banana population increases over time, and thus the preharvest interval of fruits harvested after a pesticide application varies over time. A phenological model was used to simulate the long-term harvest dynamics of banana at field scale. Simulations show that the mean fosthiazate concentration in fruits varies according to nematicide application program, climate (temperature), and planting date of the banana field. This method is used to assess the percentage of harvested bunches that exceed a residue threshold and to help farmers minimize fosthiazate residues in bananas.

  17. Definição do posicionamento de sensores para monitoramento da água no solo em bananeira irrigada por diferentes sistemas de irrigação localizada Sensor placement for soil water monitoring in banana crop irrigated by drip irrigation systens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio F. Coelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso eficiente da água na irrigação localizada dependerá, além de outros fatores, também do correto monitoramento da água no solo. Portanto, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar as zonas efetivas de comprimento de raízes e de extração de água, bem como indicar o correto posicionamento de sensores de água no solo para o manejo da irrigação por gotejamento na bananeira em fase de produção. No experimento, conduzido na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, foram estudados diferentes sistemas de irrigação localizada, diante dos seguintes tratamentos: T1 - dois emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta em uma lateral por fileira de plantas; T2 - quatro emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta em uma lateral por fileira de plantas; T3 - cinco emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta em faixa contínua com uma lateral por fileira. Pelos resultados obtidos, pode-se observar que as regiões mais adequadas para a instalação de sensores de umidade no solo nos tratamentos T1, T2 e T3 são as limitadas pelas distâncias e profundidades de 0,2 m e 0,4 m; 0,5 m e 0,35 m; 0,55 m e 0,35 m, respectivamente.The efficient use of water for drip irrigation will depend, among other factors, the correct monitoring of water in the soil profile. This work aimed to characterize root zones of effective root length and effective root water uptake and also to indicate the correct sensors location in the soil profile for drip irrigation management in banana crop during the production stage of the first cycle. The experiment was carried out at the Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits, under different systems: T1 - one lateral per plant row with two 4 L h-1 emitters per plant; T2 - one lateral per plant row with four 4 L h-1 emitters per plant; T3 - one lateral per plant row as line source, with five 4 L h-1 emitters per plant. The results showed that the more appropriate regions for soil water sensor placement in treatments T1, T2 and T3, should correspond to zones limited

  18. Constraining canopy biophysical simulations with MODIS reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D. T.; Duveiller, G.

    2013-05-01

    Modern vegetation models incorporate ecophysiological details that allow for accurate estimates of carbon dioxide uptake, water use and energy exchange, but require knowledge of dynamic structural and biochemical traits. Variations in these traits are controlled by genetic factors as well as growth stage and nutrient and moisture availability, making them difficult to predict and prone to significant error. Here we explore the use of MODIS optical reflectance data for constraining key canopy- and leaf-level traits required by forward biophysical models. A multi-objective optimization algorithm is used to invert the PROSAIL canopy radiation transfer model, which accounts for the effects of leaf-level optical properties, foliage distribution and orientation on canopy reflectance across the optical range. Inversions are conducted for several growing seasons for both soybean and maize at several sites in the Central US agro-ecosystem. These inversions provide estimates of seasonal variations, and associated uncertainty, of variables such as leaf area index (LAI) that are then used as inputs into the MLCan biophysical model to conduct forward simulations. MLCan characterizes the ecophysiological functioning of a plant canopy at a half-hourly timestep, and has been rigorously validated for both C3 and C4 crops against observations of canopy CO2 uptake, evapotranspiration and sensible heat exchange across a wide range of meteorological conditions. The inversion-derived canopy properties are used to examine the ability of MODIS data to characterize seasonal variations in canopy properties in the context of a detailed forward canopy biophysical model, and the uncertainty induced in forward model estimates as a function of the uncertainty in the inverted parameters. Special care is made to ensure that the satellite observations match adequately, in both time and space, with the coupled model simulations. To do so, daily MODIS observations are used and a validated model of

  19. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  20. Banana Fibers – Variability and Fracture Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrat Mukhopadhyay, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana fibers obtained from the stem of banana plant (Musa sapientum have been characterised for their diameter variability and their mechanical properties, with a stress on fracture morphology. The nature of representative stress strain curves and fracture at different strain rates have been analysed through SEM.

  1. De Novo characterization of the banana root transcriptome and analysis of gene expression under Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense tropical race 4 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhuo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. are among the most important crops in the world due to their nutritional and export value. However, banana production has been devastated by fungal infestations caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc, which cannot be effectively prevented or controlled. Since there is very little known about the molecular mechanism of Foc infections; therefore, we aimed to investigate the transcriptional changes induced by Foc in banana roots. Results We generated a cDNA library from total RNA isolated from banana roots infected with Foc Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR 4 at days 0, 2, 4, and 6. We generated over 26 million high-quality reads from the cDNA library using deep sequencing and assembled 25,158 distinct gene sequences by de novo assembly and gap-filling. The average distinct gene sequence length was 1,439 base pairs. A total of 21,622 (85.94% unique sequences were annotated and 11,611 were assigned to specific metabolic pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. We used digital gene expression (DGE profiling to investigate the transcriptional changes in the banana root upon Foc TR4 infection. The expression of genes in the Phenylalanine metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism pathways was affected by Foc TR4 infection. Conclusion The combination of RNA-Seq and DGE analysis provides a powerful method for analyzing the banana root transcriptome and investigating the transcriptional changes during the response of banana genes to Foc TR4 infection. The assembled banana transcriptome provides an important resource for future investigations about the banana crop as well as the diseases that plague this valuable staple food.

  2. Evaluation of thermal remote sensing indices to estimate crop evapotranspiration coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remotely sensed data such as spectral reflectance and infrared canopy temperature can be used to quantify crop canopy cover and/or crop water stress, often through the use of vegetation indices calculated from the near-infrared and red bands, and stress indices calculated from the thermal wavelength...

  3. Feynman motives of banana graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Aluffi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the infinite family of Feynman graphs known as the ``banana graphs'' and compute explicitly the classes of the corresponding graph hypersurfaces in the Grothendieck ring of varieties as well as their Chern--Schwartz--MacPherson classes, using the classical Cremona transformation and the dual graph, and a blowup formula for characteristic classes. We outline the interesting similarities between these operations and we give formulae for cones obtained by simple operations on graphs. We formulate a positivity conjecture for characteristic classes of graph hypersurfaces and discuss briefly the effect of passing to noncommutative spacetime.

  4. [Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on rice canopy microlimate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weihong; Mayumi, Yoshimoto; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhu, Jianguo; Han, Yong; Liu, Gan

    2002-10-01

    In this study, the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) system (setup at at Anzhen, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province in 2001) was used to investigate the effects of FACE on rice canopy microclimate. The rice canopy microclimate observations were carried out from August 26 to October 13, 2001, when the rice crops were at the heading to maturing development stage. The results showed that FACE reduced the rice leaf stomatal conductance. The rice leaf stomatal conductance difference between FACE and ambient was larger among upper layer leaves than among lower layer leaves and at heading and milk filling stages than at maturing stage. FACE increased daytime rice canopy temperature but had little effect on nighttime rice canopy temperature. The daytime rice canopy temperature difference between FACE and ambient was larger at heading and milk filling stages than at maturing stage. From heading to flowering, the daily maximum rice canopy temperature difference between FACE and ambient reached 1.2 degrees C under fine weather condition. The average daytime rice canopy temperature from flowering to maturing stage was about 0.43 degree C. Daytime air temperature inside rice canopy was also affected by FACE. Daytime air temperature inside rice canopy was higher in FACE plot than in ambient plot. The value of daytime air temperature difference between FACE and ambient increased with the increase of solar radiation and varied with height. The maximum daytime air temperature difference between FACE and ambient varied between 0.47-1.2 degrees C and 0.37-0.8 degree C at middle of canopy and canopy height, respectively. Air humidity and nighttime air temperature inside rice canopy were not significantly affected by FACE. These results indicate that FACE reducing rice leaf stomatal conductance was the major cause of the increase of canopy temperature and inside canopy air temperature in FACE plot. The higher canopy temperature and inside canopy air temperature in FACE plot resulted in the earlier

  5. Canopy for VERAView Installation Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ronald W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-12

    With the addition of the 3D volume slicer widget, VERAView now relies on Mayavi and its dependents. Enthought's Canopy Python environment provides everything VERAView needs, and pre-built Canopy versions for Windows, Mac OSX, and Linux can be downloaded.

  6. Banana MaMADS Transcription Factors Are Necessary for Fruit Ripening and Molecular Tools to Promote Shelf-Life and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitzur, Tomer; Yakir, Esther; Quansah, Lydia; Zhangjun, Fei; Vrebalov, Julia; Khayat, Eli; Giovannoni, James J; Friedman, Haya

    2016-05-01

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, MaMADS1 and MaMADS2, homologous to the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RIN-MADS ripening gene. Transgenic banana plants repressing either gene (via antisense or RNA interference [RNAi]) were created and exhibited specific ripening delay and extended shelf-life phenotypes, including delayed color development and softening. The delay in fruit ripening is associated with a delay in climacteric respiration and reduced synthesis of the ripening hormone ethylene; in the most severe repressed lines, no ethylene was produced and ripening was most delayed. Unlike tomato rin mutants, banana fruits of all transgenic repression lines responded to exogenous ethylene by ripening normally, likely due to incomplete transgene repression and/or compensation by other MADS box genes. Our results show that, although MADS box ripening gene necessity is conserved across diverse taxa (monocots to dicots), unlike tomato, banana ripening requires at least two necessary members of the SEPALLATA MADS box gene group, and either can serve as a target for ripening control. The utility of such genes as tools for ripening control is especially relevant in important parthenocarpic crops such as the vegetatively propagated and widely consumed Cavendish banana, where breeding options for trait improvement are severely limited.

  7. Severity of banana leaf spot in an intercropping system in two cycles of banana Prata Ana

    OpenAIRE

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves; Silvia Nietsche; Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira; Manoel Xavier de Oliveira Júnior; Roberto Célio Antunes Júnior; Carlos Ruggiero

    2008-01-01

    Prata Ana is the most planted banana cultivar in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is however susceptible to several pathogens. This study was carried out to evaluate the disease severity of banana leaf spot in the Prata Ana cv. in the first and second cycle under six different planting systems. The randomized block experimental design was used with six treatments and four replications. lit an evaluation of the severity of banana leaf spot, no disease symptoms were found on Thap Maeo and Caip...

  8. Performance of an Ultrasonic Ranging Sensor in Apple Tree Canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Escolà

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic canopy characterization is an important issue in tree crop management. Ultrasonic and optical sensors are the most used for this purpose. The objective of this work was to assess the performance of an ultrasonic sensor under laboratory and field conditions in order to provide reliable estimations of distance measurements to apple tree canopies. To this purpose, a methodology has been designed to analyze sensor performance in relation to foliage ranging and to interferences with adjacent sensors when working simultaneously. Results show that the average error in distance measurement using the ultrasonic sensor in laboratory conditions is ±0.53 cm. However, the increase of variability in field conditions reduces the accuracy of this kind of sensors when estimating distances to canopies. The average error in such situations is ±5.11 cm. When analyzing interferences of adjacent sensors 30 cm apart, the average error is ±17.46 cm. When sensors are separated 60 cm, the average error is ±9.29 cm. The ultrasonic sensor tested has been proven to be suitable to estimate distances to the canopy in field conditions when sensors are 60 cm apart or more and could, therefore, be used in a system to estimate structural canopy parameters in precision horticulture.

  9. Performance of an ultrasonic ranging sensor in apple tree canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolà, Alexandre; Planas, Santiago; Rosell, Joan Ramon; Pomar, Jesús; Camp, Ferran; Solanelles, Francesc; Gracia, Felip; Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Electronic canopy characterization is an important issue in tree crop management. Ultrasonic and optical sensors are the most used for this purpose. The objective of this work was to assess the performance of an ultrasonic sensor under laboratory and field conditions in order to provide reliable estimations of distance measurements to apple tree canopies. To this purpose, a methodology has been designed to analyze sensor performance in relation to foliage ranging and to interferences with adjacent sensors when working simultaneously. Results show that the average error in distance measurement using the ultrasonic sensor in laboratory conditions is ±0.53 cm. However, the increase of variability in field conditions reduces the accuracy of this kind of sensors when estimating distances to canopies. The average error in such situations is ±5.11 cm. When analyzing interferences of adjacent sensors 30 cm apart, the average error is ±17.46 cm. When sensors are separated 60 cm, the average error is ±9.29 cm. The ultrasonic sensor tested has been proven to be suitable to estimate distances to the canopy in field conditions when sensors are 60 cm apart or more and could, therefore, be used in a system to estimate structural canopy parameters in precision horticulture.

  10. Connecting Biochemical Photosynthesis Models with Crop Models to Support Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g. light, water and nitrogen, aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modelling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modelling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modelling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modelling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilises developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modelling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modelling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modelling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation.

  11. Connecting Biochemical Photosynthesis Models with Crop Models to Support Crop Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alex; Song, Youhong; van Oosterom, Erik J.; Hammer, Graeme L.

    2016-01-01

    The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source) as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modeling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modeling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modeling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilizes developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modeling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modeling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modeling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation.

  12. Variation of directional reflectance factors with structural changes of a developing alfalfa canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, J. A.; Kimes, D. S.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1982-01-01

    Directional reflectance factors of an alfalfa canopy were determined and related to canopy structure, agronomic variables, and irradiance conditions at four periods during a cutting cycle. Nadir and off-nadir reflectance factors decreased with increasing biomass in Thematic Mapper band 3(0.63-0.69 micrometer) and increased with increasing biomass in band 4(0.76-0.90 micrometer). The sensor view angle had less impact on perceived reflectance as the alfalfa progressed from an erectophile canopy of stems after harvest to a near planophile canopy of leaves at maturity. Studies of directional reflectance are needed for testing and upgrading vegetation canopy models and to aid in the complex interpretation problems presented by aircraft scanners and pointable satellites where illumination and viewing geometries may vary widely. Distinct changes in the patterns of radiance observed by a sensor as structural and biomass changes occur are keys to monitoring the growth and condition of crops.

  13. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Futeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibility for the accumulation of garbage or waste banana peels , especially in the West Sumatra city of Padang and sekitarnya.Salah one solution that can be done is to harness and cultivate the banana peel waste into a material more useful for example in the manufacture of foodstuffs.Banana peel flour with all the treatments can produce flour banana peel . However, the manufacture of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour of soaking to get the best flour . Having obtained done banana peel flour donut -making flour substitute banana peel . The use of banana peel flour with different concentrations turned out to affect the organoleptic properties of the donut . Of hedonic organoleptic test , the results of the average value of the ratio between wheat flour with flour banana skin that gives the best results for color , aroma , and flavor that is a donut with banana peel flour ratio of 0 % to 100 % wheat flour and donuts with banana peel flour ratio 10 % with 90 % wheat flour , but the texture will be best results are donuts of banana peels can be made by substituting wheat flour with flour banana skin at 10 %. Carbohydrate content of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour soaking of 16.60 grams.

  14. A comparison of models to estimate in-canopy photosynthetically active radiation and their influence on canopy stomatal resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leiming; Moran, Michael D.; Brook, Jeffrey R.

    The models for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) used in a multi-layer canopy stomatal resistance (CSR) model developed by Baldocchi et al. (Atmospheric Environment 21 (1987) 91-101) and in a two-big-leaf CSR model developed by Hicks et al. (Water, Air and Soil Pollution 36 (1987) 311) are investigated in this study. The PAR received by shaded leaves in Baldocchi et al. (1987) is found to be larger than that predicted by a canopy radiative-transfer model developed by Norman (in: Barfield, Gerber, (Eds.), Modification of the Aerial Environment of Crops. ASAE Monograph No. 2. American Society for Agricultural. Engineering, St. Joseph, MI, 1979, p. 249) by as much as 50% even though the Baldocchi et al. (1987) model is indirectly based on Norman's model. This larger value of PAR results in turn in a smaller CSR by as much as 30% for canopies with larger leaf area indexes. A new formula to predict vertical profiles for PAR received by shaded leaves inside a canopy is suggested in the present study based on Norman (1979) and agrees well with the original model of Norman (1979). The simple treatment used in Hicks et al. (1987) for canopy-average PAR received by shaded leaves is found to diverge for canopies with leaf area indexes not close to two A new empirical formula for canopy-average PAR is then suggested for use in a two-big-leaf model, and it is shown that under most conditions the modified two-big-leaf CSR model can predict reasonable values when compared with the more complex multi-layer CSR model. Both the modified multi-layer CSR model and the modified two-big-leaf CSR model are also shown to predict reasonable dry deposition velocities for O 3 when compared to several sets of measurements.

  15. Creation of Transgenic Bananas Expressing Human Lysozyme Gene for Panama Wilt Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Wu PEI; Shi-Kai CHEN; Rui-Ming WEN; Shang YE; Jia-Qin HUANG; Yong-Qiang ZHANG; Bing-Shan WANG; Zhi-Xing WANG; Shi-Rong JIA

    2005-01-01

    Human lysozyme (HL) inhibits Fusarium oxysporum (FocR4) growth in vitro. To obtaintransgenic bananas (Musa spp.) that are resistant to Panama wilt (F. oxysporum), we introduced an HL genethat is driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter into the banana via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR confirmed that 51 transgenic plants were obtained. The development ofPanama wilt symptoms were examined after the plants had been grown in pots. The non-transgenic plantsdeveloped typical fusarium symptoms 60 d after FocR4 inoculation, whereas 24 of 51 transgenic plants remained healthy. The transgenic banana plants that showed resistance to FocR4 in the pots were then planted in a field that was heavily infected with FocR4 for further investigation. Eleven of 24 plants developed symptoms before bud emergence; another 11 plants showed symptoms after bud emergence and the remaining two plants, H-67 and H-144, remained healthy and were able to fruit. Northern blotting analysisdemonstrated that H-67 and H-144, bearing the strongest resistance to Panama wilt, had the highest level ofHL expression and that the expression of HL was well correlated with the FocR4 resistance of transgenicplants. We conclude that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, with the assistance of particlebombardment, is a powerful approach for banana transformation and that a transgenic HL gene can causeresistance of the crop to FocR4 in the field.

  16. Detection of Bacterial Wilt Pathogen and Isolation of Its Bacteriophage from Banana in Lumajang Area, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardian Susilo Addy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt disease on banana is an important disease in Lumajang District and causes severe yield loss. Utilizing bacteriophage as natural enemy of pathogenic bacteria has been widely known as one of the control strategies. This research was aimed at determining the causing agent of bacterial wilt on banana isolated from Lumajang area, to obtain wide-host range bacteriophages against bacterial wilt pathogen and to know the basic characteristic of bacteriophages, particularly its nucleic acid type. Causative agent of bacterial wilt was isolated from symptomatic banana trees from seven districts in Lumajang area on determinative CPG plates followed by rapid detection by PCR technique using specific pair-primer. Bacteriophages were also isolated from soil of infected banana crop in Sukodono District. Morphological observation showed that all bacterial isolates have similar characteristic as common bacterial wilt pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition, detection of FliC region in all isolates confirmed that all isolates were R. solanacearum according to the presence of 400 bp of FliC DNA fragment. Moreover, two bacteriophages were obtained from this experiment (ϕRSSKD1 and ϕRSSKD2, which were able to infect all nine R. solanacearum isolates. Nucleic acid analysis showed that the nucleic acid of bacteriophages was DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid.

  17. Water use efficiency of a banana plantation in a screenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanny, J.; Dicken, U.; Grava, A.; Cohen, S.

    2009-04-01

    Shading banana and other orchard crops with screens is becoming increasingly popular in arid and semi-arid regions due to the resulting decreased water use and increased fruit quality. This study focused on measurements of water vapor and CO2 fluxes in a large commercial flat-roof banana screenhouse in northern Israel whose dimensions were 300 m long, 200 m wide and 6 m high. Measurements were conducted using an eddy covariance system deployed on a pole near the center of the screenhouse, allowing a minimum fetch of 100 m in all wind directions. The system measured the three air velocity components, air sonic temperature, air humidity and CO2 concentration. Measurements were conducted during 21 days between July 7th (DOY 189) and August 17th 2007 (DOY 230). During this period the banana plants grew from 2.8 to 4.6 m height and leaf area index increased from 0.5 to 1.8. Additional measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux enabled the analysis of energy balance closure. Energy balance closure analysis gave the regression line Y = 0.85X - 0.5 (R2 = 0.84) where Y represents the consumed energy (latent plus sensible heat fluxes) and X represents the available energy (net radiation minus soil heat flux). This result (slope close to unity) validates the measured evapotranspiration (latent heat flux). Farmer's irrigation increased during the measurement period due to both plant growth and climate variation. Daily evapotranspiration of the plantation increased from 1.7 to 3.2 mm of water during the measurement period. Daily water consumption was on average 70% of the applied irrigation, suggesting that the plantation was over-irrigated. The water use efficiency (WUE) was defined as the total daily mass of CO2 consumed by the plantation per unit mass of water used. Results show that WUE generally increased during the measurement period, implying that larger banana plants were more efficient in using the available water than smaller plants.

  18. Natural product of wild Zingiberaceae Elettariopsis slahmong: biopesticide to control the vector of banana blood disease bacterium in West Sumatera, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N; Dharma, A; Efdi, M; Yuhendra; Eliesti, F

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the most important food crops in Indonesia. Its production is greater than any other agricultural commodity. With the population of 230 million in 2010, banana was consumed up to three million tons in this country. However, Banana Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB), one of the most devastating banana pathogens in the world, which is only found in Indonesia, threatens not only the growth of this plant but also the lives and the livelihoods for most of the Indonesian society. BDB is caused by a lethal bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype-4, which infects a wide range of bananas, from bananas used for consumption to wild bananas. In West Sumatera, the disease killed 1.40% of bananas in 1998, and then increased dramatically to 37.9% in 2003. The total banana production dropped to 62% in this province. The search for controlling the vector has led to the pre-investigation of Wild Zingiberaceae Elettariopsis slahmong C.K. Lim which has a stink bug odour similar to a methidathion insecticide. The plant was collected around the conservation area of Lembah Anal in West Sumatra. The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of natural insecticides compound contained in E. slahmong against D. melanogaster. This study tested the effect of E. slahmong on the mortality, anti-feedant and repellent levels against Drosophila melanogaster, the vector of BDB. The essential oil of E. slahmong was obtained by steam distillation of fresh rhizomes, pseudo stems and leaves. We found that the extract of E. slahmong significantly affected the mortality of D. melanogaster of 30-40% and also acted as an antifeedant (with success rate of 73-93%) and repellent (with success rate of 99-99.6%). The long- term objective of this study is to develop green biopesticide to control BDB in Indonesia, based on an environmentally friendly pest management.

  19. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  20. [Effects of continuous application of bio-organic fertilizer on banana production and cultural microflora of bulk soil in orchard with serious disease incidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shu-tang; Shen, Zong-zhuan; Sun, Yi-fei; Lyu, Na-na; Ruan, Yun-ze; Li, Rong; Shen, Qi-rong

    2015-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years to investigate the effects of different fertilization applications on the suppression of banana fusarium wilt disease, crop yield, fruit quality and culturable microflora in a banana orchard which has been monocultured with banana for 12 years and suffered serious banana fusarium wilt disease. The fertilizers included chemical fertilizer (CF), cow manure compost (CM), pig manure compost (PM) and bio-organic fertilizer (BIO). The banana soil microflora was invested using plate-counting method and culture-dependent polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method (CD PCR-DGGE). Results showed that, compared with the other treatments, 2-year consecutive application of BIO significantly reduced the banana fusarium wilt disease incidence, and improved the banana mass per tree, crop yield, total soluble sugar content and the ratio of total soluble sugar to titratable acidity of fruits (sugar/acid ratio). Moreover, the analysis of culturable microflora showed that BIO application significantly increased the soil microbial biomass, soil culturable bacteria, bacillus and actinomycetes, and the ratio of bacteria to fungi (B/F) , while decreased the Fusarium oxysporum. Based on the CD PCR-DGGE results, the BIO application significantly altered the soil culturable bacterial structure and showed highest richness and diversity after 2 years of BIO application. The phylogenetic analysis of the selected bands showed that BIO application enriched the soil with the species of Paenibacillus sp., Burkholderia sp., uncultured Verrucomicrobia sp. and Bacillus aryabhattai, and depressed the species of Ralstonia sp., Chryseobacterium gleum, Fluviicola taffensis, Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus megaterium. These results confirmed that the continuous application of BIO effectively controlled the fusarium wilt disease, improved the crop yield and fruit quality, and modulated the soil culturable microflora under field

  1. Canopy spectral characteristics of crops and prediction on main nutrients uptake in long-term fertilization experiment%长期定位施肥条件下作物光谱特征及养分吸收量预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊华; 张佳宝

    2014-01-01

    -Huai-Hai area. The relationship between total N, P, and K uptake at harvesting stage and canopy spectral reflectance of winter wheat and summer maize at four typical growth stages were established so that plant nutrient uptake can be predicted based on the spectral reflectance. The results showed that the reflectance value of summer maize were similar to the value of winter wheat in visible light at the corresponding stages, but its average was 8.42% higher than winter wheat in near- infrared region. There were significant negative correlations between main nutrients uptake of crops and canopy spectral reflectance, in contrast, there were significant positive correlations between those at near-infrared region. The average correlation coefficients between the reflectance of summer maize and N uptake were similar to winter wheat at visible light at whole stage, but it was 0.4125 higher than winter wheat in near-infrared region. The average correlation coefficients between the reflectance of summer maize and P uptake were 0.3621 and 0.2072 lower than winter wheat at visible light and near-infrared region, respectively. The average correlation coefficients between the reflectance of summer maize and K uptake were 0.1270 lower than winter wheat at visible light, and it was 0.0341 higher than wheat winter in near-infrared region. Then, the stepwise regression was used to generate equations for the estimation of major nutrients requirement of winter wheat and summer maize from the canopy reflectance. The results showed that except for P uptake of summer maize, other major nutrients uptake of two crops could be predict at four different growth stages. The results can provide a tool for nutrient management of winter wheat and summer maize in Huang-Huai-Hai region of China.

  2. Petunia floral defensins with unique prodomains as novel candidates for development of fusarium wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhesh B Ghag

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C-terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana.

  3. Translating the “Banana Genome” to Delineate Stress Resistance, Dwarfing, Parthenocarpy and Mechanisms of Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K Dash

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit Banana entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution genotype of M. acuminata. This wonder crop, as of today, remains untouched by the green revolution and researchers face intrinsic impediments for varietal improvement to enhance its yield. The complex genome of banana was decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit. Banana has historically faced the wrath of pandemic bacterial, fungal and viral diseases and multitude of abiotic stresses that has ruined the livelihood of small and marginal farmers’ and destroyed commercial plantations. Decoding of its structural genome has given impetus to a deeper understanding of the repertoire of genes involved in disease resistance, understanding the mechanism of dwarfing to develop an ideal plant type, unravelling the process of parthenocarpy for better fruit quality, and fruit ripening in this climacteric fruit. Injunction of comparative genomics research will usher in to integrate information from its decoded genome and other monocots into field applications in banana related but not limited to yield enhancement, food security, livelihood assurance, and energy sustainability. In this mini review, we discuss pre- and post-genomic discoveries and highlight accomplishments in structural genomics, genetic engineering and forward genetic accomplishments with an aim to target genes and transcription factors for translational research in banana.

  4. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment ovipositio

  5. Performance of Public and Non-Public Organisations in the Dissemination of Cooking Bananas in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the performance of public (POs and non-public (NPOs organisations in the dissemination of cooking bananas in Southeast Nigeria. Cooking bananas were introduced in the area as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease on plantains. Eight POs and 4 NPOs carried out the dissemination exercise. In all, about 55, 000 cooking banana suckers were distributed in about 700 villages to about 30, 000 farmers. NPOs out-performed POs in the dissemination exercise ; they accounted for about 90 % of suckers distributed, as well as about 80 % of villages and 99 % of farmers reached with the crop. Without the involvement and the efforts of the NPOs, the majority of the farmers and villages would not have obtained the crop. Unfortunately, the distribution of suckers by NPOs was limited to villages within the areas where they carry out their main activities, i. e. oil exploration/exploitation. As a resuit, more than 80 % of suckers distributed in the region were concentrated in the states of Bayelsa and Rivers. For a more even distribution of the newly developed hybrid plantains a key recommendation of the study is the involvement in the dissemination exercise of as many church and village groups as possible, especially in areas where NPOs do not operate.

  6. Trait-based characterisation of soil exploitation strategies of banana, weeds and cover plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Florence; Damour, Gaëlle; Dorel, Marc; Moreau, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Cover plants can be introduced in cropping systems to provide agroecosystem services, including weed control via competition for resources. There is currently no consensus on how to identify the best cover plant species, while trait-based approaches are promising for screening plant species due to their agroecosystem service provision potential. This study was carried out to characterize soil exploitation strategies of cover plant species in banana agroecosystems using a trait-based approach, and in turn identify cover plant species with a high weed control potential via competition for soil resources in banana cropping systems. A field experiment was conducted on 17 cover plant species, two weed species and two banana cultivars grown individually. Four functional traits were measured. Two of them (i.e., the size of the zone explored by roots and the root impact density) were used to characterize root system soil exploration patterns. Two other traits (i.e., specific root length and root diameter) were used to characterize resource acquisition within the soil zone explored by the roots. All studied traits exhibited marked variations among species. The findings suggested a trade-off between the abilities of species to develop a limited number of large diameter roots exploring a large soil zone versus many thin roots exploring a smaller soil zone. Three soil-resource exploitation strategies were identified among species: (i) with large diameter roots that explore a large soil zone; (ii) with small diameter roots and a high specific length that explore a smaller soil zone; and (iii) with a high total root-impact density and an intermediate specific root length that explore the uppermost soil layers. Interestingly, in our panel of species, no correlations with regard to belowground and aboveground strategies were noted: species with an acquisitive belowground strategy could display an acquisitive or a conservative aboveground strategy. The findings of this study

  7. Trait-based characterisation of soil exploitation strategies of banana, weeds and cover plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Florence; Damour, Gaëlle; Dorel, Marc; Moreau, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Cover plants can be introduced in cropping systems to provide agroecosystem services, including weed control via competition for resources. There is currently no consensus on how to identify the best cover plant species, while trait-based approaches are promising for screening plant species due to their agroecosystem service provision potential. This study was carried out to characterize soil exploitation strategies of cover plant species in banana agroecosystems using a trait-based approach, and in turn identify cover plant species with a high weed control potential via competition for soil resources in banana cropping systems. A field experiment was conducted on 17 cover plant species, two weed species and two banana cultivars grown individually. Four functional traits were measured. Two of them (i.e., the size of the zone explored by roots and the root impact density) were used to characterize root system soil exploration patterns. Two other traits (i.e., specific root length and root diameter) were used to characterize resource acquisition within the soil zone explored by the roots. All studied traits exhibited marked variations among species. The findings suggested a trade-off between the abilities of species to develop a limited number of large diameter roots exploring a large soil zone versus many thin roots exploring a smaller soil zone. Three soil-resource exploitation strategies were identified among species: (i) with large diameter roots that explore a large soil zone; (ii) with small diameter roots and a high specific length that explore a smaller soil zone; and (iii) with a high total root-impact density and an intermediate specific root length that explore the uppermost soil layers. Interestingly, in our panel of species, no correlations with regard to belowground and aboveground strategies were noted: species with an acquisitive belowground strategy could display an acquisitive or a conservative aboveground strategy. The findings of this study

  8. Pesticides in blood from spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) downstream of banana plantations in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Paul B C; Woudneh, Million B; Ross, Peter S

    2013-11-01

    Spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) are fish-eating crocodilians that inhabit freshwater habitat in tropical regions of the Americas. To assess the exposure of caiman to pesticides from banana plantations, the authors collected whole blood samples (30 mL) from 14 adult caiman that were captured in the North Atlantic region of Costa Rica. Blood samples were analyzed for 70 legacy- and current-use pesticides and breakdown products using newly developed ultra-trace, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Caiman accumulated pesticides ranked by concentration as dieldrin > permethrin > mirex > 4,4'-DDE > alpha-endosulfan > heptachlor epoxide > oxychlordane > heptachlor > cypermethrin. Caiman within the high-intensity banana crop watershed of Rio Suerte had higher pesticide burdens relative to other more remote locations (F = 12.79; p = 0.00). Pesticide concentration decreased with distance from upstream banana plantations in this river system (F = 20.76; p = 0.00). Caiman body condition was negatively correlated with total pesticide concentrations (F = 6.23; p = 0.02) and with proximity to banana plantations (F = 5.05; p = 0.04). This suggests that either pesticides elicited toxic effects in caiman, resulting in diminished overall health, or that the quantity or quality of their prey was reduced by pesticides downstream of plantation waterways. The authors' results indicate that pesticide use in banana plantations is impacting a high trophic level species inhabiting one of the most important wilderness areas in Costa Rica (Tortuguero National Park).

  9. Canopy temperature for simulation of heat stress in irrigated wheat in a semi-arid environment: A multi-model comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webber, Heidi; Martre, Pierre; Asseng, Senthold

    2017-01-01

    evidence that crop canopy temperature (Tc) better explains grain yield losses. Tc can deviate significantly from Tair based on climatic factors and the crop water status. The broad objective of this study was to evaluate whether simulation of Tc improves the ability of crop models to simulate heat stress...

  10. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-Qun; Zeng, Xiao-Hong; Fang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establ...

  11. I Have a Banana Tree in My Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    When the banana is growing, the broadest part of the banana is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the banana tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…

  12. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry,the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry.They are respectively marketing risks,natural risks,information risks and production risks.In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry,countermeasures are proposed in the research.The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry.The second is to establish the forecasting mechanisms on banana industry,including four aspects.They are establishing the subordinate forecasting systems on Hainan banana industry;constructing information collecting and checking mechanisms of banana industry;establishing information analysis and decision-making systems and constructing information distribution and information sharing systems.The third is to promote the construction of urgency dealing abilities of banana industry.The fourth is to further perfect the risk-defending and protecting systems of banana industry in Hainan.The fifth is to accelerate the standard generation of banana to improve marketing competence.The sixth is to accelerate the development of intermediate agents to improve the organization degrees.And the last one is to put emphasis on the tech-training courses on banana planting and production to improve the technical quality of banana industry.

  13. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container.

  14. Crop sensors for automation of in-season nitrogen application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop canopy reflectance sensing can be used to assess in-season crop nitrogen (N) health for automatic control of N fertilization. Typically, sensor data are processed to an established index, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) and differences in that index from a well-fertili...

  15. Quantifying the effect of crop spatial arrangement on weed suppression using functional-structural plant modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Jochem B; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2016-05-01

    Suppression of weed growth in a crop canopy can be enhanced by improving crop competitiveness. One way to achieve this is by modifying the crop planting pattern. In this study, we addressed the question to what extent a uniform planting pattern increases the ability of a crop to compete with weed plants for light compared to a random and a row planting pattern, and how this ability relates to crop and weed plant density as well as the relative time of emergence of the weed. To this end, we adopted the functional-structural plant modelling approach which allowed us to explicitly include the 3D spatial configuration of the crop-weed canopy and to simulate intra- and interspecific competition between individual plants for light. Based on results of simulated leaf area development, canopy photosynthesis and biomass growth of the crop, we conclude that differences between planting pattern were small, particularly if compared to the effects of relative time of emergence of the weed, weed density and crop density. Nevertheless, analysis of simulated weed biomass demonstrated that a uniform planting of the crop improved the weed-suppression ability of the crop canopy. Differences in weed suppressiveness between planting patterns were largest with weed emergence before crop emergence, when the suppressive effect of the crop was only marginal. With simultaneous emergence a uniform planting pattern was 8 and 15 % more competitive than a row and a random planting pattern, respectively. When weed emergence occurred after crop emergence, differences between crop planting patterns further decreased as crop canopy closure was reached early on regardless of planting pattern. We furthermore conclude that our modelling approach provides promising avenues to further explore crop-weed interactions and aid in the design of crop management strategies that aim at improving crop competitiveness with weeds.

  16. Simultaneous improvement in water use, productivity and albedo through canopy structural modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, Darren; Kumar, Praveen; Long, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural lands provide a tremendous opportunity to address challenges at the intersection of food and water security and climate change. Global demand for the major grain and seed crops is beginning to outstrip production, while population growth and the expansion of the global middle class have motivated calls for a doubling of food production by the middle of this century. This is occurring as yield gains for the major food crops have stagnated. At current rates of yield improvement this doubling will not be achieved. Plants have evolved to maximize the capture of radiation in the upper leaves, resulting in sub-optimal monoculture crop fields for maximizing productivity and other biogeophysical services. Using the world's most important protein crop, soybean, as an example, we show that by applying numerical optimization to a micrometeorological crop canopy model that significant, simultaneous gains in water use, productivity and reflectivity are possible with no increased demand on resources. Here we apply the MLCan multi-layer canopy biophysical model, which vertically resolves the radiation and micro-environmental variations that stimulate biochemical and ecophysiological functions that govern canopy-atmosphere exchange processes. At each canopy level photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and energy balance are solved simultaneously for shaded and sunlit foliage. A multi-layer sub-surface model incorporates water availability as a function of root biomass distribution. MLCan runs at sub-hourly temporal resolution, allowing it to capture variability in CO2, water and energy exchange as a function of environmental variability. By modifying total canopy leaf area, its vertical distribution, leaf angle, and shortwave radiation reflectivity, all traits available in most major crop germplasm collections, we show that increases in either productivity (7%), water use (13%) or albedo (34%) could be achieved with no detriment to the other objectives, under climate

  17. New microsatellite markers for bananas (Musa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, E P; Silva, P H; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Santos, V J; Vilarinhos, A D; Santos, C M R; Souza Júnior, M T; Miller, R N G

    2012-04-27

    Thirty-four microsatellite markers (SSRs) were identified in EST and BAC clones from Musa acuminata burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 and validated in 22 Musa genotypes from the Banana Germplasm Bank of Embrapa-CNPMF, which includes wild and improved diploids. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14. The markers were considered highly informative based on their polymorphism information content values; more than 50% were above 0.5. These SSRs will be useful for banana breeding programs, for studies of genetic diversity, germplasm characterization and selection, development of saturated genetic linkage maps, and marker assisted selection.

  18. Professor Schmidt’s Banana Cake Recipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients.......In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients....

  19. Efficiency of light energy used by leaves situated in different levels of a sweet pepper canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dueck, T.A.; Grashoff, C.; Broekhuijsen, A.G.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    In order to make the most use of the available light in glasshouse crops, measurements of light penetration, leaf photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration were performed at five levels in a sweet paper canopy at two commercial farms, from July to November 2004. Light response curves of leaf pho

  20. What is the most prominent factor limiting photosynthesis in different layers of a greenhouse cucumber canopy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.W.; Henke, M.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Wiechers, D.; Kahlen, K.; Stützel, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Maximizing photosynthesis at the canopy level is important for enhancing crop yield, and this requires insights into the limiting factors of photosynthesis. Using greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as an example, this study provides a novel approach to quantify different compo

  1. Diurnal Solar Energy Conversion and Photoprotection in Rice Canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Katherine; Sirault, Xavier; Quick, W Paul; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Furbank, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Genetic improvement of photosynthetic performance of cereal crops and increasing the efficiency with which solar radiation is converted into biomass has recently become a major focus for crop physiologists and breeders. The pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence technique (PAM) allows quantitative leaf level monitoring of the utilization of energy for photochemical light conversion and photoprotection in natural environments, potentially over the entire crop lifecycle. Here, the diurnal relationship between electron transport rate (ETR) and irradiance was measured in five cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) in canopy conditions with PAM fluorescence under natural solar radiation. This relationship differed substantially from that observed for conventional short term light response curves measured under controlled actinic light with the same leaves. This difference was characterized by a reduced curvature factor when curve fitting was used to model this diurnal response. The engagement of photoprotective processes in chloroplast electron transport in leaves under canopy solar radiation was shown to be a major contributor to this difference. Genotypic variation in the irradiance at which energy flux into photoprotective dissipation became greater than ETR was observed. Cultivars capable of higher ETR at midrange light intensities were shown to produce greater leaf area over time, estimated by noninvasive imaging.

  2. Plantio irrigado de bananeiras resistentes à Sigatoka-negra consorciado com culturas anuais Irrigated banana resistant to black Sigatoka, with annual intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildeu de Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o plantio irrigado de bananeiras resistentes à Sigatoka-negra consorciado com cultura anuais, na região norte de Minas Gerais, um experimento foi instalado na Fazenda Experimental do Departamento de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, Câmpus de Janaúba-MG. O experimento foi conduzido no período de abril de 2006 a julho de 2007, delineado em blocos casualizados, segundo um esquema de parcelas subdivididas 3 x 5, tendo na parcela as três variedades de bananeiras: Pacovan Ken, Caipira e Thap Maeo, e na subparcela quatro culturas intercalares: Feijão-Pérola, Quiabo-Dardo, Melancia-Crimson-Sweet e Feijão-Caupi, e a testemunha (sem cultura intercalar, com três repetições. Ao todo, foram 756 bananeiras, em 45 parcelas, com 6 plantas úteis cada, constituindo a cultura principal. As culturas intercalares ocuparam as entrelinhas da bananeira, tanto aquelas com as linhas de irrigação como sem linha de irrigação. O plantio da bananeira e das culturas intercalares foi feito no mesmo período, utilizando-se do espaçamento de 3,0 m entre as linhas e 2,0 m entre as covas de bananeira, com microaspersores espaçados de 6 m. Avaliaram-se as características vegetativas e reprodutivas das variedades de bananeiras, no primeiro ciclo. Não foi observado efeito significativo dos cultivos intercalares sobre as variedades de bananeiras, com exceção do número de dias do plantio ao florescimento e do número de dias do plantio à colheita das variedades de bananeiras. O uso do feijão-caupi promoveu atraso no ciclo de produção das três variedades de bananeiras Pacovan Ken, Caipira e Thap Maeo.To assess the irrigated cultivation of banana resistant to black Sigatoka, intercropped with annual crops in the northern region of Minas Gerais, a trial was conducted on an experimental farm of the Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, in Janaúba-MG. The experiment was carried out from April 2006 to

  3. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  4. Parameter optimization and experiment of pneumatic holding part for banana crown cutting%香蕉落梳机气动夹持部件参数优化与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正波; 杨洲; 孙健峰; 薛坤鹏; 牛萌萌; 邱汉; 陈兆春; 朱卿创; 孙志全

    2016-01-01

    目前香蕉采收处理对蕉穗的夹持一般采用尖锐部件插入果轴的方式,导致卸荷后果轴不能自动脱离夹持器,不利于实现香蕉落梳机械化和自动化。针对上述问题,设计出气动夹持装置和弧形夹持部件,分析了夹持部件与果轴间的相互作用关系,确定了影响夹持部件与果轴间当量摩擦力的关键因素。试验结果表明夹持部件材料、夹持部件内弧面面积、果轴直径和气缸气压4个因素对当量摩擦力具有显著性影响(P<0.05);对当量摩擦力影响的主次顺序依次为夹持部件材料、夹持部件内弧面面积、气缸气压、果轴直径。正交试验回归分析表明采用橡胶夹持部件,内弧面面积为1885 mm2,气缸气压为0.5 MPa,果轴直径为69 mm时当量摩擦力最大,为359.494 N,实测值为375.975 N,与回归分析结果无显著性差异。该研究可为茎杆类植物体夹持方法和夹持部件的改进与应用提供参考。%Banana is one of the most important crops in the world, and ranks the fourth after rice, wheat and maize with annual production of more than 106.71 million tons in about 136 countries and regions in 2013. Banana postharvest treatments consist of collection, transportation, crown cutting, cleaning and sterilizing, packing and storage. Banana crown cutting is one of the central tasks for banana postharvest treatments. In this treatment, banana stalk is fixed and cutting tool is used to separate bananas from banana bunch. The mechanization application level of banana postharvest treatments is relatively high abroad and the well-found lossless harvest system has been established. But there is no research result of banana crown cutting machine. Rapidly developing banana industry in China in recent years made banana production reach a record of 12.37 million tons in 2013 which contributed to about 11.6% of the world’s banana production. The construction of banana

  5. Changes in leaf area, nitrogen content and canopy photosynthesis in soybean exposed to an ozone concentration gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shimpei; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-01

    Influences of ozone (O3) on light-saturated rates of photosynthesis in crop leaves have been well documented. To increase our understanding of O3 effects on individual- or stand level productivity, a mechanistic understanding of factors determining canopy photosynthesis is necessary. We used a canopy model to scale photosynthesis from leaf to canopy, and analyzed the importance of canopy structural and leaf ecophysiological characteristics in determining canopy photosynthesis in soybean stands exposed to 9 concentrations of [O3] (37-116 ppb; 9-h mean). Light intensity and N content peaked in upper canopy layers, and sharply decreased through the lower canopy. Plant leaf area decreased with increasing [O3] allowing for greater light intensity to reach lower canopy levels. At the leaf level, light-saturated photosynthesis decreased and dark respiration increased with increasing [O3]. These data were used to calculate daily net canopy photosynthesis (Pc). Pc decreased with increasing [O3] with an average decrease of 10% for an increase in [O3] of 10 ppb, and which was similar to changes in above-ground dry mass production of the stands. Absolute daily net photosynthesis of lower layers was very low and thus the decrease in photosynthesis in the lower canopy caused by elevated [O3] had only minor significance for total canopy photosynthesis. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the decrease in Pc was associated with changes in leaf ecophysiology but not with decrease in leaf area. The soybean stands were very crowded, the leaves were highly mutually shaded, and sufficient light for positive carbon balance did not penetrate to lower canopy leaves, even under elevated [O3].

  6. The Influence of Variation in Time and HCl Concentration to the Glucose Produced from Kepok Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo M, Rohman; Noviyanto, Denny; RM, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Kepok banana (Musa paradisiaca) is a plant that has many advantagesfrom its fruit, stems, leaves, flowers and cob. However, we just tend to take benefit from the fruit. We grow and harvest the fruit without taking advantages from other parts. So they would be a waste or detrimental to animal nest if not used. The idea to take the benefit from the banana crop yields, especially cob is rarely explored. This study is an introduction to the use of banana weevil especially from the glucose it contains. This study uses current methods of hydrolysis using HCl as a catalyst with the concentration variation of 0.4 N, 0.6 N and 0.8 N and hydrolysis times variation of 20 minutes, 25 minutes and 30 minutes. The stages in the hydrolysis include preparation of materials, the process of hydrolysis and analysis of test results using Fehling and titrate with standard glucose solution. HCl is used as a catalyst because it is cheaper than the enzyme that has the same function. NaOH 60% is used for neutralizing the pH of the filtrate result of hydrolysis. From the results of analysis, known thatthe biggest yield of glucose is at concentration 0.8 N and at 30 minutes reaction, it contains 6.25 gram glucose / 20 gram dry sampel, and the convertion is 27.22% at 20 gram dry sampel.

  7. Use of competitive PCR to assay copy number of repetitive elements in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurens, F C; Noyer, J L; Lanaud, C; Lagoda, P J

    1996-11-27

    Banana is one of the most important subtropical fruit crops. Genetic improvement by traditional breeding strategies is difficult and better knowledge of genomic structure is needed. Repeated sequences are powerful markers for genetic fingerprinting. The method proposed here to determine the copy number of nuclear repetitive elements is based on competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and can also be used for quantifying cytosolic sequences. The reliability of this method was investigated on crude preparations of total DNA. Variations due to the heterogeneity of crude DNA extracts showed that a single locus reference is needed for accurate quantification. A mapped microsatellite locus was used to normalize copy number measurements. Copy number assay of repetitive elements using this method clearly distinguishes between the two banana subspecies investigated: Musa acuminata spp. banskii and M. acuminata spp. malaccensis. Two repetitive sequence families, pMaCIR1115 and pA9-26, were assayed that cover up to 1% of the M. acuminata genome. Their copy number varied up to six fold between the two subspecies. Furthermore, sequence quantification showed that mitochondrial genomes are present in crude leaf-extracted banana DNA at up to 40 copies per cell.

  8. Factors Influencing the Spread of Cooking Banana Processing Methods in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In collaboration with Shell and Agip oil companies, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture carried out a training campaign on the methods of processing cooking bananas (i/lusa ssp., ABB genome among farmers in Southeast Nigeria. This study examined the factors that have influenced the spread of the processing knowledge from farmers who were initially trained by the institutions. Data were collected from a random sample of 232 respondents using structured questionnaire. Results show that about 47 % of farmers who initially received training from institutions on cooking banana processing methods have taught an average of 3 processing methods to about 5 other people. This diffusion level is considered encouraging realising that the crop was entirely new to the people. Among the variables that were significant in shaping the decisions of the respondents regarding spread or non-spread of the processing methods are the level of educational attainment, primary occupation, social status, intensity of training received on cooking banana processing methods, and the degree of adoption ofthe processing methods.

  9. Assessing the Spectral Properties of Sunlit and Shaded Components in Rice Canopies with Near-Ground Imaging Spectroscopy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the components of crop canopies with remote sensing can help us understand the within-canopy variation in spectral properties and resolve the sources of uncertainties in the spectroscopic estimation of crop foliar chemistry. To date, the spectral properties of leaves and panicles in crop canopies and the shadow effects on their spectral variation remain poorly understood due to the insufficient spatial resolution of traditional spectroscopy data. To address this issue, we used a near-ground imaging spectroscopy system with high spatial and spectral resolutions to examine the spectral properties of rice leaves and panicles in sunlit and shaded portions of canopies and evaluate the effect of shadows on the relationships between spectral indices of leaves and foliar chlorophyll content. The results demonstrated that the shaded components exhibited lower reflectance amplitude but stronger absorption features than their sunlit counterparts. Specifically, the reflectance spectra of panicles had unique double-peak absorption features in the blue region. Among the examined vegetation indices (VIs, significant differences were found in the photochemical reflectance index (PRI between leaves and panicles and further differences in the transformed chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (TCARI between sunlit and shaded components. After an image-level separation of canopy components with these two indices, statistical analyses revealed much higher correlations between canopy chlorophyll content and both PRI and TCARI of shaded leaves than for those of sunlit leaves. In contrast, the red edge chlorophyll index (CIRed-edge exhibited the strongest correlations with canopy chlorophyll content among all vegetation indices examined regardless of shadows on leaves. These findings represent significant advances in the understanding of rice leaf and panicle spectral properties under natural light conditions and demonstrate the significance of commonly

  10. Banana Algebra: Compositional syntactic language extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds...

  11. Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Sampath Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. All parts of the banana plant have medicinal applications: the flowers in bronchitis and dysentery and on ulcers; cooked flowers are given to diabetics; the astringent plant sap in cases of hysteria, epilepsy, leprosy, fevers, hemorrhages, acute dysentery and diarrhea, and it is applied on hemorrhoids, insect and other stings and bites; young leaves are placed as poultices on burns and other skin afflictions; the astringent ashes of the unripe peel and of the leaves are taken in dysentery and diarrhea and used for treating malignant ulcers; the roots are administered in digestive disorders, dysentery and other ailments; banana seed mucilage is given in cases of diarrhea in India. Antifungal and antibiotic principles are found in the peel and pulp of fully ripe bananas. The antibiotic acts against Mycobacteria. A fungicide in the peel and pulp of green fruits is active against a fungus disease of tomato plants. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are also present in the ripe peel and pulp. The first two elevate blood pressure; serotonin inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the smooth muscle of the intestines.

  12. Mechanistic study of aerosol dry deposition on vegetated canopies; Etude mecaniste du depot sec d'aerosols sur les couverts vegetaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroff, A

    2005-04-15

    The dry deposition of aerosols onto vegetated canopies is modelled through a mechanistic approach. The interaction between aerosols and vegetation is first formulated by using a set of parameters, which are defined at the local scale of one surface. The overall deposition is then deduced at the canopy scale through an up-scaling procedure based on the statistic distribution parameters. This model takes into account the canopy structural and morphological properties, and the main characteristics of the turbulent flow. Deposition mechanisms considered are Brownian diffusion, interception, initial and turbulent impaction, initially with coniferous branches and then with entire canopies of different roughness, such as grass, crop field and forest. (author)

  13. Estimating sensible heat exchange between screen-covered canopies and the atmosphere using the surface renewal technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhmandarov, Yonatan; Achiman, Ori; Pirkner, Moran; Tanny, Josef

    2014-05-01

    Screenhouses and screen-covers are widely used in arid and semi-arid agriculture to protect crops from direct solar radiation and high wind speed, and to increase water use efficiency. However, accurate estimation of crop water use under screens is still a challenge. The most reliable method that directly measures evapotranspiration, the Eddy Covariance (EC), is both expensive and complex in data collection and processing. This renders it unfeasible for day to day use by farmers. A simpler alternative is the Surface Renewal (SR) technique which utilizes high frequency temperature readings of low-cost fine-wire thermocouples, to estimate the sensible heat flux. Assuming energy conservation and employing relatively cheap complementary measurements, the evapotranspiration can be estimated. The SR technique uses a structure function mathematical analysis that filters out noise and involves a time lag parameter to provide amplitude and time period of a ramp-like temperature signal. This behavior arises from the detachment of air parcels that have been heated or cooled near the surface and sequentially renewed by air parcels from above. While the SR technique is relatively simple to employ, it requires calibration against direct measurements. The aim of this research is to investigate the applicability of the SR technique in two different types of commonly used screenhouses in Israel. Two field campaigns were carried out: In the first campaign we studied a banana plantation grown in a shading screenhouse located in the coastal plain of northern Israel. The second campaign was located in the Jordan Valley region of eastern Israel, where a pepper plantation cultivated in an insect-proof screenhouse, with a much denser screen, was examined. In the two campaigns, SR sensible heat flux estimates were calibrated against simultaneous eddy covariance measurements. To optimize the SR operation, in each campaign fine-wire (50-76 μm) exposed T-type thermocouples were placed at

  14. Crop water-stress assessment using an airborne thermal scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, J. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Goettelman, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    An airborne thermal scanner was used to measure the temperature of a wheat crop canopy in Phoenix, Arizona. The results indicate that canopy temperatures acquired about an hour and a half past solar noon were well correlated with presunrise plant water tension, a parameter directly related to plant growth and development. Pseudo-colored thermal images reading directly in stress degree days, a unit indicative of crop irrigation needs and yield potential, were produced. The aircraft data showed significant within-field canopy temperature variability, indicating the superiority of the synoptic view provided by aircraft over localized ground measurements. The standard deviation between airborne and ground-acquired canopy temperatures was 2 C or less.

  15. Retrieving crop leaf area index by assimilation of MODIS data into a crop growth model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter in monitoring crop growth. One of the methods for retrieving LAI from remotely sensed observations is through inversion of canopy reflectance models. Many model inversion methods fail to account for variable LAI values at different crop growth stages. In this research, we use the crop growth model to describe the LAI changes with crop growth, and consider a priori LAI values at different crop growth stages as constraint information. The key approach of this research is to assimilate multiple canopy reflectance values observed at different growth stages and a priori LAI values into a coupled crop growth and radiative transfer model sequentially using a variational data assimilation algorithm. Adjoint method is used to minimize the cost function. Any other information source can be easily incorporated into the inversion cost function. The validation results show that the time series of MODIS canopy reflectance can greatly reduce the uncertainty of the inverted LAI values. Compared with MODIS LAI product at Changping and Shunyi Counties of Beijing, this method has significantly improved the estimated LAI temporal profile.

  16. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Emissions of Vegetation Canopies From High Resolution Field Reflectance Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, E. M.; Corp, L. A.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva

    2006-01-01

    A two-year experiment was performed on corn (Zea mays L.) crops under nitrogen (N) fertilization regimes to examine the use of hyperspectral canopy reflectance information for estimating chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) and vegetation production. Fluorescence of foliage in the laboratory has proven more rigorous than reflectance for correlation to plant physiology. Especially useful are emissions produced from two stable red and far-red chlorophyll ChlF peaks centered at 685V10 nm and 735V5 nm. Methods have been developed elsewhere to extract steady state solar induced fluorescence (SF) from apparent reflectance of vegetation canopies/landscapes using the Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD) principal. Our study utilized these methods in conjunction with field-acquired high spectral resolution canopy reflectance spectra obtained in 2004 and 2005 over corn crops, as part of an ongoing multi-year experiment at the USDA/Agriculture Research Service in Beltsville, MD. A spectroradiometer (ASD-FR Fieldspec Pro, Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc., Boulder, CO) was used to measure canopy radiances 1 m above plant canopies with a 22deg field of view and a 0deg nadir view zenith angle. Canopy and plant measurements were made at the R3 grain fill reproductive stage on 3-4 replicate N application plots provided seasonal inputs of 280, 140, 70, and 28 kg N/ha. Leaf level measurements were also made which included ChlF, photosynthesis, and leaf constituents (photosynthetic pigment, carbon (C), and N contents). Crop yields were determined at harvest. SIF intensities for ChlF were derived directly from canopy reflectance spectra in specific narrowband regions associated with atmospheric oxygen absorption features centered at 688 and 760 nm. The red/far-red S F ratio derived from these field reflectance spectra successfully discriminated foliar pigment levels (e.g., total chlorophyll, Chl) associated with N application rates in both corn crops. This canopy-level spectral ratio was also

  17. Avaliação de clones de banana Cavendish Evaluation of cavendish banana clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de Oliveira e Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Na bananeira ocorrem variações somaclonais em taxa muito superior ao que se observa na maioria das outras culturas, provavelmente em função da instabilidade mitótica. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar clones de bananeira Cavendish coletados em diferentes locais. Os clones Grande Naine (G.N. Taperão, G.N. Rossete, G.N. Williams, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074 e Nanicão (N. IAC Abóbora Verde, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 e N. SC-063 coletados em São Paulo, Santa Catarina e Bahia foram avaliados no Lote 54-P da Thelo Produção Agropecuária (Grupo Plena, no Projeto Jaíba, Etapa 1, no município de Matias Cardoso-MG. Avaliaram-se os caracteres altura da planta, circunferência do pseudocaule, número de folhas vivas no florescimento e na colheita, número de brotos, peso do cacho e das pencas, número de frutos e de pencas por cacho, comprimento e circunferência do fruto e número de dias do plantio ao florescimento e à colheita. Observou-se grande similaridade nas características dos clones. No entanto, os resultados obtidos permitem a recomendação dos clones N. IAC Abóbora Verde e G.N. Williams.Somaclonal variations occur in bananas at greater rates compared to other crops, probably due to mitotic instability. The objective of the present research was to evaluate Cavendish banana clones collected from different sites. The 'Grand Naine' clones (G.N. Taperão, G.N. Rossete, G.N. Williams, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074 and 'Nanicão' (N. IAC Abóbora Verde, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 and N. SC-063 collected from the states of São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Bahia, were evaluated at the Station 54-P of the Thelo Agricultural Production (Plena Group, in the Jaíba Project, Stage 1, in the city of Matias Cardoso-MG. The characteristics of the plant as height and pseudostem circumference, number of live leaves at flowering and harvesting, number of shoots, weight of bunch and hand, number of fruits and hands per bunch, fruit length and

  18. Reasoned opinion on the modification of MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries bananas, avocado, mango and papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, herewith referred as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer S.A.S-Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries and bananas and set import tolerances for papaya, avocado and mango. The Netherlands proposed to decrease the existing MRL for strawberries from 2 mg/kg to 0.02 mg/kg and to increase the MRL for banana from the limit of quantification 0.02* mg/kg to 0.3mg/kg. In order to accommodate the import of produce, the Netherlands proposed to set the MRL for papaya, mangos and avocados at 1.0 mg/kg. The Netherlands drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.3 mg/kg for the proposed use in banana and 1.5 mg/kg to accommodate the reported use in the USA on avocado, noting that the MRL in the country of origin is set at the level of 1 mg/kg. EFSA has some reservations regarding the proposal that the residue trial results for avocado might be extrapolated to propose MRLs on papaya and mango. The intended use on strawberries is not adequately supported by residue data. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of spirodiclofen on strawberry, banana, avocado, mango and papaya will not result in consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  19. Infrared thermometry of water-stressed crops - emerging methods and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared thermometry has shown potential to quantify water stress in crop canopy. This presentation will outline the limited irrigation experiments by the USDA-ARS in northern Colorado, which is used for a framework to evaluate canopy temperature. Recent methods have been introduced that may be accu...

  20. Análise de custo de produção e lucratividade de bananeira 'Nanicão Jangada' sob duas densidades de cultivo em Ilha Solteira-SP Analysis of production cost and profitbility of banana 'Nanicão Jangada' in two crop densities in Ilha Solteira/SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA DA COSTA ZONETTI

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Em fruticultura, existe hoje uma grande tendência de aumento da densidade de cultivo, procurando com isso uma maior produção por área. Pretendeu-se, neste trabalho, desenvolvido em Ilha Solteira-SP, estimar e analisar comparativamente o custo de produção e a lucratividade de bananeira-'Nanicão Jangada', sob duas densidades de cultivo: 1666 plantas (3,0mx2,0m e 2500 plantas (2,0mx2,0m. Para o cálculo do custo, utilizou-se a estrutura do custo total de produção (CTP. Considerando os dois ciclos produtivos do bananal, o espaçamento de plantio mais adensado (com maior número de plantas por área apresentou resultados econômicos mais satisfatórios que os obtidos para o cultivo menos adensado. A cultivar 'Nanicão Jangada' é uma alternativa de cultivo viável para a região de Ilha Solteira-SP.In fruit growing, there is a large tendency to increase the plant density, attempting to increase productivity per area. The objetive of this study, elaborated in Ilha Solteira-SP, was to value and to analyse comparatively the production cost and the profitbility of the banana type 'Nanicão Jangada' using two growing densities: 1666 plants (3.0mx2.0m and 2500 plants (2.0mx2.0m. For the cost calculation, the method of total producion cost (TPC was used. Taking into consideration the two productive cycles of the banana, the higher density (with the larger number of plants per area presented better economical results than obtained with lower density. The growing of the 'Nanicão Jangada' is a viable cultivation alternative for the region of Ilha Solteira-SP.

  1. Scaling up Semi-Arid Grassland Biochemical Content from the Leaf to the Canopy Level: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Mui

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing imagery is being used intensively to estimate the biochemical content of vegetation (e.g., chlorophyll, nitrogen, and lignin at the leaf level. As a result of our need for vegetation biochemical information and our increasing ability to obtain canopy spectral data, a few techniques have been explored to scale leaf-level biochemical content to the canopy level for forests and crops. However, due to the contribution of non-green materials (i.e., standing dead litter, rock, and bare soil from canopy spectra in semi-arid grasslands, it is difficult to obtain information about grassland biochemical content from remote sensing data at the canopy level. This paper summarizes available methods used to scale biochemical information from the leaf level to the canopy level and groups these methods into three categories: direct extrapolation, canopy-integrated approach, and inversion of physical models. As for semi-arid heterogeneous grasslands, we conclude that all methods are useful, but none are ideal. It is recommended that future research should explore a systematic upscaling framework which combines spatial pattern analysis, canopy-integrated approach, and modeling methods to retrieve vegetation biochemical content at the canopy level.

  2. Genome-wide Expression Analysis and Metabolite Profiling Elucidate Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Modulation under Abiotic Stresses in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Alok, Anshu; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Jagdeep; Asif, Mehar H.; Trivedi, Prabodh K.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid biosynthesis is largely regulated at the transcriptional level due to the modulated expression of genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants. Although accumulation of different flavonoids has been reported in banana, a staple fruit crop, no detailed information is available on regulation of the biosynthesis in this important plant. We carried out genome-wide analysis of banana (Musa acuminata, AAA genome) and identified 28 genes belonging to 9 gene families associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression analysis suggested spatial and temporal regulation of the identified genes in different tissues of banana. Analysis revealed enhanced expression of genes related to flavonol and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in peel and pulp at the early developmental stages of fruit. Genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly expressed during banana fruit ripening. In general, higher accumulation of metabolites was observed in the peel as compared to pulp tissue. A correlation between expression of genes and metabolite content was observed at the early stage of fruit development. Furthermore, this study also suggests regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, at transcriptional level, under light and dark exposures as well as methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment in banana. PMID:27539368

  3. Host-induced post-transcriptional hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes confers efficient resistance against Fusarium wilt in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is among the most destructive diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Because no credible control measures are available, development of resistant cultivars through genetic engineering is the only option. We investigated whether intron hairpin RNA (ihpRNA)-mediated expression of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted against vital fungal genes (velvet and Fusarium transcription factor 1) in transgenic banana could achieve effective resistance against Foc. Partial sequences of these two genes were assembled as ihpRNAs in suitable binary vectors (ihpRNA-VEL and ihpRNA-FTF1) and transformed into embryogenic cell suspensions of banana cv. Rasthali by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Eleven transformed lines derived from ihpRNA-VEL and twelve lines derived from ihpRNA-FTF1 were found to be free of external and internal symptoms of Foc after 6-week-long greenhouse bioassays. The five selected transgenic lines for each construct continued to resist Foc at 8 months postinoculation. Presence of specific siRNAs derived from the two ihpRNAs in transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Northern blotting and Illumina sequencing of small RNAs derived from the transgenic banana plants. The present study represents an important effort in proving that host-induced post-transcriptional ihpRNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes can confer efficient resistance against debilitating pathogens in crop plants.

  4. Genome-wide Expression Analysis and Metabolite Profiling Elucidate Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Modulation under Abiotic Stresses in Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Alok, Anshu; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Jagdeep; Asif, Mehar H; Trivedi, Prabodh K

    2016-08-19

    Flavonoid biosynthesis is largely regulated at the transcriptional level due to the modulated expression of genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants. Although accumulation of different flavonoids has been reported in banana, a staple fruit crop, no detailed information is available on regulation of the biosynthesis in this important plant. We carried out genome-wide analysis of banana (Musa acuminata, AAA genome) and identified 28 genes belonging to 9 gene families associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression analysis suggested spatial and temporal regulation of the identified genes in different tissues of banana. Analysis revealed enhanced expression of genes related to flavonol and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in peel and pulp at the early developmental stages of fruit. Genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly expressed during banana fruit ripening. In general, higher accumulation of metabolites was observed in the peel as compared to pulp tissue. A correlation between expression of genes and metabolite content was observed at the early stage of fruit development. Furthermore, this study also suggests regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, at transcriptional level, under light and dark exposures as well as methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment in banana.

  5. Pasta with unripe banana flour: physical, texture, and preference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Islas-Hernandez, José J; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Utrilla-Coello, Rubí G; Angulo, Ofelia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2009-08-01

    Banana is a starchy food that contains a high proportion of undigestible compounds such as resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Products with low glycemic response such as pasta are considered favorable to health. The objective of this study was to use unripe banana flour to make spaghetti with low-carbohydrates digestibility and evaluate its physical and texture characteristics, as well as consumer preference. Formulations with 100% durum wheat semolina (control) and formulations with 3 semolina: banana flour ratios (85: 15, 70: 30, and 55: 45) were prepared for spaghetti processing. The use of banana flour decreased the lightness and diameter of cooked spaghetti, and increased the water absorption of the product. Hardness and elasticity of spaghetti were not affected by banana flour, but adhesiveness and chewiness increased as the banana flour level in the blend rose. Spaghettis prepared in the laboratory (control and those with banana flour) did not show differences in preference by consumers. In general, the preference of spaghettis with different banana flour level was similar. The addition of a source of undigestible carbohydrates (banana flour) to spaghetti is possible without affecting the consumer preference.

  6. HERBASPIRILLUM-LIKE BACTERIA IN BANANA PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Olmar B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from banana plants were characterized by morphological and physiological aspects. Three different groups of these plant-bacteria could be established. Two of them showed similarity to species of the Herbaspirillum genus. The third one was different because used only a few carbon substrates and produced water diffusible compounds that fluoresced under UV light. All three bacterial groups were thin rods with mono or bipolar flagella, presented negative reaction in Gram stain, showed catalase activity, were able to reduce nitrate and grew better in semi-solid JNFb medium at 31ºC. The nitrogenase activity was detected in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium and expressed higher values when pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.0 (groups I and II and 6.0 to 6.5 (group III. The diazotrophs isolated from banana plants were distinct from species of Herbaspirillum previously identified in gramineous plants.

  7. A model-based comparison of organic matter dynamics between riparian-forested and open-canopy streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenroth Karolina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The food webs of forest streams are primarily based upon inputs of organic matter from adjacent terrestrial ecosystems. However, streams that run through open landscapes generally lack closed riparian canopies, and an increasing number of studies indicate that terrestrial organic matter may be an important resource in these systems as well. Combining key abiotically-controlled factors (stream discharge, water temperature, and litter input rate with relevant biotic processes (e.g. macroinvertebrate CPOM consumption, microbial processing, we constructed a model to predict and contrast organic matter dynamics (including temporal variation in CPOM standing crop, CPOM processing rate, FPOM production, and detritivore biomass in small riparian-forested and open-canopy streams. Our modeled results showed that the standing crop of CPOM was similar between riparian-forested and open-canopy streams, despite considerable differences in litter input rate. This unexpected result was partly due to linkages between CPOM supply and consumer abundance that produced higher detritivore biomass in the forest stream than the open-canopy stream. CPOM standing crop in the forest stream was mainly regulated by top-down consumer control, depressing it to a level similar to that of the open-canopy stream. In contrast, CPOM standing crop in the open-canopy stream was primarily controlled by physical factors (litter input rates and discharge, not consumption. This suggests that abiotic processes (e.g. discharge may play a greater role in limiting detrital resource availability and consumer biomass in open-canopy streams than in forest streams. These model results give insight on functional differences that exists among streams and they can be used to predict effects of anthropogenic influences such as forestry, agriculture, urbanization, and climate change on streams and how riparian management and conservation tools can be employed to mitigate undesirable effects.

  8. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.

  9. Canopy Dynamics in Nanoscale Ionic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Jespersen, Michael L.

    2010-07-27

    Nanoscale ionic materials (NIMS) are organic - inorganic hybrids in which a core nanostructure is functionalized with a covalently attached corona and an ionically tethered organic canopy. NIMS are engineered to be liquids under ambient conditions in the absence of solvent and are of interest for a variety of applications. We have used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and pulse-field gradient (PFG) diffusion experiments to measure the canopy dynamics of NIMS prepared from 18-nm silica cores modified by an alkylsilane monolayer possessing terminal sulfonic acid functionality, paired with an amine-terminated ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer canopy. Carbon NMR studies show that the block copolymer canopy is mobile both in the bulk and in the NIMS and that the fast (ns) dynamics are insensitive to the presence of the silica nanoparticles. Canopy diffusion in the NIMS is slowed relative to the neat canopy, but not to the degree predicted from the diffusion of hard-sphere particles. Canopy diffusion is not restricted to the surface of the nanoparticles and shows unexpected behavior upon addition of excess canopy. Taken together, these data indicate that the liquid-like behavior in NIMS is due to rapid exchange of the block copolymer canopy between the ionically modified nanoparticles. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Pesticide use in banana and plantain production and risk perception among local actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraza, Douglas, E-mail: dbarraza@una.ac.cr [Central American Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances, Universidad Nacional, Heredia (Costa Rica); Technology and Agrarian Development Group, Wageningen University (Netherlands); Jansen, Kees [Technology and Agrarian Development Group, Wageningen University (Netherlands); Wendel de Joode, Berna van; Wesseling, Catharina [Central American Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances, Universidad Nacional, Heredia (Costa Rica)

    2011-07-15

    The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to socio-economical and cultural conditions. Methods comprised eight focus groups with fathers and mothers separately, 27 semi-structured interviews to key actors, and field observations. As a whole, the indigenous plantain farmers and banana plantation workers had some general knowledge of pesticides concerning crop protection, but little on acute health effects, and hardly any on exposure routes and pathways, and chronic effects. People expressed vague ideas about pesticide risks. Inter-community differences were related to pesticide technologies used in banana and plantain production, employment status on a multinational plantation versus smallholder status, and gender. Compared to formalized practices on transnational company plantations, where workers reported to feel protected, pesticide handling by plantain smallholders was not perceived as hazardous and therefore no safety precautions were applied. Large-scale monoculture was perceived as one of the most important problems leading to pesticide risks in Talamanca on banana plantations, and also on neighboring small plantain farms extending into large areas. Plantain farmers have adopted use of highly toxic pesticides following banana production, but in conditions of extreme poverty. Aerial spraying in banana plantations was considered by most social actors a major determinant of exposure for the population living nearby these plantations, including vulnerable children. We observed violations of legally established aerial spraying distances. Economic considerations were most mentioned as the underlying reason for the pesticide use: economic needs to obtain the production quantity and quality, and pressure to use pesticides by

  11. Ecohydrological responses of dense canopies to environmental variability: 1. Interplay between vertical structure and photosynthetic pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D. T.; Kumar, P.; Long, S.; Bernacchi, C.; Liang, X.-Z.; Sivapalan, M.

    2010-12-01

    soil moisture stress on carbon uptake and energy flux partitioning at the canopy-scale and resolved through the canopy, providing insight into the roles of canopy structure and metabolic pathway on the response of each crop to moisture deficits. Model calculations indicate increases in water use efficiency (WUE) with increasing moisture stress, with average maize WUE increases of 45% at the highest levels of plant stress examined here, relative to 20% increases for soybean.

  12. Drying characteristics and quality of bananas under infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot air (HA) drying of banana has low drying efficiency and results in undesirable product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate the feasibility of infrared (IR) heating to improve banana drying rate, evaluate quality of the dried product, and establish models for predicting d...

  13. An empirical investigation of the demand for bananas in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.; Henningsen, A.

    2001-01-01

    We use econometric methods to investigate consumer demand for bananas and for other fruit in Germany. Monthly household survey data for the period 1986-1998 are analysed. Demand for bananas is significantly responsive to own price, suggesting that policy-induced price increases generate the usual de

  14. Determinants of Banana Productivity and Technical Efficiency in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Ruben, R.; Rufino, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    This research report highlights findings from a set of studies undertaken by applied economists on the impact of improved banana cultivars and recommended management practices in the East African highlands. A particular focus of the analysis is genetic transformation of the cooking banana. Genetic t

  15. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption stu

  16. Temperature effects on peel spotting in "Sucrier banana" fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakulnaleumsai, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Banana fruit of the cultivar `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) develops peel spotting at a relatively early stage of development (when the peel is about as slightly more yellow than green). Holding ripening bananas at 15 and 18 °C instead of room temperature (26¿27 °C) only temporarily reduced sp

  17. Effects of relative humidity on banana fruit drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saengpook, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial ripening of banana fruit occurs at high relative humidity (RH), which prevents browning of damaged skin areas. In experiments with ripening at high RH (94 ± 1%) the individual fruit (fingers) of `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) banana exhibited a high rate of drop. The falling off of

  18. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  19. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  20. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  1. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Phe

  2. A bi-directional gap model for simulating the directional thermal radiance of row crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Liangfu; (陈良富); LIU; Qinhuo; (柳钦火); FAN; Wenjie; (范闻捷); LI; Xiaowen; (李小文); XIAO; Qing; (肖青); YAN; Guangjian; (闫广建); TIAN; Guoliang; (田国良)

    2002-01-01

    Row crops are a kind of typical vegetation canopy between discrete canopy and continuous canopy. Kimes et al. studied the directional thermal radiation of row crops using the geometrical optical model, which simplified row structure as "box" and neglected the gap among foliage and did not consider the emissivity effects. In this work we take account of the gaps along illumination and viewing directions and propose a bi-direction gap model on the basis of the idea of gap probability of discrete vegetation canopy introduced by "Li-Strahler" and inter-correlation of continuous vegetation developed by Kuusk. It can be used to explain "hot spot" effects in thermal infrared region. The gap model has been validated by field experiment on winter wheat planted in shape of rows and results show that the gap model is better than Kimes' model in describing the directionality of thermal infrared emission for row crops.

  3. MICROPROPAGAÇÃO DE CLONES DE BANANA cv. TERRA EM BIORREATOR DE IMERSÃO TEMPORÁRIA MICROPROPAGATION OF BANANA TERRA USING TEMPORARY IMMERSION BIOREACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EURICO EDUARDO PINTO DE LEMOS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudas micropropagadas de banana têm sido ofertadas ao mercado com o intuito de suprir a demanda de uma fruticultura cada vez mais tecnificada. Os preços mais elevados deste tipo de muda têm sido um dos maiores entraves ao seu uso. Vários são os fatores que oneram o seu preço final: mão-de-obra especializada, necessidade de laboratórios bem equipados, estrutura de aclimatização apropriada, baixa taxa de multiplicação de algumas variedades, etc. O presente trabalho relata a micropropagação de bananeiras cv. Terra, utilizando biorreatores de imersão temporária, com o objetivo de aumentar a taxa de multiplicação e diminuir os custos de produção das mudas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o ciclo de imersão de 4 horas e a renovação do meio de cultura aos 30 dias foram essenciais para uma maior produção de biomassa e crescimento dos explantes. A composição do meio de cultura influenciou o desenvolvimento dos explantes de banana cultivados nos biorreatores. Explantes cultivados em meio MS + 3mg/L de BAP com renovação para MS básico, após 30 dias, apresentaram maior produção de biomassa e alta taxa de multiplicação. Comparando-se o biorreator de imersão temporária com o sistema tradicional em semi-sólido, observou-se que, no primeiro, as microplantas apresentaram maior comprimento, produção de biomassa de 2,86 vezes maior e 2,20 vezes mais brotos do que no sistema tradicional.Banana seedlings has been micropropagated and sold to the producers to supply a rather competitive fruit crop market. This high quality propagule has usually a higher price in the market than field propagated seedlings. Several factors contribute to its final costs: need of specialized labour, need of well equipped laboratory and acclimatization structure, low multiplication rate of some varieties etc. The work presented here reports the development of a new way to micropropagate banana var. Terra, a known slow seedling producing variety

  4. Nondestructive, stereological estimation of canopy surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Sciortino, Marco; Aaslyng, Jesper M.;

    2010-01-01

    We describe a stereological procedure to estimate the total leaf surface area of a plant canopy in vivo, and address the problem of how to predict the variance of the corresponding estimator. The procedure involves three nested systematic uniform random sampling stages: (i) selection of plants from...... is high. Using a grid intensity of 1.76 cm2/point we estimated plant and canopy surface areas with accuracies similar to or better than those obtained using image analysis and a commercial leaf area meter. For canopy surface areas of approximately 1 m2 (10 plants), the fractionator leaf approach...... a canopy using the smooth fractionator, (ii) sampling of leaves from the selected plants using the fractionator, and (iii) area estimation of the sampled leaves using point counting. We apply this procedure to estimate the total area of a chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium L.) canopy and evaluate both...

  5. Changes in leaf area, nitrogen content and canopy photosynthesis in soybean exposed to an ozone concentration gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Influences of ozone (O3) on light-saturated rates of photosynthesis in crop leaves have been well documented. To increase our understanding of O3 effects on individual- or stand level productivity, a mechanistic understanding of factors determining canopy photosynthesis is necessary. We used a canop...

  6. Growth of soybean at future tropospheric ozone concentrations decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacchi, Carl J; Leakey, Andrew D B; Kimball, Bruce A; Ort, Donald R

    2011-06-01

    Tropospheric ozone is increasing in many agricultural regions resulting in decreased stomatal conductance and overall biomass of sensitive crop species. These physiological effects of ozone forecast changes in evapotranspiration and thus in the terrestrial hydrological cycle, particularly in intercontinental interiors. Soybean plots were fumigated with ozone to achieve concentrations above ambient levels over five growing seasons in open-air field conditions. Mean season increases in ozone concentrations ([O₃]) varied between growing seasons from 22 to 37% above background concentrations. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of future [O₃] on crop ecosystem energy fluxes and water use. Elevated [O₃] caused decreases in canopy evapotranspiration resulting in decreased water use by as much as 15% in high ozone years and decreased soil water removal. In addition, ozone treatment resulted in increased sensible heat flux in all years indicative of day-time increase in canopy temperature of up to 0.7 °C.

  7. Lidar Altimeter Measurements of Canopy Structure: Methods and Validation for Closed Canopy, Broadleaf Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, D. J.; Lefsky, M. A.; Parker, G. G.; Blair, J. B.

    1999-01-01

    Lidar altimeter observations of vegetated landscapes provide a time-resolved measure of laser pulse backscatter energy from canopy surfaces and the underlying ground. Airborne lidar altimeter data was acquired using the Scanning Lidar Imager of Canopies by Echo Recovery (SLICER) for a successional sequence of four, closed-canopy, deciduous forest stands in eastern Maryland. The four stands were selected so as to include a range of canopy structures of importance to forest ecosystem function, including variation in the height and roughness of the outer-most canopy surface and the vertical organization of canopy stories and gaps. The character of the SLICER backscatter signal is described and a method is developed that accounts for occlusion of the laser energy by canopy surfaces, transforming the backscatter signal to a canopy height profile (CHP) that quantitatively represents the relative vertical distribution of canopy surface area. The transformation applies an increased weighting to the backscatter amplitude as a function of closure through the canopy and assumes a horizontally random distribution of the canopy components. SLICER CHPs, averaged over areas of overlap where lidar ground tracks intersect, are shown to be highly reproducible. CHP transects across the four stands reveal spatial variations in vegetation, at the scale of the individual 10 m diameter laser footprints, within and between stands. Averaged SLICER CHPs are compared to analogous height profile results derived from ground-based sightings to plant intercepts measured on plots within the four stands. Tbe plots were located on the segments of the lidar ground tracks from which averaged SLICER CHPs were derived, and the ground observations were acquired within two weeks of the SLICER data acquisition to minimize temporal change. The differences in canopy structure between the four stands is similarly described by the SLICER and ground-based CHP results, however a Chi-square test of similarity

  8. A low-cost microcontroller-based system to monitor crop temperature and water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prototype microcontroller-based system was developed to automate the measurement and recording of soil-moisture status and canopy-, air-, and soil-temperature levels in cropped fields. Measurements of these conditions within the cropping system are often used to assess plant stress, and can assis...

  9. Estimation of leaf area index in cereal crops using red-green images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Kristian; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Thomsen, Anton G;

    2009-01-01

    A new method for estimating the leaf area index (LAI) in cereal crops based on red-green images taken from above the crop canopy is introduced. The proposed method labels pixels into vegetation and soil classes using a combination of greenness and intensity derived from the red and green colour...

  10. Characterization of some physicist, mechanics and chemistries properties in the banana (Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Modesto Martínez Hernández

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work approaches the study of some physical-mechanical and chemical properties of the banana (Musa spp.. For its investigation, they took samples in the Municipal Company of Cultivos Varios, municipality Taguasco, provinces of Sancti-Spíritus. They were carried out rehearsals related to some physical, mechanical and chemical variables as: pH, oBrix, total regular acids, static coefficients of friction and mechanical impact damages deal with the established norms. The objective of the work it related to the evaluation of the physical – mechanical and chemical parameters of the banana (Musa spp. for a good postharvest manage. Inside the main obtained results they stand out: longitude half 20.85 cm; circumference 11.25 cm; the depth of the shell 0.25 cm; the depth of the pulp 2.85 cm. The total soluble solids (SST they oscillated between 13 and 16 oBrix; the total regular acidity oscillates between 0, 2 and 1, 6 meq/100 g malic acid. The pH oscillates between 4.42 and 5.27. The content of humidity of the pulp oscillates between 82 and 86 %; while in the shell this value oscillates between 14 and 18%. The impact rehearsals showed little resistance to impacts to the order of 105,94 (J, that which makes that the fruit is very susceptible to mechanical damages, together with their qualities of little shelf life (6 days postharvest. The results in the analyzed banana have been always using the first two hands of the cluster with a range from 1 to 9 days later in the crop of the fruits.

  11. Comparative evaluation of gastric secretory response to banana and porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadoo, R C; Khatri, H L; Singla, S

    1995-01-01

    Unripe Banana (Plantain) is used in South India as a bland diet for peptic ulcer patients. Flour made of plantain is quite often prescribed in dyspepsia in this part of the country. This has led to the belief that ripe banana may also be a bland fruit. However, it was observed by the Senior Author that ripe banana does produce symptoms of hyperacidity. Hence a study was undertaken to assess whether ripe banana is a bland food or not. A total of 115 patients entered the study. 89 individuals had no GIT symptoms, 15 patients had proved peptic ulcer while 11 patients had non-ulcer acid dyspepsia. The gastric residue was emptied by a nasogastric tube after a night fast. Patients were then given 80 gms. of banana or porridge on two different days. Then consecutive 15 minute samples of gastric juice were collected and submitted for estimation of acid output in mEq/l. It was observed that gastric acid values were higher following banana as compared to porridge and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was was thus concluded that ripe banana is not a bland food. It should not be recommended as a part of bland diet for patients of acid peptic disease.

  12. Identification of genes differentially expressed during ripening of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Trujillo, Sandra Mabel; Ramírez-López, Ana Cecilia; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel

    2007-08-01

    The banana (Musa acuminata, subgroup Cavendish 'Grand Nain') is a climacteric fruit of economic importance. A better understanding of the banana ripening process is needed to improve fruit quality and to extend shelf life. Eighty-four up-regulated unigenes were identified by differential screening of a banana fruit cDNA subtraction library at a late ripening stage. The ripening stages in this study were defined according to the peel color index (PCI). Unigene sequences were analyzed with different databases to assign a putative identification. The expression patterns of 36 transcripts confirmed as positive by differential screening were analyzed comparing the PCI 1, PCI 5 and PCI 7 ripening stages. Expression profiles were obtained for unigenes annotated as orcinol O-methyltransferase, putative alcohol dehydrogenase, ubiquitin-protein ligase, chorismate mutase and two unigenes with non-significant matches with any reported sequence. Similar expression profiles were observed in banana pulp and peel. Our results show differential expression of a group of genes involved in processes associated with fruit ripening, such as stress, detoxification, cytoskeleton and biosynthesis of volatile compounds. Some of the identified genes had not been characterized in banana fruit. Besides providing an overview of gene expression programs and metabolic pathways at late stages of banana fruit ripening, this study contributes to increasing the information available on banana fruit ESTs.

  13. Explosive Fracturing of an F-16 Canopy for Through-Canopy Crew Egress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Laurence J.

    2000-01-01

    Through-canopy crew egress, such as in the Harrier (AV-8B) aircraft, expands escape envelopes by reducing seat ejection delays in waiting for canopy jettison. Adverse aircraft attitude and reduced forward flight speed can further increase the times for canopy jettison. However, the advent of heavy, high-strength polycarbonate canopies for bird-strike resistance has not only increased jettison times, but has made seat penetration impossible. The goal of the effort described in this paper was to demonstrate a method of explosively fracturing the F-16 polycarbonate canopy to allow through-canopy crew ejection. The objectives of this effort were to: 1. Mount the explosive materials on the exterior of the canopy within the mold line, 2. Minimize visual obstructions, 3. Minimize internal debris on explosive activation, 4. Operate within less than 10 ms, 5. Maintain the shape of the canopy after functioning to prevent major pieces from entering the cockpit, and 6. Minimize the resistance of the canopy to seat penetration. All goals and objectives were met in a full-scale test demonstration. In addition to expanding crew escape envelopes, this canopy fracture approach offers the potential for reducing system complexity, weight and cost, while increasing overall reliability, compared to current canopy jettison approaches. To comply with International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and permit public disclosure, this document addresses only the principles of explosive fracturing of the F-16 canopy materials and the end result. ITAR regulations restrict information on improving the performance of weapon systems. Therefore, details on the explosive loads and final assembly of this canopy fracture approach, necessary to assure functional performance, are not included.

  14. Processing of Banana Flour Using a Local Banana as Raw Materials in Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvi Yani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to get the best local banana from several aspects (rendement total sugar content, organoleptic and nutritional value in the process into banana flour (BF. Research conducted in July-September 2010 and mature green bananas were collected from the farmer’s field of Pardasuka Village, Ketibung District, South Lampung Regency. Research conducted using randomized design with four banana types , a. Janten, b. Kepok Manado, c. Muli and d, Raja Nangka.. Analyses carried out on rendement, nutritional value, total sugar and whiteness. Organoleptic test was done for knowing customer preferences (color, flavor and texture by 20 panelists with score 1 to 7 (very not like s/d really like. Results showed that rendement of BF from Janten was the highest (range of recovery 35-36% followed by BF from Raja Nangka (20-21%, Kepok Manado (20% and Muli (16-17%. The highest total sugar was BF from Muli i.e .7.784% followed by Raja Nangka (4.985%, Kepok Manado (4.961% and Janten (3.732%, whereas whiteness ranges from 42.85 to 61, 55% with the highest levels of whiteness of BF from Kepok Manado (61.55%, followed Janten (54%, Raja Nangka (43.25% and the lowest of Muli (42.85%. The BF contained protein (from 2.545 to 3.407%, fat (from 0.433 to 0.583%, carbohydrate (from 83.400 to 88.005%, ash (from 2.053 to 3.031%, crude fiber (from 0.524 to 1.897 and moisture content (from 5.586 to 6.603%. The BF from Raja Nangka showed good characters (color = 5.92, (texture = 5.69, and (flavor = 5.31 and panelist acceptance. Based on consideration of several aspects such as rendement, total sugar, consumer preferences, availability of raw materials and business analyses, the best bananas to be processed into flour in Lampung was the Raja Nangka banana and be able to increase the added value of > 15% with B/C ratio of 1.32 and competent to be developed.

  15. From crossbreeding to biotechnology-facilitated improvement of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rodomiro; Swennen, Rony

    2014-01-01

    The annual harvest of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) is approximately 145 million tons worldwide. About 85% of this global production comes from small plots and kitchen or backyard gardens from the developing world, and only 15% goes to the export trade. Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana are the ancestors of several hundreds of parthenocarpic Musa diploid and polyploid cultivars, which show multiple origins through inter- and intra-specific hybridizations from these two wild diploid species. Generating hybrids combining host plant resistance to pathogens and pests, short growth cycles and height, high fruit yield, parthenocarpy, and desired quality from the cultivars remains a challenge for Musa crossbreeding, which started about one century ago in Trinidad. The success of Musa crossbreeding depends on the production of true hybrid seeds in a crop known for its high levels of female sterility, particularly among polyploid cultivars. All banana export cultivars grown today are, however, selections from somatic mutants of the group Cavendish and have a very narrow genetic base, while smallholders in sub-Saharan Africa, tropical Asia and Latin America use some bred-hybrids (mostly cooking types). Musa improvement goals need to shift to address emerging threats because of the changing climate. Innovative cell and molecular biology tools have the potential to enhance the pace and efficiency of genetic improvement in Musa. Micro-propagation has been successful for high throughput of clean planting materials while in vitro seed germination assists in obtaining seedlings after inter-specific and across ploidy hybridization. Flow cytometry protocols are used for checking ploidy among genebank accessions and breeding materials. DNA markers, the genetic maps based on them, and the recent sequencing of the banana genome offer means for gaining more insights in the genetics of the crops and to identifying genes that could lead to accelerating Musa betterment. Likewise, DNA

  16. Translating the “Banana Genome” to Delineate Stress Resistance, Dwarfing, Parthenocarpy and Mechanisms of Fruit Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Prasanta K.; Rai, Rhitu

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit “Banana” remained untouched by the green revolution and, as of today, researchers face intrinsic impediments for its varietal improvement. Recently, this wonder crop entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution) genotype of Musa acuminata. Its complex genome decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit. Historically, banana has faced the wrath of pandemic bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and multitude of abiotic stresses that has ruined the livelihood of small/marginal farmers’ and destroyed commercial plantations. Decoding structural genome of this climacteric fruit has given impetus to a deeper understanding of the repertoire of genes involved in disease resistance, understanding the mechanism of dwarfing to develop an ideal plant type, unraveling the process of parthenocarpy, and fruit ripening for better fruit quality. Further, injunction of comparative genomics will usher in integration of information from its decoded genome and other monocots into field applications in banana related but not limited to yield enhancement, food security, livelihood assurance, and energy sustainability. In this mini review, we discuss pre- and post-genomic discoveries and highlight accomplishments in structural genomics, genetic engineering and forward genetic accomplishments with an aim to target genes and transcription factors for translational research in banana. PMID:27833619

  17. 香蕉根颈象甲研究进展%Advance in Banana Weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus(Germar)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱海燕; 刘奎; 谢艺贤; 张欣

    2011-01-01

    香蕉根颈象甲是危害香蕉的重要害虫,在部分地区的留芽蕉园内发生较为严重.本文对国内外香蕉根颈象甲的生物学特性、香蕉根颈象甲的农业防治、化学防治、信息化合物防治及生物防治方面的研究进行了综述,并对其前景进行讨论,旨在为国内开展香蕉根颈象甲的研究和在生产中的防治提供参考.%The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar), is regarded as an important insect pest of banana and plantain, and in some ratoon crops it's damage is more serious. The research achievements about biological characteristics, integrated management which included cultural control, chemical control, infochemicals control and biological control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar)were summarized, and the future research work was also discussed. The aim was to offer reference for the national research and the integrated management about the banana weevil.

  18. Soil properties in forest gaps and under canopy in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests in Changbai Mountainous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chunyu; ZHAO Xiuhai

    2007-01-01

    The species composition and diversities,and soil properties under canopy gaps in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests were studied in the Changbai Mountains.The results indicated that the species composition and diversifies in gap were different from those under canopy.The Shannon-Wiener index,evenness index,and abundance index in gap were higher than those under canopy in the seedling layer,while the community dominance in the seedling layer increased in closed canopy.The physicochemical properties of soil changed with the change of space and resource availability in gaps.The thickness,standing crop,and water holding capacity of the litter layer under canopy were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those in gap.The content of total nitrogen and total potassium of litter in gap were 10.47% and 20.73% higher than those under canopy,however,the content of total phosphorus and organic carbon under canopy were 15.23% and 12.66% more than those under canopy.The water content of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm of soil layer in gap were 17.65% and 16.17% more than those under canopy.The soil buck density of 0-10 cm were slightly higher under canopy than that in gaps,but there was no significant difference in the soil buck density of the 10-20 cm soil layer.The soil pH values were 5.80 and 5.85 in gap and under canopy,respectively,and were not significantly different.The content of soil organic matter,total nitrogen,and total potassium in gap were 12.85%,7.67%,and 2.38% higher than those under canopy.The content of NH4+-N,available phosphorus,available potassium,and total phosphorus in soil under canopy were 13.33%,20.04%,16.52%,and 4.30% higher than those in gap.

  19. Stomatal density and responsiveness of banana fruit stomates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B E; Brun, W A

    1966-01-01

    Determination of stomatal densities of the banana peel (Musa acuminata L. var Hort. Valery) by microscopic observations showed 30 times fewer stomates on fruit epidermis than found on the banana leaf. Observations also showed that peel stomates were not laid down in a linear pattern as on the leaf.It was demonstrated that stomatal responses occurred in banana fruit. Specific conditions of high humidity and light were necessary for stomatal opening: low humidity and darkness were necessary for closure. Responsiveness of the stomates continued for a considerable length of time after the fruit had been severed from the host.

  20. Guidelines for irrigation scheduling of banana crop in São Francisco Valley, Brazil. I - Root distribution and activity Orientações para o manejo da irrigação da bananeira no Vale do São Francisco. I - Distribuição e atividade radicular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Bassoi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish guidelines for irrigation water management of banana cv. Pacovan (AAB group, Prata sub-group in Petrolina County, northeastern Brazil, the root distribution and activity were measured on an irrigated plantation, in a medium texture soil, with plants spaced in a 3 x 3 m grid. Root distribution was evaluated by the soil profile method aided by digital image analysis, while root activity was indirectly determined by the changing of soil water content and by the direction of soil water flux. Data were collected since planting in January 1999 to the 3rd harvest in September 2001. Effective rooting depth increased from 0.4 m at 91 days after planting (dap, to 0.6 m at 370, 510, and 903 dap, while water absorption by roots was predominantly in the top 0,6 m.Em Petrolina - PE, a distribuição e a atividade radicular da bananeira cv. Pacovan (grupo AAB, subgrupo Prata foram obtidas em uma área irrigada, com solo de textura média e com plantas espaçadas em 3 x 3 m. A distribuição radicular foi avaliada pelo método do perfil auxiliado pela análise de imagens digitais, enquanto a atividade radicular foi indiretamente estimada pela variação da umidade do solo e pela direção do fluxo de água no solo. O período de observação compreendeu desde o plantio, em janeiro de 1999, até a terceira colheita, em setembro de 2001. A profundidade efetiva das raízes foi de 0,4 m até os 91 dias após o plantio (dap, aumentando para 0,6 m aos 370; 510 e 903 dap. A absorção de água ocorreu predominantemente na camada superficial de 0,6 m.

  1. Armazenamento refrigerado de banana 'Prata Anã' proveniente de cachos com 16, 18 e 20 semanas Refrigerated storage of 'Prata Anã' banana originating from 16, 18 e 20 week-old bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramilo Nogueira Martins

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de verificar a influência da temperatura de refrigeração e idade do cacho sobre a conservação e qualidade pós-colheita da banana 'Prata Anã', produzida no Norte de Minas Gerais, visando a exportação. Utilizaram-se frutos de bananeira 'Prata Anã' provenientes do município de Nova Porteirinha, MG. A colheita foi realizada na 16ª, 18ª e 20ª semanas após a emissão floral. Dos cachos colhidos, utilizou-se às segundas pencas, separadas em buquês com 5 frutos, lavados e pesados (18 kg. Em seguida, os frutos foram revestidos com embalagens de polietileno de baixa densidade, com 50m de espessura, sob vácuo parcial, acondicionados em caixas de papelão e distribuídos em paletes. Depois de embalados e paletizados, os frutos foram transportados para a EPAMIG/CTNM, onde foram armazenados em câmaras de refrigeração (10 e 12ºC e umidade relativa de 95%, por um período de 35 dias, sendo analisados antes e após a refrigeração. O armazenamento de bananas 'Prata Anã', provenientes de cachos com 16, 18 e 20 semanas, por 35 dias a temperaturas de 10 e 12ºC, não promoveu "chilling" nos frutos. A temperatura de 10ºC foi mais eficaz em prevenir a evolução da coloração da casca de bananas provenientes de cachos com 18 semanas, que à temperatura de 12ºC, enquanto as temperaturas de 10 e 12ºC foram igualmente eficientes na contenção da mudança de cor de bananas provenientes de cachos com 16 semanas. Frutos provenientes de cachos com 20 semanas amadureceram desuniformemente, ao longo do armazenamento refrigerado.This work had, as objective, to verify the influence of refrigeration temperature and bunch age on the conservation and post-harvest quality of the 'Prata Anã' banana produced in the North of Minas Gerais, looking towards exportation. 'Prata Anã' banana tree fruits were used originating from the municipal district of Nova Porteirinha, MG. The crop was harvested in the 16th, 18th

  2. [Study on spectral reflectance characteristics of hemp canopies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Chen; Jia, Kun; Wu, Bing-Fang; Li, Qiang-Zi

    2010-12-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a special economic crop and widely used in many field. It is significative for the government to master the information about planting acreage and spatial distribution of hemp for hemp industrial policy decision in China. Remote sensing offers a potential way of monitoring large area for the cultivation of hemp. However, very little study on the spectral properties of hemp is available in the scientific literature. In the present study, the spectral reflectance characteristics of hemp canopy were systematically analyzed based on the spectral data acquired with ASD FieldSpec portable spectrometer. The wavebands and its spectral resolution for discriminating hemp from other plants were identified using difference analysis. The major differences in canopy reflectance of hemp and other plants were observed near 530, 552, 734, 992, 1 213, 1 580 and 2 199 nm, and the maximal difference is near 734 nm. The spectral resolution should be 30 nm or less in visible and near infrared regions, and 50 nm or less in middle infrared regions.

  3. 香蕉抗寒相关功能基因研究进展%Research Progress on Banana Functional Genes Involved in Cold Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫亮; 李茂富; 贺军虎; 赵小青; 冯顺; 周海兰; 李绍鹏

    2015-01-01

    As one of the three largest fruit producer, banana is also the fourth food crops in the world. Low temperature was one of the important factors affecting the banana production in China. In particular, the cold snap in winter and spring hit the banana production area throughout the year except Hainan and the southwest of Guangdong regions. In recent years, with the development of cold-resistant genetic engineering, the research on molecular level of cold resistance of banana has achieved great progress. This article started with the cold-resist functional genes of banana and summed up domestic and foreign researches about the related functional genes of cold-resist banana (such as: the cold stress-related protein gene, membrane lipid associated protein, antioxidant enzyme gene) and also put forward a prospect, which aims to provide some ideas to the excavation of banana cold-resistant main-effect gene resources and breeding of banana anti-cold variety.%香蕉是世界上产量最大的三大水果之一,也是世界上第四大粮食作物。低温是影响中国香蕉生产的重要因素之一,尤其是除海南和广东西南等地区外的香蕉产区常年遭遇冬春寒流侵袭。近年来随着抗寒基因工程的发展,有关香蕉抗寒性的分子水平研究得到了较大进展。本文从香蕉抗寒相关的功能基因入手,归纳了近几年国内外关于香蕉的抗寒相关功能基因(冷胁迫相关蛋白基因,膜脂相关蛋白基因,抗氧化酶基因等)研究并提出了展望,旨在为香蕉抗寒主效基因资源的发掘及香蕉抗寒品种的选育提供思路。

  4. Differential attraction of drosophilids to banana baits inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum within a Neotropical forest remnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R.D. Batista

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Yeasts are a necessary requisite in the diet of most Drosophila species that, in turn, may vector their dispersal in natural environments. Differential attractiveness experiments and the isolation of yeasts consumed by Drosophila may be informative for characterizing this association. Hanseniaspora uvarum is among the most common yeast species isolated from Drosophila crops, with high attractiveness to drosophilids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used to collect flies, and it allows broad sampling of almost all local Drosophila species. Pronounced differences in the field concerning Drosophila attractivity to baits seeded with these yeast species have been previously reported. However, few explicit generalizations have been set. Since late fifties, no field experiments of Drosophila attractivity were carried out in the Neotropical region, which is facing shifts in abiotic and biotic factors. Our objective is to characterize preference behavior that mediates the interaction in the wild among Neotropical Drosophila species and yeasts associated with them. We want to set a broad generalization about drosophilids attracted to these yeasts. Here we present the results of a differential attractiveness experiment we carried out in a natural Atlantic Rainforest fragment to assess the preferences of Drosophila species groups to baits inoculated with H. uvarum and S. cerevisiae. Methods Both yeast species were cultured in GYMP broth and separately poured in autoclaved mashed banana that was left fermenting. In the field, we collected drosophilids over five arrays of three different baits: non-inoculated autoclaved banana and banana inoculated with each yeast. In the laboratory the drosophilids were sorted to five sets according to their external morphology and/or genitalia: tripunctata; guarani; willistoni; exotic; and the remaining flies pooled in others. Results and Conclusions Uninoculated banana baits attracted virtually no flies

  5. 生物有机肥对连作香蕉根际土壤可培养细菌区系的影响%Effects of bio-organic fertilizer on the community structure of culturable bacteria in the rhizosphere soil of a continuous-cropping banana filed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付琳; 阮云泽; 沈宗专; 李荣; 杨兴明; 沈其荣

    2012-01-01

    采用可培养平板计数方法和PCR-DGGE技术,以施用生物有机肥(BIO)健康(BIOH)、发病(BIOW)和未施用BIO健康(CKH)、发病(CKW)4个处理的根际土壤为供试样品,研究可培养芽孢杆菌、假单胞菌、自生固氮菌、氨化细菌、亚硝化细菌、反硝化细菌的数量变化,以及可培养细菌的EP指数差异和细菌的群落结构变化.结果表明:施用BIO能显著增加健康植株根际土壤中芽孢杆菌、假单胞菌、自生固氮菌、氨化细菌、亚硝化细菌的数量,并减少根际土壤中的反硝化细菌数量(P<0.05);不同根际土壤样品的快速生长细菌和慢速生长细菌在群体中所占比例有明显差异,快速生长细菌分别占群体总数的40.9%(BLOW)、50.7% (CKW)、20.6% (BIOH)和22.1% (CKH),其中BIOH处理不同生长速率细菌分布最均匀,EP指数值最高,为0.794;DGGE条带回收测序结果表明,BIOH处理中多样性较高,其优势菌群为厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)和变形菌门(Proteobacteria),而CKW处理中的优势菌群大部分都属于拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes).结论:健康根际土壤的可培养细菌区系显著不同于发病根际土壤,通过外源有益生物与有机载体同时导入土壤,有可能达到调控植物根际土壤微生物区系的目的.%In this study,cultural dependent plate-counting and PCR-DGGE methods were used to investigate the bacterial community structure influenced by bio-organic fertilizer (BIO). Four rhizosphere soil samples collected from healthy (BIOH) , diseased (BLOW) banana plants with BIO application and healthy(CKH) ,diseased(CKW)banana plants without BIO application,respectively,were used in this study. The numbers of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, diazotroph, ammonibacteria, Nitrosomonas, and denitrifying bacteria in these samples were detected, and EP index and community structure of viable bacteria were also analyzed. The results showed that the numbers of Bacillus

  6. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta De Bei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI and plant area index (PAI are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI, canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants.

  7. Fungal and Oomycete Diseases of Tropical Tree Fruit Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, André; Guest, David I

    2016-08-04

    The tropics produce a range of fruit from tree crops that cannot be grown in colder climates. Bananas, mangos, several nuts, spices, coffee, and cacao are widely traded and much sought after around the world. However, the sustainable production of these tropical tree fruit crops faces significant challenges. Among these, losses due to pests and diseases play a large part in reducing yields, quality, and profitability. Using bananas and cacao as key examples, we outline some of the reasons fungal and oomycete diseases cause such significant losses to tropical tree crops. Cultivation of monocultures derived from limited genetic diversity, environmental conditions conducive for disease development, high levels of disease incidence and severity, a lack of disease resistance in planting materials, shortages of labor, and inadequate infrastructure and investment pose significant challenges, especially for smallholder producers. The expansion of travel and trade has given rise to emerging infectious plant diseases that add further insecurity and pressure. We conclude that holistic actions are needed on multiple fronts to address the growing problem of disease in tropical fruit tree crops.

  8. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Canopy Fuel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE canopy fuel data describe the composition and characteristics of wildland surface fuel and can be implemented within models to predict wildland fire...

  9. Bone Canopies in Pediatric Renal Osteodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Renata C; Levin Andersen, Thomas; Friedman, Peter A;

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is characterized by changes in bone turnover, mineralization, and volume that are brought about by alterations in bone resorption and formation. The resorptive and formative surfaces on the cancellous bone are separated from the marrow cavity by canopies...... and their association with biochemical and bone histomorphometric parameters in 106 pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients (stage 2-5) across the spectrum of ROD. Canopies in CKD patients often appeared as thickened multilayered canopies, similar to previous reports in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism....... This finding contrasts with the thin appearance reported in healthy individuals with normal kidney function. Furthermore, canopies in pediatric CKD patients showed immunoreactivity to the PTH receptor (PTHR1) as well as to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). The number of surfaces...

  10. Banana Wars and the Multiplicity of Conflicts in Commodity Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Jansen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available – In the Shadows of State and Capital: The United Fruit Company, Popular Struggle, and Agrarian Restructuring in Ecuador, 1900-1995, by S. Striffler. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2002. – Banana Wars: Power, Production, and History in the Americas, edited by S. Striffler and M. Moberg. Durham: Duke U.P., 2003. – Banana Wars: The Anatomy of a Trade Dispute, edited by T.E. Josling and T.G. Taylor. Oxon: CABI Publishing, 2003. – Smart Alliance: How a Global Corporation and Environmental Activists Transformed a Tarnished Brand, by J.G. Taylor and P.J. Scharlin. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004. – Banana Wars: The Price of Free Trade: A Caribbean Perspective, by G. Myers. London: Zed, 2004. – The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898-1934, by L.D. Langley. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources Inc. Revised 2002, first published in 1983.

  11. Banana orbits in elliptic tokamaks with hole currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Puerta, J.

    2015-03-01

    Ware Pinch is a consequence of breaking of up-down symmetry due to the inductive electric field. This symmetry breaking happens, though up-down symmetry for magnetic surface is assumed. In previous work Ware Pinch and banana orbits were studied for tokamak magnetic surface with ellipticity and triangularity, but up-down symmetry. Hole currents appear in large tokamaks and their influence in Ware Pinch and banana orbits are now considered here for tokamaks magnetic surfaces with ellipticity and triangularity.

  12. Kalanchoe crop development under different levels of irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Cibele Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite its importance in the floriculture sector, irrigation management of kalanchoe is characterized by empiricism, being necessary further studies on the use of water by this crop. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze the several effects of irrigation levels on the growth of kalanchoe crop conducted in greenhouse in the municipality of Alegrete, state of Rio Grande do Sul. The experiment was conducted in a 7 x 15 m protected environment. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments (irrigation levels corresponding to 40, 60, 80 and 100% of the pot water retention capacity - PC and four repetitions, totaling sixteen plots. The crop cycle was 224 days after transplanting and the applied average depths were: 451.82; 367.38; 282.94; 198.51 mm for treatments: 100; 80; 60 and 40% of PC, respectively. Canopy area and number of leaves per plant were evaluated over the crop cycle. In the end of the cycle, the canopy diameter, number of inflorescences per plant and the number of flowers per plant were evaluated. No significant differences were found only to the canopy area, by the F test. Irrigation water depths between 40 and 70% of the pot capacity were more appropriate for the crop growth in the study region. The cultivar presented the best development at irrigation levels below the maximum vessel water retention capacity, that is, it is resistant to drought.

  13. ESTABLISHING CROP PRODUCTIVITY USING RADARSAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. McNairn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity is influenced by a number of management and environmental conditions, and variations in crop growth can occur in-season due to, for example, unfavourable meteorological conditions. Consequently information on crop growth must be temporally frequent in order to adequately characterize crop productivity. Leaf Area Index (LAI is a key indicator of crop productivity and a number of methods have been developed to derive LAI from optical satellite data. Integration of LAI estimates from synthetic aperture radar (SAR sensors would assist in efforts to monitor crop production through the growing season, particularly during periods of persistent cloud cover. Consequently, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada has assessed the capability of RADARSAT-2 data to estimate LAI. The results of a sensitivity analysis revealed that several SAR polarimetric variables were strongly correlated with LAI derived from optical sensors for small grain crops. As the growing season progressed, contributions from volume scattering from the crop canopies increased. This led to the sensitivity of the intensity of linear cross-polarization backscatter, entropy and the Freeman-Durden volume scattering component, to LAI. For wheat and oats, correlations above 0.8 were reported. Following this sensitivity analysis, the Water Cloud Model (WCM was parameterized using LAI, soil moisture and SAR data. A look up table inversion approach to estimate LAI from SAR parameters, using the WCM, was subsequently developed. This inversion approach can be used to derive LAI from sensors like RADARSAT-2 to support the monitoring of crop condition throughout the cropping season.

  14. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  15. Effect of cooking on banana and plantain texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, B; Moore, K G; Orchard, J

    2000-09-01

    The effect of temperature and duration of cooking on plantain and banana fruit texture and cytpoplasmic and cell wall components was investigated. The firmness of both banana and plantain pulp tissues decreased rapidly during the first 10 min of cooking in water above 70 degrees C, although plantain was much firmer than banana. Cooking resulted in pectin solubilzation and middle lamella dissolution leading to cell wall separation (as observed by SEM). Dessert banana showed more advanced and extensive breakdown than plantain. Although dessert banana had a higher total pectin content than plantain, the former had smaller-sized carboxyethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) soluble pectic polymers which are associated with plant tissues that have a propensity to soften. Plantain had higher levels of starch and amylose than banana but this was associated with a firmer fruit texture rather than a softening due to cell swelling during starch gelatinization. Different cooking treatments showed that cooking in 0.5% of CaCl(2) solution and temperatures below 70 degrees C had significant effects on maintenance of pulp firmness.

  16. Protocol for simultaneous isolation of three important banana allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Jasna; Mrkic, Ivan; Grozdanovic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Petersen, Arnd; Jappe, Uta; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2014-07-01

    Banana fruit (Musa acuminata) has become an important food allergen source in recent years. So far, 5 IgE reactive banana proteins have been identified, and the major allergens are: Mus a 2 (a class I chitinase, 31kDa), Mus a 4 (thaumatin-like protein, 21kDa), and Mus a 5 (β-1,3-glucanase, 33kDa). Due to variations in allergen expression levels, diagnostic reagents for food allergy can be improved by using individual allergen components instead of banana allergen extracts. The purpose of this study was to optimize the purification protocol of the three major allergens present in banana fruit: Mus a 2, Mus a 4 and Mus a 5. By employing a three-step purification protocol (a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography) three important banana allergens were obtained in sufficient yield and high purity. Characterization of the purified proteins was performed by both biochemical (2-D PAGE, mass fingerprint and N-terminal sequencing) and immunochemical (immunoblot) methods. IgE reactivity to the purified allergens was tested by employing sera of five allergic patients. The purified allergens displayed higher sensitivity in IgE detection than the routinely used extracts. The three purified allergens are good candidates for reagents in component-based diagnosis of banana allergy.

  17. Severity of banana leaf spot in an intercropping system in two cycles of banana Prata Anã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prata Anã is the most planted banana cultivar in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is however susceptible toseveral pathogens. This study was carried out to evaluate the disease severity of banana leaf spot in the Prata Anã cv. in thefirst and second cycle under six different planting systems. The randomized block experimental design was used with sixtreatments and four replications. In an evaluation of the severity of banana leaf spot, no disease symptoms were found onThap Maeo and Caipira. The evolution curve of the disease indicated seasonal effects in the first and second cycles. Theseverity of banana leaf spot was highest soon after the regional rainy period from November to March. A comparison of themeans of the evaluations indicated a reduction in disease severity from the first to the second cycle.

  18. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  19. Viability of pollen grains of tetraploid banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Obtaining banana tetraploid cultivars from triploid strains results in total or partial reestablishment of fertility, allowing the occurrence of some fruits with seeds, a feature that is undesirable from a marketing perspective. The objective of this study was to assess the viability of pollen of 12 banana tetraploid hybrids (AAAB by means of in vitro germination and two histochemical tests (acetocarmine and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The pollen tube growth was evaluated by germinating grains in three culture media — M1: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.02% Mg(SO4∙7H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 15% sucrose; M2: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 10% sucrose; and M3: 0.015% H3BO3, 0.045% Ca3(PO42 and 25% sucrose. The acetocarmine staining indicated high viability (above 80%, except for the genotypes YB42-17 and Caprichosa, which were 76 and 70%, respectively. However, the in vitro germination rate was lower than 50% for all the genotypes, except for the hybrids YB42-17 (M1 and YB42-47 (M1. The medium M1 provided the greatest germination percentage and pollen tube growth. Among the genotypes assessed, YB42-47 presented the highest germination rate (61.5% and tube length (5.0 mm. On the other hand, the Vitória cultivar had the lowest germination percentage (8.2% in medium M1. Studies of meiosis can shed more light on the differences observed in the evaluated tetraploids, since meiotic irregularities can affect pollen viability.

  20. Dynamics of vertical leaf nitrogen distribution in a vegetative wheat canopy Impact on canopy photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreccer, M.F.; Oijen, van M.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Pot, C.S.; Rabbinge, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of vertical canopy gradients of leaf N has been regarded as an adaptation to the light gradient that helps to maximize canopy photosynthesis. In this study we report the dynamics of vertical leaf N distribution during vegetative growth of wheat in response to changes in N availabilit

  1. Remote sensing of sagebrush canopy nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jessica J.; Glenn, Nancy F.; Sankey, Temuulen T.; Derryberry, DeWayne R.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a combination of techniques suitable for remotely sensing foliar Nitrogen (N) in semiarid shrublands – a capability that would significantly improve our limited understanding of vegetation functionality in dryland ecosystems. The ability to estimate foliar N distributions across arid and semi-arid environments could help answer process-driven questions related to topics such as controls on canopy photosynthesis, the influence of N on carbon cycling behavior, nutrient pulse dynamics, and post-fire recovery. Our study determined that further exploration into estimating sagebrush canopy N concentrations from an airborne platform is warranted, despite remote sensing challenges inherent to open canopy systems. Hyperspectral data transformed using standard derivative analysis were capable of quantifying sagebrush canopy N concentrations using partial least squares (PLS) regression with an R2 value of 0.72 and an R2 predicted value of 0.42 (n = 35). Subsetting the dataset to minimize the influence of bare ground (n = 19) increased R2 to 0.95 (R2 predicted = 0.56). Ground-based estimates of canopy N using leaf mass per unit area measurements (LMA) yielded consistently better model fits than ground-based estimates of canopy N using cover and height measurements. The LMA approach is likely a method that could be extended to other semiarid shrublands. Overall, the results of this study are encouraging for future landscape scale N estimates and represent an important step in addressing the confounding influence of bare ground, which we found to be a major influence on predictions of sagebrush canopy N from an airborne platform.

  2. Modelling Canopy Flows over Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Eleanor R.; Ross, Andrew N.; Gardiner, Barry A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies of flow over forested hills have been motivated by a number of important applications including understanding CO_2 and other gaseous fluxes over forests in complex terrain, predicting wind damage to trees, and modelling wind energy potential at forested sites. Current modelling studies have focussed almost exclusively on highly idealized, and usually fully forested, hills. Here, we present model results for a site on the Isle of Arran, Scotland with complex terrain and heterogeneous forest canopy. The model uses an explicit representation of the canopy and a 1.5-order turbulence closure for flow within and above the canopy. The validity of the closure scheme is assessed using turbulence data from a field experiment before comparing predictions of the full model with field observations. For near-neutral stability, the results compare well with the observations, showing that such a relatively simple canopy model can accurately reproduce the flow patterns observed over complex terrain and realistic, variable forest cover, while at the same time remaining computationally feasible for real case studies. The model allows closer examination of the flow separation observed over complex forested terrain. Comparisons with model simulations using a roughness length parametrization show significant differences, particularly with respect to flow separation, highlighting the need to explicitly model the forest canopy if detailed predictions of near-surface flow around forests are required.

  3. Modelling Canopy Flows over Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Eleanor R.; Ross, Andrew N.; Gardiner, Barry A.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies of flow over forested hills have been motivated by a number of important applications including understanding CO_2 and other gaseous fluxes over forests in complex terrain, predicting wind damage to trees, and modelling wind energy potential at forested sites. Current modelling studies have focussed almost exclusively on highly idealized, and usually fully forested, hills. Here, we present model results for a site on the Isle of Arran, Scotland with complex terrain and heterogeneous forest canopy. The model uses an explicit representation of the canopy and a 1.5-order turbulence closure for flow within and above the canopy. The validity of the closure scheme is assessed using turbulence data from a field experiment before comparing predictions of the full model with field observations. For near-neutral stability, the results compare well with the observations, showing that such a relatively simple canopy model can accurately reproduce the flow patterns observed over complex terrain and realistic, variable forest cover, while at the same time remaining computationally feasible for real case studies. The model allows closer examination of the flow separation observed over complex forested terrain. Comparisons with model simulations using a roughness length parametrization show significant differences, particularly with respect to flow separation, highlighting the need to explicitly model the forest canopy if detailed predictions of near-surface flow around forests are required.

  4. Characterization of Heavy metals from banana farming soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dian; Huang, Cheng He; Huang, Dong Yi [College of Agronomy, Hainan University, Haikou City, Hainan Province (China); Ouyang, Ying [Department of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    There is a growing public concern about the contamination of heavy metals in agricultural soils in China due to the increasingly applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides during the last two decades. This study characterized the variability of heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni), from the banana farming soils in western Hainan Island, China. Five banana farms from different locations in the island were selected to collect 69 mixed-soil samples in this study. Experimental data showed that concentrations of Cu ranged from 3.38 to 54.52, Zn from 24.0 to 189.8, Pb from 15.98 to 58.42, Cd from 0.43 to 3.21, and Ni from 3.47 to 121.86 mg kg{sup -1} dry wt. In general, concentrations of the heavy metals varied with metal species and changed from location to location, which occurred presumably due to the variations of soil parent materials and to a certain extent due to the use of different types of agrochemicals. Our study further revealed that concentrations of Cu and Zn were higher in the banana farming soils than in the natural (control) soils among all of the five locations, whereas mixed results were observed for Pb, Cd, and Ni in both the banana farming and control soils, depending on the locations. Comparisons of the heavy metal concentrations with the Chinese Soil Quality Standards (CSQSs) showed that Cu, Zn, and Pb contents were lower but Cd and Ni contents were higher in the banana farming soils than the Class II standard of the CSQSs. Results suggested that accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soils is safe for banana fruit production, whereas accumulation of Cd and Ni in the same soils could potentially pose threats to banana fruit safety. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Maria Borges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp. verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fração glicídica; amido; valor calórico; pH; acidez total titulável; vitamina C; macrominerais (K, P, Ca, Mg, S e N; microminerais (B, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe; coliformes a 45 °C; fungos filamentosos e leveduras; Bacillus cereus; Salmonella sp.; Staphylococcus aureus; e contagem de aeróbios mesófilos. Os resultados indicaram que a banana 'Prata' verde é viável para o processo de obtenção da farinha de banana, tendo em vista que é rica em amido, proteína, potássio, fósforo, magnésio, zinco, cobre e tem um alto valor calórico. O pH, a acidez total titulável e a vitamina C estão compatíveis com os valores encontrados em outras farinhas. Quanto ao uso de boas práticas no processamento, a farinha encontra-se dentro do padrão microbiológico ideal e, portanto, está apta para o consumo.The objective of the present study was the physicochemical characterization and the microbiological control during the processing of the green banana flour (Musa spp., Prata cultivar, aiming at the use of the flour in bread-making, dietary products and children's food. To obtain the flour, the fruits were cut, immersed in sodium meta-bisulfite, dehydrated, and ground. The following criteria were determined: humidity; ethereal extract; raw protein; raw fiber; ash; glicidic fraction; starch; caloric value; pH; total titratable acidity; vitamin C; macrominerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, S and N; microminerals (B, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe; coliforms at 45 °C; filamentous

  6. COMPONENTS OF CELL WALL, ENZYME ACTIVITY IN PEDICEL AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF BANANAS TO FINGER DROP

    OpenAIRE

    GLORIA ANNABELL COBEÑA RUIZ; LUIZ CARLOS CHAMHUM SALOMÃO; DALMO LOPES DE SIQUEIRA; SEBASTIÃO TAVARES DE REZENDE; LEILA CRISTINA ROSA DE LINS

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A major problem in post-harvest handling of bananas is the individual detachment of the fruit from the hands. This study aimed to establishing the relationship between carbohydrate concentration and enzyme activity in the pedicel region of three cultivars of bananas, resistant and susceptible to natural dropping, during post-harvest ripening, and the susceptibility of bananas to finger dropping. Cultivars ‘Terra’ (plantain, AAB group) and ‘Prata’ (banana, AAB group) triploids and th...

  7. Constraining canopy biophysical simulations with daily MODIS reflectance data ensuring pixel-target adequacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D.; Duveiller, G.

    2013-12-01

    Modern vegetation models incorporate ecophysiological details that allow for accurate estimates of carbon dioxide uptake, water use and energy exchange, but require knowledge of dynamic structural and biochemical traits. Variations in these traits are controlled by genetic factors as well as growth stage and nutrient and moisture availability, making them difficult to predict and prone to significant error. Here we explore the use of daily MODIS optical reflectance data for constraining key canopy- and leaf-level traits required by forward biophysical models. A multi-objective optimization algorithm is used to invert the PROSAIL canopy radiation transfer model against MODIS optical reflectance observations. PROSAIL accounts for the effects of leaf-level optical properties, foliage distribution and orientation on canopy reflectance across the optical range. Inversions are conducted for several growing seasons for both soybean and maize at multiple sites across the Central US agro-ecosystem. These inversions provide estimates of seasonal variations, and associated uncertainty, of variables such as leaf area index (LAI). The inversion-derived canopy properties are used to examine the ability of MODIS data to characterize seasonal variations in these states relative to field observations. The canopy properties are then used as inputs into the MLCan biophysical model to conduct forward simulations. MLCan characterizes the ecophysiological functioning of a plant canopy at a half-hourly timestep, and has been rigorously validated for both C3 and C4 crops against observations of canopy CO2 uptake, evapotranspiration and sensible heat exchange. By utilizing the inverted canopy states to drive MLCan over several growing seasons, we are able to assess the impact of uncertainty in the MODIS inversion procedure on uncertainties in forward model flux estimates. This work requires the use of instant (non-composited) observations obtained at a daily frequency from both Terra and

  8. "Banana-mania." Gender Politics in Yoshimoto Banana's Works and Contemporary Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Mekkin Guðmundsdóttir Beck 1988

    2011-01-01

    Yoshimoto Banana, a popular female writer in Japan, writes stories about Japanese adolescents finding their way in Japan. A great majority of them are female and must face a culture where there are basically separate worlds for men and women, the domestic and the corporate. The characters do not seem to experience this even if it is evident in the texts. Banana’s writing shows that women and men have a real hard time relating to each other, resulting in alienation in their divided worlds. Her...

  9. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia de Maria Borges; Joelma Pereira; Eliseu Marlônio Pereira de Lucena

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp.) verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fra...

  10. Effect of canopy thickness and canopy saturation on the amount and kinetic energy of throughfall: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanko, Kazuki; Onda, Yuichi; Ito, Akane; Moriwaki, Hiromu

    2008-03-01

    To investigate how canopy thickness and canopy saturation affect the amount and kinetic energy of throughfall, we conducted indoor experiments using a 9.8-m-tall transplanted Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and a large-scale rainfall simulator with spray nozzles at a height of 16 m. The amount of throughfall and raindrop sizes and velocities were measured at twenty-four points under four canopy structures generated by staged branch pruning. Decreasing the canopy thickness resulted in increases of the initial throughfall amount, volume proportion of large throughfall drops, the number of drops with high velocities, and throughfall kinetic energy. Compared to a saturated canopy, a canopy undergoing wetting had lower throughfall amounts and volume proportion of large drops, but higher mean drop velocity. Canopy thickness affected throughfall generation by affecting the processes of canopy saturation and drop generation within the canopy.

  11. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: A field study using stable isotopes in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Thirty women (34.9 +/- 6.6 years...

  12. Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Attraction of adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and the synthetic pheromone Cosmolure+ presented singly or in combination, was studied in the laboratory and in the field. Olfactometric studies in the laboratory showed that 50 g of fermented banana

  13. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  14. Testing models of tree canopy structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, S.N. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Models of tree canopy structure are difficult to test because of a lack of data which are suitability detailed. Previously, I have made three-dimensional reconstructions of individual trees from measured data. These reconstructions have been used to test assumptions about the dispersion of canopy elements in two- and three-dimensional space. Lacunarity analysis has also been used to describe the texture of the reconstructed canopies. Further tests regarding models of the nature of tree branching structures have been made. Results using probability distribution functions for branching measured from real trees show that branching in Juglans is not Markovian. Specific constraints or rules are necessary to achieve simulations of branching structure which are faithful to the originally measured trees.

  15. BOREAS TE-9 NSA Canopy Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Margolis, Hank; Charest, Martin; Sy, Mikailou

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-9 team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves. This data set contains canopy biochemistry data collected in 1994 in the NSA at the YJP, OJR, OBS, UBS, and OA sites, including biochemistry lignin, nitrogen, cellulose, starch, and fiber concentrations. These data were collected to study the spatial and temporal changes in the canopy biochemistry of boreal forest cover types and how a high-resolution radiative transfer model in the mid-infrared could be applied in an effort to obtain better estimates of canopy biochemical properties using remote sensing. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  16. Improved snowmelt simulations with a canopy model forced with photo-derived direct beam canopy transmissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Keith N.; Molotch, Noah P.; Margulis, Steven A.; Lehning, Michael; Gustafsson, David

    2012-10-01

    The predictive capacity of a physically based snow model to simulate point-scale, subcanopy snowmelt dynamics is evaluated in a mixed conifer forest, southern Sierra Nevada, California. Three model scenarios each providing varying levels of canopy structure detail were tested. Simulations of three water years initialized at locations of 24 ultrasonic snow depth sensors were evaluated against observations of snow water equivalent (SWE), snow disappearance date, and volumetric soil water content. When canopy model parameters canopy openness and effective leaf area index were obtained from satellite and literature-based sources, respectively, the model was unable to resolve the variable subcanopy snowmelt dynamics. When canopy parameters were obtained from hemispherical photos, the improvements were not statistically significant. However, when the model was modified to accept photo-derived time-varying direct beam canopy transmissivity, the error in the snow disappearance date was reduced by as much as one week and positive and negative biases in melt-season SWE and snow cover duration were significantly reduced. Errors in the timing of soil meltwater fluxes were reduced by 11 days on average. The optimum aggregated temporal model resolution of direct beam canopy transmissivity was determined to be 30 min; hourly averages performed no better than the bulk canopy scenarios and finer time steps did not increase overall model accuracy. The improvements illustrate the important contribution of direct shortwave radiation to subcanopy snowmelt and confirm the known nonlinear melt behavior of snow cover.

  17. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  18. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingale, Snehal; Joshi, Sanket J; Gupte, Akshaya

    2014-01-01

    India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  19. Seeing is believing I: The use of thermal sensing from satellite imagery to predict crop yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    B, Potgieter A.; D, Rodriguez; B, Power; J, Mclean; P, Davis

    2014-02-01

    Volatility in crop production has been part of the Australian environment since cropping began with the arrival of the first European settlers. Climate variability is the main factor affecting crop production at national, state and local scales. At field level spatial patterns on yield production are also determined by spatially changing soil properties in interaction with seasonal climate conditions and weather patterns at critical stages in the crop development. Here we used a combination of field level weather records, canopy characteristics, and satellite information to determine the spatial performance of a large field of wheat. The main objective of this research is to determine the ability of remote sensing technologies to capture yield losses due to water stress at the canopy level. The yield, canopy characteristics (i.e. canopy temperature and ground cover) and seasonal conditions of a field of wheat (~1400ha) (-29.402° South and 149.508°, New South Wales, Australia) were continuously monitored during the winter of 2011. Weather and crop variables were continuously monitored by installing three automatic weather stations in a transect covering different positions and soils in the landscape. Weather variables included rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures and relative humidity, and crop characteristics included ground cover and canopy temperature. Satellite imagery Landsat TM 5 and 7 was collected at five different stages in the crop cycle. Weather variables and crop characteristics were used to calculate a crop stress index (CSI) at point and field scale (39 fields). Field data was used to validate a spatial satellite image derived index. Spatial yield data was downloaded from the harvester at the different locations in the field. We used the thermal band (land surface temperature, LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) bands from the MODIS (250 m for visible bands and 1km for thermal band) and a derived EVI from Landsat TM 7 (25 m for visible and

  20. First report offusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubensetropical race 4 causing panama disease in cavendish bananas in Pakistan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordoñez, N.; García-Bastidas, F.; Laghari, H.B.; Akkary, M.Y.; Harfouche, E.N.; Awar, al B.N.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused byFusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubense(Foc), poses a great risk to global banana production. Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Foc, which affects Cavendish bananas as well as many other banana cultivars (Ploetz 2006), was confirmed for the first time outside Southeast Asia in Jord

  1. Estimating Canopy Nitrogen Concentration in Sugarcane Using Field Imaging Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of nutrient concentration in sugarcane through hyperspectral remote sensing is widely known to be affected by canopy architecture. The goal of this research was to develop an estimation model that could explain the nitrogen variations in sugarcane with combined cultivars. Reflectance spectra were measured over the sugarcane canopy using a field spectroradiometer. The models were calibrated by a vegetation index and multiple linear regression. The original reflectance was transformed into a First-Derivative Spectrum (FDS and two absorption features. The results indicated that the sensitive spectral wavelengths for quantifying nitrogen content existed mainly in the visible, red edge and far near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Normalized Differential Index (NDI based on FDS(750/700 and Ratio Spectral Index (RVI based on FDS(724/700 are best suited for characterizing the nitrogen concentration. The modified estimation model, generated by the Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR technique from FDS centered at 410, 426, 720, 754, and 1,216 nm, yielded the highest correlation coefficient value of 0.86 and Root Mean Square Error of the Estimate (RMSE value of 0.033%N (n = 90 with nitrogen concentration in sugarcane. The results of this research demonstrated that the estimation model developed by SMLR yielded a higher correlation coefficient with nitrogen content than the model computed by narrow vegetation indices. The strong correlation between measured and estimated nitrogen concentration indicated that the methods proposed in this study could be used for the reliable diagnosis of nitrogen quantity in sugarcane. Finally, the success of the field spectroscopy used for estimating the nutrient quality of sugarcane allowed an additional experiment using the polar orbiting hyperspectral data for the timely determination of crop nutrient status in rangelands without any requirement of prior

  2. A method for describing the canopy architecture of coppice poplar with allometric relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Eric; Sinoquet, Hervé

    2003-12-01

    A multi-scale biometric methodology for describing the architecture of fast-growing short-rotation woody crops is used to describe 2-year-old poplar clones during the second rotation. To allow for expressions of genetic variability observed within this species (i.e., growth potential, leaf morphology, coppice and canopy structure), the method has been applied to two clones: Ghoy (Gho) (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. x Populus nigra L.) and Trichobel (Tri) (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray x Populus trichocarpa). The method operates at the stool level and describes the plant as a collection of components (shoots and branches) described as a collection of metameric elements, themselves defined as a collection of elementary units (internode, petiole, leaf blade). Branching and connection between the plant units (i.e., plant topology) and their spatial location, orientation, size and shape (i.e., plant geometry) describe the plant architecture. The methodology has been used to describe the plant architecture of 15 selected stools per clone over a 5-month period. On individual stools, shoots have been selected from three classes (small, medium and large) spanning the diameter distribution range. Using a multi-scale approach, empirical allometric relationships were used to parameterize elementary units of the plant, topological relationships and geometry (e.g., distribution of shoot diameters on stool, shoot attributes from shoot diameter). The empirical functions form the basis of the 3-D Coppice Poplar Canopy Architecture model (3-D CPCA), which recreates the architecture and canopy structure of fast-growing coppice crops at the plot scale. Model outputs are assessed through visual and quantitative comparisons between actual photographs of the coppice canopy and simulated images. Overall, results indicate a good predictive ability of the 3-D CPCA model.

  3. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  4. West Coast Canopy-Forming Kelp, 1989-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data include the general extents of canopy-forming kelp surveys from 1989 to 2014 and a compilation of existing data sets delineating canopy-forming kelp beds...

  5. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  6. Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) occurrence and infestation behaviour as influenced by farm type, cropping systems and soil management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabi, Samuel; Karungi, Jeninah; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2016-01-01

    used on each farm. Mealybug population densities were lower in pineapple–banana intercrop system (27.8) than in a sole pineapple crop (81.8) across seasons. Earthed-up seed beds registered higher mealybug densities (84.1) than flat seed beds (31). Earthed-up seed beds created more favourable...

  7. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO{sub 2} ON CANOPY TRANSPIRATION IN SENESCENT SPRING WHEAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GROSSMAN,S.; KIMBALL,B.A.; HUNSAKER,D.J.; LONG,S.P.; GARCIA,R.L.; KARTSCHALL,TH.; WALL,G.W.; PINTER,P.J,JR.; WECHSUNG,F.; LAMORTE,R.L.

    1998-12-31

    The seasonal course of canopy transpiration and the diurnal courses of latent heat flux of a spring wheat crop were simulated for atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations of 370 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1} and 550 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}. The hourly weather data, soil parameters and the irrigation and fertilizer treatments of the Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment wheat experiment in Arizona (1992/93) were used to drive the model. The simulation results were tested against field measurements with special emphasis on the period between anthesis and maturity. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat growth model. The simulated intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration, C{sub i} was determined from the ratio of C{sub i} to the CO{sub 2} concentration at the leaf surface, C{sub s} the leaf to air specific humidity deficit and a possibly unfulfilled transpiration demand. After anthesis, the measured assimilation rates of the flag leaves decreased more rapidly than their stomatal conductances, leading to a rise in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. In order to describe this observation, an empirical model approach was developed which took into account the leaf nitrogen content for the calculation of the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. Simulation results obtained with the new model version were in good agreement with the measurements. If changes in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio accorded to the decrease in leaf nitrogen content during leaf senescence were not considered in the model, simulations revealed an underestimation of the daily canopy transpiration of up to 20% and a decrease in simulated seasonal canopy transpiration by 10%. The measured reduction in the seasonal sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation owing to CO{sub 2} enrichment, in comparison, was only about 5%.

  8. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  9. Aseptic multiplication of banana from excised floral apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronauer, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1985-08-01

    Most economically important bananas and plantains are large triploid seedless herbs that must be propagated vegetatively by removing small side shoots or "suckers" from the parent plant or by planting seed pieces of larger corms. Consequently, multiplication of stock material is time consuming, Recently, the rapid production of young banana plantlets suitable for use as "seed" material has been described. Vegetative shoot apices were isolated and multiplied using aseptic tissue culture techniques. Although these multiplication systems, once established, can produce thousands of plants in a relatively short period of time, their establishment necessitates the initial sacrifice of an individual specimen, which may not always be desirable or prudent should a limited parent stock be available. We describe here the production and multiplication of rooted banana plantlets from the isolation and culture of terminal floral apices.

  10. LONDON Banana RepubliC登陆欧洲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁燕燕

    2008-01-01

    <正>美国的casual n’chic品牌Banana Republic终于登陆欧洲。近日第一家欧洲分店在伦敦的Regent Street开幕,占地17,000平方呎的三层高旗舰店将成为Banana Republic进军欧洲市场的试点。这一次的扩张,对GAP来说,也是一个很大的考验,因为此时正值美、英两国经济不景气。究竟,Banana Republic能否在英国的同类品牌中脱颖而出,成为下一个

  11. The Use of Extract Banana Corm and Phosphate Rock to Increase Available-P in Alfisols

    OpenAIRE

    Slamet Minardi; Sri Hartati1); Hery Widijanto; Defi Wulandari

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the approprite formula and applied method of banana corm and phosphate rock on available-P in Alfisols. The research was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with 3 factors. The first factor is the dosage of banana corm extract, which is consisted of: E1 = 100 ml of banana corm extract, E2 = 200 ml of banana corm extract, and E3 = 300 ml of banana corm extract. The second factor is the dosage of the phosphate rock which is consisted of B1 =...

  12. Diurnal Solar Energy Conversion and Photoprotection in Rice Canopies1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, W. Paul; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Furbank, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Genetic improvement of photosynthetic performance of cereal crops and increasing the efficiency with which solar radiation is converted into biomass has recently become a major focus for crop physiologists and breeders. The pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence technique (PAM) allows quantitative leaf level monitoring of the utilization of energy for photochemical light conversion and photoprotection in natural environments, potentially over the entire crop lifecycle. Here, the diurnal relationship between electron transport rate (ETR) and irradiance was measured in five cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) in canopy conditions with PAM fluorescence under natural solar radiation. This relationship differed substantially from that observed for conventional short term light response curves measured under controlled actinic light with the same leaves. This difference was characterized by a reduced curvature factor when curve fitting was used to model this diurnal response. The engagement of photoprotective processes in chloroplast electron transport in leaves under canopy solar radiation was shown to be a major contributor to this difference. Genotypic variation in the irradiance at which energy flux into photoprotective dissipation became greater than ETR was observed. Cultivars capable of higher ETR at midrange light intensities were shown to produce greater leaf area over time, estimated by noninvasive imaging. PMID:27895208

  13. The impact of in-canopy wind profile formulations on heat flux estimation using the remote sensing-based two-source model for an open orchard canopy in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cammalleri

    2010-07-01

    small aperture scintillometer and an eddy covariance tower collected over an olive orchard characterized by moderate fractional vegetation cover (≈35% and relatively tall crop height (≈3.5 m. TSEB fluxes for the 7 image acquisition dates generated using both the Massman and Goudriaan in-canopy wind profile formulations give close agreement with measured fluxes, while the Lalic et al. equations yield poor results. The Massman wind profile scheme slightly outperforms that of Goudriaan, but it requires an additional parameter describing the roughness of the underlying vegetative surface. This parameter is not directly obtainable using remote sensing, hence this study suggests that the Goudriaan formulation for landscape applications is most suitable when detailed site-specific information regarding canopy architecture is unavailable.

  14. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Vanessa B.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. Del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: vanessa.uehara@usp.br, e-mail: patyoko@yahoo.com, e-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana (Musa sp) is a tropical fruits with great acceptability among consumers and produced in Brazil in a large scale. Bananas are not being as exploited as they could be in prepared food, and research could stimulate greater interest from industry. The viscosity characteristics and a product consistency can determine its acceptance by the consumer. Particularly the starch obtained from green banana had been studied from the nutritional point of view since the concept of Resistant Starch was introduced. Powder RS with high content of amylose was included in an approved food list with alleged functional properties in Brazilian legislation. Ionizing radiation can be used as a public health intervention measure for the control of food-borne diseases. Radiation is also a very convenient tool for polymer materials modification through degradation, grafting and crosslinking. In this work the influence of ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of green banana pulp was investigated. Samples of green banana pulp flour were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0 kGy,1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy in glass recipients. After irradiation 3% and 5% aqueous dilution were prepared and viscosity measurements performed in a Brooksfield, model DVIII viscometer using spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31. There was a reduction of the initial viscosity of the samples as a consequence of radiation processing, being the reduction inversely proportional to the flour concentration. The polysaccharide content of the banana starch seems to be degraded by radiation in solid state as shown by the reduction of viscosity as a function of radiation dose. (author)

  15. Field and Laboratory Investigation of USS3 Ultrasonic Sensors Capability for Non-contact Measurement of Pistachio Canopy Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Maghsoudi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic canopy characterization to determine structural properties is an important issue in tree crop management. Ultrasonic and optical sensors are the most used sensors for this purpose. The objective of this work was to assess the performance of an ultrasonic sensor under laboratory and field conditions in order to provide reliable estimations of distance measurements to apple tree canopies. To achieve this purpose, a methodology has been designed to analyze sensor performance in relation to foliage distance and to the effects of interference with adjacent sensors when working simultaneously. Results showed that the average error in distance measurement using the ultrasonic sensor in laboratory conditions was 0.64 cm. However, the increase of variability in field conditions reduced the accuracy of this kind of sensors when estimating distances to canopies. The average error in such situations was 3.19 cm. When analyzing interferences of adjacent sensors 30 cm apart, the average error was ±14.65 cm. When adjacent sensors were placed apart by 60 cm, the average error became 6.73 cm. The ultrasonic sensor tested has been proven to be suitable to estimate distances to the canopy in pistachio garden conditions when sensors are 60 cm apart or more and can, therefore, be used in a system to estimate structural canopy parameters in precision horticulture.

  16. Scaling leaf measurements to estimate cotton canopy gas exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diurnal leaf and canopy gas exchange of well watered field grown cotton were measured. Leaf measurements were made with a portable photosynthesis system and canopy measurements with open Canopy Evapo-Transpiration and Assimilation (CETA) systems. Leaf level measurements were arithmetically scaled to...

  17. Canopy dynamics of a tropical rain forest in French Guiana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The canopy dynamics (i.e. the formation and closure of canopy gaps) of a tropical rain forest in French Guiana are described. The formation of canopy gaps is investigated. The difficulties with gap size measurements are studied, and causes and consequences of treefalls and branchfalls are examined.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved...

  19. Differential characteristics in the chemical composition of bananas from Tenerife (Canary Islands) and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Markus Paul; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2002-12-18

    The contents of moisture, protein, ash, ascorbic acid, glucose, fructose, total sugars, and total and insoluble fiber were determined in cultivars of bananas (Gran Enana and Pequeña Enana) harvested in Tenerife and in bananas (Gran Enana) from Ecuador. The chemical compositions in the bananas from Tenerife and from Ecuador were clearly different. The cultivar did not influence the chemical composition, except for insoluble fiber content. Variations of the chemical composition were observed in the bananas from Tenerife according to cultivation method (greenhouse and outdoors), farming style (conventional and organic), and region of production (north and south). A highly significant (r = 0.995) correlation between glucose and fructose was observed. Correlations of ash and protein contents tend to separate the banana samples according to origin. A higher content of protein, ash, and ascorbic acid was observed as the length of the banana decreased. Applying factor analysis, the bananas from Ecuador were well separated from the bananas produced in Tenerife. An almost total differentiation (91.7%) between bananas from Tenerife and bananas from Ecuador was obtained by selecting protein, ash, and ascorbic acid content and applying stepwise discriminant analysis. By selecting the bananas Pequeña Enana and using discriminant analysis, a clear separation of the samples according to the region of production and farming style was observed.

  20. Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava; Dwivedi

    2000-09-08

    Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid. The major enzymatic antioxidants namely, catalase and peroxidase, were also found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid during banana fruit ripening.

  1. Based on the New Type of Banana Planting Open Pit of UG Simulation Machine%基于新型香蕉种植开坑机的UG仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢炳光; 马俊生; 马桂香; 梁甲; 刘子良; 文棋

    2016-01-01

    For large banana plantations of relative lack of research and development of the open pit machine , designed a new type of banana planting machine open pit.This machine has the open pit are of good quality, lower cost, and can adapt to the characteristics of different digging holes required .In this paper , the new type of banana planting the working principle of the open pit machine kinematics analysis and using 3 d software UG , new real banana planting open pit machine working condition .The results show that the new type of banana planting open pit machine can meet the de -mand of work .A new type of banana planting the development of the open pit machine can be used as crop other similar open pit machine developed to provide the reference .%针对大规模香蕉种植开坑机的研发比较缺乏的问题,设计了一种新型香蕉种植开坑机. 该机具有开坑质量高、成本较低及能适应不同挖坑要求的特点. 为此,介绍了新型香蕉种植开坑机的工作原理,并运用三维软件UG进行运动学分析,真实再现了新型香蕉种植开坑机的工作状况. 结果表明:新型香蕉种植开坑机能够满足工作需求,可为其他类似农作物开坑机器的研制提供参考.

  2. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  3. Spatial variability of throughfall and raindrops under a single canopy with different canopy structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanko, Kazuki; Onda, Yuichi; Ito, Akane; Moriwaki, Hiromu

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the spatial variability of throughfall amount, raindrops, and erosivity under a single canopy during calm meteorological conditions, indoor experiments were conducted using a 9.8-m-tall transplanted Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and a large-scale rainfall simulator. Drop size distribution, drop velocity, and kinetic energy of throughfall varied spatially under a single canopy as did throughfall amount and rain rate. Compared with throughfall rain rate, the variability was similar in drop size distribution, lower in drop velocity, and higher in kinetic energy. The results suggest that the spatial distribution of throughfall amount was dominated by the canopy shape and position of branches inside the canopy, and thus the spatial distribution was correlated with the radial distance from the trunk. Throughfall amount and rate were lower at the midway point between the trunk and the canopy edge. Throughfall drop size indices (drop size distribution, drop velocity, and unit kinetic energy) varied spatially while did not differ significantly. On the other hand, time-specific throughfall kinetic energy was correlated with the radial distance from the trunk. The dependence the throughfall kinetic energy on the radial distance from the trunk was dominated by the spatial distribution of throughfall amount. The trend in the spatial distribution of throughfall revealed in this study will aid in modelling canopy water processes and in predicting soil erosion on the bare forest floor. The part of this study is published in Nanko et al. (2011, Agric. Forest. Meteorol. 151, 1173-1182).

  4. Chemical treatment of banana tree pseudostem particles aiming the production of particleboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Maria Ribeiro Guimarães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the major banana producers in the world, and consequently generates a great amount of residues from this crop, which could be utilized in particleboard production. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of different chemical treatments of the particles of Musa sp. pseudostem, on their chemical and physical properties (basic density, and on the physical and mechanical properties of the particleboards produced with the same material. Five treatments were applied to the particles: 1 without treatment (control; 2 2% acetic acid; 3 0.5% NaOH; 4 acetone (1/1 in volume/volume; and 5 water. Panels with medium density were produced (0.70 g/cm³, bonded with 12% (in relation to the particle mass of urea-formaldehyde adhesive. The pressing cycle was conducted at 160º C, under 4 MPa, during 8 min. The results obtained indicated that the chemical treatments performed in the particles of banana tree pseudostem affected their chemical composition. The basic density of the particles was 0.10 g/cm³, and only the NaOH treatment led to its increase for values around 0.13 g/cm3. The panels produced with particles without treatment (control and particles treated with acetic acid presented the lowest values of water absorption and thickness swelling after 2 and 24 h of immersion. Mechanical properties of all the panels produced were below the minimum recommended by the standard CS 236-66 (COMMERCIAL STANDARD - CS, 1968.

  5. Simulating Stochastic Crop Management in Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction -- Crop simulation models are uniquely suitable for examining long term crop responses to environmental variability due to changes in climate or other factors. Long-term studies typically emphasize variability related to weather conditions; certain weather-dependent cropping practices m...

  6. Predicting seed yield in perennial ryegrass using repeated canopy reflectance measurements and PLSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    Repeated canopy reflectance measurements together with partial least-squares regression (PLSR) were used to predict seed yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The measurements were performed during the spring and summer growing seasons of 2001 to 2003 in three field experiments...... reflectance measurements was from approximately 600 cumulative growing degree-days (CGDD) to approximately 900 CGDD. This is the period just before and at heading of the seed crop. Furthermore, regression coefficients showed that information about N and water is important. The results support the development...

  7. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith; Biossorcao de uranio nas cascas de banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as {delta}G, {delta}S and {delta}H were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L{sup -1}, the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g{sup -1} at 25 {+-} 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of {delta}H and {delta}S obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''-{sup 1} and 1.37 J.mol''-{sup 1}, respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol{sup -1} when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  8. Abundance and distribution of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. grown in single- and mixed-cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanitta Pankeaw

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the abundance and distribution of thrips in a farmer’s mangosteen orchard by comparing single- andmixed-cropping systems at Nakhon Sri Thammarat province, the main planting area in southern Thailand, between April2005 and January 2006. A monitoring program at two-week-intervals was done to measure the number of thrips by usingtwenty yellow sticky traps per each cropping system. The mean number (223.5±23.4 thrips/trap of thrips throughout theperiod of study in the monocrop mangosteen sites was significantly (P<0.01 higher than 69.1±8.3 thrips/trap in the mixedcropmangosteen sites. Scarring on the fruit surfaces damaged by thrips was visually quantified, with average percentages ofscarring 32.2% and 19.8% in the mono- and mixed-cropping systems, respectively. Distribution of thrips in the upper andlower halves of the plant canopy in the four cardinal directions was studied by assessing scarring on the fruit surfaces. Thepercentage of scarring occurring in the upper canopy was significantly (P<0.01 higher than in the lower canopy. In thesingle-crop system, the average percentages of scarring were 46.6% and 25.4% on the upper and lower canopies, respectively.In the mixed-cropping system results obtained were similar to those in the single cropping system, with 31.5% and 20.4% onthe upper and lower canopies, respectively. The severity of damage to the fruits caused by thrips seemed to be higher in theNorth and East directions than in the South and West. In conclusion, mixed-cropping mangosteen orchards are recommendedfor reducing fruit damage caused by thrips. Fruits occurring on the upper canopy, in the North and East sides, should beunderlined for thrip control to meet the criteria for high quality mangosteen production from the south of Thailand.

  9. The Use of Genetic Variability Analysis of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense for Breeding Resistance of Banana against Fusarium Wilting Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Ruhana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilting on banana crop caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense is one of the important disease in banana plant in Indonesia. This disease can cause plant to wilt and die, therefore bringing loss to the banana farmer and entrepreneur. F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense genetic variability analysis techniques can be done by in vitro or in vivo. One of F.oxysporum f. sp. cubense genetic variability analysis techniques by in vitro is RAPD-PCR. In this research, analysis is continued with pathogen test. Genetic variability analysis by in vivo is needed to determine the level of pathogen and the race. The result of genetic variability techniques by RAPD-PCR done by this writer indicates that there is a big relation/link difference between isolats from different island. Isolat from Mojokerto (East Java is 100% genetically different compared to the one from West Sumatera. Later, result of pathogen test shows that Pisang Ambon Kuning is the most resilient compared to Pisang Raja and William Cavendish. Based on the level of pathogen, there are two race grouping, which are race 1 that attacks Pisang Ambon Kuning and race 4 that attacks Pisang Raja and William Cavendish. Scott-Knott analysis on 26 isolats results in no real difference between isolats tested.

  10. Research advances in comprehensive utilization of banana by-products%香蕉副产品综合利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈石; 周红玲; 陈丽娜; 郑加协; 林加根

    2012-01-01

    China is a big banana-planting country.Banana stems and leaves and other by-products are important crop resources for future development,but there still have not formed a mature technology for processing and utilization.In this paper,some means for processing and utilization of banana by-products were reviewed,such as returning it to field directly,composting it as organic fertilizer,using it as fiber material,utilizing it as a resource,as feedstuff,as medium for edible fungi,and so on.%中国是香蕉种植大国,香蕉茎叶等副产品是一种很有开发潜力的农作物资源,但还没有形成一套成熟的处理和利用技术。该文阐述了香蕉茎叶等副产品在直接还田、堆制有机肥料、纤维利用、资源化、饲料化和食用菌培养基等方面的处理和利用研究进展。

  11. Relations Between Red Edge Characteristics and Agronomic Parameters of Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yan-Lin; WANG Ren-Chao; HUANG Jing-Feng

    2004-01-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance of the canopy and the leaves on the main stem for six varieties, two each of rice, corn, and cotton crops, were measured at different growth stages with an ASD FieldSpec Pro FRTM to analyze red edge characteristics for leaf area indices (LAI), aboveground biomass, as well as the chlorophyll, carotenoid, and nitrogen shift' for λr of the leaf spectra for all 3 crops as the development stages progressed. For rice, corn, and cotton the LAI and fresh leaf mass had highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) to the red edge parameters λr, Dλr, and Sr of their canopy spectra. Additionally, for all crops the chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoid content of the leaves all had highly significant (P < 0.01) correlations to their λr.For rice, the nitrogen content of the leaves in g kg-1 and phytomass for a unit area of land in g m-2 also had a highly significant (P < 0.01) correlation to λr, Dλr, and Sr of the canopy spectra.

  12. Canopy foliar nitrogen retrieved from airborne hyperspectral imagery by correcting for canopy structure effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Wang, Tiejun; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Heiden, Uta; Heurich, Marco; Latifi, Hooman; Hearne, John

    2017-02-01

    A statistical relationship between canopy mass-based foliar nitrogen concentration (%N) and canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) has been repeatedly demonstrated. However, the interaction between leaf properties and canopy structure confounds the estimation of foliar nitrogen. The canopy scattering coefficient (the ratio of BRF and the directional area scattering factor, DASF) has recently been suggested for estimating %N as it suppresses the canopy structural effects on BRF. However, estimation of %N using the scattering coefficient has not yet been investigated for longer spectral wavelengths (>855 nm). We retrieved the canopy scattering coefficient for wavelengths between 400 and 2500 nm from airborne hyperspectral imagery, and then applied a continuous wavelet analysis (CWA) to the scattering coefficient in order to estimate %N. Predictions of %N were also made using partial least squares regression (PLSR). We found that %N can be accurately retrieved using CWA (R2 = 0.65, RMSE = 0.33) when four wavelet features are combined, with CWA yielding a more accurate estimation than PLSR (R2 = 0.47, RMSE = 0.41). We also found that the wavelet features most sensitive to %N variation in the visible region relate to chlorophyll absorption, while wavelet features in the shortwave infrared regions relate to protein and dry matter absorption. Our results confirm that %N can be retrieved using the scattering coefficient after correcting for canopy structural effect. With the aid of high-fidelity airborne or upcoming space-borne hyperspectral imagery, large-scale foliar nitrogen maps can be generated to improve the modeling of ecosystem processes as well as ecosystem-climate feedbacks.

  13. Banana fiber-reinforced biodegradable soy protein composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rakesh Kumar; Veena Choudhary; Saroj Mishra; Ik Varma

    2008-01-01

    Banana fiber,a waste product of banana cultivation,has been used to prepare banana fiber reinforced soy protein composites. Alkali modified banana fibers were characterized in terms of density,denier and crystallinity index. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also performed on the fibers. Soy protein composites were prepared by incorporating different volume fractions of alkali,treated and untreated fibers into soy protein isolate (SPI) with different amounts of glycerol (25%,50%) as plasticizer.Composites thus prepared were characterized in terms of mechanical properties,SEM and water resistance.The results indicate that at 0.3 volume fraction,tensile strength and modulus of alkali treated fiber reinforced soy protein composites increased to 82% and 963%,respectively,compared to soy protein film without fibers.Water resistance of the composites increased significantly with the addition of glutaraldehyde which acts as crosslinking agent. Biodegradability of the composites has also been tested in the contaminated environment and the composites were found to be 100% biodegradable.

  14. Phyllosticta species associated with freckle disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, M.H.; Crous, P.W.; Henderson, J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Drenth, A.

    2012-01-01

    The identity of the casual agent of freckle disease of banana was investigated. The pathogen is generally referred to in literature under its teleomorphic name, Guignardia musae, or that of its purported anamorph, Phyllosticta musarum. Based on morphological and molecular data from a global set of b

  15. Molecular diagnostics for the Sigatoka disease complex of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease dia

  16. Impact of Diseases on Export and Smallholder Production of Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploetz, R.C.; Kema, G.H.J.; Ma, Li Jun

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15 of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cu

  17. Integrating banana and ruminant production in the French West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archimède, Harry; Gourdine, Jean Luc; Fanchone, Audrey; Tournebize, Regis; Bassien-Capsa, Mylène; González-García, Eliel

    2012-08-01

    Using a mechanistic model, we compared five alternative farming systems with the purpose of transforming monoculture (MON) banana farms into mixed farming systems (MFS) with ruminants feeding banana by-products (leaves, pseudostems and nonmarketable fruits) and forage from the fallow land. The paper presents the main structure of the model (land surface changes, available biomass for animals, stocking rates, productive or reproductive indicators), and impact assessment (change in farm productivity) is discussed. Five MFS with typical local ruminant production systems were used to compare MON to the strategies using forage from fallow and/or integrating Creole cattle (CC), Creole goats (CG) or Martinik sheep (MS) into banana farming. One hectare MON shifted into an MFS allows a stocking rate of 1,184, 285, and 418 kg of live weight per hectare for CC, CG and MS, respectively. Banana by-products seem to be better valorized by the CC scenario. However, parameters such as length of the cycle, local prices for cattle, goat and sheep meat, work time and farmer's skills in ruminant management may have been taken into account by the farmer when choosing the ruminant species to rear.

  18. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  19. Quality Characteristics of Dried Bananas Produced with Infrared Radiation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning of fruits during drying is a major quality concern. The enzyme polyphenol oxidase has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize enzymatic browning hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to inves...

  20. A molecular diagnostic for tropical race 4 of the banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Buddenhagen, I.W.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study analysed genomic variation of the translation elongation factor 1 (TEF-1) and the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the nuclear ribosomal operon of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) isolates, from different banana production areas, representing strains within the known races, compri

  1. Physiological and biochemical changes during banana ripening and finger drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imsabai, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit drop of banana is due to breaking at the junction of the pedicel and pulp, and we found no true abscission zone. The breakage seems therefore due to weakening of the peel. We investigated pectin hydrolysis and some properties at the rupture zone, using `Hom Thong` (Musa acuminata, AAA Group) a

  2. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  3. Parameterization and application of the AquaCrop model for simulating bioenergy crops in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilga, Navneet Kaur

    The objective of this study was to parameterize the AquaCrop model for two bioenergy crops, switchgrass and forage sorghum, using field measurements from Stillwater, Oklahoma in 2011. The parameterized model was then validated for additional sites at Chickasha and Woodward, Oklahoma. After parameterization at Stillwater, the simulated canopy cover closely matched the measured canopy cover dynamics with a RMSE of 6% in switchgrass and 5% in forage sorghum. The water stress thresholds for canopy expansion and stomatal conductance were similar for switchgrass and forage sorghum, but senescence was induced at 35% available water depletion for forage sorghum compared to 85% for switchgrass. The maximum rooting depth of switchgrass was estimated at 190 cm and that of forage sorghum at 120 cm. The normalized water productivity of switchgrass was found to be 14 g m-2, approximately half that of forage sorghum which was 27 g m-2. The parameterized model reasonably simulated soil water depletion at Stillwater (RMSE ethanol yields as a simulation study at Goodwell, Oklahoma. The corn, forage sorghum and switchgrass were simulated using AquaCrop five water levels: rainfed with initial soil moisture conditions of 60% available water capacity, 80% available water capacity, 100% available water capacity, and irrigation treatments at 70% allowable depletion, and at 50% allowable depletion. The simulation study was done over a period of ten years 2002-2011 to assess the long term performance. County average yields were consistent with simulated grain yields for corn under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Forage sorghum produced 30 % higher theoretical ethanol yields than corn under irrigated environments but not under rainfed environments. Switchgrass did not produce significantly higher theoretical ethanol yields than corn at any water level. Based on this modeling study, forage sorghum may have potential as an alternative to corn in the Oklahoma Panhandle given the advent of

  4. Expression of sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana enhances resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Leena; Mwaka, Henry; Tripathi, Jaindra Nath; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce Kateera

    2010-11-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is the most devastating disease of banana in the Great Lakes region of Africa. The pathogen's rapid spread has threatened the livelihood of millions of Africans who rely on banana fruit for food security and income. The disease is very destructive, infecting all banana varieties, including both East African Highland bananas and exotic types of banana. In the absence of natural host plant resistance among banana cultivars, the constitutive expression of the hypersensitivity response-assisting protein (Hrap) gene from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) was evaluated for its ability to confer resistance to BXW. Transgenic lines expressing the Hrap gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of two banana cultivars: 'Sukali Ndiizi' and 'Mpologoma'. These lines were characterized by molecular analysis, and were challenged with Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum to analyse the efficacy of the Hrap gene against BXW. The majority of transgenic lines (six of eight) expressing Hrap did not show any symptoms of infection after artificial inoculation of potted plants in the screenhouse, whereas control nontransgenic plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study demonstrates that the constitutive expression of the sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. We describe the development of transgenic banana varieties resistant to BXW, which will boost the arsenal available to fight this epidemic disease and save livelihoods in the Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa.

  5. Transgenic banana plants expressing Xanthomonas wilt resistance genes revealed a stable non-target bacterial colonization structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimusiima, Jean; Köberl, Martina; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Kubiriba, Jerome; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-12-10

    Africa is among the continents where the battle over genetically modified crops is currently being played out. The impact of GM in Africa could potentially be very positive. In Uganda, researchers have developed transgenic banana lines resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt. The transgenic lines expressing hrap and pflp can provide a timely solution to the pandemic. However, the impact of the transgenes expression on non-target microorganisms has not yet been investigated. To study this effect, transgenic and control lines were grown under field conditions and their associated microbiome was investigated by 16S rRNA gene profiling combining amplicon sequencing and molecular fingerprinting. Three years after sucker planting, no statistically significant differences between transgenic lines and their non-modified predecessors were detected for their associated bacterial communities. The overall gammaproteobacterial rhizosphere microbiome was highly dominated by Xanthomonadales, while Pseudomonadales and Enterobacteriales were accumulated in the pseudostem. Shannon indices revealed much higher diversity in the rhizosphere than in the pseudostem endosphere. However, the expression of the transgenes did not result in changes in the diversity of Gammaproteobacteria, the closest relatives of the target pathogen. In this field experiment, the expression of the resistance genes appears to have no consequences for non-target rhizobacteria and endophytes.

  6. Influence of meteorology and anthropogenic pollution on chemical flux divergence of the NO-NO2-O3 triad above and within a natural grassland canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Plake

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The detailed understanding of surface–atmosphere exchange of reactive trace gas species is a crucial precondition for reliable modeling of processes in atmospheric chemistry. Plant canopies significantly impact the atmospheric budget of trace gases. In the past, many studies focused on taller forest canopies or crops, where the bulk plant material is concentrated in the uppermost canopy layer. However, within grasslands, a land-cover class that globally covers vast terrestrial areas, the canopy structure is fundamentally different, as the main biomass is concentrated in the lowest canopy part. This has obvious implications for aerodynamic in-canopy transport, and consequently also impacts on global budgets of key species in atmospheric chemistry such as nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and ozone (O3. This study presents for the first time a~comprehensive data set of directly measured in-canopy transport times and aerodynamic resistances, chemical timescales, Damköhler numbers, trace gas and micrometeorological measurements for a natural grassland canopy (canopy height = 0.6 m. Special attention is paid to the impact of contrasting meteorological and air chemical conditions on in-canopy transport and chemical flux divergence. Our results show that the grassland canopy is decoupled throughout the day. In the lower canopy, the measured transport times are fastest during nighttime, which is due to convection during nighttime and stable stratification during daytime in this layer. The inverse was found in the layers above. During periods of low wind speed and high NOx (NO+NO2 levels, the effect of canopy decoupling on trace gas transport was found especially distinct. The aerodynamic resistance in the lower canopy (0.04–0.2 m was around 1000 s m−1, thus as high as values from literature representing the lowest meter of an Amazonian rain forest canopy. The aerodynamic resistance representing the bulk canopy was found to be more than 3

  7. Modeling of forest canopy BRDF using DIRSIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Rajagopalan; Schott, John R.

    2016-05-01

    The characterization and temporal analysis of multispectral and hyperspectral data to extract the biophysical information of the Earth's surface can be significantly improved by understanding its aniosotropic reflectance properties, which are best described by a Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF). The advancements in the field of remote sensing techniques and instrumentation have made hyperspectral BRDF measurements in the field possible using sophisticated goniometers. However, natural surfaces such as forest canopies impose limitations on both the data collection techniques, as well as, the range of illumination angles that can be collected from the field. These limitations can be mitigated by measuring BRDF in a virtual environment. This paper presents an approach to model the spectral BRDF of a forest canopy using the Digital Image and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model. A synthetic forest canopy scene is constructed by modeling the 3D geometries of different tree species using OnyxTree software. The field collected spectra from the Harvard forest is used to represent the optical properties of the tree elements. The canopy radiative transfer is estimated using the DIRSIG model for specific view and illumination angles to generate BRDF measurements. A full hemispherical BRDF is generated by fitting the measured BRDF to a semi-empirical BRDF model. The results from fitting the model to the measurement indicates a root mean square error of less than 5% (2 reflectance units) relative to the forest's reflectance in the VIS-NIR-SWIR region. The process can be easily extended to generate a spectral BRDF library for various biomes.

  8. Simultaneous Improvement in Water Use, Productivity and Albedo Through Crop Structural Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D.; Kumar, P.; Long, S.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural lands provide a tremendous opportunity to address challenges at the intersection of climate change, food and water security. Global demand for the major grain and seed crops is beginning to outstrip production, while population growth and the expansion of the global middle class have motivated calls for a doubling of food production by the middle of this century. This is occurring as yield gains for the major food crops have stagnated. At current rates of yield improvement this doubling will not be achieved. Plants have evolved to maximize the capture of radiation in the upper leaves, resulting in sub-optimal monoculture crop fields for maximizing productivity and other biogeophysical services. Using the world's most important protein crop, soybean, as an example, we show that by applying numerical optimization to a micrometeorological crop canopy model that significant, simultaneous gains in water use, productivity and reflectivity are possible with no increased demand on resources. Here we apply the MLCan multi-layer canopy biophysical model, which vertically resolves the radiation and micro-environmental variations that stimulate biochemical and ecophysiological functions that govern canopy-atmosphere exchange processes. At each canopy level photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and energy balance are solved simultaneously for shaded and sunlit foliage. A multi-layer sub-surface model accounts for water availability as a function of root biomass distribution. MLCan runs at sub-hourly temporal resolution, allowing it to capture variability in CO2, water and energy exchange as a function of environmental variability. By modifying total canopy leaf area, its vertical distribution, leaf angle, and shortwave radiation reflectivity, all traits available in most major crop germplasm collections, we show that increases in either productivity (7%), water use (13%) or albedo (34%) could be achieved with no detriment to the other objectives, under United

  9. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  10. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  11. Estimating FPAR of maize canopy using airborne discrete-return LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shezhou; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan; Pan, Feifei

    2014-03-10

    The fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) is a key parameter for ecosystem modeling, crop growth monitoring and yield prediction. Ground-based FPAR measurements are time consuming and labor intensive. Remote sensing provides an alternative method to obtain repeated, rapid and inexpensive estimates of FPAR over large areas. LiDAR is an active remote sensing technology and can be used to extract accurate canopy structure parameters. A method to estimating FPAR of maize from airborne discrete-return LiDAR data was developed and tested in this study. The raw LiDAR point clouds were processed to separate ground returns from vegetation returns using a filter method over a maize field in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China. The fractional cover (fCover) of maize canopy was computed using the ratio of canopy return counts or intensity sums to the total of returns or intensities. FPAR estimation models were established based on linear regression analysis between the LiDAR-derived fCover and the field-measured FPAR (R(2) = 0.90, RMSE = 0.032, p LiDAR-predicted FPARs and results show that the LiDAR-predicted FPAR has a high accuracy (R(2) = 0.89, RMSE = 0.034). In summary, this study suggests that the airborne discrete-return LiDAR data could be adopted to accurately estimate FPAR of maize.

  12. Dual redundant display in bubble canopy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Ken; Niemczyk, James

    2010-04-01

    Today's cockpit integrator, whether for state of the art military fast jet, or piston powered general aviation, is striving to utilize all available panel space for AMLCD based displays to enhance situational awareness and increase safety. The benefits of a glass cockpit have been well studied and documented. The technology used to create these glass cockpits, however, is driven by commercial AMLCD demand which far outstrips the combined worldwide avionics requirements. In order to satisfy the wide variety of human factors and environmental requirements, large area displays have been developed to maximize the usable display area while also providing necessary redundancy in case of failure. The AMLCD has been optimized for extremely wide viewing angles driven by the flat panel TV market. In some cockpit applications, wide viewing cones are desired. In bubble canopy cockpits, however, narrow viewing cones are desired to reduce canopy reflections. American Panel Corporation has developed AMLCD displays that maximize viewing area, provide redundancy, while also providing a very narrow viewing cone even though commercial AMLCD technology is employed suitable for high performance AMLCD Displays. This paper investigates both the large area display architecture with several available options to solve redundancy as well as beam steering techniques to also limit canopy reflections.

  13. What is in a label? Rainforest-Alliance certified banana production versus non-certified conventional banana production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson; Svensson, Ola; Brink, van den Paul J.; Tedengren, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Export banana production in Latin America is pesticide intensive, receiving much negative publicity regarding human health problems and environmental degradation. The Rainforest Alliance (RA) certification scheme was established to certify farms that met a number of social, occupation health and

  14. AquaCrop model simulation under different irrigation water and nitrogen strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshravesh, Mojtaba; Mostafazadeh-Fard, Behrouz; Heidarpour, Manouchehr; Kiani, Ali-Reza

    2013-01-01

    On a global scale, irrigated agriculture consumes about 72% of available freshwater resources. Deficit irrigation can be applied in the field to save irrigation water and still lead to acceptable crop production. The AquaCrop model is a simulation model for management of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer. This model is a new model that is accurate, robust and requires fewer data inputs compared with the other models. The purpose of this study was to simulate canopy cover, grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) for soybean using the AquaCrop model. A field line source sprinkler irrigation system was conducted under full and deficit irrigation using different nitrogen fertilizer applications during two cropping seasons for soybean at Gorgan province in Iran. The simulation results showed a reasonably accurate prediction of yield, canopy cover and WUE in all cases (error less than 23%). The simulated pattern of canopy progression over time was close to measured values, with Willmott's index of agreement for all the cases being ≥0.95 for different parameters. The AquaCrop model has the ability to simulate the WUE of soybean under different irrigation water and nitrogen applications. This model is a useful tool for managing the crop water productivity.

  15. Genotypic difference in canopy diffusive conductance measured by a new remote-sensing method and its association with the difference in rice yield potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Takeshi; Matsuura, Shoji; Takai, Toshiyuki; Kuwasaki, Kouhei; Ohsumi, Akihiro; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko

    2006-04-01

    There have been few practical ways of measuring physiological determinants of rice yield. Rapid evaluation of yield determination traits may expedite breeding of high-yielding rice. Here, we report a new remote-sensing technique for the evaluation of canopy ecophysiological status under field conditions developed based on simultaneous measurements of sunlit and suddenly shaded canopy temperatures. This technique has the advantage of instantaneous estimation of aerodynamic resistance (r(a)) and canopy diffusive resistance (r(c) without measuring wind velocity. Canopy diffusive conductance (1 / r(c)) estimated by the remote sensing method was closely related to leaf stomatal conductance (g(s)) measured with a portable gas exchange system. This result supported the validity of this new method for quantitative estimation of canopy physiological characteristics. Significant genotypic differences were obtained in canopy-air temperature difference (Tc-Ta), r(c) and 1 / r(c) during the 2-week period preceding full heading for two years, and 1 / r(c) was highly correlated with crop growth rate (CGR), which was closely related to the final yield. These results suggest that 1 / r(c) can be an effective criterion for the selection of high-yielding rice genotypes, and the remote sensing technique proposed here can be a powerful tool for the rapid evaluation of 1 / r(c) under field conditions.

  16. Can cover crops reduce the hydrological connectivity in rainfed orchards with limited water availability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Meerkerk; B. van Wesemael; L.H. Cammeraat

    2007-01-01

    Land degradation forms a severe problem in the extensive olive and almond plantations in Southeast Spain. Under rainfed conditions, the canopy cover of these systems is typically below 30%: the soil is frequently tilled to avoid competition for water between the tree crop and weeds and to increase t

  17. Maize Yield Estimation Through the Simulation of Radiation Penetration Into the Canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musembi, David Kasina

    It is essential for planning purposes to be able to assess or predict the output of vital crops in order to develop strategies to cope with shortfalls or surplusses with sufficient lead time. This is usually done by developing yield prediction models based on well specified production factors. Crop yield results from the interaction among plant, physical and environmental factors. Radiation is a key environmental factor in this regard and the principal driver of the biological system. When all the other conditions are optimum, productivity is a function of the available energy and the size of the plant surface able to trap it. However, the distribution of radiation within the plant canopy is uncertain. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the light extinction coefficients of three maize hybrids of different morphological description are different; whether these coefficients change with time during the growing season; and attempt to establish the nature of the relationships between biomass accumulation and the observed morphological plant characters. The extinction coefficients of the three hybrids were not significantly different. They increased with vegetative growth to reach maxima at anthesis and decreased subsequently as the crops approached physiological maturity. These coefficients were used to fit Beer-Bougher type regressions for predicting light penetration into the various canopy levels. There were significant differences in light penetration, among the hybrids, during the growing season as well as within each day. The largest leaf area (index) and the highest light absorption occurred at the top layer of the canopies. Moreover, the highest light penetration into the canopies does not appear to take place at zenith but seems to occur when the solar elevation and leaf angles reach certain critical values. Leaf area index (LAI) had the greatest effect on light penetration during the growing season while the effect of leaf angle was

  18. Canopy-scale relationships between stomatal conductance and photosynthesis in irrigated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Keisuke; Maruyama, Atsushi; Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Mano, Masayoshi; Takimoto, Takahiro; Hayashi, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Miyata, Akira

    2013-07-01

    Modeling stomatal behavior is critical in research on land-atmosphere interactions and climate change. The most common model uses an existing relationship between photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. However, its parameters have been determined using infrequent and leaf-scale gas-exchange measurements and may not be representative of the whole canopy in time and space. In this study, we used a top-down approach based on a double-source canopy model and eddy flux measurements throughout the growing season. Using this approach, we quantified the canopy-scale relationship between gross photosynthesis and stomatal conductance for 3 years and their relationships with leaf nitrogen content throughout each growing season above a paddy rice canopy in Japan. The canopy-averaged stomatal conductance (gsc ) increased with increasing gross photosynthesis per unit green leaf area (Ag ), as was the case with leaf-scale measurements, and 41-90% of its variation was explained by variations in Ag adjusted to account for the leaf-to-air vapor-pressure deficit and CO2 concentration using the Leuning model. The slope (m) in this model (gsc versus the adjusted Ag ) was almost constant within a 15-day period, but changed seasonally. The m values determined using an ensemble dataset for two mid-growing-season 15-day periods were 30.8 (SE = 0.5), 29.9 (SE = 0.7), and 29.9 (SE = 0.6) in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively; the overall mid-season value was 30.3 and did not greatly differ among the 3 years. However, m appeared to be higher during the early and late growing seasons. The ontogenic changes in leaf nitrogen content strongly affected Ag and thus gsc . In addition, we have discussed the agronomic impacts of the interactions between leaf nitrogen content and gsc . Despite limitations in the observations and modeling, our canopy-scale results emphasize the importance of continuous, season-long estimates of stomatal model parameters for crops using top-down approaches.

  19. Fusarium Wilt of Banana Is Caused by Several Pathogens Referred to as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium wilt of banana (also known as Panama disease) is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Where susceptible cultivars are grown, management is limited to the use of pathogen-free planting stock and clean soils. Resistant genotypes exist for some applications, but resistance is still needed in other situations. Progress has been made with this recalcitrant crop by traditional and nontraditional improvement programs. The disease was first reported in Australia in 1876, but did the greatest damage in export plantations in the western tropics before 1960. A new variant, tropical race 4, threatens the trades that are now based on Cavendish cultivars, and other locally important types such as the plantains. Phylogenetic studies indicate that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense had several independent evolutionary origins. The significance of these results and the future impact of this disease are discussed.

  20. [Climatic risk zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Huo, Zhi-guo; He, Nan; Xiao, Jing-jing; Wen, Quan-pei

    2010-05-01

    Based on the 1951-2006 climatic observation data from 224 meteorological stations in South China (Guangdong Province, Guangxi Autonomous Region, and Fujian Province) and the historical information about the chilling injury losses of banana and litchi, the accumulated harmful chilling for the processes with minimum daily temperature zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury were drawn, and the spatial variation of climatic risk for banana and litchi's chilling injury was commented. The results indicated that in the study area, climate warming might lead to the decrease of cold resistance of banana and litchi, which could increase the disaster risk of chilling injury. The geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for banana and litchi's chilling injury showed a zonal pattern. According to the integrated climatic risk index, the banana and litchi's chilling injury region was divided into three risk types, i.e., high risk, moderate risk, and low risk, which provided an important basis for the adjustment of agricultural production structure.

  1. Anaerobic Biodegradability and Methane Potential of Crop Residue Co-Digested with Buffalo Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability and BMP (Biochemical Methane Potential of banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw co-digested with buffalo dung was evaluated through AMPTS (Automatic Methane Potential Test System. The substrates were analyzed for moisture, TS (Total Solids and VS (Volatile Solids, ultimate analysis (CHONS, pH and TA (Total Alkalinity. The BMPobserved during incubation of 30 days at the temperature of 37±0.2°C was 322 Nml CH4/g VSadd for wheat straw followed by 260, 170, 149, 142 and 138 Nml CH4/gVSadd for canola straw, rice straw, cotton stalks, banana plant waste and sugarcane trash respectively, whereas the maximum theoretical BMP was 481 Nml CH4/gVSadd for cotton stalks, followed by 473, 473, 446, 432 and 385 Nml CH4/gVSadd for wheat straw, banana plant waste, canola straw, rice straw and sugarcane trash respectively. The percentage ABD values were in the range of 68-30%. In addition to this, the effect of lignin content in the crop residue was evaluated on the ABD. The results of this study indicate that, the co-digestion of the crop residues with buffalo dung is feasible for production of renewable methane

  2. Production and Marketing Status of Bananas and Plantains in Africa%非洲香蕉和大蕉产销概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沛政; 冯慧敏

    2011-01-01

    非洲是全球重要的香蕉和大蕉产出地。2009年非洲香蕉总产约为世界的12.6%;大蕉总产约为世界的81%。两者合计非洲香蕉和大蕉总产约为世界的28%。尤其在非洲撒哈拉边缘,大蕉占了当地大约1亿居民主食的四分之一。非洲香蕉和大蕉主生产区主要分布在非洲东部、西部和中部。东部非洲各国香蕉总产大约为780万t,平均每公顷香蕉产出仅6.7t;大蕉总产大约为1 400万t;香蕉产量上乌干达、卢旺达,坦桑尼亚,肯尼亚分别为前4名;大蕉产量方面,坦桑尼亚,布隆迪、乌干达、肯尼亚分别为前4名。西部非洲各个国家香蕉总产大约为92万t;大蕉总产大约为840万t;香蕉产量上科特迪瓦、几内亚、利比里亚、加纳分别为前4名;大蕉产量方面加纳、尼日利亚、科特迪瓦、几内亚分别为前4名。中部非洲各个国家香蕉总产大约为170万t;平均每公顷单产约7 t;大蕉总产大约为306万t;香蕉产量中安哥拉、喀麦隆、刚果民主共和国、中非分别为前4名;大蕉产量方面喀麦隆、刚果民主共和国、加蓬、中非分别为前4名。尽管非洲是重要的大蕉和香蕉生产区,但只有香蕉被用于出口,目前非洲香蕉出口地主要集中在欧共体市场,占欧共体市场11%的份额,其出口长期由喀麦隆和象牙塔国家垄断,自2006年后加纳开拓了欧盟市场。%Africa is the main production region of bananas and plantains(Musa spp.) in the world.The total of bananas in Africa occupies 12.6% of banana production of the world,and plantains(AAB genome) occupy up to 81%.Putting bananas and plantains together,it account for 28% of banana consumed in the world.Bananas and plantains are important food crops in the humid forest and mid-altitude zones of sub-Saharan Africa and provide more than 25% of the carbohydrates for approximately 100 million people in the producing regions.Central,Easter and West Africa is important

  3. RESISTANT STARCH AND BIOACTIVE CONTENTS OF UNRIPE BANANA FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING PERIODS AND ITS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various innovative products from unripe banana flour have been reported as it is high in resistant starch and other important compounds. The harvesting period of the unripe banana fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of the unripe banana flour in terms of resistant starch and bioactive compound content. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the harvesting stages of unripe banana fruit on Resistant Starch (RS content, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity and the application of unripe banana flour to prepare high RS rice noodle. Four different harvesting stages of banana fruits of Musa sapientum Linn including 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after bloom, were processed for banana flours. The results indicated that the maturation stages affected RS, some bioactive contents, antioxidant activities. The highest RS content (48.88% of banana flour was obtained from the 105 day banana fruits. The total phenolic and carotenoid contents were high in the banana flours harvested between 75 and 105 days. The unripe banana flour could be substituted for rice flour as high as 80% and contained RS content as high as 18.64% whereas the commercial rice noodle had 4.21% of RS content. Therefore, the preparation of unripe banana flour from banana fruit harvested at 105 days and applying it in the preparation of functional food is promising.

  4. A parameterization of momentum roughness length and displacement height for a wide range of canopy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verhoef

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Values of the momentum roughness length, z0, and displacement height, d, derived from wind profiles and momentum flux measurements, are selected from the literature for a variety of sparse canopies. These include savannah, tiger-bush and several row crops. A quality assessment of these data, conducted using criteria such as available fetch, height of wind speed measurement and homogeneity of the experimental site, reduced the initial total of fourteen sites to eight. These datapoints, combined with values carried forward from earlier studies on the parameterization of z0 and d, led to a maximum number of 16 and 24 datapoints available for d and z0, respectively. The data are compared with estimates of roughness length and displacement height as predicted from a detailed drag partition model, R92 (Raupach, 1992, and a simplified version of this model, R94 (Raupach, 1994. A key parameter in these models is the roughness density or frontal area index, λ. Both the comprehensive and the simplified model give accurate predictions of measured z0 and d values, but the optimal model coefficients are significantly different from the ones originally proposed in R92 and R94. The original model coefficients are based predominantly on measured aerodynamic parameters of relatively closed canopies and they were fitted `by eye'. In this paper, best-fit coefficients are found from a least squares minimization using the z0 and d values of selected good-quality data for sparse canopies and for the added, mainly closed canopies. According to a statistical analysis, based on the coefficient of determination (r2, the number of observations and the number of fitted model coefficients, the simplified model, R94, is deemed to be the most appropriate for future z0 and d predictions. A CR value of 0.35 and a cd1 value of about 20 are found to be appropriate for a large range of canopies varying in density from closed to very sparse. In this case, 99% of the total variance

  5. Crop area and leaf area index simultaneous retrieval based on spatial scaling transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Accurate estimation of crop yields is crucial for ensuring food security. However, crops are distributed so fragmentally in China that mixed pixels account for a large proportion in moderate and coarse resolution remote sensing images. As a result, unmixing of mixed pixel becomes a major problem to estimate crop yield by means of remote sensing method. Aimed at mixed pixels, we developed a new method to introduce additional information contained in the spatial scaling transformation equation to the canopy reflectance model. The crop area and LAI can be retrieved simultaneously. On the basis of a precise and simple canopy reflectance model, directional second derivative method was chosen to retrieve LAI from optimal bands of hyper-spectral data; this method can reduce the impact of the canopy non-isotropic features and soil background. To evaluate the performance of the method, Yingke Oasis, Zhangye City, Gansu Province, was chosen as the validation area. This area was covered mainly by maize and wheat. A Hyperion/EO-1 image with the 30 m spatial resolution was acquired on July 15, 2008. Images of 180 m and 1080 m resolutions were generated by linearly interpolating the original Hyperion image to coarser resolutions. Then a multi-scale image serial was obtained. Using the proposed method, we calculated crop area and the average LAI of every 1080 m pixel. A SPOT-5 classification figure serves as the validation data of crop area proportion. Results show that the pattern of crop distribution accords with the classification figure. The errors are restrained mainly to -0.1-0.1, and approximate a Normal Distribution. Meanwhile, 85 LAI values obtained using LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer, equipped with GPS, were taken as the ground reference. Results show that the standard deviation of the errors is 0.340. The method proposed in the paper is reliable.

  6. Transgenic banana expressing Pflp gene confers enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukwaya, B; Tripathi, L; Tripathi, J N; Arinaitwe, G; Mukasa, S B; Tushemereirwe, W K

    2012-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases of banana (Musa sp.) and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. The development of disease resistant banana cultivars remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. In this study, we demonstrate that BXW can be efficiently controlled using transgenic technology. Transgenic bananas expressing the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of banana. These transgenic lines were characterized by molecular analysis. After challenge with X. campestris pv. musacearum transgenic lines showed high resistance. About 67% of transgenic lines evaluated were completely resistant to BXW. These transgenic lines did not show any disease symptoms after artificial inoculation of in vitro plants under laboratory conditions as well as potted plants in the screen-house, whereas non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study confirms that expression of the Pflp gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. This transgenic technology can provide a timely solution to the BXW pandemic.

  7. Involvement of phenolic compounds in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassois, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot of bananas, caused by a fungal parasitic complex, is one of the main quality defects of exported bananas. Major variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot have been observed in different production zones. The physiological state of the banana fruit at harvest is said to influence its response to pathogenic attack and thus to modulate its susceptibility to crown rot. The susceptibility of bananas to this disease, however, appears to be influenced by many pre-harvest factors, although the underlying defense mechanisms have not been clearly identified. A recent report based on molecular analyses suggests that phenolic compounds might be involved in the different variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. Results of other earlier studies point to an involvement of phenolic compounds in the defensive reactions of banana plants against various pathogens. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge on the variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot and takes stock of what is known about phenolic compounds in relation to their potential involvement in the defense mechanisms of the banana plant.

  8. Carotenoid-rich bananas: a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, Lois; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Coyne, Terry; Fitzgerald, Maureen H; Marks, Geoffrey C

    2003-12-01

    This review article points out that bananas are an important food for many people in the world. Thus, banana cultivars rich in provitamin A carotenoids may offer a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Many factors are associated with the presently known food sources of vitamin A that limit their effectiveness in improving vitamin A status. Acceptable carotenoid-rich banana cultivars have been identified in Micronesia, and some carotenoid-rich bananas have been identified elsewhere. Bananas are an ideal food for young children and families for many regions of the world, because of their sweetness, texture, portion size, familiarity, availability, convenience, versatility, and cost. Foods containing high levels of carotenoids have been shown to protect against chronic disease, including certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Because the coloration of the edible flesh of the banana appears to be a good indicator of likely carotenoid content, it may be possible to develop a simple method for selecting carotenoid-rich banana cultivars in the community. Research is needed on the identification of carotenoid-rich cultivars, targeting those areas of the world where bananas are a major staple food; investigating factors affecting production, consumption, and acceptability; and determining the impact that carotenoid-rich bananas may have on improving vitamin A status. Based on these results, interventions should be undertaken for initiating or increasing homestead and commercial production.

  9. Canopy light environment influences apple leaf physiology and fruit quality

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Several experiments were conducted to determine: the influence of canopy position, girdling, and defoliation on nectar production; whether instantaneous light measurements yield reliable estimates of cumulative seasonal light levels within the canopy; and the effect of the canopy light environment on spur leaf physiology and fruit quality. Defoliation of nongirdled flowering spurs had no effect on nectar production or composition, while defoliation of girdled spurs n~duced nectar sugar concen...

  10. Polynomial analysis of canopy spectra and biochemical component content inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chunyan; LIU Qiang; NIU Zheng; WANG Jihua; HUANG Wenjiang; LIU Liangyun

    2005-01-01

    A polynomial expression model was developed in this paper to describe directional canopy spectra, and the decomposition of the polynomial expression was used as a tool for retrieving biochemical component content from canopy multi-angle spectra. First, the basic formula of the polynomial expression was introduced and the physical meaning of its terms and coefficients was discussed. Based on this analysis, a complete polynomial expression model and its decomposition method were given. By decomposing the canopy spectra simulated with SAILH model, it shows that the polynomial expression can not only fit well the canopy spectra, but also show the contribution of every order scattering to the whole reflectance. Taking the first scattering coefficients a10 and a01 for example, the test results show that the polynomial coefficients reflect very well the hot spot phenomenon and the effects of viewing angles, LAI and leaf inclination angle on canopy spectra. By coupling the polynomial expression with leaf model PROSPECT, a canopy biochemical component content inversion model was given. In the simulated test, the canopy multi-angle spectra were simulated by two different models, SAILH and 4-SCALE respectively, then the biochemical component content was retrieved by inverting the coupled polynomial expression + PROSPECT model. Results of the simulated test are promising, and when applying the algorithm to measured corn canopy multi-angle spectra, we also get relatively accurate chlorophyll content. It shows that the polynomial analysis provides a new method to get biochemical component content independent of any specific canopy model.

  11. Flow over a Ram-Air Parachute Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslambolchi, Ali; Johari, Hamid

    2012-11-01

    The flow field over a full-scale, ram-air personnel parachute canopy was investigated numerically using a finite-volume flow solver coupled with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Ram-air parachute canopies resemble wings with arc-anhedral, surface protuberances, and an open leading edge for inflation. The rectangular planform canopy had an aspect ratio of 2.2 and was assumed to be rigid and impermeable. The chord-based Reynolds number was 3.2 million. Results indicate that the oncoming flow barely penetrates the canopy opening, and creates a large separation bubble below the lower lip of canopy. A thick boundary layer exists over the entire lower surface of the canopy. The flow over the upper surface of the canopy remains attached for an extended fraction of the chord. Lift increases linearly with angle of attack up to about 12 degrees. To assess the capability of lifting-line theory in predicting the forces on the canopy, the lift and drag data from a two-dimensional simulation of the canopy profile were extended using finite-wing expressions and compared with the forces from the present simulations. The finite-wing predicted lift and drag trends compare poorly against the full-span simulation, and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio is over-predicted by 36%. Sponsored by the US Army NRDEC.

  12. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  13. Evaporation from rain-wetted forest in relation to canopy wetness, canopy cover, and net radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.

    2001-01-01

    Evaporation from wet canopies is commonly calculated using E-PM, the Penman-Monteith equation with zero surface resistance. However, several observations show a lower evaporation from rain-wetted forest. Possible causes for the difference between E-PM and experiments are evaluated to provide rules f

  14. Fatty acid content and antioxidant activity of Thai bananas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirawan Banditpuritat and Rungthip Kawaree

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aril extracts of three Thai banana varieties, namely “Kluai Khai”(KK, “Kluai Namwa”(KN and “Kluai Hom”(KH were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. GC-MS data were used to identify 5 methyl esters of each banana extract after transesterification. The most prominent components found in KK, KN and KH were hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (43.17, 29.18, 30.57 % respectively, 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester (35.93, 30.46, 39.68 % respectively, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (14.35, 36.10, 21.82 % respectively, 9-hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (3.76, 3.34, 3.32 % respectively and octadecanoic acid methyl ester (2.79, 0.92, 4.60 % respectively. The antioxidant activity of the crude oils was evaluated using DPPH method.

  15. CHANGES OF BACKSCATTERING PARAMETERS DURING CHILLING INJURY IN BANANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORHASHILA HASHIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in backscattering parameters during the appearance of chilling injury in bananas was investigated. Bananas were stored at a chilling temperature for two days and the degrees of the chilling injuries that appeared were measured before, during and after storage using backscattering imaging and visual assessment. Laser lights at 660 nm and 785 nm wavelengths were shot consecutively onto the samples in a dark room and a camera was used to capture the backscattered lights that appeared on the samples. The captured images were analysed and the changes of intensity against pixel count were plotted into graphs. The plotted graph provides useful information of backscattering parameters such as inflection point (IP, slope after inflection point (SA, and full width at half maximum (FWHM and saturation radius (RSAT. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there were significant changes of these backscattering parameters as chilling injury developed.

  16. 从a hand of bananas 说起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋飞洛

    2001-01-01

    @@ 英语怎么说“一串香蕉”?我们可以说a bunch of bananas,也可以说a handof bananas.但是,后者更趋形象生动.名词hand在此起双重作用,它既表示“串”(bunch),相当汉语“量词”,又含有一种巧妙的比喻,bananas为本体,而hand则成了喻体.类似a hand of bananas的表达在英语中不为鲜见.如hand这样起双重作用的名词可作以下分类.

  17. Heat shock induced excision of selectable marker genes in transgenic banana by the Cre-lox site-specific recombination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Pérez, Borys; Kosky, Rafael G; Reyes, Maritza; Rojas, Luis; Ocaña, Bárbara; Tejeda, Marisol; Pérez, Blanca; Angenon, Geert

    2012-06-30

    Selectable marker genes are indispensable for efficient production of transgenic events, but are no longer needed after the selection process and may cause public concern and technological problems. Although several gene excision systems exist, few have been optimized for vegetatively propagated crops. Using a Cre-loxP auto-excision strategy, we obtained transgenic banana plants cv. Grande Naine (Musa AAA) devoid of the marker gene used for selection. We used T-DNA vectors with the cre recombinase gene under control of a heat shock promoter and selectable marker gene cassettes placed between two loxP sites in direct orientation, and a gene of interest inserted outside of the loxP sites. Heat shock promoters pGmHSP17.6-L and pHSP18.2, from soybean and Arabidopsis respectively, were tested. A transient heat shock treatment of primary transgenic embryos was sufficient for inducing cre and excising cre and the marker genes. Excision efficiency, as determined by PCR and Southern hybridization was 59.7 and 40.0% for the GmHSP17.6-L and HSP18.2 promoters, respectively. Spontaneous excision was not observed in 50 plants derived from untreated transgenic embryos. To our knowledge this is the first report describing an efficient marker gene removal system for banana. The method described is simple and might be generally applicable for the production of marker-free transgenic plants of many crop species.

  18. Vegetation index-based crop coefficients to estimate evapotranspiration by remote sensing in agricultural and natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E.P.; Neale, C. M. U.; Hunsaker, D.J.; Nagler, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Crop coefficients were developed to determine crop water needs based on the evapotranspiration (ET) of a reference crop under a given set of meteorological conditions. Starting in the 1980s, crop coefficients developed through lysimeter studies or set by expert opinion began to be supplemented by remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI) that measured the actual status of the crop on a field-by-field basis. VIs measure the density of green foliage based on the reflectance of visible and near infrared (NIR) light from the canopy, and are highly correlated with plant physiological processes that depend on light absorption by a canopy such as ET and photosynthesis. Reflectance-based crop coefficients have now been developed for numerous individual crops, including corn, wheat, alfalfa, cotton, potato, sugar beet, vegetables, grapes and orchard crops. Other research has shown that VIs can be used to predict ET over fields of mixed crops, allowing them to be used to monitor ET over entire irrigation districts. VI-based crop coefficients can help reduce agricultural water use by matching irrigation rates to the actual water needs of a crop as it grows instead of to a modeled crop growing under optimal conditions. Recently, the concept has been applied to natural ecosystems at the local, regional and continental scales of measurement, using time-series satellite data from the MODIS sensors on the Terra satellite. VIs or other visible-NIR band algorithms are combined with meteorological data to predict ET in numerous biome types, from deserts, to arctic tundra, to tropical rainforests. These methods often closely match ET measured on the ground at the global FluxNet array of eddy covariance moisture and carbon flux towers. The primary advantage of VI methods for estimating ET is that transpiration is closely related to radiation absorbed by the plant canopy, which is closely related to VIs. The primary disadvantage is that they cannot capture stress effects or soil

  19. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-06-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed.

  20. A study of Yoshimoto Banana : Focusing on expression of sense

    OpenAIRE

    李, 銀炯

    2003-01-01

    Yoshimoto Banana's 'expression of sense' is based on human five senses (seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching). And her 'expression of sense' seems to be connected to the theme of her works by describing or implying mood, consciousness and feeling. 'Expression of sense' can reveal the individuality of a writer more than any other lingual expression because it is based on human subjectivity. In that point of view, I considered how her 'expression of sense'(which intend to bring great ef...

  1. Analytic expression for poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, M. [College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Narashino 275-8576 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    The poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime is calculated by improving the l = 1 approximation for the Fokker-Planck collision operator [M. Taguchi, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30, 1897 (1988)]. The obtained analytic expression for this flow, which can be used for general axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, agrees quite well with the recently calculated numerical results by Parker and Catto [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085011 (2012)] in the full range of aspect ratio.

  2. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  3. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We obser

  4. New Banana Planting Open Pit Machine Working Principle and Analysis%新型香蕉种植开坑机器的工作原理及结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢炳光; 马俊生; 汤华飞; 刘硕; 马桂香; 刘子良; 梁甲; 黄珍章

    2016-01-01

    针对大规模香蕉种植开坑机器的研发比较缺乏,设计了一种新型香蕉种植开坑机器,其具有开坑质量高、成本低及能适应不同挖坑要求的特点.同时,分析了新型香蕉种植开坑机器的工作原理,对螺旋式刀盘及重要零件利用Inventor自带应力分析模块建立了有限元模型.有限元分析的结果表明:新型香蕉种植开坑机器能够满足工作要求,且各零件满足刚度和强度的要求可为其他类似农作物开坑器的研制提供参考.%For large banana plantations of relative lack of research and development of the open pit machine, designed a new type of banana planting machine open pit.This machine has high quality open pit Lower cost, and can adapt to dif-ferent digging holes requirements analysis of the characteristics of a new type of banana planting the working principle of the open pit machine for spiral cutter disc and important parts of the finite element model is established by finite element analysis results show that a new type of banana planting open pit machine can meet the job requirements, and the parts meet the requirement of stiffness and strength.A new type of banana planting the development of the open pit machine can be used as crop other similar open pit machine developed to provide the reference.

  5. 恩泰克26在灌溉施肥中对香蕉产量和品质的影响%Effect of ENTEC Stabilized Nitrogen on the Yield and Quality of Banana under Fertigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖焱波; 万其宇; 葛旭

    2012-01-01

    田间研究了灌溉施肥中加入硝化抑制剂稳定性氮肥对香蕉产量和品质的影响.结果表明:恩泰克稳定性氮肥处理香蕉单株产量25.2kg/株,折合产量54.8×103 kg/hm2,比对照增产11.0%;香蕉果指数比对照增加15个/株;处理的香蕉可食部分、可溶性糖和Vc指标略高于对照;新型硝化抑制剂3,4-二甲基吡唑磷酸盐在灌溉施肥中具有广阔的应用前景.%Ecological nitrogen technology (ENTEC), a stabilized fertilizer with a nitrate inhibitor, can reduce nitrogen application rate by less nitrate leaching and save labor in European for many crops. In order to reduce nitrogen rate and save labor input in China's banana production, a field experiment was carried out in Nanning to investigate the effects of ENTEC on the yield increase of banana and its quality improvement, and the benefits and coat analysis was estimated thereafter. The results showed that ENTEC increased banana yields over traditional fertilizers management by 11%, the rate of nitrogen from ENTEC applied is less than that from traditional fertilizers at 200 g N per plant. Although cost of ENTEC is higher than that of traditional fertilizers, the benefit of ENTEC is also higher which compensates for the higher input cost of ENTEC, In summary, that fertilized banana with ENTEC is economical viable which offers a new perspective for banana nutrients management under fertigation.

  6. 多自由度自锁式香蕉收割机的有限元分析%Finite Element Analysis to Banana Harvester with Multi Degree of Freedom and Self Looking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢煜海; 曾昭文; 马桂香; 马俊生

    2016-01-01

    Due to the lack of research and development for large banana planting base of banana harvesting equipment , a multi degree of freedom and self-locking banana harvester was designed .The machine can harvest the various types of bananas .It has the characteristics of self-locking , multi degree of freedom movement , small transport etc .Through the analysis of the working principle of the machine , the finite element model is established for the key parts , and finite ele-ment analysis based on ANSYS is done .The results show that: the stiffness and strength of the harvester key parts can meet the requirements of the job .Design of banana harvester with multi degree of freedom and self locking can be provid-ed as a reference to other similar crop harvesting machinery .%针对大规模香蕉种植基地香蕉收割机具的研发比较缺乏,研制了一种多自由度自锁式香蕉收割机。该机可收割各型株高的香蕉,具有自锁、多自由度动作及小型运输等特点。通过分析该机的工作原理,对其关键零部件建立有限元模型,进行基于ANSYS的有限元分析。结果表明:收割机关键零部件的刚度和强度满足工作要求。自锁式多自由度香蕉收割机的研制可为其他类似农作物收割机具的研制提供参考。

  7. Study on the biomass change derived from the hyper-spectral data of cotton leaves in canopy under moisture stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li; CHEN Xi; WU Jianjun; FENG Xianwei; BAO Anming; MA Yaqin; WANG Dengwei

    2006-01-01

    In this study, an ASD spectrometer made in USA is used to derive the hyperspectral data of cotton leaves in canopy in north Xinjiang. The integral area variables of red edge are used to estimate the total nitrogen (TN) content in cotton leaves in canopy. The first order differential of reflective spectra is carried out. The analysis methods based on the spectral position variables are derived from the first order differential spectral data. The analysis on the correlation between the integral area of red edge (SDr, regarded as the independent variable) and the TN content (regarded as the function) is carried out,and the correlation mathematical model between the integral area of red edge and the TN content in canopy leaves of cotton varieties named as Xinluzao No.6 is developed. The analysis on the correlation between the chlorophyll content and the TN content in single cotton leaves in canopy growing under the irrigation with different water volumes is carried out.The results show that there is a significant positive correlation between the chlorophyll content and the TN content (R = 0.8723, n = 39), and the data of chlorophyll content can be used to estimate the TN content in single cotton leaves; the correlation between the integral area variable of red edge and the TN content in cotton leaves in canopy is significant,their correlation coefficient is 0.7394 (n =40), the TN contents in canopy leaves of cotton varieties named as Xinluzao No. 6 and No. 8 can be accurately estimated by using the developed model, and their RMSE values are 0.3859 and 0.4272 respectively.After researching, it is considered that there is an applying potential to use the integral area variables of red edge for estimating the TN content in cotton leaves in canopy, and the mathematical model developed with the third-side area variables has a high applying value in deriving the TN content in crop canopy. It is also considered that it is feasible to recognize the moisture stress suffered by

  8. Micronutrients in cereal crops

    OpenAIRE

    Hamnér, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Seven elements essential for plants are defined as micronutrients: boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). Deficiency of these nutrients can cause yield losses in crops and impaired crop quality. The overall aim of this thesis work was to increase the knowledge how micronutrients in Swedish cereal crops are affected by nutrient management and soil properties in order to improve crop status and avoid yield losses. Data from long term and s...

  9. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.

  10. Toxicity profile of commercially produced indigenous banana beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shale, K; Mukamugema, J; Lues, R J; Venter, P

    2012-08-01

    Mycotoxins, together with endotoxins, represent important classes of naturally occurring contaminants in food products, posing significant health risks to consumers. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of both Fusarium mycotoxins and endotoxins in commercially produced traditional banana beer. Two brands of commercially produced traditional banana beer were collected from a local retail market in Kigali, Rwanda. Beer samples were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B₁ and zearalenone (ZEA), using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The quantification of bacterial endotoxin using Limulus amoeboecyte lysate (LAL) assay was also conducted. The contamination levels were 20 and 6.7 µg kg⁻¹ for DON; 34 and 31.3 µg kg⁻¹ for FB₁; 0.66 and 2.2 µg kg⁻¹ for ZEA in brands A and B of the beers, respectively. Results indicate that the levels of Fusarium toxins and bacterial endotoxin reported in this study did not pose adverse human health effects as a result of drinking/consuming banana beer. However, exposure to low/sub-threshold doses or non-toxic levels of endotoxins magnifies the toxic effect of xenobiotic agents (e.g. fungal toxins) on liver and other target organs. Considering Fusarium toxins and/or endotoxin contamination levels in other agricultural commodities intended for human consumption, health risks might be high and the condition is aggravated when beer is contaminated by mixtures of the mycotoxins, as indicated in this study.

  11. The impact of in-canopy wind profile formulations on heat flux estimation in an open orchard using the remote sensing-based two-source model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cammalleri

    2010-12-01

    -meteorological measurements from a small aperture scintillometer and an eddy covariance tower collected over an olive orchard characterized by moderate fractional vegetation cover (≈35% and relatively tall crop (≈3.5 m. TSEB fluxes for the 7 image acquisition dates generated using both the Massman and Goudriaan in-canopy wind profile formulations give close agreement with measured fluxes, while the Lalic et al. equations yield poor results. The Massman wind profile scheme slightly outperforms that of Goudriaan, but it requires an additional parameter accounting for the roughness sub-layer of the underlying vegetative surface. The analysis also suggests that within-canopy wind profile model discrepancies become important, in terms of impact on modelled sensible heat flux, only for sparse canopies with moderate vegetation coverage.

  12. Sorghums as energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinsky, E. S.; Kresovich, S.

    1980-01-01

    The botanical, physiological, and agronomic characteristics of sorghum are described. Integration concepts to improve sorghum prospects are discussed as follows: multiple sweet sorghum crops each year, integration with sugarcane, integration with sugar beets, integration with starch crops, sweet stemmed grain sorghum, and integration with lignocellulosic crops. (MHR)

  13. Monitor key parameters of winter wheat using Crop model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibo, Yue; Haikuan, Feng; Xiudong, Qi

    2016-11-01

    Estimation of biomass, canopy cover and yield is very important to agricultural decision Precision Farming. During the winter wheat growing season of 2013/2014, field measurements were conducted at Yangling District, Shaanxi Province at the jointing stage, heading stage and filling stage. AquaCrop model and Particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to find the global optimal simulation when the intermediate variable was the biomass. Through the simulation for each of the experimental data, biomass, canopy coverage and soil moisture were verification by ground measurements. Based on 8 sets of data, the simulation accuracy was calculated. The RMSE, nRMSE, MAE and R2 between simulation and measured biomass were 1.06 ton/ha, 11.92%, 0.90 ton/ha and 0.92. The RMSE, nRMSE, MAE and R2 between simulation and measured canopy cover were 8.92%, 9.84%, 7.84% and 0.66, respectively. The simulation results show that the AquaCrop model can help the decision making of winter wheat field in arid areas.

  14. Tomato and cowpea crop evapotranspiration in an unheated greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Junzeng; Peng Shizhang; Luo Yufeng; Jiao Xiyun

    2008-01-01

    With the development of protected cultivation of vegetables in China, it is necessary to study the water requirements of crops in greenhouses. Lysimeter experiments were carried out to investigate tomato (2001) and cowpea (2004) crop evapotranspiration (ETc) in an unheated greenhouse in Eastern China. Results showed remarkably reduced crop evapotranspiration inside the greenhouse as compared with that outside. ETc increased with the growth of the crops, and varied in accordance with the temperature inside the greenhouse and 20-cm pan evaporation outside, reaching its maximum value at the stage when plants' growth was most active. Differences between the variation of crop evapotranspiration and pan evaporation inside the greenhouse were caused by shading of the pan in the later period when the crops were taller than the location where the pan was installed, 70 cm above ground. The ratio of crop evapotranspiration to pan evaporation was not constant as reported in previous studies, and the variation of the inside ratio αin lagged behind that of the outside ratio αout. Simulation of crop evapotranspiration based on 20-cm pan evaporation inside the greenhouse is more reasonable than that based on 20-cm pan evaporation outside, although pan evaporation outside is more consistent with ETc than that inside. The value of αin, calculated based on air temperature, relative humidity, and ground temperature inside, plays a dominant role in the calculation of ETc. As the crop height increases, altering the location of the inside pan and placing it above the canopy, out of the shade, would help to achieve more reasonable values of crop evapotranspiration.

  15. Tomato and cowpea crop evapotranspiration in an unheated greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Junzeng

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of protected cultivation of vegetables in China, it is necessary to study the water requirements of crops in greenhouses. Lysimeter experiments were carried out to investigate tomato (2001 and cowpea (2004 crop evapotranspiration (ETc in an unheated greenhouse in Eastern China. Results showed remarkably reduced crop evapotranspiration inside the greenhouse as compared with that outside. ETc increased with the growth of the crops, and varied in accordance with the temperature inside the greenhouse and 20-cm pan evaporation outside, reaching its maximum value at the stage when plants’ growth was most active. Differences between the variation of crop evapotranspiration and pan evaporation inside the greenhouse were caused by shading of the pan in the later period when the crops were taller than the location where the pan was installed, 70 cm above ground. The ratio of crop evapotranspiration to pan evaporation was not constant as reported in previous studies, and the variation of the inside ratio αin lagged behind that of the outside ratio αout. Simulation of crop evapotranspiration based on 20-cm pan evaporation inside the greenhouse is more reasonable than that based on 20-cm pan evaporation outside, although pan evaporation outside is more consistent with ETc than that inside. The value of αin, calculated based on air temperature, relative humidity, and ground temperature inside, plays a dominant role in the calculation of ETc. As the crop height increases, altering the location of the inside pan and placing it above the canopy, out of the shade, would help to achieve more reasonable values of crop evapotranspiration.

  16. Seasonal variation of nutrients leaves concentration of banana plants in Vale do Ribeira-SPVariação sazonal da concentração de nutrientes em folhas de bananeiras, no Vale do Ribeira-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Mendonça

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Vale do Ribeira, SP, main agricultural activity is the banana crop, which accounts for most of this fruit production in the State of São Paulo. The nutritional balance of the plant is one of the most important factors for the banana plant can complete the cycle and achieve high productivity. Aiming to evaluate the seasonal variation of leaf nutrient concentration in banana plants in Vale do Ribeira-SP, we used the results of 252 chemical analyses of plant tissue, collected from August 2009 to September 2010, in the 18 representative properties for the region, ten cultivated with subgroup Cavendish banana plant and eight of subgroup Prata banana plant. The largest variation between the macronutrient occurred for K and S, and among the micronutrients, especially for Fe and B. In some dates of evaluation, there was a higher leaf concentration of P, K, Ca and Zn, in subgroup Cavendish banana plants, while the subgroup Prata banana plants showed higher leaf concentration, especially of Mn, B and N. Climatic conditions, especially rain, influenced the leaf nutrient content, especially for K, N, S, B and Fe. O Vale do Ribeira, SP, tem como principal atividade agropecuária o cultivo da bananeira, sendo responsável pela maior parte da produção dessa frutífera no estado de São Paulo. O equilíbrio nutricional da planta é um dos fatores mais importantes para que esta consiga completar o ciclo e alcançar alta produtividade. Com o objetivo de avaliar a variação sazonal da concentração foliar de nutrientes em bananeiras cultivadas no Vale do Ribeira-SP, foram utilizados 252 resultados de análise química de nutrientes do tecido vegetal, coletados no período de agosto de 2009 a setembro de 2010, de 18 propriedades representativas na região, dez cultivadas com bananeira do subgrupo Cavendish e oito do subgrupo Prata. A maior variação entre os macronutrientes ocorreu para o K e o S e entre os micronutrientes, principalmente, para o Fe e o B

  17. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  18. "The Rotten Banana" Fires Back: The Story of a Danish Discourse of "Inclusive" Rurality in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Malene Brandt; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of a particular term--the Rotten Banana--has paralleled the one-sided centralisation of public services since the Danish Municipal Reform of 2007. The Rotten Banana denotes peripheral Denmark, which takes a geographically curved form that resembles a banana, and it symbolises the belief that rural areas are backward and (too)…

  19. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  20. Forest canopy BRDF simulation using Monte Carlo method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Wu, B.; Zeng, Y.; Tian, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Monte Carlo method is a random statistic method, which has been widely used to simulate the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of vegetation canopy in the field of visible remote sensing. The random process between photons and forest canopy was designed using Monte Carlo method.

  1. Subtropical Modern Greenhouse Cucumber Canopy Transpiration Under Summer Climate Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Wei-hong; WANG Xiao-han; DING Wei-min; CHEN Yu-qing; DAI Jian-feng

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse canopy transpiration not only has effects on greenhouse air temperature and humidity, but also is important for determining the set-point of fertigation. In this study, Penman-Monteith equation was used to calculate the greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration under summer climate condition.The effects of greenhouse environmental factors on canopy transpiration were analyzed based on the measurements of greenhouse microclimate factors and canopy transpiration. The results showed that Penman-Monteith equation was reliable and robust in estimating greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration under summer climate condition. Greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration rate increased linearly with the increase of net radiation and water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) above the canopy. But the maximum value of the canopy transpiration rate occurred at the same time as that of VPD whereas about two hours later than that of net radiation. Based on the results, it was concluded that in addition to radiation, air humidity should also be considered when determine the set-point of fertigation.

  2. A Preliminary Study of Active Region Canopies With AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Scott; Saar, S.; Muglach, K.

    2013-01-01

    Active region canopies are areas frequently accompanying active regions which have extensive horizontal magnetic fields. The large-scale canopy fields have a significant effect on the kinds of structures which can exist beneath them, and how they evolve. Using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), we developed methods to automatically identify these regions. A Differential Emission Measure (DEM) analysis is consistent with the idea that the long, hotter active region loops overlie quite cool, small-scale features ("fibrils"). We suggest that the overlying loops restrict the growth of underlying structures to mostly very short, cool features. We also studied evolution of canopy regions over time. In several cases, a large quiescent filament formed out of the former canopy region over the course of a few solar rotations, confirming previous suggestions. The canopy remains visible for several rotations after its active regions have begun to decay; in this time, the fibril magnetic fields gradually align in such a way as to form a filament channel. Further analysis of our large canopy database should uncover more information on the frequency and characteristics of these canopy-to-filament evolutions, as well as other canopy properties. This work is supported by the NSF REU program at SAO (grant ATM-0851866) and contract SP02H1701R from Lockheed Martin to SAO for SDO research.

  3. Hierarchical Canopy Dynamics of Electrolyte-Doped Nanoscale Ionic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Jespersen, Michael L.

    2013-12-23

    Nanoscale ionic materials (NIMs) are organic-inorganic hybrids prepared from ionically functionalized nanoparticles (NP) neutralized by oligomeric polymer counterions. NIMs are designed to behave as liquids under ambient conditions in the absence of solvent and have no volatile organic content, making them useful for a number of applications. We have used nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation and pulsed-field gradient NMR to probe local and collective canopy dynamics in NIMs based on 18-nm silica NPs with a covalently bound anionic corona, neutralized by amine-terminated ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymers. The NMR relaxation studies show that the nanosecond-scale canopy dynamics depend on the degree of neutralization, the canopy radius of gyration, and crowding at the ionically modified NP surface. Two canopy populations are observed in the diffusion experiments, demonstrating that one fraction of the canopy is bound to the NP surface on the time scale (milliseconds) of the diffusion experiment and is surrounded by a more mobile layer of canopy that is unable to access the surface due to molecular crowding. The introduction of electrolyte ions (Na+ or Mg2+) screens the canopy-corona electrostatic interactions, resulting in a reduced bulk viscosity and faster canopy exchange. The magnitude of the screening effect depends upon ion concentration and valence, providing a simple route for tuning the macroscopic properties of NIMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Optimality of nitrogen distribution among leaves in plant canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Kouki

    2016-05-01

    The vertical gradient of the leaf nitrogen content in a plant canopy is one of the determinants of vegetation productivity. The ecological significance of the nitrogen distribution in plant canopies has been discussed in relation to its optimality; nitrogen distribution in actual plant canopies is close to but always less steep than the optimal distribution that maximizes canopy photosynthesis. In this paper, I review the optimality of nitrogen distribution within canopies focusing on recent advancements. Although the optimal nitrogen distribution has been believed to be proportional to the light gradient in the canopy, this rule holds only when diffuse light is considered; the optimal distribution is steeper when the direct light is considered. A recent meta-analysis has shown that the nitrogen gradient is similar between herbaceous and tree canopies when it is expressed as the function of the light gradient. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain why nitrogen distribution is suboptimal. However, hypotheses explain patterns observed in some specific stands but not in others; there seems to be no general hypothesis that can explain the nitrogen distributions under different conditions. Therefore, how the nitrogen distribution in canopies is determined remains open for future studies; its understanding should contribute to the correct prediction and improvement of plant productivity under changing environments.

  5. The Draft Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the Black Sigatoka Pathogen of Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a fungal pathogen of banana and the causal agent of the devastating Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease. Its control requires weekly fungicide applications when bananas are grown under disease-conducive conditions, which mostly represent precarious tropical enviro...

  6. 77 FR 31829 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... the Continental United States'' and published in the Federal Register on April 16, 2012 (77 FR 22510... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the... the importation of fresh bananas from the Philippines into the continental United States....

  7. Detecting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in soil and symptomless banana tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Mutua, P.; Daly, A.; Chang, P.F.L.; Corcolon, B.M.; Paiva, L.; Souza, de M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a quarantine pathogen in many banana-producing regions of the world. Preventing further dissemination and precluding incursions into areas where it has not been observed is critical for maintaining local and commercial banana produc

  8. 78 FR 8957 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... coffeae (Green), the coffee root mealybug; Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), the hibiscus mealybug... establish low- prevalence places of production, harvesting only of hard green bananas, and inspection for...; Covering bananas with pesticide bags during the growing season; Harvesting only of hard green...

  9. Absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde in solutions by detached banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhidong; Qi, Chuanjiao; Chen, Qi; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2014-05-01

    Detached banana leaves are one of the by-products of banana production. In this study, the absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde (HCHO) in solutions by detached banana leaves was investigated under submergence conditions. The results showed that banana leaves could effectively absorb HCHO in the treatment solutions, and the relationship between HCHO absorption and treatment time appeared to fit a radical root function model. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to investigate the ability of detached banana leaves to metabolise H(13)CHO, and the results indicated that the H(13)CHO absorbed from the treatment solutions was converted into non-toxic compounds. High amounts of [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]fructose, [3-(13)C]serine and [3-(13)C]citrate were produced as a result of H(13)CHO metabolism in banana leaves, and the production of a small amount of [2,4-(13)C]citrate and [2,3-(13)C]alanine was also observed. These results suggest that detached banana leaves can metabolise H(13)CHO and convert it to non-toxic compounds. The metabolic pathways that produce these intermediates in detached banana leaves are postulated based on our (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance data.

  10. Within-plant distribution and binomial sampling of Pentalonia nigronervosa (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Jacqueline D; Wright, Mark G; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2006-12-01

    The banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae), infests banana (Musa spp.) worldwide. Pentalonia nigronervosa is the vector of Banana bunchy top virus (family Nanoviridae, genus Babuvirus) the etiological agent of Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD). BBTD is currently the most serious problem affecting banana in Hawaii. Despite the importance of this vector species, little is known about its biology or ecology. There are also no sampling plans available for P. nigronervosa. We conducted field surveys to develop a sampling plan for this pest. Ten plots were surveyed on seven commercial banana farms on the island of Oahu, HI, for the presence of P. nigronervosa on banana plantlets. We found aphids more frequently near the base of plants, followed by the newest unfurled leaf at the top of the plant. Aphids were least likely to be located on leaves in between the top and bottom of the plant. Aphid infestation on surveyed plots ranged from 8 to 95%. We developed a sequential binomial sampling plan based on our surveys. We also discovered that the within-plant distribution of P. nigronervosa is an important factor to consider when sampling for this pest. Our sampling plan will assist in the development of sustainable management practices for banana production.

  11. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to pheromone traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. A study was conducted in Uganda to determine the effect of mulching on banana (Musa spp. L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), m

  12. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on canopy transpiration in senescent spring wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, S.; Kimball, B.A.; Hunsaker, D.J.; Long, S.P. et al

    1998-12-31

    The seasonal course of canopy transpiration and the diurnal courses of latent heat flux of a spring wheat crop were simulated for atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations of 370 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1} and 550 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}. The hourly weather data, soil parameters and the irrigation and fertilizer treatments of the Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment wheat experiment in Arizona (1992/93) were used to drive the model. The simulation results were tested against field measurements with special emphasis on the period between anthesis and maturity. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat growth model. The simulated intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration, C{sub i} was determined from the ratio of C{sub i} to the CO{sub 2} concentration at the leaf surface, C{sub s}, the leaf to air specific humidity deficit and a possibly unfulfilled transpiration demand. After anthesis, the measured assimilation rates of the flag leaves decreased more rapidly than their stomatal conductances, leading to a rise in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. In order to describe this observation, an empirical model approach was developed which took into account the leaf nitrogen content for the calculation of the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. Simulation results obtained with the new model version were in good agreement with the measurements. If changes in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio accorded to the decrease in leaf nitrogen content during leaf senescence were not considered in the model, simulations revealed an underestimation of the daily canopy transpiration of up to twenty percent and a decrease in simulated seasonal canopy transpiration by ten percent. The measured reduction in the seasonal sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation owing to CO{sub 2} enrichment, in comparison, was only about five percent.

  13. First report of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 causing panama disease in cavendish bananas in Pakistan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordoñez, N.; García-Bastidas, F.; Laghari, H.B.; Akkary, M.Y.; Harfouche, E.N.; Awar, al B.N.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused byFusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubense(Foc), poses a great risk to global banana production. Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Foc, which affects Cavendish bananas as well as many other banana cultivars (Ploetz 2006), was confirmed for the first time outside Southeast Asia in Jord

  14. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  15. Image analysis to evaluate the browning degree of banana (Musa spp.) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Park, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Jun-Hyung; Choi, Ji-Young; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2016-03-01

    Image analysis was applied to examine banana peel browning. The banana samples were divided into 3 treatment groups: no treatment and normal packaging (Cont); CO2 gas exchange packaging (CO); normal packaging with an ethylene generator (ET). We confirmed that the browning of banana peels developed more quickly in the CO group than the other groups based on sensory test and enzyme assay. The G (green) and CIE L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) values obtained from the image analysis sharply increased or decreased in the CO group. And these colour values showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the sensory test results. CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values using a colorimeter also showed high correlation coefficients but comparatively lower than those of image analysis. Based on this analysis, browning of the banana occurred more quickly for CO2 gas exchange packaging, and image analysis can be used to evaluate the browning of banana peels.

  16. It is only a banana-Traveltime sensitivity kernels using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Traveltime sensitivity kernels for finite-frequency traveltimes computed using the Born or Rytov approximations admits hallow banana shaped responses in the plane of propagation and a circular doughnut shaped responses in the cross section. This suggests that finite-frequency traveltimes are insensitive to velocity information along the infinite-frequency ray path, which is obviously inaccurate and creates a disconnect in the traveltime dependency on frequency. Using the instantaneous traveltime of the wavefield, which is capable of unwrapping the phase function, we obtain traveltime sensitivity kernels that have plain banana shape responses, with the thickness of the banana governed by the investigated frequency. This result confirms that the hallow banana shape is simply a result of the wrapping of the phase of the wavefield, in which Born nor Rytov approximations can properly deal with. The instantaneous traveltime can, thus, mitigate the nonlinearity problem encountered in finite-frequency traveltime inversions that may arise from these hallow banana sensitivity kernels.

  17. Pineapple juice and its fractions in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana [Musa (AAA group) Gros Michel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisakdanugull, Chitsuda; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2007-05-16

    The effectiveness of pineapple juice in enzymatic browning inhibition was evaluated on the cut surface of banana slices. After storage of banana slices at 15 degrees C for 3 days, pineapple juice showed browning inhibition to a similar extent as 8 mM ascorbic acid but less than 4 mM sodium metabisulfite. Fractionation of pineapple juice by a solid-phase C18 cartridge revealed that the directly eluted fraction (DE fraction) inhibited banana polyphenol oxidase (PPO) about 100% when compared to the control. The DE fraction also showed more inhibitory effect than 8 mM ascorbic acid in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana puree during storage at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Further identification of the DE fraction by fractionation with ion exchange chromatography and confirmation using model systems indicated that malic acid and citric acid play an important role in the enzymatic browning inhibition of banana PPO.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Banana (AA Diploids with Contrasting Levels of Black and Yellow Sigatoka Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia F. Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most banana cultivars are susceptible to many diseases, whereas Sigatoka leads to greatest yield losses. One of the strategies to overcome this disease is thorough banana genetic breeding which consists in the obtainment of improved (AA diploids which are then crossed with triploids obtaining (AAAB tetraploid disease resistant bananas also presenting other important agronomic characteristics. The prior knowledge of the genetic diversity of (AA diploids, is therefore considered indispensable in order to direct the crosses being made. The objective of the present work was to analyze the genetic diversity of 20 (AA banana diploids with contrasting levels of reaction to yellow and black Sigatoka caused by Mycosphaerella musicola and M. fijensis, respectively, using molecular markers. From the dendrogram data it is shown that a great number of experimental hybrids can be obtained from the combination of genetically different diploids, therefore making the banana genetic breeding program more efficient regarding its objectives.

  19. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christelle BRUNO BONNET; Olivier HUBERT; Didier MBEGUIE-A-MBEGUIE; Dominique PALLET; Abel HIOL; Max REYNES; Patrick POUCHERET

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of maturation,ripening,and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine).Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method.The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening,while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase.Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening,its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile.Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation,ripening,and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M.acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  20. Forest canopy interception loss exceeds wet canopy evaporation in Japanese cypress (Hinoki) and Japanese cedar (Sugi) plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takami; Matsuda, Hiroki; Komatsu, Misako; Xiang, Yang; Takahashi, Atsuhiro; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2013-12-01

    Physical process of canopy interception loss remains to be explained.Rainfall partitioning to interception was similar between the stands.The rate of interception increased with rainfall intensity.Observed amount of interception was greater than estimated amount of evaporation.We suggest that splash droplets transport by canopy ventilation is the primary process of interception loss.

  1. Polychromatic Supplemental Lighting from underneath Canopy Is More Effective to Enhance Tomato Plant Development by Improving Leaf Photosynthesis and Stomatal Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Jiang, Chengyao; Gao, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Light insufficient stress caused by canopy interception and mutual shading is a major factor limiting plant growth and development in intensive crop cultivation. Supplemental lighting can be used to give light to the lower canopy leaves and is considered to be an effective method to cope with low irradiation stress. Leaf photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, and plant growth and development of young tomato plants were examined to estimate the effects of supplemental lighting with various composite spectra and different light orientations. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of polychromatic light quality, red + blue (R/B), white + red + blue (W/R/B), white + red + far-red (W/R/FR), and white + blue (W/B) were assembled from the underneath canopy or from the inner canopy as supplemental lighting resources. The results showed that the use of supplemental lighting significantly increased the photosynthetic efficiency, and reduced stomatal closure while promoting plant growth. Among all supplemental lighting treatments, the W/R/B and W/B from the underneath canopy had best performance. The different photosynthetic performances among the supplemental lighting treatments are resulted from variations in CO2 utilization. The enhanced blue light fraction in the W/R/B and W/B could better stimulate stomatal opening and promote photosynthetic electron transport activity, thus better improving photosynthetic rate. Compared with the inner canopy treatment, the supplemental lighting from the underneath canopy could better enhance the carbon dioxide assimilation efficiency and excessive energy dissipation, leading to an improved photosynthetic performance. Stomatal morphology was highly correlated to leaf photosynthesis and plant development, and should thus be an important determinant for the photosynthesis and the growth of greenhouse tomatoes. PMID:28018376

  2. Polychromatic supplemental lighting from underneath canopy is more effective to enhance tomato plant development by improving leaf photosynthesis and stomatal regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Light insufficient stress caused by canopy interception and mutual shading is a major factor limiting plant growth and development in intensive crop cultivation. Supplemental lighting can be used to give light to the lower canopy leaves and is considered to be an effective method to cope with low irradiation stress. Leaf photosynthesis, stomatal regulation and plant growth and development of young tomato plants were examined to estimate the effects of supplemental lighting with various composite spectra and different light orientations. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs of polychromatic light quality, red + blue (R/B, white + red + blue (W/R/B, white + red + far-red (W/R/FR, and white + blue (W/B were assembled from the underneath canopy or from the inner canopy as supplemental lighting resources. The results showed that the use of supplemental lighting significantly increased the photosynthetic efficiency, and reduced stomatal closure while promoting plant growth. Among all supplemental lighting treatments, the W/R/B and W/B from the underneath canopy had best performance. The different photosynthetic performances among the supplemental lighting treatments are resulted from variations in CO2 utilization. The enhanced blue light fraction in the W/R/B and W/B could better stimulate stomatal opening and promote photosynthetic electron transport activity, thus better improving photosynthetic rate. Compared with the inner canopy treatment, the supplemental lighting from the underneath canopy could better enhance the carbon dioxide assimilation efficiency and excessive energy dissipation, leading to an improved photosynthetic performance. Stomatal morphology was highly correlated to leaf photosynthesis and plant development, and should thus be an important determinant for the photosynthesis and the growth of greenhouse tomatoes.

  3. TropGENE-DB, a multi-tropical crop information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Manuel; Rouard, Mathieu; Raboin, Louis Marie; Lartaud, Marc; Lagoda, Pierre; Courtois, Brigitte

    2004-01-01

    TropGENE-DB, is a crop information system created to store genetic, molecular and phenotypic data of the numerous yet poorly documented tropical crop species. The most common data stored in TropGENE-DB are information on genetic resources (agro-morphological data, parentages, allelic diversity), molecular markers, genetic maps, results of quantitative trait loci analyses, data from physical mapping, sequences, genes, as well as the corresponding references. TropGENE-DB is organized on a crop basis with currently three running modules (sugarcane, cocoa and banana), with plans to create additional modules for rice, cotton, oil palm, coconut, rubber tree, pineapple, taro, yam and sorghum. The TropGENE-DB information system is accessible for consultation via the internet at http://tropgenedb.cirad.fr. Specific web consultation interfaces have been designed to allow quick consultations as well as complex queries.

  4. Forward Canopy Feasibility and Thru-the-Canopy (TTC) Ejection System Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Include Area Code) 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL Lt. Tong C. Choe, William R. Pinnell (513) 255-6524 WRDC/FIVR DO FORM 1473,84 MAR 83 APR edition may be used until...configuration. Figure 4 illustrates two configurations for forward and aft arch edge attachment. In each case the structural integrity for bird resistance is...Number 1 utilizes independent initi- ators for ground egress. In some ground egress cases it may be desirable to select either the primary canopy

  5. Turbulence in vertical axis wind turbine canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Matthias; Araya, Daniel B.; Dabiri, John O.

    2015-11-01

    Experimental results from three different full scale arrays of vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) under natural wind conditions are presented. The wind velocities throughout the turbine arrays are measured using a portable meteorological tower with seven, vertically staggered, three-component ultrasonic anemometers. The power output of each turbine is recorded simultaneously. The comparison between the horizontal and vertical energy transport for the different turbine array sizes shows the importance of vertical transport for large array configurations. Quadrant-hole analysis is employed to gain a better understanding of the vertical energy transport at the top of the VAWT arrays. The results show a striking similarity between the flows in the VAWT arrays and the adjustment region of canopies. Namely, an increase in ejections and sweeps and decrease in inward and outward interactions occur inside the turbine array. Ejections are the strongest contributor, which is in agreement with the literature on evolving and sparse canopy flows. The influence of the turbine array size on the power output of the downstream turbines is examined by comparing a streamwise row of four single turbines with square arrays of nine turbine pairs. The results suggest that a new boundary layer forms on top of the larger turbine arrays as the flow adjusts to the new roughness length. This increases the turbulent energy transport over the whole planform area of the turbine array. By contrast, for the four single turbines, the vertical energy transport due to turbulent fluctuations is only increased in the near wake of the turbines. These findings add to the knowledge of energy transport in turbine arrays and therefore the optimization of the turbine spacing in wind farms.

  6. Development of Green Banana (Musa paradisiaca as Potential Food Packaging Films and Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanani Z. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical properties. The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapour permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical

  7. Secagem de bananas prata e d'água por convecção forçada Drying of banana prata and banana d'água by forced convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência de variáveis como cultivar, formato (cilindro e disco, branqueamento e condições do ar aquecido (temperatura: 50 e 70 ºC e velocidade: 0,14 e 0,42 m/s sobre o comportamento de secagem convectiva de bananas com uso de modelagem matemática. As bananas foram desidratadas em secador de bandejas e pesada em intervalos pré-determinados. O modelo exponencial foi bem ajustado às curvas de secagem (R²: 0,98-0,99, mostrando que os fatores mais influentes sobre a taxa de secagem foram a temperatura, a velocidade do ar e o branqueamento. De acordo com as constantes cinéticas apresentadas pelo modelo recomenda-se a secagem de banana, em qualquer dos formatos estudados, nas seguintes condições: para banana-prata, uso de branqueamento e secagem a 50 ºC/0,42 m/s; e para banana-d'água, sem uso de branqueamento e secagem a 70 ºC/0,42 m/s.The influence of variables such as cultivar, shape (cylinder and disc, blanching, and heated air conditions (temperatures of 50 and 70 ºC and velocities of 0.14 and 0.42 m/s on convective drying behavior of bananas using mathematical modeling. The bananas were dehydrated in a tray dryer and were weighed in predetermined periods of time. The exponential model showed good agreement with the drying curves (R²: 0.98-0.99 indicating that the factors that influenced the drying rate the most were temperature, air velocity, and blanching. According to the kinetics constants obtained with the model, the drying of bananas is recommended, including all shapes investigated under the following conditions: banana prata, blanching and drying at 50 ºC/0.42 m/s; and banana d'água, no blanching and drying at 70 ºC/0.42 m/s.

  8. Productivity, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, and light use efficiency in crops: implications for remote sensing of crop primary production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Anatoly A; Peng, Yi; Arkebauer, Timothy J; Suyker, Andrew E

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation productivity metrics such as gross primary production (GPP) at the canopy scale are greatly affected by the efficiency of using absorbed radiation for photosynthesis, or light use efficiency (LUE). Thus, close investigation of the relationships between canopy GPP and photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation is the basis for quantification of LUE. We used multiyear observations over irrigated and rainfed contrasting C3 (soybean) and C4 (maize) crops having different physiology, leaf structure, and canopy architecture to establish the relationships between canopy GPP and radiation absorbed by vegetation and quantify LUE. Although multiple LUE definitions are reported in the literature, we used a definition of efficiency of light use by photosynthetically active "green" vegetation (LUE(green)) based on radiation absorbed by "green" photosynthetically active vegetation on a daily basis. We quantified, irreversible slowly changing seasonal (constitutive) and rapidly day-to-day changing (facultative) LUE(green), as well as sensitivity of LUE(green) to the magnitude of incident radiation and drought events. Large (2-3-fold) variation of daily LUE(green) over the course of a growing season that is governed by crop physiological and phenological status was observed. The day-to-day variations of LUE(green) oscillated with magnitude 10-15% around the seasonal LUE(green) trend and appeared to be closely related to day-to-day variations of magnitude and composition of incident radiation. Our results show the high variability of LUE(green) between C3 and C4 crop species (1.43 g C/MJ vs. 2.24 g C/MJ, respectively), as well as within single crop species (i.e., maize or soybean). This implies that assuming LUE(green) as a constant value in GPP models is not warranted for the crops studied, and brings unpredictable uncertainties of remote GPP estimation, which should be accounted for in LUE models. The uncertainty of GPP estimation due to facultative and

  9. 基于冠层上下部温差的冠层阻力计算%Calculation of canopy resistance using air temperature difference between canopy top and bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩霞; 周新国; 孙景生

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the calculation method of maize canopy resistance under alternative furrow irrigation with water deficit, field experiments were carried out at the experiment field of crop water requirement of Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in 2009 and 2010 seasons. Leaf stomatal conductivity, solar radiation, air temperature, canopy temperature and humidity, and wind speed were measured simultaneously on sunny day at maize growing stage of seeding, jointing, heading, and filling. Three models of canopy resistance, including the model of Jarvis (1976), Ortega-Farias et al (2004), and Brisson et al (1998), were introduced. The temperature difference between canopy top and bottom (∆Tc) was determined as an environmental factor representing the response of leaf resistance to soil moisture with the relationship between maize leaf resistance and the temperature difference between canopy top and bottom (∆Tc) with different soil moisture at different growing stages. Therefore, with improving the multi-factors model of Jarvis (1976), the canopy resistance of maize under alternative furrow irrigation with water deficit was developed by introducing a variable of ∆Tc, i.e. the canopy stomatal model based on ∆Tc. There were four response functions of canopy resistance to environmental factors, i.e. solar radiation, vapor press deficit, air temperature, and temperature difference between canopy top and bottom. These response functions was determined with the relationship between the stomatal conductivity of maize leaf and four environmental factors. Parameters of the environmental stress function of the canopy resistance model developed in this study were optimized using the iterative calculation of the least square method. Parameters of b1, b2, c1, d1, g1, and g2 in the model were 1.12, 380,-0.387, 0.0048, -0.236, and 1.087, respectively. The canopy resistance model was validated with comparison with the model

  10. A Three-Dimensional Index for Characterizing Crop Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Torrion

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of remotely sensed estimates of canopy minus air temperature (Tc-Ta for detecting crop water stress can be limited in semi-arid regions, because of the lack of full ground cover (GC at water-critical crop stages. Thus, soil background may restrict water stress interpretation by thermal remote sensing. For partial GC, the combination of plant canopy temperature and surrounding soil temperature in an image pixel is expressed as surface temperature (Ts. Soil brightness (SB for an image scene varies with surface soil moisture. This study evaluates SB, GC and Ts-Ta and determines a fusion approach to assess crop water stress. The study was conducted (2007 and 2008 on a commercial scale, center pivot irrigated research site in the Texas High Plains. High-resolution aircraft-based imagery (red, near-infrared and thermal was acquired on clear days. The GC and SB were derived using the Perpendicular Vegetation Index approach. The Ts-Ta was derived using an array of ground Ts sensors, thermal imagery and weather station air temperature. The Ts-Ta, GC and SB were fused using the hue, saturation, intensity method, respectively. Results showed that this method can be used to assess water stress in reference to the differential irrigation plots and corresponding yield without the use of additional energy balance calculation for water stress in partial GC conditions.

  11. Tree Canopy Light Interception Estimates in Almond and a Walnut Orchards Using Ground, Low Flying Aircraft, and Satellite Based Methods to Improve Irrigation Scheduling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrance, Richard C.; Johnson, Lee; Soderstrom, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Canopy light interception is a main driver of water use and crop yield in almond and walnut production. Fractional green canopy cover (Fc) is a good indicator of light interception and can be estimated remotely from satellite using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. Satellite-based Fc estimates could be used to inform crop evapotranspiration models, and hence support improvements in irrigation evaluation and management capabilities. Satellite estimates of Fc in almond and walnut orchards, however, need to be verified before incorporating them into irrigation scheduling or other crop water management programs. In this study, Landsat-based NDVI and Fc from NASA's Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) were compared with four estimates of canopy cover: 1. light bar measurement, 2. in-situ and image-based dimensional tree-crown analyses, 3. high-resolution NDVI data from low flying aircraft, and 4. orchard photos obtained via Google Earth and processed by an Image J thresholding routine. Correlations between the various estimates are discussed.

  12. Global patterns and determinants of forest canopy height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shengli; Guo, Qinghua; Li, Chao; Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun

    2016-12-01

    Forest canopy height is an important indicator of forest biomass, species diversity, and other ecosystem functions; however, the climatic determinants that underlie its global patterns have not been fully explored. Using satellite LiDAR-derived forest canopy heights and field measurements of the world's giant trees, combined with climate indices, we evaluated the global patterns and determinants of forest canopy height. The mean canopy height was highest in tropical regions, but tall forests (>50 m) occur at various latitudes. Water availability, quantified by the difference between annual precipitation and annual potential evapotranspiration (P-PET), was the best predictor of global forest canopy height, which supports the hydraulic limitation hypothesis. However, in striking contrast with previous studies, the canopy height exhibited a hump-shaped curve along a gradient of P-PET: it initially increased, then peaked at approximately 680 mm of P-PET, and finally declined, which suggests that excessive water supply negatively affects the canopy height. This trend held true across continents and forest types, and it was also validated using forest inventory data from China and the United States. Our findings provide new insights into the climatic controls of the world's giant trees and have important implications for forest management and improvement of forest growth models.

  13. Medium term ecohydrological response of peatland bryophytes to canopy disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Rhoswen; Kettridge, Nick; Krause, Stefan; Devito, Kevin; Granath, Gustaf; Petrone, Richard; Mandoza, Carl; Waddington, James Micheal

    2016-04-01

    Canopy disturbance in northern forested peatlands is widespread. Canopy changes impact the ecohydrological function of moss and peat, which provide the principal carbon store within these carbon rich ecosystems. Different mosses have contrasting contributions to carbon and water fluxes (e.g. Sphagnum fuscum and Pleurozium schreberi) and are strongly influenced by canopy cover. As a result, changes in canopy cover lead to long-term shifts in species composition and associated ecohydrological function. Despite this, the medium-term response to such disturbance, the associated lag in this transition to a new ecohydrological and biogeochemical regime, is not understood. Here we investigate this medium term ecohydrological response to canopy removal using a randomised plot design within a north Albertan peatland. We show no significant ecohydrological change in treatment plots four years after canopy removal. Notably, Pleurozium schreberi and Sphagnum fuscum remained within respective plots post treatment and there was no significant difference in plot resistance to evapotranspiration or carbon exchange. Our results show that canopy removal alone has little impact on bryophyte ecohydrology in the short/medium term. This resistance to disturbance contrasts strongly with dramatic short-term changes observed within mineral soils suggesting that concurrent shifts in the large scale hydrology induced within such disturbances are necessary to cause rapid ecohydrological transitions. Understanding this lagged response is critical to determine the decadal response of carbon and water fluxes in response to disturbance and the rate at which important medium term ecohydrological feedbacks are invoked.

  14. The multispectral reflectance of shortwave radiation by agricultural crops in relation with their morphological and optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunnik, N.J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Relations between morphological properties of uniform canopies. optical properties of the leaves and reflection of shortwave radiation, in the visible light region and the near infrared, by crops are the subject of this thesis.The aim of the study was a further investigation of potential application

  15. Relationships of crop and soil management systems to meteorological variables and potato diseases on a Russet burbank cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop, soil and water management systems may alter microclimatic conditions and affect plant growth and pest dynamics. However, the extent to which meteorological variables of potato canopy may be impacted in a humid temperate region has not been adequately ascertained. Field plots of a Russet Burban...

  16. Numerical simulation of cropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Hutchinson, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Cropping is a cutting process whereby opposing aligned blades create a shearing failure by exerting opposing forces normal to the surfaces of a metal sheet or plate. Building on recent efforts to quantify cropping, this paper formulates a plane strain elastic-plastic model of a plate subject...... shearing accompanying the cutting process. Specifically, it provides insight into the influence of the material's microscopic shear strength and toughness on the total work of cropping. The computational model does not account for deformation of the cropping tool, friction between sliding surfaces...

  17. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content

    OpenAIRE

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Bindelle, Jérôme; Angeesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence o...

  18. An Electrostatic Lens to Reduce Parallax in Banana Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Van Esch, P; Medjoubi, K; Esch, Patrick Van; Clergeau, Jean-Francois; Medjoubi, Kadda

    2005-01-01

    Cylindrical "banana" gas detectors are often used in fixed-target experiments, because they are free of parallax effects in the equatorial plane. However, there is a growing demand to increase the height of these detectors in order to be more efficient or to cover more solid angle, and hence a parallax effect starts to limit the resolution in that direction. In this paper we propose a hardware correction for this problem which reduces the parallax error thanks to an applied potential on the front window that makes the electrostatic field lines radially pointing to the interaction point at the entrance window. A detailed analytical analysis of the solution is also presented.

  19. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H T Nguyen; J P Bedel; J C Rouillon; J P Marcerou; M F Achard

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we present a review of five-rings banana-shaped molecules derived from isophthalic acids. This study deals with about a hundred compounds and most of them have not been published. By a combination of several linking groups and different selected substituents either on the outer rings or on the central core, several mesophases with switching properties are induced. The study of homologous series underlines the importance of the length and nature of the terminal chains. X-ray analysis reveals several new structures.

  20. Folded isometric deformations and banana-shaped seedpod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Etienne

    2016-08-01

    Thin vegetal shells have recently been a significant source of inspiration for the design of smart materials and soft actuators. Herein is presented a novel analytical family of isometric deformations with a family of θ-folds crossing a family of parallel z-folds; it contains the isometric deformations of a banana-shaped surface inspired by a seedpod, which converts a vertical closing into either an horizontal closing or an opening depending on the location of the fold. Similarly to the seedpod, optimum shapes for opening ease are the most elongated ones.

  1. Soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and crop yield under compost, biochar and co-composted biochar in two tropical agronomic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Adrian M., E-mail: adrian.bass@glasgow.ac.uk [Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science, College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland 4870 (Australia); Bird, Michael I. [Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science, College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland 4870 (Australia); Kay, Gavin [Terrain Natural Resource Management, 2 Stitt Street, Innisfail, Queensland 4860 (Australia); Muirhead, Brian [Northern Gulf Resource Management Group, 317 Byrnes Street, Mareeba, Queensland 4880 (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    ABSTRACT: The addition of organic amendments to agricultural soils has the potential to increase crop yields, reduce dependence on inorganic fertilizers and improve soil condition and resilience. We evaluated the effect of biochar (B), compost (C) and co-composted biochar (COMBI) on the soil properties, crop yield and greenhouse gas emissions from a banana and a papaya plantation in tropical Australia in the first harvest cycle. Biochar, compost and COMBI organic amendments improved soil properties, including significant increases in soil water content, CEC, K, Ca, NO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4} and soil carbon content. However, increases in soil nutrient content and improvements in physical properties did not translate to improved fruit yield. Counter to our expectations, banana crop yield (weight per bunch) was reduced by 18%, 12% and 24% by B, C and COMBI additions respectively, and no significant effect was observed on the papaya crop yield. Soil efflux of CO{sub 2} was elevated by addition of C and COMBI amendments, likely due to an increase in labile carbon for microbial processing. Our data indicate a reduction in N{sub 2}O flux in treatments containing biochar. The application of B, C and COMBI amendments had a generally positive effect on soil properties, but this did not translate into a crop productivity increase in this study. The benefits to soil nutrient content, soil carbon storage and N{sub 2}O emission reduction need to be carefully weighed against potentially deleterious effects on crop yield, at least in the short-term. - Highlights: • Biochar and compost amendment has potential to improve tropical agriculture. • We monitored soil health, gas fluxes and crop yield under biochar and compost. • Biochar improved soil nutrient content, water retention and reduced N{sub 2}O emissions. • Biochar significantly reduced banana yield performance and did not affect papaya yield. • Organic amendment is not an ‘always win’ scenario for tropical

  2. Ecohydrological responses of dense canopies to environmental variability: 2. Role of acclimation under elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D. T.; Kumar, P.; Long, S.; Bernacchi, C.; Liang, X.-Z.; Sivapalan, M.

    2010-12-01

    to elevated CO2. The unique metabolic pathways of the C3 soybean and C4 maize produce contrasting modes of response to elevated CO2 for each crop. To examine the relative roles of direct reduction in stomatal aperature, observed structural augmentation of leaf area, and biochemical down-regulation of Rubisco carboxylation capacity in soybean, a set of simulations were conducted in which one or more of these acclimations are synthetically removed. A 10% increase in canopy leaf area is shown to offset the ecophysiologically driven reduction in latent energy flux by 40% on average at midday. Considering all observed acclimations for soybean, average midday LE (H) were decreased (increased) by 10.5 (18) [W m-2]. A lack of direct stimulation of photosynthesis for maize, and no observed structural or biochemical acclimation resulted in decreases (increases) in average midday LE (H) by 40-50 [W m-2]. An examination of canopy-scale responses at a range of CO2 concentrations projected to be seen over the coming century showed a general continuation in the direction of flux responses. Flux responses showed little sensitivity to assumptions of constant versus linear trends in structural and biochemical acclimation magnitudes over the 400-700 [ppm] concentration range examined here.

  3. [Segmentation of Winter Wheat Canopy Image Based on Visual Spectral and Random Forest Algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-dong; Cui, Ri-xian

    2015-12-01

    Digital image analysis has been widely used in non-destructive monitoring of crop growth and nitrogen nutrition status due to its simplicity and efficiency. It is necessary to segment winter wheat plant from soil background for accessing canopy cover, intensity level of visible spectrum (R, G, and B) and other color indices derived from RGB. In present study, according to the variation in R, G, and B components of sRGB color space and L*, a*, and b* components of CIEL* a* b* color space between wheat plant and soil background, the segmentation of wheat plant from soil background were conducted by the Otsu's method based on a* component of CIEL* a* b* color space, and RGB based random forest method, and CIEL* a* b* based random forest method, respectively. Also the ability to segment wheat plant from soil background was evaluated with the value of segmentation accuracy. The results showed that all three methods had revealed good ability to segment wheat plant from soil background. The Otsu's method had lowest segmentation accuracy in comparison with the other two methods. There were only little difference in segmentation error between the two random forest methods. In conclusion, the random forest method had revealed its capacity to segment wheat plant from soil background with only the visual spectral information of canopy image without any color components combinations or any color space transformation.

  4. Seasonal diets of insectivorous birds using canopy gaps in a bottomland forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa, T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Sorenson, Clyde E.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Mike D.

    2007-07-01

    ABSTRACT. Little is known about how insectivorous bird diets are influenced by arthropod availability and about how these relationships vary seasonally. We captured birds in forest-canopy gaps and adjacent mature forest during 2001 and 2002 at the Savannah River Site in Barnwell County, South Carolina, and flushed their crops to gather information about arthropods eaten during four periods: spring migration, breeding, postbreeding, and fall migration. Arthropod availability for foliage- and ground-gleaning birds was examined by leaf clipping and pitfall trapping. Coleopterans and Hemipterans were used by foliage- and ground-gleaners more than expected during all periods, whereas arthropods in the orders Araneae and Hymenoptera were used as, or less than, expected based on availability during all periods. Ground-gleaning birds used Homopterans and Lepidopterans in proportions higher than availability during all periods. Arthropod use by birds was consistent from spring through all migration, with no apparent seasonal shift in diet. Based on concurrent studies, heavily used orders of arthropods were equally abundant or slightly less abundant in canopy gaps than in the surrounding mature forest, but bird species were most frequently detected in gaps. Such results suggest that preferential feeding on arthropods by foliage-gleaning birds in p p habitats reduced arthropod densities or, alternatively, that bird use of gap and forest habitat was not determined y food resources. The abundance of arthropods across the stand may have allowed birds to remain in the densely vegetated gaps where thick cover provides protection from predators.

  5. Comparative analysis of the drought-responsive transcriptome in soybean lines contrasting for canopy wilting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Silvas J; Joshi, Trupti; Mutava, Raymond N; Syed, Naeem; Joao Vitor, Maldonado Dos Santos; Patil, Gunvant; Song, Li; Wang, JiaoJiao; Lin, Li; Chen, Wei; Shannon, J Grover; Valliyodan, Babu; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-11-01

    Drought stress causes significant yield losses in major oil seed crops, such as soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr]. Few soybean lines have been identified as canopy-wilting tolerant; however, the molecular mechanism conferring tolerance is not fully understood. To understand the biological process, a whole genome transcriptome analysis was performed for leaf tissues of two contrasting soybean lines: drought-susceptible (DS) Pana and drought-tolerant (DT) PI 567690. A pairwise comparison of the DS and DT lines under drought and control conditions detected 1914 and 670 genes with a greater than two-fold change in expression under drought conditions. Pairwise treatment comparison and gene enrichment analysis on the DT line showed the down-regulation of genes associated with protein binding, hydrolase activity, carbohydrate/lipid metabolism, xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases associated with cell-wall, apoplast, and chlorophyll a/b binding proteins. On the other hand, genes that were associated with the biotic stress response, ion binding and transport, the oxido-reductive process and electron carrier activity were up-regulated. Gene enrichment analysis detected UDP glucuronosyl transferase activity-encoding genes to be differentially expressed in PI 567690 under drought stress conditions. We found valuable SNPs variation in aquaporin genes of the DT line that are conserved in known slower canopy-wilting lines, this should facilitate marker-assisted selection in soybeans with improved drought tolerance.

  6. Modeling bulk canopy resistance from climatic variables for predicting hourly evapotranspiration of maize and buckwheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haofang; Shi, Haibin; Hiroki, Oue; Zhang, Chuan; Xue, Zhu; Cai, Bin; Wang, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    This study presents models for predicting hourly canopy resistance ( r c) and evapotranspiration (ETc) based on Penman-Monteith approach. The micrometeorological data and ET c were observed during maize and buckwheat growing seasons in 2006 and 2009 in China and Japan, respectively. The proposed models of r c were developed by a climatic resistance ( r *) that depends on climatic variables. Non-linear relationships between r c and r * were applied. The measured ETc using Bowen ratio energy balance method was applied for model validation. The statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences between predicted ETc by proposed models and measured ETc for both maize and buckwheat crops. The model for predicting ETc at maize field showed better performance than predicting ETc at buckwheat field, the coefficients of determination were 0.92 and 0.84, respectively. The study provided an easy way for the application of Penman-Monteith equation with only general available meteorological database.

  7. Laboratory scale production of maltodextrins and glucose syrup from banana starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Moreno-Damían, Esther; Toro-Vazquez, Jorge F

    2002-01-01

    Banana starch was isolated to obtain maltodextrin by enzymatic hydrolysis with a heat-stable alpha-amylase. The maltodextrin obtained had a dextrose equivalent (DE) between 7-11 and showed suitable chemical characteristics for food application. Additionally, banana maltodextrin had a greater white color value and total color difference (delta E) than a sample of commercial maltodextrin. Further saccharification of the maltodextrins was carried out with amyloglucosidase and pullulanase at 60 degrees C during 24 h obtaining a glucose syrup. Chemical characteristics of banana glucose syrup were compared with those of a commercial syrup obtaining similar results. Nevertheless, the color of banana glucose syrup was clearer than the one of a sample of commercial syrup. However, it showed lower color stability than the commercial sample, i.e., the color of banana glucose syrup changed as a function of storage time. Banana starch may be used to obtain maltodextrins and glucose syrups with similar chemical characteristics of those obtained from maize starch. Particularly, the color of banana maltodextrin is adequate for its use in food products.

  8. Study on oil absorbency of succinic anhydride modified banana cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenting; Sheng, Zhanwu; Shen, Yixiao; Ai, Binling; Zheng, Lili; Yang, Jingsong; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-05-05

    Banana cellulose contained number of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups which were succinylated to be hydrophobic groups with high oil affinity. Succinic anhydride was used to modify banana cellulose in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in this study. The modified banana cellulose had a high oil absorption capacity. The effects of reaction time, temperature, and molar ratio of succinic anhydride to anhydroglucose on the degree of substitution of modified banana cellulose were evaluated. The optimal reaction condition was at a ratio of succinic anhydride and anhydroglucose 6:1 (m:m), reaction time 60min and temperature 90°C. The maximum degree of acylation reaction reached to 0.37. The characterization analysis of the modified banana cellulose was performed using X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry. The oil absorption capacity and kinetics of the modified banana cellulose were evaluated at the modified cellulose dose (0.025-0.3g), initial oil amount (5-30g), and temperature (15-35°C) conditions. The maximum oil absorption capacity was 32.12g/g at the condition of the cellulose dose (0.05g), initial oil amount (25g) and temperature (15°C). The kinetics of oil absorption of the cellulose followed a pseudo-second-order model. The results of this study demonstrated that the modified banana cellulose could be used as an efficient bio-sorbent for oil adsorption.

  9. Canopy Level Solar Induced Fluorescence for Vegetation in Controlled Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, E. M.; Corp, L. A.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva

    2007-01-01

    estimates derived using FluorMOD, a radiative transfer model that includes fluorescence properties of foliage, when provided with our supporting measurements. Simulated values for SIF were also compared with similar estimates made over three years for corn (Zea mays L) crops under N treatments (20, 50,70, and 140 kg Nhectare) and with corn and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants provided dimethyl urea (DCMU, 0 and 5 x 10" M) which were grown in pots and grouped in artificial canopies for spectral measurements. For near-surface measurements of healthy and stressed vegetation, red SIF retrieved at 688 nm (023) varied between 2-7 mW/m(exp 2)/nm/sr while far-red SIF retrieved at 760 nm (O2A) varied between 0.5 and 4.0 mW/m(exp 2)/nm/sr. Typical values for the SIF red/far-red ratio ranged between 1.75 and 4.0. Relationships of SIF to spectral reflectance indices and foliar photochemical indices were examined, such as photosynthetic light use efficiency. Initial investigations of the variability in these measurements at the same leaf temperature for sunlit and shaded foliage showed us that shaded foliage produced higher ChlF and light use efficiency. Other factors that affect SIF determinations are discussed. These results will assist in determine the expected intensity of the SIF signal from vegetation near the surface, as well as to identify enhancements needed for FluorMOD (or other such models), and will assist in determining relationships of SIF to reflectance indices and carbon dynamics.

  10. Biotechnological approach in crop improvement by mutation breeding in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeranto, H.; Sobrizal; Sutarto, Ismiyati; Manurung, Simon; Mastrizal [National Nuclear Energy Agency, Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2002-02-01

    Mutation breeding has become a proven method of improving crop varieties. Most research on plant mutation breeding in Indonesia is carried out at the Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). Nowadays, a biotechnological approach has been incorporated in some mutation breeding researches in order to improve crop cultivars. This approach is simply based on cellular totipotency, or the ability to regenerate whole, flowering plants from isolated organs, pieces of tissue, individual cells, and protoplasts. Tissue culture technique has bee extensively used for micro propagation of disease-free plants. Other usage of this technique involves in various steps of the breeding process such as germplasm preservation, clonal propagation, and distant hybridization. Mutation breeding combined with tissue culture technique has made a significant contribution in inducing plant genetic variation, by improving selection technology, and by accelerating breeding time as for that by using anther or pollen culture. In Indonesia, research on mutation breeding combined with tissue culture techniques has been practiced in different crop species including rice, ginger, banana, sorghum etc. Specially in rice, a research on identification of DNA markers linked to blast disease resistance is now still progressing. A compiled report from some research activities is presented in this paper. (author)

  11. Volatile organic compound emissions from Miscanthus and short rotation coppice willow bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Nichola; Cape, J. Neil; Heal, Mathew R.

    2012-12-01

    Miscanthus × giganteus and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix spp.) are increasingly important bioenergy crops. Above-canopy fluxes and mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in summer for the two crops at a site near Lincoln, UK, by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and virtual disjunct eddy covariance. The isoprene emission rate above willow peaked around midday at ˜1 mg m-2 h-1, equivalent to 20 μg gdw-1 h-1 normalised to 30 °C and 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR, much greater than for conventional arable crops. Average midday peak isoprene mixing ratio was ˜1.4 ppbv. Acetone and acetic acid also showed small positive daytime fluxes. No measurable fluxes of VOCs were detected above the Miscanthus canopy. Differing isoprene emission rates between different bioenergy crops, and the crops or vegetation cover they may replace, means the impact on regional air quality should be taken into consideration in bioenergy crop selection.

  12. Carbon Turnover in a Crop Rotation Under Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. J. WEIGEL; K. LEWIN; J. NAGY; A. PACHOLSKI; S. BURKART; M. HELAL; O. HEINEMEYER; B. KLEIKAMP; R. MANDERSCHEID; C. FR(U)HAUF; G. F. HENDREY

    2005-01-01

    Mostly based on assumptions derived from controlled-environment studies, predicted future atmospheric CO2 concentrations [CO2] are expected to have considerable impacts on carbon (C) turnover in agro-ecosystems. In order to allow the in situ examination of C-transformations in the plant-soil system of arable crop rotations under future [CO2], a free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiment (550 μmol mol-1 CO2) was started at Braunschweig, Germany in 1999.The crop rotation under investigation comprised winter barley, a cover crop (ryegrass), sugar beets and winter wheat.Assessments of CO2 effects included the determination of above- and belowground biomass production, measurements of canopy CO2- and H2O- fluxes, soil microbial biomass and in situ soil respiration. The results obtained during the 1st crop rotation cycle (3 years) showed that for the selected crops elevated [CO2] entailed significant positive effects (P<0.05) on aboveground (6%-14% stimulation) and belowground biomass production (up to 90% stimulation), while canopy evapotranspiration was reduced. This resulted in increased soil water content. Also, depending on crop type and season, high CO2 stimulated in situ soil respiration (up to 30%), while soil microbial biomass did not show significant respoases to elevated [CO2] during the first rotation cycle.

  13. Cultivo de bananas em diferentes áreas na ilha de Tenerife Banana production under different conditions in Tenerife island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erval Rafael Damatto Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando caracterizar a produção e a qualidade de bananas produzidas em diferentes condições de cultivo na ilha de Tenerife, foram estudadas três regiões da ilha (Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque e Canaria Forestal, onde se produzem bananas ao ar livre das cultivares Gruesa, Gran Enana e Laja. Nas áreas de Cueva del Polvo e Hoya Melleque, emprega-se o cultivo convencional e, na propriedade Canaria Forestal, pratica-se o orgânico. Os espaçamentos adotados foram de 1,67 x 5,0 m, com duas plantas por cova; 1,3 x 3,0 m, com uma planta por cova, e 2,0 x 5,0 m, com duas plantas por cova, respectivamente, para as propriedades em Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque e Canaria Forestal. Diante dos dados observados, é possível verificar que as plantas da cv. Gran Enana apresentam maior altura e as da cv. Gruesa, maior espessura de pseudocaule. Também se pode inferir que, dentre as áreas e cultivares estudadas, não houve grande variabilidade nas características físicas dos frutos. A produtividade média encontrada foi de 99,8 t.ha-1, valor considerado adequado.Aiming to characterize the production and the banana quality produced in different plantation conditions of Tenerife Island, three regions of the island were studied (Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque and Canaria Forestal where bananas of Gruesa, Gran Enana and Laja cultivars are produced in open-air conditions. In Cueva del Polvo and Hoya Melleque the production was carried out in conventional management, while in Canaria Forestal the plants were carried out under organic system. Plants spacing was 1.67 x 5.0 m, with two plants per hole; 1.3 x 3.0 m, with one plant per hole and; 2.0 x 5.0 m, with two plants per hole, respectivitly to Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque and Canaria Forestal. Our data show that plants of Gran Enana are higher and Gruesa plants have the thickest pseudostem. Differences were not found regarding the physical fruit characteristics and the average yield was 99.8 t.ha-1.

  14. Field research on the spectral properties of crops and soils, volume 1. [Purdue Agronomy Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.

    1980-01-01

    The experiment design, data acquisition and preprocessing, data base management, analysis results and development of instrumentation for the AgRISTARS Supporting Research Project, Field Research task are described. Results of several investigations on the spectral reflectance of corn and soybean canopies as influenced by cultural practices, development stage and nitrogen nutrition are reported as well as results of analyses of the spectral properties of crop canopies as a function of canopy geometry, row orientation, sensor view angle and solar illumination angle are presented. The objectives, experiment designs and data acquired in 1980 for field research experiments are described. The development and performance characteristics of a prototype multiband radiometer, data logger, and aerial tower for field research are discussed.

  15. Microbial activity in soil cultivated with different summer legumes in coffee crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted for ten years in a sandy soil in the north part of the Paraná State, Brazil. The soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth, both under the coffee canopy and in the inter row space between the coffee plants, in the following treatments: Control, Leucaena leucocephala, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria breviflora, Mucuna pruriens, Mucuna deeringiana, Arachis hypogaea and Vigna unguiculata. The legume crops influenced the microbial activity, both under the coffee canopy and in the inter row space. The cultivation of Leucaena leucocephala increased the microbial biomass C, N and P. Although L. leucocephala and Arachis hypogaea provided higher microbial biomass, the qCO2 decreased by up to 50% under the coffee canopy and by about 25% in the inter row space. The soil microbial biomass was enriched in N and P due to green manure residue addition.

  16. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriko, J; Aritua, V; Mortensen, C N; Tushemereirwe, W K; Mulondo, A L; Kubiriba, J; Lund, O S

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re-inoculated into bananas. DNA from more isolates than those amplified by GspDm and NZ085 primers were amplified by the X1623 primers implying they are xanthomonads, these were however non-pathogenic on bananas. In the 16-23 ITS sequence based phylogeny, the pathogenic bacteria clustered together with the Xcm reference strain, while the non-pathogenic xanthomonads isolated from both BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas clustered with group I xanthomonads. The findings reveal dynamic Xanthomonas populations in bananas, which can easily be misrepresented by only using phenotyping and biochemical tests. A combination of tools provides the most accurate identity and characterization of these plant associated bacteria. The interactions between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads in bananas may pave way to understanding effect of microbial interactions on BXW disease development and offer clues to biocontrol of Xcm.

  17. Soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and crop yield under compost, biochar and co-composted biochar in two tropical agronomic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Adrian M; Bird, Michael I; Kay, Gavin; Muirhead, Brian

    2016-04-15

    The addition of organic amendments to agricultural soils has the potential to increase crop yields, reduce dependence on inorganic fertilizers and improve soil condition and resilience. We evaluated the effect of biochar (B), compost (C) and co-composted biochar (COMBI) on the soil properties, crop yield and greenhouse gas emissions from a banana and a papaya plantation in tropical Australia in the first harvest cycle. Biochar, compost and COMBI organic amendments improved soil properties, including significant increases in soil water content, CEC, K, Ca, NO3, NH4 and soil carbon content. However, increases in soil nutrient content and improvements in physical properties did not translate to improved fruit yield. Counter to our expectations, banana crop yield (weight per bunch) was reduced by 18%, 12% and 24% by B, C and COMBI additions respectively, and no significant effect was observed on the papaya crop yield. Soil efflux of CO2 was elevated by addition of C and COMBI amendments, likely due to an increase in labile carbon for microbial processing. Our data indicate a reduction in N2O flux in treatments containing biochar. The application of B, C and COMBI amendments had a generally positive effect on soil properties, but this did not translate into a crop productivity increase in this study. The benefits to soil nutrient content, soil carbon storage and N2O emission reduction need to be carefully weighed against potentially deleterious effects on crop yield, at least in the short-term.

  18. Impact Resistance Behaviour of Banana Fiber Reinforced Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Syamsir, Agusril; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Rifdy Samsudin, Muhamad; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the performance of banana fibre reinforced slabs 300mm × 300mm size with varied thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.25 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the BF contents and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against BF contents and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the BF contents for a constant spacing for various banana fibre reinforced slab thickness. The increment in BF content has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Overall 1.5% BF content with slab thickness of 40 mm exhibit better first and ultimate crack resistance up to 16 times and up to 17 times respectively against control slab (without BF)

  19. Composition, digestibility and application in breadmaking of banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Garcia, E; Agama-Acevedo, E; Sáyago-Ayerdi, S G; Rodríguez-Ambriz, S L; Bello-Pérez, L A

    2006-09-01

    Banana flour (BF) was obtained from unripe banana (Musa paradisiacal L.) and characterized in its chemical composition. Experimental bread was formulated with BF flour and the product was studied regarding chemical composition, available starch (AS), resistant starch (RS) and rate of starch digestion in vitro. The chemical composition of BF showed that total starch (73.36%) and dietary fiber (14.52%) were the highest constituents. Of the total starch, available starch was 56.29% and resistant starch 17.50%. BF bread had higher protein and total starch content than control bread, but the first had higher lipid amount. Appreciable differences were found in available, resistant starch and indigestible fraction between the bread studied, since BF bread showed higher resistant starch and indigestible fraction content. HI-based predicted glycemic index for the BF bread was 65.08%, which was significantly lower than control bread (81.88%), suggesting a "slow carbohydrate" feature for the BF-based goods. Results revealed BF as a potential ingredient for bakery products containing slowly digestible carbohydrates.

  20. Simulation of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient in weighing lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate quantification of crop evapotranspiration (ET) is critical in optimizing irrigation water productivity, especially, in the semiarid regions of the world where limited rainfall is supplemented by irrigation for profitable crop production. In this context, cropping system models are potential...

  1. Are leaf chemistry signatures preserved at the canopy level?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1994-05-01

    Imaging spectrometers have the potential to be very useful in remote sensing of canopy chemistry constituents such as nitrogen and lignin. In this study under the HIRIS project the question of how leaf chemical composition which is reflected in leaf spectral features in the reflectance and transmittance is affected by canopy architecture was investigated. Several plants were modeled with high fidelity and a radiosity model was used to compute the canopy spectral signature over the visible and near infrared. We found that chemical constituent specific signatures such as absorptions are preserved and in the case of low absorption are actually enhanced. For moderately dense canopies the amount of a constituent depends also on the total leaf area.

  2. Bias in lidar-based canopy gap fraction estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaccari, S.; Leeuwen, van M.; Calders, K.; Coops, N.C.; Herold, M.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf area index and canopy gap fraction (GF) provide important information to forest managers regarding the ecological functioning and productivity of forest resources. Traditional measurements such as those obtained from hemispherical photography (HP) measure solar irradiation, penetrating the fore

  3. Flow past 2-D Hemispherical Rigid Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel

    2013-11-01

    The flow past a 2-dimensional rigid hemispherical shape is investigated using PIV. Flow field measurements and images were generated with the use of a Thermoflow® apparatus. Results of this study are compared to prior work (APS DFD 2012 Session E9.00003) which employed CFD to investigate the flow in the near wake of hemispherical parachutes. The various sized gaps/open areas were positioned at distinct locations. The work presented here is part of a larger research project to investigate flow fields in deceleration devices and parachutes. Understanding the pitch-stability of parachutes is essential for accurate design and implementation of these deceleration devices but they present a difficult system to analyze. The flexibility of the parachute fabric results in large variations in the parachute geometry leading to complex fluid-structure interactions. Such flow, combined with flow through gaps and open areas, has been postulated to shed alternating vortices causing pitching/oscillations of the canopy. The results presented provide some insight into which geometric features affect vortex shedding and may enable the redesign of the baseline parachute to minimize instabilities.

  4. Transformation of GbSGT1 gene into banana by an Agrobacterium-mediated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SGT1 is a homologue of the yeast ubiquitin ligase-associated protein. It controls some protein degradation and activates defense pathway in plants. Cotton GbSGT1 gene (Gossypium barbadense) has been isolated and characterized in previous work. In this study, the plant expression vector pBSGT1 with bar gene as a selection agent was constructed and transgenic banana was obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with the assistance of particle bombardment and screened with PCR and Basta spreading on banana plant leaves. Estimating of transgenic banana plants for resistance to Panama wilt is in progress.

  5. Stay-green alleles individually enhance grain yield in sorghum under drought by modifying canopy development and water uptake patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Andrew K; van Oosterom, Erik J; Mullet, John E; George-Jaeggli, Barbara; Jordan, David R; Klein, Patricia E; Hammer, Graeme L

    2014-08-01

    Stay-green is an integrated drought adaptation trait characterized by a distinct green leaf phenotype during grain filling under terminal drought. We used sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a repository of drought adaptation mechanisms, to elucidate the physiological and genetic mechanisms underpinning stay-green. Near-isogenic sorghum lines (cv RTx7000) were characterized in a series of field and managed-environment trials (seven experiments and 14 environments) to determine the influence of four individual stay-green (Stg1-4) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on canopy development, water use and grain yield under post-anthesis drought. The Stg QTL decreased tillering and the size of upper leaves, which reduced canopy size at anthesis. This reduction in transpirational leaf area conserved soil water before anthesis for use during grain filling. Increased water uptake during grain filling of Stg near-isogenic lines (NILs) relative to RTx7000 resulted in higher post-anthesis biomass production, grain number and yield. Importantly, there was no consistent yield penalty associated with the Stg QTL in the irrigated control. These results establish a link between the role of the Stg QTL in modifying canopy development and the subsequent impact on crop water use patterns and grain yield under terminal drought.

  6. Heterogeneity Analysis of Cucumber Canopy in the Solar Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Ting-ting; LU Sheng-lian; ZHAO Chun-jiang; GUO Xin-yu; WEN Wei-liang; DU jian-jun

    2014-01-01

    Detailed analysis of canopy structural heterogeneity is an essential step in conducting parameters for a canopy structural model. This paper aims to analyze the structural heterogeneity of a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) canopy by means of analyzing leaf distribution in a greenhouse environment with natural sunlight and also to assess the effect of structural canopy heterogeneity on light interception and photosynthesis. Two experiments and four measurements were carried out in autumn 2011 and spring 2012. A static virtual three-dimensional (3D) canopy structure was reconstructed using a 3D digitizing method. The diurnal variation of photosynthesis rate was measured using CIRAS-2 photosynthesis system. The results showed that, leaf azimuth as tested with the Rayleigh-test was homogeneous at vine tip over stage but turned heterogeneous at fruit harvest stage. After eliminating the inlfuence of the environment on the azimuth using the von Mises-Fisher method, the angle between two successive leaves was 144°;at the same time, a rule for the azimuth distribution in the canopy was established, stating that the azimuth distribution in cucumber followed a law which was positive spin and anti-spin. Leaf elevation angle of south-oriented leaves was on average 13.8° higher than that of north-oriented leaves. The horizontal distribution of light interception and photosynthesis differed signiifcantly between differently oriented leaves. East-and west-oriented leaves exhibited the highest photosynthetic rate. In conclusion, detailed analysis of canopy structural heterogeneity in this study indicated that leaf azimuth and elevation angle were heterogeneous in cucumber canopy and they should be explicitly described as they have a great impact both on light distribution and photosynthesis.

  7. 20%咪鲜胺水乳剂防治香蕉炭疽病效果评价%Evaluation on 20% Prochloraz Emulsion Water on Controlling Banana Anthracnos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷照鸣; 梁艳琼; 贺春萍; 郑服丛

    2013-01-01

    [目的]评价20%咪鲜胺水乳剂对香蕉炭疽病的防治效果及对作物的安全性.[方法]于2010 ~2011年研究了3个浓度的20%咪鲜胺水乳剂处理对香蕉炭疽病的防治效果.[结果]20%咪鲜胺水乳剂有效成分量在333.3 ~ 500.0 mg/kg时可有效防治香蕉炭疽病,20%咪鲜胺水乳剂有效成分量为333.3、500.0 mg/kg时和对照药剂25%咪鲜胺水乳剂有效成分量为333.3 mg/kg时对香蕉炭疽病的防治效果无显著差异,但三者的防治效果均显著高于20%咪鲜胺水乳剂有效成分量为250.0 mg/kg时,且在供试剂量下对香蕉植株生长无致害性影响.[结论]20%咪鲜胺水乳剂可作为香蕉炭疽病的轮换用药,推荐其有效成分量为333.3~500.0 mg/kg.%[Objective] The aim was to evaluate the control effect of20% Prochloraz EW on controlling banana anthracnos and safety to crops.[Method] Control effects of 20% Prochloraz EW at three concentrations on banana anthracnos were studied from 2010 to 2011.[Result] The 20% Prochloraz EW at 333.3-500.0 mg/kg could control banana anthracnos effectively; there were no significant difference in the control effects of 333.3 and 500.0 mg/kg 20% Prochloraz EW and 333.3 mg/kg contrast agent 25% Prochloraz EW on banana anthracnos,but the control effects of above three groups were significantly higher than that of 250 mg/kg 20% Prochloraz EW; 20% Prochloraz EW had no harmful effect on the banana fruit.[Conclusion] 20% Prochloraz EW could be applied on rotation use to control banana anthracnos,and its application dose of effective component was 333.3-500.0 mg/kg at the beginning of disease occurrence.

  8. Envirotyping for deciphering environmental impacts on crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbi

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change imposes increasing impacts on our environments and crop production. To decipher environmental impacts on crop plants, the concept "envirotyping" is proposed, as a third "typing" technology, complementing with genotyping and phenotyping. Environmental factors can be collected through multiple environmental trials, geographic and soil information systems, measurement of soil and canopy properties, and evaluation of companion organisms. Envirotyping contributes to crop modeling and phenotype prediction through its functional components, including genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), genes responsive to environmental signals, biotic and abiotic stresses, and integrative phenotyping. Envirotyping, driven by information and support systems, has a wide range of applications, including environmental characterization, GEI analysis, phenotype prediction, near-iso-environment construction, agronomic genomics, precision agriculture and breeding, and development of a four-dimensional profile of crop science involving genotype (G), phenotype (P), envirotype (E) and time (T) (developmental stage). In the future, envirotyping needs to zoom into specific experimental plots and individual plants, along with the development of high-throughput and precision envirotyping platforms, to integrate genotypic, phenotypic and envirotypic information for establishing a high-efficient precision breeding and sustainable crop production system based on deciphered environmental impacts.

  9. Sensitivity of LIDAR Canopy Height Estimate to Geolocation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H.; Dubayah, R.

    2010-12-01

    Many factors affect the quality of canopy height structure data derived from space-based lidar such as DESDynI. Among these is geolocation accuracy. Inadequate geolocation information hinders subsequent analyses because a different portion of the canopy is observed relative to what is assumed. This is especially true in mountainous terrain where the effects of slope magnify geolocation errors. Mission engineering design must trade the expense of providing more accurate geolocation with the potential improvement in measurement accuracy. The objective of our work is to assess the effects of small errors in geolocation on subsequent retrievals of maximum canopy height for a varying set of canopy structures and terrains. Dense discrete lidar data from different forest sites (from La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, Sierra National Forest, California, and Hubbard Brook and Bartlett Experimental Forests in New Hampshire) are used to simulate DESDynI height retrievals using various geolocation accuracies. Results show that canopy height measurement errors generally increase as the geolocation error increases. Interestingly, most of the height errors are caused by variation of canopy height rather than topography (slope and aspect).

  10. Flow over a Modern Ram-Air Parachute Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad; Johari, Hamid

    2010-11-01

    The flow field on the central section of a modern ram-air parachute canopy was examined numerically using a finite-volume flow solver coupled with the one equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Ram-air parachutes are used for guided airdrop applications, and the canopy resembles a wing with an open leading edge for inflation. The canopy surfaces were assumed to be impermeable and rigid. The flow field consisted of a vortex inside the leading edge opening which effectively closed off the canopy and diverted the flow around the leading edge. The flow experienced a rather bluff leading edge in contrast to the smooth leading of an airfoil, leading to a separation bubble on the lower lip of the canopy. The flow inside the canopy was stagnant beyond the halfway point. The section lift coefficient increased linearly with the angle of attack up to 8.5 and the lift curve slope was about 8% smaller than the baseline airfoil. The leading edge opening had a major effect on the drag prior to stall; the drag is at least twice the baseline airfoil drag. The minimum drag of the section occurs over the angle of attack range of 3 -- 7 .

  11. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  12. CANOPY STRUCTURE AND DEPOSITION EFFICIENCY OF VINEYARD SPRAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pergher

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A field study was performed to analyse how deposition efficiency from an axial-fan sprayer was affected by the canopy structure of vines trained to the High Cordon, Low Cordon and Casarsa systems, at beginning of flowering and beginning of berry touch growth stages. An empirical calibration method, providing a dose rate adjustment roughly proportional to canopy height, was used. The canopy structure was assessed using the Point Quadrat method, and determining the leaf area index (LAI and the leaf layer index (LLI. Spray deposits were measured by colorimetry, using a water soluble dye (Tartrazine as a tracer. Correlation between deposits and canopy parameters were analysed and discussed. Foliar deposits per unit leaf area were relatively constant, suggesting that empirical calibration can reduce deposit variability associated with different training systems and growth stages. Total foliar deposition ranged from 33.6% and 82.3% of total spray volume, and increased proportionally with the LLI up to LLI<4. Deposits on bunches significantly decreased with the LLI in the grape zone. The results suggest that sprayer efficiency is improved by a regular, symmetrical canopy, with few leaf layers in the grape zone as in Low Cordon. However, a LLI<3 over the whole canopy and >40% gaps in the foliage both reduced total deposition, and may increase the risk for larger drift losses.

  13. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-08-17

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding.

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE FIELD PERFORMANCE OF FHIA-01 (HYBRID DESSERT BANANA PROPAGATED FROM TISSUE CULTURE AND CONVENTIONAL SUCKER IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DZOMEKU BELOVED MENSAH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-propagated plants of FHIA-01 (exotic hybrid dessert banana were grown and their shoot-tip cultures were produced following standard method. Suckers were taken from the same plants as with the shoot-tip culture samples. The design was the randomly complete block. The plant density was 1667 plants/ha. Plants were fertilized at the rate of 40t/ha poultry manure per year split over 3 equal applications. Statistical analysis of data was performed with ANOVA. The field performance of in vitro propagated (tissue culture tetraploid banana (FHIA-01 plants was compared with that of sucker-derived plants. In vitro-propagated plants established and grew faster, taller (240 cm and bigger than the conventional sucker-derived plants. The former produced heavier bunches (39.1 t/ha and could be harvested earlier. They however produced smaller number of fingers than the conventional sucker-derived plants. Significant differences were observed between the plant height and plant girth (48.6 cm (at one metre above ground at harvest. No significant difference was observed in bunch weight, number of hands, number of fingers and the number of leaves at harvest. The nutrient used in the Tissue culture medium may have played a significant role in the growth vigour of FHIA-01. It may also be having an influence on the performance of the hybrid. This influence may improve the yield of the crop thus improving the economy of farmers.

  15. Spatial distribution of banana skipper (Erionota thrax L.) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and its parasitoids in a Cavendish banana plantation, Penang, Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUSTIN N. OKOLLE; MASHHOR MANSOR; ABU HASSAN AHMAD

    2006-01-01

    Spatial distribution of immatures of the banana skipper (Erionota thrax L.) and their parasitisms from three major parasitoids were studied in a Cavendish banana plantation from April 2004 to December 2004. Infestation levels and parasitism ofE. thrax life stages were recorded from bunched plants (BP), flowering plants (FP), preflowered plants (PF),broad leaf followers (BLF) and narrow leaf followers (NLF), as well as on well managed and poorly managed plants. Mean numbers of the immatures and numbers parasitized from the nine blocks in the plantation were fitted to four dispersion indices. Significant numbers of E. thrax immatures and those parasitized by Ooencyrtus erionotae, Cotesia erionotae and Brachymeria albotibialis were recorded from BLF and PF; no eggs were found on BP and FP. Although infestation was higher on well managed plants, only larval parasitism was significandy different. Three of the four indices indicated that eggs and larvae were random while all the indices showed pupae to be clumped. Parasitized eggs and pupae were clumped (4/4 indices) while 3/4 indices revealed a random pattern for parasitized larvae.

  16. Marketing de banana: preferências do consumidor quanto aos atributos de qualidade dos frutos Marketing of banana: consumer preferences relating to fruit quality attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Akira Urbano Matsuura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil produz aproximadamente seis milhões de toneladas por ano de banana (Musa spp., com consumo médio da ordem de 35 kg/ habitante / ano. A aceitação da banana deve-se, principalmente, a seus aspectos sensoriais, valor nutricional e conveniência. A identificação das necessidades e desejos dos clientes consiste em uma atividade crítica do marketing. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de pesquisar as preferências do consumidor de um mercado local (município de Cruz das Almas - Estado da Bahia considerando os atributos de qualidade dos frutos frescos de banana madura. A metodologia utilizada foi a da pesquisa descritiva por método estatístico. Os dados foram coletados por questionário, na forma de entrevista pessoal com 400 pessoas. Os atributos de qualidade (variáveis questionados e avaliados foram relacionados com a aparência, cor, textura, aroma, sabor e vida útil esperada dos frutos de banana. De acordo com a preferência dos consumidores entrevistados, o fruto de banana maduro ideal deve apresentar características como: penca contendo 10 a 12 dedos (frutos, dedos de tamanho médio ou grande, diâmetro médio, quina presente, ausência de pintas pretas na casca, cor da polpa amarelo-clara ou média, textura firme, aroma e sabor de intensidade média, mediamente doce e vida útil de 7 a 10 dias em condição ambiente. O sabor, vida útil e aparência dos frutos de banana são considerados os mais importantes atributos na escolha ou compra da banana, segundo os consumidores entrevistados.Brazil has an approximate production of six million annual tons of banana (Musa spp., with a consumption close to 35 kg / inhabitant / year. The acceptance of the banana fruit is due, mainly, to its sensorial aspects, nutritional value and convenience. The identification of the customers' needs and desires consists of a critical activity of the marketing. The objective of this work was to research the consumer preferences of a local market (Cruz

  17. Seasonal relationships between birds and arthropods in bottomland forest canopy gaps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, Liessa, Thomas

    2004-12-31

    Bowen, Liessa, Thomas. 2004. Seasonal relationships between birds and arthropods in bottomland forest canopy gaps. PhD Dissertation. North Carolina State University. Raleigh, North Carolina. 98pp. I investigated the influence of arthropod availability and vegetation structure on avian habitat use at the center, edge, and adjacent to forest canopy gaps in 2001 and 2002. I used mist-netting and plot counts to estimate abundance of birds using three sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.5 ha) of 7-8 year old group-selection timber harvest openings during four seasons (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration) in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. I used foliage clipping, Malaise trapping, and pitfall trapping to determine arthropod abundance within each habitat, and I used a warm water crop-flush on captured birds to gather information about arthropods eaten. I observed more birds, including forest interior species, forest-edge spedge species, and several individual species, in early-successional canopy gap and gap-edge habitats than in surrounding mature forest during all seasons. I found a significant interaction between season and habitat type for several groups and individual species, suggesting a seasonal shift in habitat use. Captures of all birds, insectivorous birds, foliage- gleaners, ground-gleaners, aerial salliers, Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), and Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica caerulescens) were positively correlated with understory vegetation density during two or more seasons. I found relationships between insectivorous birds and leaf-dwelling Lepidoptera, insectivorous birds and ground-dwelling arthropods, foliage-gleaning birds and foliage-dwelling arthropods, and aerial salliers and flying arthropods, as well as between individual bird species and arthropods. Relationships were inconsistent, however, with many

  18. Design and Simulation of Banana Harvester with Multi Degree of Freedom and Self Looking%多自由度自锁式香蕉收割机的设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢煜海; 曾昭文; 马俊生; 马桂香

    2016-01-01

    Due to the lack of research and development for large banana planting base of banana harvesting equipment, a multi degree of freedom and self-locking banana harvester was designed.The machine is mainly composed of a power system, a feeding system and a harvesting system.Manual and electric mixed mode of operation.It not only can be used as a harvester, also can be used as a small transport or traction machine.Using three-dimensional modeling software SolidWorks to establish model and simulate the motion of key structure, the results show that the design meets the re-quirements.Design of banana harvester with multi degree of freedom and self locking can be provided as a reference to other similar crop harvesting machinery.%针对大规模香蕉种植基地香蕉收割机具的研发比较缺乏的现状,设计了一种多自由度自锁式香蕉收割机。该机主要由动力系统、进给系统及收割系统等组成,手动与电动混合操作方式,既可作为收割机,同时又可作为小型运输机及牵引机使用。采用三维造型软件 SolidWorks 对其建立模型,并对关键结构进行相应的运动仿真。结果表明:该机设计满足工作要求,可为其他类似农作物收割机具的设计提供参考。

  19. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  20. Isotopic characteristics of canopies in simulated leaf assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Heather V.; Patzkowsky, Mark E.; Wing, Scott L.; Parker, Geoffrey G.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2014-11-01

    The geologic history of closed-canopy forests is of great interest to paleoecologists and paleoclimatologists alike. Closed canopies have pronounced effects on local, continental and global rainfall and temperature patterns. Although evidence for canopy closure is difficult to reconstruct from the fossil record, the characteristic isotope gradients of the "canopy effect" could be preserved in leaves and proxy biomarkers. To assess this, we employed new carbon isotopic data for leaves collected in diverse light environments within a deciduous, temperate forest (Maryland, USA) and for leaves from a perennially closed canopy, moist tropical forest (Bosque Protector San Lorenzo, Panamá). In the tropical forest, leaf carbon isotope values range 10‰, with higher δ13Cleaf values occurring both in upper reaches of the canopy, and with higher light exposure and lower humidity. Leaf fractionation (Δleaf) varied negatively with height and light and positively with humidity. Vertical 13C enrichment in leaves largely reflects changes in Δleaf, and does not trend with δ13C of CO2 within the canopy. At the site in Maryland, leaves express a more modest δ13C range (∼6‰), with a clear trend that follows both light and leaf height. Using a model we simulate leaf assemblage isotope patterns from canopy data binned by elevation. The re-sampling (bootstrap) model determined both the mean and range of carbon isotope values for simulated leaf assemblages ranging in size from 10 to over 1000 leaves. For the tropical forest data, the canopy's isotope range is captured with 50 or more randomly sampled leaves. Thus, with a sufficient number of fossil leaves it is possible to distinguish isotopic gradients in an ancient closed canopy forest from those in an open forest. For very large leaf assemblages, mean isotopic values approximate the δ13C of carbon contributed by leaves to soil and are similar to observed δ13Clitter values at forested sites within Panamá, including the

  1. Canopy position has a profound effect on soybean seed composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Huber

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although soybean seeds appear homogeneous, their composition (protein, oil and mineral concentrations can vary significantly with the canopy position where they were produced. In studies with 10 cultivars grown over a 3-yr period, we found that seeds produced at the top of the canopy have higher concentrations of protein but less oil and lower concentrations of minerals such as Mg, Fe, and Cu compared to seeds produced at the bottom of the canopy. Among cultivars, mean protein concentration (average of different positions correlated positively with mean concentrations of S, Zn and Fe, but not other minerals. Therefore, on a whole plant basis, the uptake and allocation of S, Zn and Fe to seeds correlated with the production and allocation of reduced N to seed protein; however, the reduced N and correlated minerals (S, Zn and Fe showed different patterns of allocation among node positions. For example, while mean concentrations of protein and Fe correlated positively, the two parameters correlated negatively in terms of variation with canopy position. Altering the microenvironment within the soybean canopy by removing neighboring plants at flowering increased protein concentration in particular at lower node positions and thus altered the node-position gradient in protein (and oil without altering the distribution of Mg, Fe and Cu, suggesting different underlying control mechanisms. Metabolomic analysis of developing seeds at different positions in the canopy suggests that availability of free asparagine may be a positive determinant of storage protein accumulation in seeds and may explain the increased protein accumulation in seeds produced at the top of the canopy. Our results establish node-position variation in seed constituents and provide a new experimental system to identify genes controlling key aspects of seed composition. In addition, our results provide an unexpected and simple approach to link agronomic practices to improve human

  2. Canopy position has a profound effect on soybean seed composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanov, Alexander; DeMuro, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Although soybean seeds appear homogeneous, their composition (protein, oil and mineral concentrations) can vary significantly with the canopy position where they were produced. In studies with 10 cultivars grown over a 3-yr period, we found that seeds produced at the top of the canopy have higher concentrations of protein but less oil and lower concentrations of minerals such as Mg, Fe, and Cu compared to seeds produced at the bottom of the canopy. Among cultivars, mean protein concentration (average of different positions) correlated positively with mean concentrations of S, Zn and Fe, but not other minerals. Therefore, on a whole plant basis, the uptake and allocation of S, Zn and Fe to seeds correlated with the production and allocation of reduced N to seed protein; however, the reduced N and correlated minerals (S, Zn and Fe) showed different patterns of allocation among node positions. For example, while mean concentrations of protein and Fe correlated positively, the two parameters correlated negatively in terms of variation with canopy position. Altering the microenvironment within the soybean canopy by removing neighboring plants at flowering increased protein concentration in particular at lower node positions and thus altered the node-position gradient in protein (and oil) without altering the distribution of Mg, Fe and Cu, suggesting different underlying control mechanisms. Metabolomic analysis of developing seeds at different positions in the canopy suggests that availability of free asparagine may be a positive determinant of storage protein accumulation in seeds and may explain the increased protein accumulation in seeds produced at the top of the canopy. Our results establish node-position variation in seed constituents and provide a new experimental system to identify genes controlling key aspects of seed composition. In addition, our results provide an unexpected and simple approach to link agronomic practices to improve human nutrition and health

  3. The Canopy Conductance of a Humid Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. T.; Hsieh, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Penman-Monteith equation is widely used for estimating latent heat flux. The key parameter for implementing this equation is the canopy conductance (gc). Recent research (Blaken and Black, 2004) showed that gc could be well parameterized by a linear function of An/ (D0* X0c), where An represents net assimilation, D0 is leaf level saturation deficit, and X0c is CO2 mole fraction. In this study, we tried to use the same idea for estimating gcfor a humid grassland. The study site was located in County Cork, southwest Ireland (51o59''N 8o46''W), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was the dominant grass species in this area. An eddy covariance system was used to measure the latent heat flux above this humid grassland. The measured gc was calculated by rearranging Penman-Monteith equation combined with the measured latent heat flux. Our data showed that the gc decreased as the vapor pressure deficit and temperature increased. And it increased as the net radiation increased. Therefore, we found out that the best parameterization of gc was a linear function of the product of the vapor deficit, temperature, and net radiation. Also, we used the gc which was estimated by this linear function to predict the latent heat flux by Penman-Monteith equation and compared the predictions with those where the gc was chosen to be a fixed value. Our analysis showed that this simple linear function for gc can improve the latent heat flux predictions (R square increased from 0.48 to 0.66).

  4. Discrete Dynamical Systems Meet the Classic Monkey-and-the-Bananas Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Gerald E.; Martelli, Mario U.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a solution of the three-sailors-and-the-bananas problem and attempts a generalization. Introduces an interesting way of looking at the mathematics with an idea drawn from discrete dynamical systems. (KHR)

  5. Protection of ultrastructure in chilling-stressed banana leaves by salicylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Guo-zhang; WANG Zheng-xun; XIA Kuai-fei; SUN Gu-chou

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Chilling tolerance of salicylic acid (SA) in banana seedlings (Musa acuminata cv., Williams 8818) was investigated by changes in ultrastructure in this study. Methods: Light and electron microscope observation. Results: Pretreatment with 0.5 mmol/L SA under normal growth conditions (30/22 ℃) by foliar spray and root irrigation resulted in many changes in ultrastructure of banana cells, such as cells separation from palisade parenchymas, the appearance of crevices in cell walls, the swelling of grana and stromal thylakoids, and a reduction in the number of starch granules. These results implied that SA treatment at 30/22 ℃ could be a type of stress. During 3 d of exposure to 7 ℃ chilling stress under low light, however, cell ultrastructure of SA-pretreated banana seedlings showed less deterioration than those of control seedlings (distilled water-pretreated). Conclusion:SA could provide some protection for cell structure of chilling-stressed banana seedling.

  6. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, John; Aritua, V.; Mortensen, Carmen Nieves

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between...... pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus......-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re...

  7. Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium oxalicum using banana agrowaste as a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shilpa P; Kalia, Kiran S; Patel, Jagdish S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a higher amount of cellulase by using an alternative carbon source, such as banana agrowaste, and to optimize the fermentation parameters for a high yield. In the present study, cellulase-producing Penicillium was isolated from a decaying wood sample. Different nutritional and environmental factors were investigated to assess their effect on cellulase production. The highest crude enzyme production was observed at a pH 6.0 and a temperature of 28°C in a medium that was supplemented with banana agrowaste as the carbon source. Pretreatment with 2N NaOH, at 7% substrate (banana agrowaste) concentration yielded the highest cellulase activity. Further to this, the effect of other parameters such as inoculum age, inoculum size, static and agitated conditions were also studied. It is concluded that Penicillium oxalicum is a powerful cellulase-producer strain under our tested experimental conditions using banana agrowaste as the carbon source.

  8. DEM simulation of particle flow on a single deck banana screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chusheng; Wang Hong; Zhao Yuemin; Zhao Lala; Dong Hailin

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical study of particle flow on a banana screen deck using the discrete element method (DEM) was presented in this paper.The motion characteristics and penetrating mechanisms of particles on the screen deck were studied.Effects of geometric parameters of screen deck on banana screening process were also investigated.The results show that when the values of inclination of discharge and increment of screen deck inclination are 10° and 5° respectively,the banana screening process get a good screening performance in the simulation.The relationship between screen deck length and screening efficiency was further confirmed.The conclusion that the screening efficiency will not significantly increase when the deck lengthL ≥430 mm (L/B ≥3.5) was obtained,which can provide theoretical basis for the optimization of banana screen.

  9. Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in banana and coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials.

  10. Molecular Diagnostics in the Mycosphaerella Leaf Spot Disease Complex of Banana and for Radopholus similis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, I.; Vries, de P.M.; Guzmán, M.; Araya Vargas, M.; Helder, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella leaf spots and nematodes threaten banana cultivation worldwide. The Mycosphaerella disease complex involves three related ascomycetous fungi: Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain uncle

  11. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL MODIFICATION TYPE ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BANANA STARCH

    OpenAIRE

    D. Guerra-DellaValle; M. M. Sánchez-Rivera; P.B. Zamudio-Flores; G. Méndez-Montealvo; L.A. Bello-Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Isolation of non-conventional starches has increased in the last decade; chemical modification of these no conventional starches may produce starches with improved physicochemical and functional properties that are not available from commercial starches. Banana starch was acetylated and oxidized and the thermal, pasting and rheological characteristics were evaluated. The low carbonyl and carboxyl groups might be due to the starch source. The acetylated banana starch obtained had a low degree ...

  12. Genomic Integrity Detection of In Vitro Irradiated Banana Using Microsatellite Marker.

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Ratna Djuita; Rita Megia

    2010-01-01

    Genomic Integrity Detection of In Vitro Irradiated Banana Using Microsatellite Marker. The research aims todetect genomic integrity of in vitro irradiated banana using microsatellite marker. These studies were done on bananacv. Pisang Mas irradiated by 15 Gy of gamma ray. The DNA was isolated from each accesion following Dixie.Amplification of DNA products were done by Perkin Elmer Gene Amp PCR 2400 using ten primers, and thenelectroforesis in agarose 1%. Finally a vertical polyacrylamide gel...

  13. FRUIT JUICES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CONSERVATION OF FRESH-CUT BANANA

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSON ADRIANO MARTINS MELO; LEONARDO THOMAZ DINIZ; ADRIANO DO NASCIMENTO SIMÕES; ROLF PUSCHMANN

    2014-01-01

    Browning discoloration after cutting is detrimental for the quality of a number of fruits and vegetables, such as banana, apple, pear, potato, and some roots such as cassava, yam, and others. Browning and softening compromise banana after cut shelf-life in a few hours under cold storage. Therefore, anti-browning compounds have been applied to slices before packing. Some commonly used substances are calcium chloride, ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid, in immersed inchemical mixtures. Rec...

  14. A Comparison of Banana Fiber Insulation with Biodegradable Fibrous Thermal Insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Krishpersad Manohar

    2016-01-01

    Environmental concern about the disposal of discarded thermal insulation focused research in developing new and innovative biodegradable materials to facilitate and improve the thermal demands of society. Banana fiber is a lignocellulose material derived from the discarded tree trunk and can be a cheap, abundantly available, reliable, biodegradable and renewable raw material source. Thermal conductivity measurements on 50.4 mm thick slab-like banana fiber specimens showed characteristics cons...

  15. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tshiunza, M.; Lemchi, J.; Onyeka, U.; Tenkouano, A.

    2001-01-01

    Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome) were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet) on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration...

  16. Effects of Crop Growth and Development on Land Surface Fluxes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Feng; XIE Zhenghui

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis model (CERES3.0) was coupled into the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS), which is called BATS_CERES, to represent interactions between the land surface and crop growth processes. The effects of crop growth and development on land surface processes were then studied based on numerical simulations using the land surface models. Six sensitivity experiments by BATS show that the land surface fluxes underwent substantial changes when the leaf area index was changed from 0 to 6 n2 m-2. Numerical experiments for Yucheng and Taoyuan stations reveal that the coupled model could capture not only the responses of crop growth and development to environmental conditions, but also the feedbacks to land surface processes.For quantitative evaluation of the effects of crop growth and development on surface fluxes in China, two numerical experiments were conducted over continental China: one by BATS_CERES and one by the original BATS. Comparison of the two runs shows decreases of leaf area index and fractional vegetation cover when incorporating dynamic crops in land surface simulation, which lead to less canopy interception, vegetation transpiration, total evapotranspiration, top soil moisture, and more soil evaporation, surface runoff, and root zone soil moisture. These changes are accompanied by decreasing latent heat flux and increasing sensible heat flux in the cropland region. In addition, the comparison between the simulations and observations proved that incorporating the crop growth and development process into the land surface model could reduce the systematic biases of the simulated leaf area index and top soil moisture, hence improve the simulation of land surface fluxes.

  17. Depletion of gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a forest canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-D. Choi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid uptake of gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs by a forest canopy was observed at Borden in Southern Ontario, Canada during bud break in early spring 2003. High volume air samples were taken on 12 individual days at three different heights (44.4, 29.1, and 16.7 m on a scaffolding tower and on the forest floor below the canopy (1.5 m. Concentrations of PAHs were positively correlated to ambient temperature, resulting from relatively warm and polluted air masses passing over the Eastern United States and Toronto prior to arriving at the sampling site. An analysis of vertical profiles and gas/particle partitioning of the PAHs showed that gaseous PAHs established a concentration gradient with height, whereas levels of particulate PAHs were relatively uniform, implying that only the uptake of gaseous PAHs by the forest canopy was sufficiently rapid to be observed. Specifically, the gaseous concentrations of intermediate PAHs, such as phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene, during budburst and leaf emergence were reduced within and above the canopy. When a gradient was observed, the percentage of PAHs on particles increased at the elevations experiencing a decrease in gas phase concentrations. The uptake of intermediate PAHs by the canopy also led to significant differences in gaseous PAH composition with height. These results are the most direct evidence yet of the filter effect of forest canopies for gaseous PAHs in early spring. PAH deposition fluxes and dry gaseous deposition velocities to the forest canopy were estimated from the concentration gradients.

  18. Canopy Interception for a Tallgrass Prairie under Juniper Encroachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chris B; Caterina, Giulia L; Will, Rodney E; Stebler, Elaine; Turton, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall partitioning and redistribution by canopies are important ecohydrological processes underlying ecosystem dynamics. We quantified and contrasted spatial and temporal variations of rainfall redistribution for a juniper (Juniperus virginiana, redcedar) woodland and a tallgrass prairie in the south-central Great Plains, USA. Our results showed that redcedar trees had high canopy storage capacity (S) ranging from 2.14 mm for open stands to 3.44 mm for closed stands. The canopy funneling ratios (F) of redcedar trees varied substantially among stand type and tree size. The open stands and smaller trees usually had higher F values and were more efficient in partitioning rainfall into stemflow. Larger trees were more effective in partitioning rainfall into throughfall and no significant changes in the total interception ratios among canopy types and tree size were found. The S values were highly variable for tallgrass prairie, ranging from 0.27 mm at early growing season to 3.86 mm at senescence. As a result, the rainfall interception by tallgrass prairie was characterized by high temporal instability. On an annual basis, our results showed no significant difference in total rainfall loss to canopy interception between redcedar trees and tallgrass prairie. Increasing structural complexity associated with redcedar encroachment into tallgrass prairie changes the rainfall redistribution and partitioning pattern at both the temporal and spatial scales, but does not change the overall canopy interception ratios compared with unburned and ungrazed tallgrass prairie. Our findings support the idea of convergence in interception ratio for different canopy structures under the same precipitation regime. The temporal change in rainfall interception loss from redcedar encroachment is important to understand how juniper encroachment will interact with changing rainfall regime and potentially alter regional streamflow under climate change.

  19. Canopy Interception for a Tallgrass Prairie under Juniper Encroachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris B Zou

    Full Text Available Rainfall partitioning and redistribution by canopies are important ecohydrological processes underlying ecosystem dynamics. We quantified and contrasted spatial and temporal variations of rainfall redistribution for a juniper (Juniperus virginiana, redcedar woodland and a tallgrass prairie in the south-central Great Plains, USA. Our results showed that redcedar trees had high canopy storage capacity (S ranging from 2.14 mm for open stands to 3.44 mm for closed stands. The canopy funneling ratios (F of redcedar trees varied substantially among stand type and tree size. The open stands and smaller trees usually had higher F values and were more efficient in partitioning rainfall into stemflow. Larger trees were more effective in partitioning rainfall into throughfall and no significant changes in the total interception ratios among canopy types and tree size were found. The S values were highly variable for tallgrass prairie, ranging from 0.27 mm at early growing season to 3.86 mm at senescence. As a result, the rainfall interception by tallgrass prairie was characterized by high temporal instability. On an annual basis, our results showed no significant difference in total rainfall loss to canopy interception between redcedar trees and tallgrass prairie. Increasing structural complexity associated with redcedar encroachment into tallgrass prairie changes the rainfall redistribution and partitioning pattern at both the temporal and spatial scales, but does not change the overall canopy interception ratios compared with unburned and ungrazed tallgrass prairie. Our findings support the idea of convergence in interception ratio for different canopy structures under the same precipitation regime. The temporal change in rainfall interception loss from redcedar encroachment is important to understand how juniper encroachment will interact with changing rainfall regime and potentially alter regional streamflow under climate change.

  20. Simulation of Snow Processes Beneath a Boreal Scots Pine Canopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Weiping; LUO Yong; XIA Kun; LIU Xin

    2008-01-01

    A physically-based multi-layer snow model Snow-Atmosphere-Soil-Transfer scheme (SAST) and a land surface model Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) were employed to investigate how boreal forests influence snow accumulation and ablation under the canopy. Mass balance and energetics of snow beneath a Scots pine canopy in Finland at different stages of the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 snow seasons are analyzed. For the fairly dense Scots pine forest, drop-off of the canopy-intercepted snow contributes, in some cases, twice as much to the underlying snowpack as the direct throughfall of snow. During early winter snow melting, downward turbulent sensible and condensation heat fluxes play a dominant role together with downward net longwave radiation. In the final stage of snow ablation in middle spring, downward net all-wave radiation dominates the snow melting. Although the downward sensible heat flux is comparable to the net solar radiation during this period, evaporative cooling of the melting snow surface makes the turbulent heat flux weaker than net radiation. Sensitivities of snow processes to leaf area index (LAI) indicate that a denser canopy speeds up early winter snowmelt, but also suppresses melting later in the snow season. Higher LAI increases the interception of snowfall, therefore reduces snow accumulation under the canopy during the snow season; this effect and the enhancement of downward longwave radiation by denser foliage outweighs the increased attenuation of solar radiation, resulting in earlier snow ablation under a denser canopy. The difference in sensitivities to LAI in two snow seasons implies that the impact of canopy density on the underlying snowpack is modulated by interannual variations of climate regimes.

  1. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  2. Cover crop biomass harvest for bioenergy: implications for crop productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crops, such as rye (Secale cereale), are usually used in conservation agriculture systems in the Southeast. Typically, the cover crop is terminated two to three weeks before planting the summer crop, with the cover biomass left on the soil surface as a mulch. However, these cover crops ...

  3. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Yangılar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, possible eff ects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2 % are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity, chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour, mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre-rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fi bre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fi bre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fi bre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have signifi cant (p<0.05 effect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2 % of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  4. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (pice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  5. High-efficiency phenotyping for vitamin A in banana using artificial neural networks and colorimetric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fernandes Aquino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in Brazil and an important source of minerals, vitamins and carbohydrates for human diet. The characterization of banana superior genotypes allows identifying those with nutritional quality for cultivation and to integrate genetic improvement programs. However, identification and quantification of the provitamin carotenoids are hampered by the instruments and reagents cost for chemical analyzes, and it may become unworkable if the number of samples to be analyzed is high. Thus, the objective was to verify the potential of indirect phenotyping of the vitamin A content in banana through artificial neural networks (ANNs using colorimetric data. Fifteen banana cultivars with four replications were evaluated, totaling 60 samples. For each sample, colorimetric data were obtained and the vitamin A content was estimated in the ripe banana pulp. For the prediction of the vitamin A content by colorimetric data, multilayer perceptron ANNs were used. Ten network architectures were tested with a single hidden layer. The network selected by the best fit (least mean square error had four neurons in the hidden layer, enabling high efficiency in prediction of vitamin A (r2 = 0.98. The colorimetric parameters a* and Hue angle were the most important in this study. High-scale indirect phenotyping of vitamin A by ANNs on banana pulp is possible and feasible.

  6. The Use of Extract Banana Corm and Phosphate Rock to Increase Available-P in Alfisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Minardi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the approprite formula and applied method of banana corm and phosphate rock on available-P in Alfisols. The research was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with 3 factors. The first factor is the dosage of banana corm extract, which is consisted of: E1 = 100 ml of banana corm extract, E2 = 200 ml of banana corm extract, and E3 = 300 ml of banana corm extract. The second factor is the dosage of the phosphate rock which is consisted of B1 = 100 gr of phosphate rock, B2 = 200 gr phosphate rock, and B3 = 300 gr of phosphate rock. The third factor is application method, which is consisted of M1 = directly applied into the soil. M2 = incubated before applied into the soil. The observation of soil includes: soil pH, soil organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, total-N, total-P, available-P and the population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Result shows that available-P in the Alfisols is very low. The interaction amongs the treatment significantly affect the population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Banana corm extract and phosphate rock applied directly into the soil increase soil pH.

  7. Identification of genes encoding granule-bound starch synthase involved in amylose metabolism in banana fruit.

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    Hongxia Miao

    Full Text Available Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4, MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage.

  8. Characterization of banana, potato, and rice starch blends for their physicochemical and pasting properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika B. Yadav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of blends of banana, potato, and rice starches were studied to assess their suitability as an alternate for chemically modified starches. The blends of banana, potato, and rice starches were prepared in the respective ratio of 1:3:2, 3:2:1, and 2:1:3. The blend with higher proportion of banana and rice starches (BPR-213 showed highest water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity. The blend with higher proportion of banana starch (BPR-321 showed highest swelling power at 95°C but lowest water solubility at 95°C among other starch blends. The blend made with higher amount of potato starch (BPR-132 had significantly higher paste clarity than other blends (p < 0.05. The potato starch had significantly higher least gelation concentration than all other starches and their blends (p < 0.05. The banana starch and blend with highest proportion of banana starch (BPR-321 showed significantly lesser percent syneresis and thus highest freeze–thaw stability. Potato starch as well as it blends with greater amount of potato starch (BPR-132 showed highest value for peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, and final viscosity than other blends.

  9. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  10. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  11. Fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites in bananas light up blue halos of cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, Nicholas J.; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Breakdown of chlorophyll is a major contributor to the diagnostic color changes in fall leaves, and in ripening apples and pears, where it commonly provides colorless, nonfluorescent tetrapyrroles. In contrast, in ripening bananas (Musa acuminata) chlorophylls fade to give unique fluorescent catabolites (FCCs), causing yellow bananas to glow blue, when observed under UV light. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of the blue fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites to signal symptoms of programmed cell death in a plant. We report on studies of bright blue luminescent rings on the peel of very ripe bananas, which arise as halos around necrotic areas in ‘senescence associated’ dark spots. These dark spots appear naturally on the peel of ripe bananas and occur in the vicinity of stomata. Wavelength, space, and time resolved fluorescence measurements allowed the luminescent areas to be monitored on whole bananas. Our studies revealed an accumulation of FCCs in luminescent rings, within senescing cells undergoing the transition to dead tissue, as was observable by morphological textural cellular changes. FCCs typically are short lived intermediates of chlorophyll breakdown. In some plants, FCCs are uniquely persistent, as is seen in bananas, and can thus be used as luminescent in vivo markers in tissue undergoing senescence. While FCCs still remain to be tested for their own hypothetical physiological role in plants, they may help fill the demand for specific endogenous molecular reporters in noninvasive assays of plant senescence. Thus, they allow for in vivo studies, which provide insights into critical stages preceding cell death. PMID:19805212

  12. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bananas (Musa spp. belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world’s largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of i biogeography, and ii agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem, which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves. Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  13. Total soluble solids from banana: evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Santos, Júlio C; Izário Filho, Hélcio J; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida e Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Banana, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as banana weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of banana. The extract is to be used by the food and beverage industries. The experiments were performed with 105 mL of water, considering the moisture of the ripe banana (65%). Total sugar concentrations were obtained in a beer analyzer and the result expressed in degrees Plato (degrees P, which is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution at 20 degrees C), aiming at facilitating the use of these results by the beverage industries. After previous studies of characterization of the fruit and of ripening performance, a 2(2) full-factorial star design was carried out, and a model was developed to describe the behavior of the dependent variable (total soluble solids) as a function of the factors (banana weight and extraction time), indicating as optimum conditions for extraction 38.5 g of banana at 39.7 min.

  14. Heavy Metal Removal from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on Modified Banana Shell

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    MR Mehrasbi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Heavy Metals in Water resources is one of the most important environmental problems of countries. Up to now various methods of removing of these metals is considered, which is including using of low prices materials. In this study the potential of banana shells was assessed for adsorption of heavy metal ions such as Pb and Cd from aqueous solution. "nMaterials and Methods: Banana shells were pretreated separately with 0.4 mol/L NaOH, 0.4 mol/L HNO and distilled water and their adsorption ability were compared. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of the initial ion concentration, pH and adsorbent dosage. Adsorption isotherms of metal ions on adsorbents were determined and correlated with common isotherm equations such as Lungmuir, Freundlich and BET models."nResults: The maximum adsorption capacities were achieved by alkali modified banana shells (36 mg/g for Pb and by acidic modified banana shells (16 mg/g for Cd. Experimental results showed that the best pH for adsorption was 6 and the adsorption values decreased with lowering pH. Isotherm models indicated best fit for Freundlich model for modified banana shells."nConclusion: In comparing the parameters of models, it was observed that the capacity of banana shells for adsorption of lead is higher  than for adsorption of cadmium, but the adsorption of  cadmium is stronger than the adsorption of lead.

  15. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Subramanyam, Koona; Sailaja, K V; Srinivasulu, M; Lakshmidevi, K

    2011-03-01

    A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old banana suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The banana suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A. tumefaciens strains and co-cultivated in the medium containing different concentrations of acetosyringone for 3 days. The transformed shoots were selected in 30 mg/l hygromycin-containing selection medium and rooted in rooting medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 30 mg/l hygromycin. The presence and integration of the hpt II and gus genes into the banana genome were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction, and southern hybridization. Among the different combinations tested, high transformation efficiency (39.4 ± 0.5% GUS positive shoots) was obtained when suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered for 6 min with A. tumefaciens EHA105 in presence of 50 μM acetosyringone followed by co-cultivation in 50 μM acetosyringone-containing medium for 3 days. These results suggest that an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into banana has been developed and that this transformation system could be useful for future studies on transferring economically important genes into banana.

  16. Socioeconomic Importance of the Banana Tree (Musa Spp. in the Guinean Highland Savannah Agroforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marie Mapongmetsem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old and very small in size (less than 1 ha. Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5% whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  17. Study of evapotranspiration and evaporation beneath the canopy in a buckwheat field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haofang; Zhang, Chuan; Oue, Hiroki; Wang, Guoqing; He, Bin

    2015-11-01

    The determination of evaporation and transpiration separately is very important in improving water use efficiency and developing exact irrigation scheduling. Hourly crop evapotranspiration ( ET c) and soil evaporation ( E g) beneath the buckwheat canopy were measured using Bowen ratio energy balance method and micro-lysimeters, respectively. The total ET c and E g in the whole growth season of buckwheat were 187.4 and 72.1 mm, respectively. Crop coefficient of buckwheat plant was simulated by days after sowing (DAS) and leaf area index (LAI), the average values for four growth stages were 0.58, 0.59, 1.10, and 0.74; and soil evaporation coefficient (the ratio of soil evaporation to reference evapotranspiration) was modeled by soil water content at 5-cm depth by dividing the LAI into two stages. The relationship between the ratio of soil evaporation to actual evapotranspiration ( E g/ ET c) and LAI was decided. It was found that E g/ ET c decreased from 1 to 0.3 with the increase in LAI.

  18. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed. The construction of minimal submanifolds, needed for the entanglement entropy of cones, requires fine-tuning of Cauchy data. Perturbations of such fine-tuning leads to solutions relevant for hollow cones. The divergent parts for the entanglement entropy of hollow cones are calculated. Increasing the difference between the opening angles of their outer and inner boundary, one finds a transition between connected solutions for small dif...

  19. Banana Republic公司重塑自我

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路易斯·李; 肖前

    2004-01-01

    对马卡·汉森来说,去年的假日销售旺季是考验她能否成为时装趋势预言家的一场初试。51岁的汉森于去年6月被任命为Banana Republic公司的总裁,当时她认定美利奴羊毛弹性针织衫市场上最叫卖的颜色是蓝色。事实证明,她错了。汉森说:“苔绿色才是最畅销的,而我们的货却准备不足。”

  20. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

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    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation